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Sample records for canal para simular

  1. MODELO PARA SIMULAR LA HOMEÓSTASIS NEURONAL DURANTE UN INFLUJO INCREMENTADO DEL CALCIO A TRAVÉS DEL CANAL ASOCIADO AL RECEPTOR IONOTRÓPICO DE GLUTAMATO ACTIVADO POR N-METIL-D-ASPARTATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lareo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Dada la importancia del receptor ionotrópico de glutamato activado por N-Metil-D-Aspartato en los procesos de aprendizaje y la formación de la memoria mediados por el transporte de calcio a través del canal asociado a dicho receptor resulta importante desarrollar modelos que permitan comprender la homeóstasis que le permite a la neurona manejar incrementos en el flujo de dicho catión sin llegar a desarrollar procesos necróticos ni apoptóticos. Este trabajo presenta una sencilla simulación de parte de los procesos metabólicos asociados al receptor como un paso inicial para comprender los mecanismos subyacentes al aprendizaje y memoria.

  2. MICROMUNDO PARA SIMULAR UN MERCADO ELÉCTRICO DE CORTO PLAZO

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    Carlos Jaime Franco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta un micromundo para la simulación de una bolsa de energía, el cual se elaboró en respuesta a la necesidad de facilitar el aprendizaje del esquema de bolsa de energía con despacho centralizado a los interesados en este mercado. El micromundo cuenta con un modelo climático para simular los fenómenos de El Niño y La Niña, y con un modelo para la generación de los precios de oferta de los generadores, además es altamente parametrizable y permite simular diversos tipos de mercados eléctricos.

  3. Aplicaciones de software para gestión de canales

    OpenAIRE

    Mallol Casals, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Comunicació presentada al Congress on Industrial and Agricultural Canals. Lleida, 2014 Los sistemas de información geográfica permiten diseñar y poner a punto herramientas muy útiles para la gestión, puesto que registran y procesan datos gráficos y alfanuméricos del conjunto formado por canal y sus aprovechamientos. Las aplicaciones que se han presentado son ejemplos de los posibles desarrollos, con series históricas de datos y/o con de datos actuales, simular escenarios probables para ...

  4. Calibración y validación de un modelo en computador para simular el golpe de ariete en redes cerradas

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    El golpe de ariete, como fenómeno transitorio, ha sido un tema de estudio de la hidráulica, por sus efectos destructores en sistemas de alta presión como los conductos abastecedores de turbinas en centrales hidroeléctricas. Aunque el tema esté muy estudiado y analizado para conductos simples, comienza a aflorar la inquietud de simular este fenómeno en redes cerradas, las cuales están propensas a experimentar el golpe de ariete. Se presenta un modelo computacional para simular el Golpe de A...

  5. EMPLEO DEL PROGRAMA VOLCFLOW PARA SIMULAR FLUJOS PIROCLÁSTICOS DEL VOLCÁN CERRO MACHÍN, TOLIMA, COLOMBIA

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    Elsa Adriana Cárdenas Quiroga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de simular futuros flujos piroclásticos que podría producir el Volcán Cerro Machín, ubicado en la Cordillera Central de Colombia. Esta simulación se realizó con el programa VolcFlow desarrollado por el Laboratorio de Magmas y Volcanes de la Universidad Blaise Pascal, Francia, diseñado especialmente para modelar el comportamiento de este tipo de productos volcánicos, ya que está basado en las características reológicas de esos flujos. Se comparan las áreas que serían potencialmente afectadas por una erupción de ese tipo y los espesores del material que se depositaría con resultados obtenidos de simulaciones realizadas con un Model Builder desarrollado en ARC GIS por el Grupo de Investigación Geomática Aplicada de la Universidad Militar Nueva Granada en Colombia, obteniéndose resultados similares.

  6. Revestimientos especiales para diques y canales

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    Zorzi, Silvano

    1964-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the possibilities and advantages of adopting special facings for dykes and canals, and generally for all large hydraulic works, where waterproofing is of paramount importance. Technical advances in recent years have made it possible to prefabricate many facing units used in these types of works; large slabs, made in reinforced and prestressed concrete, are flexible, and watertight. Although there are many possibilities and types of facing treatments, the one described here is outstanding. It consists of narrow slabs, highly flexible, placed transversally with respect to the canal axis. They are attached with cement mortar, and the joints are finally sealed with a special mortar, called «Emboco». In this article a description is also given of a series of projects, where facing treatments have been used, which are now successfully in service. Finally some general and simple advise is given on the best procedure to apply these facing treatments in the most effective and economic manner.En este trabajo se resumen las posibilidades y ventajas que ofrecen los revestimientos especiales de diques y taludes de canales y, en general, en todas las grandes obras hidráulicas, en que la impermeabilización es de mayor importancia al tratar de conservar los caudales iniciales o la retención de aguas embalsadas, según los casos. Los progresos de las técnicas modernas, en particular la prefabricación, han permitido este tipo de revestimientos con losas de gran longitud, extremadamente flexibles e impermeables, de hormigón armado y pretensado. Aunque son muchas las posibilidades y tipos de revestimiento, destaca el que a continuación se expone: consiste en placas o losas estrechas, de gran flexibilidad, colocadas transversalmente al eje del canal sobre tongadas de mortero de cemento, y cuyas juntas se sellan, finalmente, con un mortero especial llamado «Emboco». Complementan la exposición teórica del método una serie de

  7. Derivación analítica del tiempo de llegada en modelos de canal basados en geometría para sistemas inalámbricos

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    M.R. Arias

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una propuesta analítica para derivar la función de densidad de probabilidad de potencia (PDF, por sus siglas en ingles del tiempo de llegada (TOA, por sus siglas en inglés y su aplicación en los modelos de canal estadísticos basados en geometría para ambientes urbanos. En éste artículo proponemos un modelo de canal utilizando el método por agrupamiento, y lo empleamos para derivar la PDF del tiempo de llegada de la señal de multitrayectorias. Para evaluar la PDF teórica propuesta por agrupamiento en el dominio del tiempo, hacemos simulaciones por computadora del modelo de canal basado en geometría propuesto y lo comparamos con los resultados experimentales publicados en la literatura. La comparación con los resultados experimentales revelan una buena aproximación. La PDF por agrupamiento derivada se puede utilizar para simular la dispersión temporal de la señal de multitrayectorias agrupadas para una variedad de condiciones de propagación en ambientes urbanos para cuantificar parámetros estadísticos de segundo orden, es decir, la difusión de retardo para una forma elíptica específica dada por el grupo de señales de multitrayectorias.

  8. Una herramienta para simular y analizar el flujo de tráfico en un cruce regulado por semáforos con tiempos de ciclos variables

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    Orlando Fonseca Guilarte

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una herramienta que ayude a establecer una buena política de cambio en los tiempos de luces de los semáforos en las horas pico, basado en los resultados experimentales que se brindan. Se considera un cruce regulado por semáforos que puede estar compuesto por n calles y tener k fases. Se propone un simulador cuyos datos de entrada son las características propias de esta intersección y su salida la cantidad de autos que quedan, llegan y salen en cada fase. Se supone que las llegadas y salidas de los vehículos siguen una distribución de Poisson cuyo parámetro puede variar en el intervalo estudiado. La simulación está basada en eventos discretos y para la implementación del simulador se utilizó la plataforma .NET y el lenguaje de programación C#. La herramienta permite además obtener resultados estadísticos que ayudan al usuario en la toma de decisiones para identificar las fases problemáticas y tomar medidas para determinar la mejor opción, que será aquella que minimice la congestión del tráfico.

  9. Sistema de máquinas para revestir canales magistrales

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    Julián Remberto Sánchez Alonso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo consistió en la concepción, diseño, construcción y prueba de un sistema de máquinas para el revestimiento mecanizado de taludes de canales magistrales del tipo "Bio - La Rioja", su importancia está basada en la necesidad de acelerar las obras de la voluntad hidráulica y el programa alimentario. El método mecanizado de revestimiento incrementa el rendimiento respecto al tradicional, además contribuye al ahorro de materiales, mano de obra y uso de equipos, en particular de combustible. Para el logro de los objetivos propuestos se realizó una revisión del estado actual sobre los sistemas de máquinas revestidoras con hormigón existentes en el extranjero y la experiencia acumulada en el país. Posteriormente se realizó un análisis de variantes para la concepción de la máquina y cada conjunto, de esta forma se seleccionó los sistemas a diseñar. La utilización de métodos avanzados de cálculos y valoración nos permitió determinar las formas y dimensiones de las máquinas, conjuntos y piezas, obteniéndose un diseño ligero y una tecnología sencilla de fabricación. Las valoraciones experimentales en condiciones de explotación en el canal "Bio - La Rioja" permitieron realizar un análisis técnico-económico sobre la introducción del sistema de máquinas en un proceso mecanizado de revestimiento "in situ".

  10. GeoSteamNet: A computer code to simulate geothermal steam flow in a pipeline network; GeoSteamNet: Programa de computo para simular el flujo de vapor geotermico de una red de vaporductos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma P., Mahendra; Aragon A., Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: mahendra@iie.org.mx; Ruiz L., Alejando; Mendoza C., Alfredo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Campo Geotermico Los Azufres, Campamento Agua Fria, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2011-07-15

    A computer package, GeoSteamNet, was developed to simulate steam transport in a pipeline network of a geothermal field. The fluid motion is governed by the following basic principles: conservation of mass, linear momentum principle (Newton's second law or the Navier Stokes equations), and the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The second law of thermodynamics defines the direction of a spontaneous process, which is indirectly validated in the algorithm as vapor flows from high-to-low pressure, and heat flows from high-to-low temperatures. The nonlinear equations are solved with the Newton-Raphson method. Using the ActiveX component OrificeMeter, the steam-flow balance was calculated for power plants U-15 and U-16 in Los Azufres Geothermal Field, Mich., in February 2009. U-15 was fed by the production wells AZ-04, AZ-28, AZ-30, AZ-65D, and AZ-66, whereas wells AZ-28A, AZ-45, AZ-56, AZ-67, AZ-69D were connected to U-16. The analytical error is within {+-}4%, which is acceptable for practical purposes for steam-supply management, considering the uncertainties in parameters, such as pressure, temperature, pressure fluctuation at the wellhead, etc. The steam simulation results by GeoSteamNet for a hypothetical-pipeline network in a geothermal system with two production wells and a power plant illustrate its functionality. Several points need to be emphasized. For a specific geometry-pipeline network, there is only a certain amount of mass (vapor) that can be transported at a given pressure at the wellheads and the power plant. The construction and modification of a pipeline network is very expensive and the production of geothermal wells depends on many natural factors; therefore, there is need to conduct a tolerance study for each component of the network. A simulation study of the virtual-pipeline network for the design of a geothermal power plant can save money, effort, and time. [Spanish] Se desarrollo un paquete de computo, GeoSteamNet, para simular el

  11. Tubos de concreto reforçado com fibras de aço. Parte 2: modelo numérico para simular o ensaio de compressão diametral

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    A. de le Fuente

    Full Text Available Este artigo faz parte de um extenso trabalho relacionado ao desenvolvimento tecnológico experimental e modelagem numérica de tubos de concreto reforçados com fibra de aço. Na primeira parte ("Tubos de concreto reforçado com fibras de aço. Parte 1: Análise tecnológica do comportamento mecânico", foi apresentado o estudo experimental com enfoque tecnológico, abordando o procedimiento de ensaio e a discussão do comportamento estrutural obtido para cada consumo de fibra e tipo de reforço empregado. Nesta segunda parte, são abordados os aspectos de modelagem numérica. Neste sentido, se apresenta um modelo numérico para a simulação do comportamento de tubos de diâmetros inferiores a 1000 mm chamado MAP. São explicitadas as bases do modelo numérico e, posteriormente, seus resultados são confrontados com os obtidos experimentalmente, obtendo-se excelentes níveis de correlacão. Se conclui que a ferramenta numérica é útil para a otimização deste tipo de tubos, o que representa um avanço importante para a implantação das fibras estruturais como refuerço de tubos de concreto. Além disso, com o objetivo de proporcionar um exemplo de interesse estratégico, se apresenta a otimização do consumo de fibras para un tubo de 400 mm de diâmetro.

  12. Entrevista a Jordi Canal para Historia 2.0

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    Miguel Darío Cuadros Sánchez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Jordi Canal es profesor y director de estudios en la École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS de Paris, uno de los grandes especialistas en historia contemporánea. Cosmopolita y trilingüe (español, catalán y francés, su bibliografía reciente incluye obras de referencia, como autor o editor, «Los éxodos políticos en España, siglos XV-XX» (2007, «Una historia política del carlismo, 1876-1939» (2006. En el marco del XVII Congreso de la Asociación de Colombianista y la presentación de una conferencia sobre historia política en la Maestría de Historia de la Universidad Industrial de Santander, el profesor Jordi Canal visitó la ciudad de Bucaramanga del 3 al 5 a de agosto del presente año y tuvo la amabilidad de brindar sus opiniones a la revista Historia 2.0.

  13. Evaluation of a model to Simulate Net Radiation Over a Vineyar cv. Cabernet Sauvignon Evaluación de un Modelo para Simular el Flujo de Radiación Neta Sobre un Viñedo cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

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    Marcos Carrasco

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Net radiation (Rn is the main energy balance component controlling evaporation and transpiration processes. In this regard, this study evaluated two models to estimate Rno above a commercial vineyard (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon located in Pencahue Valley, Maule Region (35º22’ S; 71°47’ Wl; 75 m.a.s.l.. An automatic meteorological station (AMS was installed in the central part of the vineyard and used to measure Rn, solar radiation (Rsi, air temperature (Ta, canopy temperature (Tf and relative humidity (RH. On a 30 min interval, results indicated that model Rne1 (assuming Ta ≠ Tf and model Rne2 (assuming Ta = Tf were able to estimate Rn with a mean absolute error (MAE of less than 40 W m-2 and root mean square error (RMSE of less than 61 W m-2. On daily intervals, the two models estimated Rno with MAE and RMSE values of less than 1.68 and 1.75 MJ m-2 d-1, respectively. In global terms, the models presented errors below 9 and 11% on 30 min and daily intervals, respectively. Furthermore, this study indicated that the incorporation of canopy temperature did not improve the Rno estimation substantially, in spite of having a temperature gradient (dT = Tf - Ta between -3 and to 4ºC. These results suggest that an Rne2 model could be used to estimate Rno using Rsi, Ta and RH measurements.El flujo de radiación neta (Rn es el principal componente del balance de energía que determina los procesos de evaporación y transpiración. En este contexto, este estudio evaluó dos modelos para estimar Rno sobre un viñedo (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon comercial ubicado en el Valle de Pencahue, Región del Maule (35º22’ S; 71º47’ Oeste; 75 m.s.n.m.. Para esto, se ubicó una estación meteorológica automática (AME en la parte central del viñedo para medir Rn, radiación solar (Rsi, temperatura del aire (Ta, temperatura del dosel (Tf y humedad relativa (HR. En intervalos de tiempo de 30 min, los resultados indicaron que el

  14. Evaluation of a computer model to simulate water table response to subirrigation Avaliação de um modelo computacional para simular a resposta do lençol freático à subirrigação

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    Jadir Aparecido Rosa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the water flow computer model, WATABLE, using experimental field observations on water table management plots from a site located near Hastings, FL, USA. The experimental field had scale drainage systems with provisions for subirrigation with buried microirrigation and conventional seepage irrigation systems. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. growing seasons from years 1996 and 1997 were used to simulate the hydrology of the area. Water table levels, precipitation, irrigation and runoff volumes were continuously monitored. The model simulated the water movement from a buried microirrigation line source and the response of the water table to irrigation, precipitation, evapotranspiration, and deep percolation. The model was calibrated and verified by comparing simulated results with experimental field observations. The model performed very well in simulating seasonal runoff, irrigation volumes, and water table levels during crop growth. The two-dimensional model can be used to investigate different irrigation strategies involving water table management control. Applications of the model include optimization of the water table depth for each growth stage, and duration, frequency, and rate of irrigation.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o modelo computacional WATABLE usando-se dados de campo obtidos em uma área experimental em manejo de lençol freático, localizada em Hastings, FL, EUA. Na área experimental, estavam instalados um sistema de drenagem e sistemas de irrigação por subsuperfície com irrigação localizada e por canais. Ciclos de cultivo de batata (Solanum tuberosum L., nos anos de 1996 e 1997, foram usados para a simulação da hidrologia da área. Profundidades do lençol freático, chuvas, irrigação e escorrimento superficial foram monitorados constantemente. O modelo simulou o movimento da água a partir de uma linha de irrigação localizada enterrada, e a resposta do nível do len

  15. A new method to simulate the hydrological state of soil under natural conditions Um novo método para simular o estado hidrológico do solo em condições naturais

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    Anna-Katharina Wild

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Micro, macro and mesofauna in the soil often respond to fluctuating environmental conditions, resulting in changes of abundance and community structure. Effects of changing soil parameters are normally determined with samples taken in the field and brought to the laboratory, i.e. where natural environmental conditions may not apply. We devised a method (STAFD - soil tubes for artificial flood and drought, which simulates the hydrological state of soil in situ using implanted cores. Control tubes were compared with treatment tubes in which floods of 15, 30, 60 and 90 days, and droughts of 60, 90 and 120 days were simulated in the field. Flooding and drought were found to reduce number of individuals in all soil faunal groups, but the response to drought was slower and not in proportion to the expected decrease of the water content. The results of the simulated floods in particular show the value of the STAFD method for the investigation of such extreme events in natural habitats.As micro, macro e mesofaunas no solo respondem frequentemente à variação das condições ambientais, o que resulta em alterações na abundância e na estrutura da comunidade. Os efeitos das alterações nos parâmetros do solo são normalmente determinados com amostras recolhidas no campo e trazidas ao laboratório, ou seja, onde as condições ambientais naturais podem não ser aplicáveis. Criamos um método (STAFD - tubos de amostra de solo para inundações e secas artificiais, que simula o estado hidrológico do solo in situ com núcleos implantados. As amostras de controle foram comparadas com amostras de tratamentos em que foram simuladas inundações de 15, 30, 60 e 90 dias e secas de 60, 90 e 120 dias no campo. Verificou-se que as inundações e a seca reduziram a quantidade de individuos em todos os grupos de fauna de solo, mas a resposta à seca foi mais lenta e não proporcional à redução prevista no teor de água. Os resultados das inunda

  16. Forced extrusion for removal of impacted third molars close to the mandibular canal Extrusión forzada para extraer los terceros molares impactados cerca del canal mandibular

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    Dennis Flanagan DDS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Impacted mandibular third molars can be located in close proximity to the mandibular canal. This creates a risk for the nerve or artery injury. These are contained in the canal. However, the impacted third molar can be moved coronally by orthodontic means, after removal of overlying bone, and safely extracted. The orthodontic intervention slowly moves the tooth apex away from the mandibular canal and reduces the potential for a neural injury. This method may be useful for older patients with root apices that approximate or are actually located in the mandibular canal. This technique needs further study. There is a theoretical potential for neural or arterial injury from physical contact of the tooth apex as it moves by or through the mandibular canal.Los terceros molares inferiores impactados pueden localizarse muy cerca del canal mandibular. Esto constituye un riesgo de lesión del nervio o la arteria, que se localizan dentro del canal. No obstante, el tercer molar impactado puede desplazarse en dirección coronal con ortodoncia, tras ostectomía del hueso suprayacente, y extraerse sin riesgos. La intervención ortodóncica desplaza lentamente el ápice del diente fuera del canal mandibular y reduce la posibilidad de lesión neural. Este método puede ser útil para pacientes de edad avanzada con ápices dentales que se aproximan o en realidad se localizan en el canal mandibular. La técnica necesita un estudio adicional. Hay la posibilidad teórica de lesión neural o arterial a partir del contacto físico del ápice del diente a medida que se desplaza a través del canal mandibular.

  17. El canal de costos de la política monetaria : evidencia para la economía peruana

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Rojas, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    El presente documento evalúa la existencia de un canal de costos para la economía peruana. Se realizan estimaciones de la Curva de Phillips neokeynesiana aumentada con el canal de costos a lo Tillman (2009) vía GMM usando ventanas muestrales y se encuentra que este canal existe durante el régimen que usa a la tasa de interés como instrumento de política. Además, la relevancia de este canal aumenta en los periodos en los cuales la volatilidad de la tasa de interés interbancaria ...

  18. Canal*Motoboy, São Paulo (Brazil: communication for social change Canal*Motoboy, São Paulo (Brasil: Comunicación para el cambio social

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    Alisson DIAS GOMES

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, reference media faces the alternative media propagation, which uses different means and it is based on the work of independent producers who target the information democratization in every possible format at no cost and created by «common citizens». The Canal*Motoboy, a project by the Catalan Antoni Abad, is an example of this kind of communication. He aims to consolidate an open structure in order to give voice to motoboys from São Paulo (SP, Brazil. After being properly trained and by using their multimedia cell phones, they register their routine on Canal*Motoboy website. This article analyzes the progress of this project, based on the communication for social change, once the right to freedom of expression, historically, has been expropriated from citizens on account of the expansion of communication conglomerates. The methodological approach will consist of observation and deep interview technique, as well as literature review.En la actualidad, los medios de comunicación se contraponen a la propagación de los medios alternativos dirigidos a la democratización de informaciones generadas por ciudadanos comunes. El Canal*Motoboy constituye un ejemplo de esa modalidad de comunicación. Su propuesta es consolidar una estructura abierta para dar voz al colectivo de motoboys de São Paulo (SP en Brasil. Debidamente entrenados y recurriendo al teléfono móvil multimedia, registran su día-a-día en el website Canal*Motoboy. Este artículo analiza este proyecto, a partir de la concepción de la comunicación para el cambio social, una vez que el derecho a la libertad de expresión, históricamente, ha sido expropiado a los ciudadanos por cuenta de la expansión de los conglomerados comunicacionales. Además de la revisión de literatura, el objeto de estudio se ha abordado desde una perspectiva cualitativa a través de la técnica de observación y de entrevista en profundidad para las informaciones de actores del colectivo.

  19. Códigos para o Canal T - Usuários via Ação de Grupos

    OpenAIRE

    Batista Lacerda, João Bosco; Universidade Federal da Paraíba

    2012-01-01

    Neste artigo apresentaremos uma generalização, via ação de grupos, dos Códigos Corretores de Erros para o Canal Aditivo Binário T - Usuário, obtidos em [2]. Também determinaremos um limite superior para o número de códigos equivalentes ao código determinado por uma matriz diferença A bem como para o estabilizador G_{A}, onde G é um grupo finito.

  20. El auto-dren: una nueva protección para los revestimientos de canales

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    Moreno Nieves, Federico

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available The following considerations are devoted to the study of buried pipes and tanks fracture by uplift. After the description of the fracture process and its circumstances, it is proposed a simple and efficient solution to avoid the problem. We want to thank the Construction and Preservation Engineers of the Hydrographic Confederations for their collaboration and for bestowing their experience that have enabled us to know the problem we describe.Las consideraciones que siguen se dedican al fenómeno de rotura por subpresión en canales y depósitos enterrados. Tras la descripción del proceso de rotura y sus circunstancias, se propone una solución simple y eficaz para obviar el problema. Queremos agradecer a los Ingenieros responsables de Construcción y Conservación de las Confederaciones Hidrográficas su postura de colaboración y transmisión de su experiencia que tanto nos ha posibilitado el conocimiento de la problemática que a continuación tratamos.

  1. Aplicación del Software SOLEEC para Diseñar Colectores Solares de Canal Parabólico

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Enciso Contreras; Juan Gabriel Barbosa Saldaña; Claudia del C. Gutiérrez Torres; Pedro Quinto Diez; José A. Jiménez Bernal

    2013-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se muestran las aplicaciones del programa SOLEEC el cual proporciona las características geométricas de diseño para Concentradores Solares de Canal Parabólico (PTC) basados en el diámetro del tubo absorbedor. Se puede elegir entre diferentes materiales que se utilizan en la construcción de este tipo de concentradores y realizar combinaciones entre ellos. La evaluación térmica se basa en la irradiación solar para un lugar específico utilizando el modelo ideal de Hottel o...

  2. Preferencias en canales de distribución y nivel de ingresos: un análisis para alimentos frescos

    OpenAIRE

    Berges, Miriam; Casellas, Karina

    2001-01-01

    En este trabajo, abarcando una muestra de todo el país, se intenta analizar el tipo de canal elegido por las familias para realizar sus compras de alimentos, en especial para el caso de la carne vacuna, el pollo, las frutas y verduras y los productos lácteos. Esta selección obedece a que se ha dicho mucho sobre si prevalece o no la preferencia de ciertos sectores de la población por elegir los alimentos frescos en negocios del tipo tradicional, como las carnicerías, las verdulerías y las frut...

  3. Estresse crônico melhora a função miocárdica sem alterar a atividade do canal-L para Ca+2 em ratos

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    Thiago Bruder-Nascimento

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O estresse crônico está associado à remodelação cardíaca; entretanto, os mecanismos permanecem a ser descobertos. OBJETIVO: A proposta deste estudo foi testar a hipótese de que o estresse crônico promove disfunção cardíaca associada a depressão da atividade do canal-L para Ca2+. M MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar machos com 30 dias de idade (70 - 100 g foram distribuídos dentro de dois grupos: controle (C e estresse crônico (St. O estresse consistiu na imobilização durante 15 semanas, cinco vezes por semana, 1 h por dia. A função cardíaca foi avaliada pela performance do ventrículo esquerdo por meio do ecocardiograma e pelo músculo papilar ventricular isolado. A função do músculo papilar foi avaliada em condição basal e com manobras inotrópicas, como: pós-pausa e elevação na concentração extracelular de Ca2+, na presença ou ausência de um bloqueador específico de canal-L para Ca2+. RESULTADOS: O estresse ficou caracterizado por hipertrofia das glândulas adrenais, aumento nos níveis de corticosterona circulante e por hipertensão arterial. Ainda, o estresse crônico gerou hipertrofia ventricular esquerda. O estresse crônico foi capaz de melhorar a resposta no músculo papilar para manobras inotrópicas positivas. A melhora de função não esteve associada com o canal-L para Ca2+. CONCLUSÃO: O estresse produziu hipertrofia cardíaca; entretanto, nos estudos de músculo papilar isolado, as manobras inotrópicas positivas potencializaram a função cardíaca em ratos estressados, sem o envolvimento do canal-L para Ca2+. Assim os mecanismos responsáveis permanecem incertos para alterações no influxo de Ca2+.

  4. Efectos raciales y heterosis materna Criollo-Guzerat para crecimiento posdestete y características de la canal

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Martínez Velázquez; José de Jesús Bustamante Guerrero; José Antonio Palacios Fránquez; Moisés Montaño Bermúdez

    2006-01-01

    Para estimar efectos raciales de abuelas y abuelos Criollo y Guzerat, así como heterosis materna (HM) Criollo-Guzerat sobre el comportamiento en engorda y características de la canal, se usaron crías de vacas Criollo (C, n=8), Guzerat (G, n=20), Criollo-Guzerat (CG, n=18) y Guzerat-Criollo (GC, n=6). Se evaluó peso al inicio de engorda (PIP), peso al año de edad (PAE), peso al final de engorda (PEFIP), ganancia diaria (GADIP), eficiencia alimenticia (EFALI), área del ojo de la costilla (AOC),...

  5. DE CANALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carlos Guevara C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La amplia utilización de redes WiFi en los diversos escenarios sociales está generando una especie de saturación de canales, que a su vez ocasiona interferencia entre estas redes. Esta situación genera solapamiento de canales, lo que hace que las tasas de trasferencia se reduzcan. En este artículo se detalla esta situación, y se estructura y aplica un experimento para encontrarle solución al problema. También se presentan los resultados tabulados y graficados utilizando la herramienta de software libre inSSider.

  6. Social tariff for canalized gas: paper proposal; Tarifa social para o gas canalizado: proposta de trabalho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelegrini, Marcelo A.; Silva, Wagner M.G. da; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (ENERQ/EPUSP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Centro de Estudos em Regulacao e Qualidade de Energia

    2008-07-01

    This work intends to present some possible philosophies of social policy implementation targeted to low income consumers of canalized gas. The benefits and disadvantages from each philosophy are discussed and a study proposal is presented to define an implementation policy to the State of Sao Paulo. (author)

  7. Um estudo sobre os aspectos que contribuem para a adoção do canal on-line para compra de livros, CDs e DVDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Gouvêa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste estudo foi identificar os fatores relevantes na adoção do canal on-line para a realização de compras, tendo como principais referências os modelos Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT, de Venkatesh et al. (2003, de Heijden, Verhagen e Creemers (2003 e de Bramall, Schoefer e McKechnie (2004. Além da revisão da literatura dos assuntos pertinentes, foi realizada uma pesquisa de campo descritiva, de natureza quantitativa com uma amostra de 172 pessoas residentes na cidade de São Paulo, pertencentes às classes socioeconômicas A, B e C (critério Brasil, compradores de livros, CDs ou DVDs no canal off-line. Os dados coletados foram analisados com o uso de técnicas estatísticas nos contextos uni, bi e multivariado. Aplicou-se a técnica de modelagem de equações estruturais (MEE ou Structural Equation Modeling - SEM para serem identificadas relações de dependência entre construtos e a contribuição de cada um deles na estimação das intenções de adoção da compra pela Internet. Entre os principais resultados encontrados, a atitude em relação ao uso da tecnologia, a confiança e a expectativa de desempenho figuraram como os aspectos mais relevantes para uma possível adoção do canal on-line.

  8. Los proyectos del arquitecto francés Mansart de Sagonne para los canales del Ebro y del Manzanares (1768

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cachau, Ph.

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available La llegada del arquitecto francés Jacques Hardouin-Mansart de Sagonne (1711-1778, nieto del gran arquitecto de Luis XIV Jules Hardouin-Mansart, a Madrid durante el verano de 1768 provocó la evolución, poco más o menos voluntaria, según los casos, de unos proyectos de arquitectura o de ingeniería que la administración del rey Carlos III había descuidado desde hacía años. Si esa llegada constituye un episodio totalmente desconocido de la historia de los canales de España por los autores españoles, su análisis permite no obstante medir el interés que tenían unos ingenieros franceses para un país —España— muy descuidado en aquella época y muy atrasado en el plano de las comunicaciones interiores. Sobre todo, es muy instructivo comparar la política de ambos países —Francia y España— ligados por un Pacto de Familia, en cuanto a las concesiones de privilegios para la construcción y la explotación de canales de navegación.…

  9. Dispositivo electrónico de medición del caudal de agua para canales abiertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Ayala López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El método de riego por inundación, que desplaza el agua mediante canales abiertos y surcos ha sido usado durante años en la producción agrícola, aunque requiere una gran cantidad de agua y su eficacia no es muy alta ya que la mayoría del agua no se puede extraer directamente en las raíces de las plantas. Siendo de vital importancia lograr datos de campo confiables y lo suficientemente precisos que nos permitan estudiar y proyectar manejos del agua con el menor grado de incertidumbre posible. Para poder aplicar conocimientos actuales de la relación agua-suelo-planta debemos conocer la cantidad de agua en el campo o en regiones específicas del mismo, para así poder prever un uso eficiente del agua mediante la aplicación en el momento oportuno y en volúmenes adecuados, Por lo que en el Centro de Mecanización Agropecuaria (CEMA diseñ ó un dispositivo electrónico de medición e indicación de caudales y consumo de agua para canales abiertos, apli - cable para cualquier estructura hidráulica que relacione el nivel de agua de una sección de área conocida, con el caudal de agua que pasa por la misma sección, con el propósito de crear un dispositivo preciso y económico, capaz de realizar mediciones en el campo.

  10. Investigación de mercado para determinar la viabilidad de comercialización en canales no explorados, de los preservativos Jäger en la ciudad de Santiago de Cali

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Salazar, Adriana Jineth; Orozco Caicedo, Maritza

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo, denominado “Investigación de mercado para determinar la viabilidad de comercialización en canales no explorados, de los preservativos Jäger en la ciudad de Santiago de Cali”, tiene como objetivo determinar la viabilidad de comercialización del producto anteriormente mencionado en los canales desatendidos por el actual distribuidor autorizado para el territorio colombiano (Importadora Megga). Entre dichos canales se encuentran los sitios de diversión nocturna, moteles, tie...

  11. Canales de distribución y estrategias de comercialización para la flor colombiana en los Estados Unidos: un marco conceptual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS FELIPE SALOM SERNA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El floricultor colombiano no puede desconocer los cambios en tendencias de consumo ni la consolidación del canal retail en su mercado principal, USA. El cuál generará un alto impacto en las características del negocio y el papel de los jugadores en la cadena de suministros. El objetivo de este estudio exploratorio utilizando casos múltiples, es presentar un marco de oportunidades para fortalecer la comercialización de la flor y estructurar canales de distribución acordes a las necesidades del consumidor norteamericano y a los cambios en los hábitos de compra. Las conclusiones, proponen las acciones a emprender por las empresas floricultoras estudiadas a fin de incrementar su competitividad y resolver su dilema actual: contraer oferta para mejorar el precio de venta o incrementar demanda.

  12. Calibración del canal de oleaje CIEM para un ensayo de estabilidad de dique en talud

    OpenAIRE

    Fontirroig Hernández, Bmé. Hugo

    2004-01-01

    El canal de Investigación y Experimentación Marítima (canal CIEM) de la Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña ha realizado recientemente cambios en su infraestructura. Por otro lado, la importancia de la reflexión en la estibilidad de diques en talud requiere unos ensayos de calibración previos a su análisis. La necesidad de estudiar la reflexión, junto a la necesidad de evaluar el funcionamiento del canal son los objetivos que han motivado la elaboración de esta tesina.

  13. Late metastasis of breast adenocarcinoma into internal auditory canal and cerebellopontine angle: case report Metástase tardia de adenocarcinoma de mama para o canal auditivo interno e ângulo ponto-cerebelar: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Marques

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A case of metastasis of breast adenocarcinoma into the internal auditory canal (IAC and cerebellopontine angle (CPA is presented, which appeared 16 years after primary tumor had been treated by surgery and radiation therapy. The 66-year old patient was considered cured from the primary disease, when she started with a rapidly developing hearing loss and intermittent facial palsy. Magnetic resonance image (MRI displayed an intra- and extracanalicular tumor mass, which radiologically resembled a vestibular schwannoma. Surgery was performed and histopathological studies showed an adenocarcinoma compatible with breast origin. Metastasis is a rare occurrence within the IAC and CPA. Clinical history of severe facial palsy will rise suspicion of malignant tumor in spite of the radiological findings.Um caso de metástase de adenocarcinoma de mama para o canal auditivo interno e ângulo ponto-cerebelar é apresentado. A metástase ocorreu após 16 anos do tumor primário ter sido tratado com cirurgia e radioterapia. A paciente de 66 anos foi considerada curada de sua doença primária, quando apresentou perda auditiva de progressão rápida associada a paralisia facial intermitente. Ressonância magnética demonstrou uma lesão expansiva intra e extracanalicular, cujo aspecto radiológico lembrava schwannoma do vestibular. A paciente foi submetida a cirurgia e investigação histopatológica confirmou tratar-se de metástase. Metástase é uma rara ocorrência dentro do canal auditivo interno e ângulo ponto-cerebelar. História clínica de paralisia facial severa aumentará a suspeita de lesão maligna apesar dos achados radiológicos.

  14. Synthesis of Sol-Gel Precursors for Ceramics from Lunar and Martian Soil Simulars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibille, L.; Gavira-Gallardo, J. A.; Hourlier-Bahloul, D.

    2004-01-01

    Recent NASA mission plans for the human exploration of our Solar System has set new priorities for research and development of technologies necessary to enable a long-term human presence on the Moon and Mars. The recovery and processing of metals and oxides from mineral sources on other planets is under study to enable use of ceramics, glasses and metals by explorer outposts. We report initial results on the production of sol-gel precursors for ceramic products using mineral resources available in martian or lunar soil. The presence of SO2, TiO2, and Al2O3 in both martian (44 wt.% SiO2, 1 wt.% TiO2, 7 wt.% Al2O3) and lunar (48 wt.% SiO2, 1.5 wt.% TiO2, 16 wt.% Al2O3) soils and the recent developments in chemical processes to solubilize silicates using organic reagents and relatively little energy indicate that such an endeavor is possible. In order to eliminate the risks involved in the use of hydrofluoric acid to dissolve silicates, two distinct chemical routes are investigated to obtain soluble silicon oxide precursors from lunar and martian soil simulars. Clear solutions of sol-gel precursors have been obtained by dissolution of silica from lunar soil similar JSC-1 in basic ethylene glycol (C2H4(OH)2) solutions to form silicon glycolates. Similarly, sol-gel solutions produced from martian soil simulars reveal higher contents of iron oxides. Characterization of the precursor molecules and efforts to further concentrate and hydrolyze the products to obtain gel materials will be presented for evaluation as ceramic precursors.

  15. Dispositivo electrónico de medición del caudal de agua para canales abiertos

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Cesar Ayala López; Roberto Albóniga Gil

    2015-01-01

    El método de riego por inundación, que desplaza el agua mediante canales abiertos y surcos ha sido usado durante años en la producción agrícola, aunque requiere una gran cantidad de agua y su eficacia no es muy alta ya que la mayoría del agua no se puede extraer directamente en las raíces de las plantas. Siendo de vital importancia lograr datos de campo confiables y lo suficientemente precisos que nos permitan estudiar y proyectar manejos del agua con el menor grado de incertidumbre posi...

  16. Índice de estado limnológico (IEL para evaluar las condiciones ecológicas de las ciénagas del Canal del Dique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vega Mora Leonel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Determinar el estado o salud ecológica de un ecosistema brinda herramientas útiles para su gestión y conservación. En Colombia no se han desarrollado índices que combinen en un solo parámetro las variables físicas, químicas y biológicas de los sistemas acuáticos, de manera que la evaluación de su estado ecológico ha sido fragmentaria o incompleta. En este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo de un Índice de Estado Limnológico (IEL para las ciénagas del Canal del Dique, ecosistemas sometidos a constante presión por parte de las comunidades humanas. Para la construcción de este índice multimétrico se realizó un análisis de componentes principales, se construyeron gráficas de calidad de las variables seleccionadas y se les asignaron valores de importancia. Se empleó la teoría de los multiatributos para construir el IEL, el cual considera 12 variables. Se diseñó una versión simplificada (IEL parcial - IELP en la que se excluyeron 4 de las variables biológicas. Finalmente, se construyó una escala de interpretación de los valores obtenidos con estos índices. El IEL y el IELP se aplicaron a las ciénagas del Canal del Dique para establecer su condición ecológica actual. Los datos muestran que el estado limnológico de la mayoría de ciénagas de esta región es aceptable, lo que sugiere que estos ecosistemas lénticos se encuentran dentro de los límites admisibles de funcionamiento, aunque no están excentos de procesos de deterioro.

  17. ÍNDICE DE ESTADO LIMNOLÓGICO (IEL PARA EVALUAR LAS CONDICIONES ECOLÓGICAS DE LAS CIÉNAGAS DEL CANAL DEL DIQUE, COLOMBIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL A. PINILLA A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Determinar el estado o salud ecológica de un ecosistema brinda herramientas útiles para su gestión y conservación. En Colombia no existen registros de índices que combinen en un solo parámetro las variables físicas, químicas y biológicas de los sistemas acuáticos, de manera que la evaluación de su estado ecológico ha sido fragmentaria o incompleta. En este trabajo se presenta un Índice de Estado Limnológico (IEL para las ciénagas del Canal del Dique, ecosistemas sometidos a constante presión por parte de las comunidades humanas. Para la construcción de este índice multimétrico se elaboraron gráficas de calidad de las variables seleccionadas y se les asignaron valores de importancia. Para construir el IEL se empleó la teoría de los multiatributos considerando 12 variables. También se realizó un análisis de componentes principales de las variables seleccionadas. Se diseñó una versión simplificada (IEL parcial - IELP en la que se excluyeron cuatro de las variables biológicas. Finalmente, se construyó una escala de interpretación de los valores obtenidos con estos índices. El IEL y el IELP se aplicaron a las ciénagas del Canal del Dique para establecer su condición ecológica actual. Los datos muestran que el estado limnológico de la mayoría de ciénagas de esta región es aceptable, lo que sugiere que estos ecosistemas lénticos se encuentran dentro de los límites admisibles de funciona- miento, aunque no están excentos de procesos de deterioro.

  18. canal24

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Canal system center lines in the Central Valley of California and adjacent areas captured from 1:24,000-scale USGS topographic maps. Updates and modifications made...

  19. Influência do estreitamento do canal vertebral e do tempo para a descompressão na recuperação locomotora de ratos Influencia del estrechamiento del canal vertebral y del tiempo para la descompresión en la recuperación locomotora de ratas The influence of spinal canal narrowing and timing of decompression on locomotion recovery of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Schiaveto de Souza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as consequências da lesão por contusão da medula espinhal, associada ao estreitamento do canal vertebral, no comportamento motor de ratos, avaliando-se o efeito do tempo para descompressão na recuperação neurológica dos animais. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados ratos Wistar machos (n=6 por grupo, subdivididos nos seguintes grupos experimentais: laminectomia (T9-T10, Grupo Controle, contusão por queda de peso (10 g de peso, 15 cm de altura, estreitamento do canal vertebral em 35% (hastes de policarbonato; espessura de 0,78 mm e contusão associada ao estreitamento do canal vertebral. O grupo de lesão associada foi ainda subdividido em sem ou com descompressão 24 ou 72 horas após a cirurgia. Os animais foram sacrificados sete dias após os procedimentos cirúrgicos. A função locomotora dos animais foi avaliada por meio do teste do campo aberto, do teste do plano inclinado e pela aplicação da escala BBB, antes da cirurgia, 24 e 72 horas depois da cirurgia e após 7 dias do procedimento cirúrgico. RESULTADOS: a lesão por queda de peso e compressão da medula espinhal, bem como a lesão mista, prejudicaram o comportamento motor dos animais, sendo que a descompressão cirúrgica após 24 e 72 horas da cirurgia não melhorou a recuperação motora dos animais, como mostram os resultados da avaliação de campo aberto, no plano inclinado e pela escala BBB. Por outro lado, os animais que sofreram lesão medular por queda de peso apresentaram melhores escores na escala BBB e ângulos maiores no plano inclinado do que aqueles que sofreram lesão por estreitamento do canal vertebral ou lesão mista. CONCLUSÕES: a lesão por queda de peso ou estreitamento do canal vertebral provocou alterações no comportamento motor dos animais, sendo que a descompressão não trouxe melhora funcional significativa.OBJETIVO: estudiar las consecuencias de la lesión por contusión de la médula espinal, asociada al

  20. Un Enfoque Multiobjetivo para la Asignación de Canales en Sistemas Celulares A Multiobjective Approach for Cellular Systems Channel Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor E Carranza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se propone un algoritmo de asignación de canales para reducir la probabilidad de bloqueo de sistemas celulares y ampliar la capacidad del sistema para absorber nuevas llamadas. El algoritmo debe proveer un conjunto de soluciones de compromiso entre dos objetivos contrapuestos; por un lado minimizar la cantidad de reasignaciones y por el otro minimizar el nivel de interferencia debido a la flexibilización de las restricciones de compatibilidad electromagnética. Se propone un enfoque heurístico basado en un paradigma evolutivo para resolver el problema de optimización multiobjetivo. Para que la evolución sea eficiente, se incorpora en el proceso evolutivo conocimiento específico del problema. Dos algoritmos evolutivos multiobjetivo (SPEAII y NSGA II son comparados usando dos diferentes métricas. Los resultados muestran que la metodología propuesta puede ser aplicada a las diferentes generaciones de sistemas de comunicaciones móviles.To improve the quality of service in cell systems, techniques of Dynamic Assignment Channels are used to reduce the probability of blocking calls. In this paper an algorithm of assignment channels is required to reduce the probability of blocking, extending the system capacity to add new calls. This is obtained by using an interchange of channels of current calls and reducing the restrictions of electromagnetic compatibility. According to this, the algorithm has to provide solutions of commitments between two different objectives; on the one hand reduce the amount of assignments, and on the other to do the same with the level of interference due to the flexible restrictions of electromagnetic compatibility. A heuristic focus based on the evolution paradigm is presented to solve the multi-objective optimization problem. Two evolutionary multi-objective algorithms (SPEAII y NSGA II are compared by the use of two different metrics. The results show that the proposed methodology can be applied to

  1. Estresse crônico melhora a função miocárdica sem alterar a atividade do canal-L para Ca+2 em ratos Chronic stress improves the myocardial function without altering L-type Ca+2 channel activity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Bruder-Nascimento

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O estresse crônico está associado à remodelação cardíaca; entretanto, os mecanismos permanecem a ser descobertos. OBJETIVO: A proposta deste estudo foi testar a hipótese de que o estresse crônico promove disfunção cardíaca associada a depressão da atividade do canal-L para Ca2+. M MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar machos com 30 dias de idade (70 - 100 g foram distribuídos dentro de dois grupos: controle (C e estresse crônico (St. O estresse consistiu na imobilização durante 15 semanas, cinco vezes por semana, 1 h por dia. A função cardíaca foi avaliada pela performance do ventrículo esquerdo por meio do ecocardiograma e pelo músculo papilar ventricular isolado. A função do músculo papilar foi avaliada em condição basal e com manobras inotrópicas, como: pós-pausa e elevação na concentração extracelular de Ca2+, na presença ou ausência de um bloqueador específico de canal-L para Ca2+. RESULTADOS: O estresse ficou caracterizado por hipertrofia das glândulas adrenais, aumento nos níveis de corticosterona circulante e por hipertensão arterial. Ainda, o estresse crônico gerou hipertrofia ventricular esquerda. O estresse crônico foi capaz de melhorar a resposta no músculo papilar para manobras inotrópicas positivas. A melhora de função não esteve associada com o canal-L para Ca2+. CONCLUSÃO: O estresse produziu hipertrofia cardíaca; entretanto, nos estudos de músculo papilar isolado, as manobras inotrópicas positivas potencializaram a função cardíaca em ratos estressados, sem o envolvimento do canal-L para Ca2+. Assim os mecanismos responsáveis permanecem incertos para alterações no influxo de Ca2+.BACKGROUND: Chronic stress is associated with cardiac remodeling; however the mechanisms have yet to be clarified. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was test the hypothesis that chronic stress promotes cardiac dysfunction associated to L-type calcium Ca2+ channel activity depression. METHODS: Thirty

  2. Quanto a escova deve ser introduzida no canal anal para avaliação citológica mais eficaz? How deep must the brush be introduced in the anal canal for a more effective cytological evaluation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Roberto Nadal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A sensibilidade da citologia anal varia amplamente na literatura, entre 45% e 98%, o que pode ocorrer devido à falta de padronização quanto à distância que a escova deve ser introduzida no canal anal. Desta forma, nosso objetivo foi investigar se o local de coleta influencia no resultado desse exame. MÉTODOS: Colhemos amostras com escova introduzida 4 cm no canal anal de 114 doentes (Grupo A e 2 cm em outros 94 pacientes (Grupo B, antes do exame proctológico. Realizamos cinco rotações com a escova antes de retirá-la e a esfregar sobre lâmina de vidro, posteriormente submetida ao exame citopatológico padrão. Todos os doentes são HIV-positivo. Submetemos os resultados à avaliação estatística. RESULTADOS: No Grupo A, 39 doentes possuíam condilomas no canal anal e a citologia foi positiva em 29 deles (74,3%. Também observamos alterações citológicas em 30 de 75 doentes (40% sem lesões clínicas no canal anal. No Grupo B, havia 54 doentes com condilomas no canal anal e em 13 (24,1% houve confirmação citológica. Em 40 outros, sem lesões clínicas pelo HPV, notamos que em nove (22,5% havia anormalidades citológicas. Os testes estatísticos revelaram que os exames realizados nos doentes do Grupo A foram mais eficientes. CONCLUSÃO: Os espécimes coletados com escovas inseridas mais profundamente no canal anal melhoraram a eficácia do exame.OBJECTIVE: In literature, sensitivity of Pap smears ranges widely from 45 to 98%. Possibly this is because there is no standard for how far the brush should be introduced into the anal canal. The aim was to evaluate whether the sampling site has an influence on the results of anal Pap smears. Design and setting. This is a non-randomized, non-blinded, retrospective review carried out in the Proctology and Pathology Sectors, Emilio Ribas Infectious Diseases Institute. METHOD: We obtained specimens with brushes introduced 4 cm into the anal canal in 114 patients (Group A and 2 cm in

  3. Development of industry processes simulators. Part III (Continuous casting); Desarrollo de Simulares para Procesos Industriales. Parte III (Colada continua)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A.; Morales, R.; Morales, A. J.; Ramos, A.; Solorio, G.

    2006-07-01

    This work written for illustrating the use of Monte Carlo methods and generating of random number in combination with the information of the simulation system of thermal behaviour described previously in order to reproduce in a computer the solidification process of the steel and simulate the formation of strictures of casting step by step. (Author). 12 refs.

  4. Análisis de contenido del noticiario CNI Canal 40 (durante la tercera semana del mes de mayo referente a las campañas electorales para diputados federales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Espinosa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En las sociedades democráticas, cada persona tiene necesidad de conocer lo que sucede en su entorno para poder definir con libertad su voto. Esta libertad sólo se logra cuando los ciudadanos disponen de información que les permite elegir entre varias opciones. Basado en este principio, el autor realiza un monitoreo al noticiario principal de CNI Canal 40 con el fin de observar y analizar su participación dentro del proceso electoral federal del año 2003 en México.

  5. El Canal del Atazar I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López de Berges y de los Santos, Emilio

    1967-03-01

    Full Text Available The Atazar Canal helps to supply Madrid with water, from the rivers Lozoya, Jarama and Sorbe. The section which operates at present starts at the Torrelaguna dam and finishes at the El Goloso reservoir. Later a further section will be added, from the Atazar dam, on the Lozoya river, to link up with the control dam at Torrelaguna. The canal capacity is 16 m3/sec, and it is 43.47 km long. It has a slope of 4/10.000. The cross section is similar to that of the Jarama canal, already built. There are interconnections between this canal and the Canal Alto, which previously supplied the high and medium part of Madrid. To overcome the ground unevenness 5 syphons have been built, the most important of which is the Colmenar Goloso syphon, which is 10.88 km in length. Construction commenced on December 10, 1962, and water reached Madrid on June 15th, 1966. The initial budget for this project was 1,500 million pesetas.El canal del Atazar refuerza considerablemente el abastecimiento de aguas a Madrid, procedentes de los ríos Lozoya, Jarama y, en un próximo futuro, del Sorbe. El tramo, actualmente en funcionamiento, empieza en el salto de Torrelaguna y finaliza en los depósitos de El Goloso. Más adelante se completará su trazado mediante un nuevo tramo que partirá del embalse de Atazar, en el Lozoya, para unirse al actual en el depósito regulador de Torrelaguna. Su capacidad es de 16 m3/s; su longitud, 43,471 km, y su pendiente, 4 diezmilésimas. La sección tipo es análoga a la del canal del Jarama, de construcción anterior. Mediante la oportuna obra de transvase se realizan intercambios entre este Canal y el Canal Alto que abastecía anteriormente la parte media y alta de la capital. Para salvar los desniveles del terreno se han construido 5 sifones, siendo el más importante el de Colmenar-Goloso, con una longitud de 10,8S4 km. El comienzo de las obras tuvo lugar el 10 de diciembre de 1962, y el agua llegó a Madrid el 15 de junio de 1966. Su

  6. Canales web en ciencias de la comunicación. Producción multimedia para la docencia e investigación en Documentación informativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso López Yepes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La creación inicial en una primera fase de un portal de portales de documentación informativa (e-DocuInfo http://multidoc.rediris.es /edocuinfo/  que integra varios portales y posibilita asimismo el acceso a un canal temático de documentación vía internet (TVDoc Complumedia-RTVDoc, juntamente con el funcionamiento de otros dos (E-TV y Cine@Tele Online canal vídeo tienen como objetivo la difusión de contenidos y la generación de una programación en el ámbito documental de las ciencias de la información, de forma distribuida y colaborativa, en estrecha relación con los parámetros de la web 2.0 o web social, y de la Universidad-Empresa. Una segunda fase ha supuesto la producción de numerosos contenidos sistematizados por materias y el establecimiento de verdaderos canales IPTV de emisión total (en consecuencia, TVDoc evoluciona a Complumedia-RTVDoc, y que a su vez plantean la antesala de una tercera fase evolutiva, el establecimiento de una Red iberoamericana de documentación multimedia, ya en ciernes. Estos canales temáticos, que pueden emitir información en tiempo real o en diferido -vídeo bajo demanda-, vehiculan información procedente -en el caso de e-Docuinfo- de la hemeroteca, fonoteca, fototeca, videoteca, en fin, de la mediateca del portal a través de un servidor de streaming. La existencia del portal de portales y de los mencionados canales temáticos web se benefician asimismo, por sus mayores posibilidades de difusión informativa, de la coordinación asumida por el Servicio de Documentación Multimedia (en cuyo ámbito nació e-DocuInfo/TVDoc para el acceso de la facultad de ciencias de la información al campus virtual de la universidad complutense. Y en consecuencia, para su difusión a nivel nacional e internacional, merced a la amplia oferta de posibilidades de las plataformas planteadas para la docencia (semipresencial y virtual, investigación y producción multimedia. La puesta en marcha de canales de este

  7. Análisis comparativo del turbo código en canal multipaso y csma para comunicaciones digitales inalámbricas

    OpenAIRE

    Espol; Simisterra Huila, Julio Cesar

    2017-01-01

    La implementación del sistema de comunicación inalámbrica transmitirá información en tiempo real a través de mensajes de texto, utilizando dos tipos de modulaciones qpsk y 16qam en el envío y recepción del mensaje. empleando un turbo código serial como codificador de canal utilizando la tasa de codificación de r=14 y r=19 que permitirá detectar y corregir errores generados a partir del ruido o interferencia externa introducido en el medio de propagación inalámbrico (canal multipaso).en este p...

  8. Estudo anatomotopográfico do canal arterial em fetos natimortos dirigido para sua abordagem por videotoracoscopia Anatomotopographic study of ductus arteriosus in newborn cadavers directed for its videotoracoscopic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Viana de Castro Neto

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetiva realizar um estudo anatomotopográfico do Canal Arterial em fetos natimortos enfatizando o seu comprimento e seu diâmetro de acordo com o tamanho de cada feto. Além de que, descrevemos as distâncias entre este e pontos de reparo importantes para sua abordagem por videotoracoscopia. Estudamos dezesseis fetos natimortos, sendo que oito eram do sexo masculino. O tamanho do feto e os perímetros torácico e cefálico variaram de 42-57, 26-35 e 29-35,5 cm, respectivamente. A média de comprimento e diâmetro foram 11,06 e 5,56 cm. Distâncias entre o Canal e as seguintes estruturas: clavícula-22,13mm, segunda costela-20,75mm, esterno-33,88mm e a.subclávia esquerda-5,30mm. Acreditamos que as medidas apresentadas podem facilitar a abordagem do canal por videotoracoscopia.The purpose of this work is to realize an anatomic and topographic study of the ductus arteriosus in newborn cadavers emphasizing its lenght and diameter according to each size of the newborn cadaver. We also describe distances between the ductus and important structures for thoracoscopic approach. We study sixteen newborn cadavers. Eight were male. Size of the cadavers, thoracic and cephalic perimeters ranged from 42-47,26-35 and 29-35,5 cm, respectively. Median lenght and diameter were 11,06 and 5,56 mm. Distances between ductus arteriosus and follow structures were: collarbone-22,13mm, second rib-20,75mm, sternum-33,88mm and left subclavian artery-5,30mm. We belived that these distances described can facilitate thoracoscopic surgical approach to the ductus arteriosus.

  9. Estudo da Expressão do Canal para Sódio Dependente de Voltagem Nav1.6 nas Células Octopus e Multipolares do PVCN no Núcleo Coclear do Sistema Auditivo

    OpenAIRE

    Finholdt, Glauco Rocha

    2011-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar quais subunidades de canais para sódio voltagem dependentes estão presentes em subpopulações neuronais da região póstero-ventral do núcleo coclear (PVCN). Reações de imunofluorescência de simples ou dupla marcação em fatias parassagitais do núcleo coclear revelaram a expressão do canal Nav1.6 no segmento inicial do axônio (AIS) tanto das células octopus quanto das multipolares. Células octopus, cuja área de silhueta somática média foi de 499 ±...

  10. Dispositivo de posicionamiento de muestras biológicas para su irradiación en un canal radial de un reactor nuclear // Biological samples positioning device for irradiations on a radial channel at the nuclear research reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Rodríguez - Gual

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available ResumenPor la demanda de un dispositivo experimental para el posicionamiento de las muestras biológicaspara su irradiación en un canal radial de un reactor nuclear de investigaciones en funcionamiento, seconstruyó y se puso en marcha un dispositivo para la colocación y retirada de las muestras en laposición de irradiación de dicho canal. Se efectuaron las valoraciones económicas comparando conotro tipo de dispositivo con las mismas funciones. Este trabajo formó parte de un proyectointernacional entre Cuba y Brasil que abarcó el estudio de los daños inducidos por diferentes tipos deradiación ionizante en moléculas de ADN. La solución propuesta es comprobada experimentalmente,lo que demuestra la validez práctica del dispositivo. Como resultado del trabajo, el dispositivoexperimental para la irradiación de las muestras biológicas se encuentra instalado y funcionando yapor 5 años en el canal radial # 3(BH#3 Palabras claves: reactor nuclear de investigaciones, dispositivo para posicionamiento de muestras,___________________________________________________________________________AbstractFor the demand of an experimental device for biological samples positioning system for irradiationson a radial channel at the nuclear research reactor in operation was constructed and started up adevice for the place and remove of the biological samples from the irradiation channels withoutinterrupting the operation of the reactor. The economical valuations are effected comparing withanother type of device with the same functions. This work formed part of an international projectbetween Cuba and Brazil that undertook the study of the induced damages by various types ofionizing radiation in DNA molecules. Was experimentally tested the proposed solution, whichdemonstrates the practical validity of the device. As a result of the work, the experimental device forbiological samples irradiations are installed and operating in the radial beam hole #3(BH#3

  11. Validation and aplication of Bioelectrical Impedance (BIA) method to determine body and carcass composition and nutrient retention of growing rabbits = Validación y aplicación de la técnica de la Impedancia Bioeléctrica (BIA) para determinar la composición corporal, de la canal y la retención de nutrientes de conejos en crecimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Saiz del Barrio, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Los objetivos de esta tesis fueron 1) obtener y validar ecuaciones de predicción para determinar in vivo la composición corporal y de la canal de conejos en crecimiento de 25 a 77 días de vida utilizando la técnica de la Impedancia Bioeléctrica (BIA), y 2) evaluar su aplicación para determinar diferencias en la composición corporal y de la canal, así como la retención de nutrientes de animales alimentados con diferentes fuentes y niveles de grasa. El primer estudio se realizó para determinar...

  12. Sistemas de control para la gestión de los canales de exportación independientes: un análisis exploratorio sobre su diseño y uso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Araujo Pinzón

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El empleo de canales de exportación independientes es la forma más extendida de exportación, si bien la ausencia de propiedad dificulta su gestión y afecta al rendimiento exportador. Dado el creciente interés académico y profesional por mejorar la gestión de los procesos de exportación de las empresas y la laguna existente en el estudio de las relaciones inter-organizativas orientadas al mercado (down-stream, se plantea como objetivo del presente estudio la exploración de los sistemas de control de gestión (SCG en el contexto de los canales de exportación, desde la perspectiva de la empresa exportadora. Mediante la realización de un estudio cualitativo exploratorio, se pretende contribuir a la literatura sobre los SCG inter-organizativos ampliando su ámbito de interés a las relaciones down-stream de la cadena de suministros, esenciales para la competitividad de muchas empresas. Frente a estudios previos sobre SCG enfocados en relaciones proveedor-comprador, los resultados muestran que las empresas exportadoras analizadas (1 emplean múltiples mecanismos de control, principalmente cualitativos, que (2 se caracterizan por su ámbito amplio y la oportunidad en el tiempo, así como por sus bajos niveles de integración y agregación, y (3 usan algunos mecanismos -p.e., reuniones con los intermediarios- de modo interactivo, mientras que otras herramientas -p.e., contratos y acuerdos- son usadas de modo diagnóstico. Asimismo, la evidencia sugiere que la definición de sistemas formales en este contexto puede diferir de la tradicional, con amplias repercusiones sobre los marcos de análisis de los sistemas de control de gestión.

  13. The Root Canal Biofilm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der L.W.M.; Boutsioukis, C.; Jiang, L.M.; Macedo, R.; Verhaagen, B.; Versluis, M.; Chávez de Paz, E.; Sedgley, C.M.; Kishen, A.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm), and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root cana

  14. Root canal irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van der Sluis; C. Boutsioukis; L.M. Jiang; R. Macedo; B. Verhaagen; M. Versluis

    2015-01-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm), and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root cana

  15. A study of the time necessary for calcium hydroxide to eliminate microorganisms in infected canals Estudo do tempo necessário para o hidróxido de cálcio eliminar microrganismos em canais infectados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Estrela

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the time necessary for calcium hydroxide to eliminate microorganisms in infected canals. A total of 168 human anterior teeth were prepared and sterilized. One hundred sixty two teeth were inoculated with suspensions of S. aureus, E. faecalis, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, C. albicans. Three teeth were used as negative control and three as positive control. Root canals were irrigated with saline and filled with calcium hydroxide paste (CHP. At intervals of 1 minute, and at 7, 15, 21, 27, 30, 45, 60, and 90 days, CHP was removed, samples were collected and immersed in Letheen Broth (LB. Microbial growth was analyzed by two methods, turbidity of the culture medium and subculture on a Brain heart Infusion. After looking for medium change, an inoculum of 0.1 mL obtained from LB was transferred to 7 mL of Brain Heart Infusion (BHI, and subsequently incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Microbial growth was checked by turbidity of the culture medium and in some cases by Gram stain. All assays were carried out in triplicate under aseptic technique. The results indicated that the antimicrobial effect on the cultures of S. aureus, E. faecalis, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, C. albicans and one mixed culture in infected canals by CHP occurred in 60 days.O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o tempo necessário para que o hidróxido de cálcio elimine microrganismos em canais infectados. Um total de 168 dentes humanos anteriores foram preparados e esterilizados. Cento e sessenta e dois dentes foram inoculados com suspensões de S. aureus, E. faecalis, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis e C. albicans. Três dentes foram usados como controle negativo e três como controle positivo. Os canais radiculares foram irrigados com solução fisiológica e preenchidos com pasta de hidróxido de cálcio. Em intervalos de 1 minuto, 7, 15, 21, 27, 30, 45, 60 e 90 dias, a pasta foi removida, amostras foram coletadas e imersas em Letheen Broth. O

  16. Valor do dilatador higroscópico para visualização do canal endocervical na conização com cirurgia de alta freqüência Value of the hygroscopic dilator for visualization of the endocervical canal in conization by loop electrosurgical excision procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Silvana Cardoso Ferreira

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a eficácia do dilatador higroscópico para auxiliar o exame colposcópico do canal endocervical, em pacientes com lesão de alto grau e colposcopia insatisfatória. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo no qual foram incluídas 62 pacientes com exames colposcópicos insatisfatórios e citologia sugestiva de lesão de alto grau. Todas foram submetidas à dilatação do canal por meio de dilatador higroscópico. Após a dilatação os novos achados colposcópicos foram registrados e procedeu-se à conização por cirurgia de alta freqüência (CAF. Comparamos a incidência de comprometimento neoplásico das margens cirúrgicas operatórias entre as pacientes que modificaram o exame para satisfatório e aquelas que persistiram insatisfatórios. Para comparação entre a incidência de margens comprometidas e a incidência de doença residual, foram utilizados dois grupos controle retrospectivos: grupo GinSat (n=35: pacientes com colposcopias insatisfatórias; grupo GSat (n=38: pacientes com colposcopias satisfatórias e atipia de localização endocervical. RESULTADOS: em 80,6% dos casos a visão colposcópica após a dilatação foi satisfatória. Destes, 80,4% apresentaram margens livres de doença. A incidência de margens livres nas pacientes com colposcopias insatisfatórias persistentes após a dilatação foi de 36,3%. O comprometimento das margens cirúrgicas ocorreu em 28,0% no grupo submetido à dilatação, em 28,5% dos casos no grupo GinSat e em 31,5% no grupo GSat. No acompanhamento verificou-se a incidência de 7,5% de doença residual nas pacientes submetidas à dilatação. No grupo GinSat a incidência de doença residual foi de 28,6% e no grupo GSat foi de 28,9%. CONCLUSÃO: o uso do dilatador higroscópico facilitou a visualização de lesões de difícil acesso ao exame colposcópico, permitindo diminuir a porcentagem de doença residual em pacientes com colposcopias insatisfatórias submetidas à conização por

  17. Diseño del canal de venta a través de Internet para la tienda de calzado MD

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Muchos estudios recientes indican un incremento sustancial en el comercio electrónico en América Latina y el Caribe, y muy especialmente en el espacio B2C (Business-to-Customers, relaciones entre negocios y clientes). En el año 2008, las transacciones representaron cerca de USD$16.025 millones, y su crecimiento anual fue casi del 35%. En la región centroamericana, no existen tiendas en la Web que se especialicen en calzado para dama, por lo que una incursión a corto plazo permitiría obtener e...

  18. Design of canals

    CERN Document Server

    Swamee, P K

    2015-01-01

    The book presents firsthand material from the authors on design of hydraulic canals. The book discusses elements of design based on principles of hydraulic flow through canals. It covers optimization of design based on usage requirements and economic constraints. The book includes explicit design equations and design procedures along with design examples for varied cases. With its comprehensive coverage of the principles of hydraulic canal design, this book will prove useful to students, researchers, and practicing engineers. End-of-chapter pedagogical elements make it ideal for use in graduate courses on hydraulic structures offered by most civil engineering departments across the world.

  19. Caracterización de equipos para la recepción de nuevos canales de TDT en el centro emisor de Titaguas

    OpenAIRE

    MARTÍN COLLADO, PABLO

    2013-01-01

    Con el presente Proyecto Final de Carrera se pretende tratar de profundizar en el ámbito de la difusión de la TDT (Televisión Digital Terrestre), a través de un amplio análisis de diversos aspectos: el proceso de transmisión de la TDT en España, la metodología de recepción en los diversos centros, y el análisis de múltiples equipos para ello. Además, y como aplicación práctica y fundamento básico de este PFC, se va a tratar de adecuar unos equipos del centro emisor del municipio de Titaguas (...

  20. El Gobierno Electrónico y la Implementación de las TIC para Brindar Nuevos Canales de Comunicación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Rodríguez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo expone la situación actual del gobierno electrónico desde un punto de vista meramente tecnológico, en función del grado de implementación de la tecnología en beneficio de los ciudadanos. No obstante este es un tema amplio que puede ser analizado desde distintas perspectivas y si bien no es el objetivo del artículo realizar una evaluación enfocada a lo social, cultural y político, tampoco nuestro enfoque puede estar completamente aislado de estas cuestiones no menores, que influyen en el momento de tomar decisiones de construir o no, determinada solución tecnológica. En este artículo se plantearan las bases del gobierno electrónico, la evolución histórica y las fases de implementación, para finalmente presentar la situación actual basada en un relevamiento recientemente realizado que dejará en evidencia que aún queda mucho por hacer en materia de gobierno electrónico.

  1. Inequality and megaprojects: The Panama Canal expansion

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Cuando el control y gestión del Canal de Panamá pasó al estado panameño a finales de 1999, el gobierno comenzó a preparar un plan para su modernización. Este plan incluía la construcción de nuevas esclusas para que pudieran atravesarlo un mayor número de barcos y que admitiese los nuevos buques Post-Panamax de gran tamaño. El proyecto de Ampliación del Canal se ha seleccionado como ejemplo paradigmático de grandes Obras Públicas (GOP) por su impacto ambiental, económico y social. Este caso de...

  2. MCID: personalized dosimetric tool to simulate voxelized studies using MCNP5; MCID: herramienta dosimetrica personalizada para simular estudios voxelizados con MCNP5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Alex Vergara [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), La Habana (Cuba); Perez, Marco A. Coca; Aroche, Leonel A. Torres, E-mail: mcoca@infomed.sld.cu, E-mail: leonel@infomed.sld.cu [Centro de Investigaciones Clinicas (CIC), La Habana (Cuba); Pacilio, Massimiliano, E-mail: mpacilio@scamilloforlanini.rm.it [Hospital S. Camillo Forlanini (AOSCF), Roma (Italy). Departmento de Fisica Medica

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the MCID software, a tool for calculating specific absorbed dose of patients in nuclear medicine, based on Monte Carlo simulation. This paper evaluates new clinical cases and new phantoms whose results validate the methodology implemented in MCID, which has followed a process of incorporating new materials, image processing in DICOM and Analyze format, a module of regions of interest and improvements in user interface. Now it has a tool to calculate the patient-specific absorbed doses in nuclear medicine that can be applied in clinical practice.

  3. SPARC-90 code improvement to simulate vapour generator breakages; Mejora del codigo SPARC90 para simular roturas en el generado de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escriva Castells, A.

    2010-07-01

    The Thermohydraulic and Nuclear Engineering Group of the UPV; together with the CIEMAT; is developing improvements in the decontamination factor calculation in order to introduce them in SPARC90 code (Suppression Pool Aerosol Removal Code). This code calculates the capture of aerosols in pools, which is especially important in case of accident.

  4. Metodología para analizar y simular la eficiencia económica de la flexibilización del uso del espectro radioeléctrico

    OpenAIRE

    García García, José Marino

    2010-01-01

    La asignación eficiente de los recursos escasos se produce a través del mercado mediante la información que transmiten los precios. En el caso de la asignación de frecuencias del espectro radioeléctrico la existencia de interferencias plantea un problema en la asignación de los derechos de propiedad y junto con la presencia de externalidades motiva la intervención estatal en la determinación del uso y precio de las frecuencias. La introducción de criterios de mercado en las asignaciones de es...

  5. Use of sting-response techniques for simulate diagnostics in human esophagus; Uso de tecnicas estimulo-respuesta para simular diagnosticos en esofago humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, I.; Gonzalez, Y.; Valdes, L.; Alfonso, J.A.; Estevez, E. [Facultad de Quimica Farmacia, Universidad Central de Las Villas (Cuba)

    2003-07-01

    In this work a study of simulation of the gamma graphic studies that are carried out in human esophagus in the Dept. of Nuclear Medicine of the 'Celestino Hernandez Robau Hospital of Santa Clara is presented. For the investigation tubular reactors were used and sting-response techniques with radioactive tracer of Technetium 99 metastable to a concentration of 1 mCi and several flows were applied. The distribution curves of residences times were obtained, those that respond to an equation of the type: Y = A + B exp (- exp((x-C)/D)) - ((x-C/D)+1). They were also carried out, optimizations studies of the doses of the radioactive to give to the patients from 1 mCi (that is the one used in studies) up to 0,5 mCi, and the influences on the obtained distributions of residence time were analyzed. It was confirmed the possibility to lower the doses with clear information of the signal. It was also carried out a simulation of the attenuation of the radiations that takes place in the patients by the interposition of tissues among the analyzed organ, and the detection equipment. It was used paraffin for tissue simulation. It was found the almost independence of the intensity of the radiations with the thickness, for the assayed doses. Lastly it was found a complex mathematical model that responds to the diagnostic curves obtained in these studies, being correlated the coefficients of the pattern with the most important physical parameters of the system, giving it a practical and useful value, all time that the error among the values that this it predicts and the experimental ones do not surpass of 5%. (Author)

  6. Canals, Bypass Canal, Published in 2002, Duchesne County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Canals dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2002. It is described as 'Bypass Canal'. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  7. Multistate nested canalizing functions

    CERN Document Server

    Adeyeye, J O; Laubenbacher, R; Li, Y

    2013-01-01

    The concept of a nested canalizing Boolean function has been studied over the course of the last decade in the context of understanding the regulatory logic of molecular interaction networks, such as gene regulatory networks. Such functions appear preferentially in published models of such networks. Recently, this concept has been generalized to include multi-state functions, and a recursive formula has been derived for their number, as a function of the number of variables. This paper carries out a detailed analysis of the class of nested canalizing functions over an arbitrary finite field. Furthermore, the paper generalizes the concept further, and derives a closed formula for the number of such generalized functions. The paper also derives a closed formula for the number of equivalence classes under permutation of variables. This is motivated by the fact that two nested canalizing functions that differ by a permutation of the variables share many important properties with each other. The paper contributes ...

  8. Lesiones benignas de mama que pueden simular un carcinoma en estudios imagenológicos Benign breast lesions that mimic carcinoma in diagnostic imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Castro Barba

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La mayoría de las lesiones que se encuentran al realizar estudios mamarios son benignas. Muchas de ellas tienen un aspecto típico y definido, ya sea en mamografía o ecografía y no requieren de evaluaciones adicionales. Existe un grupo de entidades benignas que, sin embargo, puede simular un carcinoma en las imágenes. Los radiólogos debemos conocer las características de las mismas y tenerlas en cuenta como posibles diagnósticos diferenciales de una imagen de alta sospecha.Most of the lesions found during breast imaging exams are benign. Many of them have a typical and definite appearance on mammography and ultrasound, and require no further evaluation. However, some benign lesions cannot be differentiated from carcinomas, given their suspicious and less specific radiological features. Radiologists should be aware of the imaging characteristics of these lesions and include them in the differential diagnosis of a malignant-appearing finding.

  9. Current status of the second generation of parabolic trough solar concentrator for heat generation process designed at the IIE; Estado actual de la segunda generacion del concentrador solar de canal parabolico para generacion de calor de proceso disenado en el IIE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Berumen, Carlos; Ramirez Benitez, Juan Rafael; Beltran Adan, Jose [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: cramos@iie.org.mx; rramirez@iie.org.mx; jose.beltran@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    The transformation industry normally uses thermal energy within its process, it obtains this energy burning fossils fuel, a new option is to use new technologies like the thermal solar technology like the parabolic trough, this is a long parabolic mirror used to reflect the sunlight and focused on an absorber tube with a heat-conducting fluid inside. The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) developed a prototype of parabolic trough that is operating in different industries, in this article are showing some improvements to the design, giving like result the second generation of the prototype of parabolic trough of the IIE. [Spanish] La industria de la transformacion normalmente utiliza energia termica dentro de su proceso, los medios convencionales para obtener esta energia es el quemar combustibles fosiles, una opcion que aplica nuevas tecnologias es el uso de la tecnologia termosolar a concentracion que le permitira a la industria utilizar el sol como fuente de energia primaria. El uso de esta tecnologia permitira a las empresas generar calor de proceso sin contaminar el ambiente, lo que dara como resultado empresas competitivas y autosuficientes. Para alcanzar temperaturas utiles a estas aplicaciones se requiere concentrar la energia solar en un area mas pequena, siendo la tecnologia mas extendida la de canal parabolico, el principio de operacion de esta tecnologia es la de concentrar la radiacion solar en el eje receptor preparado con una pintura especial para una mejor absorcion del calor y una cubierta de vidrio para evitar perdidas termicas, dentro del tubo circula un fluido caloportador el cual lleva el calor util hacia el proceso. El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) desarrollo un prototipo de canal parabolico, actualmente estan operando en diferentes industrias, resultado de estas aplicaciones se llevo a cabo una evaluacion del prototipo, se detectaron algunos puntos de mejoras al diseno, los cuales se exponen en este articulo, dando

  10. Love canal questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a 3-month monitoring study of the Love Canal area near Niagara Falls, N.Y., after the federal government pronounced that a potential health risk existed due to chemical waste dumps. In 1982 the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) decided that the area was habitable, subject to implementation of effective safeguards against leakage from the canal and to cleaning up of the contaminants. Now, the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) has announced that, with the information available, it is not possible to demonstrate with certainty that unsafe levels do not exist within the so-called “emergency declaration area” (EDA).

  11. Sistemas de control para la gestión de los canales de exportación independientes: un análisis exploratorio sobre su diseño y uso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Velez Elorza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El empleo de canales de exportación independientes es la forma más extendida de exportación, si bien la ausencia de propiedad dificulta su gestión y afecta al rendimiento exportador. Dado el creciente interés académico y profesional por mejorar la gestión de los procesos de exportación de las empresas y la laguna existente en el estudio de las relaciones inter-organizativas orientadas al mercado (down-stream, se plantea como objetivo del presente estudio la exploración de los sistemas de control de gestión (SCG en el contexto de los canales de exportación, desde la perspectiva de la empresa exportadora. Mediante la realización de un estudio cualitativo exploratorio, se pretende contribuir a la literatura sobre los SCG inter-organizativos ampliando su ámbito de interés a las relaciones down-stream de la cadena de suministros, esenciales para la competitividad de muchas empresas. Frente a estudios previos sobre SCG enfocados en relaciones proveedor-comprador, los resultados muestran que las empresas exportadoras analizadas (1 emplean múltiples mecanismos de control, principalmente cualitativos, que (2 se caracterizan por su ámbito amplio y la oportunidad en el tiempo, así como por sus bajos niveles de integración y agregación, y (3 usan algunos mecanismos -p.e., reuniones con los intermediarios- de modo interactivo, mientras que otras herramientas -p.e., contratos y acuerdos- son usadas de modo diagnóstico. Asimismo, la evidencia sugiere que la definición de sistemas formales en este contexto puede diferir de la tradicional, con amplias repercusiones sobre los marcos de análisis de los sistemas de control de gestión.Independent export channels are the most common exporting entry mode, although the lack of ownership hinders their management and affects export performance. Given the growing academic and professional interest to improve export processes’ management and the existent gap in the study of down-stream inter

  12. Nutrient canal of the fibula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo-Hyuk; Ehara, Shigeru; Tamakawa, Yoshiharu [Departments of Radiology, Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, Morioka (Japan); Horiguchi, Masahura [Department of Anatomy I, Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, Morioka (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the radiological features of the nutrient canal in the fibula.Design and patients. One hundred and seventy-nine dried fibulae were studied regarding the type, number, location, and direction of the nutrient canal. They were classified into a usual type (type I: a radiolucent line confined to the cortex) and an atypical type (type II: a radiolucent line extending beyond the cortex).Results. Among the total of 230 nutrient canals seen on radiography, 197 (86%) were type I and 33 (14%) were type II. On CT scans, the ossified rim of the canal extended into the medullary cavity in type II canals. The most common site was the posteromedial aspect in both type I and type II canals. Type II canals were significantly more common in fibulae with two or three nutrient canals. The frequency of the upward direction was more common in type II canals.Conclusion. Nutrient canals with extension of the ossified rim into the medullary canal are the cause of linear lucency that may simulate a fracture. Their features are slightly different from those of usual canals. (orig.)

  13. Evaluation of pre-fabricated root canal posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hew, Y S; Purton, D G; Love, R M

    2001-03-01

    In this in vitro study, properties of a titanium alloy post recently introduced to the market (IntegraPost), were compared with those of a clinically proven stainless steel post (ParaPost). The IntegraPost has a unique, perforated, spherical head and a microknurled shank surface. The posts were tested for rigidity, for retention within the root canals of extracted teeth and for ability to retain composite resin cores. The two post types exhibited similar properties in core and root canal retention, however, the IntegraPost was significantly less rigid than the ParaPost.

  14. Curved canals: Ancestral files revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Nidhi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an insight into different techniques of cleaning and shaping of curved root canals with hand instruments. Although a plethora of root canal instruments like ProFile, ProTaper, LightSpeed ® etc dominate the current scenario, the inexpensive conventional root canal hand files such as K-files and flexible files can be used to get optimum results when handled meticulously. Special emphasis has been put on the modifications in biomechanical canal preparation in a variety of curved canal cases. This article compiles a series of clinical cases of root canals with curvatures in the middle and apical third and with S-shaped curvatures that were successfully completed by employing only conventional root canal hand instruments.

  15. Anal cancer; Cancer du canal anal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesneau, M.; Champeaux-Orange, E. [Service de radiotherapie, Centre regional universitaire de cancerologie Henry-S.-Kaplan CHU de Tours, Hopital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France); Champeaux-Orange, E. [Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, Centre hospitalier regional d' Orleans, 45 - Orleans (France); Hennequin, C. [Service de cancerologie-radiotherapie, hopital Saint-Louis, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    Anal canal epidermoid carcinomas represent 1.2% of digestive cancers and 6% of ano-rectal cancers. For localized diseases, the treatment is based on radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy (5-FU and cisplatin or mitomycin), according to tumour and nodal extension. The recommended treatment dose is 45 Gy in the anal canal, the mesorectum, para-rectal lymph nodes, and inguinal lymph nodes. An additional dose of 15 to 20 Gy is delivered in the initial tumour for good responders. Salvage surgery is necessary in case of poor response. The organs at risk to be considered are bladder, femur heads, small intestine and vulva. The objective of this work is to summarize the epidemiological and radio-anatomic and prognostic characteristics of this tumour. The conformal radiotherapy technique is illustrated by a case report. (authors)

  16. Canales web en ciencias de la comunicación. Producción multimedia para la docencia e investigación en Documentación informativa

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso López Yepes

    2012-01-01

    La creación inicial en una primera fase de un portal de portales de documentación informativa (e-DocuInfo http://multidoc.rediris.es /edocuinfo/)  que integra varios portales y posibilita asimismo el acceso a un canal temático de documentación vía internet (TVDoc Complumedia-RTVDoc, juntamente con el funcionamiento de otros dos (E-TV y Cine@Tele Online canal vídeo) tienen como objetivo la difusión de contenidos y la generación de un...

  17. Managing curved canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iram Ansari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilaceration is the result of a developmental anomaly in which there has been an abrupt change in the axial inclination between the crown and the root of a tooth. Dilaceration can be seen in both the permanent and deciduous dentitions, and is more commonly found in posterior teeth and in maxilla. Periapical radiographs are the most appropriate way to diagnose the presence of root dilacerations. The controlled regularly tapered preparation of the curved canals is the ultimate challenge in endodontics. Careful and meticulous technique will yield a safe and sufficient enlargement of the curved canals. This article gives a review of the literature and three interesting case reports of root dilacerations.

  18. Canal Wall Reconstruction Mastoidectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the advantages of canal wall reconstruction (CWR) mastoidectomy, a single-stage technique for cholesteatoma removal and posterior external canal wall reconstruction, over the open and closed procedures in terms of cholesteatoma recurrence. Methods: Between June 2002 and December 2005, 38 patients (40 ears) with cholesteatoma were admited to Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital and received surgical treatments. Of these patients, 25 were male with ages ranging between 11 and 60 years (mean = 31.6 years) and 13 were female with ages ranging between 20 and 65 years (mean = 38.8 years). Canal wall reconstruction (CWR)mastoidectomy was performed in 31 ears and canal wall down (CWD) mastoidectomy in 9 ears. Concha cartilage was used for ear canal wall reconstruction in 22 of the 31 CWR procedures and cortical mastoid bone was used in the remaining 9 cases. Results At 0.5 to 4 years follow up, all but one patients remained free of signs of cholesteatoma recurrence, i.e., no retraction pocket or cholesteatoma matrix. One patient, a smoker, needed revision surgery due to cholesteatoma recurrence 1.5 year after the initial operation. The recurrence rate was therefore 3.2% (1/31). Cholesteatoma recurrence was monitored using postoperative CT scans whenever possible. In the case that needed a revision procedure, a retraction pocket was identified by otoendoscopy in the pars flacida area that eventually evolved into a cholesteatoma. A pocket extending to the epitympanum filled with cholesteatoma matrix was confirmed during the revision operation, A decision to perform a modified mastoidectomy was made as the patient refused to quit smoking. The mean air-bone gap in pure tone threshold was 45 dB before surgery and 25 dB after (p < 0.05). There was no difference between using concha cartilage and cortical mastoid bone for the reconstruction regarding air-bone gap improvement, CT findings and otoendoscopic results. Conclusion CWR mastoidectomy can be used for

  19. Analysis of sedimentation of canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agunwamba, J.C.,

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The dredged canals in the Niger Delta coastal flood plain are being threatened by siltation. This study is limited to those canals in Rivers State of Nigeria, which are under the influence of tidal waves. A total of eight canals were considered with four each from Ekulama and Cawthorne Channel. Different approaches were used to carry out this study, which includes field reconnaissance survey, hydrographic survey, soil sample analysis and collection of all available data and information. The typical bed materials size (D50 is approximately 0.01mm; which gives a settling velocity of 0.09mm/sec using stroke’s law. Hydrographic survey of the canals from 1992 to 1996 revealed an average siltation rate of 2.35m/yr. A regression equation was also derived which relates the cost of dredging to canal area, rate of siltation and average aggregation. A plot of canal centre profile; entrance, middle and end cross sections showing sediment distribution along the canal profile, shows that majority of the particles that form the sediment enter the canal from the rivers. The sedimentation is caused by the reduction in water current, which has average value of 0.0145m/sec. The bathyorographical check on the canals revealed that the sum of the two exterior angles of the canal with the river at the point of connection has to lie within 1800 + 50 for an effective flow that will minimize settlement of particles. In addition, the canals should be constructed to start and terminate on a moving water body, to avoid dead ends. A regression equation was determined which relates the cost of dredging to canal area, rate of siltation and average aggradations.

  20. CANALES (2) [Material gráfico

    OpenAIRE

    Fundación para la Etnografía y el Desarrollo de la Artesanía Canaria

    1990-01-01

    ALGUNAS PIEDRAS CAIDAS. SEDIMENTACION. Antiguedad: SIGLO XX CONSTRUCCION DE ARENA, CAL Y PIEDRAS REDONDEADAS. CON RIPIOS POR TODAS PARTES. EN SECTORES HAY PAREDES DE HASTA 4 MTS. DE ALTO PARA SALVAR EL DESNIVEL. UN METRO DE ANCHO DEL CANAL Y 0`5 MTS. LA COBERTURA DEL MISMO. Calificación del suelo: RÚSTICO DE PROTECCIÓN NATURAL Clasificación del suelo: RÚSTICO Declaración BIC:No LA OTRA ACEQUIA QUE CIRCULA POR LA PARTE SUPERIOR ESTA MAS DETERIORADA. VAN A 10 MTS. DE SEPARACIO...

  1. Controversy at Love Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paigen, B

    1982-06-01

    A cancer researcher reviews the events surrounding the toxic waste contamination at Love Canal with emphasis on the political nature of the controversy about its health impact. Antagonism between the community and the New York State Department of Health was fueled by several factors: the state's awareness that it gained from delay in investigation, disagreement on health problems to be studied, control over the information gathering process, silencing of opposition opinion, and the violation of norms of scientific behavior. The author calls for the establishment of standards of ethical behavior for scientists in such situations, standards for conflict resolution, and means of appeal for those injured.

  2. Aspectos biofarmacêuticos da formulação de medicamentos para neonatos: fundamentos da complexação de indometacina com hidroxipropil-beta-ciclodextrina para tratamento oral do fechamento do canal arterial Biopharmaceutical aspects of drug formulation for neonatology: rational for indomethacin's complexation with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin to treat patent ductus arteriosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Ribeiro Rama

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A terapêutica farmacológica em recém-nascidos confronta-se, por um lado, com um organismo sujeito a marcadas alterações biológicas, resultantes da composição orgânica e da maturação funcional, que decorre a diferentes graus em crianças com a mesma idade, determinando modificações no perfil farmacocinético e farmacodinâmico e, por outro lado, com a necessidade efetiva da utilização de fármacos. Para dar resposta à necessidade de tratamento destes doentes, recorre-se à utilização de medicamentos "off label", sendo esta uma prática com um elevado risco de segurança e de eficácia, na ausência de informação acerca da estabilidade, solubilidade e biodisponibilidade. Considerou-se, assim, que a utilização de derivados das ciclodextrinas altamente solúveis em água seria uma alternativa para a formulação de preparações líquidas aquosas de fármacos fracamente solúveis, aliada à melhoria de biodisponibilidade e de segurança. Esta revisão pretende fundamentar a possibilidade de recurso à complexação de indometacina com hidroxipropil-beta-ciclodextrina, com o objetivo de melhorar as características de biodisponibilidade e de segurança e permitir a administração por via oral para o tratamento farmacológico do fechamento do canal arterial em prematuros ou em recém-nascidos com esta patologia.Pharmacological therapy for newborns is faced on one hand, with an organism characterized by biological differences and functional immaturity with various grades of evolution for the same age, implying changes on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodinamic medicine profiles. On the other hand, there is the effective need for pharmacotherapy. The "off label" use of medicines is therefore the only thing left to do, having in mind the risk of using therapeutic agents not studied for this special group of people. On this context it has been considered the use of cyclodextrin derivatives like hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin as an

  3. Low-intensity laser coupled with photosensitizer to reduce bacteria in root canals compared to chemical control; Laser em baixa intensidade associado a fotosensibilizador para reducao bacteriana intracanal comparado ao controle quimico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcez Segundo, Aguinaldo Silva

    2002-07-01

    The photodynamic therapy is a process in which a dye is associate with an appropriate wavelength of light and this dye goes to an excited state. The excited reacts with oxygen to form the highly reactive compound singlet oxygen, and this compound can kill bacteria and tumor cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal reduction in root canal contaminated with E. Faecalis. Thirty teeth with their root canals prepared were contaminated with E. faecalis. The teeth have received the chemical substance sodium hypochlorite for 30 minutes; ten teeth have received the azulene dye paste for 5 minutes and have been irradiated with a diode laser, output power 10 mW and {lambda}= 685 nm for 3 minutes. Ten teeth have not received treatment (control group). The bacterial reduction was significantly higher for laser group when compared to chemical and control groups. These results indicate photodynamic therapy as an effective method to kill bacteria. (author)

  4. Mejoras en el canal de Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandl, Charles McG.

    1963-07-01

    Full Text Available The Panama Canal, together with the Suez Canal, is an engineering accomplishment which is now regarded as a master work marking the initiation of modern civil engineering. Other projects, also of great magnitude, do not seem to maintain the reputation of the above two, because they cannot continue to serve their function with sustained usefulness in the new circumstances of today. The Panama Canal, with its limited dock capacity, and the narrow, so called Serpent, canal, has had to cope with a continuously increasing volume of shipping traffic; a natural consequence of commercial evolution. In order to keep up with these increasing demands, it has been necessary to carry out an almost uninterrupted series of modifications and improvements, affecting both the method of operation and organisation, and the actual nature of the canal. Thanks to these alterations the Panama Canal has continued to maintain, at least nominally, an adequate standard of functional efficiency. At present the canal is being widened over certain sections to enable the easy passage of ships of great displacement. The work is being done very rapidly, and in order to gain time, it has been distributed to various contractors simultaneously.El canal a través del ismo de Panamá es una obra de ingeniería civil que, junto con el de Suez, empiezan ya a clasificarse como obras maestras que señalan el primer jalón del desarrollo de la ingeniería moderna. Otras obras, también importantes, no conservan, sin embargo, la misma reputación que aquéllas, por no seguir un paralelismo con las exigencias en cada época. El canal de Panamá, con sus exclusas, y angosto paso llamado de la. Culebra, ha tenido que afrontar un tráfico creciente de navíos que siguen la evolución del tiempo. Para conseguir este paralelismo, tanto el material de explotación como la organización, dragados y mejoras, han tenido que conocer una sucesión ininterrumpida de modificaciones que han permitido

  5. Demanda e preÃo Ãtimo para usos mÃltiplos da Ãgua bruta: o caso do Canal do Trabalhador no CearÃ

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This study has as objective to estimate the optimal price, in order to provide information for sustainable use of the Worker Canal in the CearÃ. For estimation of the optimal price was necessary to obtain the parameters of elasticity and marginal cost of provisioning. The price elasticities of demand for irrigation and public supply company were estimated using the method of demand all or nothing, ordinary least squares, instrumental variables and least squares in two stages. The marginal...

  6. Spinal canal stenosis; Spinalkanalstenose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Boutchakova, M. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte/Bremen-Ost, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Bremen (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal by a combination of bone and soft tissues, which can lead to mechanical compression of spinal nerve roots or the dural sac. The lumbal spinal compression of these nerve roots can be symptomatic, resulting in weakness, reflex alterations, gait disturbances, bowel or bladder dysfunction, motor and sensory changes, radicular pain or atypical leg pain and neurogenic claudication. The anatomical presence of spinal canal stenosis is confirmed radiologically with computerized tomography, myelography or magnetic resonance imaging and play a decisive role in optimal patient-oriented therapy decision-making. (orig.) [German] Die Spinalkanalstenose ist eine umschriebene, knoechern-ligamentaer bedingte Einengung des Spinalkanals, die zur Kompression der Nervenwurzeln oder des Duralsacks fuehren kann. Die lumbale Spinalkanalstenose manifestiert sich klinisch als Komplex aus Rueckenschmerzen sowie sensiblen und motorischen neurologischen Ausfaellen, die in der Regel belastungsabhaengig sind (Claudicatio spinalis). Die bildgebende Diagnostik mittels Magnetresonanztomographie, Computertomographie und Myelographie spielt eine entscheidende Rolle bei der optimalen patientenbezogenen Therapieentscheidung. (orig.)

  7. Morphological description of mandibular canal in panoramic radiographs

    OpenAIRE

    Maise Mendonça Amorim

    2006-01-01

    Resumo: O conhecimento da morfologia e topografia do canal mandibular é importante para as intervenções odontológicas realizadas na mandíbula, pois implica na preservação das estruturas nobres que o atravessam. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar morfológica e morfometricamente o trajeto e as relações do canal mandibular em indivíduos de ambos os gêneros, pertencentes a duas faixas etárias distintas, ambas na fase adulta. A amostra foi composta por 300 radiografias panorâmicas, divididas e...

  8. Metodologia para o monitoramento da difusão de inovação em canais de comunicação científica Metodología para el seguimiento de la difusión de la innovación en canales de comunicación científica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Zeni Marchiori

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: a difusão da inovação em produtos/tecnologias se apoia no uso de diferentes canais de comunicação. As adaptações/aperfeiçoamentos veiculados entre os participantes destes canais podem ser agregadas em categorias de acordo com condições de adoção (existente, proativa, aspiracional, reativa. O monitoramento e a visualização de tais condições permitiria explorar o estado da arte da inovação e acompanhá-lo em ciclos de tempo definidos e/ou alcance geográfico para um determinado canal e/ou entre canais distintos. Objetivos: propõe-se uma metodologia de monitoramento da difusão da inovação em canais de comunicação científica e suas respectivas condições de adoção. Procedimentos metodológicos: explora-se a Teoria da Difusão da Inovação e o modelo conceitual dela derivado. Descreve-se a metodologia proposta em suas etapas qualitativa e quantitativa e apresenta resultados de teste de aplicação em um recorte de comunicações apresentadas em edições de eventos internacionais e nacionais relativos ao Sistema Eletrônico de Editoração de Revistas/Open Jornal System. Principais resultados: Aplicada aos corpora do ambiente de teste a metodologia proposta resultou na criação de vinte e nove categorias relacionadas às condições de adoção da inovação e na geração de gráficos provenientes das manipulações de três matrizes de correlação no software UCINET 6.434. Analisaram-se os gráficos obtidos no Netdraw com base em multidimensional scaling (MDS e em frequências absolutas. Conclusões: validou-se a metodologia no ambiente teste, com destaque aos alertas para a execução das etapas e nas possibilidades de análise dos dados com o uso de diferentes variáveis. Considera-se que o acompanhamento, se realizado periodicamente, pode identificar tendências e/ou predição da inovação como atividade fim do monitoramento.

  9. Hood Canal Steelhead - Hood Canal Steelhead Supplementation Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hood Canal Steelhead Project is a 17-year before-after-control-impact experiment that tests the effects of supplementation on natural steelhead populations in...

  10. Depolarization canals and interstellar turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, A; Fletcher, Andrew; Shukurov, Anvar

    2006-01-01

    Recent radio polarization observations have revealed a plethora of unexpected features in the polarized Galactic radio background that arise from propagation effects in the random (turbulent) interstellar medium. The canals are especially striking among them, a random network of very dark, narrow regions clearly visible in many directions against a bright polarized Galactic synchrotron background. There are no obvious physical structures in the ISM that may have caused the canals, and so they have been called Faraday ghosts. They evidently carry information about interstellar turbulence but only now is it becoming clear how this information can be extracted. Two theories for the origin of the canals have been proposed; both attribute the canals to Faraday rotation, but one invokes strong gradients in Faraday rotation in the sky plane (specifically, in a foreground Faraday screen) and the other only relies on line-of-sight effects (differential Faraday rotation). In this review we discuss the physical nature o...

  11. The Love Canal: Beyond science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    When in 1978, the New York State Department of Health issued the report, ‘Love Canal—Public Health Time Bomb,’ the serious effects of chemical waste contamination in the Love Canal area became an issue of national concern. A few ‘studies’ since then have produced results in concert with those of initial reports that described ‘conditions of acute health effects’ as being linked to hazardous wastes incorporated in landfill in the Love Canal site near Niagara Falls, New York. Now that a ‘blue ribbon’ panel of experts from the medical sciences has reviewed the problems of Love Canal, however, a different view has emerged. The ‘Report of the Governors' Panel to Review Scientific Studies and the Development of Public Policy on Problems Resulting from Hazardous Wastes,’ transmitted in October of this year, identifies the following factors about the health effects at Love Canal:

  12. Horizontal Canal Benign Positional Vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtaram Najafi

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV is a syndrome characterized by transient episodes of vertigo in association with rapid changes in head position in Dix-Halpike Maneuver. This kind of vertigo is thought to be caused by migration of otoconial debris into canals other than the posterior canal, such as the anterior or lateral canals. It is also theoretically possible for many aberrant patterns of BPPV to occur from an interaction of debris in several canals, location of debris within the canal, and central adaptation patterns to lesions. The symptoms of BPPV are much more consistent with free-moving densities (canaliths in the posterior SCC rather than fixed densities attached to the cupula. While the head is upright, the particles sit in the PSC at the most gravity-dependent position. The best method to induce and see vertigo and nystagmus in BPPV of the lateral semicircular canal is to rotate head 90°while patient is in the supine position, nystagmus would appear in the unaffected side weaker but longer than the affected side. canal paresis has been described in one third of the patients with BPPV. Adaptation which is one of the remarkable features of BPPV in PSC is rarely seen in LSC. Rotations of 270° or 360° around the yaw axis (the so-called barbecue maneuver toward the unaffected ear are popular methods for the treatment of geotropic HC-BPPV. These maneuvers consist of sequential head turning of 90° toward the healthy side while supine. With these maneuvers, the free-floating otoconial debris migrates in the ampullofugal direction, finally entering the utricle through the nonampullated end of the horizontal canal. This kind of vertigo recovers spontaneously more rapidly and suddenly.

  13. RETRATAMENTO ENDODÔNTICO: ESTUDO COMPARATIVO ENTRE TÉCNICA MANUAL, ULTRA-SOM E CANAL FINDER ENDODONTIC RETREATMENT: COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN MANUAL TECHNIQUE, ULTRASONIC SCALER, AND CANAL FINDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Monteiro BRAMANTE

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Instrumentações manual, ultra-sônica e com Canal Finder foram utilizadas para retratamento de 30 dentes com canais obturados com guta-percha e óxido de zinco e eugenol. Avaliaram-se: 1. tempo gasto para a penetração inicial até o ápice; 2. tempo para completar a limpeza; 3. extrusão de material e 4. limpeza dos canais. O Canal Finder foi a técnica que propiciou melhor limpeza, seguida da manual e da ultra-sônica. A parede palatina do canal foi constantemente mais limpa do que a vestibular. Quanto à extrusão, a técnica de ultra-som foi a que propiciou mais extravasamento de material obturador.Endodontic retreatment of 30 teeth filled with guta percha and zinc oxide-eugenol was carried out using manual instrumentation, ultrasonic scaler, and the Canal Finder System. The following variables were evaluated: time spent to reach the apex; time spent to complete cleaning of the canal; apical extrusion of material; and cleanliness of the canals. Results showed the Canal Finder System as providing the highest level of cleanliness of the canal system; lingual walls were constantly cleaner than buccal walls; ultrasonic technique presented a greater degree of apical extrusion of filling material.

  14. Limitations of navigation through Nubaria canal, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Magdy G

    2014-03-01

    Alexandria port is the main Egyptian port at the Mediterranean Sea. It is connected to the Nile River through Nubaria canal, which is a main irrigation canal. The canal was designed to irrigate eight hundred thousand acres of agricultural lands, along its course which extends 100 km. The canal has three barrages and four locks to control the flow and allow light navigation by some small barges. Recently, it was decided to improve the locks located on the canal. More than 40 million US$ was invested in these projects. This decision was taken to allow larger barges and increase the transported capacity through the canal. On the other hand, navigation through canals and restricted shallow waterways is affected by several parameters related to both the channel and the vessel. Navigation lane width as well as vessel speed and maneuverability are affected by both the channel and vessel dimensions. Moreover, vessel dimensions and speed will affect the canal stability. In Egypt, there are no guide rules for navigation through narrow and shallow canals such Nubaria. This situation threatens the canal stability and safety of navigation through it. This paper discussed the characteristics of Nubaria canal and the guide rules for navigation in shallow restricted water ways. Dimensions limitation for barges navigating through Nubaria canal is presented. New safe operation rules for navigation in Nubaria canal are also presented. Moreover, the implication of navigation through locks on canal discharge is estimated.

  15. Limitations of navigation through Nubaria canal, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy G. Samuel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alexandria port is the main Egyptian port at the Mediterranean Sea. It is connected to the Nile River through Nubaria canal, which is a main irrigation canal. The canal was designed to irrigate eight hundred thousand acres of agricultural lands, along its course which extends 100 km. The canal has three barrages and four locks to control the flow and allow light navigation by some small barges. Recently, it was decided to improve the locks located on the canal. More than 40 million US$ was invested in these projects. This decision was taken to allow larger barges and increase the transported capacity through the canal. On the other hand, navigation through canals and restricted shallow waterways is affected by several parameters related to both the channel and the vessel. Navigation lane width as well as vessel speed and maneuverability are affected by both the channel and vessel dimensions. Moreover, vessel dimensions and speed will affect the canal stability. In Egypt, there are no guide rules for navigation through narrow and shallow canals such Nubaria. This situation threatens the canal stability and safety of navigation through it. This paper discussed the characteristics of Nubaria canal and the guide rules for navigation in shallow restricted water ways. Dimensions limitation for barges navigating through Nubaria canal is presented. New safe operation rules for navigation in Nubaria canal are also presented. Moreover, the implication of navigation through locks on canal discharge is estimated.

  16. Hidrotransporte de pulpa de papel en un canal abierto de sección circular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Javier Gómez Zambrano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de la investigación experimental llevada a cabo sobre el transporte hidráulico de mezclas en canales abiertos. Se investigó acerca de las mezclas no sedimentables compuestas de pulpa de papel y agua en un canal abierto de sección transversal circular. El objeto de la investigación fue determinar las pérdidas de energía debido al flujo de agua y pulpa de papel, a fin de proponer una metodología para el diseño de canales abiertos a mezclas. A causa del desarrollo experimental se construyó un montaje de laboratorio en el cual se adaptó un canal circular con pendiente variable. Como resultado se lograron obtener nuevas ecuaciones para el coeficiente de fricción de Darcy- Weisbach y el coeficiente de fricción de Manning, que relacionan estos coeficientes con las propiedades del agua, con las de la mezcla y la pendiente del canal. Con las ecuaciones obtenidas en la investigación, el autor propuso una nueva metodología para el diseño de canales que transporten mezclas de agua y pulpa de papel.

  17. Canals - CANALS_HISTORIC_STRUCTURES_IN: Historic Canal Structures in Indiana (Bernardin-Lochmueller & Associates, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Data depicts the locations of historic structures associated with the Wabash-Erie, Central, and Whitewater Canals constructed in Indiana in from 1830-1870. Canal...

  18. Comparativa de software libre para tratamiento de archivos DICOM

    OpenAIRE

    Rioja Calvo, Álvaro

    2015-01-01

    El campo de la cirugía está en constante crecimiento. Continuamente se investiga sobre nuevos avances que puedan facilitar y prever las situaciones de riesgo en las intervenciones quirúrgicas. La impresión de huesos en tres dimensiones es uno de estos avances, ya que ayuda a simular una posterior intervención, programar todos los pasos a seguir y prevenir posibles complicaciones. Este estudio es una comparativa de los diferentes softwares libres que se pueden utilizar para la exportación de a...

  19. SICOMPC: SIMULADOR PARA CONTROL PREDICTIVO BASADO EN MODELOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBIN SALCEDO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se describe la herramienta computacional SICOMPC desarrollada con el fin de poder disponer de un programa para simulación de control predictivo basado en modelos. Si bien existen en el mercado algunos programas dedicados al control predictivo, ellos son en su mayoría costosos y de estructuracerrada. SICOMPC de otro lado tiene una estructura modular e incluye además ventanas donde se puede simular las estrategias clásicas de control, con el fin de compararlas bajo criterios de estabilidad y robustez en diversos modelos de plantas de procesos.

  20. Corinth Canal, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Isthmus of Corinth has played a very important role in the history of Greece. It is the only land bridge between the country's north (Attica) and south (Peloponnese). It is a 6 km wide tongue of land separating the Gulf of Corinth from the Saronic Sea. Populations, armies and commodities have got to move through it. In the 6th century BCE, the Greeks built the Diolkos, a 10 meter-wide stone roadway to pull ships across the Isthmus on wooden cylinders and wheeled vehicles. In 1882, a canal was started and completed 11 years later. It is 6343 meters long, 25 meters wide, and 8 meters deep. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 25.3 by 37.7 kilometers (15.7 by 23.4 miles) Location: 37.9 degrees North latitude, 23 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image

  1. Fluidmechanics of semicircular canals revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrist, Dominik

    2008-05-01

    In this work we find the exact solution for the flow field in a semicircular canal which is the main sensor for angular motion in the human body. When the head is rotated the inertia of the fluid in the semicircular canal leads to a deflection of sensory hair cells which are part of a gelatinous structure called cupula. A modal expansion of the governing equation shows that the semicircular organ can be understood as a dynamic system governed by duct modes and a single cupular mode. We use this result to derive an explicit expression for the displacement of the cupula as a function of the angular motion of the head. This result shows in a mathematically and physically clean way that the semicircular canal is a transducer for angular velocity.

  2. Retention of Root Canal Posts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, A; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Flury, S;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the cement film thickness of a zinc phosphate or a resin cement on retention of untreated and pretreated root canal posts. Prefabricated zirconia posts (CosmoPost: 1.4 mm) and two types of luting cements (a zinc phosphate cement [DeTrey Zinc......] and a self-etch adhesive resin cement [Panavia F2.0]) were used. After removal of the crowns of 360 extracted premolars, canines, or incisors, the root canals were prepared with a parallel-sided drill system to three different final diameters. Half the posts did not receive any pretreatment. The other half...... received tribochemical silicate coating according to the manufacturer's instructions. Posts were then luted in the prepared root canals (n=30 per group). Following water storage at 37°C for seven days, retention of the posts was determined by the pull-out method. Irrespective of the luting cement...

  3. Género y dirección frontera en relaciones interorganizativas: estudio exploratorio de su influencia sobre los sistemas de control para la gestión de los canales de exportación independientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Araújo Pinzón

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación contribuye al conocimiento sobre los sistemas de control de gestión (SCG en las relaciones inter-organizativas introduciendo la diversidad de género de la persona responsable de la dirección frontera. A través de un análisis cuantitativo exploratorio desarrollado en el contexto de la gestión de los canales de exportación externalizados, se investiga el efecto de las diferencias de género en el nivel de implantación de los diversos tipos de control (de resultados, de comportamiento y social y en el modo de uso (diagnóstico e interactivo de los SCG. Los resultados no evidencian diferencias significativas asociadas al género en cuanto al grado de implantación de los tipos de control ni a la utilidad e importancia conferida a los modos de uso de la información de los SCG. No obstante, los resultados sí indican una cierta preferencia de las mujeres por el uso interactivo, acorde con las habilidades y características socialmente atribuidas a su género.

  4. Panama: Owning the Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    2010, http://www.aguasdigital.com; “Preven Una Inversion Millonaria Para Un Proyecto Turistico En Una Antigua Base de EE.UU. in Panama,” EFE Agencia...www.glp.com.pa/en/mayor-alfredo-aleman-anuncio-inicio-de-construccion-de- albrook-mall/; “Grupo Los Pueblos Completo Segunda Fase de Expansion de...Centro Comercial Albrook Mall,” Grupo Los Pueblos, February 9, 2004; “Mayor Alfedo Aleman Confirmo Tercera Fase de Albrook Mall,” Grupo Los Pueblos

  5. INSTRUMENTATION OF CURVED CANALS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nature seldom draws a straight line. Nowhere is thi s more apparent than in the anatomy of teeth roots and root canal systems o f human teeth. Even teeth with straight roots can harbor severely curved canals. Canal shapi ng is a critical aspect of endodontic treatment because it influences the outcome of the subsequent phases of canal irrigation and filling and the success of the treatment itself. In fact, curved canals are the most common endodontic complexity 1 . The need for some manner of root canal preparation pri or to root canal filling has long been recognized as an essential step in endodontic t reatment. Concepts concerning the role and purpose of this canal preparation, however, have differ ed remarkably at different times in the development of endodontics and in the hands of diffe rent practitioners 2

  6. 33 CFR 117.444 - Falgout Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Falgout Canal. 117.444 Section 117.444 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.444 Falgout Canal. The draw of the LA 315 bridge across Falgout Canal, mile 3.1,...

  7. Developmental spinal canal stenosis and somatotype.

    OpenAIRE

    Nightingale, S.

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis that somatotype and cervical spine developmental canal stenosis may be associated has been investigated by anthropometry and measurement of lateral projection cervical spine radiographs. A significant association of canal size with somatotype has been found such that those with developmentally narrow canals are more likely to have relatively shorter long-bones, particularly in the upper arm, and longer trunks.

  8. Canal Water Scarcity Hits Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠潮

    2007-01-01

    Acute shortage of canal water for irrigation in this district has caused resentment among the farmers.The water is being released in the various channels for just one week in a month,which is not enough to meet the irrigation needs of the farmers who are preparing their fields for paddy

  9. The Dehiscent Facial Nerve Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertac Yetiser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidental injury to the facial nerve where the bony canal defects are present may result with facial nerve dysfunction during otological surgery. Therefore, it is critical to know the incidence and the type of facial nerve dehiscences in the presence of normal development of the facial canal. The aim of this study is to review the site and the type of such bony defects in 144 patients operated for facial paralysis, myringoplasty, stapedotomy, middle ear exploration for sudden hearing loss, and so forth, other than chronic suppurative otitis media with or without cholesteatoma, middle ear tumors, and anomaly. Correlation of intraoperative findings with preoperative computerized tomography was also analyzed in 35 patients. Conclusively, one out of every 10 surgical cases may have dehiscence of the facial canal which has to be always borne in mind during surgical manipulation of the middle ear. Computerized tomography has some limitations to evaluate the dehiscent facial canal due to high false negative and positive rates.

  10. [Endodontic microbiology: antimicrobial canal medications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, S; Farber, P A

    1989-06-01

    Medicaments used for reducing or eliminating microorganisms from infected root canals include: irrigating solutions, such as sodium hypochlorite, urea peroxide and hydrogen peroxide, chloramine, iodine-potassium-iodide solution, and chlorhexidine solution. In addition, various intracanal drugs, such as calcium hydroxide and antibiotics, are in use. The characteristics of these drugs are discussed.

  11. Género y dirección frontera en relaciones interorganizativas: estudio exploratorio de su influencia sobre los sistemas de control para la gestión de los canales de exportación independientes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Araujo Pinzon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación contribuye al conocimiento sobre los sistemas de control de gestión (SCG en las relaciones inter-organizativas introduciendo la diversidad de género de la persona responsable de la dirección frontera. A través de un análisis cuantitativo exploratorio desarrollado en el contexto de la gestión de los canales de exportación externalizados, se investiga el efecto de las diferencias de género en el nivel de implantación de los diversos tipos de control (de resultados, de comportamiento y social y en el modo de uso (diagnóstico e interactivo de los SCG. Los resultados no evidencian diferencias significativas asociadas al género en cuanto al grado de implantación de los tipos de control ni a la utilidad e importancia conferida a los modos de uso de la información de los SCG. No obstante, los resultados sí indican una cierta preferencia de las mujeres por el uso interactivo, acorde con las habilidades y características socialmente atribuidas a su género.This research is intended to contribute to knowledge about the role of management control systems (MCS in interorganisational relationships analysing gender diversity of boundary managers. By means of an exploratory quantitative analysis in the setting of externalized export channels, we research the effect of gender differences on implementation level of MCS control types (output, behaviour and social controls and on MCS use mode (diagnostic and interactive uses. Results do not show significant differences related to gender regarding level of implementation of control types, or utility and importance conferred to use modes of MCS information. Notwithstanding, results suggest a slight preference of women for interactive use, according to skills and characteristics socially attributed to this gender.

  12. Mandibular Second Premolar with Four Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Ghiasi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A mandibular second premolar with four canals is an interesting example of anatomic variations. This report describes a case of a mandibular second premolar with three roots and four canals (one mesiobuccal, two distobuccal and one lingual. The canals were prepared using K-files and irrigated with NaOCl (5.25% and normal saline as the final irrigant. The canals were filled laterally with gutta percha and AH26 sealer (De Trey, Dentsply, Switzerland. This case shows a rare anatomic configuration and points out the importance of looking for additional canals.

  13. Propuesta de rediseño del canal "AOG" para la distribución de repuestos aeronáuticos de la Jefatura de Operaciones Logísticas de la Fuerza Aérea Colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Adrián Castro Barona

    2009-01-01

    Es necesario resaltar la necesidad de adaptar y estandarizar las Polìticas, Objetivos y Misión contemplados en el Plan Estratégico Institucional 2006-2019 de la Fuerza Aérea, orientándolos a mejorar la logística integral de las aeronaves para de esta manera cumplir adecuadamente con la prioridad de nivel uno en el alistamiento de las mismas.

  14. 75 FR 39632 - Regulated Navigation Area; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ..., Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey Canal, Algiers Canal, New Orleans, LA; Correction ACTION: Interim... Navigation Canal, Harvey Canal, Algiers Canal, New Orleans, LA into the Code of Federal Regulations....

  15. A STUDY OF ROOT CANAL MORPHOLOGY OF Cebus apella TEETH ESTUDO ANATÔMICO DO CANAL RADICULAR DE DENTES DE Cebus apella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Rocha Afonso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo anatômico em dentes do Cebus apella, para análise da anatomia interna do canal radicular dessa espécie, normatizando seu uso como modelo experimental. Utilizaram-se doze animais adultos. Após a remoção do tecido orgânico, os dentes foram removidos, seccionados e fotografados, sendo analisados com um estereomicroscópio. Os resultados mostraram que os dentes apresentaram características semelhantes às dos seres humanos, mas com algumas peculiaridades, tais como: a anatomia do canal radicular variou de oval para circular; nos caninos inferiores, os canais são semelhantes a um rim, o que reflete o contorno externo da raiz; nos molares superiores, os canais mesiobucal e distobucal são ovais, seguindo o contorno geral do dente. Os autores concluem que esta espécie pode ser utilizada como modelo em pesquisas odontológicas, principalmente em estudos do tratamento do sistema de canal radicular.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Anatomia, dentes, Cebus apella. An anatomic study of Cebus apella root teeth was performed to analyze the internal anatomy of permanent dentition, normalizing its use as experimental model endodontic research. Twelve adult animals were used in this study. After the removal of the organic tissue, the all teeth were removed, sectioned, analyzed and photographed with a stereomicroscope. The results showed that the anatomy of root canal of this species are similar to human dental anatomy, considering the shape, pathway and number of canals, but with some peculiarities, such as: the root canal anatomy varied from oval to circular; in the lower canines, the canals are resembled a kidney, reflecting the outside contour of the root; in the upper molars, the mesiobuccal and distobuccal canals are oval, following the general contour of the tooth. The authors conclude that this primate can be applied as models for study of root canal treatment in human beings, in special the upper central and lateral incisors

  16. Scalloping at the lumbosacral canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, R.

    1987-07-01

    Scalloping is an indentation of the dorsal side of the vertebral body (anterior wall of the lumbosacral or sacral canal) which typically involves several adjacent lumbal vertebral body segments and the anterior wall of the canalis sacralis. Occurrence without underlying disease is rare; it occurs most frequently with chondrodystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Morquio's syndrome, Hurler's syndrome, acromegaly, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, cysts, tumors and in peridural lipomas.

  17. Control y gestión gerencial en la producción audiovisual para canales de televisión como soporte a la toma de decisiones basado en tecnología web

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    La empresa SOFTRAH S.A. enfocó sus esfuerzos en la realización de E-ProdTV, un Sistema de Gestión para Control de Producciones Audiovisuales. Este es el primer producto que la empresa lanzará al mercado, y con el que espera tener éxito, basado en un servicio que busca la satisfacción del cliente, a través de una herramienta tecnológica, que soporte su infraestructura en la producción audiovisual. La elaboración de una producción, inicia con un libreto desglosado en capítulos y esc...

  18. Duración del desempleo y canales de búsqueda de empleo en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Viáfara L.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo estudia la duración del desempleo en Colombia como indicador de la efectividad de los canales de búsqueda de empleo, con información de la Encuesta Continua de Hogares (ECH del segundo trimestre de 2006. Se estiman modelos de duración paramétricos (Weibull de riesgos proporcionales y no paramétricos (Kaplan-Meier. Los resultados indican que en la duración del desempleo influye considerablemente el canal de búsqueda que usan los empleados para conseguir empleo y los desocupados para buscarlo. Los canales más formales son más efectivos.

  19. Nested Canalizing Functions and Their Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kadelka, Claus; Adeyeye, John O; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    The concept of a nested canalizing Boolean function has been studied over the last decade in the context of understanding the regulatory logic of molecular interaction networks, such as gene regulatory networks. Such networks are predominantly governed by nested canalizing functions. Derrida values are frequently used to analyze the robustness of a Boolean network to perturbations. This paper introduces closed formulas for the calculation of Derrida values of networks governed by Boolean nested canalizing functions, which previously required extensive simulations. Recently, the concept of nested canalizing functions has been generalized to include multistate functions, and a recursive formula has been derived for their number, as a function of the number of variables. This paper contains a detailed analysis of the class of nested canalizing functions over an arbitrary finite field. In addition, the concept of nested canalization is further generalized and closed formulas for the number of such generalized fun...

  20. Stability of guest molecules in urea canal complexes by canal polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1995-03-01

    It was found that various organic materials are attracted into urea canal by hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) and long chain compounds. This means that materials which does not form complex by itself are induced in canal by HDDA and long chain compounds. To include with stability perfumes, insecticides, attractants and repellents in urea canal, leaf alcohol was used as a model compound for guest molecules in the canal. The leaf alcohol from the canal released gradually over many days and the release was inhibited for 15 days by long chain compounds and for 30 days by polymerized HDDA after irradiation. After releasing, the leaf alcohol in the canal remained 25 % stable for long chain compounds and 40 % for polymerized HDDA. The dose required for stabilization of leaf alcohol in the urea canal by canal polymerization of HDDA was 30 kGy. (author).

  1. Canals, DMADCanals-Irrigation canals in Millard Co., Published in 2007, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Canals dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'DMADCanals-Irrigation canals in Millard Co.'. Data by this...

  2. El consumo de alimentos orgánicos: aplicación de un modelo logit multinomial a la elección del canal de compra

    OpenAIRE

    Gentile, Natacha; Rodríguez, Elsa Mirta M.

    2006-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo es examinar el desarrollo potencial del mercado doméstico para alimentos orgánicos en Argentina a partir de la importancia relativa que tienen los canales de compra elegidos por los consumidores.

  3. MRI Findings in Spinal Canal Stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Barzin

    2010-01-01

    Spinal canal stenosis results from progressive narrowing of the central spinal canal and the lateral recesses. Primary (congenital) lumbar spinal stenosis is associated with achondroplastic dwarfism. The spinal canal may become narrowed by bulging or protrusion of the intervertebral disc annulus, herniation of the nucleus pulposus posteriorly, thickening of the posterior longitudinal ligament, hypertrophy of the facet joints, hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum, epidural fat deposition, spon...

  4. Diseño de la arquitectura funcional de control para un robot móvil de exploración espacial

    OpenAIRE

    Escudero Sánchez, Naiara

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este estudio es desarrollar un sistema de navegación listo para ser integrado en un robot de exploración de exteriores. Para ello, será necesario implementar un mecanismo capaz de estimar la posición en tiempo real del robot explorador en un entorno de tres dimensiones (3D), que simulará una superficie como podría ser la de cualquier cuerpo del Sistema Solar. Para ello se van a combinar los datos proporcionados por varios dispositivos capaces de recoger información so...

  5. Valor da citologia convencional na presença de lesões macroscópicas do canal anal

    OpenAIRE

    Barcellos,Lêda Pereira de; Russomano, Fábio Bastos; Coutinho,José Ricardo Hildebrandt

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: verifi car o valor da citologia convencional no diagnóstico de lesões macroscópicas do canal anal e descrever as limitações das amostras obtidas. Método: avaliamos 395 exames citológicos convencionais obtidos por escovado do canal anal de pacientes predominantemente do sexo masculino, soropositivos para HIV, e comparamos com a presença de lesões macroscópicas do canal anal constatadas ao exame proctológico. Resultado: o percentual de amostras adequadas foi de 91,6%...

  6. Modelling of Buckingham Canal water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, S A; Khan, F I; Sentilvelan, K; Shabudeen, A

    2002-10-01

    The paper presents a case study of the modelling of the water quality of a canal situated in a petrochemical industrial complex, which receives wastewaters from Madras Refineries Limited (MRL), and Madras Fertilizers Limited (MFL). The canal well known Buckingham Canal which passes through Chennai (Madras), India has been modelled using the software QUAL2E-UNCAS. After testing and validation of the model, simulations have been carried out. The exercise enables forecasting the impacts of different seasons, base flows, and waste water inputs on the water quality of the Buckingham Canal. It also enables development of water management strategies.

  7. Seguimento dos doentes soropositivos e soronegativos para o HIV com carcinoma espinocelular do canal anal Follow-up for HIV negative and HIV-positive patients with anal squamous cells carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Roberto Nadal

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A incidência do carcinoma espinocelular (CEC anal e das neoplasias intra-epiteliais anais (NIA é maior nos pacientes infectados pelo papilomavírus humano (HPV, e está relacionada à imunidade e à infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV. A associação com viroses de transmissão sexual indica que seja tumor sexualmente transmitido. A infecção pelo HIV mudou o perfil dos portadores do CEC anal. A doença que anteriormente acometia mulheres na 6ª década de vida, hoje atinge preferencialmente homens na 3ª e 4ª décadas. Nos Estados Unidos, a expectativa de diagnóstico desse tumor aumentou de 19/100.000, na época pré-HAART (1992-1995, para 48,3/100.000 no período pós-HAART imediato (1996-1999 e para 78,2/100.000 pessoas por ano, nos anos mais recentes (2000-2003. O tratamento do CEC anal, descrito por Nigro em 1974, combina radio e quimioterapia. Operações de resgate estão indicadas caso haja persistência ou recidiva da doença. Estudos comparando, respectivamente, doentes imunodeprimidos e imunocompetentes vêm mostrado envolvimento linfonodal em 60% e 17%, recidivas em 75% e 6%, boa resposta à radio e quimioterapia em 62% e 85%, toxicidade a esse tratamento em 80% e 30%, e sobrevivência global de 1,4 e 5,3 anos. A contagem sérica baixa de linfócitos T CD4 prediz mau prognóstico. Quando acima de 200/mm³, os resultados são comparáveis aos observados entre os imunocompetentes.Anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC and anal intra-epithelial neoplasia (AIN incidences are bigger among human papillomavirus (HPV infections, and are associated to immunity and to HIV infection. These viruses with sexual transmission in association suggested ASCC is a sexually transmitted tumor. HIV infection changed ASCC patient profile. This kind of tumor committed women in theirs sixties, but nowadays, affects mainly men in the third and forth decades of life. In the United States of America, ASCC was diagnosed in 19/100.000, in the

  8. Narrow, duplicated internal auditory canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, T. [Servico de Neurorradiologia, Hospital Garcia de Orta, Avenida Torrado da Silva, 2801-951, Almada (Portugal); Shayestehfar, B. [Department of Radiology, UCLA Oliveview School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Lufkin, R. [Department of Radiology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2003-05-01

    A narrow internal auditory canal (IAC) constitutes a relative contraindication to cochlear implantation because it is associated with aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve or its cochlear branch. We report an unusual case of a narrow, duplicated IAC, divided by a bony septum into a superior relatively large portion and an inferior stenotic portion, in which we could identify only the facial nerve. This case adds support to the association between a narrow IAC and aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The normal facial nerve argues against the hypothesis that the narrow IAC is the result of a primary bony defect which inhibits the growth of the vestibulocochlear nerve. (orig.)

  9. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum.

  10. Bilateral duplication of the internal auditory canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weon, Young Cheol; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Choi, Sung Kyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea); Koo, Ja-Won [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea)

    2007-10-15

    Duplication of the internal auditory canal is an extremely rare temporal bone anomaly that is believed to result from aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. We report bilateral duplication of the internal auditory canal in a 28-month-old boy with developmental delay and sensorineural hearing loss. (orig.)

  11. 33 CFR 117.285 - Grand Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grand Canal. 117.285 Section 117.285 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.285 Grand Canal. (a) The draw of the Lansing Island bridge, mile 0.7, shall open on...

  12. 33 CFR 117.453 - Houma Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Houma Canal. 117.453 Section 117.453 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.453 Houma Canal. The draw of the S3197 bridge, mile 1.7 at Houma, shall open on signal...

  13. 33 CFR 117.438 - Company Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Company Canal. 117.438 Section 117.438 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.438 Company Canal. (a) The draw of the S1 bridge, mile 0.4 at Lockport, shall open...

  14. Neuronal hyperplasia in the anal canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, C; Schrøder, H D

    1990-01-01

    In a consecutive series of minor surgical specimens from the anal canal, neuronal hyperplasia was found in nine of 56 haemorrhoidectomy specimens and in four of 23 fibrous polyps. In an additional series of 14 resections of the anal canal, neuronal hyperplasia was present in six cases, of which...

  15. 33 CFR 117.787 - Gowanus Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gowanus Canal. 117.787 Section 117.787 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.787 Gowanus Canal. The draws of the Ninth Street Bridge, mile 1.4, the Third...

  16. Blending Canal Surfaces Based on PH Curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Dong Xu; Fa-Lai Chen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for blending two canal surfaces is proposed. The blending surface is itself a generalized canal surface, the spine curve of which is a PH (Pythagorean-Hodograph) curve. The blending surface possesses an attractive property - its representation is rational. The method is extensible to blend general surfaces as long as the blending boundaries are well-defined.

  17. 33 CFR 117.445 - Franklin Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Franklin Canal. 117.445 Section 117.445 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.445 Franklin Canal. The draw of the Chatsworth Bridge, mile 4.8 at Franklin, shall...

  18. 33 CFR 117.1045 - Hood Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hood Canal. 117.1045 Section 117.1045 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1045 Hood Canal. The draw of the Washington State pontoon highway bridge near...

  19. DESIGN OF SEDIMENT TRANSPORTING CANAL SECTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prabhata K.SWAMEE; Nimisha SWAMEE

    2004-01-01

    Design equations for minimum area or maximum velocity canal-sections for transport of bulk sediment carried by water have been obtained. Such canals are economically feasible in the terrain where large slopes are available. The design procedure is illustrated by a practical example.

  20. Fracturas de implantes de tibia. Consecuencias para los ensayos de los implantes

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar los modelos de fracturas de prótesis de tibia descritos en la literatura y, sobre la base de dichos conocimientos, desarrollar un ensayo para implantes en la cual se logren simular condiciones fisiológicas. El caso descrito con mayor frecuencia en la literatura es la migración de la parte medial de la prótesis, fenómeno que, a menudo, antecede a la fractura de la prótesis. La posición defectuosa resultante de dicha migración modifica el eje ...

  1. Tissue engineering in endodontics: root canal revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palit Madhu Chanda; Hegde, K Sundeep; Bhat, Sham S; Sargod, Sharan S; Mantha, Somasundar; Chattopadhyay, Sayan

    2014-01-01

    Root canal revascularization attempts to make necrotic tooth alive by the use of certain simple clinical protocols. Earlier apexification was the treatment of choice for treating and preserving immature permanent teeth that have lost pulp vitality. This procedure promoted the formation of apical barrier to seal the root canal of immature teeth and nonvital filling materials contained within root canal space. However with the success of root canal revascularization to regenerate the pulp dentin complex of necrotic immature tooth has made us to rethink if apexification is at the beginning of its end. The objective of this review is to discuss the new concepts of tissue engineering in endodontics and the clinical steps of root canal revascularization.

  2. Clinical management of infected root canal dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, R M

    1996-08-01

    Several hundred different species of bacteria are present in the human intraoral environment. Bacterial penetration of root canal dentin occurs when bacteria invade the root canal system. These bacteria may constitute a reservoir from which root canal reinfection may occur during or after endodontic treatment. The learning objective of this article is to review endodontic microbiology, update readers on the role of bacteria in pulp and periapical disease, and discuss the principles of management of infected root canal dentin. Complete debridement, removal of microorganisms and affected dentin, and chemomechanical cleansing of the root canal are suggested as being the cornerstones of successful endodontic therapy, followed by intracanal medication to remove residual bacteria, when required.

  3. Type III apical transportation of root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv P Mantri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Procedural accidents leading to complications such as canal transportation have been ascribed to inapt cleaning and shaping concepts. Canal transportation is an undesirable deviation from the natural canal path. Herewith a case of apical transportation of root canal resulting in endodontic retreatment failure and its management is presented. A healthy 21-year-old young male presented discomfort and swelling associated with painful endodontically retreated maxillary incisor. Radiograph revealed periradicular radiolucency involving underfilled 11 and overfilled 12. Insufficiently obturated 11 exhibited apical transportation of canal. This type III transportation was treated by periradicular surgery and repair using white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Comfortable asymptomatic patient presented uneventful healing at third and fourth month recall visits. A decrease in the size of radiolucency in radiograph supported the clinical finding. In the present case, MTA is useful in repairing the transportation defect. The result of these procedures is predictable and successful.

  4. MRI Findings in Spinal Canal Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Barzin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Spinal canal stenosis results from progressive narrowing of the central spinal canal and the lateral recesses. Primary (congenital lumbar spinal stenosis is associated with achondroplastic dwarfism. The spinal canal may become narrowed by bulging or protrusion of the intervertebral disc annulus, herniation of the nucleus pulposus posteriorly, thickening of the posterior longitudinal ligament, hypertrophy of the facet joints, hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum, epidural fat deposition, spondylosis of the intervertebral disc margins and uncovertebral joint hypertrophy in the neck. The central canal and the neurorecess may be compromised by tumor infiltration, such as metastatic disease, or by infectious spondylitis."nAP diameter of the normal adult cervical canal has a mean value of 17-18 mm at vertebral levels C3-5. The lower cervical canal measures 12-14 mm. Cervical stenosis is associated with an AP diameter of less than 10 mm. The thoracic spinal canal varies from 12 to 14 mm in diameter in the adult. The diameter of the normal lumbar spinal canal varies from 15 to 27 mm. Lumbar stenosis results from a spinal canal diameter of less than 12 mm in some patients; a diameter of 10 mm is definitely stenotic."nSpinal MRI is the most suitable technique for the diagnosis of spinal stenosis. The examination should be performed using thin sections (3 mm and high resolution, including the axial and sagittal planes using T1-weighted, proton-density, and T2-weighted techniques. The bony and osteophytic components are seen best using a T2-weighted gradient-echo technique."nOn MRI, findings of spinal stenosis have a variable presentation depending on the specific disease. The goal of spinal imaging is to localize the site and level of disease and to help differentiate between conditions in which patients require surgery or conservative treatment."nIn this presentation, different kinds of spinal canal stenosis and their MRI findings would be discussed.

  5. Desarrollo de Simuladores para Procesos Industriales. Parte III (Colada continua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez, A.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This work was written for illustrating the use of Monte Carlo methods and generating of random number in combination with the information of the simulation system for thermal behavior described previously in order to reproduce in a computer the solidification process of the steel and simulate the formation of structures of casting step by step.

    Este trabajo muestra el empleo de técnicas de métodos de Monte Carlo y generación de números aleatorios en combinación con datos obtenidos del sistema de simulación (SSCC para comportamiento térmico previamente descrito para la reproducción computacional del proceso de solidificación del acero y simular la formación de estructuras de colada paso a paso.

  6. Evaluation of the ecological effects of heavy metals on the assemblages of benthic foraminifera of the canals of Aveiro (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, V.; da Silva, E. Ferreira; Sequeira, C.; Rocha, F.; Duarte, A. C.

    2010-04-01

    Aveiro is a town with 80,000 inhabitants situated in the central west coast of Portugal. It is located at the centre of the Ria de Aveiro, a coastal lagoon that functions as a multi-estuarine area. This town is crossed by several canals which are connected with lagoon channels through canal locks. The operation of the canal locks influences the hydro dynamism in Aveiro's canal and this and other human activities have left a sedimentary record. The study of these records was based on the sediments grain size and composition, mineralogy (by XRD techniques), geochemical (by ICP-MS), total organic carbon (TOC), and microfaunal (benthic foraminifera) content in 15 grab-samples collected in 2006 in Aveiro's canal. The total elemental concentrations evaluated by total digestion of the sediment fraction canals, related to legacies of past industrial activities. These "hot spots" have, for instance, higher available concentrations of Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn and Zn (evaluated by sequential chemical extractions) and are located in Paraíso, Alboi, Botirões and Cojo Canals, at sites where the sediments are finer and richer in TOC. Abiotic and biotic variables submitted to principal component analysis and cluster analysis highlights the hydrodynamics and human effects on the system and the negative influence of pollutants on the benthic organisms (foraminifera).

  7. Canals in Milky Way radio polarization maps

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, A; Fletcher, Andrew; Shukurov, Anvar

    2006-01-01

    Narrow depolarized canals are common in maps of the polarized synchrotron emission of the Milky Way. Two physical effects that can produce these canals have been identified: the presence of Faraday rotation measure ($\\RM$) gradients in a foreground screen and the cumulative cancellation of polarization known as differential Faraday rotation. We show that the behaviour of the Stokes parameters $Q$ and $U$ in the vicinity of a canal can be used to identify its origin. In the case of canals produced by a Faraday screen we demonstrate that, if the polarization angle changes by $90\\degr$ across the canal, as is observed in all fields to-date, the gradients in $\\RM$ must be discontinuous. Shocks are an obvious source of such discontinuities and we derive a relation of the expected mean separation of canals to the abundance and Mach number of supernova driven shocks, and compare this with recent observations by \\citet{Haverkorn03}. We also predict the existence of less common canals with polarization angle changes o...

  8. Panama Canal Watershed Experiment- Agua Salud Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Robert F.; Ogden, Fred L.; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Hall, Jefferson S.

    2010-01-01

    The Agua Salud Project utilizes the Panama Canal’s (Canal) central role in world commerce to focus global attention on the ecosystem services provided by tropical forests. The Canal was one of the great engineering projects in the world. Completed in 1914, after almost a decade of concerted effort, its 80 km length greatly shortened the voyage between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. An entire class of ships, the Panamax, has been constructed to maximize the amount of cargo that can be carried in a Canal passage. In today’s parlance, the Canal is a “green” operation, powered largely by water (Table 1). The locks, three pairs on each end with a net lift of 27 meters, are gravity fed. For each ton of cargo that is transferred from ocean to ocean, about 13 tons of water (m3) are used. Lake Gatún forms much of the waterway in the Canal transect. Hydroelectricity is generated at the Gatún dam, whenever there is surplus water, and at Madden Dam (completed in 1936) when water is transferred from Lake Alhajuela to Lake Gatún. The Canal watershed is the source of drinking water for Panama City and Colon City, at either end of the Canal, and numerous towns in between.

  9. Construção de códigos LDPC otimizados para canais com Desvanecimento Nakagami - M

    OpenAIRE

    Elias, Felipe Gabriel de Mello

    2011-01-01

    Resumo: Este trabalho realiza o estudo e a construção de códigos LDPC para o canal com desvanecimento Nakagami-m. Este modelo de canal de desvanecimento vêm ganhando destaque nos últimos anos e possui uma grande importância nos sistemas de comunicação sem fio. Através do algoritmo Density Evolution associado ao algoritmo de busca Differential Evolution e do equacionamento das funções densidade de probabilidade para o canal Nakagami-m foram encontrados códigos LDPC otimizados para o canal em q...

  10. Anterior canal BPPV and apogeotropic posterior canal BPPV: two rare forms of vertical canalolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Califano, L; Salafia, F; Mazzone, S; Melillo, M G; Califano, M

    2014-06-01

    Posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most frequent form of BPPV. It is characterized by a paroxysmal positioning nystagmus evoked through Dix-Hallpike and Semont positioning tests. Anterior canal BPPV (AC) is more rare than posterior canal BPPV; it presents a prevalent down beating positioning nystagmus, with a torsional component clockwise for the left canal, counterclockwise for the right canal. Due to the possible lack of the torsional component, it is sometimes difficult to identify the affected ear. An apogeotropic variant of posterior BPPV (APC) has recently been described, characterised by a paroxysmal positional nystagmus in the opposite direction to the one evoked in posterior canal BPPV: the linear component is down-beating, the torsional component is clockwise for the right canal, counter-clockwise for the left canal, so that a contra-lateral anterior canal BPPV could be simulated. During a 16 month period, of 934 BPPV patients observed, the authors identified 23 (2.5%) cases of apogeotropic posterior canal BPPV and 11 (1.2%) cases of anterior canal BPPV, diagnosed using the specific oculomotor patterns described in the literature. Anterior canal BPPV was treated with the repositioning manoeuvre proposed by Yacovino, which does not require identification of the affected side, whereas apogeotropic posterior canal BPPV was treated with the Quick Liberatory Rotation manoeuvre for the typical posterior canal BPPV, since in the Dix-Hallpike position otoliths are in the same position if they come either from the ampullary arm or from the non-ampullary arm. The direct resolution of BPPV (one step therapy) was obtained in 12/34 patients, 8/23 patients with APC and 4/11 patients with AC; canalar conversion into typical posterior canal BPPV, later treated through Quick Liberatory Rotation (two-step therapy), was obtained in 19 patients,14/23 with APC and 5/11 with AC. Three patients were lost to follow-up. Considering the effects of

  11. Inner Harbor Navigation Canal Basin Velocity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 4- 12 Inner Harbor Navigation Canal Basin Velocity Analysis Co as ta l a nd H yd ra ul ic s La bo ra to ry...library at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. ERDC/CHL TR-14-12 October 2014 Inner Harbor Navigation Canal Basin Velocity Analysis...system of levees, gates, and drainage structures in the Inner Harbor Navigation Canal (IHNC) basin and the greater New Orleans, Louisiana, area. Two

  12. Calidad sanitaria de los canales de Tortuguero y su efecto sobre los diferentes usos del agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darner Mora Alvarado

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la importancia turística y socioeconómica de los canales de Tortuguero para la provincia de Limón, pero sobre todo a que este sistema de agua sirve como cuerpo receptor de los ríos Colorado, Tortuguero,. Reventazón-Parismina, Pacuare y Matina, se presenta este estudio con el objetivo de determinar el grado de contaminación fecal de dichos canales. Para cumplir con el mismo se ubicó 10 estaciones de muestreo a lo largo de los 122 kilómetros, antes y después de las desembocaduras de los ríos mencionados. Los resultados de los análisis indican que en su mayor parte son buenos para ser utilizados como fuentes de agua para potabilización, pero no para la natación ni el cultivo de peces, pues muy pocos puntos de muestreo son aceptables para la irrigación de cultivos para consumir crudos, y no se pueden utilizar para agua de consumo humano sin previo tratamiento.

  13. Un sistema presión-volumen para la medición de propiedades mecánicas de vasos cardíacos menores

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Las propiedades mecánicas de vasos cardíacos menores (VM) son poco estudiadas. El sistema Presión-Volumen (PV) propuesto, desarrollado para evaluar comportamientos esfuerzo-deformación (σ-ε) de VM, permite variar controladamente la presión interna y simular alteraciones geométricas al tubo. Se obtuvieron imágenes de las geometrías para cada valor de presión interna. Asumiendo el tubo en equilibrio, con pared elástica y presiones conocidas, se determinaron esfuerzo y deformación circunferencia...

  14. Boolean nested canalizing functions: a comprehensive analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuan; Murrugarra, David; Aguilar, Boris; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Boolean network models of molecular regulatory networks have been used successfully in computational systems biology. The Boolean functions that appear in published models tend to have special properties, in particular the property of being nested canalizing, a property inspired by the concept of canalization in evolutionary biology. It has been shown that networks comprised of nested canalizing functions have dynamic properties that make them suitable for modeling molecular regulatory networks, namely a small number of (large) attractors, as well as relatively short limit cycles. This paper contains a detailed analysis of this class of functions, based on a novel normal form as polynomial functions over the Boolean field. The concept of layer is introduced that stratifies variables into different classes depending on their level of dominance. Using this layer concept a closed form formula is derived for the number of nested canalizing functions with a given number of variables. Additional metrics analyzed in...

  15. Two root canals in maxillary central incisor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Almeida Gomes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The success of endodontic treatment requires the knowledge of tooth morphology and its variations. Case report: This clinical article reports an unusual root canal configuration that was detected in a maxillary central incisor with two root canals, demonstrated by radiographic and computerized tomography exams. Conclusion: Knowledge of endodontic anatomy as well as the obtainment of both preoperative radiographs and tomography is important to detect abnormal tooth morphology.

  16. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L; Gilbertson, M; Eames, I

    2010-12-01

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid

  17. Medida da área do canal vertebral lombar em diferentes faixas etárias Medida de la superficie del canal vertebral lumbar en los diferentes grupos de edad Lumbar spinal canal area in different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Ortiz

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: medir as dimensões do canal vertebral lombar por meio de tomografia computadorizada, de modo a comparar os valores das diferentes faixas etárias e determinação da possível diferença entre elas. MÉTODOS: a área do canal vertebral lombar foi medida em 78 indivíduos, divididos em oito grupos etários, com dados obtidos de exames de tomografia computadorizada do abdômen. As medidas foram realizadas nos cortes axiais nas vértebras L1, L3 e L5 ao nível da região trans-pedicular. Utilizado o método estatístico de ANOVA (análise de variância com análise de diferentes "p-value" para cada grupo estudado. RESULTADOS: as medidas para L1 produziram um "p-value" de 0,586 para a faixa etária e um "p-value" de 0,003 para o sexo. Portanto, não há diferença entre as faixas etárias e há diferença entre os sexos, sendo maior no sexo masculino. Para L3, o "p-value" da faixa etária foi de 0,258 e para o sexo de 0,062; no caso de L5, o "p-value" para a faixa etária foi de 0,279 e para o sexo de 0,003. CONCLUSÃO: não foi observada diferença estatística da área do canal vertebral lombar nos níveis L1, L3 e L5 nas diferentes faixas etárias. No entanto o diâmetro no sexo masculino foi maior com diferença estatística.OBJETIVO: medir el área del canal vertebral lumbar, utilizando la tomografía computarizada, comparándolo entre los distintos grupos de edad y determinar si existen diferencias entre ellos. MÉTODOS: el área del canal vertebral lumbar se midió en 78 temas, divididos en 8 grupos, con los datos obtenidos a partir de exploraciones de tomografía computarizada del a domen. Las mediciones se hicieron en las vértebras L1, L3 y L5 en la región transpedicular. RESULTADOS: medidas para L1 producido un p-valor de 0,586 para el grupo de edad y un p-valor de 0,003 para el sexo, por tanto, no hay diferencia entre los grupos de edad y hay diferencias entre los sexos, siendo mayor en los hombres; para L3, el "pvalue" del

  18. Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence: a morphologic cause of vertigo similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krombach, G.A.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Haage, P.; Guenther, R.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); DiMartino, E. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Prescher, A. [Department of Anatomy, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Kinzel, S. [Department of Experimental Veterinarian Medicine, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    Heading Abstract.The aim of this study was to assess imaging findings of posterior semicircular dehiscence on computed tomography and to evaluate incidence of posterior and superior semicircular canal dehiscence in patients presenting with vertigo, sensorineuronal hearing loss or in a control group without symptoms related to the inner ear. Computed tomography was performed in 507 patients presenting either with vertigo (n=128; 23 of these patients suffered also from sensorineuronal hearing loss), other symptoms related to the inner ear, such as hearing loss or tinnitus (n=183) or symptoms unrelated to the labyrinth (n=196). All images were reviewed for presence of dehiscence of the bone, overlying the semicircular canals. Twenty-nine patients had superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Of these patients, 83% presented with vertigo, 10% with hearing loss or tinnitus and the remaining 7% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. In 23 patients dehiscence of the posterior semicircular canal was encountered. Of these patients, 86% presented with vertigo, 9% with hearing loss or tinnitus and 5% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. Defects of the bony overly are found at the posterior semicircular canal, in addition to the recently introduced superior canal dehiscence syndrome. Significant prevalence of vertigo in these patients suggests that posterior semicircular canal dehiscence can cause vertigo, similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence. (orig.)

  19. An in vitro model to investigate filling of lateral canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, Mauro; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Prati, Carlo; Breschi, Lorenzo

    2005-12-01

    Aims of this work were to examine lateral canals in extracted teeth, to propose a new technique to produce artificial lateral canals, and to compare two obturation techniques. Cleared roots were examined to record measure and shape of lateral canals. Artificial lateral canals were prepared on human demineralized teeth before final clearing. Specimens were divided in two groups: canals of group 1 were filled with Schilder's technique, canals of group 2 were filled with vertical compaction with apical backfilling. Stereomicroscopic analysis of lateral canal filling revealed lower filling rates in apical canals compared to coronal ones and higher filling rates with "vertical compaction with apical backfilling" compared to Schilder's group. The tested procedure appears to be a reliable technique to obtain standardized lateral canals and to compare filling procedures.

  20. A radiographic study of mandibular canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Chul; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral Radiology, Division of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-11-15

    The author invested the gonial angle, the angle of mandibular and mental canal to the lower border of the mandible, and a relationship of the position of the mandibular canal to the root apex of the posterior teeth and the cortical plate of the lower of the mandible. The materials consisted of 458 pantomograms in male and female aged 11-40 and divided into 5 groups at year intervals and subdivided into 3 groups by gonial angle. The results were as follows: 1. The gonial angle decreased with age, but slight increase occurred over 26-30 years. 2. The average angle of the mandibular canal to the lower border of the mandible was 151.6 degree and did not correlate with age. 3. The average angle of the mental canal to the lower border of the mandible was 36.9 degree and didn't correlate with age. 4. The angles of mandibular and mental canal to the lower border of mandible correlated with gonial angle. 5. The distance from the root apex of the posterior teeth to the upper wall mandibular canal was most short at the region of the distal root of the mandibular second and increased with age at the region of the mandibular second molar. 6. The distance from the lower wall of the mandibular canal to the cortical plate of the lower border of the mandibule was most short at the region of the mesial root of the mandibular first molar and didn't correlate with age.

  1. Aislamiento de Salmonella en canales de aves y evaluación de la efectividad de diferentes medios de enriquecimiento y selectivos

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Se evaluó la frecuencia de salmonela en canales de aves y la efectividad de su aislamiento en diferentes medios de cultivo de enriquecimiento y selectivos. Noventa y un canales de pollos fueron tomadas directamente de la cadena de procesamiento de dos plantas beneficiadoras (estado Zulia, Venezuela). Para el aislamiento, fueron usados medios de enriquecimiento y selectivos. Los medios de enriquecimiento incluyeron: Caldo Selenito Cistina (CS) y Caldo Tetrationato (CT). Los medios selectivos i...

  2. ESTUDIO TEORICO DE SELECTIVIDAD ANIONICA Y MECANISMO DE APERTURA Y CIERRE (GATING) EN CANALES DE CLORURO DE LA FAMILIA CLC.

    OpenAIRE

    BRIONES JARA, RODOLFO CESAR

    2006-01-01

    CIC es una familia de proteínas de membrana que transportan cloruros y desempeñan funciones como canales de cloruro o intercambiadores protón/cloruro. Estas proteínas, conservadas desde bacterias a humanos, son importantes para la fisiología celular y est 115p.

  3. Implementación del proceso de canal verde en la aduana marítima de Guayaquil

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    propone un nuevo proceso para facilitar el comercio exterior y de manera en especial las actividades de importación; este proceso denominado Canal Verde o Aforo Automático está siendo aplicando en la mayoría de las aduanas del mundo logrando crear aduanas eficientes

  4. Canal mandibular accesorio: análisis de su prevalencia y aspecto imagenológico Accessory mandibular canal: analysis of prevalence and imaging appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Suazo Galdames

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La presencia de canales accesorios en la mandíbula ha sido reportada en la literatura, siendo cuestionado el carácter de variación anatómica de su presentación. El reconocimiento de estas formaciones tiene gran importancia en la práctica de la implantología. El propósito de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia del canal mandibular accesorio y establecer su trayecto y relación con elementos anatómicos circundantes, en mandíbulas secas de individuos adultos pertenecientes al museo de cráneos de la Universidad Federal de São Paulo, mediante imágenes tomografías computarizadas. Material y método: Se analizaron 294 mandíbulas de sexo y edad conocidos, pertenecientes a 195 hombres y 99 mujeres, de entre 18 y 100 años de edad, las cuales fueron inspeccionadas visualmente y con ayuda de un indicador metálico, el cual se mantuvo para obtener sus imágenes en tomografía axial computarizada, examinándose su proyección panorámica y en cortes coronales. Resultados: La prevalencia del canal mandibular accesorio fue de 1,7% (5/294, todos ellos se extendieron paralelos al canal principal, proyectándose anteriormente al foramen mentoniano, con una corticalización parcial. Discusiones: El canal mandibular accesorio presenta una baja prevalencia en la muestra analizada, proponemos que su presencia está asociada a una proyección independiente de los ramos incisivos del nervio alveolar inferior, cuya evaluación es necesaria para evitar su compromiso en los procedimientos implantológicos mandibulares.Introduction: The presence of accessory canals in the mandible has been reported in the literature, still challenge the view that anatomical variation of submission. The recognition of these formations is of great importance in implantology practice. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of accessory mandibular canal and set their course and relationship to surrounding anatomic elements in dry

  5. The Kra Canal and Southeast Asian Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Suryati Sulong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a conceptual study that attempts to analyse the possible effects of the development of the Kra Isthmus Canal on ASEAN relations. The Kra Canal would constitute a mega-project, a passageway that would connect the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand at the Isthmus of Kra, Thailand. Although the proposed Kra Canal is projected to provide many economic and trade benefits to Thailand, and to the region as a whole, steps toward its development have yet to be taken. There has been much debate over the costs for trade, the costs for the environment, national and regional security concerns, as well as major concerns related to political and economic relations in the region. Therefore, one of the main purposes of this study is to contribute to the debate on the possible impact of the devel-opment of the Kra Canal on ASEAN’s regional relations. In particular, it proposes that the development of the Kra Canal could threaten regional solidarity as it would physically divide maritime Southeast Asia from main-land Southeast Asia, which would ultimately result in an economic, cultural and political divide of ASEAN itself.

  6. Canal de Mensagens de Trânsito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egon Cervieri Guterres

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Informe Setorial: O Canal de Mensagens de Trânsito (Traffic Message Channel - TMC é uma padronização internacional para a distribuição de informações (conteúdo sobre a situação do trânsito urbano local e inter-regional, em tempo real, de forma eletrônica e diretamente aos motoristas. Traz para os cidadãos, em mensagens eletrônicas simples e acessíveis, informações sobre congestionamentos, acidentes, obras na pista, problemas climáticos (alagamentos, asfalto escorregadio, nevoeiro... e desvios de rota, além de muitos outros eventos de trânsito, oferecendo, em linguagem padronizada de fácil compreensão, a descrição do incidente, área de efeito, duração esperada e, quando possível, caminhos alternativos para evitá-lo.

  7. Synchronous rectal adenocarcinoma and anal canal adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Jin; LI Jiyou; YAO Yunfeng; LU Aiping; WANG Hongyi

    2007-01-01

    It is difficult to distinguish a tectal carcinoma with anal metastases from coexistent synchronous anorectal carcinomas.The therapeutic strategy for rectal and anal carcinoma is so different that it should be clearly identified.Here,we report on the case of a 63-year-old man who presented with an upper-third rectal adenocarcinoma.Five months after resection,he developed an adenocarcinoma in the anal canal.The histological slides of both tumors were reviewed and immunohistochemical studies for cytokeratins(CKs)7 and 20 were performed.The index tumor demonstrated CK 7-/CK 20+and the second showed CK7+/CK20+.For this reason,we believe the present case had synchronous adenocarcinomas arising from anal canal and the rectum separately.It is very important to difierentiate the anorectal lesions pathologically because of the impact on the therapeutic options available,especially for the lesion arising in the anal canal.

  8. File list: Unc.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 Unclassified Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canal...s http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  9. File list: Unc.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 Unclassified Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canal...s http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  10. File list: Unc.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 Unclassified Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canal...s http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  11. File list: His.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 Histone Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canal...s http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  12. File list: His.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 Histone Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canal...s http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  13. File list: His.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 Histone Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canal...s http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  14. File list: His.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 Histone Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canal...s http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  15. File list: Unc.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 Unclassified Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canal...s http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  16. Cancer of the external auditory canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyrop, Mette; Grøntved, Aksel

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of surgery for cancer of the external auditory canal and relate this to the Pittsburgh staging system used both on squamous cell carcinoma and non-squamous cell carcinoma. DESIGN: Retrospective case series of all patients who had surgery between 1979 and 2000....... PATIENTS: Ten women and 10 men with previously untreated primary cancer. Median age at diagnosis was 67 years (range, 31-87 years). Survival data included 18 patients with at least 2 years of follow-up or recurrence. INTERVENTION: Local canal resection or partial temporal bone resection. MAIN OUTCOME...

  17. Polyacrylamide Transport in Water Delivery Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Zhu, J.; Young, M.

    2007-12-01

    Linear, anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) is being considered in the western United States as a technology to reduce seepage in unlined water delivery canals. A broad laboratory and field testing program has been undertaken to understand the benefits and potential environmental impacts of PAM use. The ability to predict the fate and transport of PAM in water delivery canals could prove to be a useful planning tool for PAM application. However, one key area of uncertainty of this type of canal treatment is the hydration, reaction, and settling rates of PAM after the dry powder is added to the canal water. In this study, we have developed a model that incorporates a number of known physical and chemical processes that can affect PAM transport, such as convection, dispersion, dissolution, flocculation, and settling, while solving the governing convection-dispersion transport equation. The model uses a mixed analytical and advanced numerical approach, and implements a transient partitioning of PAM mass between the canal water, the substrate soil, and potentially to open water bodies downstream of the application point. All source terms are modeled based on physical and chemical mechanisms as well as laboratory or field determined parameters. To more closely simulate field treatment of some canals, where PAM application moves upstream in time, the model is capable of implementing either a fixed or mobile upper boundary. In the latter treatment, the PAM can be added discretely or continuously in both time and space. A number of test situations have been simulated thus far, including theoretical and hypothetical cases for a wide range of conditions. The model also performed well when predicting PAM concentrations from a full-scale canal treatment experiment. The model provides a useful tool for predicting PAM fate and transport in water delivery canals, and therefore can play an important role in evaluating the efficacy of PAM application for water resources management

  18. Surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canals of maxillary incisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This case report presents surgical endodontic management outcomes of maxillary incisors that were infected via the lateral canals. Two cases are presented in which endodontically-treated maxillary central incisors had sustained lateral canal infections. A surgical endodontic treatment was performed on both teeth. Flap elevation revealed vertical bone destruction along the root surface and infected lateral canals, and microscopy revealed that the lateral canals were the origin of the lesions. After the infected lateral canals were surgically managed, both teeth were asymptomatic and labial fistulas were resolved. There were no clinical or radiographic signs of surgical endodontic management failure at follow-up visits. This case report highlights the clinical significance and surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canal of maxillary incisor. It is important to be aware of root canal anatomy variability in maxillary incisors. Maxillary central incisors infected via the lateral canal can be successfully managed by surgical endodontic treatment. PMID:25671217

  19. Cochlear implant outcomes in patients with superior canal dehiscence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puram, Sidharth V.; Roberts, Daniel S.; Niesten, Marlien E F; Dilger, Amanda E.; Lee, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether adult cochlear implant (CI) users with superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) or asymptomatic superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) have different surgical, vestibular, and audiologic outcomes when compared to CI users with normal temporal bone anatomy. Meth

  20. Stratification and enumeration of Boolean functions by canalizing depth

    CERN Document Server

    He, Qijun

    2015-01-01

    Boolean network models have gained popularity in computational systems biology over the last dozen years. Many of these networks use canalizing Boolean functions, which has led to increased interest in the study of these functions. The canalizing depth of a function describes how many canalizing variables can be recursively picked off, until a non-canalizing function remains. In this paper, we show how every Boolean function has a unique algebraic form involving extended monomial layers and a well-defined core polynomial. This generalizes recent work on the algebraic structure of nested canalizing functions, and it yields a stratification of all Boolean functions by their canalizing depth. As a result, we obtain closed formulas for the number of n-variable Boolean functions with depth k, which simultaneously generalizes enumeration formulas for canalizing, and nested canalizing functions.

  1. Intradermal melanocytic nevus of the external auditory canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Renato V; Brandão, Fabiano H; Aquino, José E P; Carvalho, Maria R M S; Giancoli, Suzana M; Younes, Eduado A P

    2005-01-01

    Intradermal nevi are common benign pigmented skin tumors. Their occurrence within the external auditory canal is uncommon. The clinical and pathologic features of an intradermal nevus arising within the external auditory canal are presented, and the literature reviewed.

  2. Stratification and enumeration of Boolean functions by canalizing depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qijun; Macauley, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Boolean network models have gained popularity in computational systems biology over the last dozen years. Many of these networks use canalizing Boolean functions, which has led to increased interest in the study of these functions. The canalizing depth of a function describes how many canalizing variables can be recursively "picked off", until a non-canalizing function remains. In this paper, we show how every Boolean function has a unique algebraic form involving extended monomial layers and a well-defined core polynomial. This generalizes recent work on the algebraic structure of nested canalizing functions, and it yields a stratification of all Boolean functions by their canalizing depth. As a result, we obtain closed formulas for the number of n-variable Boolean functions with depth k, which simultaneously generalizes enumeration formulas for canalizing, and nested canalizing functions.

  3. Variações anatómicas do canal mandibular

    OpenAIRE

    Morgado, Tito

    2013-01-01

    Projeto de Pós-Graduação/Dissertação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Medicina Dentária O canal mandibular é uma estrutura radiograficamente delimitada por duas margens radiopacas, localizado no osso da mandíbula desde o buraco mandibular até ao buraco mentoniano, que serve de ducto para o nervo alveolar inferior, estrutura de vital importância nos tratamentos efectuados na mandíbula e, se não for correctamente...

  4. Viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function using acoustic reflectometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Peter J; Klarskov, Niels; Telford, Karen J;

    2012-01-01

    Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new reproducible technique that allows a viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis.......Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new reproducible technique that allows a viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis....

  5. 75 FR 32275 - Regulated Navigation Area; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ..., Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey Canal, Algiers Canal, New Orleans, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...), Harvey Canal, and Algiers Canal during severe hurricane conditions. Vessels will not be permitted to stay... communities within the IHNC, Harvey, and Algiers Canals from potential hazards associated with vessels...

  6. Intencionalidad Editorial: El canal elgourmet.com y su discurso de clase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malena Escalante Sánchez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente informe constituye un observatorio de medios de la cobertura que el canal “elgourmet.com” realiza sobre el estilo gourmet en especial, examinando los procedimientos empleados para instalarlo como una forma de consumo diferenciador de clases. Para tal fin se analizaron las referencias hechas sobre dicho estilo y, la manera cómo se habla de este con la intención de elucidar cómo se inscribe dentro de un discurso periodístico referido a lo gastronómico.Posteriormente, se indagó en la concepción de clase que subyace en el discurso periodístico elegido, analizándolo a través del modelo teórico- metodológico de Intencionalidad editorial, para la producción y análisis de los procesos periodísticos, para develar si en efecto el canal construye o no un estilo elitista, sofisticado y excluyente en torno a la gastronomíaFinalmente, los datos relevados se pusieron en contexto para observar la parcialidad del medio analizado.

  7. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872.3820 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a...

  8. 33 CFR 117.455 - Houma Navigation Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Houma Navigation Canal. 117.455 Section 117.455 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.455 Houma Navigation Canal. The draw of SR 661 (Houma Nav Canal) bridge,...

  9. 21 CFR 872.3810 - Root canal post.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal post. 872.3810 Section 872.3810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3810 Root canal post. (a) Identification. A root canal post is a device made of austenitic alloys...

  10. Nerve canals at the fundus of the internal auditory canal on high-resolution temporal bone CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Yoon Ha; Youn, Eun Kyung; Kim, Seung Chul [Sungkyunkwan Univ., School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    To identify and evaluate the normal anatomy of nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal which can be visualized on high-resolution temporal bone CT. We retrospectively reviewed high-resolution (1 mm thickness and interval contiguous scan) temporal bone CT images of 253 ears in 150 patients who had not suffered trauma or undergone surgery. Those with a history of uncomplicated inflammatory disease were included, but those with symptoms of vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, or facial nerve palsy were excluded. Three radiologists determined the detectability and location of canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial, superior vestibular and cochlear nerve, and the saccular branch and posterior ampullary nerve of the inferior vestibular nerve. Five bony canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were identified as nerve canals. Four canals were identified on axial CT images in 100% of cases; the so-called singular canal was identified in only 68%. On coronal CT images, canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial and superior vestibular nerve were seen in 100% of cases, but those for the cochlear nerve, the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve, and the singular canal were seen in 90.1%, 87.4% and 78% of cases, respectiveIy. In all detectable cases, the canal for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve was revealed as one which traversed anterolateralIy, from the anterosuperior portion of the fundus of the internal auditory canal. The canal for the cochlear nerve was located just below that for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve, while that canal for the superior vestibular nerve was seen at the posterior aspect of these two canals. The canal for the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve was located just below the canal for the superior vestibular nerve, and that for the posterior ampullary nerve, the so-called singular canal, ran laterally or posteolateralIy from the posteroinferior aspect of

  11. Root canal cleaning through cavitation and microstreaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaagen, B.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the flow from a needle using Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations and high-speed imaging experiments on sub-millimeter fluidic channels. These have shown that the flow is not effective in delivering the bleach near the bacteria, due to the complex geometry of the root canal.

  12. The crazy project – Canal Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Kundak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It was late April 2011 when “the Crazy Project - Canal Istanbul” was proposed by the Prime Minister of Turkey, during his election campaign.  Although the idea of an artificial canal is not new, since it is initiated without any consensus between the people and institutions in Istanbul, the project immediately set a large number of debates. These vary from the legitimacy of decentralization of governance, to potential impacts of the canal on international politics, economy, environment and urban life.  Regarding past infrastructure projects in Istanbul, such large scale investments have caused extensive acceleration in construction sector in one hand and social and economic shifts on the other.  In this paper, the Canal Istanbul Project is evaluated according to basic motivations and claims of the PM, multi-perspective view through challenges and limitation that the project is likely to face with and speculations on implementation approach. The final discussion on the project is based on benefits/losses of Istanbul once the project will be implemented.

  13. Note on Tendipedidae of the Suez Canal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruseman, G.

    1949-01-01

    Mr. A. C. V. VAN BEMMEL and Dr. A. DIAKONOFF of the Buitenzorg Museum (Java) collected Tendipedidae, which were attracted by artificial lights, when they passed the Suez Canal on 8-XI-1937 and 16-V-1939 respectively. This very interesting collection, containing some new species, was sent to me for d

  14. Infrared tympanic temperature and ear canal morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Several publications indicate that the infrared tympanic temperature (IRTT) underestimates the core temperature of the body when the ear canal is long, curvy and narrow. In order to quantify these observations, a study was performed in 10 subjects. The IRTT was determined and compared to the oesopha

  15. Calidad y rendimiento en canal de corderos en pastoreo suplementados con caña de azúcar fermentada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Frías

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue medir el rendimiento de la canal y la calidad de la carne de corderos alimentados con pasto, suplementados con caña de azúcar fermentada en forma aeróbica. Se llevó a cabo en dos sitios. Se trabajó con un grupo de 13 corderos de 11.5 kg de peso vivo inicial, estabulados y alimentados con pasto, suplementados con caña de azúcar fermentada en Cunduacán, Tabasco, y 24 corderos con 20 kg de peso vivo inicial, semiestabulado en pastoreo con pasto Estrella Africana, suplementados con caña de azúcar fermentada, en Huimanguillo, Tabasco. Se sacrificaron a un peso de 32 kg. Los resultados fueron analizados mediante estadística descriptiva. La ganancia diaria de peso fue de 109 y 85 g para el sistema Cunduacán y Huimanguillo, respectivamente. El peso y rendimiento de la canal en frío y caliente fue de 13.5 y de 14.14 kg, 42.04 y 43.09% y 40.28 y 41.45%, para el sistema Cunduacán y Huimanguillo, respectivamente. La relación entre el peso al sacrificio con el rendimiento de la canal tuvo correlación negativa de -0.41. Las piezas de mayor peso fueron, pierna, costilla/falda, lomo y paleta. La capacidad de retención de agua fue 12.78, 12.8, y elpH, 5.49 y 5.71, para el sistema Cunduacán y Huimanguillo, respectivamente. El color de la grasa fue blanco para las canales de ovinos, en ambos sitios. Se concluye que los corderos de pelo alimentados con pasto y caña fermentada producen canales con bajo rendimiento magro y con grasa de color blanca.

  16. MR determination of neonatal spinal canal depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen, E-mail: owenarthurs@uk2.net [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London WC1N 3JH (United Kingdom); Thayyil, Sudhin, E-mail: s.thayyil@ucl.ac.uk [Academic Neonatology, Institute for Women' s Health, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom); Wade, Angie, E-mail: a.wade@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Chong, W.K., E-mail: Kling.Chong@gosh.nhs.uk [Paediatric Neuroradiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J., E-mail: Neil.Sebire@gosh.nhs.uk [Histopathology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom); Taylor, Andrew M., E-mail: a.taylor76@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Cardiorespiratory Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children and UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Objectives: Lumbar punctures (LPs) are frequently performed in neonates and often result in traumatic haemorrhagic taps. Knowledge of the distance from the skin to the middle of the spinal canal (mid-spinal canal depth - MSCD) may reduce the incidence of traumatic taps, but there is little data in extremely premature or low birth weight neonates. Here, we determined the spinal canal depth at post-mortem in perinatal deaths using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients and methods: Spinal canal depth was measured in 78 post-mortem foetuses and perinatal cases (mean gestation 26 weeks; mean weight 1.04 kg) at the L3/L4 inter-vertebral space at post-mortem MRI. Both anterior (ASCD) and posterior (PSCD) spinal canal depth were measured; MSCD was calculated and modelled against weight and gestational age. Results: ASCD and PSCD (mm) correlated significantly with weight and gestational age (all r > 0.8). A simple linear model MSCD (mm) = 3 Multiplication-Sign Weight (kg) + 5 was the best fit, identifying an SCD value within the correct range for 87.2% (68/78) (95% CI (78.0, 92.9%)) cases. Gestational age did not add significantly to the predictive value of the model. Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between MSCD and body weight at post-mortem MRI in foetuses and perinatal deaths. If this association holds in preterm neonates, use of the formula MSCD (mm) = 3 Multiplication-Sign Weight (kg) + 5 could result in fewer traumatic LPs in this population.

  17. Cervical spinal canal narrowing in idiopathic syringomyelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struck, Aaron F. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Neurology, Boston, MA (United States); Carr, Carrie M. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Shah, Vinil [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hesselink, John R. [University of California San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Haughton, Victor M. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The cervical spine in Chiari I patient with syringomyelia has significantly different anteroposterior diameters than it does in Chiari I patients without syringomyelia. We tested the hypothesis that patients with idiopathic syringomyelia (IS) also have abnormal cervical spinal canal diameters. The finding in both groups may relate to the pathogenesis of syringomyelia. Local institutional review boards approved this retrospective study. Patients with IS were compared to age-matched controls with normal sagittal spine MR. All subjects had T1-weighted spin-echo (500/20) and T2-weighted fast spin-echo (2000/90) sagittal cervical spine images at 1.5 T. Readers blinded to demographic data and study hypothesis measured anteroposterior diameters at each cervical level. The spinal canal diameters were compared with a Mann-Whitney U test. The overall difference was assessed with a Friedman test. Seventeen subjects were read by two reviewers to assess inter-rater reliability. Fifty IS patients with 50 age-matched controls were studied. IS subjects had one or more syrinxes varying from 1 to 19 spinal segments. Spinal canal diameters narrowed from C1 to C3 and then enlarged from C5 to C7 in both groups. Diameters from C2 to C4 were narrower in the IS group (p < 0.005) than in controls. The ratio of the C3 to the C7 diameters was also smaller (p = 0.004) in IS than controls. Collectively, the spinal canal diameters in the IS were significantly different from controls (Friedman test p < 0.0001). Patients with IS have abnormally narrow upper and mid cervical spinal canal diameters and greater positive tapering between C3 and C7. (orig.)

  18. Mobilização do osso pisiforme no tratamento da neuropraxia do nervo ulnar no canal de Guyon: relato de caso Pisiform bone mobilization for treating ulnar nerve neuropraxia at Guyon's canal: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Guilherme Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As neuropraxias do nervo ulnar são lesões bastante freqüentes que provocam efeitos deletérios, como diminuição de força muscular e parestesias; geralmente ocorrem no nível do epicôndilo medial e do túnel ulnar (canal de Guyon. São escassos os relatos referentes a técnicas de terapia manual para compressões do nervo ulnar no canal de Guyon. Este trabalho relata o uso da técnica de mobilização do pisiforme na compressão do nervo ulnar no canal de Guyon de um homem que sofreu luxação do punho direito aos 8 anos e, aos 25, queixava-se de um deficit para adução do dedo mínimo, que atrapalhava a realização de algumas atividades de vida diária. O paciente foi submetido a uma única sessão de mobilização articular do pisiforme. Após a aplicação da técnica, o sinal positivo do teste foi eliminado, restabelecendo-se a função de adução do 5o dedo. Embora carecendo de maior fundamentação teórica, pode-se afirmar que a técnica usada, de mobilização articular do osso pisiforme, é eficaz para melhora do quadro de paresia por neuropraxia do nervo ulnar no canal de Guyon.A common ulnar nerve neuropraxia is lesion that may result in muscle strength decrease and/or paresthesia; it usually takes place at medial epicondyle level and the ulnar tunnel (Guyon's canal. Studies on manual therapy techniques for ulnar nerve compression in Guyon's canal are scarce. This paper reports the use of a technique of pisiform bone mobilization for relieving ulnar nerve compression in Guyon's canal, in a man who had suffered a luxation of the right wrist at the age of 8 and, at 25, complained of adduction deficit of the fifth finger that interfered in his daily life activities. He was submitted to one session of pisiform mobilization; after the session, the positive test sign was eliminated, thus restoring the fifth finger function. Though lacking further grounding, it may be said that the technique used, of mobilizing the pisiform bone

  19. Televisión infantil en Colombia : caracterización desde los canales públicos, la audiencia y su programación

    OpenAIRE

    Sandoval Romero, Yamile

    2016-01-01

    Esta investigación tiene como objetivo caracterizar la televisión infantil desde los canales públicos, la audiencia y su programación, como aporte significativo en el campo audiovisual. Desde un enfoque cualitativo con utilización de instrumentos mixtos, se realiza análisis de contenidos de los programas emitidos para el público infantil; se indaga por las preferencias televisivas de los niños colombianos para contrastarla con la oferta y el reconocimiento del canal público nacional; se consu...

  20. Simulación de una red Grid con máquinas virtuales para crear un entorno de aprendizaje de la computación de alto desempeño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Eduardo Millán-Rojas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presenta una metodología de construcción de una plataforma para simular una red Grid con máquinas virtuales, con el objetivo de crear entornos virtuales que contribuyan a los procesos de aprendizaje. El diseño utilizado para el desarrollo está basado en un prototipo que contribuye a generar un entorno de simulación de bajo costo a través de la computación de alto desempeño. Como resultado de la investigación se obtuvo un conjunto de máquinas virtuales que pueden ser desplegadas en cualquier equipo de cómputo para simular un entorno Grid; además, se presenta la forma de la configuración de esta red para ser parte integral de la construcción y ejecución de la plataforma como instrumento válido para la enseñanza de la computación de alto desempeño a un bajo coste de hardware y la simulación de los servicios Grid sobre la plataforma.

  1. Dorello's Canal for Laymen: A Lego-Like Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Haim; Banerjee, Anirban Deep; Thakur, Jai Deep; Nanda, Anil

    2012-06-01

    Objective Dorello's canal was first described by Gruber in 1859, and later by Dorello. Vail also described the anatomy of Dorello's canal. In the preceding century, Dorello's canal was clinically important, in understanding sixth nerve palsy and nowadays it is mostly important for skull base surgery. The understanding of the three dimensional anatomy, of this canal is very difficult to understand, and there is no simple explanation for its anatomy and its relationship with adjacent structures. We present a simple, Lego-like, presentation of Dorello's canal, in a stepwise manner. Materials and Methods Dorello's canal was dissected in five formalin-fixed cadaver specimens (10 sides). The craniotomy was performed, while preserving the neural and vascular structures associated with the canal. A 3D model was created, to explain the canal's anatomy. Results Using the petrous pyramid, the sixth nerve, the cavernous sinus, the trigeminal ganglion, the petorclival ligament and the posterior clinoid, the three-dimensional structure of Dorello's canal was defined. This simple representation aids in understanding the three dimensional relationship of Dorello's canal to its neighboring structures. Conclusion Dorello's canal with its three dimensional structure and relationship to its neighboring anatomical structures could be reconstructed using a few anatomical building blocks. This method simplifies the understanding of this complex anatomical structure, and could be used for teaching purposes for aspiring neurosurgeons, and anatomy students.

  2. Comparison of the rheological properties of four root canal sealers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seok Woo Chang; Kwang Shik Bae; Young-Kyu Lee; Qiang Zhu; Won Jun Shon; Woo Cheol Lee; Kee Yeon Kum; Seung Ho Baek; In Bog Lee; Bum-Soon Lim

    2015-01-01

    The flowability of a root canal sealer is clinically important because it improves the penetration of the sealer into the complex root canal system. The purpose of this study was to compare the flowabilities of four root canal sealers, measured using the simple press method (ISO 6876), and their viscosities, measured using a strain-controlled rheometer. A newly developed, calcium phosphate-based root canal sealer (Capseal) and three commercial root canal sealers (AH Plus, Sealapex and Pulp Canal Sealer EWT) were used in this study. The flowabilities of the four root canal sealers were measured using the simple press method (n55) and their viscosities were measured using a strain-controlled rheometer (n55). The correlation between these two values was statistically analysed using Spearman’s correlation test. The flow diameters and the viscosities of the root canal sealers were strongly negatively correlated (r520.8618). The viscosity of Pulp Canal Sealer EWT was the lowest and increased in the following order:AH Plus,Sealapex,Capseal (P,0.05). All of the tested root canal sealers showed characteristic time-and temperature-dependent changes in their rheological properties. The viscosities measured using the strain-controlled rheometer were more precise than the flowabilities measured using the simple press method, suggesting that the rheometer can accurately measure the rheological properties of root canal sealers.

  3. Research on Canal System Operation Based on Controlled Volume Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Ding

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An operating simulation mode based on storage volume control method for multireach canal system in series was established. In allusion to the deficiency of existing controlled volume algorithm, the improved algorithm was proposed, that is the controlled volume algorithm of whole canal pools, the simulation results indicate that the storage volume and water level of each canal pool can be accurately controlled after the improved algorithm was adopted. However, for some typical discharge demand change operating conditions of canal, if the controlled volume algorithm of whole canal pool is still adopted, then it certainly will cause some unnecessary regulation, and consequently increases the disturbed canal reaches. Therefor, the idea of controlled volume operation method of continuous canal pools was proposed, and its algorithm was designed. Through simulation to practical project, the results indicate that the new controlled volume algorithm proposed for typical operating condition can comparatively obviously reduce the number of regulated check gates and disturbed canal pools for some typical discharge demand change operating conditions of canal, thus the control efficiency of canal system was improved. The controlled volume method of operation is specially suitable for large-scale water delivery canal system which possesses complex operation requirements.

  4. Preparación de canales curvos y calcificados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Sofia Gallego Lopez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa preparación durante el tratamiento endodóntico consiste en la correcta limpieza y conformación del sistema de conductos radiculares, y que conserve siempre su forma original. Al finalizar la preparación, se debe obtener un conducto con conicidad uniforme y con un tope apical, que permita un selle hermético al momento de la obturación. Se debe tener en cuenta la dificultad para lograr resultados satisfactorios sobre todo en conductos curvos y calcificados debido a la complejidad de éstos. Las técnicas implementadas y el instrumental adecuado para la preparación de conductos, han sido muchos con el fin de minimizar los errores durante la preparación. No obstante, ninguna técnica ni instrumental por sí solo resulta ideal en la prevención de estos errores; es necesario el cumplimiento de algunos principios básicos durante la preparación de estos conductos, tales como la correcta preparación coronal, el uso continuo de irrigantes y agentes quelantes, el mantenimiento de la permeabilidad, el limado anticurvatura y la doble conicidad. La incorrección de estos principios conlleva a errores, los cuales dificultan el éxito del tratamiento endodóntico. Los avances de la ciencia y el advenimiento de los instrumentos de níquel-titanio, han logrado facilitar el tratamiento de endodoncia, tanto que ya no es considerado como anteriormente se le atribuía que era un procedimiento difícil, lo importante predecir la orientación y anatomía del conducto antes de emplear técnicas o instrumentales, ya que un error en ellas nos llevará al fracaso del tratamiento. (DUAZARY 2011, 66 - 73AbstractThe preparation for the endodontic treatment is proper cleaning and shaping the root canal system, and always keep its original shape. After the preparation, must be obtained through uniform and tapered with an apical stop, allowing a tight seal when the seal. It must take into account the difficulty of achieving satisfactory results especially

  5. Metodología para la selección de modelo hidrodinámicos tridimensionales

    OpenAIRE

    Betancur Pérez, Gabriel Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    En este trabajo de desarrolla una propuesta metodológica diseñada para realizar una selección guiada de un modelo hidrodinámico tridimensional, para la simular los procesos físicos de un embalse tropical. La metodología propuesta considera tres etapas: 1) definición y búsqueda, 2) pre-selección y 3) selección, que brindan el marco general. Para ilustrar la metodología se definió como caso de estudio la variación espacial de la estructura térmica del embalse de Riogrande II y se implementaron ...

  6. El medio-portal y los canales de actualidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Elvira García de Torres

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza el reto que Internet ha supuesto para los medios de comunicación tradicionales. La autora estudia cómo los medios informativos enlínea se han convertido en "un híbrido entre medios tradicionales con características propias de la digitalidad y servicios y contenidos propios de los portales". Así surge el medio-portal, mientras que los portales crean canales de actualidad para evitar la pérdida de usuario. El artículo recoge las principales diferencias en el tratamiento de la información por parte de ambos medios.ABSTRACTThis article analyses the challenge that Internet has involved to traditional mass media. The author thinks about how enlínea media have evolved to a hybrid between traditional media with digital characteristics and contents of main doors. The "medio-portal" begins, whereas main doors create channels of news to prevent the loss of users. This article collects the main informative differences between both media.

  7. Gradually varied flow in compound open channels; Flujo gradualmente variado en canales de seccion compuesta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotela Avila, Gilberto [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2001-03-01

    The author shows that the computation of gradually-varied-flow profiles in prismatic compound channels involves the solution of the dynamic equation, but using the compound channel Froude number defined by Blalock and Sturm. The same equation is used for non-prismatic channels by dividing the channel into short reaches and carrying the computation step by step through an iterative process. [Spanish] El autor demuestra que los perfiles del flujo gradualmente variado en canales prismaticos de seccion compuesta se pueden determinar mediante la integracion de la llamada ecuacion dinamica, pero usando el numero de Froude definido por Blalock y Sturm para este tipo de canales. Cuando no son prismaticos, tambien se aplica la ecuacion de la energia por tramos y el calculo sigue un proceso iterativo una vez definidos los tirantes criticos multiples y la zona en que se desarrolla el perfil.

  8. Evaluation of accessory furcation canals of permanent mandibular molars using radiography and clearing = Avaliação do canal cavo-interradicular em molares inferiores permanentes através de Rx e diafanização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harb, Leandro José Corrêa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a presença do canal cavo-interradicular em molares inferiores permanentes através de radiografias e diafanização. Metodologia: A amostra foi constituída por 344 molares inferiores re-hidratados, preparados e armazenados individualmente em recipientes de vidro. A presença do canal cavo-interradicular foi investigada por um único operador treinado usando lupa (4x para as radiografias e microscópio óptico odontológico (30x para as amostras diafanizadas. Microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV foi usada para verificar diferenças morfológicas do assoalho pulpar. Resultados: A análise radiográfica mostrou que 9% das amostras tinham uma zona levemente radiolúcida, 2% mostravam uma imagem sugestiva, e 89% das amostras não tinham nenhuma evidência. Pela diafanização, o canal não foi encontrado nas amostras avaliadas. Pela MEV, as amostras recém extraídas mostraram com canalículos dentinários uniformes; as demais apresentaram pequenos sítios com canalículos uniformes. Conclusão: O exame radiográfico não foi o melhor método de diagnóstico; a diafanização é um excelente método avaliativo, pois permite a visualização tridimensional da anatomia interna dental em pesquisas in vitro

  9. Politics and soccer in the film through the lens of newsreel Canal 100 Política e futebol no cinema através das lentes do cinejornal Canal 100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto de Azevedo Maia

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This document discusses the historical route and the establishment of language of Canal 100, a movie news periodical. The format of the news movie series was studied for a better understanding of its narrative structure and especially the images related to soccer, responsible for the permanence of Canal 100 in the memory of several generations. To this end, we analyzed 42 editions, 55 cin script and collected 26 articles of the printing press, studying the period of 1959 up 1986. O artigo discute a trajetória histórica e a constituição da linguagem do cinejornal Canal 100. O formato do cinejornal foi estudado para melhor compreensão da sua estrutura narrativa e, particularmente, as imagens relativas ao futebol, responsáveis pela manutenção do Canal 100 na memória de algumas gerações. Para tanto, foram analisadas 42 edições, 55 roteiros e coletados 26 artigos da grande imprensa, cobrindo o período de 1959 a 1986.

  10. Water quality of the Boca Raton canal system and effects of the Hillsboro Canal inflow, southeastern Florida, 1990-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The City of Boca Raton in southeastern Palm Beach County, Florida, is an urban residential area that has sustained a constant population growth with subsequent increase in water use. The Boca Raton network of canals is controlled to provide for drainage of excess water, to maintain proper coastal ground-water levels to prevent saltwater intrusion, and to recharge the surficial aquifer system from which the city withdraws potable water. Most of the water supplied to the Boca Raton canal system and the surficial aquifer system, other than rainfall and runoff, is pumped from the Hillsboro Canal. The Biscayne aquifer, principal hydrogeologic unit of the surficial aquifer system, is highly permeable and there is a close relation between water levels in the canals and the aquifer. The amount of water supplied by seepage from the conservation areas is unknown. Because the Hillsboro Canal flows from Lake Okeechobee and Water Conservation Areas 1 and 2, which are places of more highly mineralized ground water and surface water, the canal is a possible source of contamination. Water samples were collected at 10 canal sites during wet and dry seasons and analyzed for major inorganic ions and related characteristics, nutrients, and trace elements. All concentrations were generally within or less than the drinking-water standards established by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. The high concentrations of sodium and chloride that were detected in samples from the Boca Raton canal system are probably from the more mineralized water of the Hillsboro Canal. Other water-quality data, gathered from various sources from 1982 through 1991, did not indicate any significant changes nor trends. The effects of the Hillsboro Canal on the water quality of the Boca Raton canal system are indicated by increased concentrations of sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, and total organic carbon. Concentrations of the constituents in the canal water generally decrease with distance

  11. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, F T

    2012-01-31

    Squamous cell carcinoma ofthe anal canal represents 1.5% of all malignancies affectingthe gastrointestinal tract. Over the past 20 years dramatic changes have been seen in both the epidemiological distribution of the disease and in the therapeutic modalities utilised to manage it. CLINICAL MANAGEMENT: Historically abdominoperineal resection had been the treatment of choice with local resection reserved for early stage disease. Work by Nigro et al. has revolutionised how we currently manage carcinoma of the anal canal, demonstrating combined modality chemoradiotherapy as an appropriate alternative to surgical resection with the benefit of preserving sphincter function. Surgery is then reserved for recurrent disease with salvage abdominoperineal resection. This article reviews current literature and highlights the changing therapeutic modalities with selected clinical cases

  12. The shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal A forma do canal vertebral lombar humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Zarzur

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on the anatomy of the human vertebral column characterizes the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal as triangular. The purpose of the present study was to determine the precise shape of the lumbar vertebral canal. Ten lumbar vertebral columns of adult male cadavers were dissected. Two transverse sections were performed in the third lumbar vertebra. One section was performed at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava, and the other section was performed at the level of the pedicles. The shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the pedicles tends to be oval or circular, whereas the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava is triangular. Thus, the shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal is not exclusively triangular, as reported in the literature. It is related to the level of the transversal section performed on the lumbar vertebra. This finding should be taken into consideration among factors involved in the spread of solutions introduced into the epidural space.A literatura sobre a anatomia da coluna vertebral descreve como sendo triangular o formato do canal vertebral na região lombar. O objetivo deste estudo é determinar a real forma do canal da coluna vertebral lombar.Dez colunas vertebrais de cadáveres de homens adultos foram dissecadas. Dois cortes transversais foram executados na terceira vértebra lombar. Um corte foi feito no nível das bordas inferiores de dois ligamentos amarelos vizinhos e o outro corte foi transversal, no nível dos pedículos. A forma do canal vertebral variou: no nível dos pedículos ela tende a ser oval ou circular e junto às bordas inferiores dos ligamentos amarelos passa a ser triangular. Portanto, a forma do canal vertebral lombar não é somente triangular; ela depende do nível em que se faz o corte transversal da vértebra. Estes achados devem ser levados em consideração entre os fatores envolvidos na difusão das

  13. Effect of two contemporary root canal sealers on root canal dentin microhardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Successful root canal treatment depends on proper cleaning, disinfecting and shaping of the root canal space. Pulpless teeth have lower dentin microhardness value compared to that of vital teeth. A material which can cause change in dentin composition may affect the microhardness. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of two root canal sealers on dentin microhardness. Material and Methods Forty two single rooted teeth were selected and divided into 3 equal groups; Apexit, iRootSP and control groups (n=14) Each group was then divided into 2 subgroups according to the post evaluation period; 1 week and 2 months (n=7). Root canal procedure was done in the experimental groups and obturation was made using either; Apexit, iRootSP or left unprepared and unobturated in the control group. Roots were sectioned transversely into cervical, middle and apical segments. The three sections of each root were mounted in a plastic chuck with acrylic resin. The coronal dentin surfaces of the root segments werepolished. Microhardness of each section was measured at 500 µm and 1000 µm from the canal lumen. Results Four way-ANOVA revealed that different tested sealer materials, canal third, measuring distance from the pulp and time as independent variables had statistically non significant effect on mean microhardness values (VHN) at p≤0.001. Among iRootSP groups there was a statistically significant difference between iRoot SP at coronal root portion (87.79±17.83) and iRoot SP at apical root portion (76.26±9.33) groups where (p=0.01). IRoot SP at coronal canal third had higher statistically significant mean microhardness value (87.79±17.83) compared to Apexit at coronal third (73.61±13.47) where (p=0.01). Conclusions Root canal sealers do not affect dentin microhardness. Key words:Root canal, dentin, sealers, microhardness, bioceramic. PMID:28149466

  14. Lesions in the external auditory canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyank S Chatra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The external auditory canal is an S- shaped osseo-cartilaginous structure that extends from the auricle to the tympanic membrane. Congenital, inflammatory, neoplastic, and traumatic lesions can affect the EAC. High-resolution CT is well suited for the evaluation of the temporal bone, which has a complex anatomy with multiple small structures. In this study, we describe the various lesions affecting the EAC.

  15. Carotid canal dehiscence in the human skull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor Vazquez, J.F.; Gil Verona, J.A. [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valladolid, Ramon y Cajal, 7, E-47005 Valladolid (Spain); Garcia Porrero, M. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valladolid (Spain)

    1999-06-01

    Abnormalities of the floor of the carotid canal have been studied in 538 skulls. These abnormalities range from a fissure to total absence of the floor. This variation may be caused by abnormalities of the internal carotid artery or deficiencies in ossification of the skull base. CT suggests that these changes should be taken into account by surgeons working on the skull base. (orig.) With 4 figs., 8 refs.

  16. Splendid Culture on the Grand Canal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    JINING Prefecture on thesouthwest plain of ShandongProvince is known as the homeof Confucius and Mencins and theland of etiquette.It is famous as thebirthplace or residence of many out-standing people and has beautifulscenery with blue Weishan Lake tothe south,lofty Mount Tai to thenorth and Liang Mountain by thelake in the west.The Beijing-Hangzhor Grand Canal crosses theprefecture,which has been a com-munications hub between north andsouth China since the Ming

  17. Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, O

    2009-02-01

    The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

  18. Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, O

    2012-02-01

    The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

  19. Root canal filling using Resilon: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, D J

    2011-07-01

    Root canal treatment is achieved by chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system followed by filling. The filling material \\'entombs\\' residual bacteria and acts as a barrier which prevents the entrance of oral microorganisms and reinfection of the root canal system through microleakage. However, filling with contemporary root filling materials such as gutta-percha offers limited long-term resistance to microorganisms; as a result other materials such as Resilon have been investigated as alternatives. The aim of this review was to analyse the literature to consider whether Resilon is a suitable root canal filling material. A MEDLINE and Cochrane library search including various keyword searches identified several papers which investigated or discussed Resilon or RealSeal\\/Epiphany. Analysis of the literature demonstrated that the bulk of the literature is in vitro in nature, based largely on leakage-type studies, and demonstrates a wide variety of methodologies with conflicting findings; as a result meaningful conclusions are difficult. Within the limit of these in vitro studies Resilon appears to perform adequately in comparison to gutta-percha, however, as a result of the questionable merit of such studies, it cannot presently be considered an evidence-based alternative to the current gold standard gutta-percha. It is imperative that before Resilon is considered as a replacement material, a better understanding of the physical properties of the resin sealer and the reality of the adhesive \\'monoblock\\' are elucidated. The literature also demonstrates a paucity of quality long-term clinical outcome studies which will need to be addressed before firm conclusions can be reached.

  20. Una selección de canales de distribución a través de relaciones borrosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Carrizo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo nos ocupamos de uno de los aspectos relevantes de la “logística”. Se trata de analizar la selección del, o de los canales de distribución para un nuevo producto, teniendo en cuenta la importancia de determinados criterios para la elección de las vías a utilizar en dicha distribución. En nuestro caso manejamos el hecho de cómo hacer el tratamiento de la distribución de un producto a partir de los grupos de productores, pasando por la preparación del mismo para la venta, luego la elección de los posibles canales de distribución, llegando a los consumidores. Abordamos el problema usando metodología borrosa y trabajando con intervalos de confianza en [0, 1]. Se trabaja usando dos técnicas: 1. - Planteando una relación Φ~ borrosa y aplicando la composición suma producto; 2. -Usando el valor propio dominante y el vector propio correspondiente. En ambos casos se llega a un vector borroso que nos permite ofrecer un orden de prelación para la elección de los canales propuestos.

  1. Defining the Location of the Adductor Canal Using Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Wan Yi; Bjørn, Siska; Strid, Jennie Maria Christin;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The precise location of the adductor canal remains controversial among anesthesiologists. In numerous studies of the analgesic effect of the so-called adductor canal block for total knee arthroplasty, the needle insertion point has been the midpoint of the thigh......, determined as the midpoint between the anterior superior iliac spine and base of patella. "Adductor canal block" may be a misnomer for an approach that is actually an injection into the femoral triangle, a "femoral triangle block." This block probably has a different analgesic effect compared...... with an injection into the adductor canal. We sought to determine the exact location of the adductor canal using ultrasound and relate it to the midpoint of the thigh. METHODS: Twenty-two volunteers were examined using ultrasound. The proximal end of the adductor canal was identified where the medial border...

  2. Endodontic management of a maxillary second premolar with an S-shaped root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex and unusual root canal morphology is an often occurring phenomenon. Understanding the unusual root canal morphology contributes to success in endodontic treatment. One such variant root canal morphology is the ′S′ shaped or bayonet shaped root canal. This case report discusses endodontic treatment of a maxillary second premolar with an ′S′ shaped root canal.

  3. Geophysical investigation of a dutch levee and canal using various seismic and GPR techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorlandt, R.P.; Kleine, M.P.E. de; Kruiver, P.P.; Bakker, M.A.J.; Mesdag, C.S.; Hoogendoorn, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    A geophysical survey has been carried out on the Juliana Canal and levee in the south of the Netherlands. For a stretch of about 35 km along this canal various construction works are planned, to deepen and widen the canal. The canal is in a geological setting such that leakage from the canal to the

  4. Diseño e implementación de una plataforma integrada de modelación para la planificación energética sostenible -Modergis – “estudio de caso Colombia"

    OpenAIRE

    Quijano Hurtado, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación fue diseñar e implementar una plataforma de planificación energética integral para potenciar recursos energéticos renovables, simular escenarios sostenibles y evaluar alternativas que puedan transformar la matriz energética, mediante la formulación de políticas adecuadas. El método utilizado fue el desarrollo e integración de herramientas de planificación energética en una plataforma denominada MODERGIS, estructurada con tres módulos los cuales consisten d...

  5. Ring canals in the ovarian follicles of Aedes aegypti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, G.; Rai, K.S.

    1976-07-01

    In the ovarian follicles of Aedes aegypti, the oocyte develops from 1 of 8 interconnected cystocytes. The cytoplasmic interconnections, the ring canals, have an electron dense rim in which are embedded an array of parallel filaments. The ring canal in presumptive follicle is generally devoid of organelles, while that in the more advanced secondary follicle encloses ribosomes, vesicles and mitochondria. Ring canals may furnish a means for the transfer of materials including ribosomes and mitochondria from nurse cells to the oocyte.

  6. Endodontic Considerations in Three-canalled Premolars: A Practical Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Giardino, Luciano; Asgary, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    The most difficult clinical considertions in orthograde root canal treatment are generally related to the anatomy of the teeth. Three-canalled maxillary and mandibular premolars (mini-molars) have been reported in several studies. The purpose of this paper was to review various aspects of three-canalled premolars including incidence, clinical and radiographic diagnosis, racial predisposition, access cavity preparation, instrumentation and obturation. PMID:27141223

  7. Three root canals in the maxillary second premolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Almeida-Gomes Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report an endodontic treatment of the maxillary second premolar with three root canals and distinct foramens. The possibility of three root canals in this tooth is quite small; however, it must be taken into account in clinical and radiographic evaluation during endodontic treatment. Many times, their presence is noticed only after canal treatment due to continuing post-operative discomfort.

  8. A Case of Recurrent Urticaria Due to Formaldehyde Release from Root-Canal Disinfectant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ji Hoon; Park, Seung Hyun; Jang, Hang Jea; Lee, Sung Geun; Park, Jin Han; Jeong, Jae Won; Park, Chan Sun

    2017-01-01

    Although formaldehyde is well known to cause type 4 hypersensitivity, immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity to formaldehyde is rare. Here, we report a case of recurrent generalized urticaria after endodontic treatment using a para-formaldehyde (PFA)-containing root canal sealant and present a review of previous studies describing cases of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to formaldehyde. A 50-year-old man visited our allergy clinic for recurrent generalized urticaria several hours after endodontic treatment. Prick tests to latex, lidocaine, and formaldehyde showed negative reactions. However, swelling and redness at the prick site continued for several days. The level of formaldehyde-specific IgE was high (class 4). Thus, the patient was deemed to have experienced an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction caused by the PFA used in the root canal disinfectant. Accordingly, we suggest that physicians should pay attention to type I hypersensitivity reactions to root canal disinfectants, even if the symptoms occur several hours after exposure.

  9. El Canal de Castilla como recurso educativo en Educación Primaria

    OpenAIRE

    Pampliega Hurtado, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    El siguiente trabajo tiene como finalidad enseñar al alumnado de Educación Primaria de una forma atrayente, a través de sus intereses, la motivación y la creatividad. Para ello presentamos una propuesta didáctica sobre El Canal de Castilla, a través de la cual trabajaremos las Ciencias Sociales, las Ciencias Naturales y la educación medioambiental mediante la metodología del aprendizaje por proyectos, donde veremos como un recurso turístico puede ser tratado como un recurso didáctico, trabaja...

  10. Identificación de canal digital mediante nLMS modificado

    OpenAIRE

    Novotny, Wenceslao; Ferrao, Hilda Noemí; Pérez, Jorge Omar

    2003-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta la aplicación de un sistema de filtrado adaptivo en la identificación de canales digitales. Se propone un método de actualización de los pesos w del filtro FIR transversal basado en el método clásico “normalized Least Mean Square” el cual fue modificado para optimizar su perfomance en cuanto a la velocidad de convergencia y al error final de adaptación.

  11. Aplicação da modelagem por redes de Petri para avaliação ocupacional de trabalhadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Lied

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho introduz a modelagem por Redes de Petri Coloridas (RPC como ferramenta para avaliação dos riscos ocupacionais de trabalhadores em uma linha de manufatura. O uso da ferramenta consiste em modelar a linha de manufatura por Redes de Petri Coloridas, simular o modelo em computador, informando a situação inicial do processo.  A partir deste ponto, com os resultados obtidos da simulação avaliar a carga de trabalho individual dos trabalhadores, permitindo verificar quais as tarefas desenvolvidas devem ser estudadas para diminuição dos riscos ocupacionais envolvidos. Foi possível verificar que alguns trabalhadores estão sobrecarregados e outros folgados na linha de montagem estudada.

  12. SIMULAÇÃO DE CENÁRIOS PARA A PECUÁRIA LEITEIRA DE ECONOMIA FAMILIAR EM MINAS GERAIS

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Apresenta-se a adaptação e os resultados de uma aplicação de modelo de sistema bioeconômico de produção com ênfase na pecuária leiteira de economia familiar em Minas Gerais. O modelo baseado em Leite (2000 e 2005) oferece flexibilidade para simular cenários para sistemas especializados de produção de leite, produção de leite e carne e consorciação lavoura–pecuária. Sua função objetivo é a maximização da renda que é utilizada na verificação de quatro hipóteses (a) diferente tecnologia pode aum...

  13. Assessment of trace metal contamination in a historical freshwater canal (Buckingham Canal), Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, M; Nagarajan, R; Velmurugan, P M; Sathiyamoorthy, J; Krishnamurthy, R R; Urban, B

    2012-12-01

    The present study was done to assess the sources and the major processes controlling the trace metal distribution in sediments of Buckingham Canal. Based on the observed geochemical variations, the sediments are grouped as South Buckingham Canal and North Buckingham Canal sediments (SBC and NBC, respectively). SBC sediments show enrichment in Fe, Ti, Mn, Cr, V, Mo, and As concentrations, while NBC sediments show enrichment in Sn, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Hg. The calculated Chemical Index of Alteration and Chemical Index of Weathering values for all the sediments are relatively higher than the North American Shale Composite and Upper Continental Crust but similar to Post-Archaean Average Shale, and suggest a source area with moderate weathering. Overall, SBC sediments are highly enriched in Mo, Zn, Cu, and Hg (geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) class 4-6), whereas NBC sediments are enriched in Sn, Cu, Zn, and Hg (I(geo) class 4-6). Cu, Ni, and Cr show higher than Effects-Range Median values and hence the biological adverse effect of these metals is 20%; Zn, which accounts for 50%, in the NBC sediments, has a more biological adverse effect than other metals found in these sediments. The calculated I(geo), Enrichment Factor, and Contamination Factor values indicate that Mo, Hg, Sn, Cu, and Zn are highly enriched in the Buckingham Canal sediments, suggesting the rapid urban and industrial development of Chennai Metropolitan City have negatively influenced on the surrounding aquatic ecosystem.

  14. Three distal root canals in mandibular first molar with different canal configurations: Report of two cases and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing number of reports of aberrant root canal morphology, the clinician needs to be aware of the variable anatomy. Various case reports have been published with the finding of middle mesial canal in mandibular first molar, however finding of three distal canals in distal roots of mandibular first molar is rare. This article reports endodontic management of two mandibular first molars presented with three distal canals present in a single distal root (Sert and Bayirli type XVIII and distal and distolingual root.

  15. Large small cell carcinoma of anorectal canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramani, Leila; Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad; Hosseini, Seyed Vahid; Hosseinzade, Masood; Izadpanah, Ahmad; Ebrahimian, Saba; Bananzadeh, Alimohammad

    2014-03-01

    Neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1), also known as Von Recklinghausen disease, is an autosomal dominant disorder with incidence of one per 4000. Neurofibromas are benign, heterogeneous, peripheral nerve sheath tumors coming up from the connective tissue of peripheral nerve sheaths, particularly the endoneurium. Visceral involvement in disseminated neurofibromatosis is considered rare. Neurofibroma occurs most frequently in the stomach and jejunum, but colon and anorectal canal may also be involved. Gastrointestinal neurofibromas may lead to bleeding, obstruction, intussusception, protein-losing enteropathy and bowel perforation. We encountered a case of diffusely involving the anorectal area by huge neurofibroma, which resulted in pelvic pain with watery diarrhea and urgency.

  16. Suez Canal Clearance Operation, Task Force 65

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    and remove the four wrecks from the central region of the canal; DREDGE 23, Tug MONGUED, Dredge KASSER and a Concrete Caisson. All salvage operations...feet BUCKET DREDGE NO. 23 72.00 1600 tons 191 feet TUG MONGUED 81.50 1200 tons 165 feet DIPPER DREDGE KASSER 81.50 1200 tons 125 feet CONCRETE CAISSON...MONGUED, DREDGE KASSER , and DREDGE 23 to wet dump in the Great Bitter Lake. Heavy crane THOR arrived in Port Said after transit from Hamburg, Germany

  17. CAVERNOUS HEMANGIOMA OF THE INTERNAL AUDITORY CANAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Hekmatara

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Cavernous hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of the internal auditory canal (IAC of which fourteen cases have been reported so far."nTinnitus and progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL are the chief complaints of the patients. Audiological and radiological planes, CTScan, and magnetic resonance image (MRI studies are helpful in diagnosis. The only choice of treatment is surgery with elective transmastoid trans¬labyrinthine approach. And if tumor is very large, the method of choice will be retrosigmoid approach.

  18. Cancer incidence in the Love Canal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janerich, D T; Burnett, W S; Feck, G; Hoff, M; Nasca, P; Polednak, A P; Greenwald, P; Vianna, N

    1981-06-19

    Data from the New York Cancer Registry show no evidence for higher cancer rates associated with residence near the Love Canal toxic waste burial site in comparison with the entire state outside of New York City. Rates of liver cancer, lymphoma, and leukemia, which were selected for special attention, were not consistently elevated. Among the other cancers studied, a higher rate was noted only for respiratory cancer, but it was not consistent across age groups and appeared to be related to a high rate for the entire city of Niagara Falls. There was no evidence that the lung cancer rate was associated with the toxic wastes buried at the dump site.

  19. Water Environment Evolution along the China Grand Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, F.; Wu, Y. X.; Yang, B. F.; Li, X. J.

    2014-03-01

    The China Grand Canal is one of the earliest canals in the world, having lasted for nearly 3000 years. Even its section canals have a rich history, such as the North-South Grand Canal that was established during the Sui Dynasty, whereas the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal was excavated during the Yuan Dynasty and the east line of the South-to-North Water Diversion. As one of the longest in the world, the China Grand Canal's total length is over 3500 kilometers. This length includes the navigable, unnavigable, and underground sections. Making the best use of situations and according to local conditions, the Chinese people harmoniously constructed the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal with nature. Tens of millions of workers took nearly 3000 years to complete the great shipping system. Navigable sections still exist for up to 900 kilometers and the volume of freight traffic is approximately 300 million tons. The canal remains the main logistical channel of the North-to-South Coal Transportation, South-to-North Water Diversion, and resources circulation. To date, China is promoting the success of heritage application. Part of these efforts is the declaration of the China Grand Canal as a World Cultural Heritage by 2014. In addition, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer project is planned to be navigable by 2016. The ancient Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal will usher in the new ecological civilization and cultural revival along the canal. This paper presents technical methods of water environment evolution research on the river system, river, and water quality along the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal through the integration of historical literature and modern remote sensing image data. The study carried out water environment investigation and analysis along the Beijing-Hangzhou canal by using ETM, SPOT image data, and GPS measurement data. Spatial and temporal evolution characteristics and regulations of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal regional water environment in the span of 3000

  20. Root canal treatment of mandibular second premolar tooth with taurodontism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujašković Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Taurodontism is a morphoanatomical change in the shape of a tooth. An enlarged body of a tooth with smaller than usual roots is a characteristic feature. Internal tooth anatomy correlates with this appearance, which means that a taurodontal tooth has a large pulp chamber and apically positioned furcations. This dental anomaly may be associated with different syndromes and congenital discoders. CASE OUTLINE The case report presents the patient of a rare case of taurodontism in the mandibular second premolar with chronic periodontitis. Endodontic treatment was performed after dental history and clinical examination. Special care is required in all segments of endodontic treatment of a taurodontal tooth from the identification orifice, canal exploration, determining working length, cleaning and shaping and obturation of the root canal. Precurved K-file was used for canal exploration and location of the furcation. One mesial and one distal canal with the buccal position were identified in the apical third of the root canal. The working lengths of two canals were determined by radiographic interpretation with two K-files in each canal and verified with the apex locator. During canal instrumentation, the third canal was located in the disto-lingual position. The working length of the third canal was established using the apex locator. CONCLUSION Thorough knowledge of tooth anatomy and its variations can lead to lower percentage of endodontic failure. Each clinical case involving these teeth should be investigated carefully, clinically and radiographically to detect additional root canals. High quality radiographs from different angles and proper instrumentarium improve the quality of endodontic procedure.

  1. Mobile bot: Um chatterbot educacional para dispositivos móveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rony Marcolino Andrade

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Os programas que tentam simular diálogos com o ser humano recebem o nome de robôs de conversação ou chatterbots. Ao se utilizar os chatterbots na educação é possível relacionar os alunos e o computador através da linguagem natural, por sua vez o emprego dos chatterbots em dispositivos móveis possibilita a interação do aluno com um agente pedagógico disponível em qualquer lugar e qualquer momento. Nesse sentido, o objetivo desse trabalho é propor o desenvolvimento e avaliação do Mobile bot, um chatterbot educacional para uso em dispositivos móveis com conhecimentos sobre internet.

  2. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo with Simultaneous Involvement of Multiple Semicircular Canals

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Dae Bo; Song, Chang Eun; Jung, Eun Jung; Ko, Kyung Min; Park, Jin Woo; Song, Mee Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) generally involves a single semicircular canal (single canal BPPV) but it has been reported that more than one semicircular canal on either the same or the opposite side can be involved in 6.8-20% of the cases (multiple canal BPPV). In this study, the clinical characteristics of multiple canal BPPV were analyzed and compared to those of single canal BPPV. Materials and Methods Retrospective analysis was performed on 1054 co...

  3. Canal switch after canalith repositioning procedure for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Giant C; Basura, Gregory J; Wong, Hiu Tung; Heidenreich, Katherine D

    2012-09-01

    Canal switch is a complication following canalith repositioning procedure (CRP) for posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Instead of being returned to the utricle, the loose otoconia migrate into the superior or horizontal semicircular canal. Patients remain symptomatic, and treatment can be ineffective unless the switch is recognized and additional repositioning maneuvers directed toward the appropriate semicircular canal are performed. This report provides the first videographic documentation of canal switch involving conversion of unilateral posterior semicircular canal BPPV to geotropic horizontal canalithiasis.

  4. Visibility of the central canal on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit-Lacour, M.C.; Lasjaunias, P.; Iffenecker, C.; Benoudiba, F.; Hadj Rabia, M.; Doyon, D. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Faculte de Paris Sud (France); Hurth, M. [Department of Neurosurgery, Faculte Paris Sud, Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

    2000-10-01

    The central canal of the spinal cord is present at birth and becomes progressively obliterated. Cadaver studies have shown that it may persiste partially or completely. To our knowledge, this entity has not been described on MRI. We reviewed 794 MRI studies of the spinal cord, and found 12 patients (aged 14 to 65 years) who had an intramedullary cavity. The cavity was at the junction of the ventral {sup 1}/{sub 3} and dorsal {sup 2}/{sub 3} of the spinal cord, except at the level of the lumbar enlargement, where it was central. It was filiform in most cases, although sometimes fusiform (3 to 4 mm in diameter), and had regular contours. The cavity were thoracic in 69 % of cases. The clinical features were totally unrelated to the image, and there were no anatomical factors (Chiari malformation, dysraphism) predisposing to syringomyelia. The images were perfectly compatible with a persistent central canal, which we interpret as a variant of normal anatomy. Therefore it is important to regard these findings as normal, to avoid unnecessary treatment and follow-up. (orig.)

  5. Root canals-from concretion to patency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakar Chaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Teeth with calcification provide an endodontic treatment challenge; traumatized teeth usually develop partial or total pulpal obliteration which is characterized by apparent loss of the pulp space radiographically and a yellow discoloration of the clinical crown. Since only 7-27% of such teeth develop pulp necrosis with radiographic signs of apical periodontitis, it is difficult to decide whether to treat these teeth immediately upon detection of the pulpal obliteration or to wait until signs and symptoms of pulp and/or apical periodontitis occur. This article reviews the etiology, prevalence, classification, mechanism, diagnosis as well as treatment options for teeth with pulp obliteration and the various management approaches and treatment strategies for overcoming potential complications. A search of articles from "PubMed" and "Medline" from 1965 to present was done with the keywords dental trauma, discoloration, pathfinding instruments, pulp canal obliteration, and root canal treatment was conducted. A total of 94 abstracts were collected, of which 70 relevant articles were read and 31 most relevant articles were included in this article.

  6. Determinação do sexo em catfish de canal (Ictalurus punctatus utilizando endoscopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Souza Mendonça De Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A identificação precoce do sexo em peixes é um procedimento importante para o desenvolvimento de estratégias que facilitem o manejo no plantel de reprodutores. A endoscopia pode ser utilizada para essa identificação, embora em peixes seu uso ainda seja restrito. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi validar o uso do endoscópio rígido via poro urogenital para determinação do sexo do catfish de canal (Ictalurus punctatus. O equipamento utilizado foi um endoscópio Multipurpose Rigid™ 30º com 2,7 mm de diâmetro e 18 cm de comprimento. Foram examinados 60 peixes com peso variando entre 86 e 1.032 gramas nos quais foi introduzido o endoscópio via poro genital e, logo em seguida, eutanaziados para confirmação do sexo. Amostras de tecido gonadal foram coletadas para avaliação histológica do estádio de maturação e confirmação do sexo. Os resultados mostraram que dos 60 peixes examinados, 57 tiveram confirmação positiva do sexo via endoscopia, o que corresponde a 95% da amostra. A utilização da endoscopia para determinação do sexo em I. punctatus via poro genital é viável.

  7. Assessment of three root canal preparation techniques on root canal geometry using micro-computed tomography: In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikha M Al-Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the effects of three root canal preparation techniques on canal volume and surface area using three-dimensionally reconstructed root canals in extracted human maxillary molars. Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted Human Maxillary Molars having three separate roots and similar root shape were randomly selected from a pool of extracted teeth for this study and stored in normal saline solution until used. A computed tomography scanner (Philips Brilliance CT 64-slice was used to analyze root canals in extracted maxillary molars. Specimens were scanned before and after canals were prepared using stainless steel K-Files, Ni-Ti rotary ProTaper and rotary SafeSiders instruments. Differences in dentin volume removed, the surface area, the proportion of unchanged area and canal transportation were calculated using specially developed software. Results: Instrumentation of canals increased volume and surface area. Statistical analysis found a statistically significant difference among the 3 groups in total change in volume (P = 0.001 and total change in surface area (P = 0.13. Significant differences were found when testing both groups with group III (SafeSiders. Significant differences in change of volume were noted when grouping was made with respect to canal type (in MB and DB (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The current study used computed tomography, an innovative and non destructive technique, to illustrate changes in canal geometry. Overall, there were few statistically significant differences between the three instrumentation techniques used. SafeSiders stainless steel 40/0.02 instruments exhibit a greater cutting efficiency on dentin than K-Files and ProTaper. CT is a new and valuable tool to study root canal geometry and changes after preparation in great details. Further studies with 3D-techniques are required to fully understand the biomechanical aspects of root canal preparation.

  8. The Effect of Canal Contamination with Saliva on Apical Sealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sabaghi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Root canal obturation aims at sealing the root canal system to prevent re-contamination of canal and periapical space. Presence of moisture in canal before obturation may posit a negative effect on the quality of canal sealing. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of canal contamination with saliva on apical microleakage. Methods: In this laboratory study, 58 human uni-root teeth were cleaned and shaped for obturation with gutta percha and sealer AH26. In the case group, specimens were contaminated with human saliva immediately before obturation, whereas the teeth in the control group were kept dry. All canals were filled by lateral condensation technique. Moreover, the teeth were placed in methylene blue dye for 3 days. Dye penetration was measured using a stereomicrosope. As a matter of fact, the study data were analyzed via utilizing t-test. Results: A significant difference was found between the two groups in regard with the apical leakage(P<0.001. The microleakage mean of dye in the dry group was 3/48mm, whereas it was 6/36mm in the saliva contaminated group. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that complete drying of canal can improve apical sealing.

  9. Evaluation of torque within manual preparation with root canal instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Gorski, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Used root canal instruments are often deformed; they can fracture, persist and reinfect teeth. There are no evident studies consulting torque and manual preparation of root canals. Thus, the purpose of this study is the evaluation of torque within manual preparation in connection with its impact on file deformation. With the aid of torque measurement a change in dental education could potentially be achieved.

  10. 33 CFR 117.769 - Black Rock Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black Rock Canal. 117.769 Section 117.769 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.769 Black Rock Canal. The draws of...

  11. 33 CFR 117.159 - Grant Line Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant Line Canal. 117.159 Section 117.159 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.159 Grant Line Canal. The draw of the San Joaquin County highway bridge, mile 5.5...

  12. 33 CFR 117.181 - Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal. 117.181 Section 117.181 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.181 Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal. The draws of the...

  13. 33 CFR 117.494 - Schooner Bayou Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Schooner Bayou Canal. 117.494 Section 117.494 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.494 Schooner Bayou Canal. The draw of the S82 bridge, mile 4.0 from White Lake...

  14. 33 CFR 117.849 - Muskingum River (Zanesville Canal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Muskingum River (Zanesville Canal). 117.849 Section 117.849 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Ohio § 117.849 Muskingum River (Zanesville Canal). The draw of the Conrail...

  15. 33 CFR 117.1051 - Lake Washington Ship Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Washington Ship Canal. 117.1051 Section 117.1051 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1051 Lake Washington Ship Canal. (a) When fog prevails by day or...

  16. 33 CFR 117.586 - Annisquam River and Blynman Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annisquam River and Blynman Canal. 117.586 Section 117.586 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.586 Annisquam River and Blynman Canal. The draw of the Blynman...

  17. 33 CFR 117.235 - Chesapeake and Delaware Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. 117.235 Section 117.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Delaware § 117.235 Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. The draw of the Conrail bridge, mile...

  18. 33 CFR 117.589 - Cape Cod Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Cod Canal. 117.589 Section 117.589 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.589 Cape Cod Canal. The draw of the Conrail railroad bridge, mile 0.7 at...

  19. 33 CFR 117.495 - Superior Oil Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Superior Oil Canal. 117.495 Section 117.495 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.495 Superior Oil Canal. The draw of the S82 bridge, mile 6.3, in Cameron...

  20. 5 CFR 550.714 - Panama Canal Commission employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Panama Canal Commission employees. 550.714 Section 550.714 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.714 Panama Canal Commission employees. (a) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this subpart,...

  1. 33 CFR 117.239 - Lewes and Rehoboth Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lewes and Rehoboth Canal. 117.239 Section 117.239 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Delaware § 117.239 Lewes and Rehoboth Canal. (a) The draw of the Savannah Road/SR 18...

  2. 33 CFR 117.273 - Canaveral Barge Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Canaveral Barge Canal. 117.273 Section 117.273 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.273 Canaveral Barge Canal. (a) The drawspan of the Christa McAuliffe...

  3. Optimizing the chemical aspect of root canal irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. de Macedo

    2013-01-01

    Root canal treatment is aimed at the removal of inflamed and infected tissue present in the root canal system. It will prevent the entrance of new microorganisms or nutrients in order to maintain or create a healthy environment around the root. There is sufficient evidence that shows that traditiona

  4. Reform in Indian canal irrigation: does technology matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narain, V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of technology - the design of canal irrigation for irrigation management reform. With reference to two different design systems in Indian irrigation - shejpali and warabandi - it shows that the potential for reform varies with the design of canal irrigation. Thre

  5. 33 CFR 117.653 - St. Mary's Falls Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Mary's Falls Canal. 117.653 Section 117.653 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Michigan § 117.653 St. Mary's Falls Canal. The draw...

  6. Incidence of dentinal defects after root canal filling procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shemesh, H.; Wesselink, P.R.; Wu, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Aim  To compare the incidence of dentinal defects (cracks and craze lines) after root canal preparation, lateral compaction and continuous wave compaction of gutta-percha and AH26 sealer. Methodology  Two hundred mandibular premolar teeth were divided into four groups with similar average canal diam

  7. The Influence of Canalization on the Robustness of Boolean Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kadelka, Claus; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Time- and state-discrete dynamical systems are frequently used to model molecular networks. This paper provides a collection of mathematical and computational tools for the study of robustness in Boolean network models. The focus is on networks governed by $k$-canalizing functions, a recently introduced class of Boolean functions that contains the well-studied class of nested canalizing functions. The activities and sensitivity of a function quantify the impact of input changes on the function output. This paper generalizes the latter concept to $c$-sensitivity and provides formulas for the activities and $c$-sensitivity of general $k$-canalizing functions as well as canalizing functions with more precisely defined structure. A popular measure for the robustness of a network, the Derrida value, can be expressed as a weighted sum of the $c$-sensitivities of the governing canalizing functions, and can also be calculated for a stochastic extension of Boolean networks. These findings provide a computationally eff...

  8. Direct solutions for normal depths in curved irrigation canals

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, X Y

    2013-01-01

    The normal depth is an important hydraulic element for canal design, operation and management. Curved irrigation canals including parabola, U-shaped and catenary canals have excellent hydraulic performance and strong ability of anti-frost heave, while the normal depths in the governing equations of the current common methods have no explicit analytical solution. They are only indirect methods by using trial procedures, numerical methods, and graphical tools. This study presents new direct formulas for normal depth in curved irrigation canals by applying for Marquardt method. The maximum relative error of the proposed formulas is less than 1% within the practice range by comparative analysis, and they are simple and convenient for manual calculations. The results may provide the reliable theoretical basis and useful reference for the design and operation management of irrigation canals.

  9. VARIATION OF MAXILLARY FIRST PREMOLAR WITH THREE ROOT CANALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Kirilova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Successful endodontic treatment requires effective biomechanical preparation of the root canals and three-dimensional obturation of the root canal system. This can be achieved only by knowing and identifying the variations in the root canal system of the endodontically treated teeth. The Aim: The aim of this article is to present cases of endodontic treatment of maxillary first premolar with three root canals – different types. Material and Methods: Five clinical cases of successful endodontic treatment of patients with maxillary first premolar and three root canals are described. Result and Discussion: It is noted that good endodontic practice requires good knowledge of dental anatomy and possible variations, accurate X-ray images, as well as use of magnifying equipment. Conclusion: Knowledge of dental anatomy is fundamental for good endodontic practice.

  10. Canalization and symmetry in Boolean models for genetic regulatory networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichhardt, C J Olson [Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Bassler, Kevin E [Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States)

    2007-04-20

    Canalization of genetic regulatory networks has been argued to be favoured by evolutionary processes due to the stability that it can confer to phenotype expression. We explore whether a significant amount of canalization and partial canalization can arise in purely random networks in the absence of evolutionary pressures. We use a mapping of the Boolean functions in the Kauffman N-K model for genetic regulatory networks onto a k-dimensional Ising hypercube (where k = K) to show that the functions can be divided into different classes strictly due to geometrical constraints. The classes can be counted and their properties determined using results from group theory and isomer chemistry. We demonstrate that partially canalizing functions completely dominate all possible Boolean functions, particularly for higher k. This indicates that partial canalization is extremely common, even in randomly chosen networks, and has implications for how much information can be obtained in experiments on native state genetic regulatory networks.

  11. A maxillary central incisor with four root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Almeida-Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to present a case report of endodontic treatment of a maxillary central incisor with 1 root and 4 root canals. The success of endodontic treatment requires knowledge of dental anatomy and its variations. This clinical article reports an unusual anatomy detected in a maxillary central incisor with 4 root canals with an associated periapical lesion. The incidence of 4 root canals in this tooth is rare. However, it must be taken into consideration, the clinical and radiographic evaluations during the endodontic treatment in order to enhance the diagnostic. Many times, the presence of a supernumerary canal is noticed only after canal treatment due to continuing post-operative discomfort or treatment failure.

  12. Hydrology and environmental aspects of Erie Canal (1817-99)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, Walter Basil

    1976-01-01

    As the first major water project in the United States, the old Erie Canal provides an example of the hydrological and environmental consequences of water development. The available record shows that the project aroused environmental fears that the canal might be impaired by the adverse hydrologic effects of land development induced by the canal. Water requirements proved greater than anticipated, and problems of floods and hydraulic inefficiencies beset navigation throughout its history. The Erie Canal proved the practicality of major hydraulic works to the extent that operations and maintenance could cope with the burdens of deficiencies in design. The weight of prior experience that upland streams, such as the Potomac and Mohawk Rivers, had proved unsatisfactory for dependable navigation, led to a decision to build an independent canal which freed the location from the constraints of river channels and made possible a cross-country water route directly to Lake Erie. The decision on dimensioning the canal prism--chiefly width and depth-involved balance between a fear of building too small and thus not achieving the economic potentials, and a fear of building too expensively. The constraints proved effective, and for the first part of its history the revenues collected were sufficient to repay all costs. So great was the economic advantage of the canal that the rising trend in traffic soon induced an enlargement of the canal cross section, based upon a new but riskier objective-build as large as the projected trend in toll revenues would finance. The increased revenues did not materialize. Water supplies were a primary concern for both the planners and the operators of the canal. Water required for lockage, although the most obvious to the planners, proved to be a relatively minor item compared with the amounts of water that were required to compensate for leakage through the bed and banks of the canal. Leakage amounted to about 8 inches of depth per day. The total

  13. Momento de inercia a la torsión de barras de perfil canal // Torsional inertia Moment for a profile bar channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rivero Galán

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se brindan fórmulas y coeficientes para la determinación del momento de inercia a la torsión de una barrade perfil canal. Las fórmulas obtenidas se validan mediante la simulación de diferentes estructuras de uniones entre canales conel uso del método de los elementos finitos._______________________________________________________________________AbstractIn the paper are offered formulations and coefficients for the determination of the moment of inertia to the twist for a profilebar channel. The obtained formulations are validated through the simulation by the finite elements method of differentstructures of unions between channels.

  14. 5 CFR 315.601 - Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. 315.601 Section 315.601 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Career or Career-Conditional Appointment...

  15. Radiographic prevalence of root canal ramifications in a sample of root canal treatments in a Brazilian Dental School Prevalência radiográfica de ramificações do canal radicular em uma amostra de tratamentos endodônticos em uma Faculdade de Odontologia Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iadasa de Quadros

    2007-06-01

    2000. Foram avaliadas as radiografias feitas durante o tratamento para verificar a presença das ramificações dos sistemas de canais radiculares. A radiografia inicial não mostrou a presença de qualquer ramificação. Depois da obturação as radiografias mostraram apenas 3 tipos de ramificação: 3,06% de canais laterais, 2,99% de deltas apicais e 0,1% de canais interradiculares. Os pré-molares superiores mostraram o maior número de canais laterais (n = 13, seguidos pelos pré-molares inferiores (n = 10 e incisivos superiores (n = 10. Deltas apicais foram encontrados principalmente em molares inferiores (n = 14, seguidos por incisivos superiores (n = 9. Apenas molares inferiores apresentaram canais interradiculares. A detecção de ramificações aumentou com o uso do EDTA. Entretanto, nenhuma relação estatisticamente significante foi encontrada entre o tipo de substância química auxiliar usada e o número de ramificações visualizadas após a obturação dos canais radiculares. Foi concluído que a freqüência de ramificações do canal radicular encontrada radiograficamente é baixa em tratamentos executados por estudantes universitários.

  16. México: estabilidad de precios y limitaciones del canal de crédito bancario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina León

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En México la política monetaria ha sido eficaz para lograr la estabilidad de los precios; sin embargo, esto no se ha visto reflejado en crecimiento económico y generación de empleo. En este artículo se estudia el canal del crédito bancario, tema que ha generado mucho interés en la literatura económica; se analiza el mercado de crédito para el caso de México. La hipótesis que se plantea es que la existencia de un oligopolio bancario constituye un factor importante que limita la generación de crédito en la economía mexicana, lo que genera efectos negativos en la actividad económica.

  17. Study of the injury risk to the mandibular canal bycone beam computed tomography images

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Scomparin

    2013-01-01

    O conhecimento anatômico da mandíbula, do canal mandibular e outros reparos presentes na região mandibular são essenciais para o sucesso em vários procedimentos odontológicos, variando desde o mais básico como a anestesia, até procedimentos mais complexos, tais como a instalação de implantes, cirurgias ortognáticas e até mesmo cirurgias para correções estéticas de ângulo mandibular. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar as distâncias presentes da cortical vestibular mandibular, até a cortica...

  18. Reduction of Enterococcus faecalis in curved root canals after various sizes and tapers of canal preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Abbas Moshari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reduction of Enterococcus faecalis in curved root canals after various sizes and tapers of the canal preparation. Materials and Methods: Mandibular first molars (n = 103 with curved mesiobuccal canals were divided into one control (n = 5 and 7 experimental (n = 14 groups, were inoculated with E. faecalis (ATTC 29212 and prepared with the following RaCe files (FKG Dentaire as master apical file: Groups: 25.04, 25.06, 30.04, 30.06, 35.04, 35.06 and 40.06. All the experimental groups were irrigated with 2 mL of 1% sodium hypochlorite during instrumentation and finally rinsed with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA (2 mL followed by 5.25% NaOCl (2 mL and sterile distilled water. Colony counting was performed after incubation. Statistical Analysis Used: Resulting data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey′s post-hoc test, (P < 0.05. Results and Conclusions: All the experimental groups showed significant bacterial reduction (P < 0.001. Although the greater the size/taper or both led to more decreased amount of bacteria, differences between the groups with the identical size and different tapers, and among the groups with the same taper and different sizes were not significant. Based on this study, 25.04 along with using 2 mL of 1% NaOCl during instrumentation, and using 17% EDTA and 5.25% NaOCl as final rinse successively after the termination of preparation, can effectively reduce intra-canal bacteria and preserve root structure.

  19. Desarrollo de simuladores para procesos industriales. Parte II (Colada continua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez, A.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of steel thermal behavior is very important in order to take care the quality of the products like billets and slabs due to these; this work shows the join of a subroutine to simulate the heat transfer conditions during the continuous casting process to the model for simulating the process described by the present authors in a previous work[1]; the result is the temperature profiles and surface temperature graphics of the steel, then they are compared with data carried out of real operating conditions.

    El estudio del comportamiento térmico del acero es de gran importancia para controlar la calidad de productos como perfiles colados, por lo que el presente trabajo muestra el acoplamiento de una subrutina, para simular las condiciones de extracción de calor que ocurren durante el proceso de colada continua, a la rutina de simulación del proceso descrita por los presentes autores en un trabajo previo[1]; como resultado se obtienen los perfiles de temperatura del acero y las graficas de temperatura superficial de este y, posteriormente, se procede a la validación del sistema con datos de condiciones reales de operación.

  20. Tumor borderline do ovário localizado no canal inguinal: relato de caso A borderline ovarian tumor in inguinal canal: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Basso Preti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Os sintomas do tumor ovariano são inespecíficos e uma forma rara de apresentação é como conteúdo de uma hérnia inguinal. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente de 82 anos, com diagnóstico de câncer de mama e lesão anexial hipoecoica à ecografia. A mesma foi submetida à cirurgia conservadora da mama e à laparotomia, com achado de lesão ovariana sólido-cística no interior do canal inguinal à direita. A análise por congelação foi negativa para malignidade, e o exame anatomopatológico mostrou tratar-se de tumor ovariano borderline.The symptoms of ovarian tumor are not specific and a rare presentation of the tumor is as the content of an inguinal hernia. We reported a case of an 82-year-old woman, diagnosed with breast cancer and with a concomitant hypoecoic adnexal mass at the ecographic exam. The patient was treated with conservative breast surgery and laparotomy. A cystic-solid ovarian lesion was found inside the right inguinal canal. Frozen-section examination was negative for malignancy, and the anatomopathological analysis revealed a borderline ovarian tumor.

  1. MANAGEMENT OF LUMBAR SPINAL CANAL STENOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhergee G. S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Spinal stenosis is one of the most common conditions in the elderly. It is defined as a narrowing of the spinal canal. The term stenosis is derived from the Greek word for narrow, which is “Stenos”. The first description of this condition is attributed to Antoine portal in 1803. Verbiest is credited with coining the term spinal stenosis and the associated narrowing of the spinal canal as its potential cause. [1-10] Kirkaldy–Willis subsequently described the degenerative cascade in the lumbar spine as the cause for the altered anatomy and pathophysiology in spinal stenosis. [11-15] If compression does not occur, the canal should be described as narrow but not stenotic. Some studies defined lumbar spinal stenosis as a “narrowing of the osteoligamentous vertebral canal and/or the intervertebral foramina causing compression of the thecal sac and/or the caudal nerve roots; at a single vertebral level, narrowing may affect the whole canal or part of it” (Postacchini 1983. This definition distinguished between disc herniation and stenosis. [16] . The most common type of spinal stenosis is caused by degenerative arthritis of the spine. Hypertrophy and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament which usually are confined to the cervical spine, and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH syndrome also may result in an acquired form of spinal stenosis. Congenital forms caused by disorders such as achondroplasia and dysplastic spondylolisthesis are much less common. Congenital spinal stenosis usually is central and is evident or imaging studies. Idiopathic congenital narrowing usually involves the anteroposterior dimension of the canal secondary to short pedicles; the patient otherwise is normal. In contrast, in achondroplasia, the canal is narrowed in the anteroposterior plane owing to shortened pedicles and in lateral dimension because of diminished interpedicular distance. Acquired forms of spinal stenosis usually are

  2. Facial Canal Dehiscence in Patients with Chronic Otitis Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Uluat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To examine facial canal status in patients with chronic otitis media (COM surgery and to detect the relation between facial canals dehiscence (FCD with middle ear pathology in these patients. Material and Method: The surgery data of patients who were subjected to tympanoplasty with or without mastoidectomy and radical mastoidectomy due to COM were analyzed retrospectively from January 2006 to December 2012. In addition to demonstrative data of the patients, status of facial canal and preoperative diagnoses of patients, type of the operation performed, status of middle ear, number of surgeries, existence of cholesteatoma, existence of ossicular chain defect, lateral canal defect and dura defect were assessed and the relation thereof with facial canal dehiscence (FCD was analyzed statistically. Results: Seven hundred ninety six patients were included in the study. FCD was detected in 10.05% of the patients. FCD was most frequently observed in the tympanic segment. It was found out that there was a statistically significant relationship of middle ear pathology, cholesteatoma, revision surgery, lateral semicircular canal and ossicular chain defect with FCD. Discussion: COM diagnosed patients may have defect in facial canal according to their preoperative diagnoses, middle ear pathologies, number of operations and ossicular chain defects. These patients should be applied a more careful surgery and closely followed up in postoperative periods.

  3. Prospecção de bactérias degradadoras de petróleo e avaliação de potenciais estratégias de biorremediação para a degradação de hidrocarbonetos na Ilha da Trindade

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Edmo Montes

    2014-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivos prospectar bactérias capazes de utilizar hidrocarbonetos do petróleo como fonte de carbono e energia, analisar a estrutura e dinâmica da comunidade microbiana que coloniza o petróleo após sua exposição no mar utilizando dados de T­RFLP multiplex, assim como simular e analisar a eficiência de diferentes estratégias de biorremediação de petróleo no litoral da Ilha da Trindade Brasil. Para tanto, foi montado um experimento à aproximadamente 100 m da praia das Ta...

  4. Assessing the accuracy of tympanometric evaluation of external auditory canal volume: a scientific study using an ear canal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hussaini, A; Owens, D; Tomkinson, A

    2011-12-01

    Tympanometric evaluation is routinely used as part of the complete otological examination. During tympanometric examination, evaluation of middle ear pressure and ear canal volume is undertaken. Little is reported in relation to the accuracy and precision tympanometry evaluates external ear canal volume. This study examines the capability of the tympanometer to accurately evaluate external auditory canal volume in both simple and partially obstructed ear canal models and assesses its capability to be used in studies examining the effectiveness of cerumolytics. An ear canal model was designed using simple laboratory equipment, including a 5 ml calibrated clinical syringe (Becton Dickinson, Spain). The ear canal model was attached to the sensing probe of a Kamplex tympanometer (Interacoustics, Denmark). Three basic trials were undertaken: evaluation of the tympanometer in simple canal volume measurement, evaluation of the tympanometer in assessing canal volume with partial canal occlusion at different positions within the model, and evaluation of the tympanometer in assessing canal volume with varying degrees of canal occlusion. 1,290 individual test scenarios were completed over the three arms of the study. At volumes of 1.4 cm(3) or below, a perfect relationship was noted between the actual and tympanometric volumes in the simple model (Spearman's ρ = 1) with weakening degrees of agreement with increasing volume of the canal. Bland-Altman plotting confirmed the accuracy of this agreement. In the wax substitute models, tympanometry was observed to have a close relationship (Spearman's ρ > 0.99) with the actual volume present with worsening error above a volume of 1.4 cm(3). Bland-Altman plotting and precision calculations provided evidence of accuracy. Size and position of the wax substitute had no statistical effect on results [Wilcoxon rank-sum test (WRST) p > 0.99], nor did degree of partial obstruction (WRST p > 0.99). The Kamplex tympanometer

  5. Bacterial coronal leakage after obturation with three root canal sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpawat, S; Amornchat, C; Trisuwan, W R

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the bacterial leakage of root canals obturated with three root canal sealers, using Endodontalis faecalis as a microbial tracer to determine the length of time for bacteria to penetrate through the obturated root canal to the root apex. Seventy-five, single-rooted teeth with straight root canals had the crown cut off at the cementoenamel junction. Root canals were instrumented by a step-back technique. The prepared teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups of 19 teeth each and another 2 groups as positive and negative controls (9 teeth each). The experimental groups were dependent on the sealer used: AH-Plus, Apexit, and Ketac-Endo. The root canals were obturated using a lateral condensation technique. After 24 h the teeth were attached to microcentrifuge tubes with 2 mm of the root apex submerged in Brain Heart Infusion broth in glass test tubes. The coronal portions of the root canal filling materials were placed in contact with E. faecalis. The teeth were observed for bacterial leakage daily for 30 and 60 days. With the chi2 test for comparing pairs of groups at the 0.05 level (p 0.06), but Apexit had significantly higher leakage (p 0.05), but Apexit leaked more than AH-Plus. The conclusion drawn from this experiment was that epoxy resin root canal sealer was found to be more adaptable to the root canal wall and filling material than a calcium hydroxide sealer when bacterial coronal leakage was studied.

  6. Horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in a fighter pilot

    OpenAIRE

    Su-Jiang Xie; Jiang-Chang Wang; Li Ding; Xi-Qing Sun

    2011-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common disorder of the peripheral vestibular system, characterized by intense, positional provoked vertigo. BPPV is thought to occur due to canalithiasis of the posterior semicircular canal. Recently, a new entity of BPPV, known as horizontal canal (HC)-BPPV, has been recognized. Although only 3 to 8% of BPPV is due to horizontal canal involvement, HC-BPPV is not rare. We present a case of a naval fighter pilot who had an incident of HC-...

  7. Horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in a fighter pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Jiang Xie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV is the most common disorder of the peripheral vestibular system, characterized by intense, positional provoked vertigo. BPPV is thought to occur due to canalithiasis of the posterior semicircular canal. Recently, a new entity of BPPV, known as horizontal canal (HC-BPPV, has been recognized. Although only 3 to 8% of BPPV is due to horizontal canal involvement, HC-BPPV is not rare. We present a case of a naval fighter pilot who had an incident of HC-BPPV on the ground. The pilot aeromedical evaluation and considerations are discussed.

  8. Horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in a fighter pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Su-Jiang; Wang, Jiang-Chang; Ding, Li; Sun, Xi-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common disorder of the peripheral vestibular system, characterized by intense, positional provoked vertigo. BPPV is thought to occur due to canalithiasis of the posterior semicircular canal. Recently, a new entity of BPPV, known as horizontal canal (HC)-BPPV, has been recognized. Although only 3 to 8% of BPPV is due to horizontal canal involvement, HC-BPPV is not rare. We present a case of a naval fighter pilot who had an incident of HC-BPPV on the ground. The pilot aeromedical evaluation and considerations are discussed.

  9. Faraday ghosts depolarization canals in the Galactic radio emission

    CERN Document Server

    Shukurov, A M; Shukurov, Anvar; Berkhuijsen, Elly M.

    2003-01-01

    Narrow, elongated regions of very low polarized intensity -- so-called canals -- have recently been observed by several authors at decimeter wavelengths in various directions in the Milky Way, but their origin remains enigmatic. We show that the canals arise from depolarization by differential Faraday rotation in the interstellar medium and that they represent level lines of Faraday rotation measure RM, a random function of position in the sky. Statistical properties of the separation of canals depend on the autocorrelation function of RM, and so provide a useful tool for studies of interstellar turbulence.

  10. Route Selection by Tankers(Dirty) at the Suez Canal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Risto Laulajainen

    2007-01-01

    <正>The Suez Canal,attached route alternatives with traffic flows and areas are described and theoretical break-even points derived. Logistically,route selection depends on relative distances,the level of spot rates and canal dues,the sensitivity to change growing with rising rate levels.The connection is diluted by the canal /pipeline owners’ price differentiation and the charterers’ capital costs;interest on cargo and change of its value during transit.Ship-owners are largely neutral to route choice as long as rates and main cost items are directly related to distance.

  11. Constricted Canals: A New Strategy to Overcome This Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Negotiation of constricted canals can be a challenge during endodontic treatment. Over the years, several strategies have been presented in order to overcome the difficulties imposed by this anatomical feature. This paper presents three cases using a different protocol from that recommended by the manufacturer of the Protaper System in order to facilitate the negotiation of constricted canals. These cases suggest that the modified protocol shown is able to perform the shaping process with less resistance, reducing the risk of instrument separation and performing an effective process to reach the apical thirds in constricted canals.

  12. Cytogenetic findings in persons living near the Love Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, C W; Nadel, M R; Zack, M M; Chen, A T; Bender, M A; Preston, R J

    1984-03-16

    Cytogenetic analyses were performed on peripheral blood from 46 present or past residents of the area surrounding Love Canal, a former dump site for chemical wastes in Niagara Falls, NY. Participants included 17 persons in whom cytogenetic analyses had been performed in 1980 and 29 persons who had been living in 1978 in seven homes that directly adjoined the canal and in which environmental tests showed elevated levels of chemicals spreading from the canal. Frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) did not differ significantly from control levels. For all participants, cigarette smoking was associated with an increase in sister chromatid exchange frequency.

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. Un sistema presión-volumen para la medición de propiedades mecánicas de vasos cardíacos menores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Navarro Rueda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Las propiedades mecánicas de vasos cardíacos menores (VM son poco estudiadas. El sistema Presión-Volumen (PV propuesto, desarrollado para evaluar comportamientos esfuerzo-deformación (σ-ε de VM, permite variar controladamente la presión interna y simular alteraciones geométricas al tubo. Se obtuvieron imágenes de las geometrías para cada valor de presión interna. Asumiendo el tubo en equilibrio, con pared elástica y presiones conocidas, se determinaron esfuerzo y deformación circunferenciales. Se obtuvieron curvas σ-ε, validadas con ensayos de tensión uniaxial (TU. Aunque se esperaban comportamientos diferentes, los datos experimentales son consistentes frente a resultados TU, con diferencias entre 5.68 y 12.60 %.

  18. El uso de Twitter como canal de información y conversación por parte de los medios convencionales

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    La comunicación se centra en estudiar cómo los medios convencionales hacen uso de la plataforma de microblogging Twitter no sólo como canal para ampliar la difusión de sus contenidos, sino también como fuente de información y espacio para entablar conversación con la audiencia a propósito de sus contenidos. Para ello se selecciona una muestra de los cinco soportes con mayor audiencia en cada uno de los siguientes medios convencionales: televisión, prensa, revistas y radio. La selección se lle...

  19. Introducción a los canales RSS como método de publicación y obtención de contenidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Rodríguez-Romero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aborda las cuestiones generales en relación con la publicación de contenidos mediante canales RSS como un método novedoso para distribuir contenidos en Internet que permite a los usuarios recibir información de su interés sin necesidad de localizarla navegando por infinidad de sitios y para los proveedores de información constituye una herramienta para diseminar su información, fidelizar usuarios y atraer nuevo visitantes a sus sitios Web. Se discuten además los conceptos generales relacionados con ella y las formas de empleo de la misma.

  20. Atypical situations in root canals anatomy of human mandibular premolars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício SCAINI

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the teeth internal anatomy that will receive endodontic treatment is very important for the success of the treatment and prognosis of those teeth. In this study, the morphological variations that may occur in relation to the number of root canals present in the premolar mandibular teeth group were discussed, as well as the most efficient methods to diagnose the existence of these variations, in order to have a clearer diagnosis of the number of root canals to be treated.A case of an endodontic treatment of a mandibular premolar with 4 root canals was reported and some cases of endodontic treatment in mandibular premolars with 1, 2 and 3 root canals were shown.

  1. Functional outcome of surgical management of degenerative lumbar canal stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Nath

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Operative treatment in patients of degenerative lumbar canal stenosis yields excellent results as observed on the basis of JOA scoring system. No patient got recurrence of symptoms of nerve compression.

  2. Optimal volume of local anaesthetic for the adductor canal block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, P.; Jenstrup, M. T.; Lund, J.;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Theoretically, the ideal volume of local anaesthetic for adductor canal block (ACB) would ensure sufficient filling ofthe canal and avoid proximal spread to the femoral triangle. In this dose-finding study, we aimed to investigate the minimaleffective volume for an ACB needed to fill...... the adductor canal distally in at least 95% of patients (ED95). Methods: We performed a blinded trial, enrolling 40 healthy men. All subjects received an ACB with lidocaine 1%. Volumes wereassigned sequentially to the subjects using the continual reassessment method followed by Bayesian analysis to determine...... theED95. Distal filling of the adductor canal was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (primary outcome). Secondary outcomeswere the effect of volume on proximal spread to the femoral triangle (also assessed by magnetic resonance imaging), quadricepsmuscle weakness (decrease by ≥25% from baseline...

  3. Lipoma causing Guyon's canal syndrome: a case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanathu Chellappantilla Sreekumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Compression of the ulnar nerve in Guyon's canal leads to Guyon's canal syndrome. Lipoma is a rare cause of such compressions with only 12 cases reported previously. We report a 55-year-old man who presented with swelling in the left hand with decreased sensation in the ring and little fingers. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed high signals in T1-weighted and T2-weighted images with suppression of the short T1 inversion recovery signal, suggestive of lipoma. On exploration a well-encapsulated, dumbbell-shaped, fatty tumor was seen in the hypothenar space and Guyon's canal. The tumor was enucleated in toto. At 6-month follow-up, the patient had fully regained sensation. A review of the literature is presented for similar cases where a lipoma was the cause of Guyon's canal syndrome.

  4. Canals in the Roof of the Pharynx :Anatomic Study and their Clinical Meaning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1 IntroductionThe palatovaginal canal and the vomerovaginal canal are small canals which connect the roof of the nasopharynx to the posterior wall of the pterygopalatine fossa. The pterygopalatine fossa represents a major pathway for spread of malignant tumors and infections. In most of the classic anatomy texts brief descriptions of the palatovaginal canal and the vomerovaginal canal are provided. There is still a scarcity of studies comparing the radiologic and microdissection findings~([1]). The aim of t...

  5. Juntas de contracción en canales y depósitos de agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safránez, Carlos

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available In view of the lack of Information available on the subject of contraction joints in canals and water tanks, and this being of great importance for water-tightness in this type of construction, the data considered as essential for planning joints has been presented in a systematic way. The most common of joints, and their characteristics, are mentioned and listed in accordance with their design and the procedure used for sealing them. The great importance of joint design and dimensions in relation to their performance has been highlighted. In the projects carried out, referring to this type of joint, we see there is a lack of common criteria regarding the minimum requisites and conditions which the joints must have in order to duly fulfill their mission. Experience has proven that the results obtained with contraction joints in canals and water tanks have not been totally satisfactory. In a large number of cases, bothersome and costly repairs were necessary to overercome deficiencies observed. In order to improve this situation, the different factors which influence the contraction joint's performance are discussed and they should be taken into account when planning the joints and their dimensions, in order to insure greatest efficiency.Vista la escasa información disponible sobre las juntas de contracción en canales y depósitos de agua, siendo indiscutible su gran importancia para la estanquidad de estas obras, se han expuesto, en forma sistemática, los datos considerados esenciales para enfocar debidamente el proyecto de las juntas. Se han indicado los tipos de juntas más corrientes, ordenadas de acuerdo con su diseño y con el procedimiento empleado para su sellado, señalando sus características. Se ha tratado de la importancia primordial del diseño y de las dimensiones de las juntas en relación con su comportamiento. En los proyectos de las juntas ejecutadas llama la atención la falta de una unidad de criterio sobre las

  6. CT findings of the osteoma of the external auditory canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ha Young; Song, Chang Joon; Yoon, Chung Dae; Park, Mi Hyun; Shin, Byung Seok [Chungnam National University, School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-15

    We wanted to report the CT image findings of the osteoma of the external auditory canal. Temporal bone CT scanning was performed on eight patients (4 males and 4 females aged between 8 and 41 years) with pathologically proven osteoma of the external auditory canal after operation, and the findings of the CT scanning were retrospectively reviewed. Not only did we analyze the size, shape, distribution and location of the osteomas, we also analyzed the relationship between the lesion and the tympanosqumaous or tympanomastoid suture line, and the changes seen on the CT scan images for the patients who were able to undergo follow-up. All the lesions of the osteoma of the external auditory canal were unilateral, solitary, pedunculated bony masses. In five patients, the osteomas occurred on the left side and for the other three patients, the osteomas occurred on the right side. The average size of the osteoma was 0.6 cm with the smallest being 0.5 cm and the largest being 1.2 cm. Each of the lesions was located at the osteochondral junction in the terminal part of the osseous external ear canal. The stalk of the osteoma of the external auditory canal was found to have occurred in the anteroinferior wall in five cases (63%), in the anterosuperior wall (the tympanosqumaous suture line) in two cases (25%), and in the anterior wall in one case. The osteoma of the external auditory canal was a compact form in five cases and it was a cancellous form in three cases. One case of the cancellous form was changed into a compact form 35 months later due to the advanced ossification. Osteoma of the external auditory canal developed in a unilateral and solitary fashion. The characteristic image findings show that it is attached to the external auditory canal by its stalk. Unlike our common knowledge about its occurrence, osteoma mostly occurred in the tympanic wall, and this is regardless of the tympanosquamous or tympanomastoid suture line.

  7. Bifid mandibular canal: a rare or underestimated entity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Nasseh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the rare anatomical variations that can be of significant importance for the dentist is the bifid mandibular canal. Many complications can occur from this condition such as failure of anesthesia when performing inferior alveolar nerve block, difficulties during the surgical extraction of the third mandibular molar, and during implants placement. Therefore, good knowledge of this condition is essential. In this report, we describe the radiographic finding of a unilateral bifid mandibular canal.

  8. Reformado de presas y canales del Sena inferior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moineau, L.

    1962-03-01

    Full Text Available El programa de reforma y acomodación de las presas y canales existentes en el bajo Sena (Francia acaba de experimentar un nuevo impulso. Este reformado, actualmente en ejecución entre Poissy y N. D. de La Garenne, consiste en la unión de los canales de La Garenne y Port-Villez, de un lado, y de Méricourt y Maulan, de otro.

  9. Rare case of gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the anal canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. GIST of anal canal is very rare representing only 3% of all anorectal mesenchymal tumors. We report an extremely rare case of GIST of the anal canal in 60-years-old man with history of irregular bowel habits with dark colored stool mixed with blood and constipation from 6 month. Diagnosis was made on the basis of histomorphological and immunohistochemical examination.

  10. Proposition d’un outil d’aide au diagnostic du syndrome du canal carpien pour les acteurs de la santé au travail Proposal of a tool for diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome for Personal of Health at Work Proposición de una herramienta de ayuda en el diagnóstico del síndrome del túnel carpiano para los actores de la salud en el trabajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Bazzaro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Les acteurs de la santé au travail sont confrontés à un manque d’outils quantitatifs de suivi et de diagnostic du syndrome du canal carpien (SCC. Pour répondre à ce manque, un outil de diagnostic du SCC est proposé dans cette communication. Il est composé de deux tests : le test de la roue qui consiste à détecter des encoches sur une roue en mouvement et le test de la poutre qui détecte un niveau de sensibilité à une force exercée sur un doigt concerné par le SCC. Deux études expérimentales ont été conduites pour valider cet appareil. La première étude montre que les mesures effectuées avec l’appareil sont répétables, la seconde vise à étudier la sensibilité et la spécificité de l’outil en comparaison avec une étude électrodiagnostique. Les résultats montrent que l’appareil de détection du SCC a un excellent pouvoir discriminant permettant d’identifier les sujets sains et les sujets atteints du SCC.People involved with occupational health at work are faced with a lack of quantitative tools to monitor and diagnose Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS. In order to fill this gap, we developed a device for rapid CTS diagnosis which is composed of two complementary quantitative tests: the wheel test, which consists in detecting notches on a rotating wheel, and the beam test, which consists in detecting various forces exerted on a finger. We conducted two experimental studies to validate this device. The first one demonstrated the repeatability of the measures. The second one studied the sensitivity and specificity of our tool as compared to an electro-diagnosis test. The results show that our CTS detection device has excellent discriminatory power that allows practitioners to differentiate between healthy and CTS-affected subjects.Los actores de la salud en el trabajo se enfrentan a una falta de herramientas cuantitativas de seguimiento y de diagnóstico del síndrome del túnel carpiano (STC. Como respuesta a esa

  11. Could spinal canal compression be a cause of polyneuropathy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bostelmann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Causality between spinal cord compression and polyneuropathy is difficult to define, especially under the circumstances that polyneuropathy can have many causes. Seven patients with spinal cord compression and electrophysiological signs of polyneuropathy were treated surgically on decompression of their spinal canal stenosis in the time from April 2010 to January 2013. Median follow up time was 9 months (2-23 months. Causes of polyneuropathy were: 1 patient with methotrexate-induced polyneuropathy, 1 endocrine-dysfunction-induced, 2 with diabetic- polyneuropathy, and 3 patients had unknown reasons. The localization of the spinal canal stenosis was also varying: 2 patients suffered of cervical spinal canal stenosis and 5 of lumbar. Decompressive surgery led to pain relieve in all patients initially. Surprisingly, also symptoms of polyneuropathy seemed to regress in all 7 patients for the first 5 months after surgery, and in 5 patients for the time of 9 months after surgery. There are two points we would like to emphasize in this short report. Since 5/7 patients with polyneuropathy and spinal canal stenosis improved clinically after surgery, surgery has a place in the treatment of such a combined pathology. Since it seems to be a possible causality between polyneuropathy of unknown origin and spinal cord stenosis, decompression of the spinal canal could also be a therapeutic step in a specific kind of polyneuropathy. Which patients could possibly have a spinal canal stenosis induced polyneuropathy remains a subject of further studies.

  12. Root canal preparation in endodontics: conventional versus laser methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodis, Harold E.; White, Joel M.; Marshall, Sally J.; Marshall, Grayson W.; Moskowitz, Emrey

    1992-06-01

    Conventional cleaning and shaping of root canal systems employs hand and/or rotary instrumentation to remove the contents of the canal and shape the canal to receive a filling material. With the advent of the Nd:YAG laser system another method of accomplishing proper cleaning and shaping is evaluated. Single rooted teeth were radiographed bucco- lingually and mesio-distally and were divided into 2 groups. The first group was accessed and the root canal systems cleaned and shaped with a step back technique utilizing hand files and gates glidden burs. At completion of the procedure the teeth were again radiographed at the same positions as those prior to the procedure. The teeth were split longitudinally and examined under scanning electron microscopy to assess cleaning. The second group of teeth were accessed, and cleaning and shaping was accomplished using the Nd:YAG laser in combination with hand files and rotary instruments. These teeth were subjected to the same analysis as those in the first group. The before and after radiographs of each group were subjected to image analysis to determine effectiveness of the two methods in shaping the canal systems. We will discuss the ability of Nd:YAG to clean and shape root canal spaces and remove smear layer and organic tissue remnants from those areas.

  13. Verrucous Carcinoma in External Auditory Canal – A Rare Case

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    Md Zillur Rahman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Verrucous carcinoma is a variant of squamous cell carcinoma. It is of low grade malignancy and rarely present with distant metastasis. Oral cavity is the commonest site of this tumour, other sites are larynx, oesophagus and genitalia. Verrucous carcinoma in external auditory canal is extremely rare. This is the presentation of a 45 years old woman who came to the ENT & Head Neck Surgery department of Delta medical college, Dhaka, Bangladesh with discharging left ear and impairment of hearing on the same side for 7 years. Otoscopic examination showed a mass occupying almost whole of the external auditory canal and the overlying skin was thickened, papillary and blackish. Cytology from external auditory canal scrap showed hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis. External auditory canal bone was found eroded at some parts. Excision of the mass was done under microscope. Split thickness skin grafting was done in external auditory canal. The mass was diagnosed as verrucous carcinoma on histopathological examination. Afterwards she was given radiotherapy. Six months follow up showed no recurrence and healthy epithelialization of external auditory canal.

  14. Long-term cytotoxic effects of contemporary root canal sealers

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    Emmanuel Joao Nogueira Leal da SILVA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of root canal sealers on the cytotoxicity of 3T3 fibroblasts during a period of 5 weeks. Material and Methods Fibroblasts (3T3, 1×105 cells per well were incubated with elutes of fresh specimens from eight root canal sealers (AH Plus, Epiphany, Endomethasone N, EndoREZ, MTA Fillapex, Pulp Canal Sealer EWT, RoekoSeal and Sealapex and with elutes of the same specimens for 5 succeeding weeks after immersing in simulated body fluid. The cytotoxicity of all root canal sealers was determined using the MTT assay. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results RoekoSeal was the only sealer that did not show any cytotoxic effects (p<0.05. All the other tested sealers exhibited severe toxicity initially (week 0. MTA Fillapex remained moderately cytotoxic after the end of experimental period. Toxicity of the other tested sealers decreased gradually over time. The evaluated root canal sealers presented varying degrees of cytotoxicity, mainly in fresh mode. Conclusions RoekoSeal had no cytotoxic effect both freshly mixed and in the other tested time points. MTA Fillapex was associated with significantly less cell viability when compared to the other tested root canal sealers.

  15. Avaliação da ansiedade e do viés de atenção no canal visual para estímulos emocionais em uma amostra não clínica Assessment of anxiety and attentional bias in the visual channel toward emotional stimuli in a non-clinical sample

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    Wilson Vieira Melo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A ansiedade vem sendo estudada como fator capaz de influenciar a atenção visual seletiva em experimentos como a Visual Probe Detection Task (VPDT. Este estudo objetivou comparar o viés de atenção para imagens emocionais em pessoas com diferentes níveis de ansiedade de traço e estado usando a VPDT. Oitenta e dois estudantes universitários responderam ao IDATE. Na VPDT, utilizaram-se 12 pares de imagens com alto nível de ativação e valência negativa, pareadas com imagens controles neutras, do International Affective Picture System (IAPS. Os estímulos eram apresentados durante 200 m. O viés de atenção não foi diferente entre os participantes com baixos e altos níveis de ansiedade de traço e estado. Tais resultados indicaram que elas não são importantes para o viés de atenção para estímulos negativos com altos níveis de ativação. Além disso, é possível que o viés de atenção para estímulos ansiogênicos seja observado apenas em populações clínicas.Anxiety has been observed as a factor capable to influence the visual selective attention in experiments such as the Visual Probe Detection Task (VPDT. This study aimed to compare the attentional bias to emotional images in people with different levels of trait and state anxiety using a VPDT. Eighty-two undergraduate students performed VPDT and answered the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory. In VPDT, 12 pairs of images from International Affective Picture System (emotional image with high arousal level and negative valence/and one control, neutral were presented during 200 m. There was no attentional bias difference between the participants neither with low nor high levels of trait or state of anxiety. These results indicated that trait or state anxiety might not be important to attentional bias to negative and arousing visual stimuli. It is possible that just clinical populations with anxiety disorders often show attentional bias to anxiogenic stimuli.

  16. Computed Tomography Evaluation of Canal Transportation and Volumetric Changes in Root Canal Dentin of Curved Canals Using Mtwo, ProTaper and ProTaper Next Rotary System-An In-vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivashankar, Mayuri Biccodu; Jayasheel, Arun; Kenchanagoudra, Mallikarjun Goud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Complete cleaning and shaping of root canal system is of paramount importance to achieve a successful root canal treatment. There are various rotary Ni-Ti systems available in the market to achieve mechanical goal of root canal preparation. But aggressive preparation of root canal with such systems would result in canal transportation and excess root dentin removal that would be one of the major reasons to decide the prognosis of root canal treated tooth. Aim The present study was conducted to compare the root canal preparation in terms of canal transportation and volumetric changes in the root canal dentin among three Ni-Ti file systems, namely Mtwo, ProTaper (PT) and ProTaper NEXT (PTN) file system, using Computed Tomography (CT). Materials and Methods A total of 45 mesiobuccal root canals of extracted first molar teeth with completely formed root apices and angle of curvature ranging between 10°- 35° were selected. These teeth were randomly divided into three experimental groups containing 15 teeth each, based on rotary system used. Group-I: Mtwo files, Group-II: PT files and Group-III: PTN files. Pre-instrumentation CT images were obtained at three cross-sectional planes – 3mm, 7mm and 11mm from apical end of the root. Similarly, post-instrumentation images were obtained. Shortest distance from the edge of the canal to the periphery of the root was analyzed by using Analysis of Variance. Results All three file systems tested in the present study presented similar behaviour with respect to the root canal transportation. Lesser canal transportation was recorded in Mtwo. But no statistically significant difference was seen in terms of canal transportation and volume of dentin removed between all three rotary systems (p>0.05). Conclusion Mtwo, PT and PTN rotary systems have similar behaviour with respect to canal transportation and volume of dentin removed. PMID:28050495

  17. Significance of temporal bone CT scan for exposure of the facial canal and the lateral semicircular canal in cholesteatoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Ki Joon; Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Myung Soon; Kim, Young Ju; Kweon, Joon [Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-09-15

    By reviewing retrospectively the HRCT findings in 130 surgically proven cases of chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma, we estimated the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictability of the HRCT compared to surgical findings. For exposure of the facial canal, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictability was 59.7%, 84.9%, and 85.2% respectively. For exposure of the lateral semicircular canal, the sensitivity was 80.6%, the specificity 99.0%, and the positive predictability 96.2%. Conclusively, the diagnostic accuracy of preoperative temporal bone CT regarding the state of the lateral semicircular canal seems to be highly reliable. Gross invasion of the facial canal can be usually detected. However, relatively low sensitivity suggests that evaluation of the ultra-thin structures of the tympanic segment is often problematic.

  18. EQUILIBRIO DE FASES PARA SISTEMAS ETANOL-AGUA EN PRESENCIA DE POLIALCOHOLES Y SALES

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    LUIS RIOS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se propone un modelo termodinámico semiempírico para el equilibrio líquidovapor del sistema etanolagua con polialcoholes y sales. El modelo usa las ecuaciones GibbsDuhem y DebyeHückel, las cuales modifican el modelo UNIQUACE. Se consideran las fuertes interacciones químicas asociadas a los fenómenos de solvatación e hidratación de iones, y el concepto de solvatación del modelo de Ohe. Se tienen en cuenta las interacciones de corto alcance, dadas por las fuerzas de van der Waals, y las interacciones de largo alcanceconsideradas en el término de DebyeHückel. Se determinaron los parámetros empíricos de ajuste para los sistemas etanolaguapolialcoholcloruro de calcio y acetato de potasio; estos sistemas son de interés industrial debido a que la adición de polialcohol y sal mejora la eficiencia de la separación.. Las mediciones isobáricas del equilibrio líquidovapor se realizaron en un destilador Othmer. Este modelo termodinámico sería útil para diseñar y simular columnas para destilación extractiva aguaetanol.

  19. Cholesteatoma invasion into the internal auditory canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migirov, Lela; Bendet, Erez; Kronenberg, Jona

    2009-05-01

    Cholesteatoma invasion into the internal auditory canal (IAC) is rare and usually results in irreversible, complete hearing loss and facial paralysis on the affected side. This retrospective study examines the clinical characteristics of seven patients with cholesteatoma invading the IAC, analyzes possible routes of the cholesteatoma's extension and describes the surgical approaches used and patient outcome. Extension to the IAC was via the supralabyrinthine route in most patients. A subtotal petrosectomy, a translabyrinthine approach or a middle cranial fossa approach combined with radical mastoidectomy were required for the complete removal of the cholesteatoma. All seven patients presented with some preoperative facial nerve palsy. The facial nerve was decompressed in four patients and facial nerve repair was performed in three others, two by hypoglossal-facial anastomosis and one by a greater auricular nerve interposition grafting. All patients ended up with total deafness in the operate ear. At 1 year following surgery, the facial nerve function was House-Brackmann grade III in six cases and grade II in one. In conclusion, cholesteatoma invading the IAC is a separate entity with characteristic clinical presentations, require a unique surgical approach, and result in significant morbidity, such as total deafness in the operated ear and impaired facial movement.

  20. Radiotherapy of epidermoid anal canal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowsky, W

    1989-01-01

    Forty-eight patients with anal canal cancers were treated with surgery and irradiation or irradiation alone during the period 1970-1982. All cases were treated by external megavoltage equipment. The overall 5-year survival was 50%, and the local recurrence rate 33%. According to the therapy, four major groups were analysed: radical surgery followed by post-operative irradiation (5-year survival 43%, local recurrence rate 38%), incomplete major surgery and post-operative irradiation with very inferior prognosis (none of the patients surviving beyond 52 months). Two groups of patients had sphincter-saving procedures: local surgery followed by irradiation (5-year survival 78%, local recurrence rate 22%) and primary irradiation (5-year survival 57%, local recurrence rate 14%). Lymph node positive patients showed a median survival of 24.5 months against 52 months in N0 cases (5-year survival 21% against 50%). Side-effects of radiotherapy were transient and mild, and no late severe sequelae were seen. The data indicate that post-operative external radiotherapy seems insufficient and unable to decrease the local recurrence rate, especially when surgery is incomplete. Both spincter-saving surgery and radiotherapy, as well as primary irradiation, are effective treatment modalities. These data are analysed and future aspects considering combined radiochemotherapy are discussed.

  1. Retrograde seal in ultrasonically prepared canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutimuntanakul, S; Worayoskowit, W; Mangkornkarn, C

    2000-08-01

    The sealing ability of various retrofilling materials was compared. The root canals of 85 single-rooted teeth were cleansed and obturated with gutta-percha without sealer using lateral condensation. The apical 3 mm of the roots were resected and divided into positive control, negative control, and five experimental groups. The experimental teeth received root-end cavity preparation to 3 mm depth using an ultrasonic retroprep tip. The retrocavities were dried and divided into five groups to receive the following materials: amalgam with varnish, amalgam with Clearfil Liner Bond II, thermoplasticized gutta-percha (TGP) with sealer, Ketac-fil, and Super-EBA. After immersion in India ink for 7 days, the roots were demineralized, cleared, and evaluated for dye leakage under a stereomicroscope. Statistical analysis showed that Super-EBA, Ketac-fil, and TGP with sealer demonstrated less leakage than amalgam with varnish and amalgam with Clearfil Liner Bond II (p fil or TGP sealer (p fil and TGP or between the two groups filled with amalgam (p > 0.05).

  2. Prevalencia del segundo canal en la raíz mesiovestibular de los primeros molares maxilares mediante tomografía computarizada de haz de cono Prevalence of a second canal in the mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molars by Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Betancourt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La morfología del sistema de canales radiculares es compleja y variable. El primer molar maxilar permanente presenta habitualmente un segundo canal en la raíz mesiobucal (MB2. Su falta de localización y total desbridamiento, es la principal causa de fracaso terapéutico. El objetivo fue determinar la prevalencia in vivo del canal MB2 en la raíz mesiovestibular de primeros molares maxilares mediante tomografía computarizada de haz de cono (TCHC. Material y método: Se examinaron imágenes TCHC de primeros molares maxilares, izquierdos y derechos, en ambos sexos. Se excluyeron las raíces con canales radiculares tratados endodónticamente o con postes, rehabilitados mediante prótesis fija, calcificación de canales, evidencia de radectomía o cirugía periapical. Fueron seleccionadas 32 imágenes TCHC. En todos los casos, se realizó un estudio sistemático de la raíz mesiobucal a través de cortes en el plano axial. Resultados: Se observó una prevalencia del 68,75% del canal MB2. No se encontraron diferencias según sexo o lateralidad. El promedio de edad fue de 25,31 años de edad. Discusión: La alta prevalencia encontrada del canal MB2, debe ser considerada antes de establecer un tratamiento de endodoncia para lograr un resultado óptimo y evitar el fracaso terapéutico. La TCHC es una herramienta útil para su detección, y presenta alta sensibilidad.Introduction: The morphology of the root canal system is complex and variable. The first permanent maxillary molar has usually a second canal in the mesiobuccal root (MB2. Its location and total lack of debridement, is the leading cause of treatment failure. The objective was to determine in vivo the prevalence of MB2 canal in mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molars using Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. Methods: CBCT images of first maxillary molars, left and right, in both sexes, were reviewed. We excluded roots endodontically treated or with posts, rehabilitated

  3. Interfaces inteligentes para resolución de problemas en entornos virtuales

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre, Guillermo

    2001-01-01

    Los entornos virtuales basados en texto, MOOs (MUD Object Oriented) originan comunidades con distintos intereses. Este trabajo propone una interfaz de usuario para usar con los MOO en tareas educativas. Estas interfaces deben contar con la inteligencia necesaria como para regular un buen uso del entorno, de los canales de comunicación y de los elementos dispuestos en esos entornos. La posibilidad de incorporar agentes de interfaz, capaces de asistir a los usuarios, para resolver problemas jun...

  4. Assessment of the wetting behavior of three different root canal sealers on root canal dentin

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    Muralidhar Tummala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the wetting behavior of three different root canal sealers on the root canal dentin surface treated with irrigants and their combination. Materials and Methods: Decoronation and apical third resections of 27 extracted single-rooted human mandibular premolars were done. The roots were then split longitudinally into two halves, and randomly assigned into three treatment groups (n=18. The root dentin surfaces in Group1, Group 2 and Group 3 were treated with 17% ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA, 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and combination of 17% EDTA and 3% NaOCl, respectively. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups of 6 specimens each, depending on the the sealer used, i.e. sub group A. zinc oxide (ZnOE, sub group B. AH plus, subgroup C. Guttaflow sealer, respectively. The contact angle was measured using First Ten Angstroms (FTA 200 dynamic contact angle analyzer. Results: The contact angle values for AH Plus sealer were significantly lower when compared to the other two sealer groups. Conclusion: The wettability of AH Plus sealer on the root surface dentin was found to be better than Gutta-Flow and ZnOE sealer.

  5. La presencia del infoentretenimiento en los canales generalistas de la TDT española

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    S Berrocal Gonzalo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El artículo se incluye dentro de las investigaciones empíricas sobre infoentretenimiento y realiza una caracterización de los estilemas del infoentretenimiento televisivo comprobando su presencia dentro de la programación de los canales generalistas de la TDT española. Metodología. Se analizan las parrillas de los seis canales generalistas contabilizando el tiempo dedicado al infoentretenimiento; posteriormente se realiza un análisis de contenido de los espacios en prime time. Resultados. Se observa cómo el infoentretenimiento ocupa una posición privilegiada dentro de la programación aunque con diferencias significativas entre cadenas. Como estilemas dominantes destacan el humorismo, la dramatización y los recursos técnicos para espectacularizar la imagen. Discusión. El infoentretenimiento se consolida como un macrogénero relevante con porcentajes que van del 34,91% (La Sexta al 8,12% (La 2, siendo el magazine y el debate los formatos dominantes. Sorprendentemente La 1 de TVE con un índice de infoentretenimiento del 18,10% se sitúa por encima de Antena 3 o Cuatro.

  6. Anestesia combinada e extubação precoce em paciente com persistência do canal arterial: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Antônio de Mattos Gouvêa; Cassiano Franco Bernardes

    2001-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O canal arterial é uma estrutura que integra a circulação fetal. Fatores como prematuridade, hipóxia, acidose e sepse contribuem para a sua patência. O objetivo deste relato é demonstrar a utilização da anestesia combinada em cirurgia para correção da persistência do canal arterial. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente masculino, 14 meses, 11 kg,estado físico ASA II com infecções respiratórias de repetição, foi submetido à correção cirúrgica de PCA. Utilizou-se midazolam (0,5 m...

  7. Cervical spinal canal narrowing and cervical neurologi-cal injuries

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    ZHANG Ling

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Cervical spinal canal narrowing can lead to injury of the spinal cord and neurological symptoms in-cluding neck pain, headache, weakness and parasthesisas. According to previous and recent clinical researches, we investigated the geometric parameters of normal cervical spinal canal including the sagittal and transverse diameters as well as Torg ratio. The mean sagittal diameter of cervical spinal canal at C 1 to C 7 ranges from 15.33 mm to 20.46 mm, the mean transverse diameter at the same levels ranges from 24.45 mm to 27.00 mm and the mean value of Torg ratio is 0.96. With respect to narrow cervical spinal canal, the following charaterstics are found: firstly, extension of the cervical spine results in statistically significant stenosis as compared with the flexed or neutral positions; secondly, females sustain cervical spinal canal narrowing more easily than males; finally, the consistent narrowest cervical canal level is at C 4 for all ethnicity, but there is a slight variation in the sagittal diameter of cervical spinal stenosis (≤14 mm in Whites, ≤ 12 mm in Japanese, ≤13.7 mm in Chinese. Narrow sagittal cervical canal diameter brings about an increased risk of neurological injuries in traumatic, degenerative and inflam-matory conditions and is related with extension of cervical spine, gender, as well as ethnicity. It is hoped that this re-view will be helpful in diagnosing spinal cord and neuro-logical injuries with the geometric parameters of cervical spine in the future. Key words: Spinal cord injuries; Spinal stenosis; Trauma, nervous system

  8. Cervical spinal canal narrowing and cervical neurological injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ling; CHEN Hai-bin; WANG Yi; ZHANG Li-ying; LIU Jing-cheng; WANG Zheng-guo

    2012-01-01

    Cervical spinal canal narrowing can lead to injury of the spinal cord and neurological symptoms including neck pain,headache,weakness and parasthesisas.According to previous and recent clinical researches,we investigated the geometric parameters of normal cervical spinal canal including the sagittal and transverse diameters as well as Torg ratio.The mean sagittal diameter of cervical spinal canal at C1 to C7 ranges from 15.33 mm to 20.46 mm,the mean transverse diameter at the same levels ranges from 24.45 mm to 27.00 mm and the mean value of Torg ratio is 0.96.With respect to narrow cervical spinal canal,the following charaterstics are found:firstly,extension of the cervical spine results in statistically significant stenosis as compared with the flexed or neutral positions; secondly,females sustain cervical spinal canal narrowing more easily than males;finally,the consistent narrowest cervical canal level is at C4 for all ethnicity,but there is a slight variation in the sagittal diameter of cervical spinal stenosis(≤ 14 mm in Whites,≤12 mm in Japanese,≤ 13.7 mm in Chinese).Narrow sagittal cervical canal diameter brings about an increased risk of neurological injuries in traumatic,degenerative and inflammatory conditions and is related with extension of cervical spine,gender,as well as ethnicity.It is hoped that this review will be helpful in diagnosing spinal cord and neurological injuries with the geometric parameters of cervical spine in the future.

  9. Topographical evaluation of the mandibular canal through panoramic radiograph

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    Ingrid Macedo Oliveira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The mandibular canal is located inside the body of the mandible and may have anatomical variations. The topographic knowledge of the mandibular canal by the Dental surgeons is fundamental to achieving success in surgical planning, anesthetics and clinical interventions involving the jaw. To study the anatomy of the mandibular canal through panoramic radiographs. A retrospective descriptive study, developed after review and approval by the Ethics and Research Committee with the number of opinion 431095. Were analyzed 252 panoramic radiographs of patients of male and female attended in dental clinics UNINOVAFAPI University Center, Teresina-Pi, Brazil. The radiographs were analyzed with the aid of a light box and each antimere the jaw was observed separately. The classification of Nortjé and Langlais for description of the topography of the mandibular canal were used. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 18.0. There was a prevalence of 38.89% in both antimeres, of mandibular channel the Type II. The type IV was present in 25.4% in the right hemi-arch and 26.6% on the left. Mandibular canal with unilateral bifurcation was observed in 0.77% of the sample and molar straight channel has not been identified. We observed anatomical variations as for the number and path, of the mandibular canal with the highest prevalence of Types II and IV, and the absence of bifurcations. Most was mandibular channels showed no bifurcation. The panoramic radiograph showed up an aid important to identify the mandibular canal and its variations.

  10. Modelo resorte-paríicula para telas hiperlasticas

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    MANUEL GARCÍA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un modelo computacional para la simulación de telas hiperelásticas. El modelo propuesto tiene un enfoque multi−partículas y simula la interacción de un material textil con un objeto deformante. La tela está representada por mallas rectangulares compuestas por resortes, este hecho permite al modelo comportarse ortotrópicamente y en consecuencia es posible simular sus propiedades en ambos sentidos. Las relaciones constitutivas del material preservan las capacidades hiperelásticas naturales de la tela. En el modelo desarrollado aquí, inicialmente la tela se encuentra en su estado natural no deformado. Luego se le da una deformación inicial que garantice el no contacto o intersección con el objeto deformante. Finalmente, la tela deformada es liberada, en consecuencia ella comienza a moverse iterativamente hacia a una posición de equilibrio. La posición final de equilibrio es alcanzada cuando las fuerzas internas son balanceadas por las fuerzas externas de contacto causadas por el objeto. Esto se logra cuando el criterio de parada ha sido satisfecho.

  11. El bagre de canal (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque, 1818: estado actual y problemática en México

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    Ana Laura Lara-Rivera

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El bagre de canal (Ictalurus punctatus es uno de los peces endémicos de Norte América con mayor potencial para la acuicultura. A pesar de esto, los datos sobre su distribución actual son escasos y se desconocen muchos aspectos de su dinámica y desempeño productivo. En el presente estudio se reportan los resultados de una búsqueda bibliográfica y análisis de campo que permiten describir la situación actual del bagre de canal con respecto a su distribución geográfica histórica y actual, así como de la problemática que enfrentan los sistemas productivos de esta especie en México. Se identificó la falta de información e indicadores que permitan conocer la extensión de su hábitat natural, movilización o potencial productivo. La calidad y disponibilidad del agua figuran entre las principales problemáticas de la industria; el alimento supone el mayor gasto para los productores y existe gran heterogeneidad de manejo tanto en granjas reproductoras como de engorde, gran parte de la dinámica productiva sigue un modelo de ensayo y error. Se requiere optimizar y homologar los procesos del sistema productivo de bagre de canal, así como caracterizar correctamente las poblaciones domésticas y silvestres para aprovechar al máximo su potencial.

  12. Canal mandibular bífido: Presentación de una serie de casos Bifid mandibular canal: Case series report

    OpenAIRE

    C.L. Guzmán Zuluaga; I.C. Guzmán Zuluaga; C.M. Ardila Medina

    2012-01-01

    La ubicación y configuración de las variaciones del canal mandibular son relevantes en diferentes procedimientos clínicos de la mandíbula. En esta serie de casos un radiólogo evaluó el recorrido del canal mandibular identificando la presencia y tipos de canales bífidos. Se observaron cuatro pacientes con canal mandibular bífido tipo retromolar y tres sujetos con canal bífido tipo anterior sin convergencia. En otro paciente se encontraron forámenes dentarios bífidos bilaterales. La Tomografía ...

  13. Methodology for Automatic Generation of Models for Large Urban Spaces Based on GIS Data/Metodología para la generación automática de modelos de grandes espacios urbanos desde información SIG/

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    Sergio Arturo Ordóñez Medina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the planning and evaluation stages of infrastructure projects, it is necessary to manage huge quantities of information. Cities are very complex systems, which need to be modeled when an intervention is required. Suchmodels allow us to measure the impact of infrastructure changes, simulating hypothetic scenarios and evaluating results. This paper describes a methodology for the automatic generation of urban space models from GIS sources. A Voronoi diagram is used to partition large urban regions and subsequently define zones of interest. Finally, some examples of application models are presented, one used for microsimulation of traffic and another for air pollution simulation.En las etapas de planeación y evaluación de proyectos de infraestructura es necesario manejar grandes cantidades de información. Las ciudades son sistemas complejos que deben ser modeladas para ser intervenidas. Estos modelos permitirón medir el impacto de los cambios de infraestructura, simular escenarios hipotéticos y evaluar resultados. Este artículo describe una metodología para generar automáticamente modelos espaciales urbanos desde fuentes SIG: Un diagrama de Voronoi es usado para dividir grandes regiones urbanas, y a continuación serán definidas las zonas de interés. Finalmente, algunos ejemplos de modelos de aplicación serán presentados, uno usado para microsimulación de tráfico y el otro para simular contaminación atmosférica.

  14. Origin and evolution of the canal raphe system in diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruck, Elizabeth C; Theriot, Edward C

    2011-11-01

    One lineage of pennate diatoms has a slit through the siliceous cell wall, called a "raphe," that functions in motility. Raphid pennate diatoms number in the perhaps tens of thousands of species, with the diversity of raphe forms potentially matching this number. Three lineages-the Bacillariales, Rhopalodiales, and Surirellales-possess a complex and presumably highly derived raphe that is physically separated from the cell interior, most often by a set of siliceous braces. Because the relationship among these three lineages is unclear, the number of origins of the canal raphe system and the homology of it and its constitutive parts among these lineages, is equally unclear. We reconstructed the phylogeny of raphid pennate diatoms and included, for the first time, members of all three canal raphid diatom lineages, and used the phylogeny to test specific hypotheses about the origin of the canal raphe. The canal raphe appears to have evolved twice, once in the common ancestor of Bacillariales and once in the common ancestor of Rhopalodiales and Surirellales, which form a monophyletic group in our analyses. These results recommend careful follow-up morphogenesis studies of the canal raphe in these two lineages to determine the underlying developmental basis for this remarkable case of parallel evolution.

  15. [Anatomical names of foramina and canales in skeleton].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikano, S; Yamashita, Y

    1998-03-01

    Latin anatomical names of Foramina and Canales in skeleton were analyzed and compared with Japanese anatomical names for better understanding of the structures of the human body and for possible revision in the future. The conclusions were as follows: 1. In general, short tunnels were called Foramina (singular: Foramen), and long tunnels Canales (singular: Canalis). 2. One end of Canalis was sometimes called Foramen. In this case, Canalis and Foramen were usually modified by the same words. 3. Each name of Foramina contained the word which means form, state, absolute size, region of existence, one of the contents or function of Foramina. 4. Each name of Canales contained the word which means region of existence, one of the contents or function of Canales. 5. Some names of Foramina and Canales that were supposed to mean the region of existence meant one of the contents of the structures. 6. As for Latin anatomical names, the relation between words were relatively clear by the proper use of noun, adjective, nominative, and genitive. 7. Since different Chinese characters were sometimes pronounced similarly in Japanese anatomical names, different structures might be confused. 8. It seemed that some Japanese anatomical names needed partial correction.

  16. CT and MR Imagings of Semicircular Canal Aplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Chung Hee; Hong, Hyun Sook; Yi, Beom Ha; Cha, Jang Gyu; Park, Seong Jin; Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kim, Shi Chan [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    To evaluate the clinical, CT and MR imaging findings of semicircular canal (SCC) aplasia and to evaluate if a correlation exists between these findings and the associated anomalies or syndromes. This study retrospectively reviewed the CT and MRI findings of five patients with SCC aplasia. The CT and MR findings were analyzed for SCC, direction of facial nerve canal, cochlea, vestibule, oval or round window, middle ear ossicles, and internal auditory canal (IAC). The subjects included three boys and two girls ranging in age from one to 120 months (mean age; 51 months). Four of the subjects had the CHARGE syndrome, and one had the Goldenhar syndrome. Moreover, four subjects had sensorineural hearing loss and one had combined hearing loss. The course of the facial nerve canal was abnormal in all five cases. Moreover, trapped cochlea and dysplastic modiolus were each observed in one case. Four subjects had atresia of the oval window; whereas ankylosis of the ossicles was present in three subjects. IAC stenosis was present in one patient with the CHARGE syndrome. The aberrant course of the facial nerve canal, atresia of the oval window, and abnormal ossicles were frequently associated in patients with SCC aplasia. In addition, the Goldenhar and CHARGE syndromes were also commonly associated syndromes.

  17. Micro-Machined Flow Sensors Mimicking Lateral Line Canal Neuromasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Herzog

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish sense water motions with their lateral line. The lateral line is a sensory system that contains up to several thousand mechanoreceptors, called neuromasts. Neuromasts occur freestanding on the skin and in subepidermal canals. We developed arrays of flow sensors based on lateral line canal neuromasts using a biomimetic approach. Each flow sensor was equipped with a PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane lamella integrated into a canal system by means of thick- and thin-film technology. Our artificial lateral line system can estimate bulk flow velocity from the spatio-temporal propagation of flow fluctuations. Based on the modular sensor design, we were able to detect flow rates in an industrial application of tap water flow metering. Our sensory system withstood water pressures of up to six bar. We used finite element modeling to study the fluid flow inside the canal system and how this flow depends on canal dimensions. In a second set of experiments, we separated the flow sensors from the main stream by means of a flexible membrane. Nevertheless, these biomimetic neuromasts were still able to sense flow fluctuations. Fluid separation is a prerequisite for flow measurements in medical and pharmaceutical applications.

  18. Nanodiamond-Gutta Percha Composite Biomaterials for Root Canal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Keun; Kim, Sue Vin; Limansubroto, Adelheid Nerisa; Yen, Albert; Soundia, Akrivoula; Wang, Cun-Yu; Shi, Wenyuan; Hong, Christine; Tetradis, Sotirios; Kim, Yong; Park, No-Hee; Kang, Mo K; Ho, Dean

    2015-11-24

    Root canal therapy (RCT) represents a standard of treatment that addresses infected pulp tissue in teeth and protects against future infection. RCT involves removing dental pulp comprising blood vessels and nerve tissue, decontaminating residually infected tissue through biomechanical instrumentation, and root canal obturation using a filler material to replace the space that was previously composed of dental pulp. Gutta percha (GP) is typically used as the filler material, as it is malleable, inert, and biocompatible. While filling the root canal space with GP is the standard of care for endodontic therapies, it has exhibited limitations including leakage, root canal reinfection, and poor mechanical properties. To address these challenges, clinicians have explored the use of alternative root filling materials other than GP. Among the classes of materials that are being explored as novel endodontic therapy platforms, nanodiamonds (NDs) may offer unique advantages due to their favorable properties, particularly for dental applications. These include versatile faceted surface chemistry, biocompatibility, and their role in improving mechanical properties, among others. This study developed a ND-embedded GP (NDGP) that was functionalized with amoxicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic commonly used for endodontic infection. Comprehensive materials characterization confirmed improved mechanical properties of NDGP over unmodified GP. In addition, digital radiography and microcomputed tomography imaging demonstrated that obturation of root canals with NDGP could be achieved using clinically relevant techniques. Furthermore, bacterial growth inhibition assays confirmed drug functionality of NDGP functionalized with amoxicillin. This study demonstrates a promising path toward NDGP implementation in future endodontic therapy for improved treatment outcomes.

  19. Aditivos para concretos de projeção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pileggi R. G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A crescente utilização de procedimentos automatizados para a instalação de concretos refratários, como bombeamento e projeção, deve-se ao entendimento simultâneo das solicitações de cada técnica de instalação e dos fatores que determinam a natureza reológica destes materiais. No caso dos concretos de projeção, importante ainda é avaliar a ação dos aditivos (floculantes, aceleradores de pega, etc. normalmente utilizados para auxiliar a consolidação e adesão do material na superfície aplicada, reduzindo o desperdício (rebote durante a aplicação. Contudo, os procedimentos convencionais de análise, baseados em ensaios de consistência ou em análises pós-cura, não permitem simular a influência dos aditivos na projeção do material. Neste trabalho, foi desenvolvida uma nova técnica experimental baseada na reometria de concretos, a qual foi utilizada na análise de aditivos comerciais, além de outros que teoricamente possuem potencial para auxiliar a consolidação da aplicação de concretos por projeção. Os resultados comprovaram a eficácia da técnica de ensaio desenvolvida e possibilitaram a identificação de novos aditivos que elevam a eficiência da projeção.

  20. 33 CFR 207.640 - Sacramento Deep Water Ship Channel Barge Lock and Approach Canals; use, administration, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... movement and position of all water traffic while at or near the locks and in the barge canals. (2... be raced or crowded alongside another in the barge canals. When entering the barge canals and...

  1. El proceso constructivo de los teatros del "Canal" del arquitecto Juan Navarro Baldeweg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Aguila García, Alfonso

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This present article studies and chriticizes the building system and the developement of the theater and dance complex of Canal (Teatros del Canal, Madrid, designed by Juan Navarro Baldeweg, Principal Professor of Architectural Design at Madrid School of Architecture Polytechnic University. These theaters are being built in the center of Madrid city. The owner and developer of this complex is Canal de Isabel II (the water supply company of Madrid regional Government. The project consist in a three building complex, two theatres and a choreographic centre, put together by a back service block, each of them with it’s own different building solutions. This article is the result of the work done during the term 2006-07 of the Seminar of "Industrialization of Building Process" that, under the direction of the Principal Professor Alfonso del Águila, takes place within the Ph. D. Program of the Department of Construction and Architectural Technology set in Madrid School of Architecture Polytechnic University. The work includes two different parts: the fi rst one, which introduces is a prologue written by Prof. Navarro and a general description of the building. The second part describes its different construction areas, ranging from the different structural solutions, the hung façades pretending to be theatre curtains, some aspects of the interior design, as acoustics, special furniture and fi nishes, not in a mere descriptive way, but also from a critical manner with the intention to be a consequence with didactical value for the students/ authors.El artículo que se presenta estudia y valora el sistema constructivo, y su desarrollo, de las obras de los Teatros del Canal, obra del Catedrático de Proyectos de la Escuela de Arquitectura de Madrid, Prof. Navarro Baldeweg, que se están llevando a cabo en Madrid, siendo la Promotora y Propietaria el Canal de Isabel II de la Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid. Se trata de un conjunto de tres edifi cios

  2. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo simultaneously affecting several canals: a 46-patient series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Varela, Andrés; Rossi-Izquierdo, Marcos; Santos-Pérez, Sofía

    2013-03-01

    Although it is uncommon for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) to affect more than one canal simultaneously, it is not exceptional. We attempt to determine whether these patients present differences relative to "single-canal" cases. A prospective study was done in patients with BPPV, divided into three groups: single-canal BPPV, multi-canal BPPV in one ear and multi-canal BPPV in both ears. Diagnosis was by Dix and Hallpike, supine roll and cephalic hyperextension tests. Treatment was according to the affected canals, by Semont, Epley, Lempert and Yacovino manoeuvres. Aetiology, sex, age, response to treatment, recurrence and final status in each of the three groups was evaluated. Five hundred and eighty-three patients were diagnosed with BPPV: 537 single-canal (92 %) and 46 multi-canal (8 %); of the latter, 36 bilateral and 10 unilateral cases. Basic differences between groups were: greater percentage of idiopathic cases in single-canal (p BPPV was more common in unilateral multi-canal (p = 0.006, Chi-square). No differences between groups in response to treatment, recurrence and final status were detected. There are aetiological differences between patients with single-canal BPPV, unilateral multi-canal BPPV and bilateral multi-canal BPPV. Response to therapeutic manoeuvres, however, shows that over 90 % of the patients in all the groups are cured.

  3. Síndrome de Deiscência de Canal Semicircular Superior Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzane da Cunha Ferreira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A Síndrome de Deiscência de Canal Semicircular Superior (SDCSS, primeiramente descrita em 1998 por Minor et al., caracteriza-se por vertigem associada à presença de nistagmo, relacionados à exposição a estímulos sonoros intensos ou a modificações de pressão dentro da orelha média ou intracraniana. Disacusia, em sua maioria de padrão condutivo à audiometria tonal, também pode estar presente. Nesta revisão da literatura objetivou-se abordar a SDCSS, com seus principais sinais e sintomas, achados diagnósticos e tratamento, assim como enfatizar a importância de sua inclusão dentre as causas de vertigem, visto tratar-se de acometimento ainda pouco conhecido até mesmo entre especialistas. O diagnóstico correto, além de possibilitar seu tratamento, impede que abordagens diagnósticas e terapêuticas inapropriadas sejam realizadas.The Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome (SCDS was first reported by Minor at. Al. (1998, and has been characterized by vertigo and vertical-torsional eye movements related to loud sounds or stimuli that change middle ear or intracranial pressure. Hearing loss, for the most part with conductive patterns on audiometry, may be present in this syndrome. We performed a literature survey in order to to present symptoms, signs, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to the SCDS, also aiming at stressing the great importance of including this syndrome among the tractable cause of vertigo. We should emphasize that this is a recent issue, still unknown by some specialists. The Correct SCDS diagnosis, besides enabling patient treatment, precludes misdiagnosis and inadequate therapeutic approaches.

  4. Microbiological indicators of water quality in the Xochimilco canals, Mexico City Indicadores microbiológicos de la calidad del agua de los canales de Xochimilco de la Ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alfredo Juárez-Figueroa

    2003-10-01

    efectuado en Xochimilco, México. Durante noviembre y diciembre de 2001 se muestrearon 10 sitios, cinco efluentes y cinco canales, para la cuantificación de coliformes fecales y enterococos (filtración en membrana de nitrocelulosa, colifagos somáticos (técnica de doble capa de agar, ooquistes de Cryptosporidium sp. y quistes de Giardia sp. (concentración en filtros Envirocheck y microscopía de inmunofluorescencia. Se efectuó comparación de los promedios de las cuentas de organismos hallados, en efluentes y canales, mediante t de Student. RESULTADOS: El agua tratada que descarga en los canales mostró cantidades bajas de coliformes fecales (media de 40.4/100 ml, enterococos (media de 58.8/100 ml y quistes de Cryptosporidium (media de 13.2/100 l, mientras que los colifagos y quistes de Giardia estuvieron presentes en gran cantidad (media de 1467.5/100 ml y 1199.8/100 l, respectivamente, sugiriendo que el tratamiento del agua puede ser ineficaz para remover estos agentes. En los canales de irrigación de vegetales se encontró una cantidad significativamente menor de quistes de Giardia (media de 45/100 l y no se encontraron ooquistes de Cryptosporidium, lo que sugiere la remoción natural de estos agentes. Algunos aislamientos de E coli obtenidos de un canal contaminado con descargas cloacales mostraron una multirresistencia a antibióticos que fue transferida por conjugación a otras bacterias mediante plásmidos. Esto sugiere la posible diseminación de la resistencia a bacterias del medio (posibles patógenas. Existen numerosos asentamientos humanos cercanos a las chinampas que descargan desechos directamente a los canales. CONCLUSIONES: La implantación de métodos de tratamiento de excretas que resulten costeables y culturalmente aceptables debe realizarse mediante una cuidadosa planeación y consulta, si estos métodos han de ser adoptados y sostenidos por la población local.

  5. Commentaires sur la valeur piscicole du Canal de Roubaix (Nord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARRIGNON J.

    1970-10-01

    Full Text Available La population piscicole du Canal de ROUBAIX a été inventoriée par pêche électrique. Trois passages, suivis chacun de l'enlèvement des poissons capturés, ont été opérés dans chacun des trois Secteurs d'inventaire. Le peuplement le plus probable ainsi estimé (par la méthode De Lury,est en rapport avec le degré de pollution du canal. On constate aussi queles poissons se cantonnent le long des berges, sur une largeur de 2 à 3mètres.L'estimation à l'hectare représente donc en réalité le stock d'une zone n'ayant que 25 % de la surface totale du Canal. Les poissons contrôlés sont pour la plupart des poissons de repeuplement.

  6. Bioceramic-Based Root Canal Sealers: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Ab Aziz, Zeti A.

    2016-01-01

    Bioceramic-based root canal sealers are considered to be an advantageous technology in endodontics. The aim of this review was to consider laboratory experiments and clinical studies of these sealers. An extensive search of the endodontic literature was made to identify publications related to bioceramic-based root canal sealers. The outcome of laboratory and clinical studies on the biological and physical properties of bioceramic-based sealers along with comparative studies with other sealers was assessed. Several studies were evaluated covering different properties of bioceramic-based sealers including physical properties, biocompatibility, sealing ability, adhesion, solubility, and antibacterial efficacy. Bioceramic-based sealers were found to be biocompatible and comparable to other commercial sealers. The clinical outcomes associated with the use of bioceramic-based root canal sealers are not established in the literature. PMID:27242904

  7. Classification, mechanism and surgical treatments for spinal canal cysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun Sun

    2016-01-01

    A variety of cystic lesions may develop in spinal canal. These cysts can be divided into intramedullary, intradural, extradural, cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral cysts according to anatomical presentation, as well as arachnoid, meningeal, perineural, juxtafacet, discal, neurenteric cysts, and cyst-like lesions according to different etiologies. Mechanisms of initiation and growth vary for different cysts, such as congenital, trauma, bleeding, inflammatory, instability, hydrostatic pressure, osmosis of water, secretion of cyst wall, and one-way-valve effect, etc. Up to now, many treatment methods are available for these different spinal canal cysts. One operation method can be applied in cysts with different types. On the other hand, several operation methods may be utilized in one type of cyst according to the difference of location or style. However, same principle should be obeyed in surgical treatment despite of difference among spinal canal cysts, given open surgery is melely for symptomatic cyst. The surgical approach should be tailored to the individual patient.

  8. Acoustic impedances of ear canals measured by impedance tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciric, Dejan; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2007-01-01

    During hearing sensitivity tests, the sound field is commonly generated by an earphone placed on a subject ear. One of the factors that can affect the sound transmission in the ear is the acoustic impedance of the ear canal. Its importance is related to the contribution of other elements involved...... in the transmission such as the earphone impedance. In order to determine the acoustic impedances of human ear canals, the standardized method for measurement of complex impedances used for the measurement of the audiometric earphone impedances is applied. It is based on the transfer function between two microphone...... locations in an impedance tube. The end of the tube representing the measurement plane is placed at the ear canal entrance. Thus, the impedance seen from the entrance inward is measured on 25 subjects. Most subjects participated in the previous measurement of the ratio between the pressures at the open...

  9. The problem of fluid-dynamics in semicircular canal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    An analytical solution with high accuracy which holds for any values of ε for fluid-dynamics model equation in a single semicircular canal presented by Buskirk and his co-workers has been obtained.It not only includes all of the results of Buskirk et al.but also covers three possible kinds of dynamical response modes in practice.The theoretical results are in better agreement with those of experimental observations.This investigation has laid a reliable theoretical foundation for quantitatively understanding fluid-dynamics in semicircular canal,especially fluid dynamical response.The distribution of the velocity of the endolymph in semicircular canal is given.A nonstandard method of the inverse Laplace transform is presented.

  10. The problem of fluid-dynamics in semicircular canal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐明瑜; 谭文长

    2000-01-01

    An analytical solution with high accuracy which holds for any values of E for fluid-dynamics model eguation in a single semicircular canal presented by Buskirk and his co-workers has been ob-tained. it not only includes ali of the results of Buskirk et al. but also covers three possible kinds of dy-namical response modes in practice. The theoretical results are in betler agreement with those of ex-perimental observations. This investigation has laid a reliable theoretical foundation for quantitatively understanding fluid-dynamics in semicircular canal, especially fluid dynamical response. The distribu-tion of the velocity of the endolymph in semicircular canal is given. A nonstandard method of the in-verse Laplace transform is presented.

  11. Temporal Bone Fracture Causing Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD is a third window lesion of the inner ear causing symptoms of vertigo, autophony, tinnitus, and hearing loss. A “two-hit” hypothesis has traditionally been proposed, whereby thinly developed bone overlying the superior canal is disrupted by a sudden change in intracranial pressure. Although the symptoms of SCD may be precipitated by head injury, no previous reports have described a temporal bone fracture directly causing SCD. Observations. Two patients sustained temporal bone fractures after closed head trauma, and developed unilateral otologic symptoms consistent with SCD. In each instance, computed tomography imaging revealed fractures extending through the bony roof of the superior semicircular canal. Conclusions and Relevance. Temporal bone fractures, which are largely treated nonoperatively, have not previously been reported to cause SCD. As it is a potentially treatable entity, SCD resulting from temporal bone fracture must be recognized as a possibility and diagnosed promptly if present.

  12. Tullio phenomenon in superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, Gregory J; Cronin, Scott J; Heidenreich, Katherine D

    2014-03-18

    Tullio phenomenon refers to eye movements induced by sound.(1) This unusual examination finding may be seen in superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) syndrome.(2) This disorder is due to absent bone over the superior semicircular canal (figure). Patients complain of dizziness triggered by loud sound, aural fullness, autophony, and pulsatile tinnitus. When Tullio phenomenon exists in SSCD syndrome, the patient develops a mixed vertical-torsional nystagmus in which the slow phase rotates up and away from the affected ear (video on the Neurology® Web site at Neurology.org). This pattern of nystagmus aligns in the plane of the dehiscent semicircular canal and is due to excitation of its afferent nerves.

  13. RADIOLOGICAL STUDY OF HUMAN LUMBAR VERTEBRAL CANAL IN VIDHARBHA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Increase in number of patients suffering from backache all over world needs changing health polices and cost benefit analysis, it is important to look at diseases causing low back pain and for this study of radiological structure of lumbar vertebral canal is undertaken. AIMS : To reveal the radiological feature of Human lumbar vert ebral canal. METHOD AND MATERIAL : 50 - xray of lumbar canal was collected from orthopedic department of government medical college, Nagpur. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS : Data is presented in mean ± standard deviation and categorical variable are presented in percen tage. Comparison with previous study is done. RESULT : M aximum measurement as greater in male than female of same age group. CONCLUSION : T he present study and previous studies are compared and the non - significant result is found.

  14. Comparative morphology of stingray lateral line canal and electrosensory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Laura K

    2008-11-01

    Elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, and rays) possess a variety of sensory systems including the mechanosensory lateral line and electrosensory systems, which are particularly complex with high levels of interspecific variation in batoids (skates and rays). Rays have dorsoventrally compressed, laterally expanded bodies that prevent them from seeing their mouths and more often than not, their prey. This study uses quantitative image analysis techniques to identify, quantify, and compare structural differences that may have functional consequences in the detection capabilities of three Eastern Pacific stingray species. The benthic round stingray, Urobatis halleri, pelagic stingray, Pteroplatytrygon (Dasyatis) violacea, and benthopelagic bat ray, Myliobatis californica, show significant differences in sensory morphology. Ventral lateral line canals correlate with feeding ecology and differ primarily in the proportion of pored and nonpored canals and the degree of branching complexity. Urobatis halleri shows a high proportion of nonpored canals, while P. violacea has an intermediate proportion of pored and nonpored canals with almost no secondary branching of pored canals. In contrast, M. californica has extensive and highly branched pored ventral lateral line canals that extended laterally toward the wing tips on the anterior edge of the pectoral fins. Electrosensory morphology correlates with feeding habitat and prey mobility; benthic feeders U. halleri and M. californica, have greater electrosensory pore numbers and densities than P. violacea. The percentage of the wing surface covered by these sensory systems appears to be inversely related to swimming style. These methods can be applied to a broader range of species to enable further discussion of the relationship of phylogeny, ecology, and morphology, while the results provide testable predictions of detection capabilities.

  15. Problems of drinking water treatment along Ismailia Canal Province, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geriesh, Mohamed H; Balke, Klaus-Dieter; El-Rayes, Ahmed E

    2008-03-01

    The present drinking water purification system in Egypt uses surface water as a raw water supply without a preliminary filtration process. On the other hand, chlorine gas is added as a disinfectant agent in two steps, pre- and post-chlorination. Due to these reasons most of water treatment plants suffer low filtering effectiveness and produce the trihalomethane (THM) species as a chlorination by-product. The Ismailia Canal represents the most distal downstream of the main Nile River. Thus its water contains all the proceeded pollutants discharged into the Nile. In addition, the downstream reaches of the canal act as an agricultural drain during the closing period of the High Dam gates in January and February every year. Moreover, the wide industrial zone along the upstream course of the canal enriches the canal water with high concentrations of heavy metals. The obtained results indicate that the canal gains up to 24.06x10(6) m3 of water from the surrounding shallow aquifer during the closing period of the High Dam gates, while during the rest of the year, the canal acts as an influent stream losing about 99.6x10(6) m3 of its water budget. The reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) and suspended particulate matters (SPMs) should be one of the central goals of any treatment plan to avoid the disinfectants by-products. The combination of sedimentation basins, gravel pre-filtration and slow sand filtration, and underground passage with microbiological oxidation-reduction and adsorption criteria showed good removal of parasites and bacteria and complete elimination of TOC, SPM and heavy metals. Moreover, it reduces the use of disinfectants chemicals and lowers the treatment costs. However, this purification system under the arid climate prevailing in Egypt should be tested and modified prior to application.

  16. Evolution of root canal sealers: An insight story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Tyagi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Attainment of ideal root canal treatment comprises various essential factors such as proper instrumentation, biomechanical preparation, obturation, and ultimately depending upon the case, post-endodontic restoration. Main objective of the treatment is to get absolute rid of microbial entity and prevent any future predilection of re-infection. In order to achieve that, proper seal is required to cut down any chance of proliferation of bacteria and future occurrence of any pathology. Although gutta-percha has been the standard obturating material used in root canal treatment, it does not reinforce endodontically treated roots owing to its inability to achieve an impervious seal along the dentinal walls of the root canal. Gutta-percha does not from a monoblock even with the use of a resin-based sealer such as AH Plus because the sealer does not bind to gutta-percha. As a result, a monoblock is formed (consisting of Resilon core material, Resin sealer, bonding agent/primer, and dentin. Another reason of Resilon being a better obturating material could be that the removal of smear layer by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA after biomechanical preparation may have allowed the root canal filling material and root canal sealers to contact the canal wall and penetrate in the dentinal tubules, which may increase the strength of roots. New silicone-based sealers like Roekoseal automix and the most recent GuttaFlow have some affirmative results regarding solubility and biocompatibility, as compared to other sealers. Methacrylate resin-based sealers and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA-based sealers have opened a new horizon for sealers.

  17. Mineral trioxide aggregate root canal filling of traumatized immature tooth

    OpenAIRE

    Maha A Kanfar; Al-Nazhan, Saad A.

    2013-01-01

    An 8-year-old female patient reported to the dental clinic seeking a help to save her traumatized maxillary left central incisor. The tooth had been treated with a temporary filling by a general dentist. The coronal tooth structure was intact, discolored, and a temporary filling was placed on the access opening. She gave a history of trauma about 3 years back. An intraoral periapical radiograph revealed an open apex and dentin bridge in the middle of the root canal. The root canal and the acc...

  18. Atypical situations in root canals anatomy of human mandibular premolars

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrício SCAINI; Fabio Leal BRAGA; Irdival Cristino FIGUEIREDO JÚNIOR; Rafael Brandão FERREIRA; Baratto Filho,Flares; de SOUSA NETO, Manoel Damião

    2005-01-01

    The knowledge of the teeth internal anatomy that will receive endodontic treatment is very important for the success of the treatment and prognosis of those teeth. In this study, the morphological variations that may occur in relation to the number of root canals present in the premolar mandibular teeth group were discussed, as well as the most efficient methods to diagnose the existence of these variations, in order to have a clearer diagnosis of the number of root canals to be treated.A cas...

  19. Bilateral bifid mandibular canal: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamifar Kasra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bifid mandibular canal is a rare anatomical variation that can be of considerable interest to a dentist. This condition can lead to complications when performing mandibular anesthesia or during surgery of the lower third molar, orthognatic or reconstructive mandibular surgery, or placement of dental implants and prosthesis; bleeding and traumatic neuroma are possible complications. Therefore, awareness of this condition is important. We report two cases of bilateral bifid mandibular canal: one in a 22-year-old male and the other in a 24-year-old female.

  20. [Electronic determination of the length of the root canal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehon, P; Van Nieuwenhuysen, J P

    1999-01-01

    The endpoint of an endodontic treatment must be situated at the cemen-to-dentinal junction to preserve the biological potential of the periapical area and to realize a complete disinfection of the principal root canal system. Thus, the determination of working length is a crucial factor in endodontic therapy. The conventional radiographic method cannot provide the accurate location of the apical constriction. For this reason, the electronic apex locators have been developed. Now, the last generation of apex locators has become more sophisticated and the electronic measurements seem to be accurate and reliable with electrolytic solutions in the canal.

  1. AFSC/ABL: Lynn Canal Overwinter Acoustic Survey, 2004-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The acoustic trawl database for Lynn Canals echo-trawl survey was conducted from 2001 to 2004 throughout southern Lynn Canal in southeast Alaska. Acoustic surveys...

  2. A Clinical Update on the Different Methods to Decrease the Occurrence of Missed Root Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Asgary, Saeed; Shalavi, Sousan; V. Abbott, Paul

    2016-01-01

    One of the main causes of endodontic treatment failure is the clinician’s inability to localize all the root canals. Due to the complex anatomy of the root canal system, missed canals are not uncommon. There are several strategies to decrease the possibility of missed root canals starting with good pre-operative radiographies. In order to overcome the limitations of conventional radiographies, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) can be considered. A correct access cavity preparation is of pivotal importance in localizing the orifices of the root canals. Furthermore, ultrasonics are very important devices to find missed canals. Increasing magnification and illumination enhance the possibility of finding all root canals during root canal treatment. The purpose of the present paper was to review all of the above techniques and devices. PMID:27471533

  3. A Guyon's canal ganglion presenting as occupational overuse syndrome: A case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Jeffrey C Y

    2008-01-01

    Occupational overuse syndrome (OOS) can present as Guyon\\'s canal syndrome in computer keyboard users. We report a case of Guyon\\'s canal syndrome caused by a ganglion in a computer user that was misdiagnosed as OOS.

  4. Evaluation of Mandibular Anterior Nutrient Canals in Periodontal Diseases: A Prospective Case Control Radiographic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Singh

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of nutrient canals was higher in patients with periodontitis. As age advanced, prevalence was more. Increased frequency of nutrient canals of 3 or more than 3 was seen with increased seventy of bone loss.

  5. Development of the lateral line canal system through a bone remodeling process in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Hironori; Iwasaki, Miki; Kawakami, Koichi

    2014-08-01

    The lateral line system of teleost fish is composed of mechanosensory receptors (neuromasts), comprising superficial receptors and others embedded in canals running under the skin. Canal diameter and size of the canal neuromasts are correlated with increasing body size, thus providing a very simple system to investigate mechanisms underlying the coordination between organ growth and body size. Here, we examine the development of the trunk lateral line canal system in zebrafish. We demonstrated that trunk canals originate from scales through a bone remodeling process, which we suggest is essential for the normal growth of canals and canal neuromasts. Moreover, we found that lateral line cells are required for the formation of canals, suggesting the existence of mutual interactions between the sensory system and surrounding connective tissues.

  6. La publicidad en la red social YouTube: Creación de un canal, uso de Google AdWords y youtubers

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo que persigue este trabajo es definir cómo las empresas pueden utilizar YouTube como un medio de comunicación, tanto con su público objetivo como con sus clientes actuales. Para ello, se han definido elementos tan importantes como las categorías con más éxito en la plataforma, la audiencia que la frecuenta, los usuarios generadores de contenido o youtubers y los pasos a seguir para crear un canal en YouTube. Una vez contextualizado YouTube como red social, se han estudiado las vías...

  7. Indicadores microbiológicos de la calidad del agua de los canales de Xochimilco de la Ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juárez-Figueroa Luis Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Cuantificar diversos indicadores de contaminación fecal en los efluentes de dos plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales y en muestras recogidas en varios canales de Xochimilco. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal efectuado en Xochimilco, México. Durante noviembre y diciembre de 2001 se muestrearon 10 sitios, cinco efluentes y cinco canales, para la cuantificación de coliformes fecales y enterococos (filtración en membrana de nitrocelulosa, colifagos somáticos (técnica de doble capa de agar, ooquistes de Cryptosporidium sp. y quistes de Giardia sp. (concentración en filtros Envirocheck y microscopía de inmunofluorescencia. Se efectuó comparación de los promedios de las cuentas de organismos hallados, en efluentes y canales, mediante t de Student. RESULTADOS: El agua tratada que descarga en los canales mostró cantidades bajas de coliformes fecales (media de 40.4/100 ml, enterococos (media de 58.8/100 ml y quistes de Cryptosporidium (media de 13.2/100 l, mientras que los colifagos y quistes de Giardia estuvieron presentes en gran cantidad (media de 1467.5/100 ml y 1199.8/100 l, respectivamente, sugiriendo que el tratamiento del agua puede ser ineficaz para remover estos agentes. En los canales de irrigación de vegetales se encontró una cantidad significativamente menor de quistes de Giardia (media de 45/100 l y no se encontraron ooquistes de Cryptosporidium, lo que sugiere la remoción natural de estos agentes. Algunos aislamientos de E coli obtenidos de un canal contaminado con descargas cloacales mostraron una multirresistencia a antibióticos que fue transferida por conjugación a otras bacterias mediante plásmidos. Esto sugiere la posible diseminación de la resistencia a bacterias del medio (posibles patógenas. Existen numerosos asentamientos humanos cercanos a las chinampas que descargan desechos directamente a los canales. CONCLUSIONES: La implantación de métodos de tratamiento de excretas que resulten

  8. Morphology of the mandibular canal and the angulation between the mandibular and mental canals in dry skulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pálsson, S R; Kjaer, I

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the correlation between external and internal mandibular morphology in adult or adolescent normal anthropological mandibles. Lateral radiographs of 31 symmetrical mandibles were analysed. The external morphology was defined by the gonial and beta......-angles. In order to analyse internal morphology, a metallic pin was placed in the mental canal on the left side before radiography. The angle between the mental and the mandibular canals was termed the 'mental angle' and that expressing the curvature of the mandibular canal, the 'mandibular angle'. Spearman...... correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationships between the angles. Internal morphology: a statistically significant correlation was found between the mental and mandibular angles (correlation coefficient: -0.60, P=0.0004). When the mental angle was narrow, the mandibular angle tended...

  9. A comparative evaluation of the increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation in curved root canals by three rotary systems: A cone-beam computed tomographic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanthi, Nalam NVD; Rambabu, Tanikonda; Sajjan, Girija S; Varma, K Madhu; Satish, R Kalyan; Padmaja, M

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to measure the increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation after biomechanical preparation at 1, 3, and 5 mm short of the apex with three different rotary systems in both continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary motions. Materials and Methods: Sixty freshly extracted human mandibular molars with mesial root canal curvatures between 20° and 30° were included in the study. Teeth were randomly distributed into three groups (n = 20). Biomechanical preparations were done in all the mesial canals. In Group 1, instrumentation was done with ProTaper universal rotary files, Group 2, with K3XF rotary files, and Group 3, with LSX rotary files. Each group was further subdivided into subgroups A and B (n = 10) where instrumentation was done by continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary techniques, respectively. Increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation was measured using the preoperative and postoperative cone-beam computed tomography scans. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey pairwise multiple comparison tests. Results: Increase in root canal surface area was significantly more (P ProTaper and K3XF groups when compared to LSX group. Canal transportation was significantly more (P ProTaper group when compared to K3XF and LSX groups. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in increase of root canal surface area and canal transportation between continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary techniques for ProTaper Universal, K3XF and LSX groups. Conclusion: LSX rotary system showed minimal increase of root canal surface area and minimal canal transportation when compared to ProTaper and K3XF rotary systems. PMID:27656062

  10. Treatment of Two Canals in All Mandibular Incisor Teeth in the Same Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana B. Kokane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main reason for unfavourable outcome in endodontic treatment of mandibular incisor is the inability to detect the presence of second canal. Pain even after extirpation of complete pulp tissue from root canal of vital teeth is the main indication of hidden canals. The present case report is also on pain because of another neglected canal in all mandibular incisors in the same patient.

  11. Independent and Confluent Middle Mesial Root Canals in Mandibular First Molars: A Report of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanavelu Deepalakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular molars demonstrate considerable variations with respect to number of roots and root canals. The possibility of additional root canals should be considered even in teeth with a low frequency of abnormal root canal anatomy. This paper discusses the endodontic management of the rare anatomical complexity middle mesial canals in mandibular first molar and also serves to remind the clinicians that such anatomical variations should be taken into account during the endodontic treatment of the mandibular molars.

  12. Maxillary first molars with six canals confirmed with the aid of cone-beam computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahra Mohammad Al-Habboubi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The maxillary first molar exhibits unpredictable root canal morphology. Different number of root canals has been reported with the aids of new tools. It is very important to clinically detect all canals for better outcome results. The purpose of the present case is to present a case of the maxillary first molar in a Saudi male patient with an anatomical variation of having six root canals that were confirmed with cone-beam computed tomography.

  13. Four cuspal maxillary second premolar with single root and three root canals: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Bansal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional configuration of maxillary second premolars has been described to have two cusps, one root and one or two root canals. The endodontic literature reports considerable anatomic aberrations in the root canal morphology of maxillary second premolar but the literature available on the variation in cuspal anatomy and its relationship to the root canal anatomy is sparse. The purpose of this clinical report was to describe the root and root canal configuration of a maxillary second premolar with four cusps.

  14. Gaussian plume model for the SO{sub 2} in a thermoelectric power plant; Modelo de pluma gaussiano para el SO{sub 2} en una central termoelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes L, C.; Munoz Ledo, C. R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    The Gaussian Plume Model is an analytical extension to simulate the dispersion of the SO{sub 2} concentration at ground level as a function of the emission changes in the spot sources, as well as the pollutant dispersion in the Wind Rose, when the necessary parameters are fed. The model was elaborated in a personal computer and the results produced are generated in text form. [Espanol] El modelo de pluma gaussiano es una extension analitica para simular la dispersion de las concentraciones de SO{sub 2} a nivel del piso en funcion de los cambios de las emisiones en las fuentes puntuales, asi como, la dispersion del contaminante en la rosa de los vientos cuando se le alimentan los parametros necesarios. El modelo fue elaborado en una computadora personal y los resultados que proporciona los genera en modo texto.

  15. Funciones de los canales iónicos CFTR y ENAC en la fibrosis quística

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra G. Palma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available La fibrosis quística se debe a la ausencia o defecto del canal transmembrana regulador de la fibrosis quística (CFTR, un canal de cloruro codificado en el gen cftr que juega un papel clave en la homeostasis del agua e iones. El CFTR es activado por el AMPc y se localiza en las membranas apicales y basolaterales de las vías aéreas, intestino y glándulas exocrinas. Una de sus funciones primarias en los pulmones es mantener la capa de líquido superficial a través de su función de canal y regular el canal epitelial de sodio sensible al amiloride (ENaC. Se han identificado más de 1900 mutaciones en el gen cftr. La enfermedad se caracteriza por secreciones viscosas en las glándulas exocrinas y por niveles elevados de cloruro de sodio en el sudor. En la fibrosis quística el CFTR no funciona y el ENaC está desregulado; el resultado es un aumento en la reabsorción de sodio y agua con la formación de un líquido viscoso. En las glándulas sudoríparas tanto el Na+ como el Cl- se retienen en el lumen causando una pérdida de electrolitos durante la sudoración y el NaCl se elimina al sudor. Así, los niveles elevados de NaCl son la base del test del sudor inducido por pilocarpina, un método de diagnóstico para la enfermedad. En esta revisión se discuten los movimientos de Cl- y Na+ en las glándulas sudoríparas y pulmón así como el papel del ENaC en la patogénesis de la enfermedad.

  16. How the cross-sectional discontinuity between ear canal and probe affects the ear canal length estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebian, Makram; Hensel, Johannes; Fedtke, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    Many ear canal probes both deliver and measure sound via narrow tubes. This study investigates the effect of the cross-sectional discontinuity at the interface between ear canal models and the connecting tubes of a commercially available otoacoustic emission probe on the "acoustically" estimated cavity lengths. Rigid cavities having the same length but different diameters were produced, and modeled by the finite element method. Cavities with a diameter larger than 8 mm had acoustic lengths that considerably overestimated the real geometry. A length correction was derived, which, in most applications, compensates for the measurement errors emerging from the discontinuity effects.

  17. 33 CFR 165.1328 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA. 165.1328 Section 165.1328 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.1328 Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA. (a) Location. The following... whenever any U.S. Navy submarine is operating in the Hood Canal and is being escorted by the Coast...

  18. The relation between parameter curves and lines of curvature on canal surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dogan, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    A canal surface is the envelope of a moving sphere with varying radius, defined by the trajectory C(t) (spine curve) of its center and a radius function r(t). In this paper, we investigate when parameter curves of the canal surface are also lines of curvature. Last of all, for special spine curves we obtain the radius function of canal surfaces.

  19. 77 FR 57019 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle... Northern Santa Fe Railway Bridge across the Lake Washington Ship Canal, mile 0.1, at Seattle, WA. This... Canal, mile 0.1 (Ballard-Salmon Bay), be locked in the closed position and not be required to open...

  20. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. 162.175 Section 162.175 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed...

  1. Segmentation of the mandibular canal in cone-beam CT data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, Dirk-Jan

    2011-01-01

    Accurate information about the location of the mandibular canal is essential in case of dental implant surgery. The goal of our research is to find an automatic method which can segment the mandibular canal in Cone-beam CT (CBCT). Mandibular canal segmentation methods in literature using a priori

  2. Role of the confinement of a root canal on jet impingement during endodontic irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaagen, B.; Boutsioukis, C.; Heijnen, G. L.; van der Sluis, L. W. M.; Versluis, M.

    2012-01-01

    During a root canal treatment the root canal is irrigated with an antimicrobial fluid, commonly performed with a needle and a syringe. Irrigation of a root canal with two different types of needles can be modeled as an impinging axisymmetric or non-axisymmetric jet. These jets are investigated exper

  3. Endodontic Treatment of a Mandibular Second Premolar with Three Roots and Three Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonny Paul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex root canal system with atypical variations is a common finding among mandibular premolars. Endodontic treatment in these teeth may not be successful due to the failure to recognise and treat multiple canals. This paper presents endodontic treatment of a mandibular second premolar with three roots and three canals.

  4. Comparison of 2 flushing methods used during passive ultrasonic irrigation of the root canal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Lucas; Wu, Min-Kai; Wesselink, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of irrigation time on the removal of dentin debris from root canals irrigated with passive ultrasonic irrigation comparing 2 flushing methods. Method and Materials: Root canals with a standardized groove in 1 canal wall, which was filled with dentin debris, were ir

  5. IMPACT OF CANAL DESIGN LIMITATIONS ON WATER DELIVERY OPERATIONS AND AUTOMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation canals are often designed for water transmission. The design engineer simply ensures that the canal will pass the maximum design discharge. However, irrigation canals frequently operated far below design capacity. Because demands and the distribution of flow at bifurcations (branch points...

  6. Spatial and seasonal variations of the contamination within water body of the Grand Canal, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.L.; Han, Jingyi; Xu, L.G.; Zhang, Q.

    2010-01-01

    To delineate the character of contaminations in the Grand Canal, China, a three-year study (2004-2006) was conducted to investigate variations the water quality in the canal. Results showed that the variation of water quality within the Grand Canal was of there is remarkable spatial and seasonal het

  7. 33 CFR 207.440 - St. Marys Falls Canal and Locks, Mich.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Marys Falls Canal and Locks.... Marys Falls Canal and Locks, Mich.; use, administration, and navigation. (a) The use, administration... by radiotelephone to the Corps of Engineers Chief Lockmaster at St. Marys Falls Canal dispatch...

  8. Bilateral Mandibular Condylar Fractures with Associated External Auditory Canal Fractures and Otorrhagia

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, David

    2016-01-01

    A rare case of bilateral mandibular condylar fractures associated with bilateral external auditory canal fractures and otorrhagia is reported. The more severe external auditory canal fracture was present on the side of high condylar fracture, and the less severe external auditory canal fracture was ipsilateral to the condylar neck fracture. A mechanism of injury is proposed to account for such findings.

  9. Bilateral Mandibular Condylar Fractures with Associated External Auditory Canal Fractures and Otorrhagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, David

    2007-01-01

    A rare case of bilateral mandibular condylar fractures associated with bilateral external auditory canal fractures and otorrhagia is reported. The more severe external auditory canal fracture was present on the side of high condylar fracture, and the less severe external auditory canal fracture was ipsilateral to the condylar neck fracture. A mechanism of injury is proposed to account for such findings.

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  13. Análisis de investigaciones realizadas para modelar la compactación del suelo agrícola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar González Cueto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La compactación del suelo provocada por el tránsito de la maquinaria, es un problema que afecta las áreas de producción agrícola. Su modelación permite implementar estrategias de manejo del suelo y la maquinaria. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar las principales características que presentan los métodos empleados para modelar la compactación del suelo. Los resultados muestran que el método más preciso para la modelación de la compactación del suelo es el Método de Elementos Finitos. Los modelos para la simulación de la compactación del suelo difieren de los desarrollados para simular el desempeño de neumáticos o del vehículo debido a que en la modelación del contacto, generalmente el neumático no se representa, sólo se simula el efecto de la presión sobre un área del suelo con forma preestablecida.

  14. Enxerto autólogo de peritônio-fáscia-músculo, no canal inguinal de ratos Peritoneal-fascia-muscle autologous graft in the inguinal canal of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bizzi Lopes

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar um fragmento de tecido autólogo, constituído por peritônio-fáscia-músculo, implantado no nível da parede do canal inguinal e no funículo espermático de ratos a fim de verificar o comportamento histológico da pega e da integração tecidual. MÉTODOS: Trinta e seis ratos foram distribuídos em quatro grupos. Os ratos do grupo A, B, C e D foram submetidos a laparotomia mediana para obtenção dos espécimes a serem implantados. No grupo A, foi implantado tecido composto por peritônio e fáscia transversal na parede do canal inguinal. No B, o tecido implantado era acrescido de parte do músculo reto do abdome e implantado na parede do canal inguinal. No C, o tecido enxertado era semelhante ao do grupo A, agora enxertado no funículo espermático. No D, o tecido enxertado era semelhante ao grupo B, agora enxertado no funículo espermático. RESULTADOS: Após 21 dias de implante estes tecidos apresentavam histologicamente as seguintes alterações: os grupos A e C, tecido fibroadiposo com vasos dilatados, focos de fibrose e infiltrado linfoplasmocitário e os grupos B e D, tecido fibroadiposo com vasos dilatados, musculatura esquelética e focos de fibrose. A fibrose mostrou-se mais intensa nos grupos B e D. No grupo B, sempre encontramos o músculo esquelético, enquanto no grupo D este tecido estava presente em seis animais, quase que totalmente substituído por tecido fibroso em dois e ausente em um. CONCLUSÃO: Todos os tecidos implantados sobreviveram e incorporaram-se no local, podendo ser útil na correção de defeitos do canal inguinal, nas situações em que o tecido autólogo estiver indicado.PURPOSE: To study the fragment of the autologous tissue, built by a peritoneum-fascia-muscle, implanted on the level of the wall of inguinal canal and the spermatic cord of rats aiming to verify the histological behavior of the survive and the tissue incorporation. METHODS: Thirty-six rats were distributed into four groups

  15. [The use of ultrasonic files in canal preparation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calas, P; Terrie, B

    1990-01-01

    The continuous high volume of irrigating solution delivered by the ultrasonic system facilitates the root canal debridement. An excellent cleaning of dentin wall is obtained even on surfaces unreached by the mechanical instrumentation. In order to obtain an efficacious preparation, the use of ultrasonic files were combined with instrumentation. This new technique is described in this article.

  16. Quality improvement of photopolimerizable-cement root canal obturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupato Conrado, Luis A.; Frois, Iris M.; Amaro Zangaro, Renato; Munin, Egberto; Kuranaga, Carlos; Dias da Silva, Marcos; do Carmo de Andrade Nono, Maria; Cerquiera Rezende, Mirabel

    2003-06-01

    The sealing cements commonly used for endodontic applications are of the type cured through chemical reactions. During the polymerization process, mechanical contractions are not uncommon, leading to a non-perfect sealing. Photopolymerizable cements usually presents superior performance as compared to those chemically activated. However, difficulties in carrying the light to difficult-to-reach regions like the dental apex preclude those material of being accepted in the dental office routine. This work reports on a novel technique which allow the light curing of photopolymerizable cements in endodontic applications. A special light guide had been developed to allow the curing light to reach and polymerize the sealing cement in the apex region. The technique was tested by using single-root human teeth with normal canal morphology. The Ultradent EndoREZ root canal sealer and a resin-based photopolymerizable filler specially developed for the current application had been used. The cone-shaped light guide was introduced into treated canals filled with the photopolymerizable material, up to the apical region. Light from an argon laser was launched onto the light guide for polymerization. All test samples were immersed in methylene-blue solution for microleakage testing. All samples treated with the self-polymerizable material presented dye penetration to some extent. No sample within the group which had the filling material polymerized by using the light guide presented dye penetration through the canal wall.

  17. The spiral ganglion and Rosenthal's canal in beluga whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensor, Jennifer D; Suydam, Robert; George, John C; Liberman, M C; Lovano, Denise; Rhaganti, Mary Ann; Usip, Sharon; Vinyard, Christopher J; Thewissen, J G M

    2015-12-01

    With the increase of human activity and corresponding increase in anthropogenic sounds in marine waters of the Arctic, it is necessary to understand its effect on the hearing of marine wildlife. We have conducted a baseline study on the spiral ganglion and Rosenthal's canal of the cochlea in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) as an initial assessment of auditory anatomy and health. We present morphometric data on the length of the cochlea, number of whorls, neuron densities along its length, Rosenthal's canal length, and cross-sectional area, and show some histological results. In belugas, Rosenthal's canal is not a cylinder of equal cross-sectional area, but its cross-section is greatest near the apex of the basal whorl. We found systematic variation in the numbers of neurons along the length of the spiral ganglion, indicating that neurons are not dispersed evenly in Rosenthal's canal. These results provide data on functionally important structural parameters of the beluga ear. We observed no signs of acoustic trauma in our sample of beluga whales.

  18. Congenital defect of the partial atrioventricular canal with Klinefelter syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yejing

    2009-01-01

    The case of a 25-year-old man with a partial atrioventricular canal defect (PAVCD) with Klinefelter syndrome is reported here. The patient had Klinefelter syndrome associated with an atrial septal defect and the cleft of the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve.

  19. Exposure and direct stimulation of the semicircular canal cupula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, M; Harada, Y

    1985-01-01

    The ampullary wall of the posterior semicircular canal was isolated from the frog, cut and the cupula exposed in frog Ringer's solution. The cupula was stimulated by depression with a fine glass micropipette. Three points on the cupula were selected for depression: point A, the lowest point on the midline of the cupula surface on the utricular side; point B, the uppermost on the midline of the same surface; and point C, in the middle of the lateral surface of the cupula. Depression at points A and B was toward the canal, whereas depression at point C was toward the centre of the cupula. The amount of depression was controlled by a micromanipulator. At point A, the minimum depression facilitating the posterior canal action potential was 1 micron; at point B, a greater amount of depression was needed to produce the action potential. Even a large amount of depression at point C resulted in only a small action potential, possibly because the direction of the sensory cell polarity is along the long axis of the canal.

  20. 78 FR 58458 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Quogue Canal, Southampton, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ...The Commander, First Coast Guard District, has issued a temporary deviation from the regulations governing the operation of the Quogue Bridge, mile 1.1, across Quogue Canal, at Southampton, New York. This temporary deviation authorizes the Quogue Bridge to keep one of the two movable spans in the closed position in order to facilitate rehabilitation at the...

  1. Adductor Canal Block versus Femoral Nerve Block and Quadriceps Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Pia Therese; Nielsen, Zbigniew Jerzy Koscielniak; Henningsen, Lene Marianne;

    2013-01-01

    : The authors hypothesized that the adductor canal block (ACB), a predominant sensory blockade, reduces quadriceps strength compared with placebo (primary endpoint, area under the curve, 0.5-6 h), but less than the femoral nerve block (FNB; secondary endpoint). Other secondary endpoints were...

  2. 76 FR 21253 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Company Canal, Lockport, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ...The Commander, Eighth Coast Guard District, has issued a temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the LA 1 vertical lift span bridge across Company Canal, mile 0.4, at Lockport, Lafourche Parish, Louisiana. The deviation is necessary to perform electrical rehabilitation work on the bridge. This deviation allows the bridge to remain closed to navigation for twelve......

  3. 75 FR 45477 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Company Canal, Bourg, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ...The Commander, Eighth Coast Guard District, has issued a temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the LA 24 vertical lift span bridge across Company Canal, mile 8.1, at Bourg, Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana. The deviation is necessary to perform electrical rehabilitation work on the bridge. This deviation allows the bridge to remain closed to navigation for twelve......

  4. 78 FR 10524 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Charenton Canal, Baldwin, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ...The Coast Guard has issued a temporary deviation from the operating schedule that governs the Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) Railway Company swing span bridge across Charenton Canal, mile 0.4, at Baldwin, St. Mary Parish, Louisiana. The deviation is necessary to complete scheduled repairs for the continued safe operation of the bridge. This deviation allows the bridge to remain in the......

  5. Shape and Deformation Analysis of the Human Ear Canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune

    This thesis presents work on the analysis of the dynamic behavior of the human ear canal. The work is based on two studies designed during the project, a pilot study with 30 normal hearing subjects and a main study with 42 hearing impaired subjects, all hearing-aid users. The main focus is on the......This thesis presents work on the analysis of the dynamic behavior of the human ear canal. The work is based on two studies designed during the project, a pilot study with 30 normal hearing subjects and a main study with 42 hearing impaired subjects, all hearing-aid users. The main focus...... is on the extraction and analysis of the shape and deformation of the ear canal due to movements of the mandible, leaning over, and turning of the head. Methods for surface registration with focus on non-rigid registration are presented, as well as a wide range of statistical methods used for analyzing the shapes...... and deformation fields. The results show that the ear canal changes shape significantly in all subjects and that the deformation is more complicated than previously described in the literature. It is shown that the deformation at specific locations in the ear is significantly correlated to comfort issues reported...

  6. Radiographic Localization of the Mental Foramen and Mandibular Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Afkhami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Accurately localizing the mental foramen and mandibular canal is important when administering local anesthesia and performing surgery; therefore, knowing the normal range of the possible locations is essential. Our purpose was to assess the location of the mental foramen and mandibular canal in an Iranian population using panoramic radiography.Materials and Methods: Standard panoramic radiographies were performed. The positions of 100 mental foramens were evaluated. The distances from the center of the mental foramen to the superior and inferior borders of the mandible and to the apexes of the first and second premolar were measured. The distance of the mental foramens from the mandibular midline and the diameter of the mandibular canal in the mental foramen connection were also measured.Results: Among 100 mental foramens, 6% were positioned under the first premolar, 24% were between the first and second premolars, 67% were under the second premolar, and the remaining 3% were behind the second premolar. The mean distance from the mental foramen to the mandibular midline was 27.77±3.20 mm. The mean diameter of the mandibular canal in the mental foramen connection was 3.09±0.69mm.Conclusion: The mental foramen was near the second premolar and the inferior border of the mandible. This information can be used to perform safer mental nerve blocks in surgical interventions.

  7. Interactions between root canal irrigants, sealers and dentin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelakantan, P.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to determine the interactions between root filling materials and root dentin and to investigate if root canal irrigating solutions had an impact on these interactions. The following outcomes were assessed in the studies encompassed in this thesis: (i) dislocation res

  8. Semicircular canals circumvent brownian motion overload of mechanoreceptor hair cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, Mees; Heeck, Kier; Elemans, Coen P.H.

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate semicircular canals (SCC) first appeared in the vertebrates (i.e. ancestral fish) over 600 million years ago. In SCC the principal mechanoreceptors are hair cells, which as

    compared to cochlear hair cells are distinctly longer (70 vs. 7 μm), 10 times more compliant to bending (4

  9. Root canal length measurement in teeth with electrolyte compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, K C; Kim, S C; Lee, S J; Kim, Y J; Kim, N G; Kim, D W

    2002-03-01

    Electronic root canal length measurement devices have made it easier and faster to measure the root canal length of a tooth compared with the conventional radiographic method. Of these electronic apex locators, the frequency-dependent type features greater accuracy and convenience in operation. However, its accuracy is still influenced by the presence of blood and/or the various electrolytes used in root canal therapy. This study describes the development of a new frequency-dependent electronic apex locator featuring electrolyte compensation, utilising an impedance ratio and voltage difference technique to minimise the influence of electrolytes on the accuracy of root canal length measurement. The errors for distances from file tips to apical constrictions were determined in vivo with the device operating with electrolyte compensation. The measured lengths were compared with the true lengths of the extracted teeth determined using a microscope. The mean error was +0.14+/-0.27mm, and 95.2% of the measurements were within the clinical tolerance of +/-0.5mm. It was also found that the degree of accuracy was not dependent on the size of the apical foramen (p = 0.74).

  10. Mimamata and Love Canal: A Pollution Tale of Two Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mary Louise

    1993-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan about case studies of the environmental disasters of Minamata, Japan and Love Canal, New York. Compares how the legal cases were handled in two constitutional democracies. Provides six handouts that include maps, role descriptions for simulations, and student readings. (CFR)

  11. Anatomo-radiological study of the Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crovetto, M., E-mail: macdlt@telefonica.net [Otolaryngology Department, Hospital de Basurto, University of the Basque Country, Avenida de Montevideo 18, Bilbao 48013, Vizcaya (Spain); Whyte, J., E-mail: jwhite@unizar.es [Faculty of Medicine, Department of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Zaragoza, C/Domingo Mirall s/n, Zaragoza (Spain); Rodriguez, O.M., E-mail: OLIVIAMARIA.RODRIGUEZSANVICENT@osakidetza.net [Hospital de Cruces, Baracaldo, Vizcaya (Spain); Lecumberri, I., E-mail: INIGO.LECUMBERRICORTES@osakidetza.net [Hospital de Basurto, Avenida Montevideo 18, Bilbao 498013 (Spain); Martinez, C., E-mail: claudiorayosx@yahoo.es [Hospital General de la Defensa, Via Iberica s/n Zaragoza (Spain); Elexpuru, J., E-mail: jelexpuru@mac.com [Hospital de Basurto, Avenida de Montevideo 18, Bilbao 48013, Vizcaya (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to determine the radiological incidence of Superior (SSCD) and Posterior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence (PSCD) and to compare radiologic SSCD to the incidence of this condition on cadaver specimen. We have also analysed the relation between the ossification state of the semicircular canals and the degree of mastoid pneumatization and integrity of Tegmen Tympani. Material and methods: Temporal bones have been investigated by means of CT scan on patients and direct observation on cadaver specimen, respectively. Results: 604 ears and 160 cadaver temporal bones have been investigated by means of CT scan and direct observation, respectively. 3.6% and 0.3% of the studied ears had SSCD and PSCD, respectively, on CT scan. Only 0.6% of the cadaver specimen ears did have anatomical SSCD. Degree of pneumatization of the mastoid bone is related to the mean thickness of bone overlying the Superior and Posterior Semicircular Canal. Radiological absence of Tegmen Tympani is more frequent in ears that also have radiologic SSCD. Conclusion: CT scanning gives higher incidence figures of SSCD than anatomical studies, 3.6% vs. 0.6%. We also found a 0.6% incidence of radiological PSCD in the studied ears. There is a direct relation between the degree of ossification of Superior and Posterior Semicircular Canal and certain temporal bone anatomic features: temporal bone pneumatization and absence/presence of Tegmen Tympani or Antri.

  12. Lightlike Hypersurfaces and Canal Hypersurfaces of Lorentzian Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lightlike hypersurfaces in semi-Euclidean space are of special interest in Relativity Theory. In particular, the singularities of these lightlike hypersurfaces provide good models for the study of different horizon types. And we obtain some geometrical propositions of the canal hypersurfaces of Lorentzian surfaces. We introduce the notions of flatness for these hypersurfaces and study their singularities.

  13. Bacteriologic results from 4,000 root canal cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, K.C.; Amerongen, J. van

    1959-01-01

    The bacteriologic results from more than 4,000 root canal cultures are discussed. Streptococci form 61 per cent of the isolated organisms. Among these, the group of hemolytic, indifferent, and indifferent anaerobic streptococci, mainly belonging to serologic groups F, G, and C, seem the most serious

  14. Estudio micológico de El Canal y Los Tiles (La Palma, Islas Canarias. V. Datos adicionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leal, Julio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An annotated catalogue of 66 taxa, collected in the early MAB Reserve El Canal y Los Tiles is presented. Among these taxa, 11 species are new for La Palma island and 5 are recorded for the first time in the Canary Islands. Taxonomic comments on some critical species and information about the distribution in the Macaronesian bioregion of all the studied taxa are given. Based on our previous publications, global data on biodiversity, substrates and distribution of the mycobiota in the different plant communities present in the sampled area are analyzed.

    Se presenta un estudio sobre 66 especies, pertenecientes a las divisiones Myxomycota (21, Ascomycota (29 y Basidiomycota (16, encontradas en la antigua Reserva de la Biosfera El Canal y Los Tiles. De ellas 11 se citan por primera vez para la isla de La Palma, siendo 5 de éstas nuevas para Canarias. Se hacen comentarios taxonómicos sobre algunos táxones conflictivos, además de amplia información sobre su distribución en la Región Macaronésica. En base a publicaciones propias anteriores, se aportan datos globales sobre biodiversidad, sustratos y distribución de la micobiota en las diferentes unidades ambientales presentes en el área de estudio.

  15. In vitro comparison of passive and continuous ultrasonic irrigation in curved root canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelo-Baz, Pablo; Varela-Patiño, Purificación; Cantatore, Giuseppe; Domínguez-Perez, Ana; Ruíz-Piñón, Manuel; Martín-Biedma, Benjamín

    2016-01-01

    Background The efficacy of endodontic irrigation procedures can be compromised by the complexity of the root canal system. Delivering irrigants to the apical third of curved canals presents a particular challenge to endodontists. This study compared the effects of two ultrasonic irrigation techniques on the penetration of sodium hypochlorite into the main canal and simulated lateral canals of curved roots in extracted teeth. Material and Methods Two sets of simulated lateral canals were created at 2, 4, and 6 mm from the working length in 60 single-rooted teeth (6 canals/tooth, n = 360 canals). The teeth were randomly divided into three experimental irrigation groups: group 1 (n = 20), positive pressure irrigation (PPI); group 2 (n = 20), passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI); and group 3 (n = 20), continuous ultrasonic irrigation (CUI). To assess the irrigation solution penetration, 20% Chinese ink (Sanford Rotring GmbH, Hamburg, Germany) was added to a 5% sodium hypochlorite solution and delivered into the curved root canals. The penetration of contrast solution into the simulated lateral canals was scored by counting the number of lateral canals (0-2) penetrated to at least 50% of the total length. Results The CUI group showed significantly higher (P irrigant penetration into the lateral canals and into the apical third of the main canals. The PPI group showed significantly lower sodium hypochlorite penetration (P irrigant penetration was observed in the PUI group than the PPI group. Conclusions Using CUI as the final rinse significantly increased the penetration of irrigant solution into the simulated lateral canals and apical third of curved roots. Key words:Continuous ultrasonic irrigation, curved root canals, passive ultrasonic irrigation, positive pressure irrigation, root canal irrigation.

  16. Classifications of mandibular canal branching:A review of literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mauricio Augusto Aquino Castro; Manuel Oscar Lagravere-Vich; Tania Mara Pimenta Amaral; Mauro Henrique Guimaraes Abreu; Ricardo Alves Mesquita

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To gather existing radiographic classifications of mandibular canals branching, considering the criteria on which these were based.METHODS: The search for studies on mandibular canals based on imaging exams included literature reviews, epidemiological studies of prevalence, descriptive studies, or case reports. An electronic search in the MEDLINE(Ovid SP), Pub Med, EMBASE(Ovid SP), Web of Science(Thompson Reuters), and Scopus(Elsevier) databases was performed, as well as a manual evaluation of the references of the selected articles. Combinations of key words were placed in each database. No restrictions were imposed regarding the year of publication or language. References collected in duplicate were removed by the authors. A table was drawn up, containing the included studies and respective interest data.RESULTS: Six classifications of mandibular canals branching were selected for the present literature review. Four were based on two-dimensional radiographic exams, and two were performed based on threedimensional tomographic exams. Three-dimensional classifications were determined based on the analysis found in the least number of exams, comparatively to two-dimensional studies. The prevalence of mandibular canal branching varied from 0% to 38.75% in the works based on two-dimensional exams, while those found inthree-dimensional exams ranged from 15.6% to 65%. The studies were mostly referred to branches that began in the mandibular ramus. Just one classification considered the branches that began in the mandibular body region.CONCLUSION: Three-dimensional exams appear to be the best method to view mandibular canal branching. Further studies are warranted to determine its true prevalence and questions concerning to associations.

  17. Problemas Del Pollo De Engorde Antes Y Después Del Beneficio (Pollo En Canal. 1º Parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lissette Ricaurte Galindo M.V.Z.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Cuando los pollos llegan a la planta necesitan una ventilación adecuada en la zona de retención para minimizar la mortalidad y la pérdida excesiva de peso vivo. Los pollos que llegan deben ser programados para el procesamiento dentro de las 8 a 12 horas después de haber comido por última vez. De esta manera disminuye la cantidad de material que podría contaminar potencialmente la canal durante el procesamiento permitiendo tiempo suficiente para que el intestino se vacíe. Los pollos que quedan sin alimento por largos periodos (más de 13 a 14 horas comienzan a perder la mucosa intestinal y tendrán menor rendimiento en canal.Cuando se pierde la mucosa intestinal, el intestino resultante será mucho más débil y se romperá más fácilmente durante la evisceración, se procesa a los pollos principalmente para convertir sus músculos en carne, eliminar los componentes del cuerpo que no se desean (sangre, plumas, vísceras, patas y cabeza y mantener en un mínimo la contaminación microbiológica. La calidad del producto final depende no sólo de la condición de las aves cuando llegan a la planta, sino también de como se manejan durante el procesamiento. Lesiones, huesos rotos, partes faltantes y un número excesivo de reprocesamientos pueden ocasionar pérdidas económicas significativas. La descarga, aturdimiento, sacrificio, escaldado, desplumado, eviscerado, enfriamiento y empacado son algunas de las etapas del procesamiento que pueden ocasionar defectos en el producto. Así que estas etapas deben ser vigiladas.

  18. Endodontic Management of a Maxillary First Molar with Seven Root Canals Using Spiral Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Hemant Kumar; Saini, Gaurav Kumar; Chhabra, Harpreet Singh; Panwar, Pratyaksha Singh

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this case report is to present a rare root canal configuration of maxillary molar with seven root canals; three mesiobuccal, two palatal and two distobuccal canals diagnosed during treatment procedure confirmed by spiral computed tomography. A thorough knowledge of root canal morphology, proper clinical and radiographic examination, and use of dental operating microscopes are necessary for successful clinical outcomes. This article highlights the variations in the morphology of maxillary first molar and use of the latest techniques in successful diagnosis and negotiation of the additional canals. PMID:28293666

  19. CANAL CONFIGURATION IN THE ROOTS OF MAXILLARY SECON D PREMOLAR: A CLINICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Modified access cavity preparation and X ray- interpre tation were used clinically to find out the additional canals in the root of maxil lary second premolars. In 85% of the case two canals were located and treated, of these 30% had t wo separate apical foramen and 50.66% had two canal, joined at the apical third in 5% of the cases, two roots with two different canals were located and in 15% of the cases, one canal was loca ted KEY WORDS: Access Preparation, Apical Foramen.

  20. Dams on historic canal navigation networks; Les barrages sur le reseau des canaux historiques de navigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houde, L. [Parks Canada, Gatineau, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presented an overview of historic dams and other water retention structures within the Parks Canada network. It described the engineering achievement that went into the construction of these structures and how they have evolved over time. For the past century, the construction of canals has played a major role in Canada's economic development. The networks of canals have been used for transportation, commerce and military purposes and have acquired heritage and recreational value. Several canals, along with their locks and dams, have been recognized as having historical importance, such as the Chambly Canal in Quebec, and the Rideau Canal in Ottawa, Ontario. 14 refs.

  1. Bilateral presence of two root canals in maxillary central incisors: A rare case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kavitha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Success in root canal treatment is achieved after thorough cleaning and shaping followed by complete obturation of the canal system. Therefore, endodontic therapy requires specific and complete knowledge of the internal and external dental anatomy, and its variations in presentation. The internal anatomy of the maxillary central incisor is well-known and usually presents one root canal system. This case report describes an endodontic treatment of traumatized both maxillary central incisors with two canal systems. Knowledge of dental anatomy is fundamental for proper endodontic practice. When root canal treatment is performed, the clinician should be aware that both external and internal anatomy may be abnormal.

  2. Bilateral presence of two root canals in maxillary central incisors: A rare case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, M; Gokul, Kannan; Ramaprabha, B; Lakshmi, Amudha

    2014-04-01

    Success in root canal treatment is achieved after thorough cleaning and shaping followed by complete obturation of the canal system. Therefore, endodontic therapy requires specific and complete knowledge of the internal and external dental anatomy, and its variations in presentation. The internal anatomy of the maxillary central incisor is well-known and usually presents one root canal system. This case report describes an endodontic treatment of traumatized both maxillary central incisors with two canal systems. Knowledge of dental anatomy is fundamental for proper endodontic practice. When root canal treatment is performed, the clinician should be aware that both external and internal anatomy may be abnormal.

  3. Endodontic Management of a Maxillary First Molar with Seven Root Canals Using Spiral Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Yadav

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this case report is to present a rare root canal configuration of maxillary molar with seven root canals; three mesiobuccal, two palatal and two distobuccal canals diagnosed during treatment procedure confirmed by spiral computed tomography. A thorough knowledge of root canal morphology, proper clinical and radiographic examination, and use of dental operating microscopes are necessary for successful clinical outcomes. This article highlights the variations in the morphology of maxillary first molar and use of the latest techniques in successful diagnosis and negotiation of the additional canals.

  4. Comparison of lumbar spinal canal measurements on MRI and CT; Comparaison des mesures du canal lombaire en IRM et TDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malghem, J.; Willems, X.; Vande Berg, B.; Cosnard, G.; Lecouvet, F. [Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Dept. d' Imagerie Medicale, Bruxelles (Belgium); Robert, A. [Ecole de Sante Publique, Faculte de Medecine, Unite d' Epidemiologie, Biostatistique et Methodes Operationnelles en Sante, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2009-04-15

    Purpose. To compare AP diameter measurements of spinal canal and thecal sac on MM and CT. Materials and methods. The AP diameter of the spinal canal at L4 and thecal sac at L4-5 were measured on both MRI and CT performed on patients at less than one month interval. Measurements were obtained from axial CT images of the abdomen on CT and sagittal T1W (n=98 ) and T2W (n=78) MR images of the spine. The examinations were reviewed at more than 24 hours interval. Radiologists were blinded. Inter-observer agreement evaluation was performed prior to this study. Measurements were compared using a t test for paired variables. Results. For the spinal canal, mean measurements were 0.4 {+-} 1.5 mm inferior on CT compared to MRI. For the thecal sac, mean measurements were 0.1 {+-} 1.4 mm inferior on CT compared to MRI. Conclusion. Measurements on CT and MRI for lumbar spinal canal and thecal sac are fairly comparable, with mean measurement differences inferior to the degree of precision of the measurement technique itself. (authors)

  5. Síndrome do canal de Guyon causada por cisto sinovial Guyon's canal syndrome due to a synovial cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Silva Ruas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos um caso de síndrome do canal de Guyon por um cisto sinovial no punho esquerdo de uma paciente do sexo feminino, de 48 anos. A paciente apresentava dor e parestesia na topografia do nervo ulnar, diminuição da força muscular e deformidade na mão esquerda. A eletroneuromiografia evidenciava compressão do nervo ulnar no nível do punho. Realizada a ressecção do cisto e descompressão do nervo no canal de Guyon. Após a cirurgia a paciente apresentou melhora da dor e da parestesia, além de aumento do trofismo muscular e correção da deformidade.The authors present a case of Guyon's canal syndrome due to a synovial cyst within the left wrist of a 48-year-old female patient. The patient reported pain and paresthesia in the topography of the ulnar nerve, loss of muscular strength and left hand deformity. Electromyography showed a compression of the ulnar nerve at the wrist level. Surgical decompression at the Guyon canal with resection of the cyst was performed. After surgery, the patient presented with improvement of pain and paresthesia, as well as an increase in muscular trophism and correction of the deformity.

  6. The width of the incisive canal and labial alveolar bone of the incisive canal: an assessment on CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Yang Gyun; Jang, Hyun Seon; Kim, Byung Ock; Kim, Jin Soo [Chosun Univ. College of Dentistry, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    To assess the width of the labial alveolar bone of the incisive canal and the width of the incisive canal on spiral computed tomographic images of the anterior portion of the maxilla. Study materials included 38 CT scans taken for preoperative planning of implant placement. Axial cross-sectioned image entirely showing the incisive canal at an orifice to the oral cavity, middle portion, and an orifice to the nasal cavity and the diameter of the incisive canal at the middle portion were determined by two specialist using Digora for Windows 2.1. The statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS 12.0.1. When the maxillary central incisors remained, the mean labial alveolar bone width were 6.81{+-}1.41 mm, 6.46{+-}1.33 mm, and 7.91{+-}1.33 mm. When the maxillary central incisors were missed the mean width were 5.42{+-}2.20 mm, 6.23{+-}2.29 mm, and 7.89{+-}2.13 mm. The labial alveolar bone width at middle portion and an orifice to the nasal cavity were of no statistical significant difference according to presence of the maxillary central incisors (P>0.05). The width between oral cavity and nasal cavity, middle portion and to masal cavity revealed statistically significant difference (P<0.05)

  7. Experiment for Development of Simple Escape Countermeasures for Frogs Falling into Concrete Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Keiji; Mori, Atsushi; Koizumi, Noriyuki; Takemura, Takeshi; Park, Myeong Soo

    Three prototype escape countermeasures for frogs that can be easily installed in U-shaped canals with widths of 30-50 cm and depths of 30-50 cm were experimentally produced because frogs cannot escape from agricultural canals with deep concrete walls after falling into the canal. The differences of effectiveness of the 3 prototypes in places for the countermeasures (1 and 2) and flow conditions (dry and water running) were investigated for 2 frog species (Tokyo Daruma Pond Frog and Japanese Brown Frog). The brown frogs escaped from the canals more easily than the pond frogs. The brown frogs escaped regardless of their body size, but the small pond frogs escaped more easily than the large pond frogs. The prototype with slopes beside both canal walls and a net spread across the center line of the canal enabled frogs to escape from the canal more easily than the prototypes with only slopes or nets beside both canal walls. Increasing the number of places for the countermeasures enhanced frog escape. The differences in frog escape between dry canals and canals with water running were not significant. Therefore, the prototypes were confirmed sufficient as escape countermeasures that is inexpensive and can be easily placed in and removed from agricultural canals.

  8. Controlador basado en variables de estado para un Brazo de dos grados de libertad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Andrés Gutiérrez Cáceres

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende hacer que el control de un brazo robótico con dos grados de libertad, se muestra todas las medidas para analizar el sistema de control y trabajar con variables de estado a partir de las ecuaciones describe el sistema. Inicialmente las ecuaciones son expresadas por una reducción o cambio de orden variable, a continuación, se procede a crear las matrices de variables de estado y, finalmente, determina si el sistema es controlable y observable, para simular en Simulink y luego determinar el comportamiento según el controlador aquí diseñado. Se muestra el continuo mejoramiento y la preocupación por las nuevas técnicas de análisis y sistemas elec trónicos, el grupo VITAL SIGNAL & CONTROL a tomado la iniciativa de utilizar técnicas de procesamiento y dar a conocer sus primeros avances.

  9. First Branchial Cleft Fistula Associated with External Auditory Canal Stenosis and Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahin abdollahi fakhim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: First branchial cleft anomalies manifest with duplication of the external auditory canal.   Case Report: This report features a rare case of microtia and congenital middle ear and canal cholesteatoma with first branchial fistula. External auditory canal stenosis was complicated by middle ear and external canal cholesteatoma, but branchial fistula, opening in the zygomatic root and a sinus in the helical root, may explain this feature. A canal wall down mastoidectomy with canaloplasty and wide meatoplasty was performed. The branchial cleft was excised through parotidectomy and facial nerve dissection.   Conclusion:  It should be considered that canal stenosis in such cases can induce cholesteatoma formation in the auditory canal and middle ear.

  10. Ligadura videotoracoscópica da persistência do canal arterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOUTO Gladyston Luiz de Lima

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Demonstrar a técnica de fechamento da Persistência do Canal Arterial (PCA, destacando a simplicidade e singularidade do método. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: No período de março de 1994 a novembro de 1999, 40 pacientes (pac, com idade entre 8 meses e 17 anos e predominando o sexo masculino, foram submetidos a operação de fechamento da PCA através de videotoracoscopia. O paciente é colocado em decúbito lateral direito, sob anestesia geral com intubação seletiva do pulmão direito. São usados quatro trocateres: um de 3 mm no 3º espaço intercostal (EIC esquerdo na linha axilar anterior e outro trocater de 5 mm no 3º (EICE na linha axilar média. A ótica 30 graus infantil é introduzida em um trocater de 3 mm no 5º EICE na linha axilar posterior e outro trocater de 5 mm no 5º EICE na linha axila anterior. A identificação do canal é feita tendo como parâmetro anatômico os nervos frênico e vago. Após o isolamento, o canal é duplamente clipado ou ligado com fio de algodão grosso com nó interno. Terminado o procedimento, o pulmão é expandido sob visão direta, não havendo necessidade de drenar o tórax. RESULTADOS: Obtivemos sucesso inicial em 37 pac (92,5%, sendo necessária reversão para operação convencional em 3 pac (7,5%. Não houve óbito nem complicações e o tempo médio de hospitalização foi de 48 horas. CONCLUSÃO: Acreditamos ser o procedimento eficaz, seguro, com pequeno índice de complicações, custo baixo e uma curva de aprendizado também pequena.

  11. Assessment of bifid and trified mandicular canals using cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashsyren, Oyuntugs [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Mongolian National University Medical Science, Ulaanbaatar (United States); Choi, Jin Woo; Han, Won Jeong; Kim Eun Kyung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dankook University College of Dentistry, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    To investigate the prevalence of bifid and trifid mandibular canals using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, and to measure their length, diameter, and angle. CBCT images of 500 patients, involving 755 hemi-mandibles, were used for this study. The presence and type of bifid mandibular canal was evaluated according to a modified classification of Naitoh et al. Prevalence rates were determined according to age group, gender, and type. Further, their diameter, length, and angles were measured using PACSPLUS Viewer and ImageJ 1.46r. Statistical analysis with chi-squared and analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests was performed. Bifid and trifid mandibular canals were found in 22.6% of the 500 patients and 16.2% of the 755 sides. There was no significant difference between genders and among age groups. The retromolar canal type accounted for 71.3% of the identified canals; the dental canal type, 18.8%; the forward canal type, 4.1%; and the trifid canal type, 5.8%. Interestingly, seven cases of the trifid canal type, which has been rarely reported, were observed. The mean diameter of the bifid and trifid mandibular canals was 2.2 mm and that of the main mandibular canal was 4.3 mm. Their mean length was 16.9 mm; the mean superior angle was 149.2 degrees, and the mean inferior angle was 37.7 degrees. Bifid and trifid mandibular canals in the Korean population were observed at a relatively high rate through a CBCT evaluation, and the most common type was the retromolar canal. CBCT is suggested for a detailed evaluation of bifid and trifid mandibular canals before mandibular surgery.

  12. Identificación paramétrica en lazo cerrado de sistema de accionamiento neumático para cilindro de doble efecto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Caldas Flautero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los modelos matemáticos que permiten comprender un sistema y predecir o simular su comportamiento suelen presentar inconvenientes cuando se cuenta con poca información a priori o se desconocen los parámetros físicos. Por esa razón, en este trabajo se presenta la identificación de sistemas como estrategia para abordar la construcción de modelos dinámicos complejos, proponiendo soluciones para tratar el comportamiento no-lineal de un sistema neumático, representado por un actuador de doble efecto y un par de válvulas proporcionales para el control de la presión de alimentación y el caudal. Se presenta una aproximación almodelomatemático para determinar el orden del sistema, la identificación en lazo abierto y lazo cerrado y la comparación entre modelos de procesosARX yARMAX, con diferente orden, para concluir con simulaciones comparativas entre la respuesta del sistema real y la del identificado.

  13. Rendimiento de la canal y desarrollo de los órganos torácicos y abdominales de los 25 a los 45 kg en cerdos criollos pelones

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald Herve Santos Ricalde; Wilberth Trejo Lizama; Walter Osorto Hernández

    2011-01-01

    Se evaluó el crecimiento de la canal, de los cortes primarios y de los órganos torácicos y abdominales en 39 cerdos criollos pelones de Yucatán, México, con un peso vivo (pv) inicial de 6,9 ± 2,38 kg y sacrificados a diferentes pesos. Cuando alcanzaron el pv correspondiente para ser sacrificados (25; 30; 35; 40 y 45 kg) se les midió la grasa dorsal con un medidor de grasa dorsal, posteriormente se registró el peso y longitud de la canal y el porcentaje de la grasa dorsal a la altura de la déc...

  14. Relación entre variables morfométricas en canales de la raza equina “Cavall pirinenc català” - Relationships between morphometric values in “Cavall pirinenc català” equine breed carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parés i Casanova, Pere-Miquel.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe analizaron 27 canales de potro (19 machos y 8 hembras de la raza“Cavall Pirinenc Català”. Las variables obtenidas fueron la anchura depecho y de cadera, la longitud de canal y el peso de la canal caliente, que arrojaron unos coeficientes de variación de 1,2 a 11,3%. La anchura de la cadera y la longitud de la canal presentaron una distribución no normal. Las medidas lineales de la anchura de pecho mostraron una correlación positiva baja con el peso de la cana(r=0,476. Este trabajo muestra que deben elegirse otras variablesmorfométricas para la predicción de cortes valiosos en canales equinas.SummaryA test is conducted with 27 young horses (19 males and 8 femalesbelonging to “Cavall Pirinenc Català” breed. Chest and hip width,carcass length and hot carcass weight exhibit variation coefficients that ranged from 1.2 to 11.3 percent. Hip width and carcass length has no normal distribution. Linear measurements of chest width has a low, positive relationship with hot carcass weight (r=0.476. This study shows that other morphometric traits must be used for predictingvaluable cuts in equine carcasses.

  15. Surgical management of Guyon's canal syndrome, an ulnar nerve entrapment at the wrist: report of two cases Síndrome de compressão do nervo ulnar a nível do punho (síndrome do canal de Guyon: relato de dois casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Aguiar

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Guyon's canal syndrome, an ulnar nerve entrapment at the wrist, is a well-recognized entity. The most common causes that involve the ulnar nerve at the wrist are compression from a ganglion, occupational traumatic neuritis, a musculotendinous arch and disease of the ulnar artery. We describe two cases of Guyon's canal syndrome and discuss the anatomy, aetiology, clinical features, anatomical classification, diagnostic criteria and treatment. It is emphasized that the knowledge of both the surgical technique and anatomy is very important for a satisfactory surgical result.A síndrome do canal de Guyon, um encarceramento do nervo ulnar a nível do punho, é bem conhecida. Ela é causada por neurite ocupacional traumática, doenças e traumas do arco músculo-tendíneo e doença de artéria ulnar. Descrevemos dois casos de síndrome do canal de Guyon e discutimos os aspectos anatômicos e etiológicos, suas características clínicas, classificação anatômica e critérios de diagnóstico, bem como fazemos uma análise crítica do tratamento imposto. Enfatizamos também que, para obter um resultado cirúrgico satisfatório, é importante conhecer bem tanto as técnicas cirúrgicas como sua anatomia.

  16. Penetração intratubular de cimentos endodônticos Intratubular penetration of root canal sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo de Deus

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi desenvolvido para avaliar a capacidade de penetração de diferentes cimentos endodônticos (Endo Fill, Sealapex, AH Plus e Pulp Canal Sealer nos túbulos dentinários em dentes devidamente modelados e obturados. Foram utilizados 72 incisivos centrais superiores, os quais foram instrumentados no sentido coroa-ápice pela técnica de forças balanceadas. O comprimento de trabalho foi estabelecido a 1 mm do ápice radicular. Durante a limpeza e modelagem, todos os dentes foram irrigados com 10 ml de hipoclorito de sódio a 5,25%. Os dentes foram divididos em 4 grupos, sendo 1 para cada tipo de cimento. Estes grupos foram então subdivididos em função do uso ou não de EDTA a 17% previamente à obturação dos canais radiculares, para a remoção da lama dentinária. Todos os dentes foram obturados pela técnica da onda de condensação com cone médio calibrado. Após obturação, as raízes foram seccionadas no sentido mésio-distal e foi escolhida a secção de melhor qualidade visual. Estas foram então analisadas em microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV, sendo o foco de observação sempre a interface dentina/material obturador. Após obtenção das imagens, mensurou-se os prolongamentos dos cimentos para o interior dos túbulos dentinários. O cimento de Rickert (Pulp Canal Sealer apresentou a maior capacidade de penetração nos túbulos dentinários, sendo os piores resultados apresentados pelo grupo em que se utilizou o Sealapex. Os resultados foram avaliados estatisticamente pelo teste de Spearman, o qual mostrou diferença estatisticamente significante (p The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacity of penetration of four endodontic sealers (Endo Fill, Sealapex, AH Plus and Pulp Canal Sealer into dentinal tubules. Seventy-two extracted human maxillary anterior teeth were utilized in this study. The teeth were cleaned and shaped by means of the balanced-forces technique. The work length was established at 1

  17. Implantación de hidroxiapatita-lignina en canal medular de conejos: evaluación macroscópica y difractográfica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastoby Martínez M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar macroscópica y difractograficamente la respuesta ósea al compuesto hidroxiapatita–lignina implantado en canal medular tibial de conejos. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 20 conejos de raza Nueva Zelanda, en cada uno, la tibia izquierda fue tratada con compuesto y la tibia derecha no fue, sirviendo como control. Se realizó una falla ósea de 4 mm de diámetro en la superficie lateral proximal tibial, hasta alcanzar el canal medular. Del compuesto, 1000 mg fueron ablandados con 10 gotas de solución salina utilizando parte de la masa para revestir la rosca del clavo intramedular de Schanz en acero F 138, de diámetro 2.5 mm para hueso cortical y la otra parte introducida en el canal medular con el auxilio de catéter calibre 16 y jeringa. El clavo revestido se introdujo al canal medular por la falla ósea. Los planos anatómicos fueron suturados. Lo mismo fue realizado en el control, sin utilización del compuesto. La evaluación macroscópica y difractográfica del contenido medular y del material que creció en las rocas de los clavos se hizo a los ocho, 30, 60, 90 y 120 días pos-cirugía. Resultados. Con cada fecha de evaluación la tendencia de la medula ósea en los tratados fue a regenerarse y la del compuesto a perder visibilidad, lo que se demostró con la difracción de rayos X, encontrándose tejido con cristalinidad compatible con el componente mineral del hueso. Conclusiones. El compuesto puede guiar la formación de hueso hasta el clavo intramedular sin afectar la regeneración de médula ósea.

  18. A comparison of methods used in root canal sealability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matloff, I.R.; Jensen, J.R.; Singer, L.; Tabibi, A.

    1982-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare several methods that have been used to assess marginal leakage of root canal fillings. Sixty-three extracted, single-rooted teeth were instrumented and filled in a standardized manner. Teeth were randomly divided into groups of twenty and exposed to solutions containing methylene blue dye, calcium-45, carbon-14-labeled urea, and iodine-125-labeled albumin for 48 hours to compare the degree of leakage indicated by each technique. Methylene blue dye was found to penetrate farther up the canal than any of the isotope tracers. Carbon-14-labeled urea penetrated farther than the calcium-45- or iodine-125-labeled albumin. The mean volume of solution penetrating the teeth was exceedingly small (0.0011 ml) and probably unimportant physiologically.

  19. The Effect of Canal Contamination with Saliva on Apical Sealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sabaghi

    2014-08-01

    Methods: In this laboratory study, 58 human uni-root teeth were cleaned and shaped for obturation with gutta percha and sealer AH26. In the case group, specimens were contaminated with human saliva immediately before obturation, whereas the teeth in the control group were kept dry. All canals were filled by lateral condensation technique. Moreover, the teeth were placed in methylene blue dye for 3 days. Dye penetration was measured using a stereomicrosope. As a matter of fact, the study data were analyzed via utilizing t-test. Results: A significant difference was found between the two groups in regard with the apical leakage(P<0.001. The microleakage mean of dye in the dry group was 3/48mm, whereas it was 6/36mm in the saliva contaminated group. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that complete drying of canal can improve apical sealing.

  20. The treatment of horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babac S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to assess the outcome of treatment of horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and to analyze the influence of the different prognostic factors on treatment failure. Fifty-nine patients with horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo were included in the study. They were divided into two groups according to the treatment protocol, randomly. The first group, after treatment with the barbecue maneuver or inverted Gufoni, depending on the nystagmus form, was instructed to sleep on the side with weaker nystagmus, and the second group did not. In the first group, 88.9% of patients were cured and 91.3% in the second one. There was no significant difference between the two groups. Migraine and the apogeotropic form of nystagmus had a significant effect on treatment outcome, while other variables had no effect.

  1. Cisto aracnóideo extradural do canal espinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Pires Ferreira

    1972-09-01

    Full Text Available É relatado o caso de um paciente que apresentava paraparesia sensitivo-motora evolutiva, datando de um ano. As radiográficas da coluna vertebral e mielografia permitiram o diagnóstico de cisto de aracnóide extradural do canal espinal de localização torácica, que foi confirmado pelo ato cirúrgico. Os autores revisam a literatura assinalando 76 casos já publicados. São comentadas a incidência do processo patológico nos diversos grupos etários, sua localização ao longo do canal raqueano, a evolução do quadro clínico, a etiología e a fisiopatologia do crescimento do cisto, o diagnóstico, a terapêutica e o prognóstico.

  2. Ulnar nerve entrapment in Guyon's canal due to a lipoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, O; Calisaneller, T; Gerilmez, A; Gulsen, S; Altinors, N

    2010-09-01

    Guyon's canal syndrome is an ulnar nerve entrapment at the wrist or palm that can cause motor, sensory or combined motor and sensory loss due to various factors . In this report, we presented a 66-year-old man admitted to our clinic with a history of intermittent pain in the left palm and numbness in 4th and 5th finger for two years. His neurological examination revealed a sensory impairment in the right fifth finger. Also, physical examination displayed a subcutaneous mobile soft tissue in ulnar side of the wrist. Electromyographic examination confirmed the diagnosis of type-1 Guyon's canal syndrome. Under axillary blockage, a lipoma compressing the ulnar nerve was excised totally and ulnar nerve was decompressed. The symptoms were improved after the surgery and patient was symptom free on 3rd postoperative week.

  3. Molecular mechanisms of canalization: Hsp90 and beyond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neeraj Salathia; Christine Queitsch

    2007-04-01

    The Hsp90 chaperone machine facilitates the maturation of a diverse set of ‘client’ proteins. Many of these Hsp90 clients are essential nodes in signal transduction pathways and regulatory circuits, accounting for the important role Hsp90 plays in organismal development and responses to the environment. Recent findings suggest a broader impact of the chaperone on phenotype: fully functional Hsp90 canalizes wild-type phenotypes by suppressing underlying genetic and epigenetic variation. This variation can be expressed upon challenging the Hsp90 machinery by environmental stress, genetic or pharmaceutical targeting of Hsp90. The existence of Hsp90-buffered genetic and epigenetic variation together with plausible release mechanisms has wide-ranging implication for phenotype and possibly evolutionary processes. Here, we discuss the role of Hsp90 in canalization and organismal plasticity, and highlight important questions for future experimental inquiry.

  4. Desarrollo de un circuito integrado de múltiples canales para Silicon fotomultiplicador arrays lectura

    CERN Document Server

    Comerma i Montells, Albert

    2013-10-31

    The aim of this thesis is to present a solution for the readout of Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) arrays improving currently implemented systems. Using as a starting point previous designs with similar objectives a novel current mode input stage has been designed and tested. To start with the design a valid model has been used to generate realistic output from the SiPMs depending on light input. Design has been performed in first place focusing in general applications for medical imaging Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and then using the same topology for a more constrained design in particle detectors (upgrade of Tracker detector at LHCb experiment). A 16 channel ASIC for PET applications including the novel input stage has demonstrated an excellent timing measurement with good energy resolution measurement and pile-up detection. This document starts with the analysis of the requirements needed to fit such a system. Followed by a detailed description of the input stage and analog processing. Signal is ...

  5. Hair-Cell Versus Afferent Adaptation in the Semicircular Canals

    OpenAIRE

    Rabbitt, R. D.; Boyle, R.; Holstein, G. R.; Highstein, S. M.

    2004-01-01

    The time course and extent of adaptation in semicircular canal hair cells was compared to adaptation in primary afferent neurons for physiological stimuli in vivo to study the origins of the neural code transmitted to the brain. The oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau, was used as the experimental model. Afferent firing-rate adaptation followed a double-exponential time course in response to step cupula displacements. The dominant adaptation time constant varied considerably among afferent fibers an...

  6. MRI study on spinal canal content in Western Maharashtrian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanapurkar SV, Kulkarni DO, Bahetee BH, Vahane MI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the spinal canal content has been studied since the invention of myelography. However, most studies have measured the diameters of the spinal cord only, not the size of the subarachnoid space. The present study complements the current data on the morphology of the spinal contents, and in particular, the spinal subarachnoid space, by analyzing MRI images. Objective: To study morphology of the dural sac, spinal cord & subarachnoid space using MRI. To define the inner geometrical dimensions of spinal canal content that confine the maneuver of an endoscope inserted in cervical spine. 3. To have comprehensive knowledge of the anatomy of cervical spinal canal. Method: Based on MRI images of the spine from 60 normal patients of age between 25-60 years, the dimensions of spinal cord, dural sac & subarachnoid space were measured at mid-vertebral & intervertebral level from C1-C7 vertebrae. The parameters measured were transverse, sagittal diameter of spinal cord & dural sac. The subarachnoid space was measured as anterior, posterior, right, left distance between spinal cord and dura mater. Results: It was found that at each selected transverse level, the subarachnoid space tends to be symmetrical on the right and left sides of the cord, and measures 3.38 mm on an average. However, the anterior and posterior segment, measured on the mid-sagittal plane are generally asymmetric & varies greatly in size ranging 1mm to 6mm with mean 2.57 of anterior & 2.59 of posterior. These measurements match those found in previous studies. The coefficient of variance for the dimensions of the subarachnoid space is as high as 36.16%, while that for the dimensions of the spinal cord (transverse & sagittal are11.08%&13.28%respectively. Conclusion: The findings presented here, expand our knowledge of morphology of spinal canal and show that a thecaloscope must be smaller than 3.38 mm in diameter.

  7. Histopathology of subcutaneous tissue reaction to endodontic root canal sealers

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate tissue response of two root canal sealers: Endomethasone (cink oxide eugenol-based sealers) and Ketac Endo Aplicap (glass ionomer based sealers). The sealers were freshly mixed and injected into subcutaneous connective tissue of the dorsal surface of experimental animals (Wistar Furth rats). The inflammatory reaction caused by the sealers was evaluated 7, 30 and 60 days after implantation using descriptive hisopathologic...

  8. [Membrane model of the cupula of the vestibular semicircular canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrachuk, A V; Shipov, A A; Sirenko, S P

    1987-01-01

    A mathematical model of the time-course variations of the cupula of the semicircular canals of the vestibular apparatus is presented. The model is found to be in good agreement with experimental data which suggests that the cupular matter has viscosity-elasticity properties. Their role in the functioning of the vestibular apparatus is discussed in qualitative terms. The applicability of the membrane model to the description of the time-course variations of the cupula is considered.

  9. Comparative study of sealing ability of three root canal sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khedmat S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Complete obturation of the prepared root canal is an essential step in endodontic treatment. Combination of gutta-percha and a sealer is widely used in clinical practice for root canal obturation, thus microleakage studies on sealing properties of these materials constitute an important part of endodontic researches. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microleakage of three root canal sealers: Apexit, AH26 and Dorifill by electrochemical method.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 55 extracted human maxillary and mandibular cuspids were used. The coronal part of teeth were removed and the root canals were prepared using the step-back technique. The specimens were randomly divided into 3 groups of 17 samples each. Teeth in each group were filled with one of the sealers and gutta-percha by lateral condensation technique. 4 specimens served as positive and negative controls. An electrochemical method was used for evaluation of apical leakage with the electrical source potential of 10 V. Measurements of current flow through the test system were recorded every 72 hours. Data were analyzed by Kruskall Wallis and Mann Whitney tests. P<0.05 was considered as the level of significance.Results: All specimens of the three groups showed low initial leakage that increased during the test period. The mean leakage in Apexit group was higher than AH26 and Dorifill groups. The lowest mean leakage was related to Dorifill group. Although no statistically significant difference was observed between this sealer and AH26.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the best apical seal was obtained using Dorifill and AH26 sealers. The poorest result was observed in Apexit.

  10. 75 FR 56094 - Delta-Mendota Canal Intertie Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ...The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Western Area Power Administration (Western), plans to authorize a new interconnection and design, construct, own, operate, and maintain a new 69-kilovolt (kV) transmission line and fiber optic cable for delivery of project use power as part of the Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Mid-Pacific Region's (Reclamation) Delta-Mendota Canal......

  11. Semicircular Canals Circumvent Brownian Motion Overload of Mechanoreceptor Hair Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Mees; Heeck, Kier

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate semicircular canals (SCC) first appeared in the vertebrates (i.e. ancestral fish) over 600 million years ago. In SCC the principal mechanoreceptors are hair cells, which as compared to cochlear hair cells are distinctly longer (70 vs. 7 μm), 10 times more compliant to bending (44 vs. 500 nN/m), and have a 100-fold higher tip displacement threshold (mechanoreceptors of the SCC. PMID:27448330

  12. Integrated Watershed Pollution Control at Wujingang Canal, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Z.; Yang, X.; Luo, X.

    2012-04-01

    With a drainage area of 400 square kilometers, Wujingang Canal is located at the economically developed Yangtz Delta of eastern China. As a major tributary, the canal contributes a significant amount of pollutant load to the Lake Tai. Over the past many years, water quality of the canal and its tributaries could not meet the lowest Category V of Chinese surface water quality standard, indicating that its water is not suitable for the purposes of irrigation or scenic views. Major pollution sources in the watershed include industries, residential households, agriculture, fishery, and animal feedlot operations. A comprehensive plan with a budget of 2 billion RMB for the Wujingang watershed pollution control was developed in 2008 and has been implemented progressively ever since. Major components of the plan include: (1) advanced treatment of wastewater from industries and municipal sewage plants for further removal of nitrogen and phosphorous; (2) industrial wastewater reuse; (3) contiguous treatment of sewage from rural residential households with cost-effective technologies such as tower ecofilter system; (4) recycling of rural wastes to generate high-value added products using technologies such as multi-phase anaerobic co-digestion; and (5) making full use of the local landscape and configuring physical, chemical, and biological pollutant treatment structures to build the "clean river network" for treatment of mildly polluted agricultural discharge and surface runoff. Through the implementation of the above measures, water quality of the Wujingang Canal and its tributaries is expected to improve to meet Category IV of Chinese surface water quality standard by 2012, and Category III standard by 2020. Keywords watershed pollution control, non-point source pollution, rural sewage, rural waste, Lake Tai

  13. Facies del subfondo del canal Beagle, Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bujalesky

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available El canal Beagle conecta los océanos Pacífico y Atlántico en el extremo meridional de Sudamérica y se ubica en el ambiente subantártico. Conforma una cuenca de unos 300 m de profundidad máxima y está separada del océano Atlántico por un umbral de 30 m de profundidad. El canal es un valle tectónico que fue completamente cubierto por el hielo glacial durante la última glaciación. Posteriormente, el canal fue ocupado por un lago glacial desde los 12.000 a los 8.000 años A.P., cuando fue invadido por el mar que alcanzó un nivel máximo entre los 6.000 y 5.000 años A.P. Con el objetivo de analizar las facies sedimentarias superficiales y del subfondo del canal se realizó un relevamiento geofísico con sonar de barrido lateral y un perfilador de 3,5 kHz. Sobre un basamento constituido por rocas metamórficas del Mesozoico, se identificaron depósitos de till y secuencias granodecrecientes que representan distintos estadios del retroceso glaciar, evidenciando hacia la sección superior facies lacustres y por encima depósitos de la transgresión marina del Holoceno. Además, se han identificado paleocauces y secuencias fluviales cubiertas por sedimentos marinos transgresivos.

  14. The influence of flood pulse on fish communities of floodplain canals in the Middle Solimões River, Brazil

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    Raniere G. C. Sousa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The functioning of large river systems with adjacent floodplains is strongly influenced by the flood pulse. This phenomenon is the main structuring force for the biota, including fish communities that use floodplain environments for spawning, feeding, nursery and refuge. In floodplains and in the entire basin, the volume of water controls internal flows. During rising water, the high discharge of the river acts as a natural barrier to the canals that connect floodplain lakes and the Solimões River, because the water flows from river to lake. During the dry period, there is a reduction of discharge and the water flow is reversed or stationary. These canals are environments with distinct ecological characteristics such as differentiated limnology and water level variation intensely affected by the hydrological cycle. Therefore, we surveyed the influence of the flood pulse on fish communities that inhabit two canals that connect floodplain lakes to the Middle Solimões River. Particularly, we evaluated the hypothesis that the Solimões River flow direction is not perfectly parallel to its banks, which creates peripheral flows that direct water from the rivers to the floodplain lake canals. Our analysis indicated that the seasonal pattern is stronger than the spatial. Beside this, we observed that the positions of the canals in relation to the main river flow somehow affect the fish assemblages. Finally, we conclude that the flood pulse is the main structuring force acting on these fish communities.A dinâmica dos sistemas de grandes rios com áreas inundadas adjacentes é fortemente influenciada pelo pulso de inundação, sendo este fenômeno o principal agente estruturador da biota, inclusive dos peixes, que utilizam este ambiente para a desova, alimentação, berçário e refúgio. Nesta região e em toda a bacia, a intensidade da vazão controla os fluxos internos. Na época da cheia, a forte vazão atua como uma barreira natural nos canais de

  15. Deadbands and the Dynamic Response and Performance of Large Water Transfer Canal System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Zhiliang; WANG Changde; TAN Guangming; GUAN Guanghua

    2009-01-01

    An operating simulation mode for multireach canal system in series under gate regulating is established. The discharge feedforward plus water lever feedback PID controller was adopted. And the performance indicators are introduced to evaluate the control effects of canal operation. Influence on dynamic response process and dynamic performance as well as the control actions of canal system are studied according to the variation of the gate deadband and water level deadband. The results showed that the larger the gate deadband, the worse, the control effect of canal system over water level, and so done the stable process of gate discharge, yet the stable process of gate opening was getting better, while the upstream gate regulation of each canal pool was less at the time when canal stabilizes;the closer to downstream end of canal, the lager steady-state error of this canal pool was, and the lager influence of gate deadband on the steady-state error as well as response time of this canal pool was;the canal system can not acquire superiority in both the control performance and control actions when only the water level deadband was established.

  16. Intraoperative ultrasonography of the vertebral canal in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Bonelli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intraoperative ultrasound (IOS can provide details on various conditions of the spinal cord and vertebral canal. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using IOS in dogs undergoing spinal surgery and to describe the main findings. The vertebral canal of 21 dogs was examined with intraoperative ultrasonography: 13 underwent spinal surgery for removal of herniated intervertebral disc material, three for stabilization of vertebral fracture/luxation, two for removal of vertebral neoplasia, and three for cauda equina decompression. Particular attention was given to signs of cord compression. Intraoperative ultrasonography was feasible and useful in dogs undergoing surgery for spinal cord or cauda equina decompression and fracture stabilization. It was not paramount for locating the compression when this had been done via computed tomography (CT, but it showed alterations in spinal cord parenchyma not observed on CT and also confirmed adequate decompression of the spinal cord. The main advantages of intraoperative ultrasonography were estimation of vascularization and extent of spinal cord lesion. Most importantly, it allowed real time evaluation of the spinal cord and vertebral canal, which permits the modification of the surgical procedure.

  17. Phage therapy against Enterococcus faecalis in dental root canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Leron; Shlezinger, Mor; Beyth, Shaul; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Coppenhagen-Glazer, Shunit; Beyth, Nurit; Hazan, Ronen

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem faced by all major sectors of health care, including dentistry. Recurrent infections related to multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in hospitals are untreatable and question the effectiveness of notable drugs. Two major reasons for these recurrent infections are acquired antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm formation. None of the traditionally known effective techniques have been able to efficiently resolve these issues. Hence, development of a highly effective antibacterial practice has become inevitable. One example of a hard-to-eradicate pathogen in dentistry is Enterococcus faecalis, which is one of the most common threats observed in recurrent root canal treatment failures, of which the most problematic to treat are its biofilm-forming VRE strains. An effective response against such infections could be the use of bacteriophages (phages). Phage therapy was found to be highly effective against biofilm and multidrug-resistant bacteria and has other advantages like ease of isolation and possibilities for genetic manipulations. The potential of phage therapy in dentistry, in particular against E. faecalis biofilms in root canals, is almost unexplored. Here we review the efforts to develop phage therapy against biofilms. We also focus on the phages isolated against E. faecalis and discuss the possibility of using phages against E. faecalis biofilm in root canals. PMID:27640530

  18. Clinical evaluation of posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

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    Titus S Ibekwe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV is a mechanical peripheral vestibular disorder which may involve any of the three semicircular canals but principally the posterior. In as much as the literature has described theories to explain the mechanism of BPPV and also contains scholarly works that elucidate BPPV; its management remains an enigma to most clinicians. To this end, this work was aimed at outlining an evidence-based best practice for most common form of BPPV. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted between 1948 and June 2011 in PubMed, Embase, Ovid, and Cochrane database through the online Library of the University of Cape Town. Seventy-nine worthy articles that addressed the study were selected on consensus of the two authors. Conclusion: There is consensus for the use of canalith repositioning procedures as the best form of treatment for posterior canal canalolithiasis. However, successful treatment is dependent on accurate identification of the implicated canal and the form of lithiasis. Furthermore, clinicians should note that there is no place for pharmacological treatment of BPPV; unless it is to facilitate repositioning.

  19. Geminated Maxillary Lateral Incisor with Two Root Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Nayara; Souza-Flamini, Luis Eduardo; Mendonça, Isabela Lima; Silva, Ricardo Gariba

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a case of gemination in a maxillary lateral incisor with two root canals and crown-root dilaceration. A 16-year-old male patient was referred for endodontic treatment of the maxillary left lateral incisor and evaluation of esthetic and functional complaints in the anterior region. The patient reported trauma to the anterior primary teeth. There was no spontaneous pain, but the tooth responded positively to the vertical percussion test and negatively to the pulp vitality test. Clinical examination showed esthetic and functional alterations and normal periodontal tissues. CBCT imaging confirmed the suspicion of gemination and crown-root dilaceration and also revealed the presence of two root canals and periapical bone rarefaction. The root canals were instrumented with Reciproc R40 and 1% NaOCl irrigation and were filled by lateral condensation of gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. The tooth was definitely restored with composite resin to recover esthetics. Continued follow-up over 6 months has shown absence of pain or clinical alterations as well as radiographic image suggestive of apical repair. PMID:28119787

  20. Dynamic displacement of normal and detached semicircular canal cupula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbitt, Richard D; Breneman, Kathryn D; King, Curtis; Yamauchi, Angela M; Boyle, Richard; Highstein, Stephen M

    2009-12-01

    The dynamic displacement of the semicircular canal cupula and modulation of afferent nerve discharge were measured simultaneously in response to physiological stimuli in vivo. The adaptation time constant(s) of normal cupulae in response to step stimuli averaged 36 s, corresponding to a mechanical lower corner frequency for sinusoidal stimuli of 0.0044 Hz. For stimuli equivalent to 40-200 deg/s of angular head velocity, the displacement gain of the central region of the cupula averaged 53 nm per deg/s. Afferents adapted more rapidly than the cupula, demonstrating the presence of a relaxation process that contributes significantly to the neural representation of angular head motions by the discharge patterns of canal afferent neurons. We also investigated changes in time constants of the cupula and afferents following detachment of the cupula at its apex-mechanical detachment that occurs in response to excessive transcupular endolymph pressure. Detached cupulae exhibited sharply reduced adaptation time constants (300 ms-3 s, n = 3) and can be explained by endolymph flowing rapidly over the apex of the cupula. Partially detached cupulae reattached and normal afferent discharge patterns were recovered 5-7 h following detachment. This regeneration process may have relevance to the recovery of semicircular canal function following head trauma.