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Sample records for canal para simular

  1. MODELO PARA SIMULAR LA HOMEÓSTASIS NEURONAL DURANTE UN INFLUJO INCREMENTADO DEL CALCIO A TRAVÉS DEL CANAL ASOCIADO AL RECEPTOR IONOTRÓPICO DE GLUTAMATO ACTIVADO POR N-METIL-D-ASPARTATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lareo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Dada la importancia del receptor ionotrópico de glutamato activado por N-Metil-D-Aspartato en los procesos de aprendizaje y la formación de la memoria mediados por el transporte de calcio a través del canal asociado a dicho receptor resulta importante desarrollar modelos que permitan comprender la homeóstasis que le permite a la neurona manejar incrementos en el flujo de dicho catión sin llegar a desarrollar procesos necróticos ni apoptóticos. Este trabajo presenta una sencilla simulación de parte de los procesos metabólicos asociados al receptor como un paso inicial para comprender los mecanismos subyacentes al aprendizaje y memoria.

  2. Micromundo para simular un mercado eléctrico de corto plazo

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Jaime Franco; Juan David Velásquez; David Cardona

    2013-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta un micromundo para la simulación de una bolsa de energía, el cual se elaboró en respuesta a la necesidad de facilitar el aprendizaje del esquema de bolsa de energía con despacho centralizado a los interesados en este mercado. El micromundo cuenta con un modelo climático para simular los fenómenos de El Niño y La Niña, y con un modelo para la generación de los precios de oferta de los generadores, además es altamente parametrizable y permite simular diversos tipos d...

  3. Redes neuronales artificiales aplicadas a mediciones de fitomonitoreo para simular fotosíntesis en jitomate bajo invernadero

    OpenAIRE

    José Manuel Vargas Sállago; Irineo Lorenzo López Cruz; Enrique Rico García

    2012-01-01

    Se utilizaron Redes Neuronales Artificiales (ANN, Artificial Neural Networks) para simular la tasa de fotosíntesis de plantas de jitomate, empleando como variables de entrada: temperatura, humedad relativa, déficit de presión de vapor y concentración de dióxido de carbono (CO2) del aire, así como radiación fotosintéticamente activa. El experimento se desarrolló en un invernadero experimental, con control climático totalmente convencional, de la Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, México. Se em...

  4. Uma metodologia para simular o Programa Bolsa Família

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro H. G. F. Souza; Osorio, Rafael G.; Sergei S. D. Soares

    2011-01-01

    Este artigo descreve detalhadamente como simular os impactos sobre a pobreza de mudanças nas regras de elegibilidade e nos valores do Programa Bolsa Família (PBF). Isto é desafio especialmente delicado na medida em que não existe pergunta específica na Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD), do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE), sobre a renda do PBF e, mais grave, existe discrepância de 2,4 milhões de famílias entre os registros administrativos do programa (Ca...

  5. El VPM: una técnica variacional para simular la respuesta sísmica de valles aluviales someros

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Ávila; Víctor J. Palencia; Francisco J. Sánchez Sesma

    2002-01-01

    Se presenta el Método de Proyección Variacional (VPM, por sus siglas en inglés) para calcular la respuesta sísmica tridimensional de valles aluviales someros. La solución está basada en una formulación variacional de Galerkin de forma débil para el problema de un estrato irregular de geometría suave que sobreyace a un semiespacio elástico. La formulación de Galerkin se aplica mediante una familia de funciones de prueba para establecer la dependencia respecto a la profundidad. Las ecuaciones d...

  6. Um programa de computador para simular alguns aspectos operacionais da soldagem MIG/MAG A piece of software to simulate operational characteristics of MIG/MAG welding

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    Paulo J. Modenesi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A soldagem MIG/MAG e processos correlatos, que usam o arco e a alimentação contínua de arame, permanecem como os de maior importância industrial para a união de peças metálicas. Estes processos tendem a apresentar um elevado número de variáveis. A soldagem MIG/MAG é, ainda, sujeita a diferentes fenômenos que podem causar dificuldades durante a sua aplicação e, em particular, no planejamento e na definição das condições operacionais para uma dada aplicação. O presente trabalho descreve o desenvolvimento de um modelo para simular a variação de algumas variáveis do processo (como a corrente e tensão de soldagem e o comprimento do arco e a sua implementação em um programa de computador. As equações básicas do modelo são apresentadas e discutidas com considerações sobre a sua aplicação. Resultados de testes experimentais para a determinação de alguns parâmetros fundamentais do modelo são também apresentados e discutidos. Simulações usando o programa desenvolvido são apresentadas juntamente e comparadas com testes reais de soldagem. Ferramentas do programa para simular mudanças nas condições operacionais de soldagem, no comportamento do arco elétrico e na operação da fonte de soldagem são apresentadas. Encaminhamentos baseados em abordagem teórica e empírica para algumas destas capacidades são apresentados.MIG/MAG welding and other processes that are based on arc heating and the feeding of a continuous wire electrode are still the most used metal joining processes in the industry. These processes present a large number of variables. Furthermore, MIG/MAG welding is subjected to several phenomena that cause unexpected changes in parameters and make it difficult to predict operational conditions for a given job. The paper describes the development and the software implementation of a mathematical model to simulate some operational aspects of the MIG/MAG welding process. The basic equations of the model

  7. Derivación analítica del tiempo de llegada en modelos de canal basados en geometría para sistemas inalámbricos

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    M.R. Arias

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una propuesta analítica para derivar la función de densidad de probabilidad de potencia (PDF, por sus siglas en ingles del tiempo de llegada (TOA, por sus siglas en inglés y su aplicación en los modelos de canal estadísticos basados en geometría para ambientes urbanos. En éste artículo proponemos un modelo de canal utilizando el método por agrupamiento, y lo empleamos para derivar la PDF del tiempo de llegada de la señal de multitrayectorias. Para evaluar la PDF teórica propuesta por agrupamiento en el dominio del tiempo, hacemos simulaciones por computadora del modelo de canal basado en geometría propuesto y lo comparamos con los resultados experimentales publicados en la literatura. La comparación con los resultados experimentales revelan una buena aproximación. La PDF por agrupamiento derivada se puede utilizar para simular la dispersión temporal de la señal de multitrayectorias agrupadas para una variedad de condiciones de propagación en ambientes urbanos para cuantificar parámetros estadísticos de segundo orden, es decir, la difusión de retardo para una forma elíptica específica dada por el grupo de señales de multitrayectorias.

  8. EXTENSIÓN DE UNA ECUACIÓN CONSTITUTIVA HIPOPLÁSTICA PARA SIMULAR ENSAYOS TRIAXIALES CÍCLICOS EXTENSION OF A HYPOPLASTIC CONSTITUTIVE EQUATION TO SIMULATE CYCLIC TRIAXIAL TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alexander Rondón Quintana

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available La ecuación constitutiva hipoplástica es una herramienta matemática que puede simular de manera confiable el comportamiento que experimentan materiales granulares no tratados (GNT bajo carga estática y monotónica. Sin embargo, para el caso de cargas cíclicas, como las que ocurren en un pavimento, la ecuación sobreestima la acumulación de las deformaciones permanentes. En el presente artículo se presenta una versión extendida de la ecuación constitutiva hipoplástica de Wolffersdorff (1996 (una de las más utilizadas actualmente en el mundo que intenta mejorar dicha limitación. Adicionalmente se presenta la simulación de ensayos triaxiales cíclicos con presión de confinamiento constante y variable (los cuales son los más utilizados en el mundo para estudiar el comportamiento de GNT en pavimentos utilizando la versión extendida. Las simulaciones realizadas demuestran la amplia capacidad que tiene la ecuación hipoplástica para reproducir el comportamiento que el material granular experimenta en los ensayos cíclicos.Hypoplastic constitutive equation is a mathematical tool which offers the possibility to reliably simulate unbound granular materials (UGM behavior under static and monotonic loads. However, such equation overestimates the permanent strain accumulation under cyclic loads (e.g. in a pavement structure. This paper presents an extension of the Wolffersdorff's Hypoplastic constitutive equation (1996 (currently one of the most used equations, aiming for improving its performance under cyclic loads. Beside this, cyclic triaxial tests simulations are presented using the extended version with constant and variable confining pressures. Triaxial tests are the most used when studying UGM behavior in pavements. Simulation results demonstrated the ability of the proposed equation for reproducing the behavior of granular materials under cyclic tests.

  9. Una herramienta para simular y analizar el flujo de tráfico en un cruce regulado por semáforos con tiempos de ciclos variables

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    Orlando Fonseca Guilarte

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una herramienta que ayude a establecer una buena política de cambio en los tiempos de luces de los semáforos en las horas pico, basado en los resultados experimentales que se brindan. Se considera un cruce regulado por semáforos que puede estar compuesto por n calles y tener k fases. Se propone un simulador cuyos datos de entrada son las características propias de esta intersección y su salida la cantidad de autos que quedan, llegan y salen en cada fase. Se supone que las llegadas y salidas de los vehículos siguen una distribución de Poisson cuyo parámetro puede variar en el intervalo estudiado. La simulación está basada en eventos discretos y para la implementación del simulador se utilizó la plataforma .NET y el lenguaje de programación C#. La herramienta permite además obtener resultados estadísticos que ayudan al usuario en la toma de decisiones para identificar las fases problemáticas y tomar medidas para determinar la mejor opción, que será aquella que minimice la congestión del tráfico.

  10. Sistema de máquinas para revestir canales magistrales

    OpenAIRE

    Julián Remberto Sánchez Alonso; Eusebio Ramón González Utria; José Martínez Grave de Peralta; Johann Mejías Brito

    2010-01-01

    El trabajo consistió en la concepción, diseño, construcción y prueba de un sistema de máquinas para el revestimiento mecanizado de taludes de canales magistrales del tipo "Bio - La Rioja", su importancia está basada en la necesidad de acelerar las obras de la voluntad hidráulica y el programa alimentario. El método mecanizado de revestimiento incrementa el rendimiento respecto al tradicional, además contribuye al ahorro de materiales, mano de obra y uso de equipos, en particular de combustibl...

  11. Sistema de máquinas para revestir canales magistrales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Remberto Sánchez Alonso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo consistió en la concepción, diseño, construcción y prueba de un sistema de máquinas para el revestimiento mecanizado de taludes de canales magistrales del tipo "Bio - La Rioja", su importancia está basada en la necesidad de acelerar las obras de la voluntad hidráulica y el programa alimentario. El método mecanizado de revestimiento incrementa el rendimiento respecto al tradicional, además contribuye al ahorro de materiales, mano de obra y uso de equipos, en particular de combustible. Para el logro de los objetivos propuestos se realizó una revisión del estado actual sobre los sistemas de máquinas revestidoras con hormigón existentes en el extranjero y la experiencia acumulada en el país. Posteriormente se realizó un análisis de variantes para la concepción de la máquina y cada conjunto, de esta forma se seleccionó los sistemas a diseñar. La utilización de métodos avanzados de cálculos y valoración nos permitió determinar las formas y dimensiones de las máquinas, conjuntos y piezas, obteniéndose un diseño ligero y una tecnología sencilla de fabricación. Las valoraciones experimentales en condiciones de explotación en el canal "Bio - La Rioja" permitieron realizar un análisis técnico-económico sobre la introducción del sistema de máquinas en un proceso mecanizado de revestimiento "in situ".

  12. GeoSteamNet: A computer code to simulate geothermal steam flow in a pipeline network; GeoSteamNet: Programa de computo para simular el flujo de vapor geotermico de una red de vaporductos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma P., Mahendra; Aragon A., Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: mahendra@iie.org.mx; Ruiz L., Alejando; Mendoza C., Alfredo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Campo Geotermico Los Azufres, Campamento Agua Fria, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2011-07-15

    A computer package, GeoSteamNet, was developed to simulate steam transport in a pipeline network of a geothermal field. The fluid motion is governed by the following basic principles: conservation of mass, linear momentum principle (Newton's second law or the Navier Stokes equations), and the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The second law of thermodynamics defines the direction of a spontaneous process, which is indirectly validated in the algorithm as vapor flows from high-to-low pressure, and heat flows from high-to-low temperatures. The nonlinear equations are solved with the Newton-Raphson method. Using the ActiveX component OrificeMeter, the steam-flow balance was calculated for power plants U-15 and U-16 in Los Azufres Geothermal Field, Mich., in February 2009. U-15 was fed by the production wells AZ-04, AZ-28, AZ-30, AZ-65D, and AZ-66, whereas wells AZ-28A, AZ-45, AZ-56, AZ-67, AZ-69D were connected to U-16. The analytical error is within {+-}4%, which is acceptable for practical purposes for steam-supply management, considering the uncertainties in parameters, such as pressure, temperature, pressure fluctuation at the wellhead, etc. The steam simulation results by GeoSteamNet for a hypothetical-pipeline network in a geothermal system with two production wells and a power plant illustrate its functionality. Several points need to be emphasized. For a specific geometry-pipeline network, there is only a certain amount of mass (vapor) that can be transported at a given pressure at the wellheads and the power plant. The construction and modification of a pipeline network is very expensive and the production of geothermal wells depends on many natural factors; therefore, there is need to conduct a tolerance study for each component of the network. A simulation study of the virtual-pipeline network for the design of a geothermal power plant can save money, effort, and time. [Spanish] Se desarrollo un paquete de computo, GeoSteamNet, para simular el

  13. Forced extrusion for removal of impacted third molars close to the mandibular canal Extrusión forzada para extraer los terceros molares impactados cerca del canal mandibular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Flanagan DDS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Impacted mandibular third molars can be located in close proximity to the mandibular canal. This creates a risk for the nerve or artery injury. These are contained in the canal. However, the impacted third molar can be moved coronally by orthodontic means, after removal of overlying bone, and safely extracted. The orthodontic intervention slowly moves the tooth apex away from the mandibular canal and reduces the potential for a neural injury. This method may be useful for older patients with root apices that approximate or are actually located in the mandibular canal. This technique needs further study. There is a theoretical potential for neural or arterial injury from physical contact of the tooth apex as it moves by or through the mandibular canal.Los terceros molares inferiores impactados pueden localizarse muy cerca del canal mandibular. Esto constituye un riesgo de lesión del nervio o la arteria, que se localizan dentro del canal. No obstante, el tercer molar impactado puede desplazarse en dirección coronal con ortodoncia, tras ostectomía del hueso suprayacente, y extraerse sin riesgos. La intervención ortodóncica desplaza lentamente el ápice del diente fuera del canal mandibular y reduce la posibilidad de lesión neural. Este método puede ser útil para pacientes de edad avanzada con ápices dentales que se aproximan o en realidad se localizan en el canal mandibular. La técnica necesita un estudio adicional. Hay la posibilidad teórica de lesión neural o arterial a partir del contacto físico del ápice del diente a medida que se desplaza a través del canal mandibular.

  14. Evaluation of a model to Simulate Net Radiation Over a Vineyar cv. Cabernet Sauvignon Evaluación de un Modelo para Simular el Flujo de Radiación Neta Sobre un Viñedo cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Carrasco

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Net radiation (Rn is the main energy balance component controlling evaporation and transpiration processes. In this regard, this study evaluated two models to estimate Rno above a commercial vineyard (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon located in Pencahue Valley, Maule Region (35º22’ S; 71°47’ Wl; 75 m.a.s.l.. An automatic meteorological station (AMS was installed in the central part of the vineyard and used to measure Rn, solar radiation (Rsi, air temperature (Ta, canopy temperature (Tf and relative humidity (RH. On a 30 min interval, results indicated that model Rne1 (assuming Ta ≠ Tf and model Rne2 (assuming Ta = Tf were able to estimate Rn with a mean absolute error (MAE of less than 40 W m-2 and root mean square error (RMSE of less than 61 W m-2. On daily intervals, the two models estimated Rno with MAE and RMSE values of less than 1.68 and 1.75 MJ m-2 d-1, respectively. In global terms, the models presented errors below 9 and 11% on 30 min and daily intervals, respectively. Furthermore, this study indicated that the incorporation of canopy temperature did not improve the Rno estimation substantially, in spite of having a temperature gradient (dT = Tf - Ta between -3 and to 4ºC. These results suggest that an Rne2 model could be used to estimate Rno using Rsi, Ta and RH measurements.El flujo de radiación neta (Rn es el principal componente del balance de energía que determina los procesos de evaporación y transpiración. En este contexto, este estudio evaluó dos modelos para estimar Rno sobre un viñedo (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon comercial ubicado en el Valle de Pencahue, Región del Maule (35º22’ S; 71º47’ Oeste; 75 m.s.n.m.. Para esto, se ubicó una estación meteorológica automática (AME en la parte central del viñedo para medir Rn, radiación solar (Rsi, temperatura del aire (Ta, temperatura del dosel (Tf y humedad relativa (HR. En intervalos de tiempo de 30 min, los resultados indicaron que el

  15. Evaluation of a computer model to simulate water table response to subirrigation Avaliação de um modelo computacional para simular a resposta do lençol freático à subirrigação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadir Aparecido Rosa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the water flow computer model, WATABLE, using experimental field observations on water table management plots from a site located near Hastings, FL, USA. The experimental field had scale drainage systems with provisions for subirrigation with buried microirrigation and conventional seepage irrigation systems. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. growing seasons from years 1996 and 1997 were used to simulate the hydrology of the area. Water table levels, precipitation, irrigation and runoff volumes were continuously monitored. The model simulated the water movement from a buried microirrigation line source and the response of the water table to irrigation, precipitation, evapotranspiration, and deep percolation. The model was calibrated and verified by comparing simulated results with experimental field observations. The model performed very well in simulating seasonal runoff, irrigation volumes, and water table levels during crop growth. The two-dimensional model can be used to investigate different irrigation strategies involving water table management control. Applications of the model include optimization of the water table depth for each growth stage, and duration, frequency, and rate of irrigation.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o modelo computacional WATABLE usando-se dados de campo obtidos em uma área experimental em manejo de lençol freático, localizada em Hastings, FL, EUA. Na área experimental, estavam instalados um sistema de drenagem e sistemas de irrigação por subsuperfície com irrigação localizada e por canais. Ciclos de cultivo de batata (Solanum tuberosum L., nos anos de 1996 e 1997, foram usados para a simulação da hidrologia da área. Profundidades do lençol freático, chuvas, irrigação e escorrimento superficial foram monitorados constantemente. O modelo simulou o movimento da água a partir de uma linha de irrigação localizada enterrada, e a resposta do nível do len

  16. A new method to simulate the hydrological state of soil under natural conditions Um novo método para simular o estado hidrológico do solo em condições naturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Katharina Wild

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Micro, macro and mesofauna in the soil often respond to fluctuating environmental conditions, resulting in changes of abundance and community structure. Effects of changing soil parameters are normally determined with samples taken in the field and brought to the laboratory, i.e. where natural environmental conditions may not apply. We devised a method (STAFD - soil tubes for artificial flood and drought, which simulates the hydrological state of soil in situ using implanted cores. Control tubes were compared with treatment tubes in which floods of 15, 30, 60 and 90 days, and droughts of 60, 90 and 120 days were simulated in the field. Flooding and drought were found to reduce number of individuals in all soil faunal groups, but the response to drought was slower and not in proportion to the expected decrease of the water content. The results of the simulated floods in particular show the value of the STAFD method for the investigation of such extreme events in natural habitats.As micro, macro e mesofaunas no solo respondem frequentemente à variação das condições ambientais, o que resulta em alterações na abundância e na estrutura da comunidade. Os efeitos das alterações nos parâmetros do solo são normalmente determinados com amostras recolhidas no campo e trazidas ao laboratório, ou seja, onde as condições ambientais naturais podem não ser aplicáveis. Criamos um método (STAFD - tubos de amostra de solo para inundações e secas artificiais, que simula o estado hidrológico do solo in situ com núcleos implantados. As amostras de controle foram comparadas com amostras de tratamentos em que foram simuladas inundações de 15, 30, 60 e 90 dias e secas de 60, 90 e 120 dias no campo. Verificou-se que as inundações e a seca reduziram a quantidade de individuos em todos os grupos de fauna de solo, mas a resposta à seca foi mais lenta e não proporcional à redução prevista no teor de água. Os resultados das inunda

  17. Canal*Motoboy, São Paulo (Brasil: Comunicación para el cambio social

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    Alisson DIAS GOMES

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, los medios de comunicación se contraponen a la propagación de los medios alternativos dirigidos a la democratización de informaciones generadas por ciudadanos comunes. El Canal*Motoboy constituye un ejemplo de esa modalidad de comunicación. Su propuesta es consolidar una estructura abierta para dar voz al colectivo de motoboys de São Paulo (SP en Brasil. Debidamente entrenados y recurriendo al teléfono móvil multimedia, registran su día-a-día en el website Canal*Motoboy. Este artículo analiza este proyecto, a partir de la concepción de la comunicación para el cambio social, una vez que el derecho a la libertad de expresión, históricamente, ha sido expropiado a los ciudadanos por cuenta de la expansión de los conglomerados comunicacionales. Además de la revisión de literatura, el objeto de estudio se ha abordado desde una perspectiva cualitativa a través de la técnica de observación y de entrevista en profundidad para las informaciones de actores del colectivo.

  18. Ordered expression pattern of Hox and ParaHox genes along the alimentary canal in the ascidian juvenile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Satoshi; Satou, Kunihiro; Orito, Wataru; Ogasawara, Michio

    2016-07-01

    The Hox and ParaHox genes of bilateria share a similar expression pattern along the body axis and are known to be associated with anterior-posterior patterning. In vertebrates, the Hox genes are also expressed in presomitic mesoderm and gut endoderm and the ParaHox genes show a restricted expression pattern in the gut-related derivatives. Regional expression patterns in the embryonic central nervous system of the basal chordates amphioxus and ascidian have been reported; however, little is known about their endodermal expression in the alimentary canal. We focus on the Hox and ParaHox genes in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis and investigate the gene expression patterns in the juvenile, which shows morphological regionality in the alimentary canal. Gene expression analyses by using whole-mount in situ hybridization reveal that all Hox genes have a regional expression pattern along the alimentary canal. Expression of Hox1 to Hox4 is restricted to the posterior region of pharyngeal derivatives. Hox5 to Hox13 show an ordered expression pattern correlated with each Hox gene number along the postpharyngeal digestive tract. This expression pattern along the anterior-posterior axis has also been observed in Ciona ParaHox genes. Our observations suggest that ascidian Hox and ParaHox clusters are dispersed; however, the ordered expression patterns along the alimentary canal appear to be conserved among chordates. PMID:26837224

  19. Software multimedia para la enseñanza y aprendizaje de los canales extraordinarios de acupuntura (CANExA)

    OpenAIRE

    Castañeda Fiquitiva, Sandra Milena

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo se desarrolla en la modalidad de Docencia y Pedagogía, creando un software interactivo para el aprendizaje y enseñanza de los ocho canales extraordinarios de acupuntura (CANExA), su desarrollo se fundamenta inicialmente en conceptos sobre los canales extraordinarios de Acupuntura, teorías del aprendizaje, ambiente virtual del aprendizaje, teorías de la información y la comunicación; luego se desarrolla un modelo interactivo de figuras humanas realistas en 3D, con rasgos correspon...

  20. Canal*Motoboy, São Paulo (Brazil: communication for social change Canal*Motoboy, São Paulo (Brasil: Comunicación para el cambio social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson DIAS GOMES

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, reference media faces the alternative media propagation, which uses different means and it is based on the work of independent producers who target the information democratization in every possible format at no cost and created by «common citizens». The Canal*Motoboy, a project by the Catalan Antoni Abad, is an example of this kind of communication. He aims to consolidate an open structure in order to give voice to motoboys from São Paulo (SP, Brazil. After being properly trained and by using their multimedia cell phones, they register their routine on Canal*Motoboy website. This article analyzes the progress of this project, based on the communication for social change, once the right to freedom of expression, historically, has been expropriated from citizens on account of the expansion of communication conglomerates. The methodological approach will consist of observation and deep interview technique, as well as literature review.En la actualidad, los medios de comunicación se contraponen a la propagación de los medios alternativos dirigidos a la democratización de informaciones generadas por ciudadanos comunes. El Canal*Motoboy constituye un ejemplo de esa modalidad de comunicación. Su propuesta es consolidar una estructura abierta para dar voz al colectivo de motoboys de São Paulo (SP en Brasil. Debidamente entrenados y recurriendo al teléfono móvil multimedia, registran su día-a-día en el website Canal*Motoboy. Este artículo analiza este proyecto, a partir de la concepción de la comunicación para el cambio social, una vez que el derecho a la libertad de expresión, históricamente, ha sido expropiado a los ciudadanos por cuenta de la expansión de los conglomerados comunicacionales. Además de la revisión de literatura, el objeto de estudio se ha abordado desde una perspectiva cualitativa a través de la técnica de observación y de entrevista en profundidad para las informaciones de actores del colectivo.

  1. El canal de crédito, evidencias para Uruguay desde una perspectiva macroeconómica

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Lorenzo; Alfonso Capurro; Guillermo Carlomagno; Paula Garda; Bibiana Lanzilotta; Gonzalo Zunino

    2010-01-01

    La presente investigación tiene por objetivo aportar evidencia sobre la existencia e importancia del canal del crédito en la transmisión de la política monetaria en Uruguay a partir de un análisis a nivel macroeconómico. Para que el canal del crédito se encuentre activo como canal de transmisión de la política monetaria es necesario, en primer término, que las decisiones de política monetaria sean capaces de afectar las variables de crédito bancario. Una segunda condición necesaria es que las...

  2. Preferencias en canales de distribución y nivel de ingresos: un análisis para alimentos frescos

    OpenAIRE

    Berges, Miriam; Casellas, Karina

    2001-01-01

    En este trabajo, abarcando una muestra de todo el país, se intenta analizar el tipo de canal elegido por las familias para realizar sus compras de alimentos, en especial para el caso de la carne vacuna, el pollo, las frutas y verduras y los productos lácteos. Esta selección obedece a que se ha dicho mucho sobre si prevalece o no la preferencia de ciertos sectores de la población por elegir los alimentos frescos en negocios del tipo tradicional, como las carnicerías, las verdulerías y las frut...

  3. Dispositivo de posicionamiento de muestras biológicas para su irradiación en un canal radial de un reactor nuclear

    OpenAIRE

    Maritza Rodríguez - Gual; Felix Mas – Milián; Airton Deppman; Paulo Rogerio Pinto - Coelho

    2011-01-01

    Por la demanda de un dispositivo experimental para el posicionamiento de las muestras biológicas para su irradiación en un canal radial de un reactor nuclear de investigaciones en funcionamiento, se construyó y se puso en marcha un dispositivo para la colocación y retirada de las muestras en la posición de irradiación de dicho canal. Se efectuaron las valoraciones económicas comparando con otro tipo de dispositivo con las mismas funciones. Este trabajo formó parte de un proyecto internacional...

  4. Forced extrusion for removal of impacted third molars close to the mandibular canal Extrusión forzada para extraer los terceros molares impactados cerca del canal mandibular

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis Flanagan DDS

    2012-01-01

    Impacted mandibular third molars can be located in close proximity to the mandibular canal. This creates a risk for the nerve or artery injury. These are contained in the canal. However, the impacted third molar can be moved coronally by orthodontic means, after removal of overlying bone, and safely extracted. The orthodontic intervention slowly moves the tooth apex away from the mandibular canal and reduces the potential for a neural injury. This method may be useful for older patients with ...

  5. Um estudo sobre os aspectos que contribuem para a adoção do canal on-line para compra de livros, CDs e DVDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Gouvêa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste estudo foi identificar os fatores relevantes na adoção do canal on-line para a realização de compras, tendo como principais referências os modelos Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT, de Venkatesh et al. (2003, de Heijden, Verhagen e Creemers (2003 e de Bramall, Schoefer e McKechnie (2004. Além da revisão da literatura dos assuntos pertinentes, foi realizada uma pesquisa de campo descritiva, de natureza quantitativa com uma amostra de 172 pessoas residentes na cidade de São Paulo, pertencentes às classes socioeconômicas A, B e C (critério Brasil, compradores de livros, CDs ou DVDs no canal off-line. Os dados coletados foram analisados com o uso de técnicas estatísticas nos contextos uni, bi e multivariado. Aplicou-se a técnica de modelagem de equações estruturais (MEE ou Structural Equation Modeling - SEM para serem identificadas relações de dependência entre construtos e a contribuição de cada um deles na estimação das intenções de adoção da compra pela Internet. Entre os principais resultados encontrados, a atitude em relação ao uso da tecnologia, a confiança e a expectativa de desempenho figuraram como os aspectos mais relevantes para uma possível adoção do canal on-line.

  6. Um estudo sobre os aspectos que contribuem para a adoção do canal on-line para compra de livros, CDs e DVDs

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Aparecida Gouvêa; Sandra Sayuri Yamashita Nakagawa; Braulio Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo neste estudo foi identificar os fatores relevantes na adoção do canal on-line para a realização de compras, tendo como principais referências os modelos Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), de Venkatesh et al. (2003), de Heijden, Verhagen e Creemers (2003) e de Bramall, Schoefer e McKechnie (2004). Além da revisão da literatura dos assuntos pertinentes, foi realizada uma pesquisa de campo descritiva, de natureza quantitativa com uma amostra de 172 pessoas res...

  7. Social tariff for canalized gas: paper proposal; Tarifa social para o gas canalizado: proposta de trabalho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelegrini, Marcelo A.; Silva, Wagner M.G. da; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (ENERQ/EPUSP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Centro de Estudos em Regulacao e Qualidade de Energia

    2008-07-01

    This work intends to present some possible philosophies of social policy implementation targeted to low income consumers of canalized gas. The benefits and disadvantages from each philosophy are discussed and a study proposal is presented to define an implementation policy to the State of Sao Paulo. (author)

  8. Los proyectos del arquitecto francés Mansart de Sagonne para los canales del Ebro y del Manzanares (1768

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cachau, Ph.

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available La llegada del arquitecto francés Jacques Hardouin-Mansart de Sagonne (1711-1778, nieto del gran arquitecto de Luis XIV Jules Hardouin-Mansart, a Madrid durante el verano de 1768 provocó la evolución, poco más o menos voluntaria, según los casos, de unos proyectos de arquitectura o de ingeniería que la administración del rey Carlos III había descuidado desde hacía años. Si esa llegada constituye un episodio totalmente desconocido de la historia de los canales de España por los autores españoles, su análisis permite no obstante medir el interés que tenían unos ingenieros franceses para un país —España— muy descuidado en aquella época y muy atrasado en el plano de las comunicaciones interiores. Sobre todo, es muy instructivo comparar la política de ambos países —Francia y España— ligados por un Pacto de Familia, en cuanto a las concesiones de privilegios para la construcción y la explotación de canales de navegación.…

  9. Desarrollo de un interfaz para simular en tiempo real la interacción órgano-instrumento en un procedimiento quirúrgico dentro de un ambiente de teleoperación / Development of an interface to simulate in real-time the tissue-tool interaction under a quirurgical process inside a teleoperation enviroment

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo León, Jaime Andrés

    2011-01-01

    El documento a continuación describe el camino llevado a cabo para el modelamiento y la simulación de tejidos en tiempo-real utilizando los m_etodos n_umericos de BEM y FEM para modelos tanto lineales como no-lineales en geometría y en constitución del material, además se trata el tema de la colisión y la generación de condiciones de contorno. Una aplicación multiplataforma y sus detalles de implementación en C++, bajo el paradigma de la programación genérica, los resultados obtenidos y detal...

  10. Canales de distribución y estrategias de comercialización para la flor colombiana en los Estados Unidos: un marco conceptual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS FELIPE SALOM SERNA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El floricultor colombiano no puede desconocer los cambios en tendencias de consumo ni la consolidación del canal retail en su mercado principal, USA. El cuál generará un alto impacto en las características del negocio y el papel de los jugadores en la cadena de suministros. El objetivo de este estudio exploratorio utilizando casos múltiples, es presentar un marco de oportunidades para fortalecer la comercialización de la flor y estructurar canales de distribución acordes a las necesidades del consumidor norteamericano y a los cambios en los hábitos de compra. Las conclusiones, proponen las acciones a emprender por las empresas floricultoras estudiadas a fin de incrementar su competitividad y resolver su dilema actual: contraer oferta para mejorar el precio de venta o incrementar demanda.

  11. Índice de estado limnológico (IEL para evaluar las condiciones ecológicas de las ciénagas del Canal del Dique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vega Mora Leonel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Determinar el estado o salud ecológica de un ecosistema brinda herramientas útiles para su gestión y conservación. En Colombia no se han desarrollado índices que combinen en un solo parámetro las variables físicas, químicas y biológicas de los sistemas acuáticos, de manera que la evaluación de su estado ecológico ha sido fragmentaria o incompleta. En este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo de un Índice de Estado Limnológico (IEL para las ciénagas del Canal del Dique, ecosistemas sometidos a constante presión por parte de las comunidades humanas. Para la construcción de este índice multimétrico se realizó un análisis de componentes principales, se construyeron gráficas de calidad de las variables seleccionadas y se les asignaron valores de importancia. Se empleó la teoría de los multiatributos para construir el IEL, el cual considera 12 variables. Se diseñó una versión simplificada (IEL parcial - IELP en la que se excluyeron 4 de las variables biológicas. Finalmente, se construyó una escala de interpretación de los valores obtenidos con estos índices. El IEL y el IELP se aplicaron a las ciénagas del Canal del Dique para establecer su condición ecológica actual. Los datos muestran que el estado limnológico de la mayoría de ciénagas de esta región es aceptable, lo que sugiere que estos ecosistemas lénticos se encuentran dentro de los límites admisibles de funcionamiento, aunque no están excentos de procesos de deterioro.

  12. Dispositivo electrónico de medición del caudal de agua para canales abiertos

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Cesar Ayala López; Roberto Albóniga Gil

    2015-01-01

    El método de riego por inundación, que desplaza el agua mediante canales abiertos y surcos ha sido usado durante años en la producción agrícola, aunque requiere una gran cantidad de agua y su eficacia no es muy alta ya que la mayoría del agua no se puede extraer directamente en las raíces de las plantas. Siendo de vital importancia lograr datos de campo confiables y lo suficientemente precisos que nos permitan estudiar y proyectar manejos del agua con el menor grado de incertidumbre posi...

  13. Los proyectos del arquitecto francés Mansart de Sagonne para los canales del Ebro y del Manzanares (1768)

    OpenAIRE

    Cachau, Ph.

    2001-01-01

    La llegada del arquitecto francés Jacques Hardouin-Mansart de Sagonne (1711-1778), nieto del gran arquitecto de Luis XIV Jules Hardouin-Mansart, a Madrid durante el verano de 1768 provocó la evolución, poco más o menos voluntaria, según los casos, de unos proyectos de arquitectura o de ingeniería que la administración del rey Carlos III había descuidado desde hacía años. Si esa llegada constituye un episodio totalmente desconocido de la historia de los canales de España por los autores españo...

  14. canal24

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Canal system center lines in the Central Valley of California and adjacent areas captured from 1:24,000-scale USGS topographic maps. Updates and modifications made...

  15. Facebook como canal de comunicación corporativo para organismos y ONG Internacionales acreditados en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Navas Charry, Catalina

    2013-01-01

    Las Redes sociales se han convertido en un elemento esencial para la comunicación y el marketing empresarial a nivel mundial. A pesar de su importancia, existen aún muchas organizaciones que no cuentan con dicha herramienta y que prefieren mantenerse fuera del mundo tecnológico y de la web 2.0. El tema que se desarrollará a continuación en este trabajo de grado trata sobre la importancia de usar las redes sociales, en este caso Facebook, como herramienta de comunicación corporativa para t...

  16. Un Enfoque Multiobjetivo para la Asignación de Canales en Sistemas Celulares A Multiobjective Approach for Cellular Systems Channel Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor E Carranza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se propone un algoritmo de asignación de canales para reducir la probabilidad de bloqueo de sistemas celulares y ampliar la capacidad del sistema para absorber nuevas llamadas. El algoritmo debe proveer un conjunto de soluciones de compromiso entre dos objetivos contrapuestos; por un lado minimizar la cantidad de reasignaciones y por el otro minimizar el nivel de interferencia debido a la flexibilización de las restricciones de compatibilidad electromagnética. Se propone un enfoque heurístico basado en un paradigma evolutivo para resolver el problema de optimización multiobjetivo. Para que la evolución sea eficiente, se incorpora en el proceso evolutivo conocimiento específico del problema. Dos algoritmos evolutivos multiobjetivo (SPEAII y NSGA II son comparados usando dos diferentes métricas. Los resultados muestran que la metodología propuesta puede ser aplicada a las diferentes generaciones de sistemas de comunicaciones móviles.To improve the quality of service in cell systems, techniques of Dynamic Assignment Channels are used to reduce the probability of blocking calls. In this paper an algorithm of assignment channels is required to reduce the probability of blocking, extending the system capacity to add new calls. This is obtained by using an interchange of channels of current calls and reducing the restrictions of electromagnetic compatibility. According to this, the algorithm has to provide solutions of commitments between two different objectives; on the one hand reduce the amount of assignments, and on the other to do the same with the level of interference due to the flexible restrictions of electromagnetic compatibility. A heuristic focus based on the evolution paradigm is presented to solve the multi-objective optimization problem. Two evolutionary multi-objective algorithms (SPEAII y NSGA II are compared by the use of two different metrics. The results show that the proposed methodology can be applied to

  17. Quanto a escova deve ser introduzida no canal anal para avaliação citológica mais eficaz? How deep must the brush be introduced in the anal canal for a more effective cytological evaluation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Roberto Nadal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A sensibilidade da citologia anal varia amplamente na literatura, entre 45% e 98%, o que pode ocorrer devido à falta de padronização quanto à distância que a escova deve ser introduzida no canal anal. Desta forma, nosso objetivo foi investigar se o local de coleta influencia no resultado desse exame. MÉTODOS: Colhemos amostras com escova introduzida 4 cm no canal anal de 114 doentes (Grupo A e 2 cm em outros 94 pacientes (Grupo B, antes do exame proctológico. Realizamos cinco rotações com a escova antes de retirá-la e a esfregar sobre lâmina de vidro, posteriormente submetida ao exame citopatológico padrão. Todos os doentes são HIV-positivo. Submetemos os resultados à avaliação estatística. RESULTADOS: No Grupo A, 39 doentes possuíam condilomas no canal anal e a citologia foi positiva em 29 deles (74,3%. Também observamos alterações citológicas em 30 de 75 doentes (40% sem lesões clínicas no canal anal. No Grupo B, havia 54 doentes com condilomas no canal anal e em 13 (24,1% houve confirmação citológica. Em 40 outros, sem lesões clínicas pelo HPV, notamos que em nove (22,5% havia anormalidades citológicas. Os testes estatísticos revelaram que os exames realizados nos doentes do Grupo A foram mais eficientes. CONCLUSÃO: Os espécimes coletados com escovas inseridas mais profundamente no canal anal melhoraram a eficácia do exame.OBJECTIVE: In literature, sensitivity of Pap smears ranges widely from 45 to 98%. Possibly this is because there is no standard for how far the brush should be introduced into the anal canal. The aim was to evaluate whether the sampling site has an influence on the results of anal Pap smears. Design and setting. This is a non-randomized, non-blinded, retrospective review carried out in the Proctology and Pathology Sectors, Emilio Ribas Infectious Diseases Institute. METHOD: We obtained specimens with brushes introduced 4 cm into the anal canal in 114 patients (Group A and 2 cm in

  18. CANAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CANAL code presented here optimizes a realistic iron free extraction channel which has to provide a given transversal magnetic field law in the median plane: the current bars may be curved, have finite lengths and cooling ducts and move in a restricted transversal area; terminal connectors may be added, images of the bars in pole pieces may be included. A special option optimizes a real set of circular coils

  19. Dinámica de la inflación y el canal de costos: Una aplicación para Chile.

    OpenAIRE

    David Coble

    2008-01-01

    La importancia de los mecanismos de transmisión de la política monetaria hacen imprescindible un estudio acabado de los posibles canales por los que pueda influir el instrumento utilizado. El mecanismo tradicional de transmisión es aquel en el que un aumento de la tasa de interés busca disminuir las presiones de precios por el lado de la demanda. No obstante lo anterior, existe otro posible canal relevante de transmisión de política monetaria: el canal de costos. Un aumento del interés nomina...

  20. El Canal del Atazar I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López de Berges y de los Santos, Emilio

    1967-03-01

    Full Text Available The Atazar Canal helps to supply Madrid with water, from the rivers Lozoya, Jarama and Sorbe. The section which operates at present starts at the Torrelaguna dam and finishes at the El Goloso reservoir. Later a further section will be added, from the Atazar dam, on the Lozoya river, to link up with the control dam at Torrelaguna. The canal capacity is 16 m3/sec, and it is 43.47 km long. It has a slope of 4/10.000. The cross section is similar to that of the Jarama canal, already built. There are interconnections between this canal and the Canal Alto, which previously supplied the high and medium part of Madrid. To overcome the ground unevenness 5 syphons have been built, the most important of which is the Colmenar Goloso syphon, which is 10.88 km in length. Construction commenced on December 10, 1962, and water reached Madrid on June 15th, 1966. The initial budget for this project was 1,500 million pesetas.El canal del Atazar refuerza considerablemente el abastecimiento de aguas a Madrid, procedentes de los ríos Lozoya, Jarama y, en un próximo futuro, del Sorbe. El tramo, actualmente en funcionamiento, empieza en el salto de Torrelaguna y finaliza en los depósitos de El Goloso. Más adelante se completará su trazado mediante un nuevo tramo que partirá del embalse de Atazar, en el Lozoya, para unirse al actual en el depósito regulador de Torrelaguna. Su capacidad es de 16 m3/s; su longitud, 43,471 km, y su pendiente, 4 diezmilésimas. La sección tipo es análoga a la del canal del Jarama, de construcción anterior. Mediante la oportuna obra de transvase se realizan intercambios entre este Canal y el Canal Alto que abastecía anteriormente la parte media y alta de la capital. Para salvar los desniveles del terreno se han construido 5 sifones, siendo el más importante el de Colmenar-Goloso, con una longitud de 10,8S4 km. El comienzo de las obras tuvo lugar el 10 de diciembre de 1962, y el agua llegó a Madrid el 15 de junio de 1966. Su

  1. Canales web en ciencias de la comunicación. Producción multimedia para la docencia e investigación en Documentación informativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso López Yepes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La creación inicial en una primera fase de un portal de portales de documentación informativa (e-DocuInfo http://multidoc.rediris.es /edocuinfo/  que integra varios portales y posibilita asimismo el acceso a un canal temático de documentación vía internet (TVDoc Complumedia-RTVDoc, juntamente con el funcionamiento de otros dos (E-TV y Cine@Tele Online canal vídeo tienen como objetivo la difusión de contenidos y la generación de una programación en el ámbito documental de las ciencias de la información, de forma distribuida y colaborativa, en estrecha relación con los parámetros de la web 2.0 o web social, y de la Universidad-Empresa. Una segunda fase ha supuesto la producción de numerosos contenidos sistematizados por materias y el establecimiento de verdaderos canales IPTV de emisión total (en consecuencia, TVDoc evoluciona a Complumedia-RTVDoc, y que a su vez plantean la antesala de una tercera fase evolutiva, el establecimiento de una Red iberoamericana de documentación multimedia, ya en ciernes. Estos canales temáticos, que pueden emitir información en tiempo real o en diferido -vídeo bajo demanda-, vehiculan información procedente -en el caso de e-Docuinfo- de la hemeroteca, fonoteca, fototeca, videoteca, en fin, de la mediateca del portal a través de un servidor de streaming. La existencia del portal de portales y de los mencionados canales temáticos web se benefician asimismo, por sus mayores posibilidades de difusión informativa, de la coordinación asumida por el Servicio de Documentación Multimedia (en cuyo ámbito nació e-DocuInfo/TVDoc para el acceso de la facultad de ciencias de la información al campus virtual de la universidad complutense. Y en consecuencia, para su difusión a nivel nacional e internacional, merced a la amplia oferta de posibilidades de las plataformas planteadas para la docencia (semipresencial y virtual, investigación y producción multimedia. La puesta en marcha de canales de este

  2. Comparación de Controladores de Nivel para Canales Abiertos Basados en un Modelo por Colocación A Comparative Study between Level Controllers for Open Channels Based on a Collocation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean F Dulhoste

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del presente estudio es comparar el funcionamiento de controladores no lineales de nivel para canales abiertos. La dinámica del flujo en canales abiertos normalmente se representa mediante las ecuaciones de Saint-Venant. En este trabajo se presentan tres leyes de control no lineal que se desarrollaron a partir de un modelo de colocación. Las leyes incluidas son: linealización entrada salida, linealización entrada salida dinámica y linealización por realimentación escalonada (backstepping. Se implementó un simulador unidimensional para resolver las ecuaciones de Saint-Venant, lo que permitió estudiar el comportamiento del sistema controlado. Los resultados de funcionamiento mostraron que la técnica de linealización entrada-salida dinámica parece ser la mejor de las tres estudiadas y que éstas técnicas muestran ser bastante precisas en los casos estudiados.This paper proposed a comparative study between different nonlinear control techniques for level regulation in an open channel. Flow dynamics in a canal can be modeled by Saint-Venant equations. In this paper three control laws derived from a collocation model are presented. These laws are: input output linearization, dynamic input output linearization, and backstepping. A one-dimensional simulator that solves Saint-Venant’s equations was implemented, allowing to study the controlled system. The results showed that the dynamic input output linearization control technique was the best among the studied control techniques, and that these techniques are reliable in the cases studied.

  3. Root canal irrigants

    OpenAIRE

    Kandaswamy Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu Nagendrababu

    2010-01-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are...

  4. Optic Canal: Microanatomic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Slavin, Konstantin V.; Dujovny, Manuel; Soeira, Gelson; James I Ausman

    1994-01-01

    The microsurgical anatomy of the optic canal was defined on 20 cadaveric specimens. Anatomic parameters of the optic canal, optic nerve, ophthalmic artery, and adjacent structures were measured, and relations of these structures were noted. Five variants of the course of the ophthalmic artery relative to the optic nerve in the optic canal were found. Various aspects of microsurgery of the optic canal are discussed in relation to anatomic findings.

  5. Evaluación de la calidad del agua en Gamboa y Paraíso del embalse Gatún, en la cuenca hidrográfica del Canal de Panamá

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco Oberto, Gonzalo Isaac

    2015-01-01

    [ES]La Cuenca Hidrográfica del Canal es uno de los elementos hidrológicos más importante de la República de Panamá. La cantidad y calidad del agua está condicionada por el estado de los bosques y del entorno natural; por tanto, su administración requiere del conocimiento de la “calidad natural del agua” y de la dinámica del agua a través del ciclo hidrológico; lo que define las características propias que la hacen apta o no para su uso. El desmejoramiento de la calidad del agua es un motiv...

  6. Suplementación de raciones para cebo intensivo de terneros con aceites vegetales: rendimientos productivos, calidad de la canal, de la grasa y de la carne

    OpenAIRE

    Perez Espes, B.; T. Castro; Jimeno Vinatea, Vicente; Isabel, Beatriz; Fuente, J. de la; A. Cabezas

    2011-01-01

    Se han estudiado los efectos de la incorporación de aceites de origen vegetal sobre los rendimientos productivos, calidad de la canal y de la grasa en el ganado vacuno. Se utilizaron 240 terneros agrupados en 24 lotes de 10 terneros cada uno. Las raciones experimentales fueron: Tratamiento Control (4% de aceite de palma), Oliva (4,8% de jabón cálcico de aceite de oliva), Soja (4% de aceite de soja). De cada lote se seleccionó al azar un ternero (8 terneros por tratamiento) par...

  7. Root canal irrigants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandaswamy Deivanayagam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed. We performed a Medline search for English-language papers published untill July 2010. The keywords used were ′root canal irrigants′ and ′endodontic irrigants.′ The reference lists of each article were manually checked for additional articles of relevance.

  8. Root canal irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van der Sluis; C. Boutsioukis; L.M. Jiang; R. Macedo; B. Verhaagen; M. Versluis

    2015-01-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm), and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root cana

  9. The Root Canal Biofilm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der L.W.M.; Boutsioukis, C.; Jiang, L.M.; Macedo, R.; Verhaagen, B.; Versluis, M.; Chávez de Paz, E.; Sedgley, C.M.; Kishen, A.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm), and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root cana

  10. Design of canals

    CERN Document Server

    Swamee, P K

    2015-01-01

    The book presents firsthand material from the authors on design of hydraulic canals. The book discusses elements of design based on principles of hydraulic flow through canals. It covers optimization of design based on usage requirements and economic constraints. The book includes explicit design equations and design procedures along with design examples for varied cases. With its comprehensive coverage of the principles of hydraulic canal design, this book will prove useful to students, researchers, and practicing engineers. End-of-chapter pedagogical elements make it ideal for use in graduate courses on hydraulic structures offered by most civil engineering departments across the world.

  11. Metodologia para o monitoramento da difusão de inovação em canais de comunicação científica
    Metodología para el seguimiento de la difusión de la innovación en canales de comunicación científica

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Zeni Marchiori; Andre Luiz Appel; Eduardo Michellotti Bettoni; Denise Fukumi Tsunoda

    2012-01-01

    Introdução: a difusão da inovação em produtos/tecnologias se apoia no uso de diferentes canais de comunicação. As adaptações/aperfeiçoamentos veiculados entre os participantes destes canais podem ser agregadas em categorias de acordo com condições de adoção (existente, proativa, aspiracional, reativa). O monitoramento e a visualização de tais condições permitiria explorar o estado da arte da inovação e acompanhá-lo em ciclos de tempo definidos e/ou alcance geográfico para um determinado canal...

  12. Diseño de un canal de instrumentación para un sistema electrocardiograma y un pulsioxímetro

    OpenAIRE

    Goicoechea Fernández, Ana

    2014-01-01

    El presente proyecto abarca el diseño y montaje de un sistema de instrumentación completo aplicado a un sistema biomédico, el de electrocardiografía, así como el diseño y construcción de un sistema de adquisición de datos mediante un conversor analógico digital en combinación con un microcontrolador y un software para la adquisición de datos en un ordenador. La aplicación biomédica que se ha escogido es el desarrollo de un electrocardiógrafo, que consiste en un sistema que r...

  13. El Gobierno Electrónico y la Implementación de las TIC para Brindar Nuevos Canales de Comunicación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Rodríguez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo expone la situación actual del gobierno electrónico desde un punto de vista meramente tecnológico, en función del grado de implementación de la tecnología en beneficio de los ciudadanos. No obstante este es un tema amplio que puede ser analizado desde distintas perspectivas y si bien no es el objetivo del artículo realizar una evaluación enfocada a lo social, cultural y político, tampoco nuestro enfoque puede estar completamente aislado de estas cuestiones no menores, que influyen en el momento de tomar decisiones de construir o no, determinada solución tecnológica. En este artículo se plantearan las bases del gobierno electrónico, la evolución histórica y las fases de implementación, para finalmente presentar la situación actual basada en un relevamiento recientemente realizado que dejará en evidencia que aún queda mucho por hacer en materia de gobierno electrónico.

  14. Relacionamento colaborativo no canal de distribuição: uma matriz para análise Distribution channel relationship: a proposal of an analysis matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessuir Pigatto

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Em um mercado cada vez mais dinâmico e turbulento, a habilidade de uma empresa em desenvolver e administrar, com sucesso, seus relacionamentos com outras empresas vem se tornando uma competência necessária que, se bem desenvolvida, pode vir a ser uma fonte de vantagem competitiva sustentável. Neste contexto, fornecedores buscam se adaptar ao aumento do poder de grandes redes varejistas, ao crescimento das centrais de compras, ao fortalecimento das lojas independentes e de demais formatos nos canais de distribuição. Entretanto, essas empresas ainda possuem dificuldade em acompanhar e avaliar os relacionamentos comerciais e, conseqüentemente em adaptá-los a essa nova situação. Assim, o objetivo deste artigo é propor uma matriz de análise que possa avaliar o tipo de relacionamento existente entre agentes comerciais, por meio do acompanhamento dos comportamentos e das ações desenvolvidas por essas empresas. A partir de uma ampla revisão teórica, foram identificadas variáveis presentes em relacionamentos comerciais, como por exemplo, a confiança, o comprometimento, a interdependência, a cooperação, bem como ações e comportamentos que se relacionam ou estão associados a cada uma dessas variáveis. Partindo do pressuposto que a presença de uma ou mais das variáveis em questão sinaliza a possibilidade da existência de diferentes padrões de arranjos entre as empresas, desde o oportunista até o totalmente colaborativo e, utilizando as ações e comportamentos para determinar essa ocorrência, elaborou-se a matriz em questão. Ela é composta por 4 categorias que podem ser utilizadas para classificar o tipo de relacionamento existente entre dois agentes comerciais, dentro de 4 níveis estabelecidos: comportamento tradicional, comportamentos colaborativos, ações colaborativas, e relacionamento colaborativo. Após o desenvolvimento teórico da matriz, optou-se por um teste inicial junto a 10 pares de empresas, redes

  15. Un modelo de equilibrio general aplicado a Baleares: analisis economico de la reasignacion intrasectorial del aqua para uso agricola

    OpenAIRE

    Tirado B., Dolores; Gomez G., Carlos M.; Lozano, Javier

    2006-01-01

    En este articulo analizamos las ganancias potenciales en bienestar asociadas al establecimiento de un mercado de derechos sobre aqua para uso agricola. Frente a la tradicional asignacion administrativa del recurso, los intercambios voluntarios de derechos entre los distintos sectores agricolas confieren la flexibilidad necesaria para hacer frente a las sequias ciclicas que caracterizan el regimen hidrico de Baleares. Para simular el funcionamiento del mercado propuesto hemos contruido un Mode...

  16. Current status of the second generation of parabolic trough solar concentrator for heat generation process designed at the IIE; Estado actual de la segunda generacion del concentrador solar de canal parabolico para generacion de calor de proceso disenado en el IIE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Berumen, Carlos; Ramirez Benitez, Juan Rafael; Beltran Adan, Jose [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: cramos@iie.org.mx; rramirez@iie.org.mx; jose.beltran@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    The transformation industry normally uses thermal energy within its process, it obtains this energy burning fossils fuel, a new option is to use new technologies like the thermal solar technology like the parabolic trough, this is a long parabolic mirror used to reflect the sunlight and focused on an absorber tube with a heat-conducting fluid inside. The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) developed a prototype of parabolic trough that is operating in different industries, in this article are showing some improvements to the design, giving like result the second generation of the prototype of parabolic trough of the IIE. [Spanish] La industria de la transformacion normalmente utiliza energia termica dentro de su proceso, los medios convencionales para obtener esta energia es el quemar combustibles fosiles, una opcion que aplica nuevas tecnologias es el uso de la tecnologia termosolar a concentracion que le permitira a la industria utilizar el sol como fuente de energia primaria. El uso de esta tecnologia permitira a las empresas generar calor de proceso sin contaminar el ambiente, lo que dara como resultado empresas competitivas y autosuficientes. Para alcanzar temperaturas utiles a estas aplicaciones se requiere concentrar la energia solar en un area mas pequena, siendo la tecnologia mas extendida la de canal parabolico, el principio de operacion de esta tecnologia es la de concentrar la radiacion solar en el eje receptor preparado con una pintura especial para una mejor absorcion del calor y una cubierta de vidrio para evitar perdidas termicas, dentro del tubo circula un fluido caloportador el cual lleva el calor util hacia el proceso. El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) desarrollo un prototipo de canal parabolico, actualmente estan operando en diferentes industrias, resultado de estas aplicaciones se llevo a cabo una evaluacion del prototipo, se detectaron algunos puntos de mejoras al diseno, los cuales se exponen en este articulo, dando

  17. Canals, River Irrigation Company Canal, Published in 2002, Duchesne County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Canals dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2002. It is described as 'River Irrigation Company Canal'. Data by this publisher are...

  18. Canals, Yellowstone Feeder Canal, Published in 2002, Duchesne County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Canals dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2002. It is described as 'Yellowstone Feeder Canal'. Data by this publisher are often...

  19. Canals, Dry Gulch Canal, Published in 2002, Duchesne County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Canals dataset as of 2002. It is described as 'Dry Gulch Canal'. Data by this publisher are often provided in UTM coordinate system; in a Transverse Mercator...

  20. Canals, Lake Canal, Published in 2002, Duchesne County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Canals dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2002. It is described as 'Lake Canal'. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  1. Canals, Little Blackhawk Canal, Published in 2002, Duchesne County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Canals dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2002. It is described as 'Little Blackhawk Canal'. Data by this publisher are often...

  2. Ear canal cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, J J

    1992-06-01

    Although cholesteatomas are more commonly found in the middle ear and the mastoid, the disease can occur in the external ear canal. All cases of ear canal cholesteatoma treated by the author were reviewed. There were nine ears in seven patients, who had an average age of 62 years. The lesions ranged in size from a few millimeters to extensive mastoid destruction. Smaller lesions can be managed by frequent cleaning as an office procedure. Larger lesions require surgery, either canaloplasty or mastoidectomy. The otolaryngologist should suspect this disease in the elderly. Microscopic examination of the ear with meticulous cleaning of all wax, especially in elderly patients, is most useful in detecting early disease. Frequent applications of mineral oil to the canal should be used in the management of the disease and to prevent recurrence. PMID:1376388

  3. Multistate nested canalizing functions

    CERN Document Server

    Adeyeye, J O; Laubenbacher, R; Li, Y

    2013-01-01

    The concept of a nested canalizing Boolean function has been studied over the course of the last decade in the context of understanding the regulatory logic of molecular interaction networks, such as gene regulatory networks. Such functions appear preferentially in published models of such networks. Recently, this concept has been generalized to include multi-state functions, and a recursive formula has been derived for their number, as a function of the number of variables. This paper carries out a detailed analysis of the class of nested canalizing functions over an arbitrary finite field. Furthermore, the paper generalizes the concept further, and derives a closed formula for the number of such generalized functions. The paper also derives a closed formula for the number of equivalence classes under permutation of variables. This is motivated by the fact that two nested canalizing functions that differ by a permutation of the variables share many important properties with each other. The paper contributes ...

  4. Spinal canal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal by a combination of bone and soft tissues, which can lead to mechanical compression of spinal nerve roots or the dural sac. The lumbal spinal compression of these nerve roots can be symptomatic, resulting in weakness, reflex alterations, gait disturbances, bowel or bladder dysfunction, motor and sensory changes, radicular pain or atypical leg pain and neurogenic claudication. The anatomical presence of spinal canal stenosis is confirmed radiologically with computerized tomography, myelography or magnetic resonance imaging and play a decisive role in optimal patient-oriented therapy decision-making. (orig.)

  5. syndrome du canal carpien

    OpenAIRE

    boukraa, kheira; merniz, nacera

    2012-01-01

    Le canal carpien est la principale cause des acroparesthésies de la main. I La forme habituelle est la forme sensitive pure primitive de la femme en période I post ménopausique. Le traitement médical suffit le plus souvent. La constatation et l'installation de signes déficitaires neurologiques sont une indication à un traitement chirurgical. Le syndrome du canal carpien peut être un mode de début d'une polyarthrite u rhumatoïde.

  6. Sistemas de control para la gestión de los canales de exportación independientes: un análisis exploratorio sobre su diseño y uso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Velez Elorza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El empleo de canales de exportación independientes es la forma más extendida de exportación, si bien la ausencia de propiedad dificulta su gestión y afecta al rendimiento exportador. Dado el creciente interés académico y profesional por mejorar la gestión de los procesos de exportación de las empresas y la laguna existente en el estudio de las relaciones inter-organizativas orientadas al mercado (down-stream, se plantea como objetivo del presente estudio la exploración de los sistemas de control de gestión (SCG en el contexto de los canales de exportación, desde la perspectiva de la empresa exportadora. Mediante la realización de un estudio cualitativo exploratorio, se pretende contribuir a la literatura sobre los SCG inter-organizativos ampliando su ámbito de interés a las relaciones down-stream de la cadena de suministros, esenciales para la competitividad de muchas empresas. Frente a estudios previos sobre SCG enfocados en relaciones proveedor-comprador, los resultados muestran que las empresas exportadoras analizadas (1 emplean múltiples mecanismos de control, principalmente cualitativos, que (2 se caracterizan por su ámbito amplio y la oportunidad en el tiempo, así como por sus bajos niveles de integración y agregación, y (3 usan algunos mecanismos -p.e., reuniones con los intermediarios- de modo interactivo, mientras que otras herramientas -p.e., contratos y acuerdos- son usadas de modo diagnóstico. Asimismo, la evidencia sugiere que la definición de sistemas formales en este contexto puede diferir de la tradicional, con amplias repercusiones sobre los marcos de análisis de los sistemas de control de gestión.Independent export channels are the most common exporting entry mode, although the lack of ownership hinders their management and affects export performance. Given the growing academic and professional interest to improve export processes’ management and the existent gap in the study of down-stream inter

  7. The evolutionary genetics of canalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatt, Thomas

    2005-09-01

    Evolutionary genetics has recently made enormous progress in understanding how genetic variation maps into phenotypic variation. However why some traits are phenotypically invariant despite apparent genetic and environmental changes has remained a major puzzle. In the 1940s, Conrad Hal Waddington coined the concept and term "canalization" to describe the robustness of phenotypes to perturbation; a similar concept was proposed by Waddington's contemporary Ivan Ivanovich Schmalhausen. This paper reviews what has been learned about canalization since Waddington. Canalization implies that a genotype's phenotype remains relatively invariant when individuals of a particular genotype are exposed to different environments (environmental canalization) or when individuals of the same single- or multilocus genotype differ in their genetic background (genetic canalization). Consequently, genetic canalization can be viewed as a particular kind of epistasis, and environmental canalization and phenotypic plasticity are two aspects of the same phenomenon. Canalization results in the accumulation of phenotypically cryptic genetic variation, which can be released after a "decanalizing" event. Thus, canalized genotypes maintain a cryptic potential for expressing particular phenotypes, which are only uncovered under particular decanalizing environmental or genetic conditions. Selection may then act on this newly released genetic variation. The accumulation of cryptic genetic variation by canalization may therefore increase evolvability at the population level by leading to phenotypic diversification under decanalizing conditions. On the other hand, under canalizing conditions, a major part of the segregating genetic variation may remain phenotypically cryptic; canalization may therefore, at least temporarily, constrain phenotypic evolution. Mechanistically, canalization can be understood in terms of transmission patterns, such as epistasis, pleiotropy, and genotype by environment

  8. Use of sting-response techniques for simulate diagnostics in human esophagus; Uso de tecnicas estimulo-respuesta para simular diagnosticos en esofago humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, I.; Gonzalez, Y.; Valdes, L.; Alfonso, J.A.; Estevez, E. [Facultad de Quimica Farmacia, Universidad Central de Las Villas (Cuba)

    2003-07-01

    In this work a study of simulation of the gamma graphic studies that are carried out in human esophagus in the Dept. of Nuclear Medicine of the 'Celestino Hernandez Robau Hospital of Santa Clara is presented. For the investigation tubular reactors were used and sting-response techniques with radioactive tracer of Technetium 99 metastable to a concentration of 1 mCi and several flows were applied. The distribution curves of residences times were obtained, those that respond to an equation of the type: Y = A + B exp (- exp((x-C)/D)) - ((x-C/D)+1). They were also carried out, optimizations studies of the doses of the radioactive to give to the patients from 1 mCi (that is the one used in studies) up to 0,5 mCi, and the influences on the obtained distributions of residence time were analyzed. It was confirmed the possibility to lower the doses with clear information of the signal. It was also carried out a simulation of the attenuation of the radiations that takes place in the patients by the interposition of tissues among the analyzed organ, and the detection equipment. It was used paraffin for tissue simulation. It was found the almost independence of the intensity of the radiations with the thickness, for the assayed doses. Lastly it was found a complex mathematical model that responds to the diagnostic curves obtained in these studies, being correlated the coefficients of the pattern with the most important physical parameters of the system, giving it a practical and useful value, all time that the error among the values that this it predicts and the experimental ones do not surpass of 5%. (Author)

  9. MCID: personalized dosimetric tool to simulate voxelized studies using MCNP5; MCID: herramienta dosimetrica personalizada para simular estudios voxelizados con MCNP5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Alex Vergara [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), La Habana (Cuba); Perez, Marco A. Coca; Aroche, Leonel A. Torres, E-mail: mcoca@infomed.sld.cu, E-mail: leonel@infomed.sld.cu [Centro de Investigaciones Clinicas (CIC), La Habana (Cuba); Pacilio, Massimiliano, E-mail: mpacilio@scamilloforlanini.rm.it [Hospital S. Camillo Forlanini (AOSCF), Roma (Italy). Departmento de Fisica Medica

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the MCID software, a tool for calculating specific absorbed dose of patients in nuclear medicine, based on Monte Carlo simulation. This paper evaluates new clinical cases and new phantoms whose results validate the methodology implemented in MCID, which has followed a process of incorporating new materials, image processing in DICOM and Analyze format, a module of regions of interest and improvements in user interface. Now it has a tool to calculate the patient-specific absorbed doses in nuclear medicine that can be applied in clinical practice.

  10. Caracterización del canal radio en entornos especiales

    OpenAIRE

    Fornés Leal, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    En el presente proyecto se estudia el canal radio en dos casos especiales de Redes Inalámbricas de Área Personal (WPAN). El primero de los casos es la transmisión durante un incendio indoor. El objetivo es caracterizar el canal en la banda UWB (Banda Ultra-Ancha, por sus siglas en inglés) para averiguar si se producen pérdidas adicionales a las de espacio libre debidas al fuego, y con ello conocer en una primera aproximación si la implantación de nuevos sistemas para mejorar la seguridad de l...

  11. Root canal medicaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Wadachi, Reiko; Suda, Hideaki; Yeng, Thai; Parashos, Peter

    2009-02-01

    The ultimate goals of endodontic treatment are complete removal of bacteria, their byproducts and pulpal remnants from infected root canals and the complete seal of disinfected root canals. Intracanal medicaments have been thought an essential step in killing the bacteria in root canals; however, in modern endodontics, shaping and cleaning may be assuming greater importance than intracanal medicaments as a means of disinfecting root canals. Until recently, formocresol and its relatives were frequently used as intracanal medicaments, but it was pointed out that such bactericidal chemicals dressed in the canal distributed to the whole body from the root apex and so might induce various harmful effects including allergies. Furthermore, as these medicaments are potent carcinogenic agents, there is no indication for these chemicals in modern endodontic treatment. Today, biocompatibility and stability are essential properties for intracanal medicaments. The more modern meaning of intracanal dressing is for a blockade against coronal leakage from the gap between filling materials and cavity wall. Calcium hydroxide has been determined as suitable for use as an intracanal medicament as it is stable for long periods, harmless to the body, and bactericidal in a limited area. It also induces hard tissue formation and is effective for stopping inflammatory exudates. Single-visit endodontics, where intracanal medicaments are not used, is generally not now contraindicated and various reports have shown that the clinical outcomes between single- and multiple- visit endodontics are similar. There is no reason to counsel against single-visit endodontics: however, if multiple-visit endodontics is chosen, calcium hydroxide is recommended to be used as an intracanal medicament. PMID:19323305

  12. Anal cancer; Cancer du canal anal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesneau, M.; Champeaux-Orange, E. [Service de radiotherapie, Centre regional universitaire de cancerologie Henry-S.-Kaplan CHU de Tours, Hopital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France); Champeaux-Orange, E. [Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, Centre hospitalier regional d' Orleans, 45 - Orleans (France); Hennequin, C. [Service de cancerologie-radiotherapie, hopital Saint-Louis, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    Anal canal epidermoid carcinomas represent 1.2% of digestive cancers and 6% of ano-rectal cancers. For localized diseases, the treatment is based on radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy (5-FU and cisplatin or mitomycin), according to tumour and nodal extension. The recommended treatment dose is 45 Gy in the anal canal, the mesorectum, para-rectal lymph nodes, and inguinal lymph nodes. An additional dose of 15 to 20 Gy is delivered in the initial tumour for good responders. Salvage surgery is necessary in case of poor response. The organs at risk to be considered are bladder, femur heads, small intestine and vulva. The objective of this work is to summarize the epidemiological and radio-anatomic and prognostic characteristics of this tumour. The conformal radiotherapy technique is illustrated by a case report. (authors)

  13. Curved canals: Ancestral files revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Nidhi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an insight into different techniques of cleaning and shaping of curved root canals with hand instruments. Although a plethora of root canal instruments like ProFile, ProTaper, LightSpeed ® etc dominate the current scenario, the inexpensive conventional root canal hand files such as K-files and flexible files can be used to get optimum results when handled meticulously. Special emphasis has been put on the modifications in biomechanical canal preparation in a variety of curved canal cases. This article compiles a series of clinical cases of root canals with curvatures in the middle and apical third and with S-shaped curvatures that were successfully completed by employing only conventional root canal hand instruments.

  14. Managing curved canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iram Ansari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilaceration is the result of a developmental anomaly in which there has been an abrupt change in the axial inclination between the crown and the root of a tooth. Dilaceration can be seen in both the permanent and deciduous dentitions, and is more commonly found in posterior teeth and in maxilla. Periapical radiographs are the most appropriate way to diagnose the presence of root dilacerations. The controlled regularly tapered preparation of the curved canals is the ultimate challenge in endodontics. Careful and meticulous technique will yield a safe and sufficient enlargement of the curved canals. This article gives a review of the literature and three interesting case reports of root dilacerations.

  15. Canal Wall Reconstruction Mastoidectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the advantages of canal wall reconstruction (CWR) mastoidectomy, a single-stage technique for cholesteatoma removal and posterior external canal wall reconstruction, over the open and closed procedures in terms of cholesteatoma recurrence. Methods: Between June 2002 and December 2005, 38 patients (40 ears) with cholesteatoma were admited to Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital and received surgical treatments. Of these patients, 25 were male with ages ranging between 11 and 60 years (mean = 31.6 years) and 13 were female with ages ranging between 20 and 65 years (mean = 38.8 years). Canal wall reconstruction (CWR)mastoidectomy was performed in 31 ears and canal wall down (CWD) mastoidectomy in 9 ears. Concha cartilage was used for ear canal wall reconstruction in 22 of the 31 CWR procedures and cortical mastoid bone was used in the remaining 9 cases. Results At 0.5 to 4 years follow up, all but one patients remained free of signs of cholesteatoma recurrence, i.e., no retraction pocket or cholesteatoma matrix. One patient, a smoker, needed revision surgery due to cholesteatoma recurrence 1.5 year after the initial operation. The recurrence rate was therefore 3.2% (1/31). Cholesteatoma recurrence was monitored using postoperative CT scans whenever possible. In the case that needed a revision procedure, a retraction pocket was identified by otoendoscopy in the pars flacida area that eventually evolved into a cholesteatoma. A pocket extending to the epitympanum filled with cholesteatoma matrix was confirmed during the revision operation, A decision to perform a modified mastoidectomy was made as the patient refused to quit smoking. The mean air-bone gap in pure tone threshold was 45 dB before surgery and 25 dB after (p < 0.05). There was no difference between using concha cartilage and cortical mastoid bone for the reconstruction regarding air-bone gap improvement, CT findings and otoendoscopic results. Conclusion CWR mastoidectomy can be used for

  16. Analysis of sedimentation of canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agunwamba, J.C.,

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The dredged canals in the Niger Delta coastal flood plain are being threatened by siltation. This study is limited to those canals in Rivers State of Nigeria, which are under the influence of tidal waves. A total of eight canals were considered with four each from Ekulama and Cawthorne Channel. Different approaches were used to carry out this study, which includes field reconnaissance survey, hydrographic survey, soil sample analysis and collection of all available data and information. The typical bed materials size (D50 is approximately 0.01mm; which gives a settling velocity of 0.09mm/sec using stroke’s law. Hydrographic survey of the canals from 1992 to 1996 revealed an average siltation rate of 2.35m/yr. A regression equation was also derived which relates the cost of dredging to canal area, rate of siltation and average aggregation. A plot of canal centre profile; entrance, middle and end cross sections showing sediment distribution along the canal profile, shows that majority of the particles that form the sediment enter the canal from the rivers. The sedimentation is caused by the reduction in water current, which has average value of 0.0145m/sec. The bathyorographical check on the canals revealed that the sum of the two exterior angles of the canal with the river at the point of connection has to lie within 1800 + 50 for an effective flow that will minimize settlement of particles. In addition, the canals should be constructed to start and terminate on a moving water body, to avoid dead ends. A regression equation was determined which relates the cost of dredging to canal area, rate of siltation and average aggradations.

  17. Aspectos biofarmacêuticos da formulação de medicamentos para neonatos: fundamentos da complexação de indometacina com hidroxipropil-beta-ciclodextrina para tratamento oral do fechamento do canal arterial Biopharmaceutical aspects of drug formulation for neonatology: rational for indomethacin's complexation with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin to treat patent ductus arteriosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Ribeiro Rama

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A terapêutica farmacológica em recém-nascidos confronta-se, por um lado, com um organismo sujeito a marcadas alterações biológicas, resultantes da composição orgânica e da maturação funcional, que decorre a diferentes graus em crianças com a mesma idade, determinando modificações no perfil farmacocinético e farmacodinâmico e, por outro lado, com a necessidade efetiva da utilização de fármacos. Para dar resposta à necessidade de tratamento destes doentes, recorre-se à utilização de medicamentos "off label", sendo esta uma prática com um elevado risco de segurança e de eficácia, na ausência de informação acerca da estabilidade, solubilidade e biodisponibilidade. Considerou-se, assim, que a utilização de derivados das ciclodextrinas altamente solúveis em água seria uma alternativa para a formulação de preparações líquidas aquosas de fármacos fracamente solúveis, aliada à melhoria de biodisponibilidade e de segurança. Esta revisão pretende fundamentar a possibilidade de recurso à complexação de indometacina com hidroxipropil-beta-ciclodextrina, com o objetivo de melhorar as características de biodisponibilidade e de segurança e permitir a administração por via oral para o tratamento farmacológico do fechamento do canal arterial em prematuros ou em recém-nascidos com esta patologia.Pharmacological therapy for newborns is faced on one hand, with an organism characterized by biological differences and functional immaturity with various grades of evolution for the same age, implying changes on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodinamic medicine profiles. On the other hand, there is the effective need for pharmacotherapy. The "off label" use of medicines is therefore the only thing left to do, having in mind the risk of using therapeutic agents not studied for this special group of people. On this context it has been considered the use of cyclodextrin derivatives like hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin as an

  18. Mejoras en el canal de Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandl, Charles McG.

    1963-07-01

    Full Text Available The Panama Canal, together with the Suez Canal, is an engineering accomplishment which is now regarded as a master work marking the initiation of modern civil engineering. Other projects, also of great magnitude, do not seem to maintain the reputation of the above two, because they cannot continue to serve their function with sustained usefulness in the new circumstances of today. The Panama Canal, with its limited dock capacity, and the narrow, so called Serpent, canal, has had to cope with a continuously increasing volume of shipping traffic; a natural consequence of commercial evolution. In order to keep up with these increasing demands, it has been necessary to carry out an almost uninterrupted series of modifications and improvements, affecting both the method of operation and organisation, and the actual nature of the canal. Thanks to these alterations the Panama Canal has continued to maintain, at least nominally, an adequate standard of functional efficiency. At present the canal is being widened over certain sections to enable the easy passage of ships of great displacement. The work is being done very rapidly, and in order to gain time, it has been distributed to various contractors simultaneously.El canal a través del ismo de Panamá es una obra de ingeniería civil que, junto con el de Suez, empiezan ya a clasificarse como obras maestras que señalan el primer jalón del desarrollo de la ingeniería moderna. Otras obras, también importantes, no conservan, sin embargo, la misma reputación que aquéllas, por no seguir un paralelismo con las exigencias en cada época. El canal de Panamá, con sus exclusas, y angosto paso llamado de la. Culebra, ha tenido que afrontar un tráfico creciente de navíos que siguen la evolución del tiempo. Para conseguir este paralelismo, tanto el material de explotación como la organización, dragados y mejoras, han tenido que conocer una sucesión ininterrumpida de modificaciones que han permitido

  19. Low-intensity laser coupled with photosensitizer to reduce bacteria in root canals compared to chemical control; Laser em baixa intensidade associado a fotosensibilizador para reducao bacteriana intracanal comparado ao controle quimico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcez Segundo, Aguinaldo Silva

    2002-07-01

    The photodynamic therapy is a process in which a dye is associate with an appropriate wavelength of light and this dye goes to an excited state. The excited reacts with oxygen to form the highly reactive compound singlet oxygen, and this compound can kill bacteria and tumor cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal reduction in root canal contaminated with E. Faecalis. Thirty teeth with their root canals prepared were contaminated with E. faecalis. The teeth have received the chemical substance sodium hypochlorite for 30 minutes; ten teeth have received the azulene dye paste for 5 minutes and have been irradiated with a diode laser, output power 10 mW and {lambda}= 685 nm for 3 minutes. Ten teeth have not received treatment (control group). The bacterial reduction was significantly higher for laser group when compared to chemical and control groups. These results indicate photodynamic therapy as an effective method to kill bacteria. (author)

  20. Spinal canal stenosis; Spinalkanalstenose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Boutchakova, M. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte/Bremen-Ost, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Bremen (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal by a combination of bone and soft tissues, which can lead to mechanical compression of spinal nerve roots or the dural sac. The lumbal spinal compression of these nerve roots can be symptomatic, resulting in weakness, reflex alterations, gait disturbances, bowel or bladder dysfunction, motor and sensory changes, radicular pain or atypical leg pain and neurogenic claudication. The anatomical presence of spinal canal stenosis is confirmed radiologically with computerized tomography, myelography or magnetic resonance imaging and play a decisive role in optimal patient-oriented therapy decision-making. (orig.) [German] Die Spinalkanalstenose ist eine umschriebene, knoechern-ligamentaer bedingte Einengung des Spinalkanals, die zur Kompression der Nervenwurzeln oder des Duralsacks fuehren kann. Die lumbale Spinalkanalstenose manifestiert sich klinisch als Komplex aus Rueckenschmerzen sowie sensiblen und motorischen neurologischen Ausfaellen, die in der Regel belastungsabhaengig sind (Claudicatio spinalis). Die bildgebende Diagnostik mittels Magnetresonanztomographie, Computertomographie und Myelographie spielt eine entscheidende Rolle bei der optimalen patientenbezogenen Therapieentscheidung. (orig.)

  1. Diseño e implementación de las instrucciones multimedia en un procesador para un sistema multicore en FPGA

    OpenAIRE

    Cariñana Abasolo, Mario David

    2015-01-01

    [ES] El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo simular el comportamiento de un procesador MIPS vectorial en una FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) multinúcleo. Para ello se implementa un juego de instrucciones multimedia o vectoriales junto con la lógica necesaria (registros vectoriales, unidad aritmé- tico lógica vectorial, etc.) para que dichas instrucciones se puedan ejecutar en un procesador con arquitectura MIPS. De igual modo, algunos de los elementos de la ruta de dat...

  2. Compressão segmentar do plexo venoso extra-raquidiano: Valor para o diagnóstico de localização das afecções bloqueantes do canal raquidiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Ricciardi Cruz

    1959-09-01

    Full Text Available Outside and inside the vertebral canal, running along its entire length, there is a series of venous plexuses which anastomoses with each other and end in intravertebral veins. They form a real plexuses whose primary disposition is schematically segmental. The plexuses form a series of venous rings at the level of each vertebra. Considering these anatomic data it has been supposed that a strong and lengthened compression at the level of the outside venous plexus will cause a raise in the inside venous pressure which can be detected with a Strauss manometer connected with a needle inserted in the lumbar subarachnoid space. The test would be indicated to locate the lower level of the spinal canal block by the oscilations of the cerebrospinal fluid pressure registered under this level. The test was performed in 5 patients without blocking process in which the Stookey test was normal; in none these cases it was found any raise in the cerebrospinal fluid pressure by local compression of venous plexuses of the spine from cervical untill lumbar vertebrae. The procedure was applied to 5 patients with blocking conditions of the spinal canal, previously diagnosed by the Stookey test. In 4 of these a definite increase (2 to 10 cm. of the cerebrospinal fluid pressure has been recorded; in these cases the procedure allowed the exact detection of the lower level of the block, later confirmed by myelography and neurosurgery. In one case, however, the test has detected a level that could not be confirmed by myelography or the surgical act.

  3. Hood Canal Steelhead - Hood Canal Steelhead Supplementation Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hood Canal Steelhead Project is a 17-year before-after-control-impact experiment that tests the effects of supplementation on natural steelhead populations in...

  4. Method for Constructing Standardized Simulated Root Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Bongert, Udo; Weine, Franklin S.

    1990-01-01

    The construction of visual and manipulative aids, clear resin blocks with root-canal-like spaces, for simulation of root canals is explained. Time, materials, and techniques are discussed. The method allows for comparison of canals, creation of any configuration of canals, and easy presentation during instruction. (MSE)

  5. Simulação de um modelo farmacocinético para a cisplatina

    OpenAIRE

    Romão, Marina Isabel Mendes

    2012-01-01

    A cisplatina é um dos fármacos mais utilizadas para tratar o cancro. A sua farmacocinética tem sido descrita por diversos modelos de compartimentos e de base fisiológica. Neste trabalho procurou demonstrar-se como o Excel© pode ser utilizado para simular o modelo mais utilizado para modelar a farmacocinética da cisplatina. A simulação em Excel© permitiu seguir a evolução temporal das concentrações de cisplatina e seus metabolitos em todos os tecidos do modelo, nomeadamente: plasma, fígado...

  6. PRESENTE Y FUTURO DEL CANAL TRADICIONAL EN LA CIUDAD DE CALI

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Areiza Vélez

    2001-01-01

    El artículo muestra la importancia del canal tradicional en la distribución de productos de consumo masivo en la ciudad de Cali y le brinda al lector elementos para el diseño de estrategias efectivas para llegar a sus mercados.

  7. PRESENTE Y FUTURO DEL CANAL TRADICIONAL EN LA CIUDAD DE CALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Areiza Vélez

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo muestra la importancia del canal tradicional en la distribución de productos de consumo masivo en la ciudad de Cali y le brinda al lector elementos para el diseño de estrategias efectivas para llegar a sus mercados.

  8. Ultrasonic cleaning of root canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaagen, Bram; Boutsioukis, Christos; Jiang, Lei-Meng; Macedo, Ricardo; van der Sluis, Luc; Versluis, Michel

    2011-11-01

    A crucial step during a dental root canal treatment is irrigation, where an antimicrobial fluid is injected into the root canal system to eradicate all bacteria. Agitation of the fluid using an ultrasonically vibrating miniature file has shown significant improvement in cleaning efficacy over conventional syringe irrigation. However, the physical mechanisms underlying the cleaning process, being acoustic streaming, cavitation or chemical activity, and combinations thereof, are not fully understood. High-speed imaging allows us to visualize the flow pattern and cavitation in a root canal model at microscopic scales, at timescales relevant to the cleaning processes (microseconds). MicroPIV measurements of the induced acoustic streaming are coupled to the oscillation characteristics of the file as simulated numerically and measured with a laser vibrometer. The results give new insight into the role of acoustic streaming and the importance of the confinement for the cleaning of root canals.

  9. Mandibular first molar with three distal canals

    OpenAIRE

    Shweta Jain

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing number of reports of aberrant root canal morphology, the clinician needs to be aware of the variable anatomy. Various case reports have been published with the finding of middle mesial canal in mandibular first molar, however finding of middle distal canal in distal root of mandibular first molar is rare. This case report describes root canal treatment of two rooted mandibular first molar with five root canals (three in distal and two in mesial root), and Sert and Bayirli ...

  10. RETRATAMENTO ENDODÔNTICO: ESTUDO COMPARATIVO ENTRE TÉCNICA MANUAL, ULTRA-SOM E CANAL FINDER ENDODONTIC RETREATMENT: COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN MANUAL TECHNIQUE, ULTRASONIC SCALER, AND CANAL FINDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Monteiro BRAMANTE

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Instrumentações manual, ultra-sônica e com Canal Finder foram utilizadas para retratamento de 30 dentes com canais obturados com guta-percha e óxido de zinco e eugenol. Avaliaram-se: 1. tempo gasto para a penetração inicial até o ápice; 2. tempo para completar a limpeza; 3. extrusão de material e 4. limpeza dos canais. O Canal Finder foi a técnica que propiciou melhor limpeza, seguida da manual e da ultra-sônica. A parede palatina do canal foi constantemente mais limpa do que a vestibular. Quanto à extrusão, a técnica de ultra-som foi a que propiciou mais extravasamento de material obturador.Endodontic retreatment of 30 teeth filled with guta percha and zinc oxide-eugenol was carried out using manual instrumentation, ultrasonic scaler, and the Canal Finder System. The following variables were evaluated: time spent to reach the apex; time spent to complete cleaning of the canal; apical extrusion of material; and cleanliness of the canals. Results showed the Canal Finder System as providing the highest level of cleanliness of the canal system; lingual walls were constantly cleaner than buccal walls; ultrasonic technique presented a greater degree of apical extrusion of filling material.

  11. Un sistema didáctico integrado para la enseñanza introductoria de robótica

    OpenAIRE

    Dignani, Jorge Pablo; Joaquim C. S. Lima; Coppo, Ricardo; Mazzanti, Renato; Delrieux, Claudio; Samec, Gustavo; Kölln, Ricardo; René Cura, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    Se presenta un sistema informático para la enseñanza introductoria de la robótica en escuelas de nivel medio y universitario. Está formado por un robot armado con componentes de bajo costo y por un conjunto de aplicaciones que permite programar y simular situaciones tales como la edición y resolución de laberintos.

  12. Hidrotransporte de pulpa de papel en un canal abierto de sección circular

    OpenAIRE

    Hernán Javier Gómez Zambrano

    2009-01-01

    Este artículo presenta los resultados de la investigación experimental llevada a cabo sobre el transporte hidráulico de mezclas en canales abiertos. Se investigó acerca de las mezclas no sedimentables compuestas de pulpa de papel y agua en un canal abierto de sección transversal circular. El objeto de la investigación fue determinar las pérdidas de energía debido al flujo de agua y pulpa de papel, a fin de proponer una metodología para el diseño de canales abiertos a mezclas. A causa del desa...

  13. Modelo de degradación diferenciada para materiales compuestos

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo D. Quinteros; Oller Martínez, Sergio Horacio; Nallim, Liz

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta la formulación y validación de un modelo de degradación elástica diferenciado. El modelo propuesto permite degradar en forma diferenciada la parte volumétrica y desviadora del comportamiento constitutivo del material y está basado en una generalización del modelo de degradación simple de Kachanov. De esta manera, el modelo resulta especialmente apropiado para simular el comportamiento de materiales friccionales. En particular, este modelo se aplica a los materia...

  14. Retention of Root Canal Posts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, A; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Flury, S;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the cement film thickness of a zinc phosphate or a resin cement on retention of untreated and pretreated root canal posts. Prefabricated zirconia posts (CosmoPost: 1.4 mm) and two types of luting cements (a zinc phosphate cement [DeTrey Zinc......] and a self-etch adhesive resin cement [Panavia F2.0]) were used. After removal of the crowns of 360 extracted premolars, canines, or incisors, the root canals were prepared with a parallel-sided drill system to three different final diameters. Half the posts did not receive any pretreatment. The other...... half received tribochemical silicate coating according to the manufacturer's instructions. Posts were then luted in the prepared root canals (n=30 per group). Following water storage at 37°C for seven days, retention of the posts was determined by the pull-out method. Irrespective of the luting cement...

  15. Género y dirección frontera en relaciones interorganizativas: estudio exploratorio de su influencia sobre los sistemas de control para la gestión de los canales de exportación independientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Araújo Pinzón

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación contribuye al conocimiento sobre los sistemas de control de gestión (SCG en las relaciones inter-organizativas introduciendo la diversidad de género de la persona responsable de la dirección frontera. A través de un análisis cuantitativo exploratorio desarrollado en el contexto de la gestión de los canales de exportación externalizados, se investiga el efecto de las diferencias de género en el nivel de implantación de los diversos tipos de control (de resultados, de comportamiento y social y en el modo de uso (diagnóstico e interactivo de los SCG. Los resultados no evidencian diferencias significativas asociadas al género en cuanto al grado de implantación de los tipos de control ni a la utilidad e importancia conferida a los modos de uso de la información de los SCG. No obstante, los resultados sí indican una cierta preferencia de las mujeres por el uso interactivo, acorde con las habilidades y características socialmente atribuidas a su género.

  16. INSTRUMENTATION OF CURVED CANALS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nature seldom draws a straight line. Nowhere is thi s more apparent than in the anatomy of teeth roots and root canal systems o f human teeth. Even teeth with straight roots can harbor severely curved canals. Canal shapi ng is a critical aspect of endodontic treatment because it influences the outcome of the subsequent phases of canal irrigation and filling and the success of the treatment itself. In fact, curved canals are the most common endodontic complexity 1 . The need for some manner of root canal preparation pri or to root canal filling has long been recognized as an essential step in endodontic t reatment. Concepts concerning the role and purpose of this canal preparation, however, have differ ed remarkably at different times in the development of endodontics and in the hands of diffe rent practitioners 2

  17. Computed tomography of the thoracic canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the adequate CT condition, thoracic canal was studied in twelve normal cases, nine cases of cervical myelopathy with developmental cervical canal stenosis and four cases of thoracic myelopathy with ossification of thoracic yellow ligament. The results were as follows. 1) The adequate condition for delineation of thoracic canal seemed to be nearly 400 EMI units in window width and 150 in level. Scanning angle was permitted within about 100. Bony thoracic canal was well scanned at the center of vertebral body. 2) The configulation of the normal thoracic canal was oval at Th1, Th2 levels and round at Th3-Th10 and large oval at Th11, Th12. The sagittal diameter was almost fixed at each level and the transverse diameter was large at upper and lower levels and small at middle levels. 3) Thoracic canal was narrowed in the cases of cervical myelopathy with developmental cervical canal stenosis especially in sagittal diameter, but not narrowed in transverse diameter. Three of four cases who had myelopathy with ossification of thoracic yellow ligament had narrow canals. 4) There was a good relation between sagittal diameter of cervical canal and thoracic canal. 5) There was a good relation between sagittal diameter of thoracic canal measured by conventional radiographs (Hattori's method) and CT scans. The author thinks that Hattori's method is useful to diagnose the thoracic canal stenosis. (author)

  18. Género y dirección frontera en relaciones interorganizativas: estudio exploratorio de su influencia sobre los sistemas de control para la gestión de los canales de exportación independientes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Araujo Pinzon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación contribuye al conocimiento sobre los sistemas de control de gestión (SCG en las relaciones inter-organizativas introduciendo la diversidad de género de la persona responsable de la dirección frontera. A través de un análisis cuantitativo exploratorio desarrollado en el contexto de la gestión de los canales de exportación externalizados, se investiga el efecto de las diferencias de género en el nivel de implantación de los diversos tipos de control (de resultados, de comportamiento y social y en el modo de uso (diagnóstico e interactivo de los SCG. Los resultados no evidencian diferencias significativas asociadas al género en cuanto al grado de implantación de los tipos de control ni a la utilidad e importancia conferida a los modos de uso de la información de los SCG. No obstante, los resultados sí indican una cierta preferencia de las mujeres por el uso interactivo, acorde con las habilidades y características socialmente atribuidas a su género.This research is intended to contribute to knowledge about the role of management control systems (MCS in interorganisational relationships analysing gender diversity of boundary managers. By means of an exploratory quantitative analysis in the setting of externalized export channels, we research the effect of gender differences on implementation level of MCS control types (output, behaviour and social controls and on MCS use mode (diagnostic and interactive uses. Results do not show significant differences related to gender regarding level of implementation of control types, or utility and importance conferred to use modes of MCS information. Notwithstanding, results suggest a slight preference of women for interactive use, according to skills and characteristics socially attributed to this gender.

  19. Contemporary root canal filling strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.T. Moinzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Currently, clinicians can choose from a wide range of root canal filling materials and techniques, some of which have been evaluated in this thesis. Methacrylate resin-based sealers suffer from polymerization shrinkage stresses. This limitation may partly be overcome by a two-step cementation proced

  20. Canal Water Scarcity Hits Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠潮

    2007-01-01

    Acute shortage of canal water for irrigation in this district has caused resentment among the farmers.The water is being released in the various channels for just one week in a month,which is not enough to meet the irrigation needs of the farmers who are preparing their fields for paddy

  1. The Dehiscent Facial Nerve Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertac Yetiser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidental injury to the facial nerve where the bony canal defects are present may result with facial nerve dysfunction during otological surgery. Therefore, it is critical to know the incidence and the type of facial nerve dehiscences in the presence of normal development of the facial canal. The aim of this study is to review the site and the type of such bony defects in 144 patients operated for facial paralysis, myringoplasty, stapedotomy, middle ear exploration for sudden hearing loss, and so forth, other than chronic suppurative otitis media with or without cholesteatoma, middle ear tumors, and anomaly. Correlation of intraoperative findings with preoperative computerized tomography was also analyzed in 35 patients. Conclusively, one out of every 10 surgical cases may have dehiscence of the facial canal which has to be always borne in mind during surgical manipulation of the middle ear. Computerized tomography has some limitations to evaluate the dehiscent facial canal due to high false negative and positive rates.

  2. Mandibular Second Premolar with Four Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Ghiasi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A mandibular second premolar with four canals is an interesting example of anatomic variations. This report describes a case of a mandibular second premolar with three roots and four canals (one mesiobuccal, two distobuccal and one lingual. The canals were prepared using K-files and irrigated with NaOCl (5.25% and normal saline as the final irrigant. The canals were filled laterally with gutta percha and AH26 sealer (De Trey, Dentsply, Switzerland. This case shows a rare anatomic configuration and points out the importance of looking for additional canals.

  3. A STUDY OF ROOT CANAL MORPHOLOGY OF Cebus apella TEETH ESTUDO ANATÔMICO DO CANAL RADICULAR DE DENTES DE Cebus apella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Rocha Afonso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo anatômico em dentes do Cebus apella, para análise da anatomia interna do canal radicular dessa espécie, normatizando seu uso como modelo experimental. Utilizaram-se doze animais adultos. Após a remoção do tecido orgânico, os dentes foram removidos, seccionados e fotografados, sendo analisados com um estereomicroscópio. Os resultados mostraram que os dentes apresentaram características semelhantes às dos seres humanos, mas com algumas peculiaridades, tais como: a anatomia do canal radicular variou de oval para circular; nos caninos inferiores, os canais são semelhantes a um rim, o que reflete o contorno externo da raiz; nos molares superiores, os canais mesiobucal e distobucal são ovais, seguindo o contorno geral do dente. Os autores concluem que esta espécie pode ser utilizada como modelo em pesquisas odontológicas, principalmente em estudos do tratamento do sistema de canal radicular.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Anatomia, dentes, Cebus apella. An anatomic study of Cebus apella root teeth was performed to analyze the internal anatomy of permanent dentition, normalizing its use as experimental model endodontic research. Twelve adult animals were used in this study. After the removal of the organic tissue, the all teeth were removed, sectioned, analyzed and photographed with a stereomicroscope. The results showed that the anatomy of root canal of this species are similar to human dental anatomy, considering the shape, pathway and number of canals, but with some peculiarities, such as: the root canal anatomy varied from oval to circular; in the lower canines, the canals are resembled a kidney, reflecting the outside contour of the root; in the upper molars, the mesiobuccal and distobuccal canals are oval, following the general contour of the tooth. The authors conclude that this primate can be applied as models for study of root canal treatment in human beings, in special the upper central and lateral incisors

  4. Descripción hardware de algortimos de estimación de canal y sincronización tiempo frecuencia para un sistema 2x2 MIMO-OFDM

    OpenAIRE

    Alemany Sánchez, Tomás

    2010-01-01

    La sociedad actual, cada vez más, demanda banda ancha y movilidad, por lo que se requieren cada vez más, sistemas de comunicaciones que cumplan estas dos premisas. Así, hoy en día, existe un gran interés por las redes de comunicaciones inalámbricas de alta capacidad. El empleo de la modulación “Orthogonal Frecuency Division Multiplexing” (OFDM) combinada con técnicas multi-antena “Multiple-Input Multiple-Output” (MIMO) es uno de los métodos más atractivos para implementar sistemas de comunica...

  5. Análisis del foreland y de la conectividad portuaria de Cartagena de Indias : bases para los desarrollos derivados de la ampliación del Canal de Panamá

    OpenAIRE

    González Laxe, Fernando; Pais Montes, Carlos; Freire Seoane, María Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Los últimos años han sido de grandes y rápidos crecimientos en las operativas de las industrias portuarias y del transporte marítimo, y la globalización de los intercambios y relaciones económicas ha traído consigo un intenso proceso de contenerización. Estas transformaciones significaron una buena prueba para medir la constitución y asentamiento de las redes comerciales de los puertos en el ámbito global. En el trabajo se subraya la relevancia del puerto de Cartagena de Ind...

  6. Scalloping at the lumbosacral canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, R.

    1987-07-01

    Scalloping is an indentation of the dorsal side of the vertebral body (anterior wall of the lumbosacral or sacral canal) which typically involves several adjacent lumbal vertebral body segments and the anterior wall of the canalis sacralis. Occurrence without underlying disease is rare; it occurs most frequently with chondrodystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Morquio's syndrome, Hurler's syndrome, acromegaly, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, cysts, tumors and in peridural lipomas.

  7. Scalloping at the lumbosacral canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalloping is an indentation of the dorsal side of the vertebral body (anterior wall of the lumbosacral or sacral canal) which typically involves several adjacent lumbal vertebral body segments and the anterior wall of the canalis sacralis. Occurrence without underlying disease is rare; it occurs most frequently with chondrodystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Morquio's syndrome, Hurler's syndrome, acromegaly, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, cysts, tumors and in peridural lipomas. (orig.)

  8. Contemporary root canal filling strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Moinzadeh, A.T.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, clinicians can choose from a wide range of root canal filling materials and techniques, some of which have been evaluated in this thesis. Methacrylate resin-based sealers suffer from polymerization shrinkage stresses. This limitation may partly be overcome by a two-step cementation procedure. This alternative placement technique results in an increase and homogenization of the adhesion of the material to intraradicular dentin. Subsequent research should aim at developing sealers wi...

  9. Stability of guest molecules in urea canal complexes by canal polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was found that various organic materials are attracted into urea canal by hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) and long chain compounds. This means that materials which does not form complex by itself are induced in canal by HDDA and long chain compounds. To include with stability perfumes, insecticides, attractants and repellents in urea canal, leaf alcohol was used as a model compound for guest molecules in the canal. The leaf alcohol from the canal released gradually over many days and the release was inhibited for 15 days by long chain compounds and for 30 days by polymerized HDDA after irradiation. After releasing, the leaf alcohol in the canal remained 25 % stable for long chain compounds and 40 % for polymerized HDDA. The dose required for stabilization of leaf alcohol in the urea canal by canal polymerization of HDDA was 30 kGy. (author)

  10. Interferencia co-canal en redes WiMax

    OpenAIRE

    Durán Vicente, María Isabel

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este proyecto es estudiar las redes WIMAX para determinar las prestaciones de la red cuando se da una situación en la que existe interferencia co-canal. Este tipo de interferencia, al igual que otras, ocasionará una pérdida de prestaciones que será lo que se evalúe a través de diversas simulaciones en distintos escenarios. En el primer capítulo se hará una descripción del estándar comentando todos sus aspectos relevantes, poniendo especial énfasis en los puntos que so...

  11. Endoscopic posterior decompression of lumbar canal stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Yad Ram Yadav; Nishtha Yadav; Vijay Parihar; Yatin Kher; Shailendra Ratre

    2013-01-01

    Lumbar canal stenosis (LCS) is quite common. Surgery is indicated when patient fails to improve after conservative treatment. Endoscopic technique can be used in LCS and lateral recess stenosis. It can be performed in degenerative canal stenosis or with disc bulges. Bilateral severe bony canal stenosis and unstable spine are the contraindications. This procedure should be avoided in patients with a history of trauma. Detailed history and thorough physical examination should be performed to fi...

  12. Maxillary First Molar with Two Root Canals

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge regarding the anatomic morphology of maxillary molars is absolutely essential for the success of endodontic treatment. The morphology of the permanent maxillary first molar has been reviewed extensively; however, the presence of two canals in a two-rooted maxillary first molar has rarely been reported in studies describing tooth and root canal anatomies. This case report presents a patient with a maxillary first molar with two roots and two root canals, who was referred to the Depar...

  13. Maxillary canine with two root canals

    OpenAIRE

    Nagesh Bolla; Sarath Raj Kavuri

    2011-01-01

    To report a rare case of maxillary canine with two root canals. The case describes the treatment of a maxillary canine with two root canals which was referred from department of prosthodontia for intentional root canal treatment for prosthetic rehabilitation. Clinical examination revealed a maxillary canine with carious lesion and responded within normal limits to electric pulp test. Radiographic examination revealed a distal carious lesion (close proximity to pulp) and also appeared to be an...

  14. The number and probability of canalizing functions

    OpenAIRE

    Just, Winfried; Shmulevich, Ilya; Konvalina, John

    2003-01-01

    Canalizing functions have important applications in physics and biology. For example, they represent a mechanism capable of stabilizing chaotic behavior in Boolean network models of discrete dynamical systems. When comparing the class of canalizing functions to other classes of functions with respect to their evolutionary plausibility as emergent control rules in genetic regulatory systems, it is informative to know the number of canalizing functions with a given number of input variables. Th...

  15. The petromastoid canal on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krombach, G.A.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Weidner, J.; Guenther, R.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); Prescher, A. [Department of Anatomy, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); DiMartino, E. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany)

    2002-11-01

    The objective was to assess visibility and anatomy of the petromastoid canal in high-resolution CT. Computed tomography images of 188 patients were reviewed for delineation of the petromastoid canal. This bony canal connects the mastoid antrum with the cranial cavity and houses the subarcuate artery and vein. The diameter, obtained in the middle portion of the canal, was compared with the diameter of the vestibular and cochlear aqueduct in all patients, and absolute values measured in 20 cases. Collimation was 1 mm in 164 and 2 mm in 24 examinations. Additionally, temporal bone of a cadaver was imaged and microdissected. The petromastoid canal was identified bilaterally in all 164 scans that were obtained with a slice thickness of 1 mm. In 5 of the 24 patients imaged with a collimation of 2 mm, the canal was not visible, most probably due to partial-volume effects. The petromastoid canal had the same diameter as the cochlear aqueduct in 42/44 (right/left), exceeded it in 66/61 and was smaller in 75/78 cases. In comparison to the vestibular aqueduct it had an equal diameter in 38/41 (right/left), exceeded it in 63/61, and was rated as smaller in 82/81 temporal bones. Diameters for the canals were: petromastoid canal 0.51{+-}0.04 mm; cochlear aqueduct 0.57{+-}0.03; and vestibular aqueduct 0.63{+-}0.06 mm. Microdissection of the specimen revealed the entire course of the canal and demonstrated a similar appearance of the structure as in the images. The petromastoid canal can easily be identified on high-resolution, thin-slice CT images. Knowledge of the anatomy of this bony canal prevents misinterpretation as pathological structure, such as fracture line, which might occur if this structure is not known. (orig.)

  16. Seguimento dos doentes soropositivos e soronegativos para o HIV com carcinoma espinocelular do canal anal Follow-up for HIV negative and HIV-positive patients with anal squamous cells carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Roberto Nadal

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A incidência do carcinoma espinocelular (CEC anal e das neoplasias intra-epiteliais anais (NIA é maior nos pacientes infectados pelo papilomavírus humano (HPV, e está relacionada à imunidade e à infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV. A associação com viroses de transmissão sexual indica que seja tumor sexualmente transmitido. A infecção pelo HIV mudou o perfil dos portadores do CEC anal. A doença que anteriormente acometia mulheres na 6ª década de vida, hoje atinge preferencialmente homens na 3ª e 4ª décadas. Nos Estados Unidos, a expectativa de diagnóstico desse tumor aumentou de 19/100.000, na época pré-HAART (1992-1995, para 48,3/100.000 no período pós-HAART imediato (1996-1999 e para 78,2/100.000 pessoas por ano, nos anos mais recentes (2000-2003. O tratamento do CEC anal, descrito por Nigro em 1974, combina radio e quimioterapia. Operações de resgate estão indicadas caso haja persistência ou recidiva da doença. Estudos comparando, respectivamente, doentes imunodeprimidos e imunocompetentes vêm mostrado envolvimento linfonodal em 60% e 17%, recidivas em 75% e 6%, boa resposta à radio e quimioterapia em 62% e 85%, toxicidade a esse tratamento em 80% e 30%, e sobrevivência global de 1,4 e 5,3 anos. A contagem sérica baixa de linfócitos T CD4 prediz mau prognóstico. Quando acima de 200/mm³, os resultados são comparáveis aos observados entre os imunocompetentes.Anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC and anal intra-epithelial neoplasia (AIN incidences are bigger among human papillomavirus (HPV infections, and are associated to immunity and to HIV infection. These viruses with sexual transmission in association suggested ASCC is a sexually transmitted tumor. HIV infection changed ASCC patient profile. This kind of tumor committed women in theirs sixties, but nowadays, affects mainly men in the third and forth decades of life. In the United States of America, ASCC was diagnosed in 19/100.000, in the

  17. Evaluation of the anterior and posterior ethmoidal canal by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To examine the anatomy, length and angulation of the anterior and posterior ethmoidal canals (AECs and PECs) using computed tomography (CT), and to determine the anatomical landmarks in which the canals are expected to be seen in transverse and coronal planes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CT images of 150 patients were analysed. One, 2, and 3 mm thick sections were obtained separately in axial and coronal images. The frequency of visualization of the AECs and PECs, and if present, a third canal, was noted. The course and the angulation of the AEC and the PEC in transverse and coronal planes were recorded. On axial sections the distance between the AEC and PEC and the previously defined landmarks were measured. On coronal images, the distances were calculated from the thickness of the cross-section and the number of sections between the various structures. RESULTS: The AEC was identified as a separate canal in 84% of patients, and was embedded in the ethmoid roof in 16%. The PEC was seen as a separate canal in 8% and was present in the ethmoid roof in 92%. On the 1 mm thick coronal and transverse sections, a third canal was identified at the junction of the middle and posterior third of the AEC-PEC distance in both of the images. The average lengths of these canals were 4-12 mm (mean 8.2 mm) for the AEC, and 2-13 mm (mean 7.6 mm) for the PEC. CONCLUSIONS: To avoid the complications that can develop during endoscopic sinus surgery; the course, length and the angulations of the anterior and posterior ethmoidal arteries and their canals can be identified by CT in standard positions if a sufficiently thin section thickness is used. The present study has shown the exact CT localization of the AECs and PECS, which are frequently overlooked when evaluating para-nasal sinuses

  18. Narrow, duplicated internal auditory canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, T. [Servico de Neurorradiologia, Hospital Garcia de Orta, Avenida Torrado da Silva, 2801-951, Almada (Portugal); Shayestehfar, B. [Department of Radiology, UCLA Oliveview School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Lufkin, R. [Department of Radiology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2003-05-01

    A narrow internal auditory canal (IAC) constitutes a relative contraindication to cochlear implantation because it is associated with aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve or its cochlear branch. We report an unusual case of a narrow, duplicated IAC, divided by a bony septum into a superior relatively large portion and an inferior stenotic portion, in which we could identify only the facial nerve. This case adds support to the association between a narrow IAC and aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The normal facial nerve argues against the hypothesis that the narrow IAC is the result of a primary bony defect which inhibits the growth of the vestibulocochlear nerve. (orig.)

  19. Exploraciones osteológicas de la salud de las poblaciones humanas del Canal Beagle

    OpenAIRE

    Suby, Jorge A.; Zangrando, Francisco Atilio; Piana, Ernesto Luis

    2011-01-01

    Algunas evidencias acerca de la salud de las poblaciones aborígenes han comenzado a ser reportadas en varias regiones de Patagonia Austral. Por el contrario, hasta el momento carecemos de información comparable para la región del canal Beagle. El objetivo de este trabajo es comunicar los resultados de las investigaciones bioarqueológicas y paleopatológicas de los restos humanos recuperados en excavaciones realizadas en la margen norte del canal durante la primera década del siglo XXI. Estos e...

  20. Five canalled and three-rooted primary second mandibular molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, Haridoss; Kavitha, Swaminathan; Bharathan, Rajendran; Varghese, Jacob Sam

    2014-01-01

    A thorough knowledge of root canal anatomy and its variation is necessary for successful completion of root canal procedures. Morphological variations such as additional root canals in human deciduous dentition are rare. A mandibular second primary molar with more than four canals is an interesting example of anatomic variations, especially when three of these canals are located in the distal root. This case shows a rare anatomic configuration and points out the importance of looking for additional canals. PMID:25147744

  1. Five Canalled and Three-Rooted Primary Second Mandibular Molar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, Haridoss; Kavitha, Swaminathan; Bharathan, Rajendran; Varghese, Jacob Sam

    2014-01-01

    A thorough knowledge of root canal anatomy and its variation is necessary for successful completion of root canal procedures. Morphological variations such as additional root canals in human deciduous dentition are rare. A mandibular second primary molar with more than four canals is an interesting example of anatomic variations, especially when three of these canals are located in the distal root. This case shows a rare anatomic configuration and points out the importance of looking for additional canals. PMID:25147744

  2. Root Canal Treatment of a Maxillary Second Premolar with Two Palatal Root Canals: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmohammadi, Maryam; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of the root canal morphology and anatomy is essential for thorough shaping and cleaning of the entire root canal system and consequent successful treatment. This report describes a case of maxillary second premolar with two roots and three root canals (two mesial and distal palatal canals). The case report underlines the importance of complete knowledge about root canal morphology and possible variations, coupled with clinical and radiographic examination in order to increase the ability of clinicians to treat difficult cases. PMID:27471538

  3. Carcinoma of the anal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many unresolved issues in the management of epidermoid anal canal cancer, although substantial progress has been made in gaining acceptance of techniques that preserve anal function. Resolution of the most basic questions would require formal comparisons of radical surgery, radiation therapy alone, and combined modality therapy. However, patients are unlikely to participate in studies in which one or more options would offer a chance to avoid a colostomy. Informal comparisons of published series suggest that modern radiation therapy and combined modality therapy give survival rates similar to those reported following radical surgery. Other questions being addressed include identification of optimal radiation techniques, detailed exploration of the mechanisms, efficacy, and toxicity of drug and radiation combinations, and identification of effective systemic chemotherapy. All studies are made difficult by the relative rarity of this tumor. Even without formal clinical trials, however, the series reported the use of either radiation therapy alone or combined modality therapy as the initial treatment for epidermoid anal canal carcinoma, thereby preserving anal function whenever possible and reserving radical surgery for the patient with residual carcinoma

  4. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum. PMID:1659854

  5. Cultivable Anaerobic Microbiota of Infected Root Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuichi Sato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Periapical periodontitis is an infectious and inflammatory disease of the periapical tissues caused by oral bacteria invading the root canal. In the present study, profiling of the microbiota in infected root canals was performed using anaerobic culture and molecular biological techniques for bacterial identification. Methods. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects (age ranges, 34–71 years. Nine infected root canals with periapical lesions from 7 subjects were included. Samples from infected root canals were collected, followed by anaerobic culture on CDC blood agar plates. After 7 days, colony forming units (CFU were counted and isolated bacteria were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results. The mean bacterial count (CFU in root canals was (0.5±1.1×106 (range 8.0×101–3.1×106, and anaerobic bacteria were predominant (89.8%. The predominant isolates were Olsenella (25.4%, Mogibacterium (17.7%, Pseudoramibacter (17.7%, Propionibacterium (11.9% and Parvimonas (5.9%. Conclusion. The combination of anaerobic culture and molecular biological techniques makes it possible to analyze rapidly the microbiota in infected root canals. The overwhelming majority of the isolates from infected root canals were found to be anaerobic bacteria, suggesting that the environment in root canals is anaerobic and therefore support the growth of anaerobes.

  6. 33 CFR 117.438 - Company Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Company Canal. 117.438 Section 117.438 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.438 Company Canal. (a) The draw of...

  7. Type III apical transportation of root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv P Mantri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Procedural accidents leading to complications such as canal transportation have been ascribed to inapt cleaning and shaping concepts. Canal transportation is an undesirable deviation from the natural canal path. Herewith a case of apical transportation of root canal resulting in endodontic retreatment failure and its management is presented. A healthy 21-year-old young male presented discomfort and swelling associated with painful endodontically retreated maxillary incisor. Radiograph revealed periradicular radiolucency involving underfilled 11 and overfilled 12. Insufficiently obturated 11 exhibited apical transportation of canal. This type III transportation was treated by periradicular surgery and repair using white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Comfortable asymptomatic patient presented uneventful healing at third and fourth month recall visits. A decrease in the size of radiolucency in radiograph supported the clinical finding. In the present case, MTA is useful in repairing the transportation defect. The result of these procedures is predictable and successful.

  8. Periodismo en YouTube: análisis de contenido en los canales de Atresmedia y RTVE

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández López, Sergio Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Este Trabajo de Fin de Grado estudia el contenido en YouTube de los canales de Atresmedia y RTVE para conocer cuáles son sus actividades, su programación y las características básicas de sus publicaciones. Para ello, se ha realizado un análisis de contenido cuantitativo y semicualitativo de un total de 48 canales en YouTube durante una semana así como el estudio de la presencia de estos grupos en esta plataforma audiovisual propia de la Web 2.0. Los resultados obtenidos permiten determinar, e...

  9. MRI Findings in Spinal Canal Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Barzin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Spinal canal stenosis results from progressive narrowing of the central spinal canal and the lateral recesses. Primary (congenital lumbar spinal stenosis is associated with achondroplastic dwarfism. The spinal canal may become narrowed by bulging or protrusion of the intervertebral disc annulus, herniation of the nucleus pulposus posteriorly, thickening of the posterior longitudinal ligament, hypertrophy of the facet joints, hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum, epidural fat deposition, spondylosis of the intervertebral disc margins and uncovertebral joint hypertrophy in the neck. The central canal and the neurorecess may be compromised by tumor infiltration, such as metastatic disease, or by infectious spondylitis."nAP diameter of the normal adult cervical canal has a mean value of 17-18 mm at vertebral levels C3-5. The lower cervical canal measures 12-14 mm. Cervical stenosis is associated with an AP diameter of less than 10 mm. The thoracic spinal canal varies from 12 to 14 mm in diameter in the adult. The diameter of the normal lumbar spinal canal varies from 15 to 27 mm. Lumbar stenosis results from a spinal canal diameter of less than 12 mm in some patients; a diameter of 10 mm is definitely stenotic."nSpinal MRI is the most suitable technique for the diagnosis of spinal stenosis. The examination should be performed using thin sections (3 mm and high resolution, including the axial and sagittal planes using T1-weighted, proton-density, and T2-weighted techniques. The bony and osteophytic components are seen best using a T2-weighted gradient-echo technique."nOn MRI, findings of spinal stenosis have a variable presentation depending on the specific disease. The goal of spinal imaging is to localize the site and level of disease and to help differentiate between conditions in which patients require surgery or conservative treatment."nIn this presentation, different kinds of spinal canal stenosis and their MRI findings would be discussed.

  10. Calidad sanitaria de los canales de Tortuguero y su efecto sobre los diferentes usos del agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darner Mora Alvarado

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la importancia turística y socioeconómica de los canales de Tortuguero para la provincia de Limón, pero sobre todo a que este sistema de agua sirve como cuerpo receptor de los ríos Colorado, Tortuguero,. Reventazón-Parismina, Pacuare y Matina, se presenta este estudio con el objetivo de determinar el grado de contaminación fecal de dichos canales. Para cumplir con el mismo se ubicó 10 estaciones de muestreo a lo largo de los 122 kilómetros, antes y después de las desembocaduras de los ríos mencionados. Los resultados de los análisis indican que en su mayor parte son buenos para ser utilizados como fuentes de agua para potabilización, pero no para la natación ni el cultivo de peces, pues muy pocos puntos de muestreo son aceptables para la irrigación de cultivos para consumir crudos, y no se pueden utilizar para agua de consumo humano sin previo tratamiento.

  11. Ajuste dos simuladores de dados meteorológicos do modelo EPIC para diferentes locais do Estado de São Paulo Adjustment of the simulators of meteorological data of the EPIC model for different localities in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Angélica G. Picini; Márcio de M. Valeriano; Francisco Lombardi Neto; Jurandir Zullo Júnior

    2005-01-01

    O modelo EPIC (Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator) foi desenvolvido para simular o efeito de estratégias de manejos agrícolas em recursos hídricos e produtividade de solos. No presente estudo, o desempenho dos simuladores de dados meteorológicos foi avaliado para localidades do Estado de São Paulo (Campinas, Jaú, Manduri, Mococa, Pindorama e Ubatuba), incluindo: a Cadeia de Markov para probabilidades de seqüências de dias úmidos e secos; a equação de temperatura máxima ajustada para dias ...

  12. Estudio de técnicas apropiadas para modelar aplicaciones de hidroinformática en el contexto de los Sistemas de Información Ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Urciuolo, Adriana Beatriz; Iturraspe, Rodolfo Javier; Parson, Ariel; Sandoval, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    El objetivo general de la línea de investigación es el estudio de técnicas apropiadas para el desarrollo de sistemas de hidroinformática, que permitan manejar la complejidad, representar en forma adecuada la información y simular los procesos relacionados con el ambiente natural, en el contexto de un Sistema de Información ambiental. En forma específica durante la primera etapa del proyecto, se pretende definir técnicas adecuadas para modelar los sistemas de hidroinformática, mediante la a...

  13. Diseño, desarrollo y simulación de un sistema mecatrónico de bajo coste para prácticas

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Cuervo, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo del presente proyecto es desarrollar un software de simulación de un sistema mecatrónico de bajo coste, formado por diversos componentes (mecánicos y electrónicos), cuyo diseño permite modificar fácilmente la configuración del mismo. El prototipo a simular dispone de dos grados de libertad, una rotación y una traslación, y diferentes sensores para adquirir datos de posición y velocidad. El simulador ha de tener la versatilidad suficiente como para poder implementar cada uno de ...

  14. Canal lombar estreito: sinal da sedimentação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Alice Correia Resende

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a presença do sinal de sedimentação nos pacientes com canal lombar estreito (CLE comparando-os com os pacientes sem CLE. MÉTODOS: Realizado um estudo retrospectivo, transversal e descritivo. Realizada a revisão dos processos imagiológicos dos pacientes com CLE operados entre 1 de janeiro de 2008 e 31 de dezembro de 2009, comparando-os com os dos pacientes sem CLE observados em consulta externa. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: grupo I com 34 pacientes com diagnóstico de CLE. Critérios diagnósticos: existência de lombalgia e/ou claudicação neurogénica e/ou radiculopatia, associados a um diâmetro anteroposterior do canal menor que 10mm e grupo II com 40 pacientes observados em consulta externa por lombalgia sem clínica de CLE. Foi feita a medicação do diâmetro do canal e verificada a presença do sinal de sedimentação entre D12 a S1. RESULTADOS: O sinal da sedimentação foi positivo em 31 dos 34 pacientes do grupo I (91,2%, em dois destes 31 pacientes apenas abaixo da estenose. Este sinal não foi encontrado em nenhum paciente do segundo grupo. Verifica-se uma correlação estatisticamente significativa entre as variáveis "diâmetro do canal" e a "presença do sinal da sedimentação" (p<0.01 no grupo de pacientes com canal lombar estreito. CONCLUSÕES: O diagnóstico de CLE nem sempre é fácil atendendo à frequente dissonância entre os achados clínicos e imagiológicos. O sinal de sedimentação é positivo em pacientes com CLE entre os níveis L1 e L5, podendo ser um sinal válido para complementar o diagnóstico de CLE.

  15. Carcinoma of the anal canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T. Marshall

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There are around 5,000 new cases of anal canal cancer each year in the United States. It is of particular risk in HIV-positive populations. Many cases are related to persistent infection with human papillomavirus (HPV. The treatment of anal cancer has progressed from abdominoperineal resection mandating permanent colostomy in the 1940s through the 1970s to modern chemoradiation with sphincter preservation in around 80% of patients, even with locally advanced disease. The evolution of the treatment paradigm of this disease is a model for the treatment of malignant disease with organ preservation. Multiple randomized trials have been conducted to guide this evolution. Technological developments in the delivery of radiotherapy and anti-cancer pharmaceuticals harbor hope for further improvements in outcomes with possible reductions in toxicity and increases in tumor control. Perhaps most inspiring is the recent development of HPV vaccines that

  16. Panama Canal Watershed Experiment- Agua Salud Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Robert F.; Ogden, Fred L.; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Hall, Jefferson S.

    2010-01-01

    The Agua Salud Project utilizes the Panama Canal’s (Canal) central role in world commerce to focus global attention on the ecosystem services provided by tropical forests. The Canal was one of the great engineering projects in the world. Completed in 1914, after almost a decade of concerted effort, its 80 km length greatly shortened the voyage between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. An entire class of ships, the Panamax, has been constructed to maximize the amount of cargo that can be carried in a Canal passage. In today’s parlance, the Canal is a “green” operation, powered largely by water (Table 1). The locks, three pairs on each end with a net lift of 27 meters, are gravity fed. For each ton of cargo that is transferred from ocean to ocean, about 13 tons of water (m3) are used. Lake Gatún forms much of the waterway in the Canal transect. Hydroelectricity is generated at the Gatún dam, whenever there is surplus water, and at Madden Dam (completed in 1936) when water is transferred from Lake Alhajuela to Lake Gatún. The Canal watershed is the source of drinking water for Panama City and Colon City, at either end of the Canal, and numerous towns in between.

  17. How to bond to root canal dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nica, Luminita; Todea, Carmen; Furtos, Gabriel; Baldea, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Bonding to root canal dentin may be difficult due to various factors: the structural characteristic of the root canal dentin, which is different from that of the coronal dentin; the presence of the organic tissue of the dental pulp inside the root canal, which has to be removed during the cleaning-shaping of the root canal system; the smear-layer resulted after mechanical instrumentation, which may interfere with the adhesion of the filling materials; the type of the irrigants used in the cleaning protocol; the type of the sealer and core material used in the obturation of the endodontic space; the type of the materials used for the restoration of the endodontically treated teeth. The influence of the cleaning protocol, of the root canal filling material, of the type of the adhesive system used in the restoration of the treated teeth and of the region of the root canal, on the adhesion of several filling and restorative materials to root canal dentin was evaluated in the push-out bond strength test on 1-mm thick slices of endodontically treated human teeth. The results showed that all these factors have a statistically significant influence on the push-out bond strength. Formation of resin tags between radicular dentin and the investigated materials was observed in some of the samples at SEM analysis.

  18. 21 CFR 872.3810 - Root canal post.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal post. 872.3810 Section 872.3810 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3810 Root canal post. (a) Identification. A root canal... of the platinum group intended to be cemented into the root canal of a tooth to stabilize and...

  19. The relapses of cancerous growths of anal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter of book authors give information about general comprehensions of the relapses of anal canal cancerous growths, the classification of the relapses of anal canal cancerous growths, frequency of the relapses of anal canal cancerous growths, the diagnostics of the relapses of anal canal cancerous growths and prophylaxis and treatment of relapses

  20. Scanning electron microscopy investigation of canal cleaning after canal preparation with nickel titanium files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Slavoljub

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Root canal preparation is the most important phase of endodontic procedure and it consists of adequate canal space cleaning and shaping. In recent years, rotary instruments and techniques have gained importance because of the great efficacy, speed and safety of the preparation procedure. Objective. The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of different NiTi files on the canal wall cleaning quality, residual dentine debris and smear layer. Methods. The research was conducted on extracted human teeth in vitro conditions. Teeth were divided in 7 main groups depending on the kind of instruments used for root canal preparation: ProTaper, GT, ProFile, K-3, FlexMaster, hand ProTaper and hand GT. Root canal preparation was accomplished by crown-down technique. Prepared samples were assessed on scanning electron microscopy JEOL, JSM-6460 LV. The evaluation of dentine debris was done with 500x magnification, and the evaluation of smear layer with 1,000 times magnification. Quantitive assessment of dentine debris and smear layer was done according to the criteria of Hulsmann. Results. The least amount of debris and smear layer has been found in canals shaped with ProFile instruments, and the largest amount in canals shaped with FlexMaster instruments. Canal cleaning efficacy of hand GT and ProTaper files has been similar to cleaning efficacy of rotary NiTi files. Statistic analysis has shown a significant difference in amount of dentine debris and smear layer on the canal walls between sample groups shaped with different instruments. Conclusion. Completely clean canals have not been found in any tested group of instruments. The largest amount of debris and smear layer has been found in the apical third of all canals. The design and the type of endodontic instruments influence the efficacy of the canal cleaning.

  1. Comparison of Bacterial Leakage between 3 Different Root Canal Obturation Techniques in Oval Shaped Canals

    OpenAIRE

    Eshagh-ali Saberi; Shahram Shahraki; Sediqe Ebrahimipour; Anousheh Rashed Mohassel; Narjes Akbari; Majid Rezaei

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of 3 obturation techniques in oval-shaped canals by bacterial leakage assessment. Methods: Sixty mandibular incisors with oval canals were selected after providing buccolingual and mesiodistal radiographs. The teeth were sectioned at a 10 mm distance from the apex. After instrumentation, the teeth were divided into 3 groups and the canals in the three groups were obturated with lateral condensation (G1), warm vertical...

  2. Boolean nested canalizing functions: a comprehensive analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuan; Murrugarra, David; Aguilar, Boris; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Boolean network models of molecular regulatory networks have been used successfully in computational systems biology. The Boolean functions that appear in published models tend to have special properties, in particular the property of being nested canalizing, a property inspired by the concept of canalization in evolutionary biology. It has been shown that networks comprised of nested canalizing functions have dynamic properties that make them suitable for modeling molecular regulatory networks, namely a small number of (large) attractors, as well as relatively short limit cycles. This paper contains a detailed analysis of this class of functions, based on a novel normal form as polynomial functions over the Boolean field. The concept of layer is introduced that stratifies variables into different classes depending on their level of dominance. Using this layer concept a closed form formula is derived for the number of nested canalizing functions with a given number of variables. Additional metrics analyzed in...

  3. Five Canalled and Three-Rooted Primary Second Mandibular Molar

    OpenAIRE

    Haridoss Selvakumar; Swaminathan Kavitha; Rajendran Bharathan; Jacob Sam Varghese

    2014-01-01

    A thorough knowledge of root canal anatomy and its variation is necessary for successful completion of root canal procedures. Morphological variations such as additional root canals in human deciduous dentition are rare. A mandibular second primary molar with more than four canals is an interesting example of anatomic variations, especially when three of these canals are located in the distal root. This case shows a rare anatomic configuration and points out the importance of looking for addi...

  4. Squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal is rather rare and amounts to 3.5% of all rectal neoplasms. Though it has a clear-cut clinical picture, 29.5% of patients admitted for specialized treatment suffer from stage 4 due to inadequate diagnosis. Surgery is the most effective method of management of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Radiation therapy may be an adjuvant procedure to surgery

  5. Pain associated with root canal treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Segura-Egea, Juan José; Cisneros Cabello, Rafael; Llamas Carreras, José María; Velasco Ortega, Eugenio

    2009-01-01

    Our purpose was to determine the pain experienced by patients during root canal treatment and to correlate with age and gender, pulpal diagnosis, previous periapical status, dental characteristics and length of treatment. One hundred and seventy-six patients (68 men and 108 women), with ages ranged from 6 to 83 years, were randomly recruited. Patients completed a 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS) that ranked the level of pain experienced during root canal treatment. The mean pain level during...

  6. Mechanics of the Panama Canal slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, George F.

    1917-01-01

    Dr. Becker visited the Canal Zone in 1913 as a geologist of the United States Geological Survey and since that time has given the problem the benefit of his study. His appointment as a member of the committee of the National Academy of Sciences has made it appropriate for his conclusions, based upon his personal observations and already reported in part to the Canal Commission, to be stated for the benefit of his associates and other American scientists and engineers.

  7. Implementación de un prototipo IEEE 802.21 para realizar handovers entre diferentes tecnologías

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Ascensión, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    La finalidad de este trabajo es la implementación de un prototipo que permite simular la realización de un handover entre dos redes utilizando el protocolo MIH definido en el estándar IEEE 802.21. Dicho prototipo ha sido implementado mediante el lenguaje de programación C. La implementación del prototipo se lleva a cabo mediante la definición en lenguaje C de las funciones descritas en el estándar IEEE 802.21 necesarias para la optimización de un handover entre dos redes, tanto en el caso de ...

  8. Una propuesta para enseñar temas científicos en entornos tecnológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Irazoque Palazuelos, G.; Zaldívar Coria, I.; Amador Bedolla, C.; Herrera Hernández, A.; Gasca Pineda, L.

    2009-01-01

    Las ventajas del uso de las TICs en la enseñanza de las ciencias nos brinda la posibilidad, entre otras cosas, de simular fenómenos naturales difíciles de observar en la realidad o de representar modelos de sistemas físicos inaccesibles. Esto exige el diseño y elaboración de nuevos materiales y maestros bien preparados en sus disciplinas y motivados para enfrentar la capacitación continua que exige la dinámica de la tecnología, dentro de políticas institucionales que favorezcan dicha capacita...

  9. Medida da área do canal vertebral lombar em diferentes faixas etárias Medida de la superficie del canal vertebral lumbar en los diferentes grupos de edad Lumbar spinal canal area in different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Ortiz

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: medir as dimensões do canal vertebral lombar por meio de tomografia computadorizada, de modo a comparar os valores das diferentes faixas etárias e determinação da possível diferença entre elas. MÉTODOS: a área do canal vertebral lombar foi medida em 78 indivíduos, divididos em oito grupos etários, com dados obtidos de exames de tomografia computadorizada do abdômen. As medidas foram realizadas nos cortes axiais nas vértebras L1, L3 e L5 ao nível da região trans-pedicular. Utilizado o método estatístico de ANOVA (análise de variância com análise de diferentes "p-value" para cada grupo estudado. RESULTADOS: as medidas para L1 produziram um "p-value" de 0,586 para a faixa etária e um "p-value" de 0,003 para o sexo. Portanto, não há diferença entre as faixas etárias e há diferença entre os sexos, sendo maior no sexo masculino. Para L3, o "p-value" da faixa etária foi de 0,258 e para o sexo de 0,062; no caso de L5, o "p-value" para a faixa etária foi de 0,279 e para o sexo de 0,003. CONCLUSÃO: não foi observada diferença estatística da área do canal vertebral lombar nos níveis L1, L3 e L5 nas diferentes faixas etárias. No entanto o diâmetro no sexo masculino foi maior com diferença estatística.OBJETIVO: medir el área del canal vertebral lumbar, utilizando la tomografía computarizada, comparándolo entre los distintos grupos de edad y determinar si existen diferencias entre ellos. MÉTODOS: el área del canal vertebral lumbar se midió en 78 temas, divididos en 8 grupos, con los datos obtenidos a partir de exploraciones de tomografía computarizada del a domen. Las mediciones se hicieron en las vértebras L1, L3 y L5 en la región transpedicular. RESULTADOS: medidas para L1 producido un p-valor de 0,586 para el grupo de edad y un p-valor de 0,003 para el sexo, por tanto, no hay diferencia entre los grupos de edad y hay diferencias entre los sexos, siendo mayor en los hombres; para L3, el "pvalue" del

  10. Estudo experimental do sequenciamento das manobras da ligamentotaxia na descompressão do canal vertebral Experimental study of ligamentotaxis maneuvers sequencing in vertebral canal decompression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilton José Carrilho de Castro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A descompressão do canal vertebral, para aliviar as estruturas nervosas, pode ser realizada por meio da ligamentotaxia. O objetivo foi analisar a influência da seqüência de realização da ligamentotaxia sobre a descompressão do canal vertebral. Foram utilizados segmentos de vértebras de suínos (Landrace. Um equipamento especialmente desenvolvido foi utilizado para produção de fratura do tipo explosão. Após a tomografia computadorizada, 10 espécimes que melhores apresentavam fraturas do tipo explosão foram fixados com fixador interno (Synthes. Foram formados dois grupos. No primeiro (n=5 foi realizada a lordose e depois a distração. Posteriormente, foram submetidos à nova compressão por meio de morsa até o retorno da fratura à posição inicial, a seguir foram novamente submetidos à distração e lordose. No segundo grupo (n=5 foi realizada a distração e depois a lordose. Após cada manobra era realizado o exame tomográfico para medir o diâmetro do canal vertebral. Os deslocamentos dos fragmentos dos corpos vertebrais fraturados foram mensurados e comparados utilizando t de Student (pVertebral canal decompression, intended to provide relief to nervous structures, may be performed by means of legamentotaxis. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of the ligamentotaxis sequence on vertebral canal decompression. Vertebral segments of Landrace swine specimens were used. A device especially developed for producing a burst-type fracture was employed. Subsequently to the computerized tomography scan, 10 specimens that best showed a burst-type fracture were fixated with internal fixator (Synthes. Two groups were formed. On the first group (n=5, lordosis followed by distraction were performed. Then, they were submitted to distraction and lordosis. On the second group (n=5, distraction was provided first, and then lordosis was performed. After each maneuver, vertebral canal was measured by tomography scan

  11. Disinfection of Contaminated Canals by Different Laser Wavelengths, while Performing Root Canal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnaashari, Mohammad; Safavi, Nassimeh

    2013-01-01

    Removal of smear layer and disinfection of canals are important objectives of teeth root canal cleaning. In order to achieve this purpose, rinsing substances, intra canal drugs as well as ultrasound are used. Today, use of laser to remove smear layer and to disinfect root canals has increasingly attracted the attentions. Till now different lasers such as CO2, Nd:YAG, Er:YAG, Er,Cr:YSGG have been used for debris and smear removal from the canals. Numerous studies have shown that Er:YAG is the most appropriate laser for intra canal debris and smear removal. In addition different laser wavelengths have been used directly or as an adjunctive to disinfect canals. Laser light can penetrate areas of canals where irrigating and disinfecting solutions cannot reach, like secondary canals and deep dentinal tubules and also can eliminate microorganisms. Different studies have confirmed the penetration of Nd:YAG laser in deep dentin and reduction of microorganisms penetration. But studies on comparison of antibacterial effects of Nd:YAG laser with sodium hypochlorite showed effectiveness of both, with a better effect for sodium hypochlorite. Studies performed in relation with anti-microbial effects of Diode laser with various parameters show that this laser can be effective in reducing intra canal bacterial count and penetration in the depth of 500 microns in dentin. In studies performed on Diode laser in combination with canal irrigating solutions such as sodium hypochlorite and oxygenated water better results were obtained. Although studies on disinfection by the Erbium laser family show that use of this laser alone can be effective in disinfecting canals, studies evaluating the disinfecting effects of this laser and different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite show that the latter alone is more effective in disinfecting canals. And better results were obtained when Erbium laser was used in combination with sodium hypochlorite irrigating solution in canals. Results of the

  12. External auditory canal carcinoma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    External auditory canal (EAC) carcinomas are relatively rare conditions lack on established treatment strategy. We analyzed a treatment modalities and outcome in 32 cases of EAC squamous cell carcinoma treated between 1980 and 2008. Subjects-17 men and 15 women ranging from 33 to 92 years old (average: 66) were divided by Arriaga's tumor staging into 12 T1, 5 T2, 6 T3, and 9 T4. Survival was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Disease-specific 5-year survival was 100% for T1, T2, 44% for T3, and 33% for T4. In contrast to 100% 5-year survival for T1+T2 cancer, the 5-year survival for T3+T4 cancer was 37% with high recurrence due to positive surgical margins. The first 22 years of the 29 years surveyed, we performed surgery mainly, and irradiation or chemotherapy was selected for early disease or cases with positive surgical margins as postoperative therapy. During the 22-years, 5-year survival with T3+T4 cancer was 20%. After we started superselective intra-arterial (IA) rapid infusion chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy in 2003, we achieved negative surgical margins for advanced disease, and 5-year survival for T3+T4 cancer rise to 80%. (author)

  13. Efecto del sexo y la explotación sobre la calidad de la canal y de la carne del cordero lechal de raza Ojinegra

    OpenAIRE

    Ripoll Bosch, Raimon; Ripoll García, Guillermo; Alvarez Rodríguez, Javier; Blasco Pérez, Isabel; Panea Doblado, Begoña; Joy Torrens, Margalida

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo pretende caracterizar la calidad de la canal y de la carne de cordero lechal de la raza Ojinegra de Teruel. Para ello se utilizaron 64 corderos lechales, 32 de cada sexo, procedentes de 4 explotaciones comerciales. Los resultados mostraron que la edad al sacrificio, el rendimiento de la canal, las medidas objetivas de la canal y el color instrumental de la grasa y del músculo R. abdominis estuvieron afectados por la explotación de origen (P0,05). La composición...

  14. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid

  15. Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence: a morphologic cause of vertigo similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heading Abstract.The aim of this study was to assess imaging findings of posterior semicircular dehiscence on computed tomography and to evaluate incidence of posterior and superior semicircular canal dehiscence in patients presenting with vertigo, sensorineuronal hearing loss or in a control group without symptoms related to the inner ear. Computed tomography was performed in 507 patients presenting either with vertigo (n=128; 23 of these patients suffered also from sensorineuronal hearing loss), other symptoms related to the inner ear, such as hearing loss or tinnitus (n=183) or symptoms unrelated to the labyrinth (n=196). All images were reviewed for presence of dehiscence of the bone, overlying the semicircular canals. Twenty-nine patients had superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Of these patients, 83% presented with vertigo, 10% with hearing loss or tinnitus and the remaining 7% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. In 23 patients dehiscence of the posterior semicircular canal was encountered. Of these patients, 86% presented with vertigo, 9% with hearing loss or tinnitus and 5% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. Defects of the bony overly are found at the posterior semicircular canal, in addition to the recently introduced superior canal dehiscence syndrome. Significant prevalence of vertigo in these patients suggests that posterior semicircular canal dehiscence can cause vertigo, similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence. (orig.)

  16. Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence: a morphologic cause of vertigo similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krombach, G.A.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Haage, P.; Guenther, R.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); DiMartino, E. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Prescher, A. [Department of Anatomy, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Kinzel, S. [Department of Experimental Veterinarian Medicine, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    Heading Abstract.The aim of this study was to assess imaging findings of posterior semicircular dehiscence on computed tomography and to evaluate incidence of posterior and superior semicircular canal dehiscence in patients presenting with vertigo, sensorineuronal hearing loss or in a control group without symptoms related to the inner ear. Computed tomography was performed in 507 patients presenting either with vertigo (n=128; 23 of these patients suffered also from sensorineuronal hearing loss), other symptoms related to the inner ear, such as hearing loss or tinnitus (n=183) or symptoms unrelated to the labyrinth (n=196). All images were reviewed for presence of dehiscence of the bone, overlying the semicircular canals. Twenty-nine patients had superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Of these patients, 83% presented with vertigo, 10% with hearing loss or tinnitus and the remaining 7% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. In 23 patients dehiscence of the posterior semicircular canal was encountered. Of these patients, 86% presented with vertigo, 9% with hearing loss or tinnitus and 5% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. Defects of the bony overly are found at the posterior semicircular canal, in addition to the recently introduced superior canal dehiscence syndrome. Significant prevalence of vertigo in these patients suggests that posterior semicircular canal dehiscence can cause vertigo, similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence. (orig.)

  17. Radiological Review Studies On Ismailia Canal Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is a brief review of pr-studies carried out on Ismailia Canal, Egypt, water ecosystem. Ismailia Canal water body is a bicarbonate stream with slight seasonal variations in its water chemical constituents. The canal water pH in all the stream locations are below 8.3 with low suspended matter(SM) content (22-33 mg.l-1). The mineralogical analysis of the canal bottom sediments consist mainly of quartz, smectite and kaolinite minerals. The γ- spectroscopic identification showed traces of naturally occurring radio nuclides (238U, 232Th and 40K). The average activity level of the dry samples ranged from 12 to 89 Bq.Kg-1 for the detected natural radio nuclides. Some parameters affected the sorption behaviour of radio nuclides on suspended matters and bottom sediments; such as solution pH, SM concentration, sediment grain size, carrier concentration and competing ions were studied. The reaction rates were investigated for each radionuclide studied. The distribution of the studied radio nuclides, between the liquid phase and the sediments phase was investigated, for both flowing and static systems. For both flowing and non-flowing (static), the depth penetration of the studied radio nuclides within the bottom sediment layers were found to vary from one radionuclide to the other. The total capacities of bottom sediments and the suspended matter were found to be low. As Ismailia Canal is an important source of water for public domestic uses, irrigation animals and the aquatic species; these situations have led to state that it is not recommended to release any liquid radioactive wastes to this canal. Furthermore, periodical radiometric analysis for the canal water and its components should be carried out.

  18. "Desarrollo software de un módulo de cinética química en fase gaseosa para simulación 3D de motores de Combustión interna"

    OpenAIRE

    Forigua Rodriguez, Carlos Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Un reactor a volumen constante para (RVC) fue implementado utilizando Cantera dentro de KIVA-4 en un acople multifísico con el fin de simular varios motores. Se simuló un motor de encendido por compresión de carga homogénea (HCCI), un motor Diesel de inyección directa y un motor encendido por chispa. Sólo densidades parciales se intercambian entre KIVA y Cantera. Una densidad parcial inicial se calcula en KIVA para Cantera. Nuevas densidades son generadas por Cantera usando el ...

  19. Canal de Mensagens de Trânsito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egon Cervieri Guterres

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Informe Setorial: O Canal de Mensagens de Trânsito (Traffic Message Channel - TMC é uma padronização internacional para a distribuição de informações (conteúdo sobre a situação do trânsito urbano local e inter-regional, em tempo real, de forma eletrônica e diretamente aos motoristas. Traz para os cidadãos, em mensagens eletrônicas simples e acessíveis, informações sobre congestionamentos, acidentes, obras na pista, problemas climáticos (alagamentos, asfalto escorregadio, nevoeiro... e desvios de rota, além de muitos outros eventos de trânsito, oferecendo, em linguagem padronizada de fácil compreensão, a descrição do incidente, área de efeito, duração esperada e, quando possível, caminhos alternativos para evitá-lo.

  20. Radiation-induced external ear canal cholesteatoma-like disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three cases of cholesteatoma-like disease in the ear canals after radiation therapy for head and neck tumor were reported. Effect of irradiation on bone and soft tissue including skin brings about pathological reaction to the external ear canal as well. Two types of disease resembling cholesteatomas have been recognized: keratosis obturans (KO) and external auditory canal cholesteatoma (EACC). KO appears to be derived from disease of canal skin involved with keratinization, creating a widning of the canal. EACC, on the other hand, seems to develop in the disease of bony canal where a localized absorption of its bone with invasion of squamous epithelium takes place. (author)

  1. File list: Unc.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: His.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: His.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: Unc.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: Unc.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: His.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 Histone Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canal...s http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  7. File list: Unc.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 Unclassified Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canal...s http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  8. File list: His.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 Histone Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canal...s http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  9. El canal de crédito en el Perú: Una aproximación SVAR

    OpenAIRE

    Viladegut, Hugo; Cabello, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    El presente documento estudia el canal de crédito para la economía peruana durante el periodo 2002-2012. Se utiliza un modelo de Vectores Autorregresivos Estructurales (SVAR) restringido y aumentado con expectativas que se estima mediante el Método Generalizado de Momentos (MGM). Se encuentra que el canal crediticio ha operado como mecanismo de transmisión de política monetaria hacia la economía agregada en el periodo de análisis.

  10. Efectos ambientales en la agricultura por el uso de aguas residuales del canal de Chilhuacán, Atlixco, Puebla

    OpenAIRE

    Neri Ramírez Efraín

    2012-01-01

    La zona agrícola del canal Chilhuacán se riega con aguas residuales provenientes del río Nexapa, es altamente productiva en hortalizas, forrajes y ornamentales, pero con un riesgo implícito para suelos y cultivos, debido a que las aguas tienen contaminantes, principalmente metales pesados y alta salinidad. El objetivo de esta investigación fue: “Evaluar los efectos ambientales y sociales de la agricultura de riego ocasionados por el uso de aguas residuales del canal Chilhuacán...

  11. Triple antibiotic paste in root canal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangasamy Vijayaraghavan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of the endodontic treatment depends on the microbial suppression in the root canal and periapical region. Endodontic instrumentation alone cannot achieve a sterile condition. With the advent of non-instrumentation endodontic treatment and lesion sterilization and tissue repair, local application of antibiotics has been investigated. Triple antibiotic paste (TAP containing metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline has been reported to be a successful regimen in controlling the root canal pathogen and in managing non-vital young permanent tooth. This paper reviews the existing literature on biocompatibility, efficiency, drawbacks of TAP in endodontic therapy and pulp revascularization.

  12. Stratification and enumeration of Boolean functions by canalizing depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qijun; Macauley, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Boolean network models have gained popularity in computational systems biology over the last dozen years. Many of these networks use canalizing Boolean functions, which has led to increased interest in the study of these functions. The canalizing depth of a function describes how many canalizing variables can be recursively "picked off", until a non-canalizing function remains. In this paper, we show how every Boolean function has a unique algebraic form involving extended monomial layers and a well-defined core polynomial. This generalizes recent work on the algebraic structure of nested canalizing functions, and it yields a stratification of all Boolean functions by their canalizing depth. As a result, we obtain closed formulas for the number of n-variable Boolean functions with depth k, which simultaneously generalizes enumeration formulas for canalizing, and nested canalizing functions.

  13. [Frequency and most common localisation of root canal curvature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasković-Subat, V

    1991-01-01

    The root canal therapy of the curved canals is a complex operative procedure. Therefore 260 root canals were analysed radiologically to determine the frequency and the most common localisation of the root canal curvature. The frequency of the curved canals averaged at 59%, being greater in the sample of posterior than in the anterior teeth (p less than 0.05). The root canal curvature was most frequently localised at the apical third part (53.9%), followed by the cervical (33.3%) and the middle (12.8%) third part. The apical curvature was predominant in the sample of the anterior, while the cervical predominant (45.2%) in the sample of the posterior teeth. This study pointed out that the frequency of the curved canals is rather high. Consequently, the necessity for practising the modern root canal preparation techniques, bearing in mind their potential danger, is emphasized. PMID:1819932

  14. Stratification and enumeration of Boolean functions by canalizing depth

    CERN Document Server

    He, Qijun

    2015-01-01

    Boolean network models have gained popularity in computational systems biology over the last dozen years. Many of these networks use canalizing Boolean functions, which has led to increased interest in the study of these functions. The canalizing depth of a function describes how many canalizing variables can be recursively picked off, until a non-canalizing function remains. In this paper, we show how every Boolean function has a unique algebraic form involving extended monomial layers and a well-defined core polynomial. This generalizes recent work on the algebraic structure of nested canalizing functions, and it yields a stratification of all Boolean functions by their canalizing depth. As a result, we obtain closed formulas for the number of n-variable Boolean functions with depth k, which simultaneously generalizes enumeration formulas for canalizing, and nested canalizing functions.

  15. Reduction of Enterococcus faecalis in curved root canals after various sizes and tapers of canal preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Abbas Moshari; Nahid Mohammadzadeh Akhlaghi; Nahid Rahimifard; Soheila Darmiani

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reduction of Enterococcus faecalis in curved root canals after various sizes and tapers of the canal preparation. Materials and Methods: Mandibular first molars (n = 103) with curved mesiobuccal canals were divided into one control (n = 5) and 7 experimental (n = 14) groups, were inoculated with E. faecalis (ATTC 29212) and prepared with the following RaCe files (FKG Dentaire) as master apical file: Groups: 25.04, 25.06, 30.04, 30.06, 35.04,...

  16. Propiedades de algunos estadísticos empleados para la detección de copia de respuestas en la medición educativa

    OpenAIRE

    Ordoñez Camacho, Xavier Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación tiene como objetivo principal analizar la calidad de los estadísticos propuestos en el marco de la presente tesis doctoral en comparación con los estadísticos de referencia. Para analizar esta calidad, es necesario simular tanto las características que se pueden presentar en el diseño de una prueba así como la copia de respuestas entre parejas de examinados. Y por otro lado, también es importante analizar dicha calidad en un conjunto de datos reales. ...

  17. Desarrollo mediante lenguaje de alto nivel de un sistema de simulación de redes basado en FPGA para aplicaciones multiGbps Ethernet

    OpenAIRE

    Lema Sorrosal, Alfredo de

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de este proyecto es crear una aplicación capaz de simular el comportamiento de una red de 10 Gbps con el objetivo de testar equipamiento que se conecta a una red a estas velocidades. Disponer de herramientas de simulación o emulación del tráfico real de red es de gran utilidad para poder comprobar o verificar el uso de nuevos protocolos y equipos en un entorno que pueda parecerse a las condiciones que soporta una red real. Actualmente existen herramientas Software ejecutándo...

  18. Mobilização do osso pisiforme no tratamento da neuropraxia do nervo ulnar no canal de Guyon: relato de caso Pisiform bone mobilization for treating ulnar nerve neuropraxia at Guyon's canal: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Júlio Guilherme Silva; Reny de Souza Antonioli; Marco Orsini; Marcos Antônio Júlio dos Santos Júnior; Arthur de Sá Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    As neuropraxias do nervo ulnar são lesões bastante freqüentes que provocam efeitos deletérios, como diminuição de força muscular e parestesias; geralmente ocorrem no nível do epicôndilo medial e do túnel ulnar (canal de Guyon). São escassos os relatos referentes a técnicas de terapia manual para compressões do nervo ulnar no canal de Guyon. Este trabalho relata o uso da técnica de mobilização do pisiforme na compressão do nervo ulnar no canal de Guyon de um homem que sofreu luxação do punho d...

  19. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate,...

  20. Newer Root Canal Irrigants in Horizon: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant P. Jaju; Sushma Jaju

    2011-01-01

    Sodium hypochloride is the most commonly used endodontic irrigant, despite limitations. None of the presently available root canal irrigants satisfy the requirements of ideal root canal irrigant. Newer root canal irrigants are studied for potential replacement of sodium hypochloride. This article reviews the potential irrigants with their advantages and limitations with their future in endodontic irrigation.

  1. Newer Root Canal Irrigants in Horizon: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Jaju

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium hypochloride is the most commonly used endodontic irrigant, despite limitations. None of the presently available root canal irrigants satisfy the requirements of ideal root canal irrigant. Newer root canal irrigants are studied for potential replacement of sodium hypochloride. This article reviews the potential irrigants with their advantages and limitations with their future in endodontic irrigation.

  2. Computed tomography of the thoracic canal. Experimental and clinical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, S. (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1981-05-01

    Under the adequate CT condition, thoracic canal was studied in twelve normal cases, nine cases of cervical myelopathy with developmental cervical canal stenosis and four cases of thoracic myelopathy with ossification of thoracic yellow ligament. The results were as follows. 1) The adequate condition for delineation of thoracic canal seemed to be nearly 400 EMI units in window width and 150 in level. Scanning angle was permitted within about 10/sup 0/. Bony thoracic canal was well scanned at the center of vertebral body. 2) The configulation of the normal thoracic canal was oval at Th/sub 1/, Th/sub 2/ levels and round at Th/sub 3/-Th/sub 10/ and large oval at Th/sub 11/, Th/sub 12/. The sagittal diameter was almost fixed at each level and the transverse diameter was large at upper and lower levels and small at middle levels. 3) Thoracic canal was narrowed in the cases of cervical myelopathy with developmental cervical canal stenosis especially in sagittal diameter, but not narrowed in transverse diameter. Three of four cases who had myelopathy with ossification of thoracic yellow ligament had narrow canals. 4) There was a good relation between sagittal diameter of cervical canal and thoracic canal. 5) There was a good relation between sagittal diameter of thoracic canal measured by conventional radiographs (Hattori's method) and CT scans. The author thinks that Hattori's method is useful to diagnose the thoracic canal stenosis.

  3. Nerve canals at the fundus of the internal auditory canal on high-resolution temporal bone CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Yoon Ha; Youn, Eun Kyung; Kim, Seung Chul [Sungkyunkwan Univ., School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    To identify and evaluate the normal anatomy of nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal which can be visualized on high-resolution temporal bone CT. We retrospectively reviewed high-resolution (1 mm thickness and interval contiguous scan) temporal bone CT images of 253 ears in 150 patients who had not suffered trauma or undergone surgery. Those with a history of uncomplicated inflammatory disease were included, but those with symptoms of vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, or facial nerve palsy were excluded. Three radiologists determined the detectability and location of canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial, superior vestibular and cochlear nerve, and the saccular branch and posterior ampullary nerve of the inferior vestibular nerve. Five bony canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were identified as nerve canals. Four canals were identified on axial CT images in 100% of cases; the so-called singular canal was identified in only 68%. On coronal CT images, canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial and superior vestibular nerve were seen in 100% of cases, but those for the cochlear nerve, the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve, and the singular canal were seen in 90.1%, 87.4% and 78% of cases, respectiveIy. In all detectable cases, the canal for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve was revealed as one which traversed anterolateralIy, from the anterosuperior portion of the fundus of the internal auditory canal. The canal for the cochlear nerve was located just below that for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve, while that canal for the superior vestibular nerve was seen at the posterior aspect of these two canals. The canal for the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve was located just below the canal for the superior vestibular nerve, and that for the posterior ampullary nerve, the so-called singular canal, ran laterally or posteolateralIy from the posteroinferior aspect of

  4. Mobilização do osso pisiforme no tratamento da neuropraxia do nervo ulnar no canal de Guyon: relato de caso Pisiform bone mobilization for treating ulnar nerve neuropraxia at Guyon's canal: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Guilherme Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As neuropraxias do nervo ulnar são lesões bastante freqüentes que provocam efeitos deletérios, como diminuição de força muscular e parestesias; geralmente ocorrem no nível do epicôndilo medial e do túnel ulnar (canal de Guyon. São escassos os relatos referentes a técnicas de terapia manual para compressões do nervo ulnar no canal de Guyon. Este trabalho relata o uso da técnica de mobilização do pisiforme na compressão do nervo ulnar no canal de Guyon de um homem que sofreu luxação do punho direito aos 8 anos e, aos 25, queixava-se de um deficit para adução do dedo mínimo, que atrapalhava a realização de algumas atividades de vida diária. O paciente foi submetido a uma única sessão de mobilização articular do pisiforme. Após a aplicação da técnica, o sinal positivo do teste foi eliminado, restabelecendo-se a função de adução do 5o dedo. Embora carecendo de maior fundamentação teórica, pode-se afirmar que a técnica usada, de mobilização articular do osso pisiforme, é eficaz para melhora do quadro de paresia por neuropraxia do nervo ulnar no canal de Guyon.A common ulnar nerve neuropraxia is lesion that may result in muscle strength decrease and/or paresthesia; it usually takes place at medial epicondyle level and the ulnar tunnel (Guyon's canal. Studies on manual therapy techniques for ulnar nerve compression in Guyon's canal are scarce. This paper reports the use of a technique of pisiform bone mobilization for relieving ulnar nerve compression in Guyon's canal, in a man who had suffered a luxation of the right wrist at the age of 8 and, at 25, complained of adduction deficit of the fifth finger that interfered in his daily life activities. He was submitted to one session of pisiform mobilization; after the session, the positive test sign was eliminated, thus restoring the fifth finger function. Though lacking further grounding, it may be said that the technique used, of mobilizing the pisiform bone

  5. Simulación de una red Grid con máquinas virtuales para crear un entorno de aprendizaje de la computación de alto desempeño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Eduardo Millán-Rojas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presenta una metodología de construcción de una plataforma para simular una red Grid con máquinas virtuales, con el objetivo de crear entornos virtuales que contribuyan a los procesos de aprendizaje. El diseño utilizado para el desarrollo está basado en un prototipo que contribuye a generar un entorno de simulación de bajo costo a través de la computación de alto desempeño. Como resultado de la investigación se obtuvo un conjunto de máquinas virtuales que pueden ser desplegadas en cualquier equipo de cómputo para simular un entorno Grid; además, se presenta la forma de la configuración de esta red para ser parte integral de la construcción y ejecución de la plataforma como instrumento válido para la enseñanza de la computación de alto desempeño a un bajo coste de hardware y la simulación de los servicios Grid sobre la plataforma.

  6. Modulación adaptativa y diversidad en canales de comunicaciones acústicas subacuáticas

    OpenAIRE

    Clemente Medina, María del Carmen

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo general de la tesis es evaluar las técnicas de transmisión de datos a alta velocidad más adecuadas para canales de comunicaciones acústicas subacuáticas. Se centra en la técnica madura de modulación adaptativa, donde el canal se estima en recepción. Esta técnica adaptativa se puede combinar con la codificación de canal que desarrolla y analiza códigos orientados a facilitar la detección y corrección de los errores originados a causa del paso de las señales por el medio de transmis...

  7. The crazy project – Canal Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Kundak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It was late April 2011 when “the Crazy Project - Canal Istanbul” was proposed by the Prime Minister of Turkey, during his election campaign.  Although the idea of an artificial canal is not new, since it is initiated without any consensus between the people and institutions in Istanbul, the project immediately set a large number of debates. These vary from the legitimacy of decentralization of governance, to potential impacts of the canal on international politics, economy, environment and urban life.  Regarding past infrastructure projects in Istanbul, such large scale investments have caused extensive acceleration in construction sector in one hand and social and economic shifts on the other.  In this paper, the Canal Istanbul Project is evaluated according to basic motivations and claims of the PM, multi-perspective view through challenges and limitation that the project is likely to face with and speculations on implementation approach. The final discussion on the project is based on benefits/losses of Istanbul once the project will be implemented.

  8. Root canal treatment in necrotic primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, A D; Reina, E S

    1989-01-01

    Fifty-three patients (27 boys and 26 girls) with necrotic primary teeth received root canal treatments with a paste consisting of KRI-1 paste and pure calcium hydroxide powder with one drop of formocresol. All cases were followed clinically, radiographically and some histologically at 6, 12 and 17 to 24 months postoperatively. All cases were clinically and radiographically successful. PMID:2637358

  9. Infrared tympanic temperature and ear canal morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Several publications indicate that the infrared tympanic temperature (IRTT) underestimates the core temperature of the body when the ear canal is long, curvy and narrow. In order to quantify these observations, a study was performed in 10 subjects. The IRTT was determined and compared to the oesopha

  10. Metodología para la selección de modelo hidrodinámicos tridimensionales

    OpenAIRE

    Betancur Pérez, Gabriel Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    En este trabajo de desarrolla una propuesta metodológica diseñada para realizar una selección guiada de un modelo hidrodinámico tridimensional, para la simular los procesos físicos de un embalse tropical. La metodología propuesta considera tres etapas: 1) definición y búsqueda, 2) pre-selección y 3) selección, que brindan el marco general. Para ilustrar la metodología se definió como caso de estudio la variación espacial de la estructura térmica del embalse de Riogrande II y se implementaron ...

  11. Problemas Del Pollo De Engorde Antes Y Después Del Beneficio (Pollo En Canal). 1º Parte

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Lissette Ricaurte Galindo M.V.Z.

    2005-01-01

    Cuando los pollos llegan a la planta necesitan una ventilación adecuada en la zona de retención para minimizar la mortalidad y la pérdida excesiva de peso vivo. Los pollos que llegan deben ser programados para el procesamiento dentro de las 8 a 12 horas después de haber comido por última vez. De esta manera disminuye la cantidad de material que podría contaminar potencialmente la canal durante el procesamiento permitiendo tiempo suficiente para que el intestino se vacíe. Los pollos que quedan...

  12. Assessment of the wetting behavior of three different root canal sealers on root canal dentin

    OpenAIRE

    Muralidhar Tummala; Veeramachaneni Chandrasekhar; A Shashi Rashmi; Kundabala, M; Vasudev Ballal

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the wetting behavior of three different root canal sealers on the root canal dentin surface treated with irrigants and their combination. Materials and Methods: Decoronation and apical third resections of 27 extracted single-rooted human mandibular premolars were done. The roots were then split longitudinally into two halves, and randomly assigned into three treatment groups (n=18). The root dentin surfaces in Group1, Gro...

  13. El medio-portal y los canales de actualidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Elvira García de Torres

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza el reto que Internet ha supuesto para los medios de comunicación tradicionales. La autora estudia cómo los medios informativos enlínea se han convertido en "un híbrido entre medios tradicionales con características propias de la digitalidad y servicios y contenidos propios de los portales". Así surge el medio-portal, mientras que los portales crean canales de actualidad para evitar la pérdida de usuario. El artículo recoge las principales diferencias en el tratamiento de la información por parte de ambos medios.ABSTRACTThis article analyses the challenge that Internet has involved to traditional mass media. The author thinks about how enlínea media have evolved to a hybrid between traditional media with digital characteristics and contents of main doors. The "medio-portal" begins, whereas main doors create channels of news to prevent the loss of users. This article collects the main informative differences between both media.

  14. MR determination of neonatal spinal canal depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen, E-mail: owenarthurs@uk2.net [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London WC1N 3JH (United Kingdom); Thayyil, Sudhin, E-mail: s.thayyil@ucl.ac.uk [Academic Neonatology, Institute for Women' s Health, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom); Wade, Angie, E-mail: a.wade@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Chong, W.K., E-mail: Kling.Chong@gosh.nhs.uk [Paediatric Neuroradiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J., E-mail: Neil.Sebire@gosh.nhs.uk [Histopathology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom); Taylor, Andrew M., E-mail: a.taylor76@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Cardiorespiratory Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children and UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Objectives: Lumbar punctures (LPs) are frequently performed in neonates and often result in traumatic haemorrhagic taps. Knowledge of the distance from the skin to the middle of the spinal canal (mid-spinal canal depth - MSCD) may reduce the incidence of traumatic taps, but there is little data in extremely premature or low birth weight neonates. Here, we determined the spinal canal depth at post-mortem in perinatal deaths using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients and methods: Spinal canal depth was measured in 78 post-mortem foetuses and perinatal cases (mean gestation 26 weeks; mean weight 1.04 kg) at the L3/L4 inter-vertebral space at post-mortem MRI. Both anterior (ASCD) and posterior (PSCD) spinal canal depth were measured; MSCD was calculated and modelled against weight and gestational age. Results: ASCD and PSCD (mm) correlated significantly with weight and gestational age (all r > 0.8). A simple linear model MSCD (mm) = 3 Multiplication-Sign Weight (kg) + 5 was the best fit, identifying an SCD value within the correct range for 87.2% (68/78) (95% CI (78.0, 92.9%)) cases. Gestational age did not add significantly to the predictive value of the model. Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between MSCD and body weight at post-mortem MRI in foetuses and perinatal deaths. If this association holds in preterm neonates, use of the formula MSCD (mm) = 3 Multiplication-Sign Weight (kg) + 5 could result in fewer traumatic LPs in this population.

  15. Preparación de canales curvos y calcificados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Sofia Gallego Lopez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa preparación durante el tratamiento endodóntico consiste en la correcta limpieza y conformación del sistema de conductos radiculares, y que conserve siempre su forma original. Al finalizar la preparación, se debe obtener un conducto con conicidad uniforme y con un tope apical, que permita un selle hermético al momento de la obturación. Se debe tener en cuenta la dificultad para lograr resultados satisfactorios sobre todo en conductos curvos y calcificados debido a la complejidad de éstos. Las técnicas implementadas y el instrumental adecuado para la preparación de conductos, han sido muchos con el fin de minimizar los errores durante la preparación. No obstante, ninguna técnica ni instrumental por sí solo resulta ideal en la prevención de estos errores; es necesario el cumplimiento de algunos principios básicos durante la preparación de estos conductos, tales como la correcta preparación coronal, el uso continuo de irrigantes y agentes quelantes, el mantenimiento de la permeabilidad, el limado anticurvatura y la doble conicidad. La incorrección de estos principios conlleva a errores, los cuales dificultan el éxito del tratamiento endodóntico. Los avances de la ciencia y el advenimiento de los instrumentos de níquel-titanio, han logrado facilitar el tratamiento de endodoncia, tanto que ya no es considerado como anteriormente se le atribuía que era un procedimiento difícil, lo importante predecir la orientación y anatomía del conducto antes de emplear técnicas o instrumentales, ya que un error en ellas nos llevará al fracaso del tratamiento. (DUAZARY 2011, 66 - 73AbstractThe preparation for the endodontic treatment is proper cleaning and shaping the root canal system, and always keep its original shape. After the preparation, must be obtained through uniform and tapered with an apical stop, allowing a tight seal when the seal. It must take into account the difficulty of achieving satisfactory results especially

  16. Gradually varied flow in compound open channels; Flujo gradualmente variado en canales de seccion compuesta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotela Avila, Gilberto [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2001-03-01

    The author shows that the computation of gradually-varied-flow profiles in prismatic compound channels involves the solution of the dynamic equation, but using the compound channel Froude number defined by Blalock and Sturm. The same equation is used for non-prismatic channels by dividing the channel into short reaches and carrying the computation step by step through an iterative process. [Spanish] El autor demuestra que los perfiles del flujo gradualmente variado en canales prismaticos de seccion compuesta se pueden determinar mediante la integracion de la llamada ecuacion dinamica, pero usando el numero de Froude definido por Blalock y Sturm para este tipo de canales. Cuando no son prismaticos, tambien se aplica la ecuacion de la energia por tramos y el calculo sigue un proceso iterativo una vez definidos los tirantes criticos multiples y la zona en que se desarrolla el perfil.

  17. Comparison of the rheological properties of four root canal sealers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seok Woo Chang; Kwang Shik Bae; Young-Kyu Lee; Qiang Zhu; Won Jun Shon; Woo Cheol Lee; Kee Yeon Kum; Seung Ho Baek; In Bog Lee; Bum-Soon Lim

    2015-01-01

    The flowability of a root canal sealer is clinically important because it improves the penetration of the sealer into the complex root canal system. The purpose of this study was to compare the flowabilities of four root canal sealers, measured using the simple press method (ISO 6876), and their viscosities, measured using a strain-controlled rheometer. A newly developed, calcium phosphate-based root canal sealer (Capseal) and three commercial root canal sealers (AH Plus, Sealapex and Pulp Canal Sealer EWT) were used in this study. The flowabilities of the four root canal sealers were measured using the simple press method (n55) and their viscosities were measured using a strain-controlled rheometer (n55). The correlation between these two values was statistically analysed using Spearman’s correlation test. The flow diameters and the viscosities of the root canal sealers were strongly negatively correlated (r520.8618). The viscosity of Pulp Canal Sealer EWT was the lowest and increased in the following order:AH Plus,Sealapex,Capseal (P,0.05). All of the tested root canal sealers showed characteristic time-and temperature-dependent changes in their rheological properties. The viscosities measured using the strain-controlled rheometer were more precise than the flowabilities measured using the simple press method, suggesting that the rheometer can accurately measure the rheological properties of root canal sealers.

  18. Politics and soccer in the film through the lens of newsreel Canal 100 Política e futebol no cinema através das lentes do cinejornal Canal 100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto de Azevedo Maia

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This document discusses the historical route and the establishment of language of Canal 100, a movie news periodical. The format of the news movie series was studied for a better understanding of its narrative structure and especially the images related to soccer, responsible for the permanence of Canal 100 in the memory of several generations. To this end, we analyzed 42 editions, 55 cin script and collected 26 articles of the printing press, studying the period of 1959 up 1986. O artigo discute a trajetória histórica e a constituição da linguagem do cinejornal Canal 100. O formato do cinejornal foi estudado para melhor compreensão da sua estrutura narrativa e, particularmente, as imagens relativas ao futebol, responsáveis pela manutenção do Canal 100 na memória de algumas gerações. Para tanto, foram analisadas 42 edições, 55 roteiros e coletados 26 artigos da grande imprensa, cobrindo o período de 1959 a 1986.

  19. The Canal da Piracema at Itaipu Dam as a fish pass system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Makrakis

    2007-01-01

    polemic fish pass has the potential to contribute to the conservation of fish stocks in Itaipu Reservoir and upstream stretches, because of the presence of spawning and development (nurseries areas for migratory species.O Canal da Piracema é considerado o maior sistema de transposição para peixes no mundo, com 10 km de extensão. A sua construção foi controversa, pois viabilizou a conexão entre duas províncias ictiofaunísticas distintas. Este trabalho buscou avaliar a ictiofauna presente no Canal da Piracema, a abundância e distribuição das espécies migradoras de longa distância ao longo deste sistema de transposição (indicação de seletividade. O Canal da Piracema mostrou-se difícil de ser amostrado, devido a sua elevada heterogeneidade ambiental: lagos artificiais, escadas e canais semi-naturais, sendo utilizados diversos aparelhos de pesca, adequados aos diversos biótopos (litoral não estruturado e estruturado, amostrados com redes de arrasto e pesca elétrica; lêntico, amostrado com redes de espera e espinhel (mais profundo; e águas rápidas, amostradas com tarrafas. A ictiofauna presente seguiu o padrão para a América do Sul e rio Paraná, com amplo domínio de Characiformes e Siluriformes, sendo Characidae, Anostomidae, Pimelodidade e Loricariidae as famílias mais representativas. Ao todo foram capturadas 116 espécies sendo que 17 eram migradoras de longas distâncias. Nas regiões litorâneas estruturadas e não estruturadas do Canal da Piracema, as capturas se restringiram às espécies de pequeno porte, sendo as mais representativas Bryconamericus exodon e Apareiodon affinis.Nas áreas lênticas houve predomínio de Hypostomus spp., seguidos de Iheringichthys labrosus. Nas áreas lênticas profundas a espécie mais capturada foi Hoplias aff. malabaricus. Nas áreas de águas rápidas houve maior captura de espécies migradoras de longa distância, sendo Prochilodus lineatus e Leporinus elongatus as mais capturadas. A redução acentuada

  20. Water quality of the Boca Raton canal system and effects of the Hillsboro Canal inflow, southeastern Florida, 1990-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The City of Boca Raton in southeastern Palm Beach County, Florida, is an urban residential area that has sustained a constant population growth with subsequent increase in water use. The Boca Raton network of canals is controlled to provide for drainage of excess water, to maintain proper coastal ground-water levels to prevent saltwater intrusion, and to recharge the surficial aquifer system from which the city withdraws potable water. Most of the water supplied to the Boca Raton canal system and the surficial aquifer system, other than rainfall and runoff, is pumped from the Hillsboro Canal. The Biscayne aquifer, principal hydrogeologic unit of the surficial aquifer system, is highly permeable and there is a close relation between water levels in the canals and the aquifer. The amount of water supplied by seepage from the conservation areas is unknown. Because the Hillsboro Canal flows from Lake Okeechobee and Water Conservation Areas 1 and 2, which are places of more highly mineralized ground water and surface water, the canal is a possible source of contamination. Water samples were collected at 10 canal sites during wet and dry seasons and analyzed for major inorganic ions and related characteristics, nutrients, and trace elements. All concentrations were generally within or less than the drinking-water standards established by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. The high concentrations of sodium and chloride that were detected in samples from the Boca Raton canal system are probably from the more mineralized water of the Hillsboro Canal. Other water-quality data, gathered from various sources from 1982 through 1991, did not indicate any significant changes nor trends. The effects of the Hillsboro Canal on the water quality of the Boca Raton canal system are indicated by increased concentrations of sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, and total organic carbon. Concentrations of the constituents in the canal water generally decrease with distance

  1. Ewing Sarcoma of the External Ear Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnetoglu, Adem; Baglam, Tekin; Tokuc, Gulnur; Kecelioglu Binnetoglu, Kiymet; Gerin, Fatma; Sari, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a high-grade malignant tumor that has skeletal and extraskeletal forms and consists of small round cells. In the head and neck region, reported localization of extraskeletal ES includes the larynx, thyroid gland, submandibular gland, nasal fossa, pharynx, skin, and parotid gland, but not the external ear canal. Methods. We present the unique case of a 2-year-old boy with extraskeletal ES arising from the external ear canal, mimicking auricular hematoma. Results. Surgery was performed and a VAC/IE (vincristine, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide alternating with ifosfamide, and etoposide) regimen was used for adjuvant chemotherapy for 12 months. Conclusion. The clinician should consider extraskeletal ES when diagnosing tumors localized in the head and neck region because it may be manifested by a nonspecific clinical picture mimicking common otorhinolaryngologic disorders. PMID:27313930

  2. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, F T

    2012-01-31

    Squamous cell carcinoma ofthe anal canal represents 1.5% of all malignancies affectingthe gastrointestinal tract. Over the past 20 years dramatic changes have been seen in both the epidemiological distribution of the disease and in the therapeutic modalities utilised to manage it. CLINICAL MANAGEMENT: Historically abdominoperineal resection had been the treatment of choice with local resection reserved for early stage disease. Work by Nigro et al. has revolutionised how we currently manage carcinoma of the anal canal, demonstrating combined modality chemoradiotherapy as an appropriate alternative to surgical resection with the benefit of preserving sphincter function. Surgery is then reserved for recurrent disease with salvage abdominoperineal resection. This article reviews current literature and highlights the changing therapeutic modalities with selected clinical cases

  3. The shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal A forma do canal vertebral lombar humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Zarzur

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on the anatomy of the human vertebral column characterizes the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal as triangular. The purpose of the present study was to determine the precise shape of the lumbar vertebral canal. Ten lumbar vertebral columns of adult male cadavers were dissected. Two transverse sections were performed in the third lumbar vertebra. One section was performed at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava, and the other section was performed at the level of the pedicles. The shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the pedicles tends to be oval or circular, whereas the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava is triangular. Thus, the shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal is not exclusively triangular, as reported in the literature. It is related to the level of the transversal section performed on the lumbar vertebra. This finding should be taken into consideration among factors involved in the spread of solutions introduced into the epidural space.A literatura sobre a anatomia da coluna vertebral descreve como sendo triangular o formato do canal vertebral na região lombar. O objetivo deste estudo é determinar a real forma do canal da coluna vertebral lombar.Dez colunas vertebrais de cadáveres de homens adultos foram dissecadas. Dois cortes transversais foram executados na terceira vértebra lombar. Um corte foi feito no nível das bordas inferiores de dois ligamentos amarelos vizinhos e o outro corte foi transversal, no nível dos pedículos. A forma do canal vertebral variou: no nível dos pedículos ela tende a ser oval ou circular e junto às bordas inferiores dos ligamentos amarelos passa a ser triangular. Portanto, a forma do canal vertebral lombar não é somente triangular; ela depende do nível em que se faz o corte transversal da vértebra. Estes achados devem ser levados em consideração entre os fatores envolvidos na difusão das

  4. Comparison of Bacterial Leakage between 3 Different Root Canal Obturation Techniques in Oval Shaped Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshagh-ali Saberi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of 3 obturation techniques in oval-shaped canals by bacterial leakage assessment. Methods: Sixty mandibular incisors with oval canals were selected after providing buccolingual and mesiodistal radiographs. The teeth were sectioned at a 10 mm distance from the apex. After instrumentation, the teeth were divided into 3 groups and the canals in the three groups were obturated with lateral condensation (G1, warm vertical condensation (G2 and thermoplasticized injectable gutta percha (G3. The teeth were exposed to human saliva. Observing the turbidity of the BHI broth for a period of 63 days the number of days required for the complete contamination of root canals was recorded. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods and Kruskal-Wallis test with SPSS statistical software. Results: Warm vertical condensation (G2 needed a significantly greater average time for leakage than the two other methods. No significant differences were found between lateral condensations and thermoplasticized injectable G.P techniques. Conclusion: warm vertical condensation provides a better seal against bacterial leakage than lateral condensation and obtura II method in obturating oval-canals.

  5. Spinal canal narrowing during simulated frontal impact

    OpenAIRE

    Ivancic, Paul C.; Panjabi, Manohar M.; Tominaga, Yasuhiro; Pearson, Adam M.; Elena Gimenez, S.; Maak, Travis G.

    2005-01-01

    Between 23 and 70% of occupants involved in frontal impacts sustain cervical spine injuries, many with neurological involvement. It has been hypothesized that cervical spinal cord compression and injury may explain the variable neurological profile described by frontal impact victims. The goals of the present study, using a biofidelic whole cervical spine model with muscle force replication, were to quantify canal pinch diameter (CPD) narrowing during frontal impact and to evaluate the potent...

  6. Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, O

    2009-02-01

    The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

  7. Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, O

    2012-02-01

    The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

  8. CSF Hydrodynamics in the spinal canal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaczmarská, A.; Vaněk, P.; Maršík, František; Převorovská, Světlana; Otáhal, S.; Otáhal, J.

    Brno : Brno University of Technology, 2006 - (Burša, J.; Fuis, V.), s. 116-117 ISBN 80-214-3232-2. [Human Biomechanics 2006. Hrotovice (CZ), 13.11.2006-16.11.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/03/0958 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : spinal canal * cerebrospinal flluid * hydrodynamics Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  9. Root canal cleaning through cavitation and microstreaming

    OpenAIRE

    Verhaagen, B.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the flow from a needle using Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations and high-speed imaging experiments on sub-millimeter fluidic channels. These have shown that the flow is not effective in delivering the bleach near the bacteria, due to the complex geometry of the root canal. Laser-Activated Irrigation (LAI) and Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation (PUI) are techniques for improving the irrigant distribution, of which we have investigated the cleaning mechanism, being acousti...

  10. Epidermoid carcinoma of the external auditory canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 43 years-old, urban, male patient assists the consultation of Otolaryngology with a long evolving otorrhea (around two years), receiving several treatments against the external otitis he suffered. With those antecedents and what we found when examining him, we decided to take a sample (biopsy) of the area, diagnosing an epidermoid carcinoma of the left external canal, an infrequent pathology in our settings

  11. Root canal filling using Resilon: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, D J

    2011-07-01

    Root canal treatment is achieved by chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system followed by filling. The filling material \\'entombs\\' residual bacteria and acts as a barrier which prevents the entrance of oral microorganisms and reinfection of the root canal system through microleakage. However, filling with contemporary root filling materials such as gutta-percha offers limited long-term resistance to microorganisms; as a result other materials such as Resilon have been investigated as alternatives. The aim of this review was to analyse the literature to consider whether Resilon is a suitable root canal filling material. A MEDLINE and Cochrane library search including various keyword searches identified several papers which investigated or discussed Resilon or RealSeal\\/Epiphany. Analysis of the literature demonstrated that the bulk of the literature is in vitro in nature, based largely on leakage-type studies, and demonstrates a wide variety of methodologies with conflicting findings; as a result meaningful conclusions are difficult. Within the limit of these in vitro studies Resilon appears to perform adequately in comparison to gutta-percha, however, as a result of the questionable merit of such studies, it cannot presently be considered an evidence-based alternative to the current gold standard gutta-percha. It is imperative that before Resilon is considered as a replacement material, a better understanding of the physical properties of the resin sealer and the reality of the adhesive \\'monoblock\\' are elucidated. The literature also demonstrates a paucity of quality long-term clinical outcome studies which will need to be addressed before firm conclusions can be reached.

  12. Endoscopic posterior decompression of lumbar canal stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yad Ram Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar canal stenosis (LCS is quite common. Surgery is indicated when patient fails to improve after conservative treatment. Endoscopic technique can be used in LCS and lateral recess stenosis. It can be performed in degenerative canal stenosis or with disc bulges. Bilateral severe bony canal stenosis and unstable spine are the contraindications. This procedure should be avoided in patients with a history of trauma. Detailed history and thorough physical examination should be performed to find out exact level of pathology responsible for symptoms. Patient′s symptoms must correlate with radiological findings. Magnetic resonance imaging is the investigation of choice because of its superior visualization of soft-tissue. Computed tomography scan does give a more accurate and detailed picture of the bony anatomy. Although the operative time and the complication rate could be more in the initial learning curve, the results of endoscopic decompression are comparable with conventional open procedures with the additional benefit of decreased complications and lower morbidity, when sufficient experience is gained. Complications in endoscopic surgery for LCS could be dural tears, hematomas and root and facet injury. This procedure is also associated with limitations such as steep learning curve and the contra lateral decompression may not be as good as ipsilateral side. Some of the limitations of this technique can be overcome by attending live operative workshop, practice on models and hands on cadaveric dissection. Conversion to an open procedure may be required when there is disorientation, management of dural tear and for control of bleeding.

  13. Desarrollo e implementación de técnicas de ingeniería industrial para la mejora de una línea de producció. Resumen ejecutivo

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Davara, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    Haciendo uso de diferentes herramientas de ingeniería industrial se pretende incrementar la producción diaria de la línea de fabricación de un termómetro oral. La plana consta de ocho operarios trabajando en línea en doce diferentes estaciones. Para lograr el objetivo se debe balancear la línea minimizando los tiempos de trabajo de cada operario, simular su funcionamiento bajo diferentes situaciones y modificar algunos procesos de trabajo de manera que se ajusten a los requerimientos del clie...

  14. ROOT CANAL IRRIGANTS AND IRRIGATION TECHNIQUES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniketh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Root canal irrigation is not much emphasised in endodontic therapy. Most articles discussed are on root canal shaping and obturation not much emphasis is given for irrigation. There are many irrigation solutions which are introduced into market. The primary objective of root canal therapy is the ret ention of the pulpless or pulpally involved tooth with its associated periapical tissues in a healthy state. Achievement of this objective requires that the pulpal spaces and contents be eliminated as sources of infection. As the Enterococcus faecalis is a lso found to be the most important cause for endodontic failures, the action and efficacy of fewer irrigants against E. faecalis should also be given prime importance as of others. Therefore, the introduction of an antimicrobial endodontic irrigant during root canal therapy should be given priority in the hierarchy of root canal treatment. The purpose of this article is to analyse root canal irrigants, irrigation techniques and irrigation protocol.

  15. Mischiuen III, un contexto funerario singular en el Canal Beagle (Tierra del Fuego)

    OpenAIRE

    Vila-Mitjà, Assumpció; Casas, Alicia; Oriol Vicente, Campos

    2006-01-01

    (ESP)Presentamos aquí los trabajos realizados en un contexto funerario singular, Mischiuen III, así como los primeros resultados obtenidos. Este estudio aporta nuevos datos para la comprensión de las sociedades cazadoras- recolectoras de Tierra del Fuego, y se enmarca en los proyectos de investigación etnoarqueológica que venimos desarrollando en la costa argentina del canal Beagle desde finales de los años 80. Al mismo tiempo se presentan los resultados de la aplicación de nuevas metodología...

  16. El tratamiento del urbanismo y del agua en los informativos de Canal 9

    OpenAIRE

    Verdú Cueco, Yolanda

    2010-01-01

    E l artículo expone los mecanismos de manipulación periodística detectados en las noticias de la televisión pública valenciana Canal 9, en su tratamiento de dos temas de interés, el urbanismo y el agua, durante los seis primeros meses previos a las elecciones autonómicas de 2007. La muestra empírica sobre la que se ha puesto a prueba un modelo de análisis del sesgo y el encuadre la constituyen ciento cuarenta noticias sobre los dos temas. Para determinar el sesgo examinamos en las noticias: e...

  17. Regulación mitocondrial de los canales de Ca2+ CRAC en linfocitos T

    OpenAIRE

    Montalvo Mimbrero, Gema Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    La entrada de Ca2+ al interior celular es la señal necesaria para que se produzca la activación del linfocito T. Esta entrada de Ca2+, denominada ICRAC (Ca2+ release activated Ca2+ current) ocurre tras el vaciado de los depósitos intracelulares mediado por IP3, generado tras el reconocimiento del antígeno por el receptor de la célula T (TCR). Los canales CRAC se inactivan de manera dependiente de la concentración de Ca2+ intracelular, por lo que cualquier orgánulo, sistema de transporte o met...

  18. Facial nerve canal dehiscence in chronic otitis media without cholesteatoma

    OpenAIRE

    Nomiya, Shigenobu; Kariya, Shin; Nomiya, Rie; MORITA, NORIMASA; Nishizaki, Kazunori; Paparella, Michael M.; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2013-01-01

    The information on incidence of the facial nerve canal dehiscence in chronic otitis media is important for surgeons. The purpose of this study is to disclose the histopathologic findings of facial nerve canal dehiscence in human temporal bones with chronic otitis media. We divided the human temporal bones into two groups (age 4 years, and under 4 years of age). We evaluated the incidence and the area of the facial nerve canal dehiscence in chronic otitis media under light microscopy. Age-matc...

  19. Ulnar Nerve Compression in Guyon's Canal by Ganglion Cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Kwak, Kyung-Woo; Kim, Min-Su; Chang, Chul-Hoon; Kim, Seong-Ho

    2011-01-01

    Compression of the ulnar nerve in Guyon's canal can result from repeated blunt trauma, fracture of the hamate's hook, and arterial thrombosis or aneurysm. In addition, conditions such as ganglia, rheumatoid arthritis and ulnar artery disease can rapidly compress the ulnar nerve in Guyon's canal. A ganglion cyst can acutely protrude or grow, which also might compress the ulnar nerve. So, clinicians should consider a ganglion cyst in Guyon's canal as a possible underlying cause of ulnar nerve c...

  20. Feasibility and limitations of endoscopy in Guyon's canal

    OpenAIRE

    Noszczyk, Bartłomiej H.; Zdybek, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This retrospective report summarizes observations from eight operations where the endoscopically assisted approach was used to explore Guyon's canal syndromes of idiopathic aetiology. Aim To evaluate the feasibility and limitations of endoscopic Guyon's canal release performed from a distal forearm incision. Material and methods Eight charts and video records of eight ulnar tunnel syndrome patients presenting concomitant idiopathic Guyon's canal syndromes were retrospectively rev...

  1. Cervical spinal canal narrowing and cervical neurologi-cal injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ling; Chen, Hai-Bin; Wang, Yi; ZHANG Li-ying; Liu, Jing-cheng; WANG Zheng-guo

    2012-01-01

    【Abstract】Cervical spinal canal narrowing can lead to injury of the spinal cord and neurological symptoms in-cluding neck pain, headache, weakness and parasthesisas. According to previous and recent clinical researches, we investigated the geometric parameters of normal cervical spinal canal including the sagittal and transverse diameters as well as Torg ratio. The mean sagittal diameter of cervical spinal canal at C 1 to C 7 ranges from 15.33 mm to 20.46 mm, ...

  2. Optimizing the chemical aspect of root canal irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Wesselink, P.R.; Sluis, van der, J.; Versluis, A.M.; Macedo, de, R.G.

    2013-01-01

    Root canal treatment is aimed at the removal of inflamed and infected tissue present in the root canal system. It will prevent the entrance of new microorganisms or nutrients in order to maintain or create a healthy environment around the root. There is sufficient evidence that shows that traditional endodontic therapy cannot make the root canal system completely free of bacteria. Moreover, it may not always result in complete healing of apical periodontitis, highlighting the need of optimizi...

  3. Choice of root canal irrigants by Serbian dental practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Tošić Goran; Miladinović Milan; Kovačević Milorad; Stojanović Miodrag

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. Root canal treatment is considered to be the one of the most important procedures in endodontic treatment. To irrigate the root canal it is most common to use sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexodine, ethylenediami-netetraacetic acid (EDTA), local anesthetic solution, while the most used in Serbia is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The aim of this survey was to reveal the preferred root canal irrigants used by general dental practitioners in Ser...

  4. ROOT CANAL IRRIGANTS AND IRRIGATION TECHNIQUES: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Aniketh; Mohamed; Geeta; Nandakishore; Gourav Kumar; Patrick Timothy; Jayson Mathew; Sahle Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Root canal irrigation is not much emphasised in endodontic therapy. Most articles discussed are on root canal shaping and obturation not much emphasis is given for irrigation. There are many irrigation solutions which are introduced into market. The primary objective of root canal therapy is the ret ention of the pulpless or pulpally involved tooth with its associated periapical tissues in a healthy state. Achievement of this objective requires that the pulpal spaces and con...

  5. Interactions between root canal irrigants, sealers and dentin

    OpenAIRE

    Neelakantan, P.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to determine the interactions between root filling materials and root dentin and to investigate if root canal irrigating solutions had an impact on these interactions. The following outcomes were assessed in the studies encompassed in this thesis: (i) dislocation resistance of an epoxy resin based root canal sealer and tricalcium silicate based root canal sealers, (ii) the influence of irrigation protocols on the sealing ability and chemical interactions with ...

  6. Mapping ear canal movement using area-based surface matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenness, Malcolm J.; Osborn, Jon; Weller, W. Lee

    2002-02-01

    Movement of the external ear canal, associated with jaw motion, relative to the concha region of the pinna has been studied. Pairs of open-jaw and closed-jaw impressions were taken of 14 ears from 10 subjects. Three-dimensional coordinate data were obtained from the concha and the anterior surface of the canal using a reflex microscope. Proprietary area-based matching software was used to evaluate distortion of the two surfaces between the two jaw positions. The canal data from each pair were placed into the same coordinate system with their respective concha regions aligned. Difference maps of the canal data were used to demonstrate the amount of anterior-posterior (A-P), superior-inferior (S-I), and medial-lateral (M-L) movement, relative to the concha, that occurred between the open- and closed-jaw impressions. The concha regions did not undergo significant deformation. The canal regions underwent varying amounts of deformation with all canals conforming within an rms of 136 μm across the entire surface. The majority of canals underwent significant movement relative to the concha. M-L movement ranged from +2.0 to -3.8 mm; eight canals moved laterally, five moved medially, and two showed no movement. S-I movement ranged from +3.7 to -2.7 mm; nine canals moved inferiorly, two moved superiorly, and three showed no movement. A-P movement ranged between +7.5 and -8.5 mm, with five canals moving anteriorly, three posteriorly, and four in a mixed fashion. This study has shown the variability of canal movement relative to the concha and does not support previous reports that suggest that the ear canal only widens with jaw opening.

  7. Computed tomography imaging for superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superior semicircular canal dehiscence is a newly described syndrome of sound and/or pressure induced vertigo. Computed tomography (CT) imaging plays an important role in confirmation of a defect in the bone overlying the canal. A high resolution CT technique utilising 0.5 mm or thinner slices and multi-planar reconstructions parallel to the superior semicircular canal is required. Placement of a histogram over a suspected defect can assist CT diagnosis

  8. Endodontic Considerations in Three-canalled Premolars: A Practical Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Giardino, Luciano; Asgary, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    The most difficult clinical considertions in orthograde root canal treatment are generally related to the anatomy of the teeth. Three-canalled maxillary and mandibular premolars (mini-molars) have been reported in several studies. The purpose of this paper was to review various aspects of three-canalled premolars including incidence, clinical and radiographic diagnosis, racial predisposition, access cavity preparation, instrumentation and obturation. PMID:27141223

  9. Aplicação da modelagem por redes de Petri para avaliação ocupacional de trabalhadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Lied

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho introduz a modelagem por Redes de Petri Coloridas (RPC como ferramenta para avaliação dos riscos ocupacionais de trabalhadores em uma linha de manufatura. O uso da ferramenta consiste em modelar a linha de manufatura por Redes de Petri Coloridas, simular o modelo em computador, informando a situação inicial do processo.  A partir deste ponto, com os resultados obtidos da simulação avaliar a carga de trabalho individual dos trabalhadores, permitindo verificar quais as tarefas desenvolvidas devem ser estudadas para diminuição dos riscos ocupacionais envolvidos. Foi possível verificar que alguns trabalhadores estão sobrecarregados e outros folgados na linha de montagem estudada.

  10. Desarrollo de un modelo de simulación para la producción de carne bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Vargas Jarquín

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo estudia el problema de simular los sistemas de producción de carne bovina basados en el pastoreo y se fundamenta en las investigaciones agronómicas existentes aplicables a las condiciones tropicales. Esta información se transformó en algoritmos que fueron integrados en un programa de simulación. El objetivo fundamental ha sido crear un modelo computacional que considere las fases de desarrollo y engorde de novillos en pastoreo, lo cual constituye sólo una parte del modelo real. En este artículo se describen todas las fórmulas utilizadas para simular tanto el comportamiento animal, como el comportamiento de los pastos, del clima y algunas decisiones tomadas por el hombre. El sistema fue desarrollado en SIMSCRIPT II.5, un lenguaje especializado en simulación y orientado a objetos, lo cual permitió modelar cuatro objetos que interactúan durante el tiempo de corrida, con una o más instanciaciones, a los cuales se llamó: hombre, animal, repasto y clima.

  11. Determining optimal transit charges: The Kiel Canal in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Heitmann, Nadine; Rehdanz, Katrin; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The Kiel Canal in Germany connects ports on the Baltic Sea with the rest of the world and is the most-used artificial waterway in the world. Despite this fact, it generates a balance sheet loss. Revenues, which are mainly generated by the transit charge, do not cover its operating expenses. This situation raises the question: What reforms could be made to make the canal generate a balance sheet profit? In this paper, we focus solely on the canal's revenue. Because the canal is a monopoly that...

  12. GeoGebra helps to know canal surfaces better

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bímová, Daniela; Bittnerová, Daniela; Vraštil, Ondřej

    2015-11-01

    GeoGebra 5.0 is the dynamic geometric and mathematic software which dynamic tools allow the user to solve dynamic problems in a plane and as well as in the three-dimensional space. The contribution presents the dynamic applets constructed in GeoGebra 5.0 that show the origin as well as some properties of various kinds of canal surfaces. There are described the applets for constructing the canal surfaces in the paper. Some of the created canal surfaces are compared with the real life canal surface examples.

  13. [Canal infection. Ecological theory and repair with osteodentin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz, M A; Zeberio, T

    1991-01-01

    The characteristics of the infection in the root canal are analyzed, specially its development before pulpal necrosis. It is inferred that it is an ecological infection with a function: to decompose the necrosis. Inactivating the infection in the canal by the formocresol technique, calcium hidroxide or with the conventional basic treatment in Endodontics, cleaning, washing, disinfecting and, in this case, with partial obturation of the canal, it is possible to induce a reparation with osteodentine that can cover all the free extension of the canal. PMID:1882104

  14. Morphometric analysis of the cervical spinal canal on MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveeva, Niki; Janevski, Petar; Nakeva, Natasha; Zhivadinovik, Julija; Dodevski, Ace

    2013-01-01

    Two useful numerical values, called the Torg ratio and the spinal canal diameter (SC diameter) are widely accepted as reliable morphometric determinants of spinal stenosis. The aims of the study were to examine morphometric determinants of the cervical spinal canal on MRI in both sexes and analyse them as reliable indicators of spinal stenosis. Measurements were made on 50 MR images (sagittal T2 weighted images from C3 to C7) of the cervical spine of patients from the Emergency Centre who had undertaken MRI of the cervical spine in addition to CT for various diagnostic indications. Torg ratio, used in evaluation of the spinal canal stenosis on plain x-ray radiographs, cannot be used as a spinal canal stenosis indicator due to the gender differences in the vertebral bodies' width. Sagittal canal diameters were more spread out in males than in females. MRI enables the value of the space available for the spinal cord, (SAC) to be determined, by subtracting the sagittal diameter of the spinal cord from the sagittal diameter of the spinal canal. Not gender, but individual and level differences in the SAC values were evident (cervical cord enlargement). SAC values relied more on the spinal canal than on the spinal cord, so that the differences in the dimensions of the spinal cord accounted for less variability in the SAC values. MR imaging of the cervical spine provides more accurate cervical canal and spinal cord measurements that could serve as morphometric determinants of the cervical canal stenosis. PMID:24280784

  15. Determinação do sexo em catfish de canal (Ictalurus punctatus utilizando endoscopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Souza Mendonça De Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A identificação precoce do sexo em peixes é um procedimento importante para o desenvolvimento de estratégias que facilitem o manejo no plantel de reprodutores. A endoscopia pode ser utilizada para essa identificação, embora em peixes seu uso ainda seja restrito. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi validar o uso do endoscópio rígido via poro urogenital para determinação do sexo do catfish de canal (Ictalurus punctatus. O equipamento utilizado foi um endoscópio Multipurpose Rigid™ 30º com 2,7 mm de diâmetro e 18 cm de comprimento. Foram examinados 60 peixes com peso variando entre 86 e 1.032 gramas nos quais foi introduzido o endoscópio via poro genital e, logo em seguida, eutanaziados para confirmação do sexo. Amostras de tecido gonadal foram coletadas para avaliação histológica do estádio de maturação e confirmação do sexo. Os resultados mostraram que dos 60 peixes examinados, 57 tiveram confirmação positiva do sexo via endoscopia, o que corresponde a 95% da amostra. A utilização da endoscopia para determinação do sexo em I. punctatus via poro genital é viável.

  16. Comparison of antimicrobial substantivity of root canal irrigants in instrumented root canals up to 72 h: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    M N Shahani; Subba Reddy, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    Disinfection of the root canal system is one of the primary aims of root canal treatment. This can be achieved through the use of various antimicrobial agents in the form of irrigants and medicaments. The antimicrobial substantivity of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate, 1% povidone iodine, 2.5% hydrogen peroxide followed by 2% sodium hypochlorite, and 2% sodium hypochlorite alone as irrigants was assessed in instrumented root canals. 2% chlorhexidine showed antimicrobial substantivity lasting up to ...

  17. CAVERNOUS HEMANGIOMA OF THE INTERNAL AUDITORY CANAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Hekmatara

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Cavernous hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of the internal auditory canal (IAC of which fourteen cases have been reported so far."nTinnitus and progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL are the chief complaints of the patients. Audiological and radiological planes, CTScan, and magnetic resonance image (MRI studies are helpful in diagnosis. The only choice of treatment is surgery with elective transmastoid trans¬labyrinthine approach. And if tumor is very large, the method of choice will be retrosigmoid approach.

  18. Computed tomography in spinal canal diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobota, J.; Dutka, J. (Ustredni Vojenska Nemocnice, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1983-09-01

    On a sample of 128 patients examined for suspected disorders of the spinal canal by computed tomography, the experience with the diagnostic possibilities of this quick, accurate and noninvasive imaging technique is demonstrated. The methodology of the examination and the range of obtained information in diagnosing congenital anomalies, traumas and degenerative changes are briefly described. Certain problems and limitations of this method for the diagnosis of tumors are presented. For the assessment of vascular changes and inflammatory processes, computed tomography cannot be expected to be used on a wider scale.

  19. Computed tomography in spinal canal diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On a sample of 128 patients examined for suspected disorders of the spinal canal by computed tomography, the experience with the diagnostic possibilities of this quick, accurate and noninvasive imaging technique is demonstrated. The methodology of the examination and the range of obtained information in diagnosing congenital anomalies, traumas and degenerative changes are briefly described. Certain problems and limitations of this method for the diagnosis of tumors are presented. For the assessment of vascular changes and inflammatory processes, computed tomography cannot be expected to be used on a wider scale

  20. Water Environment Evolution along the China Grand Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, F.; Wu, Y. X.; Yang, B. F.; Li, X. J.

    2014-03-01

    The China Grand Canal is one of the earliest canals in the world, having lasted for nearly 3000 years. Even its section canals have a rich history, such as the North-South Grand Canal that was established during the Sui Dynasty, whereas the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal was excavated during the Yuan Dynasty and the east line of the South-to-North Water Diversion. As one of the longest in the world, the China Grand Canal's total length is over 3500 kilometers. This length includes the navigable, unnavigable, and underground sections. Making the best use of situations and according to local conditions, the Chinese people harmoniously constructed the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal with nature. Tens of millions of workers took nearly 3000 years to complete the great shipping system. Navigable sections still exist for up to 900 kilometers and the volume of freight traffic is approximately 300 million tons. The canal remains the main logistical channel of the North-to-South Coal Transportation, South-to-North Water Diversion, and resources circulation. To date, China is promoting the success of heritage application. Part of these efforts is the declaration of the China Grand Canal as a World Cultural Heritage by 2014. In addition, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer project is planned to be navigable by 2016. The ancient Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal will usher in the new ecological civilization and cultural revival along the canal. This paper presents technical methods of water environment evolution research on the river system, river, and water quality along the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal through the integration of historical literature and modern remote sensing image data. The study carried out water environment investigation and analysis along the Beijing-Hangzhou canal by using ETM, SPOT image data, and GPS measurement data. Spatial and temporal evolution characteristics and regulations of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal regional water environment in the span of 3000

  1. Water Environment Evolution along the China Grand Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The China Grand Canal is one of the earliest canals in the world, having lasted for nearly 3000 years. Even its section canals have a rich history, such as the North-South Grand Canal that was established during the Sui Dynasty, whereas the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal was excavated during the Yuan Dynasty and the east line of the South-to-North Water Diversion. As one of the longest in the world, the China Grand Canal's total length is over 3500 kilometers. This length includes the navigable, unnavigable, and underground sections. Making the best use of situations and according to local conditions, the Chinese people harmoniously constructed the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal with nature. Tens of millions of workers took nearly 3000 years to complete the great shipping system. Navigable sections still exist for up to 900 kilometers and the volume of freight traffic is approximately 300 million tons. The canal remains the main logistical channel of the North-to-South Coal Transportation, South-to-North Water Diversion, and resources circulation. To date, China is promoting the success of heritage application. Part of these efforts is the declaration of the China Grand Canal as a World Cultural Heritage by 2014. In addition, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer project is planned to be navigable by 2016. The ancient Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal will usher in the new ecological civilization and cultural revival along the canal. This paper presents technical methods of water environment evolution research on the river system, river, and water quality along the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal through the integration of historical literature and modern remote sensing image data. The study carried out water environment investigation and analysis along the Beijing-Hangzhou canal by using ETM, SPOT image data, and GPS measurement data. Spatial and temporal evolution characteristics and regulations of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal regional water environment in the span of

  2. Root canal treatment of mandibular second premolar tooth with taurodontism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujašković Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Taurodontism is a morphoanatomical change in the shape of a tooth. An enlarged body of a tooth with smaller than usual roots is a characteristic feature. Internal tooth anatomy correlates with this appearance, which means that a taurodontal tooth has a large pulp chamber and apically positioned furcations. This dental anomaly may be associated with different syndromes and congenital discoders. CASE OUTLINE The case report presents the patient of a rare case of taurodontism in the mandibular second premolar with chronic periodontitis. Endodontic treatment was performed after dental history and clinical examination. Special care is required in all segments of endodontic treatment of a taurodontal tooth from the identification orifice, canal exploration, determining working length, cleaning and shaping and obturation of the root canal. Precurved K-file was used for canal exploration and location of the furcation. One mesial and one distal canal with the buccal position were identified in the apical third of the root canal. The working lengths of two canals were determined by radiographic interpretation with two K-files in each canal and verified with the apex locator. During canal instrumentation, the third canal was located in the disto-lingual position. The working length of the third canal was established using the apex locator. CONCLUSION Thorough knowledge of tooth anatomy and its variations can lead to lower percentage of endodontic failure. Each clinical case involving these teeth should be investigated carefully, clinically and radiographically to detect additional root canals. High quality radiographs from different angles and proper instrumentarium improve the quality of endodontic procedure.

  3. Root canal filling evaluation using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Topala, Florin; Nica, Luminita; Ionita, Ciprian; Marcauteanu, Corina; Goguta, Luciana; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Rominu, Mihai; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2010-04-01

    Endodontic therapy consists in cleaning and shaping the root canal system, removing organic debris and sealing the intra-canal space with permanent filling materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate various root canal fillings in order to detect material defects, the marginal adaptation at the root canal walls and to assess the quality of the apical sealing. 21 extracted single-root canal human teeth were selected for this study. We instrumented all roots using NiTi rotary instruments. All canals were enlarged with a 6% taper size 30 GT instrument, 0,5 mm from the anatomical apex. The root canals were irrigated with 5% sodium hypochlorite, followed by 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). After the instrumentation was completed, the root canals were obturated using a thermoplasticizable polymer of polyesters. In order to assess the defects inside the filling material and the marginal fit to the root canal walls, the conebeam micro-computed tomography (CBμCT) was used first. After the CBμCT investigation, time domain optical coherence tomography working in en face mode (TDefOCT) was employed to evaluate the previous samples. The TDefOCT system was working at 1300 nm and was doubled by a confocal channel at 970 nm. The results obtained by CBμCT revealed no visible defects inside the root-canal fillings and at the interfaces with the root-canal walls. TDefOCT investigations permit to visualize a more complex stratificated structure at the interface filling material/dental hard tissue and in the apical region.

  4. Los canales temáticos: una alternativa a la programación de la televisión generalista

    OpenAIRE

    Ruano López, Soledad; Millán Paredes, Tatiana

    2005-01-01

    La televisión, desde su nacimiento por los años cincuenta, pretendía ser cultural, utilizaba su monopolio para imponer unos productos con pretensiones culturales y formar los gustos de la audiencia. Además, entre mediados de la década de los 60 y principios de los años 80, tuvo lugar la implantación en el ámbito nacional de la primera generación de canales culturales. BBC-2 (Gran Bretaña), TVE-2 (España), ARD-3 (Alemania), FR-3 (Francia), RAI-3 (Italia). Estos canales son las segunda...

  5. Management of mandibular first molar with four canals in mesial root

    OpenAIRE

    Subbiya, Arunajatesan; Kumar, Krishnamurthy Sathish; Vivekanandhan, Paramasivam; Prakash, Venkatachalam

    2013-01-01

    Successful root canal treatment depends on adequate cleaning, shaping, and filling of the root canal system. The presence of middle mesial (MM) root canal of mandibular molars has been reported by various authors. But incidence of four canals in mesial root of mandibular molar is very rare. The aim of this case report is to present and describe the identification and management of a mandibular first molar with four canals in the mesial root and single canal in the distal root.

  6. New Technologies to Improve Root Canal Disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotino, Gianluca; Cortese, Teresa; Grande, Nicola M; Leonardi, Denise P; Di Giorgio, Gianni; Testarelli, Luca; Gambarini, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Effective irrigant delivery and agitation are prerequisites to promote root canal disinfection and debris removal and improve successful endodontic treatment. This paper presents an overview of the currently available technologies to improve the cleaning of the endodontic space and their debridement efficacy. A PubMed electronic search was conducted with appropriate key words to identify the relevant literature on this topic. After retrieving the full-text articles, all the articles were reviewed and the most appropriate were included in this review. Several different systems of mechanical activation of irrigants to improve endodontic disinfection were analysed: manual agitation with gutta-percha cones, endodontic instruments or special brushes, vibrating systems activated by low-speed hand-pieces or by sonic or subsonic energy, use of ultrasonic or laser energy to mechanically activate the irrigants and apical negative pressure irrigation systems. Furthermore, this review aims to describe systems designed to improve the intracanal bacterial decontamination by a specific chemical action, such as ozone, direct laser action or light-activated disinfection. The ultrasonic activation of root canal irrigants and of sodium hypochlorite in particular still remains the gold standard to which all other systems of mechanical agitation analyzed in this article were compared. From this overview, it is evident that the use of different irrigation systems can provide several advantages in the clinical endodontic outcome and that integration of new technologies, coupled with enhanced techniques and materials, may help everyday clinical practice. PMID:27007337

  7. Visibility of the central canal on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit-Lacour, M.C.; Lasjaunias, P.; Iffenecker, C.; Benoudiba, F.; Hadj Rabia, M.; Doyon, D. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Faculte de Paris Sud (France); Hurth, M. [Department of Neurosurgery, Faculte Paris Sud, Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

    2000-10-01

    The central canal of the spinal cord is present at birth and becomes progressively obliterated. Cadaver studies have shown that it may persiste partially or completely. To our knowledge, this entity has not been described on MRI. We reviewed 794 MRI studies of the spinal cord, and found 12 patients (aged 14 to 65 years) who had an intramedullary cavity. The cavity was at the junction of the ventral {sup 1}/{sub 3} and dorsal {sup 2}/{sub 3} of the spinal cord, except at the level of the lumbar enlargement, where it was central. It was filiform in most cases, although sometimes fusiform (3 to 4 mm in diameter), and had regular contours. The cavity were thoracic in 69 % of cases. The clinical features were totally unrelated to the image, and there were no anatomical factors (Chiari malformation, dysraphism) predisposing to syringomyelia. The images were perfectly compatible with a persistent central canal, which we interpret as a variant of normal anatomy. Therefore it is important to regard these findings as normal, to avoid unnecessary treatment and follow-up. (orig.)

  8. Anal canal carcinoma: Diagnosis - therapy - prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    78 patients with anal canal carcinoma were treated between 1970 and 1988 at the University Hospital Erlangen. 48 patients (35 women, 13 men) were treated by surgery alone, 44/48 by abdominoperineal resection, 4/48 by local excision. Median age was 63 years, median follow-up 8.5 years. The overall local recurrence rate was 16.7%, the overall five-year-survival was 51%. 30 patients received a combined radio-chemotherapy. The small pelvis was treated with a.-p./p.-a. fields up to a total dose between 42 and 50 Gy. Two courses of chemotherapy consisting of 5-FU (800 to 1000 mg/m2 days 1 to 4 and 29 to 32) and Mitomycin C (10 mg/m2 days 1 and 29) were administered. Two months after completion of treatment 83% had a biopsy proven complete remission. After a median follow-up of 15 months 87% are alive with NED, 74% are continent. The combined regimen of radio-chemotherapy is considered as the treatment of the choice for anal canal carcinoma. Abdominoperineal resection is only performed in patients with non response or local recurrent disease. (orig.)

  9. Reform in Indian canal irrigation: does technology matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narain, V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of technology - the design of canal irrigation for irrigation management reform. With reference to two different design systems in Indian irrigation - shejpali and warabandi - it shows that the potential for reform varies with the design of canal irrigation. Thre

  10. RCRA closure of the Building 3001 Storage Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 3001 Storage Canal is located under portions of Buildings 3001 and 3019 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and has a capacity of approximately 62,000 gallons of water. The term canal has historically been used to identify this structure, however, the canal is an in-ground reinforced concrete structure satisfying the regulatory definition of a tank. From 1943 through 1963, the canal in Building 3001 was designed to be an integral part of the system for handling irradiated fuel from the Oak Ridge Graphite Reactor. Because one of the main initial purposes of the reactor was to produce plutonium for the chemical processing pilot plant in Building 3019, the canal was designed to be the connecting link between the reactor and the pilot plant. During the war years, natural uranium slugs were irradiated in the reactor and then pushed out of the graphite matrix into the system of diversion plates and chutes which directed the fuel into the deep pit of the canal. After shutdown of the reactor, the canal was no longer needed for its designed purpose. Since 1964, the canal has only been used to store radioisotopes and irradiated samples under a water pool for radiation protection. This report describes closure alternatives

  11. 5 CFR 550.714 - Panama Canal Commission employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this subpart, an employee separated from employment with the Panama Canal... a position that meets all the following conditions: (1) The position is with the Panamanian public... below the employee's rate of basic pay as a Panama Canal Commission employee; (3) The position is...

  12. Convergence or reticulation? Mosaic evolution in the canalized American Amaryllidaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canalization is defined as the suppression of phenotypic variation, or, in the context of molecular evolution, genetic buffering that has evolved under natural selection in order to stabilize the phenotype. Very little is understood on the processes behind canalization, even in today’s genomic era....

  13. Status of the interoceanic canal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies of Atlantic-Pacific Interoceanic Sea-Level Canal Study Commission are are not as yet completed, although there is no reason at this time to doubt that the 1 December 1970 deadline for the Commission's final report will be met. Since it has not been published, I am unable to pass on to you any of its conclusions; they simply do not exist today. And it would be improper for me to reveal the substance of the Commission's deliberations to date or to speculate upon what their outcome may be. But many elements of the work being conducted under my supervision - The Engineering Feasibility Study - are already in the public domain. It is to them that my remarks here are addressed. Of the six basic routes we have considered in our studies for possible sea-level canal alinements, four could involve nuclear excavating techniques. The so-called nuclear alternatives are Route 8 along the Nicaragua-Costa Rica border, Route 17 across the Darien Isthmus of Panama, Route 23 crossing the Panama-Colombia border and Route 25 across the western tip of Colombia. The conventionally excavated routes are Route 10 west of the Panama Canal Zone and Route 14 along the alinement of the present canal. The engineering studies examine from a technical standpoint the feasibility of constructing these routes and estimate their costs. To accomplish this we have made conceptual designs for canals capable of transiting at least 40,000 vessels annually (and possibly several times that many) and of accommodating ships of up to 250,000 dwt in size. Thus, in terms of basic requirements, all alternatives - conventional and nuclear - have been made comparable. Beginning with the northernmost route, let us now consider the four nuclear alternatives. Route 8 is 137 miles in length. Its maximum elevations are slightly less than 800 feet in the Continental Divide and about 400 feet through the so-called Eastern Divide. The rock to be excavated is primarily volcanic tuff. It is readily apparent that

  14. México: estabilidad de precios y limitaciones del canal de crédito bancario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina León

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En México la política monetaria ha sido eficaz para lograr la estabilidad de los precios; sin embargo, esto no se ha visto reflejado en crecimiento económico y generación de empleo. En este artículo se estudia el canal del crédito bancario, tema que ha generado mucho interés en la literatura económica; se analiza el mercado de crédito para el caso de México. La hipótesis que se plantea es que la existencia de un oligopolio bancario constituye un factor importante que limita la generación de crédito en la economía mexicana, lo que genera efectos negativos en la actividad económica.

  15. México: estabilidad de precios y limitaciones del canal de crédito bancario

    OpenAIRE

    Josefina León; César Alvarado

    2015-01-01

    En México la política monetaria ha sido eficaz para lograr la estabilidad de los precios; sin embargo, esto no se ha visto reflejado en crecimiento económico y generación de empleo. En este artículo se estudia el canal del crédito bancario, tema que ha generado mucho interés en la literatura económica; se analiza el mercado de crédito para el caso de México. La hipótesis que se plantea es que la existencia de un oligopolio bancario constituye un factor importante que limita la generación de c...

  16. The Influence of Canalization on the Robustness of Boolean Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kadelka, Claus; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Time- and state-discrete dynamical systems are frequently used to model molecular networks. This paper provides a collection of mathematical and computational tools for the study of robustness in Boolean network models. The focus is on networks governed by $k$-canalizing functions, a recently introduced class of Boolean functions that contains the well-studied class of nested canalizing functions. The activities and sensitivity of a function quantify the impact of input changes on the function output. This paper generalizes the latter concept to $c$-sensitivity and provides formulas for the activities and $c$-sensitivity of general $k$-canalizing functions as well as canalizing functions with more precisely defined structure. A popular measure for the robustness of a network, the Derrida value, can be expressed as a weighted sum of the $c$-sensitivities of the governing canalizing functions, and can also be calculated for a stochastic extension of Boolean networks. These findings provide a computationally eff...

  17. Apical pressures developed by needles for canal irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, C E; Eleazer, P D; Downs, K E; Scheetz, J P

    2002-04-01

    Drying instrumented canals with pressurized air may result in patient morbidity or even fatality. Low pressure and side vent needles have been suggested to lessen the danger. This study observed apical pressures from different needles inserted deeply into small round and ovoid canals as instrumentation progressed. Low-pressure (5 psi) air was injected through the needles, and apical pressures were recorded after each instrument. Pressures varied greatly within each test group. Generalities that can be drawn are that binding the needle within the canal gives higher pressures than with the needle slightly short of binding and that pressures were higher with apexes instrumented to size 30 and higher. With the needle tightly bound, neither needle size, needle design, nor canal shape resulted in statistically significant mean pressure differences. With the needle slightly withdrawn, larger bore needles gave higher pressures than small diameter needles. Caution is advised with the clinical use of pressurized air in the drying of root canals. PMID:12043877

  18. Direct solutions for normal depths in curved irrigation canals

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, X Y

    2013-01-01

    The normal depth is an important hydraulic element for canal design, operation and management. Curved irrigation canals including parabola, U-shaped and catenary canals have excellent hydraulic performance and strong ability of anti-frost heave, while the normal depths in the governing equations of the current common methods have no explicit analytical solution. They are only indirect methods by using trial procedures, numerical methods, and graphical tools. This study presents new direct formulas for normal depth in curved irrigation canals by applying for Marquardt method. The maximum relative error of the proposed formulas is less than 1% within the practice range by comparative analysis, and they are simple and convenient for manual calculations. The results may provide the reliable theoretical basis and useful reference for the design and operation management of irrigation canals.

  19. Fisioterapia em recém-nascidos com persistência do canal arterial e complicações pulmonares Chest physical therapy in newborn infants with patent ductus arteriosus and pulmonary complications

    OpenAIRE

    Ivete Furtado Ribeiro; Ana Paula L. de Melo; Josy Davidson

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Revisar as complicações pulmonares e intervenções fisioterapêuticas disponíveis para recém-nascidos com persistência do canal arterial (PCA). FONTES DE DADOS: Artigos publicados nas fontes de dados Medline e Lilacs, além de capítulos de livros nos idiomas português e inglês, entre 1992 e 2006. As palavras-chave utilizadas para busca foram: "canal arterial", "prematuridade", "síndrome do desconforto respiratório", "complicações" e "pulmão". SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A PCA é uma intercorrên...

  20. Radiographic prevalence of root canal ramifications in a sample of root canal treatments in a Brazilian Dental School Prevalência radiográfica de ramificações do canal radicular em uma amostra de tratamentos endodônticos em uma Faculdade de Odontologia Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iadasa de Quadros

    2007-06-01

    2000. Foram avaliadas as radiografias feitas durante o tratamento para verificar a presença das ramificações dos sistemas de canais radiculares. A radiografia inicial não mostrou a presença de qualquer ramificação. Depois da obturação as radiografias mostraram apenas 3 tipos de ramificação: 3,06% de canais laterais, 2,99% de deltas apicais e 0,1% de canais interradiculares. Os pré-molares superiores mostraram o maior número de canais laterais (n = 13, seguidos pelos pré-molares inferiores (n = 10 e incisivos superiores (n = 10. Deltas apicais foram encontrados principalmente em molares inferiores (n = 14, seguidos por incisivos superiores (n = 9. Apenas molares inferiores apresentaram canais interradiculares. A detecção de ramificações aumentou com o uso do EDTA. Entretanto, nenhuma relação estatisticamente significante foi encontrada entre o tipo de substância química auxiliar usada e o número de ramificações visualizadas após a obturação dos canais radiculares. Foi concluído que a freqüência de ramificações do canal radicular encontrada radiograficamente é baixa em tratamentos executados por estudantes universitários.

  1. Simulación de procesos termodinámicos cuasi ideales orientados a la generación de trabajo mecánico. Evaluación de combinaciones posibles para su aplicación en motores alternativos de combustión o de aportación de calor

    OpenAIRE

    Llop Garcia, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo del presente proyecto es la obtención de una herramienta informática que, gracias a un modelo matemático, simule los procesos termodinámicos de la fase cerrada de un motor alternativo de combustión interna. El motor que se pretende simular puede seguir un ciclo Otto o un ciclo Diesel y ser alimentado por distintos tipos de combustible. Para la obtención del modelo matemático se aceptaran ciertas hipótesis de simplificación debido a la complejidad de los procesos que tienen luga...

  2. Reduction of Enterococcus faecalis in curved root canals after various sizes and tapers of canal preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Abbas Moshari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reduction of Enterococcus faecalis in curved root canals after various sizes and tapers of the canal preparation. Materials and Methods: Mandibular first molars (n = 103 with curved mesiobuccal canals were divided into one control (n = 5 and 7 experimental (n = 14 groups, were inoculated with E. faecalis (ATTC 29212 and prepared with the following RaCe files (FKG Dentaire as master apical file: Groups: 25.04, 25.06, 30.04, 30.06, 35.04, 35.06 and 40.06. All the experimental groups were irrigated with 2 mL of 1% sodium hypochlorite during instrumentation and finally rinsed with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA (2 mL followed by 5.25% NaOCl (2 mL and sterile distilled water. Colony counting was performed after incubation. Statistical Analysis Used: Resulting data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey′s post-hoc test, (P < 0.05. Results and Conclusions: All the experimental groups showed significant bacterial reduction (P < 0.001. Although the greater the size/taper or both led to more decreased amount of bacteria, differences between the groups with the identical size and different tapers, and among the groups with the same taper and different sizes were not significant. Based on this study, 25.04 along with using 2 mL of 1% NaOCl during instrumentation, and using 17% EDTA and 5.25% NaOCl as final rinse successively after the termination of preparation, can effectively reduce intra-canal bacteria and preserve root structure.

  3. Detection of Mesiobuccal Canal in Maxillary Molars and Distolingual Canal in Mandibular Molars by Dental CT: A Retrospective Study of 100 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Rathi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To detect presence of MB2 canal in maxillary molars and distolingual canal in mandibular molars by Dental CT. Material and Methods. A retrospective study of 100 Dental CTs was done. Axial and paraxial images obtained were used to assess the presence of MB2 canal in maxillary molars and distolingual canal in mandibular molars. Results. The youngest patient was of 11 years while the eldest patient was of 77 years. Males were 58 in number and females were 42 in number. MB2 canals were present in 57 patients and distolingual canal was present in 18 patients. Maximum MB2 canals were present in age group between 51 and 60 years, while distolingual canals were present in age group of 21–30 years. Conclusion. Dental CT allows adequate visualization of variation in root canal morphology and can be important diagnostic tool for successful endodontic therapy.

  4. 8. Le TGV et le canal

    OpenAIRE

    Fortier, Agnès

    2013-01-01

    7. Le TGV près du Creusot Une double rame du tgv Sud-Est se dirige vers Paris. Elle vient de franchir le viaduc du canal du Centre qui longe l’un de ses réservoirs d’alimentation, l’étang de Longpendu, visible sur la droite. Elle croise la voie « plm » dont on note le discret ballast en avant de l’étang. Plusieurs lignes à très haute tension partent d’un important équipement de répartition tout proche. L’une d’elles sert notamment à l’alimentation du tgv. La photographie est prise d’un des ra...

  5. Cancer of the external auditory canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyrop, Mette; Grøntved, Aksel

    2002-01-01

    MEASURE: Recurrence rate. RESULTS: Half of the patients had squamous cell carcinoma. Thirteen of the patients had stage I tumor (65%), 2 had stage II (10%), 2 had stage III (10%), and 3 had stage IV tumor (15%). Twelve patients were cured. All patients with stage I or II cancers were cured except 1 with...... adenoid cystic carcinoma. No patients with stage III or IV cancer were cured. All recurrences developed in patients with incompletely resected tumors. CONCLUSIONS: The outcome was related to the stage of disease, suggesting that the Pittsburgh staging system is useful also in patients with non......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of surgery for cancer of the external auditory canal and relate this to the Pittsburgh staging system used both on squamous cell carcinoma and non-squamous cell carcinoma. DESIGN: Retrospective case series of all patients who had surgery between 1979 and 2000...

  6. Alternative techniques in root canal debridement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Ruxandra; Todea, Carmen; Bǎlǎbuc, Cosmin; Nica, Luminita; Armani, Giacomo; Locovei, Cosmin

    2014-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that conventional chemo-mechanical preparation is limited regarding the decontamination of the endodontic space, which is why alternative techniques such as laser radiation have their importance in the modern endodontic treatment. The present study aims to assess the possibility of improving the debridement of the root canals by removing smear layer using Er: YAG laser radiation. We used 18 extracted teeth, which were subjected to the same initial protocol and then divided into 5 study groups: the control group has not been treated with laser; the other 4 groups were exposed to laser radiation using two different geometries peaks of quartz and two energy levels. Scanning electronic microscopy revealed an increased efficiency in the debridement of all interested areas when using PIPS and XPulse tips at proper energy. In the two groups treated with inferior laser energy, the debridement didn't prove to be superior to the conventional treatment.

  7. Direct digital radiography versus conventional radiography for estimation of canal length in curved canals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohtavipour, Seiedeh Tahereh; Dalili, Zahra; Azar, Nasim Gheshlaghi [Faculty of Dentistry, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Guilan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the conventional and digital radiography in the estimation of working length in mandibular molars. Sixty molar teeth were selected and divided into three groups in the basis of canal curves (0-15 degree, 15-30 degree, >30 degree). After the placement of a 15 K-file, radiographs were taken with a conventional film (F-speed) and a digital sensor. Canal lengths were measured in these images by two observers. Statistical analysis was performed with repeated measures of ANOVA and paired sample t-test with 95% confidence. There was a high inter-observer agreement on the measurements of working length in conventional and digital radiographs. There was no significant difference between the mean values of measurements in conventional and digital radiography. Moreover, there was no significant difference between conventional and digital radiography with the actual values in the basis of canal curves. The accuracy of conventional and digital radiography in the determination of the working length was in an acceptable range.

  8. Direct digital radiography versus conventional radiography for estimation of canal length in curved canals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the conventional and digital radiography in the estimation of working length in mandibular molars. Sixty molar teeth were selected and divided into three groups in the basis of canal curves (0-15 degree, 15-30 degree, >30 degree). After the placement of a 15 K-file, radiographs were taken with a conventional film (F-speed) and a digital sensor. Canal lengths were measured in these images by two observers. Statistical analysis was performed with repeated measures of ANOVA and paired sample t-test with 95% confidence. There was a high inter-observer agreement on the measurements of working length in conventional and digital radiographs. There was no significant difference between the mean values of measurements in conventional and digital radiography. Moreover, there was no significant difference between conventional and digital radiography with the actual values in the basis of canal curves. The accuracy of conventional and digital radiography in the determination of the working length was in an acceptable range.

  9. MANAGEMENT OF LUMBAR SPINAL CANAL STENOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhergee G. S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Spinal stenosis is one of the most common conditions in the elderly. It is defined as a narrowing of the spinal canal. The term stenosis is derived from the Greek word for narrow, which is “Stenos”. The first description of this condition is attributed to Antoine portal in 1803. Verbiest is credited with coining the term spinal stenosis and the associated narrowing of the spinal canal as its potential cause. [1-10] Kirkaldy–Willis subsequently described the degenerative cascade in the lumbar spine as the cause for the altered anatomy and pathophysiology in spinal stenosis. [11-15] If compression does not occur, the canal should be described as narrow but not stenotic. Some studies defined lumbar spinal stenosis as a “narrowing of the osteoligamentous vertebral canal and/or the intervertebral foramina causing compression of the thecal sac and/or the caudal nerve roots; at a single vertebral level, narrowing may affect the whole canal or part of it” (Postacchini 1983. This definition distinguished between disc herniation and stenosis. [16] . The most common type of spinal stenosis is caused by degenerative arthritis of the spine. Hypertrophy and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament which usually are confined to the cervical spine, and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH syndrome also may result in an acquired form of spinal stenosis. Congenital forms caused by disorders such as achondroplasia and dysplastic spondylolisthesis are much less common. Congenital spinal stenosis usually is central and is evident or imaging studies. Idiopathic congenital narrowing usually involves the anteroposterior dimension of the canal secondary to short pedicles; the patient otherwise is normal. In contrast, in achondroplasia, the canal is narrowed in the anteroposterior plane owing to shortened pedicles and in lateral dimension because of diminished interpedicular distance. Acquired forms of spinal stenosis usually are

  10. Management of middle mesial canal in mandibular second molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J V Karunakaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of endodontic therapy is to achieve a three-dimensional obturation of the root canal space after adequate preparation of the canal space to remove the tissue debris, microorganisms, and their byproducts. Anatomical variations have frequently been encountered in endodontic practice and have to be adequately managed by the clinician. Missed roots and canals are a major reason for failure of therapy. Technological advances have given the clinician ample opportunity to identify and treat these aberrations successfully. The present report describes a left mandibular second permanent molar requiring root canal treatment, found to have three separate canals in the mesial root. This case demonstrates a rare anatomical configuration and emphasizes the need for the clinician to be aware of and look out for such variations and use adequate diagnostic methodologies prior to and during therapy to detect such variations. The possibility of additional canals, whenever in doubt, should be explored with the assistance of technologies such as those of magnification and illumination and various diagnostic aids. Operator experience has also shown to be a key factor in negotiation and management of these aberrant canal configurations.

  11. Laser scanning dental probe for endodontic root canal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Molly A. B.; Friedrich, Michal; Hamilton, Jeffrey D.; Lee, Peggy; Berg, Joel; Seibel, Eric J.

    2011-03-01

    Complications that arise during endodontic procedures pose serious threats to the long-term integrity and health of the tooth. Potential complexities of root canals include residual pulpal tissue, cracks, mesial-buccal 2 and accessory canals. In the case of a failed root canal, a successful apicoectomy can be jeopardized by isthmuses, accessory canals, and root microfracture. Confirming diagnosis using a small imaging probe would allow proper treatment and prevent retreatment of endodontic procedures. An ultrathin and flexible laser scanning endoscope of 1.2 to 1.6mm outer diameter was used in vitro to image extracted teeth with varied root configurations. Teeth were opened using a conventional bur and high speed drill. Imaging within the opened access cavity clarified the location of the roots where canal filing would initiate. Although radiographs are commonly used to determine the root canal size, position, and shape, the limited 2D image perspective leaves ambiguity that could be clarified if used in conjunction with a direct visual imaging tool. Direct visualization may avoid difficulties in locating the root canal and reduce the number of radiographs needed. A transillumination imaging device with the separated illumination and light collection functions rendered cracks visible in the prepared teeth that were otherwise indiscernible using reflected visible light. Our work demonstrates that a small diameter endoscope with high spatial resolution may significantly increase the efficiency and success of endodontic procedures.

  12. Discharge Estimation in a Lined Canal Using Information Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chang Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study applies a new method and technology to measure the discharge in a lined canal in Taiwan. An Acoustic Digital Current Meter mounted on a measurement platform is used to measure the velocities over the full cross-section for establishing the measurement method. The proposed method primarily employs Chiu’s Equation which is based on entropy to establish a constant ratio the relation between the maximum and mean velocities in an irrigation canal, and compute the maximum velocity by the observed velocity profile. In consequence, the mean velocity of the lined canal can be rapidly determined by the maximum velocity and the constant ratio. The cross-sectional area of the artificial irrigation canal can be calculated for the water stage. Finally, the discharge in the lined canal can be efficiently determined by the estimated mean velocity and the cross-sectional area. Using the data of discharges and stages collected in the Wan-Dan Canal, the correlation of stage and discharge is also developed for remote real-time monitoring and estimating discharge from the pumping station. Overall, Chiu’s Equation is demonstrated to reliably and accurately measure discharge in a lined canal, and can serve as reference for future calibration for a stage-discharge rating curve.

  13. Avaliação experimental de um modelo numerico para o processo de redistribuição da agua no solo

    OpenAIRE

    Poliseli, Paulo Cesar

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: Para simular o processo transiente da redistnouição da água no solo, para a direção vertical, PREVEDELLO (1996) desenvolveu um modelo numérico em linguagem BASIC de programação (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instructional Code). O desenvolvimento do modelo baseou-se na linearização da equação de RlCHARDS (1931), à qual governa o movimento da água no solo, através da utilização de uma simplificação da relação entre a condutividade hidráulica e a tensão da água (K ('I'm )), sugerida p...

  14. Un sistema presión-volumen para la medición de propiedades mecánicas de vasos cardíacos menores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Navarro Rueda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Las propiedades mecánicas de vasos cardíacos menores (VM son poco estudiadas. El sistema Presión-Volumen (PV propuesto, desarrollado para evaluar comportamientos esfuerzo-deformación (σ-ε de VM, permite variar controladamente la presión interna y simular alteraciones geométricas al tubo. Se obtuvieron imágenes de las geometrías para cada valor de presión interna. Asumiendo el tubo en equilibrio, con pared elástica y presiones conocidas, se determinaron esfuerzo y deformación circunferenciales. Se obtuvieron curvas σ-ε, validadas con ensayos de tensión uniaxial (TU. Aunque se esperaban comportamientos diferentes, los datos experimentales son consistentes frente a resultados TU, con diferencias entre 5.68 y 12.60 %.

  15. Les pathologies du Canal Péritonio-Vaginal

    OpenAIRE

    DJAZIRI, Sihem Fatima Zohra

    2014-01-01

    Les pathologies du canal péritonéo-vaginal, sont des affections congénitales dues à la persistance du canal au delà de la naissance. Elles regroupent les hernies inguinales et inguino-scrotales, les hydrocèles communicantes ou non, et les kystes du cordon spermatique. Notre travail est une étude rétrospective portant sur 309 malades opérés de pathologies du canal péritonio-vaginal dans le service de chirurgie infantile durant la période allant d’octobre 2011 jusqu'à octobre ...

  16. Route Selection by Tankers(Dirty) at the Suez Canal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Risto Laulajainen

    2007-01-01

    <正>The Suez Canal,attached route alternatives with traffic flows and areas are described and theoretical break-even points derived. Logistically,route selection depends on relative distances,the level of spot rates and canal dues,the sensitivity to change growing with rising rate levels.The connection is diluted by the canal /pipeline owners’ price differentiation and the charterers’ capital costs;interest on cargo and change of its value during transit.Ship-owners are largely neutral to route choice as long as rates and main cost items are directly related to distance.

  17. Ulnar Nerve Compression in Guyon's Canal by Ganglion Cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kyung-Woo; Kim, Min-Su; Chang, Chul-Hoon; Kim, Seong-Ho

    2011-02-01

    Compression of the ulnar nerve in Guyon's canal can result from repeated blunt trauma, fracture of the hamate's hook, and arterial thrombosis or aneurysm. In addition, conditions such as ganglia, rheumatoid arthritis and ulnar artery disease can rapidly compress the ulnar nerve in Guyon's canal. A ganglion cyst can acutely protrude or grow, which also might compress the ulnar nerve. So, clinicians should consider a ganglion cyst in Guyon's canal as a possible underlying cause of ulnar nerve compression in patients with a sudden decrease in hand strength. We believe that early decompression with removal of the ganglion is very important to promote complete recovery. PMID:21519507

  18. [An analysis of key points for root canal therapy technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, M W

    2016-08-01

    The success rate of root canal therapy(RCT)have been improved continuously along with the advancement in RCT techniques in the past several decades. If standard procedures of modern RCT techniques are strictly followed, the success rate of RCT may exceed 90%. The success of RCT is mainly affected by such factors as clear concept of the anatomy of root canals, proper mechanical and chemical preparation and perfect filling of root canal system. If these factors are sufficiently noted, a success is easy to achieve. Even though the primary RCT fails, retreatment can further be conducted to save the diseased teeth. PMID:27511032

  19. TWO CANALS IN MAXILLARY FIRST MOLAR: A RARE DENTAL ENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Root anatomy studies were divided into laboratory studies (In-Vitro, clinical root canal system anatomy studies (In vivo and clinical case reports of anomalies. Over 95% (95.9% of maxillary first molars had three roots and 3.9% had two roots. The incidence of fusion of any two or three roots was approximately 5.2%. Conical and C-shaped roots and canals were rarely found (0.12%.The fusion of the two buccal roots has the prevalence of 0.4% in maxillary first molars. Nevertheless, presence of only one buccal root with one canal is extremely rare.

  20. Metachronous tubulovillous and tubular adenomas of the anal canal

    OpenAIRE

    NOZAWA, HIROAKI; ISHIHARA, SOICHIRO; Morikawa, Teppei; Tanaka, Junichiro; YASUDA, KOJI; Ohtani, Kensuke; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Kawai, Kazushige; Hata, Keisuke; Kazama, Shinsuke; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Sunami, Eiji; Kitayama, Joji

    2015-01-01

    Anal canal adenoma is an extremely rare disease that has the potential to transform into a malignant tumor. We herein presented a rare case of metachronous multiple adenomas of the anal canal. A 48-year-old woman underwent total colonoscopy following a positive fecal blood test. A 9-mm villous polyp arising from the posterior wall of the anal canal was removed by snare polypectomy. Histologically, the tumor was tubulovillous adenoma with high-grade dysplasia and the cut end was negative for t...

  1. The classification and staging of cancerous growths of the anal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter authors give information about frequency of cancerous growths of the anal canal, general analysis of observations the classification and staging of cancerous growths of the anal canal, clinical-anatomy classification of cancerous growths of the anal canal and staging of cancerous growths of anal canal

  2. Clinical Treatment and Anatomy Study of Maxillary First Molars with Five Root Canals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kuo Wan; Shun-yun Luo; Ji-zhi Zhao; Hai-yun Wang; Lin Ma; Wen-dong Yang

    2011-01-01

    @@ THE purpose of root canal treatment is to thoroughly clean the root canal system and fill it in all its dimensions.1 To achieve this goal, the entire root canal system must be adequately debrided and completely filled.In clinical practice, variations in the canal morphology pose a constant challenge to Received for publication April 26, 2011.

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  7. Juntas de contracción en canales y depósitos de agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safránez, Carlos

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available In view of the lack of Information available on the subject of contraction joints in canals and water tanks, and this being of great importance for water-tightness in this type of construction, the data considered as essential for planning joints has been presented in a systematic way. The most common of joints, and their characteristics, are mentioned and listed in accordance with their design and the procedure used for sealing them. The great importance of joint design and dimensions in relation to their performance has been highlighted. In the projects carried out, referring to this type of joint, we see there is a lack of common criteria regarding the minimum requisites and conditions which the joints must have in order to duly fulfill their mission. Experience has proven that the results obtained with contraction joints in canals and water tanks have not been totally satisfactory. In a large number of cases, bothersome and costly repairs were necessary to overercome deficiencies observed. In order to improve this situation, the different factors which influence the contraction joint's performance are discussed and they should be taken into account when planning the joints and their dimensions, in order to insure greatest efficiency.Vista la escasa información disponible sobre las juntas de contracción en canales y depósitos de agua, siendo indiscutible su gran importancia para la estanquidad de estas obras, se han expuesto, en forma sistemática, los datos considerados esenciales para enfocar debidamente el proyecto de las juntas. Se han indicado los tipos de juntas más corrientes, ordenadas de acuerdo con su diseño y con el procedimiento empleado para su sellado, señalando sus características. Se ha tratado de la importancia primordial del diseño y de las dimensiones de las juntas en relación con su comportamiento. En los proyectos de las juntas ejecutadas llama la atención la falta de una unidad de criterio sobre las

  8. Tympanomastoidectomy: Comparison between canal wall-down and canal wall-up techniques in surgery for chronic otitis media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo, Alexandre Fernandes de

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic otitis media (COM is an inflammatory condition associated with otorrhea as well as large and persistent perforations of the tympanic membrane in some cases. COM can also lead to cholesteatoma. Surgical treatment with canal wall-down and canal wall-up tympanomastoidectomy is considered for both types of illness. The choice of technique is controversial and is dependent on several factors, including the extent of disease. Objective: We aimed to evaluate surgical outcomes in COM patients with and without cholesteatoma treated with canal wall-down and canal wall-up tympanomastoidectomy. Disease eradication and post-operative auditory thresholds were assessed. Method: Patient records from the otorhinolaryngology department of a tertiary hospital were assessed retrospectively. Results: Patients who underwent canal wall-up tympanomastoidectomy had a higher rate of revision surgery, especially those with cholesteatoma. However, there were no statistically significant differences in post-operative hearing thresholds between the two techniques. Conclusion: The canal wall-down technique is superior to the canal wall-up technique, especially for patients with cholesteatoma.

  9. Simulação numérica aplicada para avaliar o efeito da pré-polimerização no comportamento de reatores tubulares Numerical simulation to evaluate the effect from pre-polymerization on the behavior of tubular reactors

    OpenAIRE

    André L. Nogueira; Ricardo A. F. Machado; Marintho B. Quadri; Liliane M. F. Lona

    2007-01-01

    O presente estudo utiliza um modelo matemático fenomenológico para simular um sistema de polimerização contínuo em dois estágios. Este sistema é composto por um reator contínuo tipo tanque agitado (CSTR), para pré-polimerização do monômero (primeiro estágio), associado em série a um reator tubular para conduzir a reação até elevados valores de conversão (segundo estágio). Um modelo detalhado, considerando variações axiais e radiais, assim como operação não-isotérmica, foi utilizado para simul...

  10. Interfaces inteligentes para resolución de problemas en entornos virtuales

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre, Guillermo

    2001-01-01

    Los entornos virtuales basados en texto, MOOs (MUD Object Oriented) originan comunidades con distintos intereses. Este trabajo propone una interfaz de usuario para usar con los MOO en tareas educativas. Estas interfaces deben contar con la inteligencia necesaria como para regular un buen uso del entorno, de los canales de comunicación y de los elementos dispuestos en esos entornos. La posibilidad de incorporar agentes de interfaz, capaces de asistir a los usuarios, para resolver problemas jun...

  11. EQUILIBRIO DE FASES PARA SISTEMAS ETANOL-AGUA EN PRESENCIA DE POLIALCOHOLES Y SALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS RIOS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se propone un modelo termodinámico semiempírico para el equilibrio líquidovapor del sistema etanolagua con polialcoholes y sales. El modelo usa las ecuaciones GibbsDuhem y DebyeHückel, las cuales modifican el modelo UNIQUACE. Se consideran las fuertes interacciones químicas asociadas a los fenómenos de solvatación e hidratación de iones, y el concepto de solvatación del modelo de Ohe. Se tienen en cuenta las interacciones de corto alcance, dadas por las fuerzas de van der Waals, y las interacciones de largo alcanceconsideradas en el término de DebyeHückel. Se determinaron los parámetros empíricos de ajuste para los sistemas etanolaguapolialcoholcloruro de calcio y acetato de potasio; estos sistemas son de interés industrial debido a que la adición de polialcohol y sal mejora la eficiencia de la separación.. Las mediciones isobáricas del equilibrio líquidovapor se realizaron en un destilador Othmer. Este modelo termodinámico sería útil para diseñar y simular columnas para destilación extractiva aguaetanol.

  12. Implementación y prueba de un modelo de decisión de estrategia de distribución a canal tradicional en un mercado emergente en una empresa colombiana de consumo masivo atendiendo la ciudad de Bogotá

    OpenAIRE

    Amado Ariza, Luisa Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    En este trabajo de grado se aplica el modelo de selección de la estrategia de distribución para atender al canal tradicional, desarrollado por el Centro Latinoamericano de Innovación en Logística (CLI) en asociación con el Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), para lo que se seleccionó una empresa de consumo masivo con presencia en Colombia atendiendo el canal tradicional en Bogotá. A través del estudio de caso se emplearon distintos métodos para la recolección y análisis de informació...

  13. Comparison of antimicrobial substantivity of root canal irrigants in instrumented root canals up to 72 h: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M N Shahani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Disinfection of the root canal system is one of the primary aims of root canal treatment. This can be achieved through the use of various antimicrobial agents in the form of irrigants and medicaments. The antimicrobial substantivity of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate, 1% povidone iodine, 2.5% hydrogen peroxide followed by 2% sodium hypochlorite, and 2% sodium hypochlorite alone as irrigants was assessed in instrumented root canals. 2% chlorhexidine showed antimicrobial substantivity lasting up to 72 h, followed by 1% povidone iodine, and 2% sodium hypochlorite. Thus 2% chlorhexidine should be used as a final rinse irrigant in endodontic treatment protocols.

  14. Proposition d’un outil d’aide au diagnostic du syndrome du canal carpien pour les acteurs de la santé au travail Proposal of a tool for diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome for Personal of Health at Work Proposición de una herramienta de ayuda en el diagnóstico del síndrome del túnel carpiano para los actores de la salud en el trabajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Bazzaro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Les acteurs de la santé au travail sont confrontés à un manque d’outils quantitatifs de suivi et de diagnostic du syndrome du canal carpien (SCC. Pour répondre à ce manque, un outil de diagnostic du SCC est proposé dans cette communication. Il est composé de deux tests : le test de la roue qui consiste à détecter des encoches sur une roue en mouvement et le test de la poutre qui détecte un niveau de sensibilité à une force exercée sur un doigt concerné par le SCC. Deux études expérimentales ont été conduites pour valider cet appareil. La première étude montre que les mesures effectuées avec l’appareil sont répétables, la seconde vise à étudier la sensibilité et la spécificité de l’outil en comparaison avec une étude électrodiagnostique. Les résultats montrent que l’appareil de détection du SCC a un excellent pouvoir discriminant permettant d’identifier les sujets sains et les sujets atteints du SCC.People involved with occupational health at work are faced with a lack of quantitative tools to monitor and diagnose Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS. In order to fill this gap, we developed a device for rapid CTS diagnosis which is composed of two complementary quantitative tests: the wheel test, which consists in detecting notches on a rotating wheel, and the beam test, which consists in detecting various forces exerted on a finger. We conducted two experimental studies to validate this device. The first one demonstrated the repeatability of the measures. The second one studied the sensitivity and specificity of our tool as compared to an electro-diagnosis test. The results show that our CTS detection device has excellent discriminatory power that allows practitioners to differentiate between healthy and CTS-affected subjects.Los actores de la salud en el trabajo se enfrentan a una falta de herramientas cuantitativas de seguimiento y de diagnóstico del síndrome del túnel carpiano (STC. Como respuesta a esa

  15. Lipoma causing Guyon's canal syndrome: a case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanathu Chellappantilla Sreekumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Compression of the ulnar nerve in Guyon's canal leads to Guyon's canal syndrome. Lipoma is a rare cause of such compressions with only 12 cases reported previously. We report a 55-year-old man who presented with swelling in the left hand with decreased sensation in the ring and little fingers. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed high signals in T1-weighted and T2-weighted images with suppression of the short T1 inversion recovery signal, suggestive of lipoma. On exploration a well-encapsulated, dumbbell-shaped, fatty tumor was seen in the hypothenar space and Guyon's canal. The tumor was enucleated in toto. At 6-month follow-up, the patient had fully regained sensation. A review of the literature is presented for similar cases where a lipoma was the cause of Guyon's canal syndrome.

  16. Seepage from canals having variable shape and partial lining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirnateghi, A.; Bruch, J. C.

    1983-07-01

    The numerical models presented here are solutions to the steady two-dimensional flow through a porous medium from canals of variable shape with partial lining. Two main cases are studied. The first case is the seepage flow from canals with impervious lining on their sloping sides. The second case is for seepage from canals in which the impervious lining is located on the base of the canal and the sides are unlined. The Baiocchi transformation and method is used to develop a boundary value problem which is then solved by the finite-difference successive over-relaxation method with projection. A sample problem of each case is presented. The discharge rates and free surfaces of the seepage flows are obtained through the numerical scheme, and are compared with available analytical results.

  17. Atypical situations in root canals anatomy of human mandibular premolars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício SCAINI

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the teeth internal anatomy that will receive endodontic treatment is very important for the success of the treatment and prognosis of those teeth. In this study, the morphological variations that may occur in relation to the number of root canals present in the premolar mandibular teeth group were discussed, as well as the most efficient methods to diagnose the existence of these variations, in order to have a clearer diagnosis of the number of root canals to be treated.A case of an endodontic treatment of a mandibular premolar with 4 root canals was reported and some cases of endodontic treatment in mandibular premolars with 1, 2 and 3 root canals were shown.

  18. Synergistic growth effect among bacteria recovered from root canal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Moreira Júnior

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the ecological relationships between bacterial species that colonize infected root canals. Root canal bacteria recovered from one patient with pulp canal necrosis were evaluated in vitro for synergistic and antagonistic activities determined by mono and co-culture growth kinetics and the production of bacteriocin-like substances using the double layer diffusion method. Peptostreptococcus prevotii triggered a significant increase of Fusobacterium nucleatum growth, while the former bacteria did not affect the growth of P. prevotii. The bacterial species did not produce antagonism activity against itself or against any of the other two species. Despite many studies have demonstrated the capability of root canal microorganisms to produce antagonistic substances, these in vitro experimental tests show the synergistic effect of P. prevotii on the growth of F. nucleatum.

  19. Pollution of Lahore canal water in the city premises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water contamination is one of the major environmental pollution problems facing Pakistan because it has a direct impact on the health of human beings and crops. Lahore Canal water is being used both for irrigation and a source of ground water recharge. For the best use of this water, extent of pollution and its effect on soil hydraulic properties needs to be studied. For this purpose, water samples from twenty three sites and soil samples from three sites were collected along the Canal within the city limits of Lahore. The survey of the area from Jallo Park to Mall Road, show that all the abadies/colonies and industries situated on both sides of the canal dump their waste water and garbage in to canal. This result in increase of salinity as well as BOD and COD values which were found maximum at the locations of Herbuns Pura, Mughal Pura Dharam Pura, and Thoker Niaz Baig. (authors)

  20. Spinal canal extension of hyperalimentation catheter without neurologic sequela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt at placement of a left femoral vein hyperalimentation catheter resulted in entrance of the catheter into the spinal canal. Catheter location was documented by injections of nonionic contrast material into the catheter without neurologic sequellae. (orig.)

  1. Optimal volume of local anaesthetic for the adductor canal block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, P.; Jenstrup, M. T.; Lund, J.;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Theoretically, the ideal volume of local anaesthetic for adductor canal block (ACB) would ensure sufficient filling ofthe canal and avoid proximal spread to the femoral triangle. In this dose-finding study, we aimed to investigate the minimaleffective volume for an ACB needed to fill...... the adductor canal distally in at least 95% of patients (ED95). Methods: We performed a blinded trial, enrolling 40 healthy men. All subjects received an ACB with lidocaine 1%. Volumes wereassigned sequentially to the subjects using the continual reassessment method followed by Bayesian analysis to...... baseline) and sensory block. Results: The ED95 was 20 ml, with an estimated probability of sufficiently filling the canal of 95.1% (95% credibility interval: 0.91–0.98). Proximal spread to the femoral triangle was seen in 0/4 (0%), 7/12 (58%), 4/8 (50%), and 8/16 (50%) subjects with the 5, 10, 15,and 20 ml...

  2. Research progress of antagonistic interactions among root canal irrigations disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen QU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Root canal therapy is the most effective way to treat various pulposis and periapical disease. Simple mechanical apparatus can not clean root canal thoroughly, but may affect tight filling instead. It can achieve a satisfactory cleansing effect only when it is combined with a chemical solution. Irrigation fluid for root canal should possess the properties of tissue dissolution, antimicrobial, lubrication, and removal of smear layer. So far, no solution is able to fulfill all these functions. Therefore, a combined use of multiple irrigation solutions is suggested. It can not only achieve good effect in cleaning and disinfection, also it can lower the concentration of different solutions, thus reducing the side effects. Nevertheless, some experiments proved that antagonism existed among the chemicals used for irrigations. The purpose of present article is to review the antagonistic effect among the chemicals used for irrigation when they are used together for root canal treatment.

  3. Canals in the Roof of the Pharynx :Anatomic Study and their Clinical Meaning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1 IntroductionThe palatovaginal canal and the vomerovaginal canal are small canals which connect the roof of the nasopharynx to the posterior wall of the pterygopalatine fossa. The pterygopalatine fossa represents a major pathway for spread of malignant tumors and infections. In most of the classic anatomy texts brief descriptions of the palatovaginal canal and the vomerovaginal canal are provided. There is still a scarcity of studies comparing the radiologic and microdissection findings~([1]). The aim of t...

  4. Endodontic management of a mandibular first molar with six root canal systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dilip Jain; Smitha Reddy; Bhuvan Shome Venigalla; Shekhar Kamishetty

    2015-01-01

    Internal anatomy of pulp is complex. The first mandibular molars typically have two roots, one mesial with two root canals and another distal root, which contains one or two canals. A 20-year-old female patient reported with intermittent pain and incomplete root canal treatment in left lower back region since 1-week. Refined access cavity revealed initially two canals in mesial and two canals in the distal root. With operating microscope and cone beam computerized tomography, two additional c...

  5. Root canal irrigants: a review of their interactions, benefits, and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Amit; Sahoo, Sanjit Kumar; Govind, Shashirekha

    2015-04-01

    Endodontic treatment success depends on a combination of appropriate instrumentation, effective irrigation and decontamination of root canal spaces to apices, and obturation of the root canals. Irrigation of the root canal is paramount in determining periapical tissue healing. This article reviews presently available root canal irrigants, their interactions, advantages, and limitations. For this review, the authors performed a Medline search for all English language articles published through January 2014 with "root canal irrigants" and "endodontic irrigants" as keywords. PMID:25821937

  6. Absent posterior semicircular canal: HRCT feature of Waardenburg syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep M Mahajan; Manish Pithwa; Apeksha Chavan; Deepti Pimple

    2012-01-01

    Absence of posterior semicircular canal is a rare condition, having been reported with only a few syndromes such as Waardenburg syndrome (WS), Alagellie, CHARGE, and Goldenhaar syndromes. We report a 12- year old male with bilateral absent posterior semicircular canals. These phenotypic characteristics of the patient favored the diagnosis of WS. WS is a rare autosomal dominant condition characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, in conjunction with pigmentary abnormalities and defects of th...

  7. An investigation of the geochemistry and petrology of canal sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Dodd, Juliet S.

    2000-01-01

    Canals are artificial waterways, which are distinct from natural aquatic systems. As a result of their industrial heritage they have experienced high loadings of anthropogenic material, and consequently their sediments tend to have a bulk composition that is distinct from natural sediment. It is therefore expected that the geochemical behaviour of canal sediment may deviate significantly from that of natural sediment. This study investigates and contrasts the geochemistry and petrology of a r...

  8. Synchronous squamous and glandular neoplasia of the anal canal.

    OpenAIRE

    Yeong, M. L.; Wood, K. P.; Scott, B; Yun, K.

    1992-01-01

    A 48 year old man presented with invasive adenocarcinoma in the wall of a non-healing anal fistula. The subsequent abdomino-perineal resection specimen showed residual invasive carcinoma coexisting with in situ carcinoma of anal glands as well as in situ squamous carcinoma of the anal canal. The epithelium of the anal canal had koilocytotic features. DNA hybridisation studies by the dot blot technique showed weak positivity for human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes 16, 18. This case illustrates...

  9. Predictive control applied to a water canal prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Canarias, Daniel; Figueiredo, João; Rijo, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Predictive control is an intelligent tool to manage complex systems. This control strategy is getting more and more application in industrial fields. This paper shows the application of the predictive control methodology to a water distribution canal. Water canals are complex hydraulic systems because they are open and big scale systems, characterized by big delays and great inertia. Many models and control strategies have already been simulated using linear control theory. In the present stu...

  10. Neandertal birth canal shape and the evolution of human childbirth

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Timothy D.; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Childbirth is complicated in humans relative to other primates. Unlike the situation in great apes, human neonates are about the same size as the birth canal, making passage difficult. The birth mechanism (the series of rotations that the neonate must undergo to successfully negotiate its mother's birth canal) distinguishes humans not only from great apes, but also from lesser apes and monkeys. Tracing the evolution of human childbirth is difficult, because the pelvic skeleton, which forms th...

  11. Canal network effects on the water balance in southeastern Srem

    OpenAIRE

    Gregorić Enike

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research and analyses of the effects of a drainage canal network on the water balance of southeastern Srem. The paper was derived from a doctoral thesis which contains a detailed study of key components of the water balance of southeastern Srem, including actual amounts of water removed via the drainage canal network. A linear multiple regression model was used to establish an analytical relationship between the amounts of evacuated water (a dependent variab...

  12. Nuclear magnetic imaging for MTRA. Spinal canal and spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The booklet covers the following topics: (1) Clinical indications for NMR imaging of spinal cord and spinal canal; (2) Methodic requirements: magnets and coils, image processing, contrast media: (3) Examination technology: examination conditions, sequences, examination protocols; (4) Disease pattern and indications: diseases of the myelin, the spinal nerves and the spinal canal (infections, tumors, injuries, ischemia and bleedings, malformations); diseases of the spinal cord and the intervertebral disks (degenerative changes, infections, injuries, tumors, malformations).

  13. Ulnar Nerve Compression at Guyon's Canal by an Arteriovenous Malformation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sung Soo; Kim, Jae Hoon; Kang, Hee In; Lee, Seung Jin

    2009-01-01

    Guyon's canal at the wrist is not the common site of ulnar nerve compression. Ganglion, lipoma, anomalous tendon and muscles, trauma related to an occupation, arthritis, and carpal bone fracture can cause ulnar nerve compression at the wrist. However, ulnar nerve compression at Guyon's canal by vascular lesion is rare. Ulnar artery aneurysm, tortous ulnar artery, hemangioma, and thrombosis have been reported in the literature as vascular lesions. The authors experienced a case of ulnar nerve ...

  14. A Successful Endodontic Outcome with Non-Obturated Canals

    OpenAIRE

    Asgary, Saeed; Fazlyab, Mahta

    2015-01-01

    This case report represents the outcome of endodontic treatment in an infected mandibular molar with periradicular periodontitis and inherent poor prognosis of root canal treatment due to severe root curvature. The tooth was successfully treated by leaving the mesial root non-obturated, the canal orifices were coronally sealed with calcium enriched mixture cement and a definitive coronal amalgam restoration, was placed at the subsequent visit.

  15. Bundling ecosystem services in the Panama Canal watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Simonit, Silvio; Perrings, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Land cover change in watersheds affects the supply of a number of ecosystem services, including water supply, the production of timber and nontimber forest products, the provision of habitat for forest species, and climate regulation through carbon sequestration. The Panama Canal watershed is currently being reforested to protect the dry-season flows needed for Canal operations. Whether reforestation of the watershed is desirable depends on its impacts on all services. We develop a spatially ...

  16. Prominent central spinal canal on MRI - normal variant or pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The sensitivity of MRI can make differentiation of normal from abnormal challenging.The study investigates whether a visible central spinal canal is pathological or a normal variant. We review eight MRI (mostly on a 1.5 Tesla unit) cases where there is a visible central cavity in keeping with a central canal and review the literature. The central canal is a space in the medial part of the grey-matter commissure between the anterior and posterior horns. Histopathological studies show that the canal is present at birth with the majority showing subsequent involution but is uncommonly imaged on MRI. The main differential diagnosis is syringomyelia which usually presents with deficits in pain and sensation corresponding to the appropriate level often with a demonstrable aetiology. Two thirds of our patients were female with an average age of thirty-six years (range 26-45). The patients were largely asymptomatic or their symptoms appeared unrelated to the imaging findings. Three patients had minor previous trauma and two others had non-bacterial meningitis up to twenty years earlier. No patient had known spinal surgery or trauma.The cavity corresponded tomographically to the expected site of the central canal. The canal was in the thoracic location. The canal diameter ranged from one to five millimetres and its length varied from one half a vertebral body height to extending over the entire thoracic region. Its configuration was either filiform or fusiform, with smooth contours. No predisposing features to suggest syringomyelia or other structural abnormalities were noted. Where Gadolinium was given no abnormal enhancement was observed. These cases add to the literature and suggest that these prominent canals are largely asymptomatic and should be viewed as normal variants. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  17. Prevalencia del segundo canal en la raíz mesiovestibular de los primeros molares maxilares mediante tomografía computarizada de haz de cono Prevalence of a second canal in the mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molars by Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Betancourt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La morfología del sistema de canales radiculares es compleja y variable. El primer molar maxilar permanente presenta habitualmente un segundo canal en la raíz mesiobucal (MB2. Su falta de localización y total desbridamiento, es la principal causa de fracaso terapéutico. El objetivo fue determinar la prevalencia in vivo del canal MB2 en la raíz mesiovestibular de primeros molares maxilares mediante tomografía computarizada de haz de cono (TCHC. Material y método: Se examinaron imágenes TCHC de primeros molares maxilares, izquierdos y derechos, en ambos sexos. Se excluyeron las raíces con canales radiculares tratados endodónticamente o con postes, rehabilitados mediante prótesis fija, calcificación de canales, evidencia de radectomía o cirugía periapical. Fueron seleccionadas 32 imágenes TCHC. En todos los casos, se realizó un estudio sistemático de la raíz mesiobucal a través de cortes en el plano axial. Resultados: Se observó una prevalencia del 68,75% del canal MB2. No se encontraron diferencias según sexo o lateralidad. El promedio de edad fue de 25,31 años de edad. Discusión: La alta prevalencia encontrada del canal MB2, debe ser considerada antes de establecer un tratamiento de endodoncia para lograr un resultado óptimo y evitar el fracaso terapéutico. La TCHC es una herramienta útil para su detección, y presenta alta sensibilidad.Introduction: The morphology of the root canal system is complex and variable. The first permanent maxillary molar has usually a second canal in the mesiobuccal root (MB2. Its location and total lack of debridement, is the leading cause of treatment failure. The objective was to determine in vivo the prevalence of MB2 canal in mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molars using Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. Methods: CBCT images of first maxillary molars, left and right, in both sexes, were reviewed. We excluded roots endodontically treated or with posts, rehabilitated

  18. Long-term cytotoxic effects of contemporary root canal sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Joao Nogueira Leal da SILVA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of root canal sealers on the cytotoxicity of 3T3 fibroblasts during a period of 5 weeks. Material and Methods Fibroblasts (3T3, 1×105 cells per well were incubated with elutes of fresh specimens from eight root canal sealers (AH Plus, Epiphany, Endomethasone N, EndoREZ, MTA Fillapex, Pulp Canal Sealer EWT, RoekoSeal and Sealapex and with elutes of the same specimens for 5 succeeding weeks after immersing in simulated body fluid. The cytotoxicity of all root canal sealers was determined using the MTT assay. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results RoekoSeal was the only sealer that did not show any cytotoxic effects (p<0.05. All the other tested sealers exhibited severe toxicity initially (week 0. MTA Fillapex remained moderately cytotoxic after the end of experimental period. Toxicity of the other tested sealers decreased gradually over time. The evaluated root canal sealers presented varying degrees of cytotoxicity, mainly in fresh mode. Conclusions RoekoSeal had no cytotoxic effect both freshly mixed and in the other tested time points. MTA Fillapex was associated with significantly less cell viability when compared to the other tested root canal sealers.

  19. Verrucous Carcinoma in External Auditory Canal – A Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zillur Rahman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Verrucous carcinoma is a variant of squamous cell carcinoma. It is of low grade malignancy and rarely present with distant metastasis. Oral cavity is the commonest site of this tumour, other sites are larynx, oesophagus and genitalia. Verrucous carcinoma in external auditory canal is extremely rare. This is the presentation of a 45 years old woman who came to the ENT & Head Neck Surgery department of Delta medical college, Dhaka, Bangladesh with discharging left ear and impairment of hearing on the same side for 7 years. Otoscopic examination showed a mass occupying almost whole of the external auditory canal and the overlying skin was thickened, papillary and blackish. Cytology from external auditory canal scrap showed hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis. External auditory canal bone was found eroded at some parts. Excision of the mass was done under microscope. Split thickness skin grafting was done in external auditory canal. The mass was diagnosed as verrucous carcinoma on histopathological examination. Afterwards she was given radiotherapy. Six months follow up showed no recurrence and healthy epithelialization of external auditory canal.

  20. Root canal preparation in endodontics: conventional versus laser methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodis, Harold E.; White, Joel M.; Marshall, Sally J.; Marshall, Grayson W.; Moskowitz, Emrey

    1992-06-01

    Conventional cleaning and shaping of root canal systems employs hand and/or rotary instrumentation to remove the contents of the canal and shape the canal to receive a filling material. With the advent of the Nd:YAG laser system another method of accomplishing proper cleaning and shaping is evaluated. Single rooted teeth were radiographed bucco- lingually and mesio-distally and were divided into 2 groups. The first group was accessed and the root canal systems cleaned and shaped with a step back technique utilizing hand files and gates glidden burs. At completion of the procedure the teeth were again radiographed at the same positions as those prior to the procedure. The teeth were split longitudinally and examined under scanning electron microscopy to assess cleaning. The second group of teeth were accessed, and cleaning and shaping was accomplished using the Nd:YAG laser in combination with hand files and rotary instruments. These teeth were subjected to the same analysis as those in the first group. The before and after radiographs of each group were subjected to image analysis to determine effectiveness of the two methods in shaping the canal systems. We will discuss the ability of Nd:YAG to clean and shape root canal spaces and remove smear layer and organic tissue remnants from those areas.

  1. Retromolar Canal Associated with Age, Side, Sex, Bifid Mandibular Canal, and Accessory Mental Foramen in Panoramic Radiographs of Brazilians

    OpenAIRE

    Capote, Ticiana Sidorenko de O.; Marcela de Almeida Gonçalves; Juliana Álvares Duarte Bonini Campos

    2015-01-01

    Background. The retromolar canal (RMC) is an anatomical variation that can cause complications in dental procedures. Method. The RMC was evaluated according to age, sex, and presence of accessory mandibular canal and accessory mental foramen, on both sides in 500 panoramic radiographs, belonging to individuals at the age of 7 to 20 years. The associations of interest were studied through Fisher's Exact Test and Pearson's Chi-Square Test, and the correlation was studied through Pearson's Corre...

  2. La presencia del infoentretenimiento en los canales generalistas de la TDT española

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Berrocal Gonzalo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El artículo se incluye dentro de las investigaciones empíricas sobre infoentretenimiento y realiza una caracterización de los estilemas del infoentretenimiento televisivo comprobando su presencia dentro de la programación de los canales generalistas de la TDT española. Metodología. Se analizan las parrillas de los seis canales generalistas contabilizando el tiempo dedicado al infoentretenimiento; posteriormente se realiza un análisis de contenido de los espacios en prime time. Resultados. Se observa cómo el infoentretenimiento ocupa una posición privilegiada dentro de la programación aunque con diferencias significativas entre cadenas. Como estilemas dominantes destacan el humorismo, la dramatización y los recursos técnicos para espectacularizar la imagen. Discusión. El infoentretenimiento se consolida como un macrogénero relevante con porcentajes que van del 34,91% (La Sexta al 8,12% (La 2, siendo el magazine y el debate los formatos dominantes. Sorprendentemente La 1 de TVE con un índice de infoentretenimiento del 18,10% se sitúa por encima de Antena 3 o Cuatro.

  3. El bagre de canal (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque, 1818: estado actual y problemática en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Lara-Rivera

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El bagre de canal (Ictalurus punctatus es uno de los peces endémicos de Norte América con mayor potencial para la acuicultura. A pesar de esto, los datos sobre su distribución actual son escasos y se desconocen muchos aspectos de su dinámica y desempeño productivo. En el presente estudio se reportan los resultados de una búsqueda bibliográfica y análisis de campo que permiten describir la situación actual del bagre de canal con respecto a su distribución geográfica histórica y actual, así como de la problemática que enfrentan los sistemas productivos de esta especie en México. Se identificó la falta de información e indicadores que permitan conocer la extensión de su hábitat natural, movilización o potencial productivo. La calidad y disponibilidad del agua figuran entre las principales problemáticas de la industria; el alimento supone el mayor gasto para los productores y existe gran heterogeneidad de manejo tanto en granjas reproductoras como de engorde, gran parte de la dinámica productiva sigue un modelo de ensayo y error. Se requiere optimizar y homologar los procesos del sistema productivo de bagre de canal, así como caracterizar correctamente las poblaciones domésticas y silvestres para aprovechar al máximo su potencial.

  4. Methodology for Automatic Generation of Models for Large Urban Spaces Based on GIS Data/Metodología para la generación automática de modelos de grandes espacios urbanos desde información SIG/

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Arturo Ordóñez Medina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the planning and evaluation stages of infrastructure projects, it is necessary to manage huge quantities of information. Cities are very complex systems, which need to be modeled when an intervention is required. Suchmodels allow us to measure the impact of infrastructure changes, simulating hypothetic scenarios and evaluating results. This paper describes a methodology for the automatic generation of urban space models from GIS sources. A Voronoi diagram is used to partition large urban regions and subsequently define zones of interest. Finally, some examples of application models are presented, one used for microsimulation of traffic and another for air pollution simulation.En las etapas de planeación y evaluación de proyectos de infraestructura es necesario manejar grandes cantidades de información. Las ciudades son sistemas complejos que deben ser modeladas para ser intervenidas. Estos modelos permitirón medir el impacto de los cambios de infraestructura, simular escenarios hipotéticos y evaluar resultados. Este artículo describe una metodología para generar automáticamente modelos espaciales urbanos desde fuentes SIG: Un diagrama de Voronoi es usado para dividir grandes regiones urbanas, y a continuación serán definidas las zonas de interés. Finalmente, algunos ejemplos de modelos de aplicación serán presentados, uno usado para microsimulación de tráfico y el otro para simular contaminación atmosférica.

  5. Modelo resorte-paríicula para telas hiperlasticas

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    MANUEL GARCÍA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un modelo computacional para la simulación de telas hiperelásticas. El modelo propuesto tiene un enfoque multi−partículas y simula la interacción de un material textil con un objeto deformante. La tela está representada por mallas rectangulares compuestas por resortes, este hecho permite al modelo comportarse ortotrópicamente y en consecuencia es posible simular sus propiedades en ambos sentidos. Las relaciones constitutivas del material preservan las capacidades hiperelásticas naturales de la tela. En el modelo desarrollado aquí, inicialmente la tela se encuentra en su estado natural no deformado. Luego se le da una deformación inicial que garantice el no contacto o intersección con el objeto deformante. Finalmente, la tela deformada es liberada, en consecuencia ella comienza a moverse iterativamente hacia a una posición de equilibrio. La posición final de equilibrio es alcanzada cuando las fuerzas internas son balanceadas por las fuerzas externas de contacto causadas por el objeto. Esto se logra cuando el criterio de parada ha sido satisfecho.

  6. Determinantes de la eficiencia en el canal de distribución: análisis en agencias de viajes

    OpenAIRE

    Sellers Rubio, Ricardo; Mas Ruiz, Francisco José

    2009-01-01

    El incremento de la competencia entre agencias de viajes y el impacto del comercio electrónico como una alternativa al canal de distribución turístico tradicional han dado lugar a un entorno en el que la gestión eficiente de los recursos productivos resulta fundamental para las agencias de viajes. Así, el objetivo del trabajo consiste en estimar la eficiencia con la que operan los intermediarios del sector minorista español de distribución turístico, y conocer la influencia de algunos de sus ...

  7. Water losses from irrigation canals evaluation: comparison among different methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Paolo; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Lasagna, Manuela

    2013-04-01

    The research investigates the field methodologies to evaluate water losses from canals, in order to find a reliable method to identify and quantify them. This study was conducted in five canal lines in Piedmont, north-western Italy, different for hydraulic, morphological, geological and hydrogeological contexts (De Luca et alii, 2012). At a regional scale, Piedmont network consists of several tens of thousands km of irrigation canals. The loss of water due to seepage from irrigation canals constitutes a substantial part of the usable water. Irrigation canals placed in natural soil or fine and coarse sediments are characterized by water losses ranging from 20 % to more than 50 %. These losses cause economic, hydrogeological and environmental consequences: water losses evaluation from irrigation canals in the basis for the sustainable water resource use and management. First, hydrogeological and hydrological characterisation of the study area and of the bottom of the irrigation canals was carried out for every investigated canal, in order to evaluate the relationships between groundwater and stream water (eg. piezometric and hydrogeochemical survey campaigns, infiltrometry tests, penetrometric tests and electrical tomographies, soil characterizations from the bottom of investigated canals). The canals seepage rates were subsequently estimated using different methodologies: empirical formulas, inflow-outflow tests and double tracer tests. The empirical formulas applied for the study underestimated the real amount of the losses probably due to the scarce number of the considered variables. Then the canals seepage rates were evaluated employing inflow-outflow tests, considered the best tool by several authors. This method allows the determination of seepage quantities measuring inflow and outflow of a canal test reach either by instruments. The canal discharge was evaluated using a current meter. This method, even if easy to apply and practical, is not efficient

  8. Endodontic management of mandibular first molar with seven canals using cone-beam computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banode, Ankur Mahesh; Gade, Vandana; Patil, Sanjay; Gade, Jaykumar

    2016-01-01

    The endodontic treatment of a mandibular molar with aberrant canal configuration can be diagnostically and clinically challenging. Successful endodontic therapy thus depends on the clinician's ability to anticipate and look for these aberrant variations. A mandibular first molar with seven canals represents a rare anatomical variant, particularly when four canals are found in distal root. Based on in vitro studies, its incidence is reported to be between 0.2% and 3%. With the advent of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) as an adjunctive diagnostic aid, the determination of root canal anatomy in teeth with complex canal configurations has become more precise. The present case report discusses successful nonsurgical management of radix entomolaris along with middle mesial canal and middle distal canal in mandibular first molar with seven canals (four canals in distal and three in mesial) employing CBCT as an adjunctive diagnostic aid to conventional radiography. PMID:27307680

  9. Lumbar spinal canal size of sciatica patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurme, M.; Alaranta, H.; Aalto, T.; Knuts, L.R.; Vanharanta, H.; Troup, J.D.G. (Turku City Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Surgery; Social Insurance Institution, Turku (Finland). Rehabilitation Research Centre; Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation; Liverpool Univ. (UK). Dept. of Orthopaedic and Accident Surgery)

    Seven measures at the three lowest lumbar interspaces were recorded from conventional radiographs of the lumbar spines of 160 consecutive patients with low back pain and sciatica admitted for myelography and possible surgery. Eighty-eight patients were operated upon for disc herniation, and of the conservatively-treated 72 patients, 18 had a pathologic and 54 a normal myelogram. The results were evaluated after one year using the occupational handicap scales of WHO. Correlations of radiographic measures to stature were moderate and to age small. After adjusting for stature and age, only the male interpedicular distances and the antero-posterior diameter of intervertebral foramen at L3 were greater than those of females. The males with a pathologic myelogram had smaller posterior disc height at L3 and a smaller interarticular distance at L3 and L4 than those with normal myelogram, likewise the midsagittal diameter at L3 and L4 in females. In all patients other measures besides posterior disc height were smaller than those for low back pain patients (p<0.001) or for cadavers (p<0.001). The only correlation between measures and clinical manifestations was between pedicular length at L3 and limited straight leg raising. Where the disc material had been extruded into the spinal canal, the interpedicular distance was significantly wider. Only anterior disc height at L3 revealed differences between good and poor outcome one year after surgery, as did the interarticular distance at S1 in patients with normal myelogram after conservative treatment. (orig.).

  10. Radiotherapy of the anal canal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1976 to 1987, 58 patients presenting an anal canal epidermoid carcinoma underwent radiation therapy alone as primary treatment. There were 48 females and ten males with a mean age of 65 years ± 15.5. Tumors were staged according to the 1979 UICC-TNM classification. There were six T1 (10%), 15 T2 (26%), 28 T3 (48%) and nine T4 (16%). Inguinal lymph nodes were involved in 17 cases (29%). No chemotherapy was given. Forty one patients without node involvement were irradiated according to the Papillon Technique. Twenty seven of these patients were boosted with brachytherapy and eight through a perineal portal with a cobalt unit or an electron beam so that the mean cumulative dose to the tumor 55 Gy. Six patients had radical surgery after a poor response to initial radiation therapy. Patients with inguinal involvement were treated by a three or four fields technique with a high energy photons beam (X 25 MV). The given dose to the tumor was between 60-65 Gy in 6.5 weeks. Surgery was performed in two patients with poor regression of the tumor after initial radiotherapy. Mean follow up was 7 years. Forty nine patients (84.4%) were locally controlled. Four failures were salvaged by surgery. Twenty four patients died from cancer and the overall actuarial 3 years and 5 years survival rate were 67% and 50% respectively. Severe side effect of radiation therapy occurred in 5% of cases. Anal sphincter function was preserved in 69% of the patients. This study confirms that radiation therapy gives results comparable with those of surgery allowing the patients to avoid anorectal resection. (author). 22 refs

  11. Endodontic management of a mandibular first molar with six root canal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Dilip; Reddy, Smitha; Venigalla, Bhuvan Shome; Kamishetty, Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Internal anatomy of pulp is complex. The first mandibular molars typically have two roots, one mesial with two root canals and another distal root, which contains one or two canals. A 20-year-old female patient reported with intermittent pain and incomplete root canal treatment in left lower back region since 1-week. Refined access cavity revealed initially two canals in mesial and two canals in the distal root. With operating microscope and cone beam computerized tomography, two additional canals (L-mesio-buccal and B-mesio-lingual) were identified in mesial root. One-year follow-up showed patient was asymptomatic and complete healing of periapical radiolucency. PMID:26430309

  12. Endodontic management of a mandibular first molar with six root canal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Dilip; Reddy, Smitha; Venigalla, Bhuvan Shome; Kamishetty, Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Internal anatomy of pulp is complex. The first mandibular molars typically have two roots, one mesial with two root canals and another distal root, which contains one or two canals. A 20-year-old female patient reported with intermittent pain and incomplete root canal treatment in left lower back region since 1-week. Refined access cavity revealed initially two canals in mesial and two canals in the distal root. With operating microscope and cone beam computerized tomography, two additional canals (L-mesio-buccal and B-mesio-lingual) were identified in mesial root. One-year follow-up showed patient was asymptomatic and complete healing of periapical radiolucency. PMID:26430309

  13. Improved Visualization of Cartilage Canals Using Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping.

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    Mikko J Nissi

    Full Text Available Cartilage canal vessels are critical to the normal function of epiphyseal (growth cartilage and damage to these vessels is demonstrated or suspected in several important developmental orthopaedic diseases. High-resolution, three-dimensional (3-D visualization of cartilage canals has recently been demonstrated using susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI. In the present study, a quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM approach is evaluated for 3-D visualization of the cartilage canals. It is hypothesized that QSM post-processing improves visualization of the cartilage canals by resolving artifacts present in the standard SWI post-processing while retaining sensitivity to the cartilage canals.Ex vivo distal femoral specimens from 3- and 8-week-old piglets and a 1-month-old human cadaver were scanned at 9.4 T with a 3-D gradient recalled echo sequence suitable for SWI and QSM post-processing. The human specimen and the stifle joint of a live, 3-week-old piglet also were scanned at 7.0 T. Datasets were processed using the standard SWI method and truncated k-space division QSM approach. To compare the post-processing methods, minimum/maximum intensity projections and 3-D reconstructions of the processed datasets were generated and evaluated.Cartilage canals were successfully visualized using both SWI and QSM approaches. The artifactual splitting of the cartilage canals that occurs due to the dipolar phase, which was present in the SWI post-processed data, was eliminated by the QSM approach. Thus, orientation-independent visualization and better localization of the cartilage canals was achieved with the QSM approach. Combination of GRE with a mask based on QSM data further improved visualization.Improved and artifact-free 3-D visualization of the cartilage canals was demonstrated by QSM processing of the data, especially by utilizing susceptibility data as an enhancing mask. Utilizing tissue-inherent contrast, this method allows noninvasive assessment

  14. El proceso constructivo de los teatros del "Canal" del arquitecto Juan Navarro Baldeweg

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    del Aguila García, Alfonso

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This present article studies and chriticizes the building system and the developement of the theater and dance complex of Canal (Teatros del Canal, Madrid, designed by Juan Navarro Baldeweg, Principal Professor of Architectural Design at Madrid School of Architecture Polytechnic University. These theaters are being built in the center of Madrid city. The owner and developer of this complex is Canal de Isabel II (the water supply company of Madrid regional Government. The project consist in a three building complex, two theatres and a choreographic centre, put together by a back service block, each of them with it’s own different building solutions. This article is the result of the work done during the term 2006-07 of the Seminar of "Industrialization of Building Process" that, under the direction of the Principal Professor Alfonso del Águila, takes place within the Ph. D. Program of the Department of Construction and Architectural Technology set in Madrid School of Architecture Polytechnic University. The work includes two different parts: the fi rst one, which introduces is a prologue written by Prof. Navarro and a general description of the building. The second part describes its different construction areas, ranging from the different structural solutions, the hung façades pretending to be theatre curtains, some aspects of the interior design, as acoustics, special furniture and fi nishes, not in a mere descriptive way, but also from a critical manner with the intention to be a consequence with didactical value for the students/ authors.El artículo que se presenta estudia y valora el sistema constructivo, y su desarrollo, de las obras de los Teatros del Canal, obra del Catedrático de Proyectos de la Escuela de Arquitectura de Madrid, Prof. Navarro Baldeweg, que se están llevando a cabo en Madrid, siendo la Promotora y Propietaria el Canal de Isabel II de la Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid. Se trata de un conjunto de tres edifi cios

  15. Didáctica de las matemáticas y desarrollo profesional de una maestra. El caso de Maria Antònia Canals i Tolosa

    OpenAIRE

    Sotos Serrano, María

    2015-01-01

    [ES]El objetivo general es el de describir y analizar la biografía escolar y profesional de la profesora M. Antònia Canals i Tolosa, relacionada con la enseñanza en general y con la enseñanza de las matemáticas en particular. Para ello se adopta una perspectiva biográfica en el estudio de un caso único, elaborando una historia de vida a partir de diferentes fuentes de datos: observación directa, treinta entrevistas, cartas y documentos secundarios. Para el proceso de análisis se ha seguido...

  16. Kyphoplasty for osteoporotic fractures with spinal canal compromise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the feasibility and clinical outcome of kyphoplasty in the treatment of osteoporotic fractures with canal compromise. Methods: A total of 16 patients with osteoporotic fractures with canal compromise without neurological deficit were attempted to be treated by kyphoplasty. During kyphoplasty, modified techniques including staged bone cement injection and dynamic fluoroscopic monitoring were used. Pain was measured using the self-reporting Visual Analogue pain Scale (VAS) preoperatively, postoperatively and in the final follow-up. Disability was measured using the Oswestry Disability questionnaire (ODI) preoperatively, postoperatively and in the final follow-up. The height of the compromised vertebral body, the kyphotic angle and the spinal canal compromise were measured preoperatively, postoperatively and in the final follow-up. Results: Operations were completed smoothly, with the exception of one patient with less cement leakage but without clinical symptom occurred. Relief of pain was achieved after kyphoplasty. The mean VAS score of these patients decreased from 8.1 ± 1.2 pre-operatively to 2.7 ± 0.6 post-operatively (P0.05). In the final follow-up, the spinal canal compromise was (14.4 ± 3.1)%. Conclusion: Kyphoplasty is a relatively safe and effective method for the treatment of osteoporotic fractures with canal compromise without neurological deficit. (authors)

  17. Metachronous tubulovillous and tubular adenomas of the anal canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Hiroaki; Ishihara, Soichiro; Morikawa, Teppei; Tanaka, Junichiro; Yasuda, Koji; Ohtani, Kensuke; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Kawai, Kazushige; Hata, Keisuke; Kazama, Shinsuke; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Sunami, Eiji; Kitayama, Joji; Fukayama, Masashi; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Anal canal adenoma is an extremely rare disease that has the potential to transform into a malignant tumor. We herein presented a rare case of metachronous multiple adenomas of the anal canal. A 48-year-old woman underwent total colonoscopy following a positive fecal blood test. A 9-mm villous polyp arising from the posterior wall of the anal canal was removed by snare polypectomy. Histologically, the tumor was tubulovillous adenoma with high-grade dysplasia and the cut end was negative for tumor cells. Six years later, an elevated lesion, macroscopically five millimeters in size, was detected in the left wall of the anal canal in a follow-up colonoscopy. Local excision of the tumor was performed, and the lesion was pathologically confirmed to be tubular adenoma with high-grade dysplasia limited to the mucosa. The patient is currently alive without any evidence of recurrence for six months after surgery. Although she had a past history of cervical cancer, the multiple tumors arising in the anal canal were unlikely to be related to human papilloma virus infection. Our case report underscores the importance of careful observations throughout colonoscopy to detect precancerous lesions, particularly in anatomically narrow segments. PMID:26249723

  18. Micro-Machined Flow Sensors Mimicking Lateral Line Canal Neuromasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Herzog

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish sense water motions with their lateral line. The lateral line is a sensory system that contains up to several thousand mechanoreceptors, called neuromasts. Neuromasts occur freestanding on the skin and in subepidermal canals. We developed arrays of flow sensors based on lateral line canal neuromasts using a biomimetic approach. Each flow sensor was equipped with a PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane lamella integrated into a canal system by means of thick- and thin-film technology. Our artificial lateral line system can estimate bulk flow velocity from the spatio-temporal propagation of flow fluctuations. Based on the modular sensor design, we were able to detect flow rates in an industrial application of tap water flow metering. Our sensory system withstood water pressures of up to six bar. We used finite element modeling to study the fluid flow inside the canal system and how this flow depends on canal dimensions. In a second set of experiments, we separated the flow sensors from the main stream by means of a flexible membrane. Nevertheless, these biomimetic neuromasts were still able to sense flow fluctuations. Fluid separation is a prerequisite for flow measurements in medical and pharmaceutical applications.

  19. Evaluación de la validez del modelo constitutivo Drucker Prager Extendido para la simulación de la respuesta mecánica de un Vertisol de la región central de Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Ariel de la Rosa Andino; Miguel Herrera Suárez; Omar González Cueto; Lázaro Ventura Benítez Leyva; Inhaudis Calzada Pompa; Laura García Pedraza

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo se efectúa con el objetivo de evaluar el modelo constitutivo Drucker Prager Extendido para la simulación de la respuesta mecánica de un Vertisol de la región central de Cuba a través del método de elementos finitos. Para la simulación de la respuesta mecánica del suelo en estudio se emplea el software ABAQUS/CAE 6.8.1 como herramienta computacional. La simulación comprendió: la descripción del problema a simular, definición del modelo virtual, definición de las propiedades...

  20. Microbiological indicators of water quality in the Xochimilco canals, Mexico City Indicadores microbiológicos de la calidad del agua de los canales de Xochimilco de la Ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alfredo Juárez-Figueroa

    2003-10-01

    efectuado en Xochimilco, México. Durante noviembre y diciembre de 2001 se muestrearon 10 sitios, cinco efluentes y cinco canales, para la cuantificación de coliformes fecales y enterococos (filtración en membrana de nitrocelulosa, colifagos somáticos (técnica de doble capa de agar, ooquistes de Cryptosporidium sp. y quistes de Giardia sp. (concentración en filtros Envirocheck y microscopía de inmunofluorescencia. Se efectuó comparación de los promedios de las cuentas de organismos hallados, en efluentes y canales, mediante t de Student. RESULTADOS: El agua tratada que descarga en los canales mostró cantidades bajas de coliformes fecales (media de 40.4/100 ml, enterococos (media de 58.8/100 ml y quistes de Cryptosporidium (media de 13.2/100 l, mientras que los colifagos y quistes de Giardia estuvieron presentes en gran cantidad (media de 1467.5/100 ml y 1199.8/100 l, respectivamente, sugiriendo que el tratamiento del agua puede ser ineficaz para remover estos agentes. En los canales de irrigación de vegetales se encontró una cantidad significativamente menor de quistes de Giardia (media de 45/100 l y no se encontraron ooquistes de Cryptosporidium, lo que sugiere la remoción natural de estos agentes. Algunos aislamientos de E coli obtenidos de un canal contaminado con descargas cloacales mostraron una multirresistencia a antibióticos que fue transferida por conjugación a otras bacterias mediante plásmidos. Esto sugiere la posible diseminación de la resistencia a bacterias del medio (posibles patógenas. Existen numerosos asentamientos humanos cercanos a las chinampas que descargan desechos directamente a los canales. CONCLUSIONES: La implantación de métodos de tratamiento de excretas que resulten costeables y culturalmente aceptables debe realizarse mediante una cuidadosa planeación y consulta, si estos métodos han de ser adoptados y sostenidos por la población local.

  1. Shaping ability of the M4 handpiece and Safety Hedstrom files in simulated root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, A; Jaunberzins, A; Dhopatkar, A; Bryant, S; Dummer, P M

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the shaping ability of the M4 reciprocating handpiece and Safety Hedstrom files in simulated canals. A total of 40 simulated canals of various angles and positions of curvature were prepared with an M4 handpiece using Safety Hedstrom files oriented with the ground, flattened surface towards the inner aspect of the curve. A standard regimen was adopted throughout. Pre- and post-operative longitudinal images of the canals were taken with a video camera and stored and manipulated in a computer with image analysis software. The presence of canal aberrations and the amount and location of resin material removed as a result of preparation were determined from composite images of superimposed pre- and post-operative views. Preparation time varied significantly (P canal types; overall, 20 degrees canals were prepared more quickly than 40 degrees canals. Zips and elbows were observed in 16 out of the 40 canals with most (11) being created in 40 degrees specimens. Ledges were found in 19 canals and perforations in only 1. There were no significant differences between canal shapes for these aberrations. Excessive removal of material from the inner aspect of the canal at the curve to create a danger zone was found in 20 canals, but only in those with 40 degrees curves. Significant differences in total canal width between the canal types were seen at the zips (P danger zones (P danger zones varied significantly (P canal types. Under the conditions of this study, the M4 handpiece and Safety Hedstrom files created hour-glass preparations in a substantial proportion of canals. In reality, the Safety Hedstrom file with its one flattened surface was ineffective at reducing removal of material along the inner aspect of canal curves in severely curved specimens and clearly has the potential to create strip perforations in teeth. PMID:9477790

  2. Comparison of two sonic handpieces during the preparation of simulated root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dummer, P M; Hutchings, R; Hartles, F R

    1993-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess and compare two sonic handpieces during the preparation of simulated root canals. A total of 60 simulated canals in clear resin blocks of various angles and positions of curvature were prepared using Shaper files activated either by an MM1500 Sonic Air or an MM1400 Mecasonic handpiece. Each handpiece was used to prepare 30 canals using an identical preparation procedure which involved a linear filing motion and an anticurvature technique in curved canals. The efficacy of the handpieces was determined for straight and curved canals separately and included an assessment of loss of canal length, weight loss from the blocks, smoothness of canal walls, transportation and overall shape of the prepared canals. Canals were prepared rapidly and effectively by both handpieces. Overall, the MM1500 handpiece was associated with significantly less distance loss (P canals (8%) had hour-glass shapes displaying zips and elbows, each handpiece created two. Only two canals (4%) had danger zones, both were created by the MM1400 handpiece. There was little difference between the handpieces in terms of the smoothness of canal walls, the direction and amount of transportation or the overall shape of canals. Under the conditions of this study, the new MM1400 Mecasonic handpiece performed as well as the established MM1500 Sonic Air. PMID:8406963

  3. Spatial orientation of semicircular canals and afferent sensitivity vectors in pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    Rotational head motion in vertebrates is detected by the semicircular canal system, whose innervating primary afferent fibers carry information about movement in specific head planes. The semicircular canals have been qualitatively examined over a number of years, and the canal planes have been quantitatively characterized in several animal species. The present study first determined the geometric relationship between individual semicircular canals and between the canals and the stereotactic head planes in pigeons. Stereotactic measurements of multiple points along the circumference of the bony canals were taken, and the measured points fitted with a three-dimensional planar surface. Direction normals to the plane's surface were calculated and used to define angles between semicircular canal pairs. Because of the unusual shape of the anterior semicircular canals in pigeons, two planes, a major and a minor, were fitted to the canal's course. Calculated angle values for all canals indicated that the horizontal and posterior semicircular canals are nearly orthogonal, but the anterior canals have substantial deviations from orthogonality with other canal planes. Next, the responses of the afferent fibers that innervate each of the semicircular canals to 0.5 Hz sinusoidal rotation about an earth-vertical axis were obtained. The head orientation relative to the rotation axis was systematically varied so that directions of maximum sensitivity for each canal afferent could be determined. These sensitivity vectors were then compared with the canal plane direction normals. The afferents that innervated specific semicircular canals formed homogeneous clusters of sensitivity vectors in different head planes. The horizontal and posterior afferents had average sensitivity vectors that were largely co-incident with the innervated canal plane direction normals. Anterior canal afferents, however, appeared to synthesize contributions from the major and minor plane components of the

  4. Indicadores microbiológicos de la calidad del agua de los canales de Xochimilco de la Ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juárez-Figueroa Luis Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Cuantificar diversos indicadores de contaminación fecal en los efluentes de dos plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales y en muestras recogidas en varios canales de Xochimilco. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal efectuado en Xochimilco, México. Durante noviembre y diciembre de 2001 se muestrearon 10 sitios, cinco efluentes y cinco canales, para la cuantificación de coliformes fecales y enterococos (filtración en membrana de nitrocelulosa, colifagos somáticos (técnica de doble capa de agar, ooquistes de Cryptosporidium sp. y quistes de Giardia sp. (concentración en filtros Envirocheck y microscopía de inmunofluorescencia. Se efectuó comparación de los promedios de las cuentas de organismos hallados, en efluentes y canales, mediante t de Student. RESULTADOS: El agua tratada que descarga en los canales mostró cantidades bajas de coliformes fecales (media de 40.4/100 ml, enterococos (media de 58.8/100 ml y quistes de Cryptosporidium (media de 13.2/100 l, mientras que los colifagos y quistes de Giardia estuvieron presentes en gran cantidad (media de 1467.5/100 ml y 1199.8/100 l, respectivamente, sugiriendo que el tratamiento del agua puede ser ineficaz para remover estos agentes. En los canales de irrigación de vegetales se encontró una cantidad significativamente menor de quistes de Giardia (media de 45/100 l y no se encontraron ooquistes de Cryptosporidium, lo que sugiere la remoción natural de estos agentes. Algunos aislamientos de E coli obtenidos de un canal contaminado con descargas cloacales mostraron una multirresistencia a antibióticos que fue transferida por conjugación a otras bacterias mediante plásmidos. Esto sugiere la posible diseminación de la resistencia a bacterias del medio (posibles patógenas. Existen numerosos asentamientos humanos cercanos a las chinampas que descargan desechos directamente a los canales. CONCLUSIONES: La implantación de métodos de tratamiento de excretas que resulten

  5. Bioceramic-Based Root Canal Sealers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaf AL-Haddad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioceramic-based root canal sealers are considered to be an advantageous technology in endodontics. The aim of this review was to consider laboratory experiments and clinical studies of these sealers. An extensive search of the endodontic literature was made to identify publications related to bioceramic-based root canal sealers. The outcome of laboratory and clinical studies on the biological and physical properties of bioceramic-based sealers along with comparative studies with other sealers was assessed. Several studies were evaluated covering different properties of bioceramic-based sealers including physical properties, biocompatibility, sealing ability, adhesion, solubility, and antibacterial efficacy. Bioceramic-based sealers were found to be biocompatible and comparable to other commercial sealers. The clinical outcomes associated with the use of bioceramic-based root canal sealers are not established in the literature.

  6. Classification, mechanism and surgical treatments for spinal canal cysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun Sun

    2016-01-01

    A variety of cystic lesions may develop in spinal canal. These cysts can be divided into intramedullary, intradural, extradural, cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral cysts according to anatomical presentation, as well as arachnoid, meningeal, perineural, juxtafacet, discal, neurenteric cysts, and cyst-like lesions according to different etiologies. Mechanisms of initiation and growth vary for different cysts, such as congenital, trauma, bleeding, inflammatory, instability, hydrostatic pressure, osmosis of water, secretion of cyst wall, and one-way-valve effect, etc. Up to now, many treatment methods are available for these different spinal canal cysts. One operation method can be applied in cysts with different types. On the other hand, several operation methods may be utilized in one type of cyst according to the difference of location or style. However, same principle should be obeyed in surgical treatment despite of difference among spinal canal cysts, given open surgery is melely for symptomatic cyst. The surgical approach should be tailored to the individual patient.

  7. Commentaires sur la valeur piscicole du Canal de Roubaix (Nord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARRIGNON J.

    1970-10-01

    Full Text Available La population piscicole du Canal de ROUBAIX a été inventoriée par pêche électrique. Trois passages, suivis chacun de l'enlèvement des poissons capturés, ont été opérés dans chacun des trois Secteurs d'inventaire. Le peuplement le plus probable ainsi estimé (par la méthode De Lury,est en rapport avec le degré de pollution du canal. On constate aussi queles poissons se cantonnent le long des berges, sur une largeur de 2 à 3mètres.L'estimation à l'hectare représente donc en réalité le stock d'une zone n'ayant que 25 % de la surface totale du Canal. Les poissons contrôlés sont pour la plupart des poissons de repeuplement.

  8. Acoustic impedances of ear canals measured by impedance tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciric, Dejan; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2007-01-01

    During hearing sensitivity tests, the sound field is commonly generated by an earphone placed on a subject ear. One of the factors that can affect the sound transmission in the ear is the acoustic impedance of the ear canal. Its importance is related to the contribution of other elements involved...... in the transmission such as the earphone impedance. In order to determine the acoustic impedances of human ear canals, the standardized method for measurement of complex impedances used for the measurement of the audiometric earphone impedances is applied. It is based on the transfer function between...... two microphone locations in an impedance tube. The end of the tube representing the measurement plane is placed at the ear canal entrance. Thus, the impedance seen from the entrance inward is measured on 25 subjects. Most subjects participated in the previous measurement of the ratio between the...

  9. Application of Tritium Tracer to Canal Seepage Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper considers the problem of seepage loss from water carrier and storage systems and the application of tritiated water to the detection and measurement of such losses. A field study of seepage loss from an 800 ft reach of the Madera Canal, located in the San Joaquin Valley of California, was made. Tritiated water was employed to measure the progress of underground seepage from the canal and the loss of water from an isolated reach of the canal. Velocities of ground water flow were also determined by the point-dilution technique with both chloride and tritium tracers. Laboratory studies of the point-dilution method were conducted for determination of its theoretical validity under controlled conditions and for comparison of the relative efficacies of chloride and tritium. (author)

  10. Experiences of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of spinal canal disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR images of 153 patients with spinal canal diseases (disk hernia 80, spondylosis 45, ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament 24 and ossification of yellow ligament 4) were evaluated at 0.5T. Spin echo with a Tr 600ms and a Te 40ms (SE 600/40) sagittal, SE 2,000/120 sagittal, and SE 1,000/40 transaxial images were routinely obtained. In each of spinal canal diseases, herniated disk, degenerative spur, calcified ligaments, displaced and/or deformed cord, dural sac, and epidural fat were well demonstrated. Transaxial images demonstrated the laterality of the lesions and better anatomical relations between pathological lesions and normal spinal structures. We recommend that transaxial images should be routinely obtained in addition to sagittal images for better evaluation of various spinal canal disorders. (author)

  11. Bioceramic-Based Root Canal Sealers: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Ab Aziz, Zeti A.

    2016-01-01

    Bioceramic-based root canal sealers are considered to be an advantageous technology in endodontics. The aim of this review was to consider laboratory experiments and clinical studies of these sealers. An extensive search of the endodontic literature was made to identify publications related to bioceramic-based root canal sealers. The outcome of laboratory and clinical studies on the biological and physical properties of bioceramic-based sealers along with comparative studies with other sealers was assessed. Several studies were evaluated covering different properties of bioceramic-based sealers including physical properties, biocompatibility, sealing ability, adhesion, solubility, and antibacterial efficacy. Bioceramic-based sealers were found to be biocompatible and comparable to other commercial sealers. The clinical outcomes associated with the use of bioceramic-based root canal sealers are not established in the literature. PMID:27242904

  12. Irrigation and crop management in Gandak Canal command of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gandak Project is one of the biggest irrigation projects in India, covering a culturable command area (CCA) of 4.44 lakh ha in U.P., 9.6 lakh ha CCA in Bihar and 0.44 lakh ha in Nepal (Singh and Khan, 2002). The total culturable command areas are 14.44 lakh hectares. The command area is located in between latitude 25 deg 40' to 27 deg 25' and longitude between 83 deg 15' to 85 deg 15'. It is a diversion project through construction of a barrage on the river Gandak. This project area covers up to five districts in the Command of Tirhut Main Canal (TMC) and 3 districts in the Saran Main Canal (SMC) command. The length of main canal is usually long (990 and 650 R.D.'s in eastern and western side, respectively) and the channels are unlined and seepage loss is quite high. (author)

  13. Temporal Bone Fracture Causing Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD is a third window lesion of the inner ear causing symptoms of vertigo, autophony, tinnitus, and hearing loss. A “two-hit” hypothesis has traditionally been proposed, whereby thinly developed bone overlying the superior canal is disrupted by a sudden change in intracranial pressure. Although the symptoms of SCD may be precipitated by head injury, no previous reports have described a temporal bone fracture directly causing SCD. Observations. Two patients sustained temporal bone fractures after closed head trauma, and developed unilateral otologic symptoms consistent with SCD. In each instance, computed tomography imaging revealed fractures extending through the bony roof of the superior semicircular canal. Conclusions and Relevance. Temporal bone fractures, which are largely treated nonoperatively, have not previously been reported to cause SCD. As it is a potentially treatable entity, SCD resulting from temporal bone fracture must be recognized as a possibility and diagnosed promptly if present.

  14. THE BUSINESS OF THE CANAL: THE ECONOMICS AND POLITICS OF THE CARTER ADMINISTRATION’S PANAMA CANAL ZONE INITIATIVE, 1978

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C. Swilling

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Carter-Torrijos Treaty of 1978, the initiative to relinquish controi of the Panama Canal Zone to the Republic of Panama, allowed Panama for the first time in its short history to become an autonomous nation and to take control of its destiny as a global trading crossroads. Conservatives rallied against President Carter and accused him of jeopardizing U. S. security and hegemony. Fears were that Panama did not have the economic or technical resources to maintain Canal operations, lacked the administrative knowledge and resources to manage the business of the Canal, lacked the military presence to insure security of the Canal, and did not have the political and social will to maintain the environmental integrity of the region. In short, disastrous results were predicted. Carter prevailed. December 31, 1999 saw the surrender of the Canal Zone, and all its facilities, to Panama. This paper discusses events that precipitated Carter’s decision, economic and political arguments presented during the 1977-78 debate, implementation of the treaty, and an evaluation of the ‘business of the Canal’ today.

  15. Funciones de los canales iónicos CFTR y ENAC en la fibrosis quística

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra G. Palma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available La fibrosis quística se debe a la ausencia o defecto del canal transmembrana regulador de la fibrosis quística (CFTR, un canal de cloruro codificado en el gen cftr que juega un papel clave en la homeostasis del agua e iones. El CFTR es activado por el AMPc y se localiza en las membranas apicales y basolaterales de las vías aéreas, intestino y glándulas exocrinas. Una de sus funciones primarias en los pulmones es mantener la capa de líquido superficial a través de su función de canal y regular el canal epitelial de sodio sensible al amiloride (ENaC. Se han identificado más de 1900 mutaciones en el gen cftr. La enfermedad se caracteriza por secreciones viscosas en las glándulas exocrinas y por niveles elevados de cloruro de sodio en el sudor. En la fibrosis quística el CFTR no funciona y el ENaC está desregulado; el resultado es un aumento en la reabsorción de sodio y agua con la formación de un líquido viscoso. En las glándulas sudoríparas tanto el Na+ como el Cl- se retienen en el lumen causando una pérdida de electrolitos durante la sudoración y el NaCl se elimina al sudor. Así, los niveles elevados de NaCl son la base del test del sudor inducido por pilocarpina, un método de diagnóstico para la enfermedad. En esta revisión se discuten los movimientos de Cl- y Na+ en las glándulas sudoríparas y pulmón así como el papel del ENaC en la patogénesis de la enfermedad.

  16. Evolution of root canal sealers: An insight story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Tyagi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Attainment of ideal root canal treatment comprises various essential factors such as proper instrumentation, biomechanical preparation, obturation, and ultimately depending upon the case, post-endodontic restoration. Main objective of the treatment is to get absolute rid of microbial entity and prevent any future predilection of re-infection. In order to achieve that, proper seal is required to cut down any chance of proliferation of bacteria and future occurrence of any pathology. Although gutta-percha has been the standard obturating material used in root canal treatment, it does not reinforce endodontically treated roots owing to its inability to achieve an impervious seal along the dentinal walls of the root canal. Gutta-percha does not from a monoblock even with the use of a resin-based sealer such as AH Plus because the sealer does not bind to gutta-percha. As a result, a monoblock is formed (consisting of Resilon core material, Resin sealer, bonding agent/primer, and dentin. Another reason of Resilon being a better obturating material could be that the removal of smear layer by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA after biomechanical preparation may have allowed the root canal filling material and root canal sealers to contact the canal wall and penetrate in the dentinal tubules, which may increase the strength of roots. New silicone-based sealers like Roekoseal automix and the most recent GuttaFlow have some affirmative results regarding solubility and biocompatibility, as compared to other sealers. Methacrylate resin-based sealers and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA-based sealers have opened a new horizon for sealers.

  17. Gaussian plume model for the SO{sub 2} in a thermoelectric power plant; Modelo de pluma gaussiano para el SO{sub 2} en una central termoelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes L, C.; Munoz Ledo, C. R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    The Gaussian Plume Model is an analytical extension to simulate the dispersion of the SO{sub 2} concentration at ground level as a function of the emission changes in the spot sources, as well as the pollutant dispersion in the Wind Rose, when the necessary parameters are fed. The model was elaborated in a personal computer and the results produced are generated in text form. [Espanol] El modelo de pluma gaussiano es una extension analitica para simular la dispersion de las concentraciones de SO{sub 2} a nivel del piso en funcion de los cambios de las emisiones en las fuentes puntuales, asi como, la dispersion del contaminante en la rosa de los vientos cuando se le alimentan los parametros necesarios. El modelo fue elaborado en una computadora personal y los resultados que proporciona los genera en modo texto.

  18. Absent posterior semicircular canal: HRCT feature of Waardenburg syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep M Mahajan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Absence of posterior semicircular canal is a rare condition, having been reported with only a few syndromes such as Waardenburg syndrome (WS, Alagellie, CHARGE, and Goldenhaar syndromes. We report a 12- year old male with bilateral absent posterior semicircular canals. These phenotypic characteristics of the patient favored the diagnosis of WS. WS is a rare autosomal dominant condition characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, in conjunction with pigmentary abnormalities and defects of the neural crest-derived tissues. The case is presented for its rarity and for its high resolution computed tomography (HRCT temporal bone findings so as to reach a precise diagnosis.

  19. Germinoma in the Internal Auditory Canal Mimicking a Vestibular Schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Martín-Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of a primary germinoma in the central nervous system but not on or near the midline or within the brain is exceptional. It may occur at any age; however, it is rare in patients over 50 years old. Only a handful of cases of germinomas located in the cerebellopontine angle were presented, but to our knowledge, there has been no description of an isolated germinoma in the internal auditory canal. We report a case of germinoma in the internal auditory canal in a 51-year-old man simulating the clinical and radiological characteristics of a vestibular schwannoma.

  20. Optodynamic Phenomena During Laser-Activated Irrigation Within Root Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukač, Nejc; Gregorčič, Peter; Jezeršek, Matija

    2016-07-01

    Laser-activated irrigation is a powerful endodontic treatment for smear layer, bacteria, and debris removal from the root canal. In this study, we use shadow photography and the laser-beam-transmission probe to examine the dynamics of laser-induced vapor bubbles inside a root canal model and compare ultrasonic needle irrigation to the laser method. Results confirm important phenomenological differences in the two endodontic methods with the laser method resulting in much deeper irrigation. Observations of simulated debris particles show liquid vorticity effects which in our opinion represents the major cleaning mechanism.

  1. A Guyon's canal ganglion presenting as occupational overuse syndrome: A case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Jeffrey C Y

    2008-01-01

    Occupational overuse syndrome (OOS) can present as Guyon\\'s canal syndrome in computer keyboard users. We report a case of Guyon\\'s canal syndrome caused by a ganglion in a computer user that was misdiagnosed as OOS.

  2. News of CanalUGR tracked on Google News, Yahoo! News and Bing News

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero-Solana, V??ctor; Arboledas M??rquez, Luis; Leger??n-??lvarez, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Dataset contains 613 news of CanalUGR (University of Granada Communication Office) tracked on the main online news aggregators (Google News, Yahoo! News and Bing News). We include: number in CanalUGR, media, country, type.

  3. AFSC/ABL: Lynn Canal Overwinter Acoustic Survey, 2004-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The acoustic trawl database for Lynn Canals echo-trawl survey was conducted from 2001 to 2004 throughout southern Lynn Canal in southeast Alaska. Acoustic surveys...

  4. AFSC/ABL: Lynn Canal Echo-Integrated Trawl Surveys, 2001-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The acoustic trawl database for Lynn Canals echo-trawl survey was conducted from 2001 to 2004 throughout southern Lynn Canal in southeast Alaska. Acoustic surveys...

  5. Endodontic Management of Mandibular First Molar with Middle Distal Canal: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Reddy Venumuddala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of variations in root canal morphology is critical for a successful endodontic treatment. This article presents the endodontic management of a unique case of mandibular molar with middle distal canal which is quite uncommon.

  6. Impacto de una recesión estadounidense en la economía peruana: ¿somos más o menos vulnerables?

    OpenAIRE

    Rabanal B., Violeta Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    El presente documento busca evaluar las fortalezas y debilidades de la economía peruana para enfrentar shocks externos, específicamente una contracción en la actividad productiva estadounidense. Para esto, se realiza un análisis de las fuentes de vulnerabilidad por medio de indicadores; posteriormente, se plantean los principales canales de transmisión y se realiza un ejercicio econométrico a través de la metodología de vectores autorregresivos estructurales para simular el efecto de un shock...

  7. Estudio micológico de El Canal y Los Tiles (La Palma, Islas Canarias. V. Datos adicionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leal, Julio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An annotated catalogue of 66 taxa, collected in the early MAB Reserve El Canal y Los Tiles is presented. Among these taxa, 11 species are new for La Palma island and 5 are recorded for the first time in the Canary Islands. Taxonomic comments on some critical species and information about the distribution in the Macaronesian bioregion of all the studied taxa are given. Based on our previous publications, global data on biodiversity, substrates and distribution of the mycobiota in the different plant communities present in the sampled area are analyzed.

    Se presenta un estudio sobre 66 especies, pertenecientes a las divisiones Myxomycota (21, Ascomycota (29 y Basidiomycota (16, encontradas en la antigua Reserva de la Biosfera El Canal y Los Tiles. De ellas 11 se citan por primera vez para la isla de La Palma, siendo 5 de éstas nuevas para Canarias. Se hacen comentarios taxonómicos sobre algunos táxones conflictivos, además de amplia información sobre su distribución en la Región Macaronésica. En base a publicaciones propias anteriores, se aportan datos globales sobre biodiversidad, sustratos y distribución de la micobiota en las diferentes unidades ambientales presentes en el área de estudio.

  8. Treatment of Two Canals in All Mandibular Incisor Teeth in the Same Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana B. Kokane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main reason for unfavourable outcome in endodontic treatment of mandibular incisor is the inability to detect the presence of second canal. Pain even after extirpation of complete pulp tissue from root canal of vital teeth is the main indication of hidden canals. The present case report is also on pain because of another neglected canal in all mandibular incisors in the same patient.

  9. Four cuspal maxillary second premolar with single root and three root canals: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Parul; Nikhil, Vineeta; Goyal, Ayush; Singh, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    Traditional configuration of maxillary second premolars has been described to have two cusps, one root and one or two root canals. The endodontic literature reports considerable anatomic aberrations in the root canal morphology of maxillary second premolar but the literature available on the variation in cuspal anatomy and its relationship to the root canal anatomy is sparse. The purpose of this clinical report was to describe the root and root canal configuration of a maxillary second premolar with four cusps. PMID:27563190

  10. Independent and Confluent Middle Mesial Root Canals in Mandibular First Molars: A Report of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanavelu Deepalakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular molars demonstrate considerable variations with respect to number of roots and root canals. The possibility of additional root canals should be considered even in teeth with a low frequency of abnormal root canal anatomy. This paper discusses the endodontic management of the rare anatomical complexity middle mesial canals in mandibular first molar and also serves to remind the clinicians that such anatomical variations should be taken into account during the endodontic treatment of the mandibular molars.

  11. Problemas Del Pollo De Engorde Antes Y Después Del Beneficio (Pollo En Canal. 1º Parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lissette Ricaurte Galindo M.V.Z.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Cuando los pollos llegan a la planta necesitan una ventilación adecuada en la zona de retención para minimizar la mortalidad y la pérdida excesiva de peso vivo. Los pollos que llegan deben ser programados para el procesamiento dentro de las 8 a 12 horas después de haber comido por última vez. De esta manera disminuye la cantidad de material que podría contaminar potencialmente la canal durante el procesamiento permitiendo tiempo suficiente para que el intestino se vacíe. Los pollos que quedan sin alimento por largos periodos (más de 13 a 14 horas comienzan a perder la mucosa intestinal y tendrán menor rendimiento en canal.Cuando se pierde la mucosa intestinal, el intestino resultante será mucho más débil y se romperá más fácilmente durante la evisceración, se procesa a los pollos principalmente para convertir sus músculos en carne, eliminar los componentes del cuerpo que no se desean (sangre, plumas, vísceras, patas y cabeza y mantener en un mínimo la contaminación microbiológica. La calidad del producto final depende no sólo de la condición de las aves cuando llegan a la planta, sino también de como se manejan durante el procesamiento. Lesiones, huesos rotos, partes faltantes y un número excesivo de reprocesamientos pueden ocasionar pérdidas económicas significativas. La descarga, aturdimiento, sacrificio, escaldado, desplumado, eviscerado, enfriamiento y empacado son algunas de las etapas del procesamiento que pueden ocasionar defectos en el producto. Así que estas etapas deben ser vigiladas.

  12. Endodontic Treatment of a Mandibular Second Premolar with Three Roots and Three Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonny Paul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex root canal system with atypical variations is a common finding among mandibular premolars. Endodontic treatment in these teeth may not be successful due to the failure to recognise and treat multiple canals. This paper presents endodontic treatment of a mandibular second premolar with three roots and three canals.

  13. Calcium hydroxide-based root canal sealers: an updated literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Karim Soltani, Mohammad; Shalavi, Sousan; Yazdizadeh, Mohammad; Jafarzadeh, Mansour

    2014-05-01

    Calcium hydroxide was originally introduced to the field of endodontics by Herman in 1920 as a pulp-capping agent. Sealers play an important role in sealing the root canal system with the entombment of remaining microorganisms and filling inaccessible areas of prepared canals. This article reviews sealing ability, biocompatibility, antibacterial activity, solubility, and toxicity of calcium hydroxide based root canal sealers. PMID:24841038

  14. IMPACT OF CANAL DESIGN LIMITATIONS ON WATER DELIVERY OPERATIONS AND AUTOMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation canals are often designed for water transmission. The design engineer simply ensures that the canal will pass the maximum design discharge. However, irrigation canals frequently operated far below design capacity. Because demands and the distribution of flow at bifurcations (branch points...

  15. A central incisor with 4 independent root canals: a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Aznar Portoles; A.T. Moinzadeh; H. Shemesh

    2015-01-01

    The maxillary central incisor is the tooth with the least anatomic variations. Despite the fact that several studies have reported a prevalence of 100% for the presence of a single canal, root canal aberrations of maxillary central incisors with up to 3 canals have also been reported. Such cases rep

  16. DOWNSTREAM-WATER-LEVEL CONTROL TEST RESULTS ON THE WM LATERAL CANAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    On steep canals, distant downstream water-level control can be challenging. SacMan (Software for Automated Canal Management) was developed, in part, to test various distant downstream water level controllers. It was implemented on the WM canal of the Maricopa Stanfield Irrigation and Drainage Distri...

  17. Endodontic treatment of two-canalled maxillary central and lateral incisors: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Shokouhinejad, Noushin; Sheykhrezaee, Mohammad Saeed; Assadian, Hadi

    2009-01-01

    Familiarity with the intricacies and variations of root canal morphology is essential for successful endodontic treatment. Maxillary central and lateral incisors are known to be single-rooted with one canal, however, this case report describes endodontic treatment of maxillary central and lateral incisors with two buccopalatal root canals.

  18. The ability of optical coherence tomography to characterize the root canal walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shemesh, Hagay; Van Soest, Gijs; Wu, Min-Kai; Van der Sluis, Lucas W. M.; Wesselink, Paul R.

    2007-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the complexity of root canal systems is imperative to ensure successful root canal therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system in imaging root canal walls after endodontic preparation and to correlate these im

  19. A new strategy in root canal therapy: there is a lot going on in endodontic disinfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.V. van der Waal

    2015-01-01

    Apical periodontitis (AP) is the inflammatory response in the surrounding tissues at the root tip of a tooth to a microbial infection of the root canal system inside the tooth. AP can only resolve after thorough root canal disinfection. However at present, state-of-the-art root canal treatment does n

  20. Role of the confinement of a root canal on jet impingement during endodontic irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaagen, B.; Boutsioukis, C.; Heijnen, G. L.; van der Sluis, L. W. M.; Versluis, M.

    2012-01-01

    During a root canal treatment the root canal is irrigated with an antimicrobial fluid, commonly performed with a needle and a syringe. Irrigation of a root canal with two different types of needles can be modeled as an impinging axisymmetric or non-axisymmetric jet. These jets are investigated exper

  1. Comparison of two endodontic handpieces during the preparation of simulated root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R B; Edmunds, D H

    1997-11-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to compare and assess two endodontic handpieces during the preparation of simulated root canals. One hundred and sixty simulated root canals in clear resin blocks, of two angles and positions of curvature, were prepared using either Shaper files activated by the MM1500 Sonic Air handpiece (Micro-Mega, Besançon, France) or Excalibur files activated by the W & H Excalibur 969 handpiece (W & H, Bürmoos, Austria). Files of 21-mm or 25-mm length were used. When preparing the canals, the files were used either in line with or perpendicular to the canal curvature. Preparation of the canals was carried out using a technique described in the manufacturers' literature. A variety of parameters were used to compare the handpieces, including an assessment of the canal preparation time, the deformation or fracture of instruments, loss of canal length, weight loss from the resin blocks and the overall postpreparation canal shape. Both handpieces provided an efficient and easy method of preparing and shaping the root canal with little operator fatigue. The MM1500 Sonic Air handpiece took significantly more time (P canals and was associated with both more loss of working length (P canals. The MM1500 Sonic Air handpiece created significantly more aberrations than the Excalibur handpiece (P danger zone and coronal narrow). The effects of the variables, canal curvature, file length and the plane of use of the file, on the performance of the handpieces, were also assessed. PMID:9588976

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  1. File list: Oth.Oth.20.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  4. File list: Unc.Oth.50.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. [The use of ultrasonic files in canal preparation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calas, P; Terrie, B

    1990-01-01

    The continuous high volume of irrigating solution delivered by the ultrasonic system facilitates the root canal debridement. An excellent cleaning of dentin wall is obtained even on surfaces unreached by the mechanical instrumentation. In order to obtain an efficacious preparation, the use of ultrasonic files were combined with instrumentation. This new technique is described in this article. PMID:2168733

  6. Assessment of lumbar spinal canal stenosis by magnetic resonance phlebography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is evidence to suggest that cauda equina intermittent claudication is caused by local circulatory disturbances in the cauda equina as well as compression of the cauda equina. We evaluated the role of magnetic resonance phlebography (MRP) in identifying circulatory disturbances of the vertebral venous system in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis. Extensive filling defects of the anterior internal vertebral venous plexus were evident in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis (n=53), whereas only milder abnormalities were noted in patients with other lumber diseases (n=16) and none in normal subjects (n=13). The extent of the defect on MRP correlated with the time at which intermittent claudication appeared. In patients with lumber spinal canal stenosis, extensive defects of the internal vertebral venous plexus on MRP were noted in the neutral spine position, but the defect diminished with anterior flexion of the spine. This phenomenon correlated closely with the time at which intermittent claudication appeared. Our results highlight the importance of MRP for assessing the underlying mechanism of cauda equina intermittent claudication in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis and suggest that congestive venous ischemia is involved in the development of intermittent claudication in these patients. (author)

  7. El pintor Andreu Bosch Canals i la seva obra

    OpenAIRE

    Portabella Bosch, Javier

    2005-01-01

    L'objectiu d'aquest treball no és altre que el de donar a conèixer l'obra del pintor Andreu Bosch Canals entre aquella gent que gaudeix amb la pintura en general i el paisatgisme en particular, i també, perquè no?, entre els experts i marxants en Art.

  8. Pneumocystis jirovecii infection of the external auditory canal

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Mary Samuel; Sairita Maistry; Estie Meyer; Andrew Whitelaw

    2010-01-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii is well known to cause interstitial plasma cell pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. It has been implicated as a rare cause of infections in other anatomical sites. We report a rare case of P. jirovecii infection of the external auditory canal. This was the first manifestation of a previously unknown HIV infection.

  9. Pneumocystis jirovecii infection of the external auditory canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Mary Samuel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Pneumocystis jirovecii is well known to cause interstitial plasma cell pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. It has been implicated as a rare cause of infections in other anatomical sites. We report a rare case of P. jirovecii infection of the external auditory canal. This was the first manifestation of a previously unknown HIV infection.

  10. Lightlike Hypersurfaces and Canal Hypersurfaces of Lorentzian Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lightlike hypersurfaces in semi-Euclidean space are of special interest in Relativity Theory. In particular, the singularities of these lightlike hypersurfaces provide good models for the study of different horizon types. And we obtain some geometrical propositions of the canal hypersurfaces of Lorentzian surfaces. We introduce the notions of flatness for these hypersurfaces and study their singularities.

  11. 75 FR 56094 - Delta-Mendota Canal Intertie Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... Area Power Administration Delta-Mendota Canal Intertie Project AGENCY: Western Area Power... fiber optic cable for delivery of project use power as part of the Department of the Interior, Bureau of... (Intertie) project. The Intertie, including the interconnection to Western's system and transmission...

  12. Bacteriologic results from 4,000 root canal cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, K.C.; Amerongen, J. van

    1959-01-01

    The bacteriologic results from more than 4,000 root canal cultures are discussed. Streptococci form 61 per cent of the isolated organisms. Among these, the group of hemolytic, indifferent, and indifferent anaerobic streptococci, mainly belonging to serologic groups F, G, and C, seem the most serious

  13. Complex radiodiagnosis of the lumbar spine spinal canal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasound study was done in 67 patients with osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine revealed by x-ray study, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. Ultrasound technique is highly informative in visualizing location, direction, size of the hernia in lumbar osteochondrosis and stenosis of spinal canal

  14. HEARING OUTCOME IN CANAL WALL DOWN MASTOIDECTOMY WITH TYMPANOPLASTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Tympanomastoid cholesteatoma destroys the tympanic membrane and ossicles resulting in a conductive hearing loss . A canal wall down mastoidectomy with tympanoplasty is performed for disease removal and correction of deafness . This surgery is technically challenging and results depend upon a number of factors like eustachian tube function , severity of middle ear pathology , status of remnant ossicular chain , reconstruction technique employed and post - operative healing . AIM: To compare the pre - operative versus post - operative hearing in patients undergoing canal wall down mastoidectomy with tympanoplasty . SETTING AND DESIGN: Prospective study conducted at a tertiary referral institution . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Si xty six patients with chronic suppurative otitis media with cholesteatoma underwent a canal wall down mastoidectomy with tympanoplasty . Preoperative and postoperative airbo r ne gaps were compared . RESULTS: The preoperative mean air bone gap was 38 . 10 dB and the post - operative mean air bone gap was 29 . 30 dB with a gain of 8 . 8 dB . CONCLUSION: Canal wall down mastoidectomy with tympanoplasty is a good surgical procedure to augment the patients hearing to acceptable social levels .

  15. Identificación paramétrica en lazo cerrado de sistema de accionamiento neumático para cilindro de doble efecto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Caldas Flautero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los modelos matemáticos que permiten comprender un sistema y predecir o simular su comportamiento suelen presentar inconvenientes cuando se cuenta con poca información a priori o se desconocen los parámetros físicos. Por esa razón, en este trabajo se presenta la identificación de sistemas como estrategia para abordar la construcción de modelos dinámicos complejos, proponiendo soluciones para tratar el comportamiento no-lineal de un sistema neumático, representado por un actuador de doble efecto y un par de válvulas proporcionales para el control de la presión de alimentación y el caudal. Se presenta una aproximación almodelomatemático para determinar el orden del sistema, la identificación en lazo abierto y lazo cerrado y la comparación entre modelos de procesosARX yARMAX, con diferente orden, para concluir con simulaciones comparativas entre la respuesta del sistema real y la del identificado.

  16. Canal mandibular bífido: Presentación de una serie de casos Bifid mandibular canal: Case series report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L. Guzmán Zuluaga

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La ubicación y configuración de las variaciones del canal mandibular son relevantes en diferentes procedimientos clínicos de la mandíbula. En esta serie de casos un radiólogo evaluó el recorrido del canal mandibular identificando la presencia y tipos de canales bífidos. Se observaron cuatro pacientes con canal mandibular bífido tipo retromolar y tres sujetos con canal bífido tipo anterior sin convergencia. En otro paciente se encontraron forámenes dentarios bífidos bilaterales. La Tomografía Computarizada de Haz de Cono, permite la identificación oportuna de condiciones preexistentes como variaciones en la morfología natural de los canales mandibulares, previniendo efectiva y precozmente las consecuencias neurológicas que se derivan de una lesión del nervio dentario inferior.The location and configuration of the mandibular canal variations are relevant in different clinical procedures of the jaw. In this case series, a radiologist assessed the mandibular canal route identifying the presence and types of bifid canals. Four patients with type bifid mandibular retromolar canal and three subjects with type bifida anterior canal without convergence were observed. In one patient, bilateral bifid tooth foramina was found. Computed Tomography Cone Beam allows identification of preexisting conditions such as variations in the natural morphology of the mandibular canals, preventing effective and early neurological consequences arising from alveolar nerve injury.

  17. Assessment of risks of stenosis of the anal canal during a prostatic radiotherapy; evaluation des risques de stenose du canal anal lors de la radiotherapie prostatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almokhles, H.; Pan, Q.; Calitchi, E.; Diana, C.; Muresan, M.; Jiang, M.W.; Wu, J.F.; Wang, X.W.; Lu, H.J.; Lagrange, J.L. [Hopital Henri-Mondor, Creteil (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report a study which aimed at assessing the late tolerance of a prostatic irradiation at the rectum and anal canal level. They assessed the length of the rectum and of the anal canal after prostate irradiation or surgery in patients who suffered from a prostate adenocarcinoma. Data of 154 patients have been analyzed regarding the number of cases of stenosis of rectum or anal canal. They highlight the importance of the irradiated length and dose level. Short communication

  18. Nanodiamond–Gutta Percha Composite Biomaterials for Root Canal Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Root canal therapy (RCT) represents a standard of treatment that addresses infected pulp tissue in teeth and protects against future infection. RCT involves removing dental pulp comprising blood vessels and nerve tissue, decontaminating residually infected tissue through biomechanical instrumentation, and root canal obturation using a filler material to replace the space that was previously composed of dental pulp. Gutta percha (GP) is typically used as the filler material, as it is malleable, inert, and biocompatible. While filling the root canal space with GP is the standard of care for endodontic therapies, it has exhibited limitations including leakage, root canal reinfection, and poor mechanical properties. To address these challenges, clinicians have explored the use of alternative root filling materials other than GP. Among the classes of materials that are being explored as novel endodontic therapy platforms, nanodiamonds (NDs) may offer unique advantages due to their favorable properties, particularly for dental applications. These include versatile faceted surface chemistry, biocompatibility, and their role in improving mechanical properties, among others. This study developed a ND-embedded GP (NDGP) that was functionalized with amoxicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic commonly used for endodontic infection. Comprehensive materials characterization confirmed improved mechanical properties of NDGP over unmodified GP. In addition, digital radiography and microcomputed tomography imaging demonstrated that obturation of root canals with NDGP could be achieved using clinically relevant techniques. Furthermore, bacterial growth inhibition assays confirmed drug functionality of NDGP functionalized with amoxicillin. This study demonstrates a promising path toward NDGP implementation in future endodontic therapy for improved treatment outcomes. PMID:26452304

  19. Nanodiamond-Gutta Percha Composite Biomaterials for Root Canal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Keun; Kim, Sue Vin; Limansubroto, Adelheid Nerisa; Yen, Albert; Soundia, Akrivoula; Wang, Cun-Yu; Shi, Wenyuan; Hong, Christine; Tetradis, Sotirios; Kim, Yong; Park, No-Hee; Kang, Mo K; Ho, Dean

    2015-11-24

    Root canal therapy (RCT) represents a standard of treatment that addresses infected pulp tissue in teeth and protects against future infection. RCT involves removing dental pulp comprising blood vessels and nerve tissue, decontaminating residually infected tissue through biomechanical instrumentation, and root canal obturation using a filler material to replace the space that was previously composed of dental pulp. Gutta percha (GP) is typically used as the filler material, as it is malleable, inert, and biocompatible. While filling the root canal space with GP is the standard of care for endodontic therapies, it has exhibited limitations including leakage, root canal reinfection, and poor mechanical properties. To address these challenges, clinicians have explored the use of alternative root filling materials other than GP. Among the classes of materials that are being explored as novel endodontic therapy platforms, nanodiamonds (NDs) may offer unique advantages due to their favorable properties, particularly for dental applications. These include versatile faceted surface chemistry, biocompatibility, and their role in improving mechanical properties, among others. This study developed a ND-embedded GP (NDGP) that was functionalized with amoxicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic commonly used for endodontic infection. Comprehensive materials characterization confirmed improved mechanical properties of NDGP over unmodified GP. In addition, digital radiography and microcomputed tomography imaging demonstrated that obturation of root canals with NDGP could be achieved using clinically relevant techniques. Furthermore, bacterial growth inhibition assays confirmed drug functionality of NDGP functionalized with amoxicillin. This study demonstrates a promising path toward NDGP implementation in future endodontic therapy for improved treatment outcomes. PMID:26452304

  20. MIMO LPV State-Space Identification of Open-Flow Irrigation Canal Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Bolea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Canal systems are complex nonlinear, distributed parameter systems with changing parameters according to the operating point. In this paper, a linear parameter-varying (LPV state-space canal control model is obtained by identification in a local way using a multimodel approach. This LPV identification procedure is based on subspace methods for different operating points of an irrigation canal covering the full operation range. Different subspace algorithms have been used and compared. The model that best represents the canal behavior in a precise manner has been chosen, and it has been validated by error functions and analysis correlation of residuals in a laboratory multireach pilot canal providing satisfactory results.

  1. Microstructure and wettability of root canal dentine and root canal filling materials after different chemical irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonijevic, Djordje; Milovanovic, Petar; Brajkovic, Denis; Ilic, Dragan; Hahn, Michael; Amling, Michael; Rakocevic, Zlatko; Djuric, Marija; Busse, Björn

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various irrigation solutions on root canal dentine and gutta-percha surface properties. In addition, the effects of disinfectant chemicals on the wettability and surface morphological properties of the filling materials were evaluated. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, and ozone were employed as irrigation solutions for dentine and gutta-percha treatment. Thereafter, the samples' microstructure, degree of mineralization, and mechanical properties were assessed by means of quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) and reference point indentation (RPI). A contact angle analyzer was used to measure adhesion on the tested materials. Here, EDTA had the most significant affect on both the mechanical properties and the adhesive behavior of dentine. Citric acid did not affect dentine wettability, whereas the indentation properties and the mineralization were reduced. Similar effects were observed when ozone was used. The dentinal tubules were significantly widened in citric acid compared to the ozone group. EDTA causes considerable micromechanical surface alteration of dentine and gutta-percha, but represents the best option in clinical cases where a high adhesiveness of the filling materials is desired.

  2. Adaptation and penetration of resin-based root canal sealers in root canals irradiated with high-intensity lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura-Netto, Cacio; Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi; Palo, Renato Miotto; Prokopowitsch, Igor; Pameijer, Cornelis H.; Marques, Marcia Martins

    2015-03-01

    This research analyzed the quality of resin-based sealer adaptation after intracanal laser irradiation. Extracted teeth (n=168) were root canal treated and divided into four groups, according to dentin surface treatment: no laser; Nd:YAG laser (1.5 W, 100 mJ, 15 Hz) diode laser (2.5 W in CW), and Er:YAG laser (1 W, 100 mJ, 10 Hz). The teeth were divided into four subgroups according to the sealer used: AH Plus, EndoREZ, Epiphany, and EpiphanySE. For testing the sealing after root canal obturation, the penetration of silver nitrate solution was measured, whereas to evaluate the adaptation and penetration of the sealer into the dentin, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) was used. The ESEM images were analyzed using a four-grade criteria score by three evaluators. The inter-examiner agreement was confirmed by Kappa test and the scores statistically compared by the Kruskal-Wallis' test (proot canals were not affected by the laser irradiation. Nd:YAG and diode laser decreased the tracer penetration for AH Plus, whereas EndoREZ and EpiphanySE performances were affected by Nd:YAG irradiation (proot canals were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser.

  3. Surgical management of Guyon's canal syndrome, an ulnar nerve entrapment at the wrist: report of two cases Síndrome de compressão do nervo ulnar a nível do punho (síndrome do canal de Guyon: relato de dois casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Aguiar

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Guyon's canal syndrome, an ulnar nerve entrapment at the wrist, is a well-recognized entity. The most common causes that involve the ulnar nerve at the wrist are compression from a ganglion, occupational traumatic neuritis, a musculotendinous arch and disease of the ulnar artery. We describe two cases of Guyon's canal syndrome and discuss the anatomy, aetiology, clinical features, anatomical classification, diagnostic criteria and treatment. It is emphasized that the knowledge of both the surgical technique and anatomy is very important for a satisfactory surgical result.A síndrome do canal de Guyon, um encarceramento do nervo ulnar a nível do punho, é bem conhecida. Ela é causada por neurite ocupacional traumática, doenças e traumas do arco músculo-tendíneo e doença de artéria ulnar. Descrevemos dois casos de síndrome do canal de Guyon e discutimos os aspectos anatômicos e etiológicos, suas características clínicas, classificação anatômica e critérios de diagnóstico, bem como fazemos uma análise crítica do tratamento imposto. Enfatizamos também que, para obter um resultado cirúrgico satisfatório, é importante conhecer bem tanto as técnicas cirúrgicas como sua anatomia.

  4. Filling of simulated lateral canals using different obturation techniques: analysis through IDA digital radiograph system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Teles Rodrigues

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lateral canals are part of the root canal system and may be related to periodontal-endodontic diseases. The filling techniques that employ thermoplasticized gutta-percha have demonstrated better results in filling lateral canals. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate, through digital radiographs, three techniques of root canal obturation (Lateral Condensation, Obtura II System, Tagger’s Hybrid regarding to the ability of filling artificial lateral canals. Material and methods: 30 extracted human lower premolars were used in this study. The crowns were removed and artificial laterals canals were prepared on the coronal, medium and apical thirds of the roots by using a reamer made of a K 10 file. The root canals were instrumented and obturated by the following techniques: Lateral Condensation, Obtura II System, and Tagger’s Hybrid. The teeth were radiographed with IDA digital radiograph system and the filling of the lateral canals was evaluated by scores for further statistical analysis. Results: No significant difference was found in the filling of lateral canals between Lateral Condensation and Obtura II, but a significant difference was found among these two and Tagger’s Hybrid technique. Conclusion: Tagger’s Hybrid technique promoted the highest numbers of obturated lateral canals. In the three groups, the root thirds presenting greater number of filled lateral canals were coronal and middle, regardless of the obturation technique employed.

  5. First Branchial Cleft Fistula Associated with External Auditory Canal Stenosis and Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahin abdollahi fakhim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: First branchial cleft anomalies manifest with duplication of the external auditory canal.   Case Report: This report features a rare case of microtia and congenital middle ear and canal cholesteatoma with first branchial fistula. External auditory canal stenosis was complicated by middle ear and external canal cholesteatoma, but branchial fistula, opening in the zygomatic root and a sinus in the helical root, may explain this feature. A canal wall down mastoidectomy with canaloplasty and wide meatoplasty was performed. The branchial cleft was excised through parotidectomy and facial nerve dissection.   Conclusion:  It should be considered that canal stenosis in such cases can induce cholesteatoma formation in the auditory canal and middle ear.

  6. Micro‐CT analyses of apical enlargement and molar root canal complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, M.; Darvann, Tron Andre; Larsen, P.;

    2012-01-01

    Markvart M, Darvann TA, Larsen P, Dalstra M, Kreiborg S, Bjørndal L. Micro‐CT analyses of apical enlargement and molar root canal complexity. International Endodontic Journal, 45, 273–281, 2012. Aim To compare the effectiveness of two rotary hybrid instrumentation techniques with focus on apical...... enlargement in molar teeth and to quantify and visualize spatial details of instrumentation efficacy in root canals of different complexity. Methodology Maxillary and mandibular molar teeth were scanned using X‐ray microcomputed tomography. Root canals were prepared using either a GT/Profile protocol or a Ra......Ce/NiTi protocol. Variables used for evaluation were the following: distance between root canal surfaces before and after preparation (distance after preparation, DAP), percentage of root canal area remaining unprepared and increase in canal volume after preparation. Root canals were classified according to size...

  7. Micro-CT analyses of apical enlargement and molar root canal complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Merete; Darvann, Tron Andre; Larsen, Per;

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effectiveness of two rotary hybrid instrumentation techniques with focus on apical enlargement in molar teeth and to quantify and visualize spatial details of instrumentation efficacy in root canals of different complexity. METHODOLOGY: Maxillary and mandibular molar teeth were...... scanned using X-ray microcomputed tomography. Root canals were prepared using either a GT/Profile protocol or a RaCe/NiTi protocol. Variables used for evaluation were the following: distance between root canal surfaces before and after preparation (distance after preparation, DAP), percentage of root...... canal area remaining unprepared and increase in canal volume after preparation. Root canals were classified according to size and complexity, and consequences of unprepared portions of narrow root canals and intraradicular connections/isthmuses were included in the analyses. One- and two-way anova were...

  8. Penetração intratubular de cimentos endodônticos Intratubular penetration of root canal sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo de Deus

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi desenvolvido para avaliar a capacidade de penetração de diferentes cimentos endodônticos (Endo Fill, Sealapex, AH Plus e Pulp Canal Sealer nos túbulos dentinários em dentes devidamente modelados e obturados. Foram utilizados 72 incisivos centrais superiores, os quais foram instrumentados no sentido coroa-ápice pela técnica de forças balanceadas. O comprimento de trabalho foi estabelecido a 1 mm do ápice radicular. Durante a limpeza e modelagem, todos os dentes foram irrigados com 10 ml de hipoclorito de sódio a 5,25%. Os dentes foram divididos em 4 grupos, sendo 1 para cada tipo de cimento. Estes grupos foram então subdivididos em função do uso ou não de EDTA a 17% previamente à obturação dos canais radiculares, para a remoção da lama dentinária. Todos os dentes foram obturados pela técnica da onda de condensação com cone médio calibrado. Após obturação, as raízes foram seccionadas no sentido mésio-distal e foi escolhida a secção de melhor qualidade visual. Estas foram então analisadas em microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV, sendo o foco de observação sempre a interface dentina/material obturador. Após obtenção das imagens, mensurou-se os prolongamentos dos cimentos para o interior dos túbulos dentinários. O cimento de Rickert (Pulp Canal Sealer apresentou a maior capacidade de penetração nos túbulos dentinários, sendo os piores resultados apresentados pelo grupo em que se utilizou o Sealapex. Os resultados foram avaliados estatisticamente pelo teste de Spearman, o qual mostrou diferença estatisticamente significante (p The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacity of penetration of four endodontic sealers (Endo Fill, Sealapex, AH Plus and Pulp Canal Sealer into dentinal tubules. Seventy-two extracted human maxillary anterior teeth were utilized in this study. The teeth were cleaned and shaped by means of the balanced-forces technique. The work length was established at 1

  9. Assessment of bifid and trified mandicular canals using cone beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the prevalence of bifid and trifid mandibular canals using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, and to measure their length, diameter, and angle. CBCT images of 500 patients, involving 755 hemi-mandibles, were used for this study. The presence and type of bifid mandibular canal was evaluated according to a modified classification of Naitoh et al. Prevalence rates were determined according to age group, gender, and type. Further, their diameter, length, and angles were measured using PACSPLUS Viewer and ImageJ 1.46r. Statistical analysis with chi-squared and analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests was performed. Bifid and trifid mandibular canals were found in 22.6% of the 500 patients and 16.2% of the 755 sides. There was no significant difference between genders and among age groups. The retromolar canal type accounted for 71.3% of the identified canals; the dental canal type, 18.8%; the forward canal type, 4.1%; and the trifid canal type, 5.8%. Interestingly, seven cases of the trifid canal type, which has been rarely reported, were observed. The mean diameter of the bifid and trifid mandibular canals was 2.2 mm and that of the main mandibular canal was 4.3 mm. Their mean length was 16.9 mm; the mean superior angle was 149.2 degrees, and the mean inferior angle was 37.7 degrees. Bifid and trifid mandibular canals in the Korean population were observed at a relatively high rate through a CBCT evaluation, and the most common type was the retromolar canal. CBCT is suggested for a detailed evaluation of bifid and trifid mandibular canals before mandibular surgery.

  10. Assessment of bifid and trified mandicular canals using cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashsyren, Oyuntugs [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Mongolian National University Medical Science, Ulaanbaatar (United States); Choi, Jin Woo; Han, Won Jeong; Kim Eun Kyung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dankook University College of Dentistry, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    To investigate the prevalence of bifid and trifid mandibular canals using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, and to measure their length, diameter, and angle. CBCT images of 500 patients, involving 755 hemi-mandibles, were used for this study. The presence and type of bifid mandibular canal was evaluated according to a modified classification of Naitoh et al. Prevalence rates were determined according to age group, gender, and type. Further, their diameter, length, and angles were measured using PACSPLUS Viewer and ImageJ 1.46r. Statistical analysis with chi-squared and analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests was performed. Bifid and trifid mandibular canals were found in 22.6% of the 500 patients and 16.2% of the 755 sides. There was no significant difference between genders and among age groups. The retromolar canal type accounted for 71.3% of the identified canals; the dental canal type, 18.8%; the forward canal type, 4.1%; and the trifid canal type, 5.8%. Interestingly, seven cases of the trifid canal type, which has been rarely reported, were observed. The mean diameter of the bifid and trifid mandibular canals was 2.2 mm and that of the main mandibular canal was 4.3 mm. Their mean length was 16.9 mm; the mean superior angle was 149.2 degrees, and the mean inferior angle was 37.7 degrees. Bifid and trifid mandibular canals in the Korean population were observed at a relatively high rate through a CBCT evaluation, and the most common type was the retromolar canal. CBCT is suggested for a detailed evaluation of bifid and trifid mandibular canals before mandibular surgery.

  11. Preliminary study on the application of radio-telemetry techniques to evaluate movements of fish in the Lateral canal at Itaipu Dam, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Hahn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study on the application of radio-telemetry techniques to describe the movements of fish in a bypass channel at Itaipu Dam (Paraná River, known as "Canal da Piracema," was carried out between January and February of 2004. Fourteen individuals of six species (Prochilodus lineatus, Leporinus friderici, Schizodon borellii, Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, Pterodoras granulosus and Cichla kelberi were intragastrically and surgically radiotagged and monitored by three experimental fixed radio-telemetry stations installed in the upper portion of the Canal. The surgical implantation of transmitters and the anesthesia using clove oil proved to be more efficient and allowed easier handling in comparison to intragastric implantation and electronarcosis immobilization. The use of fixed stations to obtain data was found to be very suitable for tracking movements of several different fish species in the Itaipu lateral channel. Three species (P. granulosus, S. borellii and C. kelberi moved downstream after release. Two individuals of P. fasciatum and two of P. lineatus migrated upstream, leaving the channel 7 and 10 days and 2 and 24 days after release, respectively. Leporinus friderici was the only species that did not leave the release site until the end of the study period.Um estudo preliminar sobre a aplicação de técnicas de radiotelemetria para descrever os movimentos de peixes no canal de transposição da UHE Itaipu (Rio Paraná, conhecido como "Canal da Piracema", foi realizado entre janeiro e fevereiro de 2004. Seis espécies (Prochilodus lineatus, Leporinus friderici, Schizodon borellii, Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, Pterodoras granulosus e Cichla kelberi totalizando 14 indivíduos foram marcadas com radiotransmissores via cirúrgica e esofágica e rastreados através de três estações fixas experimentais de radiotelemetria instaladas na porção superior do Canal. A implantação de transmissores através de cirurgia e a anestesia por

  12. Aplicação do modelo CERES-maize na análise de estratégias de irrigação para milho "safrinha" em Londrina-PR Analysis of irrigation strategies for corn out season in Londrina with the CERES-maize model

    OpenAIRE

    Célio O. Cardoso; Rogério T. de Faria; Marcos V. Folegatti

    2004-01-01

    Usando-se a capacidade do modelo CERES-maize de simular o crescimento do milho sob várias condições de ambiente e manejo, foram analisadas estratégias de irrigação para o milho "safrinha", em diferentes épocas de semeadura, em Londrina - PR. Os tratamentos simulados constituíram-se no cultivo da cultivar de milho XL-520, em 12 épocas de semeaduras, no período de janeiro a abril, adotando-se cinco critérios para aplicação de irrigação, além de um nível sem irrigação e outro de produção potenci...

  13. The influence of flood pulse on fish communities of floodplain canals in the Middle Solimões River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raniere G. C. Sousa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The functioning of large river systems with adjacent floodplains is strongly influenced by the flood pulse. This phenomenon is the main structuring force for the biota, including fish communities that use floodplain environments for spawning, feeding, nursery and refuge. In floodplains and in the entire basin, the volume of water controls internal flows. During rising water, the high discharge of the river acts as a natural barrier to the canals that connect floodplain lakes and the Solimões River, because the water flows from river to lake. During the dry period, there is a reduction of discharge and the water flow is reversed or stationary. These canals are environments with distinct ecological characteristics such as differentiated limnology and water level variation intensely affected by the hydrological cycle. Therefore, we surveyed the influence of the flood pulse on fish communities that inhabit two canals that connect floodplain lakes to the Middle Solimões River. Particularly, we evaluated the hypothesis that the Solimões River flow direction is not perfectly parallel to its banks, which creates peripheral flows that direct water from the rivers to the floodplain lake canals. Our analysis indicated that the seasonal pattern is stronger than the spatial. Beside this, we observed that the positions of the canals in relation to the main river flow somehow affect the fish assemblages. Finally, we conclude that the flood pulse is the main structuring force acting on these fish communities.A dinâmica dos sistemas de grandes rios com áreas inundadas adjacentes é fortemente influenciada pelo pulso de inundação, sendo este fenômeno o principal agente estruturador da biota, inclusive dos peixes, que utilizam este ambiente para a desova, alimentação, berçário e refúgio. Nesta região e em toda a bacia, a intensidade da vazão controla os fluxos internos. Na época da cheia, a forte vazão atua como uma barreira natural nos canais de

  14. ÍNDICE DE ESTADO LIMNOLÓGICO (IELPARA EVALUAR LAS CONDICIONES ECOLÓGICAS DE LAS CIÉNAGAS DEL CANAL DEL DIQUE, COLOMBIA Limnological State Index (LSI to Evaluate Ecological Conditions of the Canal del Dique Wetlands, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL A. PINILLA A

    Full Text Available Determinar el estado o salud ecológica de un ecosistema brinda herramientas útiles para su gestión y conservación. En Colombia no existen registros de índices que combinen en un solo parámetro las variables físicas, químicas y biológicas de los sistemas acuáticos, de manera que la evaluación de su estado ecológico ha sido fragmentaria o incompleta. En este trabajo se presenta un Índice de Estado Limnológico (IEL para las ciénagas del Canal del Dique, ecosistemas sometidos a constante presión por parte de las comunidades humanas. Para la construcción de este índice multimétrico se elaboraron gráficas de calidad de las variables seleccionadas y se les asignaron valores de importancia. Para construir el IEL se empleó la teoría de los multiatributos considerando 12 variables. También se realizó un análisis de componentes principales de las variables seleccionadas. Se diseñó una versión simplificada (IEL parcial -IELP en la que se excluyeron cuatro de las variables biológicas. Finalmente, se construyó una escala de interpretación de los valores obtenidos con estos índices. El IEL y el IELP se aplicaron a las ciénagas del Canal del Dique para establecer su condición ecológica actual. Los datos muestran que el estado limnológico de la mayoría de ciénagas de esta región es aceptable, lo que sugiere que estos ecosistemas lénticos se encuentran dentro de los límites admisibles de funcionamiento, aunque no están excentos de procesos de deterioro.Determining the ecological state or health of an ecosystem offers useful tools for its management and conservation. In Colombia, indexes of aquatic systems that combine in a single parameter the physical, chemical and biological variables have not been published, and the evaluation of water bodies’ ecological state has been fragmentary or incomplete. In this work a Limnological State Index (LSI for wetlands of the Canal del Dique, ecosystems under constant pressure by the

  15. Cisto aracnóideo extradural do canal espinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Pires Ferreira

    1972-09-01

    Full Text Available É relatado o caso de um paciente que apresentava paraparesia sensitivo-motora evolutiva, datando de um ano. As radiográficas da coluna vertebral e mielografia permitiram o diagnóstico de cisto de aracnóide extradural do canal espinal de localização torácica, que foi confirmado pelo ato cirúrgico. Os autores revisam a literatura assinalando 76 casos já publicados. São comentadas a incidência do processo patológico nos diversos grupos etários, sua localização ao longo do canal raqueano, a evolução do quadro clínico, a etiología e a fisiopatologia do crescimento do cisto, o diagnóstico, a terapêutica e o prognóstico.

  16. Shape and Deformation Analysis of the Human Ear Canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune

    This thesis presents work on the analysis of the dynamic behavior of the human ear canal. The work is based on two studies designed during the project, a pilot study with 30 normal hearing subjects and a main study with 42 hearing impaired subjects, all hearing-aid users. The main focus is on the...... extraction and analysis of the shape and deformation of the ear canal due to movements of the mandible, leaning over, and turning of the head. Methods for surface registration with focus on non-rigid registration are presented, as well as a wide range of statistical methods used for analyzing the shapes and...... by the hearing-aid users. In addition, this thesis presents an unpublished analysis that relates shape and deformation. This enables clinicians to identify hearing-aid users that have a higher risk of problem related to deformation. In addition, the work should provide valuable information that can...

  17. Molecular mechanisms of canalization: Hsp90 and beyond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neeraj Salathia; Christine Queitsch

    2007-04-01

    The Hsp90 chaperone machine facilitates the maturation of a diverse set of ‘client’ proteins. Many of these Hsp90 clients are essential nodes in signal transduction pathways and regulatory circuits, accounting for the important role Hsp90 plays in organismal development and responses to the environment. Recent findings suggest a broader impact of the chaperone on phenotype: fully functional Hsp90 canalizes wild-type phenotypes by suppressing underlying genetic and epigenetic variation. This variation can be expressed upon challenging the Hsp90 machinery by environmental stress, genetic or pharmaceutical targeting of Hsp90. The existence of Hsp90-buffered genetic and epigenetic variation together with plausible release mechanisms has wide-ranging implication for phenotype and possibly evolutionary processes. Here, we discuss the role of Hsp90 in canalization and organismal plasticity, and highlight important questions for future experimental inquiry.

  18. Squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the external auditory canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Min-Tsan; Lin, Hung-Ching; Yang, Cheng-Chien; Chang, Kuo-Ming

    2006-08-01

    We report two cases of carcinoma in situ in the external auditory canal (EAC), presenting with symptoms such as pain, long-term itching of the ear, easy contact bleeding, canal otorrhea and hearing loss. Otoscopic examination revealed granulation tissue and a greyish-black tumour with irregular surface. The first patient had previously been diagnosed with otitis externa with persistent ear itching for the past three years. The second patient had received tympanoplasty for treatment of chronic otitis media on the right ear ten years ago. The first case was treated with wide excision, whereas the second patient received resection of the skin of the EAC together with its adjacent soft tissue, followed by skin grafting. No tumour recurrence was noted in the fourth and third post-operative year for the first and second patient respectively. We suggest that EAC carcinoma can be detected early and treated. PMID:16719955

  19. 3D root canal modeling for advanced endodontic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Shane Y.; Dong, Janet

    2002-06-01

    More than 14 million teeth receive endodontic (root canal) treatment annually. Before a clinician's inspection and diagnosis, destructive access preparation by removing teeth crown and dentin is usually needed. This paper presents a non-invasive method for accessing internal tooth geometry by building 3-D tooth model from 2-D radiographic and endoscopic images to be used for an automatic prescription system of computer-aided treatment procedure planning, and for the root canal preparation by an intelligent micro drilling machine with on-line monitoring. It covers the techniques specific for dental application in the radiographic images acquirement, image enhancement, image segmentation and feature recognition, distance measurement and calibration, merging 2D image into 3D mathematical model representation and display. Included also are the methods to form references for irregular teeth geometry and to do accurately measurement with self-calibration.

  20. A comparison of methods used in root canal sealability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was to compare several methods that have been used to assess marginal leakage of root canal fillings. Sixty-three extracted, single-rooted teeth were instrumented and filled in a standardized manner. Teeth were randomly divided into groups of twenty and exposed to solutions containing methylene blue dye, calcium-45, carbon-14-labeled urea, and iodine-125-labeled albumin for 48 hours to compare the degree of leakage indicated by each technique. Methylene blue dye was found to penetrate farther up the canal than any of the isotope tracers. Carbon-14-labeled urea penetrated farther than the calcium-45- or iodine-125-labeled albumin. The mean volume of solution penetrating the teeth was exceedingly small (0.0011 ml) and probably unimportant physiologically

  1. A comparison of methods used in root canal sealability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matloff, I.R.; Jensen, J.R.; Singer, L.; Tabibi, A.

    1982-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare several methods that have been used to assess marginal leakage of root canal fillings. Sixty-three extracted, single-rooted teeth were instrumented and filled in a standardized manner. Teeth were randomly divided into groups of twenty and exposed to solutions containing methylene blue dye, calcium-45, carbon-14-labeled urea, and iodine-125-labeled albumin for 48 hours to compare the degree of leakage indicated by each technique. Methylene blue dye was found to penetrate farther up the canal than any of the isotope tracers. Carbon-14-labeled urea penetrated farther than the calcium-45- or iodine-125-labeled albumin. The mean volume of solution penetrating the teeth was exceedingly small (0.0011 ml) and probably unimportant physiologically.

  2. Desarrollo de un circuito integrado de múltiples canales para Silicon fotomultiplicador arrays lectura

    CERN Document Server

    Comerma i Montells, Albert

    2013-10-31

    The aim of this thesis is to present a solution for the readout of Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) arrays improving currently implemented systems. Using as a starting point previous designs with similar objectives a novel current mode input stage has been designed and tested. To start with the design a valid model has been used to generate realistic output from the SiPMs depending on light input. Design has been performed in first place focusing in general applications for medical imaging Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and then using the same topology for a more constrained design in particle detectors (upgrade of Tracker detector at LHCb experiment). A 16 channel ASIC for PET applications including the novel input stage has demonstrated an excellent timing measurement with good energy resolution measurement and pile-up detection. This document starts with the analysis of the requirements needed to fit such a system. Followed by a detailed description of the input stage and analog processing. Signal is ...

  3. Percutaneous vertebroplasty for metastatic spine disease with spinal canal compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of percutaneous vertebroplasty(PVP)for patients with metastatic vertebral disease and spinal canal compression. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to review 48 consecutive PVP procedures of 95 metastatic vertebral bodies, including 27 men and 21 women, with mean age 63 ± 9 years (ranged 34-80 years). Patients were divided into three groups according to sagittal T2WI manifestation. A group had no spinal canal involvement (n=17); B group showed spinal canal involvement but without contact with spinal cord or nerve roots (n=23); C group demonstrated contact with spinal cord or nerve root(n=8). Procedural safety and clinical efficacy were evaluated at 1 week after the procedure according to WHO standards. Results: The total rate of pain relief reached 83.3% (40/48) including remarkable improvement of the pain 94.1% (16/17 )in A group; 82.6% (19/23)and 62.5% (5/8)in B and C group respectively. There were no significant difference in pain relief among the three groups (P> 0.05). Three patients appeared with aggravation of radicular pain including one of B group and two in C group. There were no significant differences in the incidence of clinical complications among the three groups (P > 0.05=0.068). None of them accepted open surgery except for opioid therapy. Conclusions: PVP provides significant pain relief and can be performed safely and effectively in patients with metastatic vertebral disease with and without spinal canal compression or even cord involvement. (authors)

  4. The human semicircular canal model of galvanic vestibular stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Day, B. L.; Ramsay, E.; Welgampola, M. S.; Fitzpatrick, R. C.

    2011-01-01

    A vector summation model of the action of galvanic stimuli on the semicircular canals has been shown to explain empirical balance and perceptual responses to binaural-bipolar stimuli. However, published data suggest binaural-monopolar stimuli evoke responses that are in the reverse direction of the model prediction. Here, we confirm this by measuring balance responses to binaural-monopolar stimulation as movements of the upper trunk. One explanation for the discrepancy is that the galvanic st...

  5. Comparative study of sealing ability of three root canal sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khedmat S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Complete obturation of the prepared root canal is an essential step in endodontic treatment. Combination of gutta-percha and a sealer is widely used in clinical practice for root canal obturation, thus microleakage studies on sealing properties of these materials constitute an important part of endodontic researches. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microleakage of three root canal sealers: Apexit, AH26 and Dorifill by electrochemical method.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 55 extracted human maxillary and mandibular cuspids were used. The coronal part of teeth were removed and the root canals were prepared using the step-back technique. The specimens were randomly divided into 3 groups of 17 samples each. Teeth in each group were filled with one of the sealers and gutta-percha by lateral condensation technique. 4 specimens served as positive and negative controls. An electrochemical method was used for evaluation of apical leakage with the electrical source potential of 10 V. Measurements of current flow through the test system were recorded every 72 hours. Data were analyzed by Kruskall Wallis and Mann Whitney tests. P<0.05 was considered as the level of significance.Results: All specimens of the three groups showed low initial leakage that increased during the test period. The mean leakage in Apexit group was higher than AH26 and Dorifill groups. The lowest mean leakage was related to Dorifill group. Although no statistically significant difference was observed between this sealer and AH26.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the best apical seal was obtained using Dorifill and AH26 sealers. The poorest result was observed in Apexit.

  6. Facies del subfondo del canal Beagle, Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bujalesky

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available El canal Beagle conecta los océanos Pacífico y Atlántico en el extremo meridional de Sudamérica y se ubica en el ambiente subantártico. Conforma una cuenca de unos 300 m de profundidad máxima y está separada del océano Atlántico por un umbral de 30 m de profundidad. El canal es un valle tectónico que fue completamente cubierto por el hielo glacial durante la última glaciación. Posteriormente, el canal fue ocupado por un lago glacial desde los 12.000 a los 8.000 años A.P., cuando fue invadido por el mar que alcanzó un nivel máximo entre los 6.000 y 5.000 años A.P. Con el objetivo de analizar las facies sedimentarias superficiales y del subfondo del canal se realizó un relevamiento geofísico con sonar de barrido lateral y un perfilador de 3,5 kHz. Sobre un basamento constituido por rocas metamórficas del Mesozoico, se identificaron depósitos de till y secuencias granodecrecientes que representan distintos estadios del retroceso glaciar, evidenciando hacia la sección superior facies lacustres y por encima depósitos de la transgresión marina del Holoceno. Además, se han identificado paleocauces y secuencias fluviales cubiertas por sedimentos marinos transgresivos.

  7. Seasonal dynamics of fish assemblage in a pond canal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musil, J.; Adámek, Zdeněk; Baranyi, Ch.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 3-4 (2007), s. 217-226. ISSN 0967-6120. [New Challenges in Pond Aquaculture . České Budějovice, 26.04.2005-28.04.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : fish assemblage * pond canal * species richness * seasonal dynamics * alien species Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 0.828, year: 2007

  8. Ear Cotton Buds Forgotten in External Ear Canals

    OpenAIRE

    SAĞLAM, Ömer; SAAT, Bülent; Dursun, Engin; ÇETİN, Bilal; KARAPINAR, Uğur; Şahan, Murat; Güneş, Mustafa; TAŞCAN, İnci

    2014-01-01

    Foreign bodies in the external canal of the ear are an emergency problem encountered by the otolaryngologist almost every day. Foreign bodies may cause hearing loss, pain, severe itching, ear discharge, tinnitus and vertigo. There is also great risk for complications during the removal of foreign bodies. An 82 years old male patient with dementia suffering from hearing loss, pain, itching and ear discharge in both ears was referred to our clinic as an emergency case. Otoscopic examination rev...

  9. Patterning and Development of the Atrioventricular Canal in Zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Peal, David S.; Lynch, Stacey N.; Milan, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Proper atrioventricular canal (AVC) patterning and subsequent valvulogenesis is a complex process, and defects can result in disease or early death. The zebrafish Danio rerio has become a useful model system for studying AVC development, and much progress has been made in dissecting out the critical steps. Here we review the recent advances in the field, and highlight the cellular and molecular changes observed during zebrafish AVC development.

  10. Radiological safety research for nuclear excavation projects - Interoceanic canal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general radiological problems encountered in nuclear cratering and nuclear excavation projects are discussed. Procedures for assessing radiological problems in such projects are outlined. Included in the discussions are source term, meteorology, fallout prediction and ecological factors. Continuing research requirements as well as pre- and post-excavation studies are important considerations. The procedures followed in the current interoceanic canal feasibility studies provide examples of radiological safety problems, current solutions and needed research. (author)

  11. Panama canal watershed payment for environmental services project

    OpenAIRE

    IDIAP (Panamanian National Agricultural Research Institute); Montana State University; CIP; Food and Agriculture Organization

    2007-01-01

    Metadata only record The Panama canal produces around 15% of the Panama's gross domestic produce (GDP), and requires large quantities of water to function. The surrounding watershed has been subjected to large scale deforestation and an increase in the population. In order to reduce siltation and improve water storage capacity, this project will look at the feasibility of implementing a payment for environmental services project. It will examine land use alternatives and benefits, evaluate...

  12. Technical note: the humeral canal approach to the brachial plexus.

    OpenAIRE

    Frizelle, H. P.

    1998-01-01

    Many variations to the axillary approach to the brachial plexus have been described. However, the success rate varies depending on the approach used and on the definition of success. Recent work describes a new approach to regional anaesthesia of the upper limb at the humeral/brachial canal using selective stimulation of the major nerves. This report outlines initial experience with this block, describing the technique and results in 50 patients undergoing hand and forearm surgery. All patien...

  13. Alguns considerandos sobre o canal do crédito

    OpenAIRE

    José Alberto Fuinhas

    2002-01-01

    Com o presente artigo, tecem-se alguns considerandos sobre o método de avaliação da admissibilidade teórica do canal do crédito, baseando-nos na sua decomposição em condição de existência e condição de eficácia.

  14. Choice of root canal irrigants by Serbian dental practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Goran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Root canal treatment is considered to be the one of the most important procedures in endodontic treatment. To irrigate the root canal it is most common to use sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, chlorhexodine, ethylenediami-netetraacetic acid (EDTA, local anesthetic solution, while the most used in Serbia is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. The aim of this survey was to reveal the preferred root canal irrigants used by general dental practitioners in Serbia and to determine the influence of the continuing education program, delivered over the 3-year observation period, on work habits of dental practitioners. This was the first comprehensive survey of this nature carried out in Serbia. Methods. The survey was conducted in two instances, a 4-month observation period each, from November 1, 2009 to March 1, 2010 and from November 1, 2012 to March 1, 2013. Internet Web Page Survey was posted on the official web site of the Serbian Association of Private Dentists. In the first survey, 569 completed questionnaires were subjected to analysis. In the next attempt (3 years later, the survey was launched again and 615 completed questionnaires were analyzed using the same criteria. The statistical analysis was carried out with simple descriptive statistics applying the χ2 test, at a significance level of p < 0.05. Results. The first survey included 569 dental practitioners, while 3 years later the number of them was 615. Analyzing the questionnaires revealed the number of 10 to 30 interventins on the root canal montly. The most commonly used irrigant solution was H2O2 in 2009, while in 2012 it was yet H2O2, but also NaOCl, chlorhexodine, and a little less EDTA. Conclusion. This study shows significant changes in the irrigation protocol applied in Serbian dental community. After 3 years of observation, NaOCl became widely accepted as the irrigant of choice, whereas H2O2 lost its popularity.

  15. Anal Canal Duplication in an 11-Year-Old-Child

    OpenAIRE

    Van Biervliet, S; Maris, E.; Vande Velde, S.; Vande Putte, D; Meerschaut, V.; Herregods, N.; R. De Bruyne; Van Winckel, M.; K. van Renterghem

    2013-01-01

    Anal canal duplication (ACD) is the least frequent digestive duplication. Symptoms are often absent but tend to increase with age. Recognition is, however, important as almost half of the patients with ACD have concomitant malformations. We present the clinical history of an eleven-year-old girl with ACD followed by a review of symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis based on all the reported cases in English literature.

  16. MRI study on spinal canal content in Western Maharashtrian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanapurkar SV, Kulkarni DO, Bahetee BH, Vahane MI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the spinal canal content has been studied since the invention of myelography. However, most studies have measured the diameters of the spinal cord only, not the size of the subarachnoid space. The present study complements the current data on the morphology of the spinal contents, and in particular, the spinal subarachnoid space, by analyzing MRI images. Objective: To study morphology of the dural sac, spinal cord & subarachnoid space using MRI. To define the inner geometrical dimensions of spinal canal content that confine the maneuver of an endoscope inserted in cervical spine. 3. To have comprehensive knowledge of the anatomy of cervical spinal canal. Method: Based on MRI images of the spine from 60 normal patients of age between 25-60 years, the dimensions of spinal cord, dural sac & subarachnoid space were measured at mid-vertebral & intervertebral level from C1-C7 vertebrae. The parameters measured were transverse, sagittal diameter of spinal cord & dural sac. The subarachnoid space was measured as anterior, posterior, right, left distance between spinal cord and dura mater. Results: It was found that at each selected transverse level, the subarachnoid space tends to be symmetrical on the right and left sides of the cord, and measures 3.38 mm on an average. However, the anterior and posterior segment, measured on the mid-sagittal plane are generally asymmetric & varies greatly in size ranging 1mm to 6mm with mean 2.57 of anterior & 2.59 of posterior. These measurements match those found in previous studies. The coefficient of variance for the dimensions of the subarachnoid space is as high as 36.16%, while that for the dimensions of the spinal cord (transverse & sagittal are11.08%&13.28%respectively. Conclusion: The findings presented here, expand our knowledge of morphology of spinal canal and show that a thecaloscope must be smaller than 3.38 mm in diameter.

  17. Semicircular Canals Circumvent Brownian Motion Overload of Mechanoreceptor Hair Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Mees; Heeck, Kier

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate semicircular canals (SCC) first appeared in the vertebrates (i.e. ancestral fish) over 600 million years ago. In SCC the principal mechanoreceptors are hair cells, which as compared to cochlear hair cells are distinctly longer (70 vs. 7 μm), 10 times more compliant to bending (44 vs. 500 nN/m), and have a 100-fold higher tip displacement threshold (level of the mechanoreceptors of the SCC. PMID:27448330

  18. Cone-beam computed tomography study of root and canal morphology of mandibular premolars in a western Chinese population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional radiography is limited in its ability to give reliable information on the number and morphology of root canals. The application of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) provides a non-invasive three-dimensional confirmatory diagnosis as a complement to conventional radiography. The aim of this study was to evaluate the root and canal morphology of mandibular premolars in a western Chinese population using CBCT scanning. The sample included 149 CBCT images comprising 178 mandibular first premolars and 178 second premolars. The tooth position, number of roots and canals, and canal configuration according to Vertucci’s classification were recorded. The results showed that 98% of mandibular first premolars had one root and 2% had two roots; 87.1% had one canal, 11.2% had two canals and 0.6% had three canals. The prevalence of C-shaped canals was 1.1%. All mandibular second premolars had one root; 97.2% had one canal and 2.2% had two canals. The prevalence of C-shaped canals was 0.6%. The prevalence of multiple canals in mandibular first premolars was mainly of Type V, and mandibular second premolars had a low rate of canal variation in this western Chinese population. Root canal bifurcation occurred at the middle or apical third in most bicanal mandibular premolars. CBCT scanning can be used in the management of mandibular premolars with complex canal morphology

  19. Effect of postmilking teat antisepsis on teat canal infections in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, S C; Watts, J L; Boddie, R L; Ray, C H

    1990-02-01

    Effects of a .18% iodophor teat dip and a fatty acid plus lactic acid teat dip on teat canal infections were studied in two separate trials under experimental challenge procedures using Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. The iodophor teat dip was 90% effective in preventing new S. aureus teat canal infections and 95.6% effective in reducing progression of S. aureus teat canal infections to intramammary infections. The dip also reduced persistence of S. aureus teat canal colonizations from week to week by 94.4%. The fatty acid plus lactic acid dip had no effect on preventing S. aureus teat canal infections but reduced progression of S. aureus teat canal infections to intramammary infections by 43.8%. The fatty acid plus lactic acid dip also reduced the persistence of S. aureus teat canal infections by 39%. An insufficient number of Strep. agalactiae teat canal infections was detected in both trials for valid analyses. Neither dip had any effect on prevalence of naturally occurring, coagulase-negative staphylococcal teat canal infections or on teat canal infections by other organisms. PMID:2184176

  20. Deadbands and the Dynamic Response and Performance of Large Water Transfer Canal System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Zhiliang; WANG Changde; TAN Guangming; GUAN Guanghua

    2009-01-01

    An operating simulation mode for multireach canal system in series under gate regulating is established. The discharge feedforward plus water lever feedback PID controller was adopted. And the performance indicators are introduced to evaluate the control effects of canal operation. Influence on dynamic response process and dynamic performance as well as the control actions of canal system are studied according to the variation of the gate deadband and water level deadband. The results showed that the larger the gate deadband, the worse, the control effect of canal system over water level, and so done the stable process of gate discharge, yet the stable process of gate opening was getting better, while the upstream gate regulation of each canal pool was less at the time when canal stabilizes;the closer to downstream end of canal, the lager steady-state error of this canal pool was, and the lager influence of gate deadband on the steady-state error as well as response time of this canal pool was;the canal system can not acquire superiority in both the control performance and control actions when only the water level deadband was established.

  1. UN ENFOQUE BAYESIANO PARA INCORPORAR PRONÓSTICOS DE LA DEMANDA EN EXPERIMENTOS POR SIMULACIÓN PARA LA ADMINISTRACIÓN DE INVENTARIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Muñoz N

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de planear la producción y distribución de manufacturas con base en información cada vez más cercana al momento de venta, los sistemas de apoyo a la toma de decisiones para la administración de inventarios deben incorporar pronósticos de la demanda basados en poca información objetiva, o en información subjetiva. En particular, cuando se utilizan modelos de simulación para apoyar toma de decisiones relacionadas con inventarios de seguridad, o con tamaños y demoras de los pedidos, es conveniente modelar la distribución de la demanda tomando en cuenta tanto los datos disponibles sobre experiencias pasadas, como la información (a menudo subjetiva sobre el futuro cercano. En este artículo se presenta un enfoque bayesiano para modelar un componente aleatorio de entrada (por ejemplo, la distribución de la demanda en experimentos por simulación para la administración de inventarios. Bajo este enfoque, la familia de distribuciones propuesta para modelar el componente de entrada debe considerar dos tipos de parámetros, los que capturan información de datos históricos y los que dependen del pronóstico (a menudo subjetivo sobre el escenario particular a simular. La aplicación del enfoque propuesto se ilustra con un ejemplo en el que se modela la demanda diaria por medio de una distribución binomial negativa, y el usuario del sistema proporciona la demanda esperada para todo el periodo a simularIn order to postpone production planning based on information obtained closer to the time of sale, decision support systems for inventory management often include demand forecasts based on little historical data and/or subjective information. Particularly, when simulation models for analyzing decisions related to safety inventories, lot sizing or lead times are used, it is convenient to model demand considering historical data, as well as information (often subjective of the near future. This article presents an approach for

  2. The clinical success of different root canal treatments in primary molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Güler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Objectives: To examine the success rate of root canal treatment in primary molars with the use two different root canal instrumentation ways, irrigation solutions and root canal sealers.

    Materials and Methods: Root canal treatment was applied to 120 second primary molars of 69 children between 5-8 years old. The teeth were divided in 8 groups randomly according to instrumentation ways [conventional stainless-steel hand files / Nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti rotary files], irrigation solutions [0.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and 0.9% saline solution combination / 0.4% chlorhehexidine (CHX] and root canal sealers [Zinc oxide eugenol cement (ZOE and Apexit Plus (AP]. All teeth were restored with stainless steel crowns. The teeth were followed 12 months both clinically and radiographically. All data was analyzed statistically by χ2 and Wilcoxon test.

    Results: Statistical significance were found according to “age” and “root canal sealers” factors on success rate of root canal treatment (p<0.05. No statistical significance were found according to gender, jaw, tooth type, root canal instrumentation ways and irrigation solutions  on success rate of root canal treatment (p>0.05. The clinically and radiographically success rate of ZOE and AP were 98.3% and 68.3%, respectively.

    Conclusions: Root canal treatment is a successful treatment in primary molars. Ni-Ti rotary files and CHX can be a good alternative for root canal treatment in primary molars. The most effective factor to obtain clinical success of root canal treatment is properties of using root canal sealer.

  3. [Treatment of a fractured endodontical instrument in the root canal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, M; Peters, L B

    2015-12-01

    A 53-year-old woman with continuing pain coming from a lower first molar was diagnosed with apical periodontitis, with a retained fractured instrument in the root canal. There are a variety of treatment options for dealing with a corpus alienum in a root canal. In this case it was decided to treat the tooth endodontically, and leave the fractured instrument fragment in situ. The selection of this treatment option was made on the basis of knowledge of the original diagnosis and the success rates of the various treatment options as described in the relevant literature, weighed against the possible risks and their effects on the prognosis. This suggested that the use of a dental operating microscope has a positive impact on the success rates of endodontic treatment The prognosis for endodontic treatment when a fractured instrument fragment is left within the root canal, as in this case, is not significantly reduced. The presence of preoperative periapical pathology, however, is a more clinically significant prognostic indicator. PMID:26665200

  4. The auditory characteristics of children with inner auditory canal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Yu; Xu, Lei; Li, Li; Li, Jianfeng; Luo, Jianfen; Wang, Mingming; Fan, Zhaomin; Wang, Haibo

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions This study shows that the prevalence of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) in the children with inner auditory canal (IAC) stenosis is much higher than those without IAC stenosis, regardless of whether they have other inner ear anomalies. In addition, the auditory characteristics of ANSD with IAC stenosis are significantly different from those of ANSD without any middle and inner ear malformations. Objectives To describe the auditory characteristics in children with IAC stenosis as well as to examine whether the narrow inner auditory canal is associated with ANSD. Method A total of 21 children, with inner auditory canal stenosis, participated in this study. A series of auditory tests were measured. Meanwhile, a comparative study was conducted on the auditory characteristics of ANSD, based on whether the children were associated with isolated IAC stenosis. Results Wave V in the ABR was not observed in all the patients, while cochlear microphonic (CM) response was detected in 81.1% ears with stenotic IAC. Sixteen of 19 (84.2%) ears with isolated IAC stenosis had CM response present on auditory brainstem responses (ABR) waveforms. There was no significant difference in ANSD characteristics between the children with and without isolated IAC stenosis. PMID:26981851

  5. Sexually antagonistic epigenetic marks that canalize sexually dimorphic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, William R; Friberg, Urban; Gavrilets, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    The sexes share the same autosomal genomes, yet sexual dimorphism is common due to sex-specific gene expression. When present, XX and XY karyotypes trigger alternate regulatory cascades that determine sex-specific gene expression profiles. In mammals, secretion of testosterone (T) by the testes during foetal development is the master switch influencing the gene expression pathways (male vs. female) that will be followed, but many genes have sex-specific expression prior to T secretion. Environmental factors, like endocrine disruptors and mimics, can interfere with sexual development. However, sex-specific ontogeny can be canalized by the production of epigenetic marks (epimarks) generated during early ontogeny that increase sensitivity of XY embryos to T and decrease sensitivity of XX embryos. Here, we integrate and synthesize the evidence indicating that canalizing epimarks are produced during early ontogeny. We will also describe the evidence that such epimarks sometimes carry over across generations and produce mosaicism in which some traits are discordant with the gonad. Such carryover epimarks are sexually antagonistic because they benefit the individual in which they were formed (via canalization) but harm opposite-sex offspring when they fail to erase across generations and produce gonad-trait discordances. SA-epimarks have the potential to: i) magnify phenotypic variation for many sexually selected traits, ii) generate overlap along many dimensions of the masculinity/femininity spectrum, and iii) influence medically important gonad-trait discordances like cryptorchidism, hypospadias and idiopathic hirsutism. PMID:26600375

  6. Intraoperative ultrasonography of the vertebral canal in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Bonelli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intraoperative ultrasound (IOS can provide details on various conditions of the spinal cord and vertebral canal. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using IOS in dogs undergoing spinal surgery and to describe the main findings. The vertebral canal of 21 dogs was examined with intraoperative ultrasonography: 13 underwent spinal surgery for removal of herniated intervertebral disc material, three for stabilization of vertebral fracture/luxation, two for removal of vertebral neoplasia, and three for cauda equina decompression. Particular attention was given to signs of cord compression. Intraoperative ultrasonography was feasible and useful in dogs undergoing surgery for spinal cord or cauda equina decompression and fracture stabilization. It was not paramount for locating the compression when this had been done via computed tomography (CT, but it showed alterations in spinal cord parenchyma not observed on CT and also confirmed adequate decompression of the spinal cord. The main advantages of intraoperative ultrasonography were estimation of vascularization and extent of spinal cord lesion. Most importantly, it allowed real time evaluation of the spinal cord and vertebral canal, which permits the modification of the surgical procedure.

  7. An electrokinetic model of transduction in the semicircular canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, D P

    1970-09-01

    Transduction in the semicircular canal was studied by focusing an infrared beam on either side of exposed ampullae from the posterior canals of Rana pipiens. The direction of fluid movement resulting from a stimulus was inferred by observing the polarity of the change in afferent impulse mean rate relative to the spontaneous value. On the basis of the accepted functional polarization of this receptor, the results indicate that fluid moved toward the warmer side of the ampulla. Convection and thermal reception were shown to be unlikely explanations for these results. Morover, cupular displacements toward the warmer side would not be expected. Because thermo-osmosis can cause fluid to move toward the warmer side in a gelatin membrane, the results can be interpreted as evidence that thermo-osmosis occurred in the gelatinous cupula and influenced the transduction mechanism. Thermo-osmosis of liquids appears to be due to an electric field that is set up in a charged membrane; hence, the hair cells might have detected an electric field that occurred in the cupula during thermo-osmosis. Electroreception might be an important link in the transduction of physiological stimuli also. Rotational stimuli could result in weak electric fields in the cupula by the mechanoelectric effect. Cupular displacements could be important for large stimuli, but extrapolations to threshold stimuli suggest displacements of angstrom amplitudes. Therefore, electroreception by the hair cells could be an explanation of the great sensitivity that has been observed in the semicircular canal and other labyrinthine receptors. PMID:5496906

  8. Modelo mecânico para simulação do condicionamento pulmonar do ar respirado Mechanical model for simulating the conditioning of air in the respiratory tract

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Bergonse Neto; Luiz Carlos Von Bahten; Luís Mauro Moura; Marlos de Souza Coelho; Wilson de Souza Stori Junior; Gilberto da Fontoura Rey Bergonse

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: A criação de um modelo mecânico que pudesse ser regulado para simular o condicionamento do ar inspirado e expirado nos mesmos valores normais de temperatura, pressão e umidade relativa do aparelho respiratório de um homem jovem hígido sob ventilação mecânica. MÉTODOS: Utilizando-se diversos tipos de materiais, um aparelho mecânico foi construído e regulado com valores normais de capacidade vital, volume corrente, pressão inspiratória máxima, pressão expiratória final positiva e temp...

  9. Simulação numérica e ensaios experimentais da remoção de Fe (III) da água para utilização nas indústrias alimentícias

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Talita Seisdedos da Silva; Adriana Dervanoski; Lilian Daiana Haupenthal; Selene Maria Arruda Guelli Ulson de Souza; Antonio Augusto Ulson de Souza; Cleuzir da Luz

    2015-01-01

    RESUMO Neste estudo foram realizadas as cinéticas e isotermas de adsorção dos íons Fe (III) presentes em afluentes sintéticos utilizando como adsorvente carvão ativado de casca de coco. O objetivo foi a obtenção dos parâmetros cinéticos e de equilíbrio do processo para assim simular diferentes condições operacionais em uma coluna de adsorção em leito fixo. Foram avaliadas a influência de três diferentes temperaturas na adsorção de Fe (III), sendo que o aumento da temperatura indicou adsorção ...

  10. Cadmium and chromium concentrations in six forage species irrigated with canal, sewage or mixed canal and sewage water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) concentrations were investigated in six different forage species, i.e., Trifolium alexandrium, Cichorium intybus, Avena sativa, Medicago polymorpha, Brassica campestris and Medicago sativa, irrigated with canal, sewage or mixed canal and sewage water. The Cd levels of the forages irrigated with different water treatments in this study were greater than the tolerance level for grazing livestock reported in the literature. Thus, the Cd levels in the six plant species found in the current study showed high potential threat for livestock consuming these forages. Similarly, high levels of Cr in the six forages were observed with sewage water treatment only. However, in the present investigation, Cr concentration of forages was below the toxic level. Therefore, there was no threat of Cr toxicity for animals being reared on these forages. (author)

  11. Costo de servir como variable de decisión estratégica en el diseño de estrategias de atención a canales de mercados emergentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Mejía Argueta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo documentar diferentes enfoques tradicionales sobre el análisis de costos para mercados emergentes a fin de hallar brechas y áreas de oportunidad relacionadas con la temática del costo de servir. El artículo encuentra que no existe una metodología adaptada para mercados emergentes que permita analizar detalladamente la rentabilidad en canales, clientes y productos para crear estrategias de atención acordes con las necesidades que estos grupos expresan. Al final de la revisión y contraste de metodologías, se explica una tabla con los procedimientos analizados y las áreas de oportunidad más importantes que servirán de base para la creación de una metodología de costo de servir para mercados emergentes.

  12. Expresión de canales de potasio voltaje dependientes en ovocitos de Xenopus laevis (Amphibia Voltage gated potassium channels expressed in Xenopus laevis(AMPHIBIA oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clavijo Carlos

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available La expresión en sistemas heterólogos ha sido una herramienta ampliamente utilizada enlos últimos años para el estudio funcional y estructural de proteínas. Para la carac-terización de las propiedades biofísicas de canales, bombas y transportadores engeneral su expresión en ovocitos de Xenopus laevis, ha sido fundamental. Este estudioreporta la expresión de dos canales de potasio voltaje dependientes, Kv1.1y Shakerenovocitos de X. laevisusando un protocolo ajustado a las condiciones de latitud y altitudde Bogotá para la extracción, aislamiento, cultivo y microinyección de éstas células.Heterologous expression has been an important tool for structural and functionalcharacterization of proteins. The study of biophysical properties of ion channels,pumps and transporters has been possible thanks to their expression in Xenopuslaevisoocytes. Here we report the expression of two voltage gated channels, Kv1.1and Shaker, in X. laevisoocytes using a method for oocyte extraction, isolation, cul-ture, and microinjection adapted to the latitude and altitude conditions of Bogotá,Colombia.

  13. Simulação numérica e ensaios experimentais da remoção de Fe (III da água para utilização nas indústrias alimentícias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Talita Seisdedos da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Neste estudo foram realizadas as cinéticas e isotermas de adsorção dos íons Fe (III presentes em afluentes sintéticos utilizando como adsorvente carvão ativado de casca de coco. O objetivo foi a obtenção dos parâmetros cinéticos e de equilíbrio do processo para assim simular diferentes condições operacionais em uma coluna de adsorção em leito fixo. Foram avaliadas a influência de três diferentes temperaturas na adsorção de Fe (III, sendo que o aumento da temperatura indicou adsorção exotérmica. A isoterma de Freundlich representou melhor os dados experimentais. Também foi realizado o estudo cinético e o modelo que apresentou melhor os dados experimentais foi o modelo de Pseudo-Primeira Ordem para as três concentrações estudadas. O método de Volumes Finitos foi utilizado na discretização das equações matemáticas e um algoritmo computacional foi implementado em linguagem FORTRAN. O código computacional foi validado com dados experimentais encontrados na literatura (erro máximo de 6,2% podendo-se assim simular diferentes condições operacionais do sistema de adsorção com aplicação na indústria alimentícia.

  14. Sistemas y Tecnologías de Televisión Digital Interactiva para la Educación

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García Pañeda, X.; Cesar Garcia, P.S.

    2012-01-01

    La televisión ha sido tradicionalmente un medio de comunicación utilizado para llevar a cabo procesos de aprendizaje informales. Idiomas, historia y naturaleza han sido materias objeto de numerosos cursos y reportajes a lo largo de los años y el elemento central de numerosos canales temáticos que ll

  15. A quantitative analysis of rotary, ultrasonic and manual techniques to treat proximally flattened root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Soares Grecca

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The efficiency of rotary, manual and ultrasonic root canal instrumentation techniques was investigated in proximally flattened root canals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty human mandibular left and right central incisors, lateral incisors and premolars were used. The pulp tissue was removed and the root canals were filled with red die. Teeth were instrumented using three techniques: (i K3 and ProTaper rotary systems; (ii ultrasonic crown-down technique; and (iii progressive manual technique. Roots were bisected longitudinally in a buccolingual direction. The instrumented canal walls were digitally captured and the images obtained were analyzed using the Sigma Scan software. Canal walls were evaluated for total canal wall area versus non-instrumented area on which dye remained. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was found between the instrumentation techniques studied (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study showed that no instrumentation technique was 100% efficient to remove the dye.

  16. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CHELATION VALUE OF SEVENTEEN PERCENT SELF DEVELOPED AND COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE ROOT CANAL LUBRICANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingale Satish Dinkarrao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to compare chelation values of 17% self developed & commercially available root canal Lubricants or dental chelating gels as well as to see whether their performance depends on the chelation value or not. The Chelating agent bounds Ca2+ ions of the smear layer & the extent of chelate formation between chelating agent and metal ion is nothing but Chelation Value. Sodium carbonate indicator method is used for determinations of chelation value. Commercially available gel incorporated in this study was File Rite which has little bit higher chelation value. Self developed chelating gel or root canal lubricants have comparatively lower chelation value. Root canal lubricants having higher chelation value should perform better in shaping & cleaning of root canal better. However because of slight difference in chelation value of self developed & commercially available gel, no significant difference was found out as root canal lubricants, when applied in root canal for 5 minutes.

  17. Endodontic management of a mandibular first molar with six root canal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal anatomy of pulp is complex. The first mandibular molars typically have two roots, one mesial with two root canals and another distal root, which contains one or two canals. A 20-year-old female patient reported with intermittent pain and incomplete root canal treatment in left lower back region since 1-week. Refined access cavity revealed initially two canals in mesial and two canals in the distal root. With operating microscope and cone beam computerized tomography, two additional canals (L-mesio-buccal and B-mesio-lingual were identified in mesial root. One-year follow-up showed patient was asymptomatic and complete healing of periapical radiolucency.

  18. "Análisis de Desempeño de un Sistema MIMO-OFDM con Predicción de Canal"

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Morales, Catalina

    2013-01-01

    Las comunicaciones inalámbricas en que el canal de transmisión inalámbrico se define por efectos de dispersión por movimiento y obstáculos físicos entre transmisor y receptor, son un claro ejemplo de los retos que se enfrentan para lograr una comunicación efectiva mediante un ambiente ruidoso. La demanda de múltiples servicios de telecomunicaciones, como transmisión de voz, video y datos, ha hecho que la capacidad de transmisión y recepción de los sistemas de comunicaciones aum...

  19. Aprendizaje interorganizacional: estudio sobre los canales de transmisión de conocimiento en clusters textiles y de indumentaria en Brasil y en Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Sohn, Ana Paula Lisboa; Vieira, Filipa Dionísio; Casarotto, Nelson; Cunha, Idaulo José

    2014-01-01

    Ante el ascenso de una sociedad del conocimiento que estimula y valoriza la formación de redes de empresas, hay un consenso entre los investigadores especializados de que son cruciales los procesos de aprendizaje colaborativo en clusters para la formación de una ventaja competitiva en la esfera individual de las empresas y en el conjunto que forma el aglomerado productivo. En este artículo se pretendió identificar y analizar los canales de aprendizaje en dos clusters textiles y...

  20. La alfabetización mediática en la televisión infantil online: programas del Canal Pakapaka

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Carrero, Jacqueline; Méndiz Rojas, Heleny

    2013-01-01

    Pakapaka es un canal destinado al público infantil ideado para que sus pequeños espectadores aprendan lúdicamente. En este artículo relatamos las razones por las que se considera un modelo de televisión infantil online. También describimos su programación, que se emite tanto por la televisión tradicional como por el medio digital. Por otra parte, nos centramos en algunos de sus programas que profundizan en el propio medio audiovisual, contribuyendo así con la alfabetización med...