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Sample records for canal para simular

  1. MODELO PARA SIMULAR LA HOMEÓSTASIS NEURONAL DURANTE UN INFLUJO INCREMENTADO DEL CALCIO A TRAVÉS DEL CANAL ASOCIADO AL RECEPTOR IONOTRÓPICO DE GLUTAMATO ACTIVADO POR N-METIL-D-ASPARTATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lareo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Dada la importancia del receptor ionotrópico de glutamato activado por N-Metil-D-Aspartato en los procesos de aprendizaje y la formación de la memoria mediados por el transporte de calcio a través del canal asociado a dicho receptor resulta importante desarrollar modelos que permitan comprender la homeóstasis que le permite a la neurona manejar incrementos en el flujo de dicho catión sin llegar a desarrollar procesos necróticos ni apoptóticos. Este trabajo presenta una sencilla simulación de parte de los procesos metabólicos asociados al receptor como un paso inicial para comprender los mecanismos subyacentes al aprendizaje y memoria.

  2. Redes neuronales artificiales aplicadas a mediciones de fitomonitoreo para simular fotosíntesis en jitomate bajo invernadero

    OpenAIRE

    José Manuel Vargas Sállago; Irineo Lorenzo López Cruz; Enrique Rico García

    2012-01-01

    Se utilizaron Redes Neuronales Artificiales (ANN, Artificial Neural Networks) para simular la tasa de fotosíntesis de plantas de jitomate, empleando como variables de entrada: temperatura, humedad relativa, déficit de presión de vapor y concentración de dióxido de carbono (CO2) del aire, así como radiación fotosintéticamente activa. El experimento se desarrolló en un invernadero experimental, con control climático totalmente convencional, de la Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, México. Se em...

  3. El VPM: una técnica variacional para simular la respuesta sísmica de valles aluviales someros

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Ávila; Víctor J. Palencia; Francisco J. Sánchez Sesma

    2002-01-01

    Se presenta el Método de Proyección Variacional (VPM, por sus siglas en inglés) para calcular la respuesta sísmica tridimensional de valles aluviales someros. La solución está basada en una formulación variacional de Galerkin de forma débil para el problema de un estrato irregular de geometría suave que sobreyace a un semiespacio elástico. La formulación de Galerkin se aplica mediante una familia de funciones de prueba para establecer la dependencia respecto a la profundidad. Las ecuaciones d...

  4. Revestimientos especiales para diques y canales

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    Zorzi, Silvano

    1964-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the possibilities and advantages of adopting special facings for dykes and canals, and generally for all large hydraulic works, where waterproofing is of paramount importance. Technical advances in recent years have made it possible to prefabricate many facing units used in these types of works; large slabs, made in reinforced and prestressed concrete, are flexible, and watertight. Although there are many possibilities and types of facing treatments, the one described here is outstanding. It consists of narrow slabs, highly flexible, placed transversally with respect to the canal axis. They are attached with cement mortar, and the joints are finally sealed with a special mortar, called «Emboco». In this article a description is also given of a series of projects, where facing treatments have been used, which are now successfully in service. Finally some general and simple advise is given on the best procedure to apply these facing treatments in the most effective and economic manner.En este trabajo se resumen las posibilidades y ventajas que ofrecen los revestimientos especiales de diques y taludes de canales y, en general, en todas las grandes obras hidráulicas, en que la impermeabilización es de mayor importancia al tratar de conservar los caudales iniciales o la retención de aguas embalsadas, según los casos. Los progresos de las técnicas modernas, en particular la prefabricación, han permitido este tipo de revestimientos con losas de gran longitud, extremadamente flexibles e impermeables, de hormigón armado y pretensado. Aunque son muchas las posibilidades y tipos de revestimiento, destaca el que a continuación se expone: consiste en placas o losas estrechas, de gran flexibilidad, colocadas transversalmente al eje del canal sobre tongadas de mortero de cemento, y cuyas juntas se sellan, finalmente, con un mortero especial llamado «Emboco». Complementan la exposición teórica del método una serie de

  5. Derivación analítica del tiempo de llegada en modelos de canal basados en geometría para sistemas inalámbricos

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    M.R. Arias

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una propuesta analítica para derivar la función de densidad de probabilidad de potencia (PDF, por sus siglas en ingles del tiempo de llegada (TOA, por sus siglas en inglés y su aplicación en los modelos de canal estadísticos basados en geometría para ambientes urbanos. En éste artículo proponemos un modelo de canal utilizando el método por agrupamiento, y lo empleamos para derivar la PDF del tiempo de llegada de la señal de multitrayectorias. Para evaluar la PDF teórica propuesta por agrupamiento en el dominio del tiempo, hacemos simulaciones por computadora del modelo de canal basado en geometría propuesto y lo comparamos con los resultados experimentales publicados en la literatura. La comparación con los resultados experimentales revelan una buena aproximación. La PDF por agrupamiento derivada se puede utilizar para simular la dispersión temporal de la señal de multitrayectorias agrupadas para una variedad de condiciones de propagación en ambientes urbanos para cuantificar parámetros estadísticos de segundo orden, es decir, la difusión de retardo para una forma elíptica específica dada por el grupo de señales de multitrayectorias.

  6. Una herramienta para simular y analizar el flujo de tráfico en un cruce regulado por semáforos con tiempos de ciclos variables

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    Orlando Fonseca Guilarte

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una herramienta que ayude a establecer una buena política de cambio en los tiempos de luces de los semáforos en las horas pico, basado en los resultados experimentales que se brindan. Se considera un cruce regulado por semáforos que puede estar compuesto por n calles y tener k fases. Se propone un simulador cuyos datos de entrada son las características propias de esta intersección y su salida la cantidad de autos que quedan, llegan y salen en cada fase. Se supone que las llegadas y salidas de los vehículos siguen una distribución de Poisson cuyo parámetro puede variar en el intervalo estudiado. La simulación está basada en eventos discretos y para la implementación del simulador se utilizó la plataforma .NET y el lenguaje de programación C#. La herramienta permite además obtener resultados estadísticos que ayudan al usuario en la toma de decisiones para identificar las fases problemáticas y tomar medidas para determinar la mejor opción, que será aquella que minimice la congestión del tráfico.

  7. Sistema de máquinas para revestir canales magistrales

    OpenAIRE

    Julián Remberto Sánchez Alonso; Eusebio Ramón González Utria; José Martínez Grave de Peralta; Johann Mejías Brito

    2010-01-01

    El trabajo consistió en la concepción, diseño, construcción y prueba de un sistema de máquinas para el revestimiento mecanizado de taludes de canales magistrales del tipo "Bio - La Rioja", su importancia está basada en la necesidad de acelerar las obras de la voluntad hidráulica y el programa alimentario. El método mecanizado de revestimiento incrementa el rendimiento respecto al tradicional, además contribuye al ahorro de materiales, mano de obra y uso de equipos, en particular de combustibl...

  8. Sistema de máquinas para revestir canales magistrales

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    Julián Remberto Sánchez Alonso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo consistió en la concepción, diseño, construcción y prueba de un sistema de máquinas para el revestimiento mecanizado de taludes de canales magistrales del tipo "Bio - La Rioja", su importancia está basada en la necesidad de acelerar las obras de la voluntad hidráulica y el programa alimentario. El método mecanizado de revestimiento incrementa el rendimiento respecto al tradicional, además contribuye al ahorro de materiales, mano de obra y uso de equipos, en particular de combustible. Para el logro de los objetivos propuestos se realizó una revisión del estado actual sobre los sistemas de máquinas revestidoras con hormigón existentes en el extranjero y la experiencia acumulada en el país. Posteriormente se realizó un análisis de variantes para la concepción de la máquina y cada conjunto, de esta forma se seleccionó los sistemas a diseñar. La utilización de métodos avanzados de cálculos y valoración nos permitió determinar las formas y dimensiones de las máquinas, conjuntos y piezas, obteniéndose un diseño ligero y una tecnología sencilla de fabricación. Las valoraciones experimentales en condiciones de explotación en el canal "Bio - La Rioja" permitieron realizar un análisis técnico-económico sobre la introducción del sistema de máquinas en un proceso mecanizado de revestimiento "in situ".

  9. GeoSteamNet: A computer code to simulate geothermal steam flow in a pipeline network; GeoSteamNet: Programa de computo para simular el flujo de vapor geotermico de una red de vaporductos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma P., Mahendra; Aragon A., Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: mahendra@iie.org.mx; Ruiz L., Alejando; Mendoza C., Alfredo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Campo Geotermico Los Azufres, Campamento Agua Fria, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2011-07-15

    A computer package, GeoSteamNet, was developed to simulate steam transport in a pipeline network of a geothermal field. The fluid motion is governed by the following basic principles: conservation of mass, linear momentum principle (Newton's second law or the Navier Stokes equations), and the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The second law of thermodynamics defines the direction of a spontaneous process, which is indirectly validated in the algorithm as vapor flows from high-to-low pressure, and heat flows from high-to-low temperatures. The nonlinear equations are solved with the Newton-Raphson method. Using the ActiveX component OrificeMeter, the steam-flow balance was calculated for power plants U-15 and U-16 in Los Azufres Geothermal Field, Mich., in February 2009. U-15 was fed by the production wells AZ-04, AZ-28, AZ-30, AZ-65D, and AZ-66, whereas wells AZ-28A, AZ-45, AZ-56, AZ-67, AZ-69D were connected to U-16. The analytical error is within {+-}4%, which is acceptable for practical purposes for steam-supply management, considering the uncertainties in parameters, such as pressure, temperature, pressure fluctuation at the wellhead, etc. The steam simulation results by GeoSteamNet for a hypothetical-pipeline network in a geothermal system with two production wells and a power plant illustrate its functionality. Several points need to be emphasized. For a specific geometry-pipeline network, there is only a certain amount of mass (vapor) that can be transported at a given pressure at the wellheads and the power plant. The construction and modification of a pipeline network is very expensive and the production of geothermal wells depends on many natural factors; therefore, there is need to conduct a tolerance study for each component of the network. A simulation study of the virtual-pipeline network for the design of a geothermal power plant can save money, effort, and time. [Spanish] Se desarrollo un paquete de computo, GeoSteamNet, para simular el

  10. Entrevista a Jordi Canal para Historia 2.0

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    Miguel Darío Cuadros Sánchez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Jordi Canal es profesor y director de estudios en la École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS de Paris, uno de los grandes especialistas en historia contemporánea. Cosmopolita y trilingüe (español, catalán y francés, su bibliografía reciente incluye obras de referencia, como autor o editor, «Los éxodos políticos en España, siglos XV-XX» (2007, «Una historia política del carlismo, 1876-1939» (2006. En el marco del XVII Congreso de la Asociación de Colombianista y la presentación de una conferencia sobre historia política en la Maestría de Historia de la Universidad Industrial de Santander, el profesor Jordi Canal visitó la ciudad de Bucaramanga del 3 al 5 a de agosto del presente año y tuvo la amabilidad de brindar sus opiniones a la revista Historia 2.0.

  11. Evaluation of a model to Simulate Net Radiation Over a Vineyar cv. Cabernet Sauvignon Evaluación de un Modelo para Simular el Flujo de Radiación Neta Sobre un Viñedo cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

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    Marcos Carrasco

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Net radiation (Rn is the main energy balance component controlling evaporation and transpiration processes. In this regard, this study evaluated two models to estimate Rno above a commercial vineyard (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon located in Pencahue Valley, Maule Region (35º22’ S; 71°47’ Wl; 75 m.a.s.l.. An automatic meteorological station (AMS was installed in the central part of the vineyard and used to measure Rn, solar radiation (Rsi, air temperature (Ta, canopy temperature (Tf and relative humidity (RH. On a 30 min interval, results indicated that model Rne1 (assuming Ta ≠ Tf and model Rne2 (assuming Ta = Tf were able to estimate Rn with a mean absolute error (MAE of less than 40 W m-2 and root mean square error (RMSE of less than 61 W m-2. On daily intervals, the two models estimated Rno with MAE and RMSE values of less than 1.68 and 1.75 MJ m-2 d-1, respectively. In global terms, the models presented errors below 9 and 11% on 30 min and daily intervals, respectively. Furthermore, this study indicated that the incorporation of canopy temperature did not improve the Rno estimation substantially, in spite of having a temperature gradient (dT = Tf - Ta between -3 and to 4ºC. These results suggest that an Rne2 model could be used to estimate Rno using Rsi, Ta and RH measurements.El flujo de radiación neta (Rn es el principal componente del balance de energía que determina los procesos de evaporación y transpiración. En este contexto, este estudio evaluó dos modelos para estimar Rno sobre un viñedo (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon comercial ubicado en el Valle de Pencahue, Región del Maule (35º22’ S; 71º47’ Oeste; 75 m.s.n.m.. Para esto, se ubicó una estación meteorológica automática (AME en la parte central del viñedo para medir Rn, radiación solar (Rsi, temperatura del aire (Ta, temperatura del dosel (Tf y humedad relativa (HR. En intervalos de tiempo de 30 min, los resultados indicaron que el

  12. Forced extrusion for removal of impacted third molars close to the mandibular canal Extrusión forzada para extraer los terceros molares impactados cerca del canal mandibular

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    Dennis Flanagan DDS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Impacted mandibular third molars can be located in close proximity to the mandibular canal. This creates a risk for the nerve or artery injury. These are contained in the canal. However, the impacted third molar can be moved coronally by orthodontic means, after removal of overlying bone, and safely extracted. The orthodontic intervention slowly moves the tooth apex away from the mandibular canal and reduces the potential for a neural injury. This method may be useful for older patients with root apices that approximate or are actually located in the mandibular canal. This technique needs further study. There is a theoretical potential for neural or arterial injury from physical contact of the tooth apex as it moves by or through the mandibular canal.Los terceros molares inferiores impactados pueden localizarse muy cerca del canal mandibular. Esto constituye un riesgo de lesión del nervio o la arteria, que se localizan dentro del canal. No obstante, el tercer molar impactado puede desplazarse en dirección coronal con ortodoncia, tras ostectomía del hueso suprayacente, y extraerse sin riesgos. La intervención ortodóncica desplaza lentamente el ápice del diente fuera del canal mandibular y reduce la posibilidad de lesión neural. Este método puede ser útil para pacientes de edad avanzada con ápices dentales que se aproximan o en realidad se localizan en el canal mandibular. La técnica necesita un estudio adicional. Hay la posibilidad teórica de lesión neural o arterial a partir del contacto físico del ápice del diente a medida que se desplaza a través del canal mandibular.

  13. Evaluation of a computer model to simulate water table response to subirrigation Avaliação de um modelo computacional para simular a resposta do lençol freático à subirrigação

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    Jadir Aparecido Rosa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the water flow computer model, WATABLE, using experimental field observations on water table management plots from a site located near Hastings, FL, USA. The experimental field had scale drainage systems with provisions for subirrigation with buried microirrigation and conventional seepage irrigation systems. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. growing seasons from years 1996 and 1997 were used to simulate the hydrology of the area. Water table levels, precipitation, irrigation and runoff volumes were continuously monitored. The model simulated the water movement from a buried microirrigation line source and the response of the water table to irrigation, precipitation, evapotranspiration, and deep percolation. The model was calibrated and verified by comparing simulated results with experimental field observations. The model performed very well in simulating seasonal runoff, irrigation volumes, and water table levels during crop growth. The two-dimensional model can be used to investigate different irrigation strategies involving water table management control. Applications of the model include optimization of the water table depth for each growth stage, and duration, frequency, and rate of irrigation.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o modelo computacional WATABLE usando-se dados de campo obtidos em uma área experimental em manejo de lençol freático, localizada em Hastings, FL, EUA. Na área experimental, estavam instalados um sistema de drenagem e sistemas de irrigação por subsuperfície com irrigação localizada e por canais. Ciclos de cultivo de batata (Solanum tuberosum L., nos anos de 1996 e 1997, foram usados para a simulação da hidrologia da área. Profundidades do lençol freático, chuvas, irrigação e escorrimento superficial foram monitorados constantemente. O modelo simulou o movimento da água a partir de uma linha de irrigação localizada enterrada, e a resposta do nível do len

  14. A new method to simulate the hydrological state of soil under natural conditions Um novo método para simular o estado hidrológico do solo em condições naturais

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    Anna-Katharina Wild

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Micro, macro and mesofauna in the soil often respond to fluctuating environmental conditions, resulting in changes of abundance and community structure. Effects of changing soil parameters are normally determined with samples taken in the field and brought to the laboratory, i.e. where natural environmental conditions may not apply. We devised a method (STAFD - soil tubes for artificial flood and drought, which simulates the hydrological state of soil in situ using implanted cores. Control tubes were compared with treatment tubes in which floods of 15, 30, 60 and 90 days, and droughts of 60, 90 and 120 days were simulated in the field. Flooding and drought were found to reduce number of individuals in all soil faunal groups, but the response to drought was slower and not in proportion to the expected decrease of the water content. The results of the simulated floods in particular show the value of the STAFD method for the investigation of such extreme events in natural habitats.As micro, macro e mesofaunas no solo respondem frequentemente à variação das condições ambientais, o que resulta em alterações na abundância e na estrutura da comunidade. Os efeitos das alterações nos parâmetros do solo são normalmente determinados com amostras recolhidas no campo e trazidas ao laboratório, ou seja, onde as condições ambientais naturais podem não ser aplicáveis. Criamos um método (STAFD - tubos de amostra de solo para inundações e secas artificiais, que simula o estado hidrológico do solo in situ com núcleos implantados. As amostras de controle foram comparadas com amostras de tratamentos em que foram simuladas inundações de 15, 30, 60 e 90 dias e secas de 60, 90 e 120 dias no campo. Verificou-se que as inundações e a seca reduziram a quantidade de individuos em todos os grupos de fauna de solo, mas a resposta à seca foi mais lenta e não proporcional à redução prevista no teor de água. Os resultados das inunda

  15. Canal*Motoboy, São Paulo (Brasil: Comunicación para el cambio social

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    Alisson DIAS GOMES

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, los medios de comunicación se contraponen a la propagación de los medios alternativos dirigidos a la democratización de informaciones generadas por ciudadanos comunes. El Canal*Motoboy constituye un ejemplo de esa modalidad de comunicación. Su propuesta es consolidar una estructura abierta para dar voz al colectivo de motoboys de São Paulo (SP en Brasil. Debidamente entrenados y recurriendo al teléfono móvil multimedia, registran su día-a-día en el website Canal*Motoboy. Este artículo analiza este proyecto, a partir de la concepción de la comunicación para el cambio social, una vez que el derecho a la libertad de expresión, históricamente, ha sido expropiado a los ciudadanos por cuenta de la expansión de los conglomerados comunicacionales. Además de la revisión de literatura, el objeto de estudio se ha abordado desde una perspectiva cualitativa a través de la técnica de observación y de entrevista en profundidad para las informaciones de actores del colectivo.

  16. Ordered expression pattern of Hox and ParaHox genes along the alimentary canal in the ascidian juvenile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Satoshi; Satou, Kunihiro; Orito, Wataru; Ogasawara, Michio

    2016-07-01

    The Hox and ParaHox genes of bilateria share a similar expression pattern along the body axis and are known to be associated with anterior-posterior patterning. In vertebrates, the Hox genes are also expressed in presomitic mesoderm and gut endoderm and the ParaHox genes show a restricted expression pattern in the gut-related derivatives. Regional expression patterns in the embryonic central nervous system of the basal chordates amphioxus and ascidian have been reported; however, little is known about their endodermal expression in the alimentary canal. We focus on the Hox and ParaHox genes in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis and investigate the gene expression patterns in the juvenile, which shows morphological regionality in the alimentary canal. Gene expression analyses by using whole-mount in situ hybridization reveal that all Hox genes have a regional expression pattern along the alimentary canal. Expression of Hox1 to Hox4 is restricted to the posterior region of pharyngeal derivatives. Hox5 to Hox13 show an ordered expression pattern correlated with each Hox gene number along the postpharyngeal digestive tract. This expression pattern along the anterior-posterior axis has also been observed in Ciona ParaHox genes. Our observations suggest that ascidian Hox and ParaHox clusters are dispersed; however, the ordered expression patterns along the alimentary canal appear to be conserved among chordates. PMID:26837224

  17. Canal*Motoboy, São Paulo (Brazil: communication for social change Canal*Motoboy, São Paulo (Brasil: Comunicación para el cambio social

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    Alisson DIAS GOMES

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, reference media faces the alternative media propagation, which uses different means and it is based on the work of independent producers who target the information democratization in every possible format at no cost and created by «common citizens». The Canal*Motoboy, a project by the Catalan Antoni Abad, is an example of this kind of communication. He aims to consolidate an open structure in order to give voice to motoboys from São Paulo (SP, Brazil. After being properly trained and by using their multimedia cell phones, they register their routine on Canal*Motoboy website. This article analyzes the progress of this project, based on the communication for social change, once the right to freedom of expression, historically, has been expropriated from citizens on account of the expansion of communication conglomerates. The methodological approach will consist of observation and deep interview technique, as well as literature review.En la actualidad, los medios de comunicación se contraponen a la propagación de los medios alternativos dirigidos a la democratización de informaciones generadas por ciudadanos comunes. El Canal*Motoboy constituye un ejemplo de esa modalidad de comunicación. Su propuesta es consolidar una estructura abierta para dar voz al colectivo de motoboys de São Paulo (SP en Brasil. Debidamente entrenados y recurriendo al teléfono móvil multimedia, registran su día-a-día en el website Canal*Motoboy. Este artículo analiza este proyecto, a partir de la concepción de la comunicación para el cambio social, una vez que el derecho a la libertad de expresión, históricamente, ha sido expropiado a los ciudadanos por cuenta de la expansión de los conglomerados comunicacionales. Además de la revisión de literatura, el objeto de estudio se ha abordado desde una perspectiva cualitativa a través de la técnica de observación y de entrevista en profundidad para las informaciones de actores del colectivo.

  18. El canal de crédito, evidencias para Uruguay desde una perspectiva macroeconómica

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Lorenzo; Alfonso Capurro; Guillermo Carlomagno; Paula Garda; Bibiana Lanzilotta; Gonzalo Zunino

    2010-01-01

    La presente investigación tiene por objetivo aportar evidencia sobre la existencia e importancia del canal del crédito en la transmisión de la política monetaria en Uruguay a partir de un análisis a nivel macroeconómico. Para que el canal del crédito se encuentre activo como canal de transmisión de la política monetaria es necesario, en primer término, que las decisiones de política monetaria sean capaces de afectar las variables de crédito bancario. Una segunda condición necesaria es que las...

  19. Preferencias en canales de distribución y nivel de ingresos: un análisis para alimentos frescos

    OpenAIRE

    Berges, Miriam; Casellas, Karina

    2001-01-01

    En este trabajo, abarcando una muestra de todo el país, se intenta analizar el tipo de canal elegido por las familias para realizar sus compras de alimentos, en especial para el caso de la carne vacuna, el pollo, las frutas y verduras y los productos lácteos. Esta selección obedece a que se ha dicho mucho sobre si prevalece o no la preferencia de ciertos sectores de la población por elegir los alimentos frescos en negocios del tipo tradicional, como las carnicerías, las verdulerías y las frut...

  20. Um estudo sobre os aspectos que contribuem para a adoção do canal on-line para compra de livros, CDs e DVDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Gouvêa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste estudo foi identificar os fatores relevantes na adoção do canal on-line para a realização de compras, tendo como principais referências os modelos Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT, de Venkatesh et al. (2003, de Heijden, Verhagen e Creemers (2003 e de Bramall, Schoefer e McKechnie (2004. Além da revisão da literatura dos assuntos pertinentes, foi realizada uma pesquisa de campo descritiva, de natureza quantitativa com uma amostra de 172 pessoas residentes na cidade de São Paulo, pertencentes às classes socioeconômicas A, B e C (critério Brasil, compradores de livros, CDs ou DVDs no canal off-line. Os dados coletados foram analisados com o uso de técnicas estatísticas nos contextos uni, bi e multivariado. Aplicou-se a técnica de modelagem de equações estruturais (MEE ou Structural Equation Modeling - SEM para serem identificadas relações de dependência entre construtos e a contribuição de cada um deles na estimação das intenções de adoção da compra pela Internet. Entre os principais resultados encontrados, a atitude em relação ao uso da tecnologia, a confiança e a expectativa de desempenho figuraram como os aspectos mais relevantes para uma possível adoção do canal on-line.

  1. Forced extrusion for removal of impacted third molars close to the mandibular canal Extrusión forzada para extraer los terceros molares impactados cerca del canal mandibular

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis Flanagan DDS

    2012-01-01

    Impacted mandibular third molars can be located in close proximity to the mandibular canal. This creates a risk for the nerve or artery injury. These are contained in the canal. However, the impacted third molar can be moved coronally by orthodontic means, after removal of overlying bone, and safely extracted. The orthodontic intervention slowly moves the tooth apex away from the mandibular canal and reduces the potential for a neural injury. This method may be useful for older patients with ...

  2. Um estudo sobre os aspectos que contribuem para a adoção do canal on-line para compra de livros, CDs e DVDs

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Aparecida Gouvêa; Sandra Sayuri Yamashita Nakagawa; Braulio Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo neste estudo foi identificar os fatores relevantes na adoção do canal on-line para a realização de compras, tendo como principais referências os modelos Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), de Venkatesh et al. (2003), de Heijden, Verhagen e Creemers (2003) e de Bramall, Schoefer e McKechnie (2004). Além da revisão da literatura dos assuntos pertinentes, foi realizada uma pesquisa de campo descritiva, de natureza quantitativa com uma amostra de 172 pessoas res...

  3. Social tariff for canalized gas: paper proposal; Tarifa social para o gas canalizado: proposta de trabalho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelegrini, Marcelo A.; Silva, Wagner M.G. da; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (ENERQ/EPUSP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Centro de Estudos em Regulacao e Qualidade de Energia

    2008-07-01

    This work intends to present some possible philosophies of social policy implementation targeted to low income consumers of canalized gas. The benefits and disadvantages from each philosophy are discussed and a study proposal is presented to define an implementation policy to the State of Sao Paulo. (author)

  4. Los proyectos del arquitecto francés Mansart de Sagonne para los canales del Ebro y del Manzanares (1768

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cachau, Ph.

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available La llegada del arquitecto francés Jacques Hardouin-Mansart de Sagonne (1711-1778, nieto del gran arquitecto de Luis XIV Jules Hardouin-Mansart, a Madrid durante el verano de 1768 provocó la evolución, poco más o menos voluntaria, según los casos, de unos proyectos de arquitectura o de ingeniería que la administración del rey Carlos III había descuidado desde hacía años. Si esa llegada constituye un episodio totalmente desconocido de la historia de los canales de España por los autores españoles, su análisis permite no obstante medir el interés que tenían unos ingenieros franceses para un país —España— muy descuidado en aquella época y muy atrasado en el plano de las comunicaciones interiores. Sobre todo, es muy instructivo comparar la política de ambos países —Francia y España— ligados por un Pacto de Familia, en cuanto a las concesiones de privilegios para la construcción y la explotación de canales de navegación.…

  5. Modelagem hidrodinâmica do canal do rio Paraná, trecho Porto São José - Porto 18. Parte II: Calibragem do modelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Meira Martoni

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, apresenta-se a modelagem hidrodinâmica do trecho de canal entre Porto São José e Porto 18. Esta etapa compreendeu os trabalhos de obtenção de dados históricos, levantamentos de campo de níveis e vazões, obtenção dos parâmetros do modelo e análise da distribuição das vazões através dos canais principais. Para as seções internas da discretização foram feitas leituras de níveis nas seções e medidas de descarga usando o medidor ADCP, o que tornou possível estimar os coeficientes de rugosidade. O modelo calibrado constitui um instrumento eficiente para simular dados de níveis e vazões neste trecho do rio.

  6. Desarrollo de un interfaz para simular en tiempo real la interacción órgano-instrumento en un procedimiento quirúrgico dentro de un ambiente de teleoperación / Development of an interface to simulate in real-time the tissue-tool interaction under a quirurgical process inside a teleoperation enviroment

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo León, Jaime Andrés

    2011-01-01

    El documento a continuación describe el camino llevado a cabo para el modelamiento y la simulación de tejidos en tiempo-real utilizando los m_etodos n_umericos de BEM y FEM para modelos tanto lineales como no-lineales en geometría y en constitución del material, además se trata el tema de la colisión y la generación de condiciones de contorno. Una aplicación multiplataforma y sus detalles de implementación en C++, bajo el paradigma de la programación genérica, los resultados obtenidos y detal...

  7. Canales de distribución y estrategias de comercialización para la flor colombiana en los Estados Unidos: un marco conceptual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS FELIPE SALOM SERNA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El floricultor colombiano no puede desconocer los cambios en tendencias de consumo ni la consolidación del canal retail en su mercado principal, USA. El cuál generará un alto impacto en las características del negocio y el papel de los jugadores en la cadena de suministros. El objetivo de este estudio exploratorio utilizando casos múltiples, es presentar un marco de oportunidades para fortalecer la comercialización de la flor y estructurar canales de distribución acordes a las necesidades del consumidor norteamericano y a los cambios en los hábitos de compra. Las conclusiones, proponen las acciones a emprender por las empresas floricultoras estudiadas a fin de incrementar su competitividad y resolver su dilema actual: contraer oferta para mejorar el precio de venta o incrementar demanda.

  8. La paleodemografía: ¿un instrumento para simular el comportamiento demográfico del pasado? Análisis comparativo con la demografía histórica en la Ciudad de México del siglo XIX.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Ortega Muñoz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se emplearon los métodos de evaluación de la información y de análisis demográfico para examinar el comportamiento de dos series poblacionales de la Ciudad de México del siglo XIX que provienen de los restos esqueléticos que fueron exhumados en el Panteón de Santa Paula y de los registros de la Parroquia de Santa María. Los resultados muestran diferencias entre todos los análisis, y con ellos se construyeron dos escenarios demográficos, pues la demografía histórica refiere una fecundidad mayor que la determinada por la paleodemografía, lo cual ocasiona que los cálculos de la mortalidad sean por tanto disímiles. Estas diferencias provienen de las desiguales distribuciones de edad a la muerte, por lo que carece de sustento la idea de complementar el estudio demográfico de las poblaciones pretéritas con la combinación de estas disciplinas.

  9. Desarrollo de Algoritmos para la Extracción de Parámetros del Canal MIMO y Aplicación con Medidas

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Pardo, Rocío

    2008-01-01

    Los sistemas de comunicaciones móviles celulares de tercera generación o los sistemas futuros requieren de gran capacidad de transmisión de datos en la interfaz radio. Por tanto, resulta necesario analizar el canal de radiocomunicaciones no sólo para estimar las pérdidas por propagación sino para evaluar la dispersión de la señal en el tiempo y en el espacio. Además, recientemente se ha descubierto que mediante el uso de múltiples antenas en transmisión y múltiples antenas en recepción ...

  10. Índice de estado limnológico (IEL para evaluar las condiciones ecológicas de las ciénagas del Canal del Dique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vega Mora Leonel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Determinar el estado o salud ecológica de un ecosistema brinda herramientas útiles para su gestión y conservación. En Colombia no se han desarrollado índices que combinen en un solo parámetro las variables físicas, químicas y biológicas de los sistemas acuáticos, de manera que la evaluación de su estado ecológico ha sido fragmentaria o incompleta. En este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo de un Índice de Estado Limnológico (IEL para las ciénagas del Canal del Dique, ecosistemas sometidos a constante presión por parte de las comunidades humanas. Para la construcción de este índice multimétrico se realizó un análisis de componentes principales, se construyeron gráficas de calidad de las variables seleccionadas y se les asignaron valores de importancia. Se empleó la teoría de los multiatributos para construir el IEL, el cual considera 12 variables. Se diseñó una versión simplificada (IEL parcial - IELP en la que se excluyeron 4 de las variables biológicas. Finalmente, se construyó una escala de interpretación de los valores obtenidos con estos índices. El IEL y el IELP se aplicaron a las ciénagas del Canal del Dique para establecer su condición ecológica actual. Los datos muestran que el estado limnológico de la mayoría de ciénagas de esta región es aceptable, lo que sugiere que estos ecosistemas lénticos se encuentran dentro de los límites admisibles de funcionamiento, aunque no están excentos de procesos de deterioro.

  11. Dispositivo electrónico de medición del caudal de agua para canales abiertos

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Cesar Ayala López; Roberto Albóniga Gil

    2015-01-01

    El método de riego por inundación, que desplaza el agua mediante canales abiertos y surcos ha sido usado durante años en la producción agrícola, aunque requiere una gran cantidad de agua y su eficacia no es muy alta ya que la mayoría del agua no se puede extraer directamente en las raíces de las plantas. Siendo de vital importancia lograr datos de campo confiables y lo suficientemente precisos que nos permitan estudiar y proyectar manejos del agua con el menor grado de incertidumbre posi...

  12. Los proyectos del arquitecto francés Mansart de Sagonne para los canales del Ebro y del Manzanares (1768)

    OpenAIRE

    Cachau, Ph.

    2001-01-01

    La llegada del arquitecto francés Jacques Hardouin-Mansart de Sagonne (1711-1778), nieto del gran arquitecto de Luis XIV Jules Hardouin-Mansart, a Madrid durante el verano de 1768 provocó la evolución, poco más o menos voluntaria, según los casos, de unos proyectos de arquitectura o de ingeniería que la administración del rey Carlos III había descuidado desde hacía años. Si esa llegada constituye un episodio totalmente desconocido de la historia de los canales de España por los autores españo...

  13. Influência do estreitamento do canal vertebral e do tempo para a descompressão na recuperação locomotora de ratos Influencia del estrechamiento del canal vertebral y del tiempo para la descompresión en la recuperación locomotora de ratas The influence of spinal canal narrowing and timing of decompression on locomotion recovery of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Schiaveto de Souza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as consequências da lesão por contusão da medula espinhal, associada ao estreitamento do canal vertebral, no comportamento motor de ratos, avaliando-se o efeito do tempo para descompressão na recuperação neurológica dos animais. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados ratos Wistar machos (n=6 por grupo, subdivididos nos seguintes grupos experimentais: laminectomia (T9-T10, Grupo Controle, contusão por queda de peso (10 g de peso, 15 cm de altura, estreitamento do canal vertebral em 35% (hastes de policarbonato; espessura de 0,78 mm e contusão associada ao estreitamento do canal vertebral. O grupo de lesão associada foi ainda subdividido em sem ou com descompressão 24 ou 72 horas após a cirurgia. Os animais foram sacrificados sete dias após os procedimentos cirúrgicos. A função locomotora dos animais foi avaliada por meio do teste do campo aberto, do teste do plano inclinado e pela aplicação da escala BBB, antes da cirurgia, 24 e 72 horas depois da cirurgia e após 7 dias do procedimento cirúrgico. RESULTADOS: a lesão por queda de peso e compressão da medula espinhal, bem como a lesão mista, prejudicaram o comportamento motor dos animais, sendo que a descompressão cirúrgica após 24 e 72 horas da cirurgia não melhorou a recuperação motora dos animais, como mostram os resultados da avaliação de campo aberto, no plano inclinado e pela escala BBB. Por outro lado, os animais que sofreram lesão medular por queda de peso apresentaram melhores escores na escala BBB e ângulos maiores no plano inclinado do que aqueles que sofreram lesão por estreitamento do canal vertebral ou lesão mista. CONCLUSÕES: a lesão por queda de peso ou estreitamento do canal vertebral provocou alterações no comportamento motor dos animais, sendo que a descompressão não trouxe melhora funcional significativa.OBJETIVO: estudiar las consecuencias de la lesión por contusión de la médula espinal, asociada al

  14. Facebook como canal de comunicación corporativo para organismos y ONG Internacionales acreditados en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Navas Charry, Catalina

    2013-01-01

    Las Redes sociales se han convertido en un elemento esencial para la comunicación y el marketing empresarial a nivel mundial. A pesar de su importancia, existen aún muchas organizaciones que no cuentan con dicha herramienta y que prefieren mantenerse fuera del mundo tecnológico y de la web 2.0. El tema que se desarrollará a continuación en este trabajo de grado trata sobre la importancia de usar las redes sociales, en este caso Facebook, como herramienta de comunicación corporativa para t...

  15. canal24

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Canal system center lines in the Central Valley of California and adjacent areas captured from 1:24,000-scale USGS topographic maps. Updates and modifications made...

  16. Un Enfoque Multiobjetivo para la Asignación de Canales en Sistemas Celulares A Multiobjective Approach for Cellular Systems Channel Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor E Carranza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se propone un algoritmo de asignación de canales para reducir la probabilidad de bloqueo de sistemas celulares y ampliar la capacidad del sistema para absorber nuevas llamadas. El algoritmo debe proveer un conjunto de soluciones de compromiso entre dos objetivos contrapuestos; por un lado minimizar la cantidad de reasignaciones y por el otro minimizar el nivel de interferencia debido a la flexibilización de las restricciones de compatibilidad electromagnética. Se propone un enfoque heurístico basado en un paradigma evolutivo para resolver el problema de optimización multiobjetivo. Para que la evolución sea eficiente, se incorpora en el proceso evolutivo conocimiento específico del problema. Dos algoritmos evolutivos multiobjetivo (SPEAII y NSGA II son comparados usando dos diferentes métricas. Los resultados muestran que la metodología propuesta puede ser aplicada a las diferentes generaciones de sistemas de comunicaciones móviles.To improve the quality of service in cell systems, techniques of Dynamic Assignment Channels are used to reduce the probability of blocking calls. In this paper an algorithm of assignment channels is required to reduce the probability of blocking, extending the system capacity to add new calls. This is obtained by using an interchange of channels of current calls and reducing the restrictions of electromagnetic compatibility. According to this, the algorithm has to provide solutions of commitments between two different objectives; on the one hand reduce the amount of assignments, and on the other to do the same with the level of interference due to the flexible restrictions of electromagnetic compatibility. A heuristic focus based on the evolution paradigm is presented to solve the multi-objective optimization problem. Two evolutionary multi-objective algorithms (SPEAII y NSGA II are compared by the use of two different metrics. The results show that the proposed methodology can be applied to

  17. Estresse crônico melhora a função miocárdica sem alterar a atividade do canal-L para Ca+2 em ratos Chronic stress improves the myocardial function without altering L-type Ca+2 channel activity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Bruder-Nascimento

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O estresse crônico está associado à remodelação cardíaca; entretanto, os mecanismos permanecem a ser descobertos. OBJETIVO: A proposta deste estudo foi testar a hipótese de que o estresse crônico promove disfunção cardíaca associada a depressão da atividade do canal-L para Ca2+. M MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar machos com 30 dias de idade (70 - 100 g foram distribuídos dentro de dois grupos: controle (C e estresse crônico (St. O estresse consistiu na imobilização durante 15 semanas, cinco vezes por semana, 1 h por dia. A função cardíaca foi avaliada pela performance do ventrículo esquerdo por meio do ecocardiograma e pelo músculo papilar ventricular isolado. A função do músculo papilar foi avaliada em condição basal e com manobras inotrópicas, como: pós-pausa e elevação na concentração extracelular de Ca2+, na presença ou ausência de um bloqueador específico de canal-L para Ca2+. RESULTADOS: O estresse ficou caracterizado por hipertrofia das glândulas adrenais, aumento nos níveis de corticosterona circulante e por hipertensão arterial. Ainda, o estresse crônico gerou hipertrofia ventricular esquerda. O estresse crônico foi capaz de melhorar a resposta no músculo papilar para manobras inotrópicas positivas. A melhora de função não esteve associada com o canal-L para Ca2+. CONCLUSÃO: O estresse produziu hipertrofia cardíaca; entretanto, nos estudos de músculo papilar isolado, as manobras inotrópicas positivas potencializaram a função cardíaca em ratos estressados, sem o envolvimento do canal-L para Ca2+. Assim os mecanismos responsáveis permanecem incertos para alterações no influxo de Ca2+.BACKGROUND: Chronic stress is associated with cardiac remodeling; however the mechanisms have yet to be clarified. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was test the hypothesis that chronic stress promotes cardiac dysfunction associated to L-type calcium Ca2+ channel activity depression. METHODS: Thirty

  18. Quanto a escova deve ser introduzida no canal anal para avaliação citológica mais eficaz? How deep must the brush be introduced in the anal canal for a more effective cytological evaluation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Roberto Nadal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A sensibilidade da citologia anal varia amplamente na literatura, entre 45% e 98%, o que pode ocorrer devido à falta de padronização quanto à distância que a escova deve ser introduzida no canal anal. Desta forma, nosso objetivo foi investigar se o local de coleta influencia no resultado desse exame. MÉTODOS: Colhemos amostras com escova introduzida 4 cm no canal anal de 114 doentes (Grupo A e 2 cm em outros 94 pacientes (Grupo B, antes do exame proctológico. Realizamos cinco rotações com a escova antes de retirá-la e a esfregar sobre lâmina de vidro, posteriormente submetida ao exame citopatológico padrão. Todos os doentes são HIV-positivo. Submetemos os resultados à avaliação estatística. RESULTADOS: No Grupo A, 39 doentes possuíam condilomas no canal anal e a citologia foi positiva em 29 deles (74,3%. Também observamos alterações citológicas em 30 de 75 doentes (40% sem lesões clínicas no canal anal. No Grupo B, havia 54 doentes com condilomas no canal anal e em 13 (24,1% houve confirmação citológica. Em 40 outros, sem lesões clínicas pelo HPV, notamos que em nove (22,5% havia anormalidades citológicas. Os testes estatísticos revelaram que os exames realizados nos doentes do Grupo A foram mais eficientes. CONCLUSÃO: Os espécimes coletados com escovas inseridas mais profundamente no canal anal melhoraram a eficácia do exame.OBJECTIVE: In literature, sensitivity of Pap smears ranges widely from 45 to 98%. Possibly this is because there is no standard for how far the brush should be introduced into the anal canal. The aim was to evaluate whether the sampling site has an influence on the results of anal Pap smears. Design and setting. This is a non-randomized, non-blinded, retrospective review carried out in the Proctology and Pathology Sectors, Emilio Ribas Infectious Diseases Institute. METHOD: We obtained specimens with brushes introduced 4 cm into the anal canal in 114 patients (Group A and 2 cm in

  19. Dinámica de la inflación y el canal de costos: Una aplicación para Chile.

    OpenAIRE

    David Coble

    2008-01-01

    La importancia de los mecanismos de transmisión de la política monetaria hacen imprescindible un estudio acabado de los posibles canales por los que pueda influir el instrumento utilizado. El mecanismo tradicional de transmisión es aquel en el que un aumento de la tasa de interés busca disminuir las presiones de precios por el lado de la demanda. No obstante lo anterior, existe otro posible canal relevante de transmisión de política monetaria: el canal de costos. Un aumento del interés nomina...

  20. Development of industry processes simulators. Part III (Continuous casting); Desarrollo de Simulares para Procesos Industriales. Parte III (Colada continua)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A.; Morales, R.; Morales, A. J.; Ramos, A.; Solorio, G.

    2006-07-01

    This work written for illustrating the use of Monte Carlo methods and generating of random number in combination with the information of the simulation system of thermal behaviour described previously in order to reproduce in a computer the solidification process of the steel and simulate the formation of strictures of casting step by step. (Author). 12 refs.

  1. Análisis de contenido del noticiario CNI Canal 40 (durante la tercera semana del mes de mayo referente a las campañas electorales para diputados federales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Espinosa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En las sociedades democráticas, cada persona tiene necesidad de conocer lo que sucede en su entorno para poder definir con libertad su voto. Esta libertad sólo se logra cuando los ciudadanos disponen de información que les permite elegir entre varias opciones. Basado en este principio, el autor realiza un monitoreo al noticiario principal de CNI Canal 40 con el fin de observar y analizar su participación dentro del proceso electoral federal del año 2003 en México.

  2. Comparación de Controladores de Nivel para Canales Abiertos Basados en un Modelo por Colocación A Comparative Study between Level Controllers for Open Channels Based on a Collocation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean F Dulhoste

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del presente estudio es comparar el funcionamiento de controladores no lineales de nivel para canales abiertos. La dinámica del flujo en canales abiertos normalmente se representa mediante las ecuaciones de Saint-Venant. En este trabajo se presentan tres leyes de control no lineal que se desarrollaron a partir de un modelo de colocación. Las leyes incluidas son: linealización entrada salida, linealización entrada salida dinámica y linealización por realimentación escalonada (backstepping. Se implementó un simulador unidimensional para resolver las ecuaciones de Saint-Venant, lo que permitió estudiar el comportamiento del sistema controlado. Los resultados de funcionamiento mostraron que la técnica de linealización entrada-salida dinámica parece ser la mejor de las tres estudiadas y que éstas técnicas muestran ser bastante precisas en los casos estudiados.This paper proposed a comparative study between different nonlinear control techniques for level regulation in an open channel. Flow dynamics in a canal can be modeled by Saint-Venant equations. In this paper three control laws derived from a collocation model are presented. These laws are: input output linearization, dynamic input output linearization, and backstepping. A one-dimensional simulator that solves Saint-Venant’s equations was implemented, allowing to study the controlled system. The results showed that the dynamic input output linearization control technique was the best among the studied control techniques, and that these techniques are reliable in the cases studied.

  3. El Canal del Atazar I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López de Berges y de los Santos, Emilio

    1967-03-01

    Full Text Available The Atazar Canal helps to supply Madrid with water, from the rivers Lozoya, Jarama and Sorbe. The section which operates at present starts at the Torrelaguna dam and finishes at the El Goloso reservoir. Later a further section will be added, from the Atazar dam, on the Lozoya river, to link up with the control dam at Torrelaguna. The canal capacity is 16 m3/sec, and it is 43.47 km long. It has a slope of 4/10.000. The cross section is similar to that of the Jarama canal, already built. There are interconnections between this canal and the Canal Alto, which previously supplied the high and medium part of Madrid. To overcome the ground unevenness 5 syphons have been built, the most important of which is the Colmenar Goloso syphon, which is 10.88 km in length. Construction commenced on December 10, 1962, and water reached Madrid on June 15th, 1966. The initial budget for this project was 1,500 million pesetas.El canal del Atazar refuerza considerablemente el abastecimiento de aguas a Madrid, procedentes de los ríos Lozoya, Jarama y, en un próximo futuro, del Sorbe. El tramo, actualmente en funcionamiento, empieza en el salto de Torrelaguna y finaliza en los depósitos de El Goloso. Más adelante se completará su trazado mediante un nuevo tramo que partirá del embalse de Atazar, en el Lozoya, para unirse al actual en el depósito regulador de Torrelaguna. Su capacidad es de 16 m3/s; su longitud, 43,471 km, y su pendiente, 4 diezmilésimas. La sección tipo es análoga a la del canal del Jarama, de construcción anterior. Mediante la oportuna obra de transvase se realizan intercambios entre este Canal y el Canal Alto que abastecía anteriormente la parte media y alta de la capital. Para salvar los desniveles del terreno se han construido 5 sifones, siendo el más importante el de Colmenar-Goloso, con una longitud de 10,8S4 km. El comienzo de las obras tuvo lugar el 10 de diciembre de 1962, y el agua llegó a Madrid el 15 de junio de 1966. Su

  4. Root canal irrigants

    OpenAIRE

    Kandaswamy Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu Nagendrababu

    2010-01-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are...

  5. Suplementación de raciones para cebo intensivo de terneros con aceites vegetales: rendimientos productivos, calidad de la canal, de la grasa y de la carne

    OpenAIRE

    Perez Espes, B.; T. Castro; Jimeno Vinatea, Vicente; Isabel, Beatriz; Fuente, J. de la; A. Cabezas

    2011-01-01

    Se han estudiado los efectos de la incorporación de aceites de origen vegetal sobre los rendimientos productivos, calidad de la canal y de la grasa en el ganado vacuno. Se utilizaron 240 terneros agrupados en 24 lotes de 10 terneros cada uno. Las raciones experimentales fueron: Tratamiento Control (4% de aceite de palma), Oliva (4,8% de jabón cálcico de aceite de oliva), Soja (4% de aceite de soja). De cada lote se seleccionó al azar un ternero (8 terneros por tratamiento) par...

  6. Dispositivo de posicionamiento de muestras biológicas para su irradiación en un canal radial de un reactor nuclear // Biological samples positioning device for irradiations on a radial channel at the nuclear research reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Rodríguez - Gual

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available ResumenPor la demanda de un dispositivo experimental para el posicionamiento de las muestras biológicaspara su irradiación en un canal radial de un reactor nuclear de investigaciones en funcionamiento, seconstruyó y se puso en marcha un dispositivo para la colocación y retirada de las muestras en laposición de irradiación de dicho canal. Se efectuaron las valoraciones económicas comparando conotro tipo de dispositivo con las mismas funciones. Este trabajo formó parte de un proyectointernacional entre Cuba y Brasil que abarcó el estudio de los daños inducidos por diferentes tipos deradiación ionizante en moléculas de ADN. La solución propuesta es comprobada experimentalmente,lo que demuestra la validez práctica del dispositivo. Como resultado del trabajo, el dispositivoexperimental para la irradiación de las muestras biológicas se encuentra instalado y funcionando yapor 5 años en el canal radial # 3(BH#3 Palabras claves: reactor nuclear de investigaciones, dispositivo para posicionamiento de muestras,___________________________________________________________________________AbstractFor the demand of an experimental device for biological samples positioning system for irradiationson a radial channel at the nuclear research reactor in operation was constructed and started up adevice for the place and remove of the biological samples from the irradiation channels withoutinterrupting the operation of the reactor. The economical valuations are effected comparing withanother type of device with the same functions. This work formed part of an international projectbetween Cuba and Brazil that undertook the study of the induced damages by various types ofionizing radiation in DNA molecules. Was experimentally tested the proposed solution, whichdemonstrates the practical validity of the device. As a result of the work, the experimental device forbiological samples irradiations are installed and operating in the radial beam hole #3(BH#3

  7. Sistemas de control para la gestión de los canales de exportación independientes: un análisis exploratorio sobre su diseño y uso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Araujo Pinzón

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El empleo de canales de exportación independientes es la forma más extendida de exportación, si bien la ausencia de propiedad dificulta su gestión y afecta al rendimiento exportador. Dado el creciente interés académico y profesional por mejorar la gestión de los procesos de exportación de las empresas y la laguna existente en el estudio de las relaciones inter-organizativas orientadas al mercado (down-stream, se plantea como objetivo del presente estudio la exploración de los sistemas de control de gestión (SCG en el contexto de los canales de exportación, desde la perspectiva de la empresa exportadora. Mediante la realización de un estudio cualitativo exploratorio, se pretende contribuir a la literatura sobre los SCG inter-organizativos ampliando su ámbito de interés a las relaciones down-stream de la cadena de suministros, esenciales para la competitividad de muchas empresas. Frente a estudios previos sobre SCG enfocados en relaciones proveedor-comprador, los resultados muestran que las empresas exportadoras analizadas (1 emplean múltiples mecanismos de control, principalmente cualitativos, que (2 se caracterizan por su ámbito amplio y la oportunidad en el tiempo, así como por sus bajos niveles de integración y agregación, y (3 usan algunos mecanismos -p.e., reuniones con los intermediarios- de modo interactivo, mientras que otras herramientas -p.e., contratos y acuerdos- son usadas de modo diagnóstico. Asimismo, la evidencia sugiere que la definición de sistemas formales en este contexto puede diferir de la tradicional, con amplias repercusiones sobre los marcos de análisis de los sistemas de control de gestión.

  8. Root canal irrigants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandaswamy Deivanayagam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed. We performed a Medline search for English-language papers published untill July 2010. The keywords used were ′root canal irrigants′ and ′endodontic irrigants.′ The reference lists of each article were manually checked for additional articles of relevance.

  9. A study of the time necessary for calcium hydroxide to eliminate microorganisms in infected canals Estudo do tempo necessário para o hidróxido de cálcio eliminar microrganismos em canais infectados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Estrela

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the time necessary for calcium hydroxide to eliminate microorganisms in infected canals. A total of 168 human anterior teeth were prepared and sterilized. One hundred sixty two teeth were inoculated with suspensions of S. aureus, E. faecalis, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, C. albicans. Three teeth were used as negative control and three as positive control. Root canals were irrigated with saline and filled with calcium hydroxide paste (CHP. At intervals of 1 minute, and at 7, 15, 21, 27, 30, 45, 60, and 90 days, CHP was removed, samples were collected and immersed in Letheen Broth (LB. Microbial growth was analyzed by two methods, turbidity of the culture medium and subculture on a Brain heart Infusion. After looking for medium change, an inoculum of 0.1 mL obtained from LB was transferred to 7 mL of Brain Heart Infusion (BHI, and subsequently incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Microbial growth was checked by turbidity of the culture medium and in some cases by Gram stain. All assays were carried out in triplicate under aseptic technique. The results indicated that the antimicrobial effect on the cultures of S. aureus, E. faecalis, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, C. albicans and one mixed culture in infected canals by CHP occurred in 60 days.O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o tempo necessário para que o hidróxido de cálcio elimine microrganismos em canais infectados. Um total de 168 dentes humanos anteriores foram preparados e esterilizados. Cento e sessenta e dois dentes foram inoculados com suspensões de S. aureus, E. faecalis, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis e C. albicans. Três dentes foram usados como controle negativo e três como controle positivo. Os canais radiculares foram irrigados com solução fisiológica e preenchidos com pasta de hidróxido de cálcio. Em intervalos de 1 minuto, 7, 15, 21, 27, 30, 45, 60 e 90 dias, a pasta foi removida, amostras foram coletadas e imersas em Letheen Broth. O

  10. The Root Canal Biofilm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der L.W.M.; Boutsioukis, C.; Jiang, L.M.; Macedo, R.; Verhaagen, B.; Versluis, M.; Chávez de Paz, E.; Sedgley, C.M.; Kishen, A.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm), and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root cana

  11. Root canal irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van der Sluis; C. Boutsioukis; L.M. Jiang; R. Macedo; B. Verhaagen; M. Versluis

    2015-01-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm), and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root cana

  12. Diseño de un canal de instrumentación para un sistema electrocardiograma y un pulsioxímetro

    OpenAIRE

    Goicoechea Fernández, Ana

    2014-01-01

    El presente proyecto abarca el diseño y montaje de un sistema de instrumentación completo aplicado a un sistema biomédico, el de electrocardiografía, así como el diseño y construcción de un sistema de adquisición de datos mediante un conversor analógico digital en combinación con un microcontrolador y un software para la adquisición de datos en un ordenador. La aplicación biomédica que se ha escogido es el desarrollo de un electrocardiógrafo, que consiste en un sistema que r...

  13. Metodologia para o monitoramento da difusão de inovação em canais de comunicação científica
    Metodología para el seguimiento de la difusión de la innovación en canales de comunicación científica

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Zeni Marchiori; Andre Luiz Appel; Eduardo Michellotti Bettoni; Denise Fukumi Tsunoda

    2012-01-01

    Introdução: a difusão da inovação em produtos/tecnologias se apoia no uso de diferentes canais de comunicação. As adaptações/aperfeiçoamentos veiculados entre os participantes destes canais podem ser agregadas em categorias de acordo com condições de adoção (existente, proativa, aspiracional, reativa). O monitoramento e a visualização de tais condições permitiria explorar o estado da arte da inovação e acompanhá-lo em ciclos de tempo definidos e/ou alcance geográfico para um determinado canal...

  14. El Gobierno Electrónico y la Implementación de las TIC para Brindar Nuevos Canales de Comunicación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Rodríguez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo expone la situación actual del gobierno electrónico desde un punto de vista meramente tecnológico, en función del grado de implementación de la tecnología en beneficio de los ciudadanos. No obstante este es un tema amplio que puede ser analizado desde distintas perspectivas y si bien no es el objetivo del artículo realizar una evaluación enfocada a lo social, cultural y político, tampoco nuestro enfoque puede estar completamente aislado de estas cuestiones no menores, que influyen en el momento de tomar decisiones de construir o no, determinada solución tecnológica. En este artículo se plantearan las bases del gobierno electrónico, la evolución histórica y las fases de implementación, para finalmente presentar la situación actual basada en un relevamiento recientemente realizado que dejará en evidencia que aún queda mucho por hacer en materia de gobierno electrónico.

  15. Design of canals

    CERN Document Server

    Swamee, P K

    2015-01-01

    The book presents firsthand material from the authors on design of hydraulic canals. The book discusses elements of design based on principles of hydraulic flow through canals. It covers optimization of design based on usage requirements and economic constraints. The book includes explicit design equations and design procedures along with design examples for varied cases. With its comprehensive coverage of the principles of hydraulic canal design, this book will prove useful to students, researchers, and practicing engineers. End-of-chapter pedagogical elements make it ideal for use in graduate courses on hydraulic structures offered by most civil engineering departments across the world.

  16. Relacionamento colaborativo no canal de distribuição: uma matriz para análise Distribution channel relationship: a proposal of an analysis matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessuir Pigatto

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Em um mercado cada vez mais dinâmico e turbulento, a habilidade de uma empresa em desenvolver e administrar, com sucesso, seus relacionamentos com outras empresas vem se tornando uma competência necessária que, se bem desenvolvida, pode vir a ser uma fonte de vantagem competitiva sustentável. Neste contexto, fornecedores buscam se adaptar ao aumento do poder de grandes redes varejistas, ao crescimento das centrais de compras, ao fortalecimento das lojas independentes e de demais formatos nos canais de distribuição. Entretanto, essas empresas ainda possuem dificuldade em acompanhar e avaliar os relacionamentos comerciais e, conseqüentemente em adaptá-los a essa nova situação. Assim, o objetivo deste artigo é propor uma matriz de análise que possa avaliar o tipo de relacionamento existente entre agentes comerciais, por meio do acompanhamento dos comportamentos e das ações desenvolvidas por essas empresas. A partir de uma ampla revisão teórica, foram identificadas variáveis presentes em relacionamentos comerciais, como por exemplo, a confiança, o comprometimento, a interdependência, a cooperação, bem como ações e comportamentos que se relacionam ou estão associados a cada uma dessas variáveis. Partindo do pressuposto que a presença de uma ou mais das variáveis em questão sinaliza a possibilidade da existência de diferentes padrões de arranjos entre as empresas, desde o oportunista até o totalmente colaborativo e, utilizando as ações e comportamentos para determinar essa ocorrência, elaborou-se a matriz em questão. Ela é composta por 4 categorias que podem ser utilizadas para classificar o tipo de relacionamento existente entre dois agentes comerciais, dentro de 4 níveis estabelecidos: comportamento tradicional, comportamentos colaborativos, ações colaborativas, e relacionamento colaborativo. Após o desenvolvimento teórico da matriz, optou-se por um teste inicial junto a 10 pares de empresas, redes

  17. Current status of the second generation of parabolic trough solar concentrator for heat generation process designed at the IIE; Estado actual de la segunda generacion del concentrador solar de canal parabolico para generacion de calor de proceso disenado en el IIE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Berumen, Carlos; Ramirez Benitez, Juan Rafael; Beltran Adan, Jose [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: cramos@iie.org.mx; rramirez@iie.org.mx; jose.beltran@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    The transformation industry normally uses thermal energy within its process, it obtains this energy burning fossils fuel, a new option is to use new technologies like the thermal solar technology like the parabolic trough, this is a long parabolic mirror used to reflect the sunlight and focused on an absorber tube with a heat-conducting fluid inside. The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) developed a prototype of parabolic trough that is operating in different industries, in this article are showing some improvements to the design, giving like result the second generation of the prototype of parabolic trough of the IIE. [Spanish] La industria de la transformacion normalmente utiliza energia termica dentro de su proceso, los medios convencionales para obtener esta energia es el quemar combustibles fosiles, una opcion que aplica nuevas tecnologias es el uso de la tecnologia termosolar a concentracion que le permitira a la industria utilizar el sol como fuente de energia primaria. El uso de esta tecnologia permitira a las empresas generar calor de proceso sin contaminar el ambiente, lo que dara como resultado empresas competitivas y autosuficientes. Para alcanzar temperaturas utiles a estas aplicaciones se requiere concentrar la energia solar en un area mas pequena, siendo la tecnologia mas extendida la de canal parabolico, el principio de operacion de esta tecnologia es la de concentrar la radiacion solar en el eje receptor preparado con una pintura especial para una mejor absorcion del calor y una cubierta de vidrio para evitar perdidas termicas, dentro del tubo circula un fluido caloportador el cual lleva el calor util hacia el proceso. El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) desarrollo un prototipo de canal parabolico, actualmente estan operando en diferentes industrias, resultado de estas aplicaciones se llevo a cabo una evaluacion del prototipo, se detectaron algunos puntos de mejoras al diseno, los cuales se exponen en este articulo, dando

  18. Use of sting-response techniques for simulate diagnostics in human esophagus; Uso de tecnicas estimulo-respuesta para simular diagnosticos en esofago humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, I.; Gonzalez, Y.; Valdes, L.; Alfonso, J.A.; Estevez, E. [Facultad de Quimica Farmacia, Universidad Central de Las Villas (Cuba)

    2003-07-01

    In this work a study of simulation of the gamma graphic studies that are carried out in human esophagus in the Dept. of Nuclear Medicine of the 'Celestino Hernandez Robau Hospital of Santa Clara is presented. For the investigation tubular reactors were used and sting-response techniques with radioactive tracer of Technetium 99 metastable to a concentration of 1 mCi and several flows were applied. The distribution curves of residences times were obtained, those that respond to an equation of the type: Y = A + B exp (- exp((x-C)/D)) - ((x-C/D)+1). They were also carried out, optimizations studies of the doses of the radioactive to give to the patients from 1 mCi (that is the one used in studies) up to 0,5 mCi, and the influences on the obtained distributions of residence time were analyzed. It was confirmed the possibility to lower the doses with clear information of the signal. It was also carried out a simulation of the attenuation of the radiations that takes place in the patients by the interposition of tissues among the analyzed organ, and the detection equipment. It was used paraffin for tissue simulation. It was found the almost independence of the intensity of the radiations with the thickness, for the assayed doses. Lastly it was found a complex mathematical model that responds to the diagnostic curves obtained in these studies, being correlated the coefficients of the pattern with the most important physical parameters of the system, giving it a practical and useful value, all time that the error among the values that this it predicts and the experimental ones do not surpass of 5%. (Author)

  19. Metodología para analizar y simular la eficiencia económica de la flexibilización del uso del espectro radioeléctrico

    OpenAIRE

    García García, José Marino

    2010-01-01

    La asignación eficiente de los recursos escasos se produce a través del mercado mediante la información que transmiten los precios. En el caso de la asignación de frecuencias del espectro radioeléctrico la existencia de interferencias plantea un problema en la asignación de los derechos de propiedad y junto con la presencia de externalidades motiva la intervención estatal en la determinación del uso y precio de las frecuencias. La introducción de criterios de mercado en las asignaciones de es...

  20. MCID: personalized dosimetric tool to simulate voxelized studies using MCNP5; MCID: herramienta dosimetrica personalizada para simular estudios voxelizados con MCNP5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Alex Vergara [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), La Habana (Cuba); Perez, Marco A. Coca; Aroche, Leonel A. Torres, E-mail: mcoca@infomed.sld.cu, E-mail: leonel@infomed.sld.cu [Centro de Investigaciones Clinicas (CIC), La Habana (Cuba); Pacilio, Massimiliano, E-mail: mpacilio@scamilloforlanini.rm.it [Hospital S. Camillo Forlanini (AOSCF), Roma (Italy). Departmento de Fisica Medica

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the MCID software, a tool for calculating specific absorbed dose of patients in nuclear medicine, based on Monte Carlo simulation. This paper evaluates new clinical cases and new phantoms whose results validate the methodology implemented in MCID, which has followed a process of incorporating new materials, image processing in DICOM and Analyze format, a module of regions of interest and improvements in user interface. Now it has a tool to calculate the patient-specific absorbed doses in nuclear medicine that can be applied in clinical practice.

  1. Sistemas de control para la gestión de los canales de exportación independientes: un análisis exploratorio sobre su diseño y uso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Velez Elorza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El empleo de canales de exportación independientes es la forma más extendida de exportación, si bien la ausencia de propiedad dificulta su gestión y afecta al rendimiento exportador. Dado el creciente interés académico y profesional por mejorar la gestión de los procesos de exportación de las empresas y la laguna existente en el estudio de las relaciones inter-organizativas orientadas al mercado (down-stream, se plantea como objetivo del presente estudio la exploración de los sistemas de control de gestión (SCG en el contexto de los canales de exportación, desde la perspectiva de la empresa exportadora. Mediante la realización de un estudio cualitativo exploratorio, se pretende contribuir a la literatura sobre los SCG inter-organizativos ampliando su ámbito de interés a las relaciones down-stream de la cadena de suministros, esenciales para la competitividad de muchas empresas. Frente a estudios previos sobre SCG enfocados en relaciones proveedor-comprador, los resultados muestran que las empresas exportadoras analizadas (1 emplean múltiples mecanismos de control, principalmente cualitativos, que (2 se caracterizan por su ámbito amplio y la oportunidad en el tiempo, así como por sus bajos niveles de integración y agregación, y (3 usan algunos mecanismos -p.e., reuniones con los intermediarios- de modo interactivo, mientras que otras herramientas -p.e., contratos y acuerdos- son usadas de modo diagnóstico. Asimismo, la evidencia sugiere que la definición de sistemas formales en este contexto puede diferir de la tradicional, con amplias repercusiones sobre los marcos de análisis de los sistemas de control de gestión.Independent export channels are the most common exporting entry mode, although the lack of ownership hinders their management and affects export performance. Given the growing academic and professional interest to improve export processes’ management and the existent gap in the study of down-stream inter

  2. Canals, River Irrigation Company Canal, Published in 2002, Duchesne County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Canals dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2002. It is described as 'River Irrigation Company Canal'. Data by this publisher are...

  3. Canals, Lake Canal, Published in 2002, Duchesne County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Canals dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2002. It is described as 'Lake Canal'. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  4. Canals, Yellowstone Feeder Canal, Published in 2002, Duchesne County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Canals dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2002. It is described as 'Yellowstone Feeder Canal'. Data by this publisher are often...

  5. Canals, Bypass Canal, Published in 2002, Duchesne County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Canals dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2002. It is described as 'Bypass Canal'. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  6. Ear canal cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, J J

    1992-06-01

    Although cholesteatomas are more commonly found in the middle ear and the mastoid, the disease can occur in the external ear canal. All cases of ear canal cholesteatoma treated by the author were reviewed. There were nine ears in seven patients, who had an average age of 62 years. The lesions ranged in size from a few millimeters to extensive mastoid destruction. Smaller lesions can be managed by frequent cleaning as an office procedure. Larger lesions require surgery, either canaloplasty or mastoidectomy. The otolaryngologist should suspect this disease in the elderly. Microscopic examination of the ear with meticulous cleaning of all wax, especially in elderly patients, is most useful in detecting early disease. Frequent applications of mineral oil to the canal should be used in the management of the disease and to prevent recurrence. PMID:1376388

  7. Love canal questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a 3-month monitoring study of the Love Canal area near Niagara Falls, N.Y., after the federal government pronounced that a potential health risk existed due to chemical waste dumps. In 1982 the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) decided that the area was habitable, subject to implementation of effective safeguards against leakage from the canal and to cleaning up of the contaminants. Now, the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) has announced that, with the information available, it is not possible to demonstrate with certainty that unsafe levels do not exist within the so-called “emergency declaration area” (EDA).

  8. Lesiones benignas de mama que pueden simular un carcinoma en estudios imagenológicos Benign breast lesions that mimic carcinoma in diagnostic imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Castro Barba

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La mayoría de las lesiones que se encuentran al realizar estudios mamarios son benignas. Muchas de ellas tienen un aspecto típico y definido, ya sea en mamografía o ecografía y no requieren de evaluaciones adicionales. Existe un grupo de entidades benignas que, sin embargo, puede simular un carcinoma en las imágenes. Los radiólogos debemos conocer las características de las mismas y tenerlas en cuenta como posibles diagnósticos diferenciales de una imagen de alta sospecha.Most of the lesions found during breast imaging exams are benign. Many of them have a typical and definite appearance on mammography and ultrasound, and require no further evaluation. However, some benign lesions cannot be differentiated from carcinomas, given their suspicious and less specific radiological features. Radiologists should be aware of the imaging characteristics of these lesions and include them in the differential diagnosis of a malignant-appearing finding.

  9. Caracterización del canal radio en entornos especiales

    OpenAIRE

    Fornés Leal, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    En el presente proyecto se estudia el canal radio en dos casos especiales de Redes Inalámbricas de Área Personal (WPAN). El primero de los casos es la transmisión durante un incendio indoor. El objetivo es caracterizar el canal en la banda UWB (Banda Ultra-Ancha, por sus siglas en inglés) para averiguar si se producen pérdidas adicionales a las de espacio libre debidas al fuego, y con ello conocer en una primera aproximación si la implantación de nuevos sistemas para mejorar la seguridad de l...

  10. Evaluation of pre-fabricated root canal posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hew, Y S; Purton, D G; Love, R M

    2001-03-01

    In this in vitro study, properties of a titanium alloy post recently introduced to the market (IntegraPost), were compared with those of a clinically proven stainless steel post (ParaPost). The IntegraPost has a unique, perforated, spherical head and a microknurled shank surface. The posts were tested for rigidity, for retention within the root canals of extracted teeth and for ability to retain composite resin cores. The two post types exhibited similar properties in core and root canal retention, however, the IntegraPost was significantly less rigid than the ParaPost.

  11. Anal cancer; Cancer du canal anal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesneau, M.; Champeaux-Orange, E. [Service de radiotherapie, Centre regional universitaire de cancerologie Henry-S.-Kaplan CHU de Tours, Hopital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France); Champeaux-Orange, E. [Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, Centre hospitalier regional d' Orleans, 45 - Orleans (France); Hennequin, C. [Service de cancerologie-radiotherapie, hopital Saint-Louis, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    Anal canal epidermoid carcinomas represent 1.2% of digestive cancers and 6% of ano-rectal cancers. For localized diseases, the treatment is based on radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy (5-FU and cisplatin or mitomycin), according to tumour and nodal extension. The recommended treatment dose is 45 Gy in the anal canal, the mesorectum, para-rectal lymph nodes, and inguinal lymph nodes. An additional dose of 15 to 20 Gy is delivered in the initial tumour for good responders. Salvage surgery is necessary in case of poor response. The organs at risk to be considered are bladder, femur heads, small intestine and vulva. The objective of this work is to summarize the epidemiological and radio-anatomic and prognostic characteristics of this tumour. The conformal radiotherapy technique is illustrated by a case report. (authors)

  12. Curved canals: Ancestral files revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Nidhi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an insight into different techniques of cleaning and shaping of curved root canals with hand instruments. Although a plethora of root canal instruments like ProFile, ProTaper, LightSpeed ® etc dominate the current scenario, the inexpensive conventional root canal hand files such as K-files and flexible files can be used to get optimum results when handled meticulously. Special emphasis has been put on the modifications in biomechanical canal preparation in a variety of curved canal cases. This article compiles a series of clinical cases of root canals with curvatures in the middle and apical third and with S-shaped curvatures that were successfully completed by employing only conventional root canal hand instruments.

  13. Aspectos biofarmacêuticos da formulação de medicamentos para neonatos: fundamentos da complexação de indometacina com hidroxipropil-beta-ciclodextrina para tratamento oral do fechamento do canal arterial Biopharmaceutical aspects of drug formulation for neonatology: rational for indomethacin's complexation with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin to treat patent ductus arteriosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Ribeiro Rama

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A terapêutica farmacológica em recém-nascidos confronta-se, por um lado, com um organismo sujeito a marcadas alterações biológicas, resultantes da composição orgânica e da maturação funcional, que decorre a diferentes graus em crianças com a mesma idade, determinando modificações no perfil farmacocinético e farmacodinâmico e, por outro lado, com a necessidade efetiva da utilização de fármacos. Para dar resposta à necessidade de tratamento destes doentes, recorre-se à utilização de medicamentos "off label", sendo esta uma prática com um elevado risco de segurança e de eficácia, na ausência de informação acerca da estabilidade, solubilidade e biodisponibilidade. Considerou-se, assim, que a utilização de derivados das ciclodextrinas altamente solúveis em água seria uma alternativa para a formulação de preparações líquidas aquosas de fármacos fracamente solúveis, aliada à melhoria de biodisponibilidade e de segurança. Esta revisão pretende fundamentar a possibilidade de recurso à complexação de indometacina com hidroxipropil-beta-ciclodextrina, com o objetivo de melhorar as características de biodisponibilidade e de segurança e permitir a administração por via oral para o tratamento farmacológico do fechamento do canal arterial em prematuros ou em recém-nascidos com esta patologia.Pharmacological therapy for newborns is faced on one hand, with an organism characterized by biological differences and functional immaturity with various grades of evolution for the same age, implying changes on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodinamic medicine profiles. On the other hand, there is the effective need for pharmacotherapy. The "off label" use of medicines is therefore the only thing left to do, having in mind the risk of using therapeutic agents not studied for this special group of people. On this context it has been considered the use of cyclodextrin derivatives like hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin as an

  14. Managing curved canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iram Ansari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilaceration is the result of a developmental anomaly in which there has been an abrupt change in the axial inclination between the crown and the root of a tooth. Dilaceration can be seen in both the permanent and deciduous dentitions, and is more commonly found in posterior teeth and in maxilla. Periapical radiographs are the most appropriate way to diagnose the presence of root dilacerations. The controlled regularly tapered preparation of the curved canals is the ultimate challenge in endodontics. Careful and meticulous technique will yield a safe and sufficient enlargement of the curved canals. This article gives a review of the literature and three interesting case reports of root dilacerations.

  15. Canal Wall Reconstruction Mastoidectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the advantages of canal wall reconstruction (CWR) mastoidectomy, a single-stage technique for cholesteatoma removal and posterior external canal wall reconstruction, over the open and closed procedures in terms of cholesteatoma recurrence. Methods: Between June 2002 and December 2005, 38 patients (40 ears) with cholesteatoma were admited to Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital and received surgical treatments. Of these patients, 25 were male with ages ranging between 11 and 60 years (mean = 31.6 years) and 13 were female with ages ranging between 20 and 65 years (mean = 38.8 years). Canal wall reconstruction (CWR)mastoidectomy was performed in 31 ears and canal wall down (CWD) mastoidectomy in 9 ears. Concha cartilage was used for ear canal wall reconstruction in 22 of the 31 CWR procedures and cortical mastoid bone was used in the remaining 9 cases. Results At 0.5 to 4 years follow up, all but one patients remained free of signs of cholesteatoma recurrence, i.e., no retraction pocket or cholesteatoma matrix. One patient, a smoker, needed revision surgery due to cholesteatoma recurrence 1.5 year after the initial operation. The recurrence rate was therefore 3.2% (1/31). Cholesteatoma recurrence was monitored using postoperative CT scans whenever possible. In the case that needed a revision procedure, a retraction pocket was identified by otoendoscopy in the pars flacida area that eventually evolved into a cholesteatoma. A pocket extending to the epitympanum filled with cholesteatoma matrix was confirmed during the revision operation, A decision to perform a modified mastoidectomy was made as the patient refused to quit smoking. The mean air-bone gap in pure tone threshold was 45 dB before surgery and 25 dB after (p < 0.05). There was no difference between using concha cartilage and cortical mastoid bone for the reconstruction regarding air-bone gap improvement, CT findings and otoendoscopic results. Conclusion CWR mastoidectomy can be used for

  16. Low-intensity laser coupled with photosensitizer to reduce bacteria in root canals compared to chemical control; Laser em baixa intensidade associado a fotosensibilizador para reducao bacteriana intracanal comparado ao controle quimico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcez Segundo, Aguinaldo Silva

    2002-07-01

    The photodynamic therapy is a process in which a dye is associate with an appropriate wavelength of light and this dye goes to an excited state. The excited reacts with oxygen to form the highly reactive compound singlet oxygen, and this compound can kill bacteria and tumor cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal reduction in root canal contaminated with E. Faecalis. Thirty teeth with their root canals prepared were contaminated with E. faecalis. The teeth have received the chemical substance sodium hypochlorite for 30 minutes; ten teeth have received the azulene dye paste for 5 minutes and have been irradiated with a diode laser, output power 10 mW and {lambda}= 685 nm for 3 minutes. Ten teeth have not received treatment (control group). The bacterial reduction was significantly higher for laser group when compared to chemical and control groups. These results indicate photodynamic therapy as an effective method to kill bacteria. (author)

  17. Diseño e implementación de las instrucciones multimedia en un procesador para un sistema multicore en FPGA

    OpenAIRE

    Cariñana Abasolo, Mario David

    2015-01-01

    [ES] El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo simular el comportamiento de un procesador MIPS vectorial en una FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) multinúcleo. Para ello se implementa un juego de instrucciones multimedia o vectoriales junto con la lógica necesaria (registros vectoriales, unidad aritmé- tico lógica vectorial, etc.) para que dichas instrucciones se puedan ejecutar en un procesador con arquitectura MIPS. De igual modo, algunos de los elementos de la ruta de dat...

  18. Mejoras en el canal de Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandl, Charles McG.

    1963-07-01

    Full Text Available The Panama Canal, together with the Suez Canal, is an engineering accomplishment which is now regarded as a master work marking the initiation of modern civil engineering. Other projects, also of great magnitude, do not seem to maintain the reputation of the above two, because they cannot continue to serve their function with sustained usefulness in the new circumstances of today. The Panama Canal, with its limited dock capacity, and the narrow, so called Serpent, canal, has had to cope with a continuously increasing volume of shipping traffic; a natural consequence of commercial evolution. In order to keep up with these increasing demands, it has been necessary to carry out an almost uninterrupted series of modifications and improvements, affecting both the method of operation and organisation, and the actual nature of the canal. Thanks to these alterations the Panama Canal has continued to maintain, at least nominally, an adequate standard of functional efficiency. At present the canal is being widened over certain sections to enable the easy passage of ships of great displacement. The work is being done very rapidly, and in order to gain time, it has been distributed to various contractors simultaneously.El canal a través del ismo de Panamá es una obra de ingeniería civil que, junto con el de Suez, empiezan ya a clasificarse como obras maestras que señalan el primer jalón del desarrollo de la ingeniería moderna. Otras obras, también importantes, no conservan, sin embargo, la misma reputación que aquéllas, por no seguir un paralelismo con las exigencias en cada época. El canal de Panamá, con sus exclusas, y angosto paso llamado de la. Culebra, ha tenido que afrontar un tráfico creciente de navíos que siguen la evolución del tiempo. Para conseguir este paralelismo, tanto el material de explotación como la organización, dragados y mejoras, han tenido que conocer una sucesión ininterrumpida de modificaciones que han permitido

  19. Controversy at Love Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paigen, B

    1982-06-01

    A cancer researcher reviews the events surrounding the toxic waste contamination at Love Canal with emphasis on the political nature of the controversy about its health impact. Antagonism between the community and the New York State Department of Health was fueled by several factors: the state's awareness that it gained from delay in investigation, disagreement on health problems to be studied, control over the information gathering process, silencing of opposition opinion, and the violation of norms of scientific behavior. The author calls for the establishment of standards of ethical behavior for scientists in such situations, standards for conflict resolution, and means of appeal for those injured.

  20. Spinal canal stenosis; Spinalkanalstenose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Boutchakova, M. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte/Bremen-Ost, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Bremen (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal by a combination of bone and soft tissues, which can lead to mechanical compression of spinal nerve roots or the dural sac. The lumbal spinal compression of these nerve roots can be symptomatic, resulting in weakness, reflex alterations, gait disturbances, bowel or bladder dysfunction, motor and sensory changes, radicular pain or atypical leg pain and neurogenic claudication. The anatomical presence of spinal canal stenosis is confirmed radiologically with computerized tomography, myelography or magnetic resonance imaging and play a decisive role in optimal patient-oriented therapy decision-making. (orig.) [German] Die Spinalkanalstenose ist eine umschriebene, knoechern-ligamentaer bedingte Einengung des Spinalkanals, die zur Kompression der Nervenwurzeln oder des Duralsacks fuehren kann. Die lumbale Spinalkanalstenose manifestiert sich klinisch als Komplex aus Rueckenschmerzen sowie sensiblen und motorischen neurologischen Ausfaellen, die in der Regel belastungsabhaengig sind (Claudicatio spinalis). Die bildgebende Diagnostik mittels Magnetresonanztomographie, Computertomographie und Myelographie spielt eine entscheidende Rolle bei der optimalen patientenbezogenen Therapieentscheidung. (orig.)

  1. Compressão segmentar do plexo venoso extra-raquidiano: Valor para o diagnóstico de localização das afecções bloqueantes do canal raquidiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Ricciardi Cruz

    1959-09-01

    Full Text Available Outside and inside the vertebral canal, running along its entire length, there is a series of venous plexuses which anastomoses with each other and end in intravertebral veins. They form a real plexuses whose primary disposition is schematically segmental. The plexuses form a series of venous rings at the level of each vertebra. Considering these anatomic data it has been supposed that a strong and lengthened compression at the level of the outside venous plexus will cause a raise in the inside venous pressure which can be detected with a Strauss manometer connected with a needle inserted in the lumbar subarachnoid space. The test would be indicated to locate the lower level of the spinal canal block by the oscilations of the cerebrospinal fluid pressure registered under this level. The test was performed in 5 patients without blocking process in which the Stookey test was normal; in none these cases it was found any raise in the cerebrospinal fluid pressure by local compression of venous plexuses of the spine from cervical untill lumbar vertebrae. The procedure was applied to 5 patients with blocking conditions of the spinal canal, previously diagnosed by the Stookey test. In 4 of these a definite increase (2 to 10 cm. of the cerebrospinal fluid pressure has been recorded; in these cases the procedure allowed the exact detection of the lower level of the block, later confirmed by myelography and neurosurgery. In one case, however, the test has detected a level that could not be confirmed by myelography or the surgical act.

  2. Un sistema didáctico integrado para la enseñanza introductoria de robótica

    OpenAIRE

    Dignani, Jorge Pablo; Joaquim C. S. Lima; Coppo, Ricardo; Mazzanti, Renato; Delrieux, Claudio; Samec, Gustavo; Kölln, Ricardo; René Cura, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    Se presenta un sistema informático para la enseñanza introductoria de la robótica en escuelas de nivel medio y universitario. Está formado por un robot armado con componentes de bajo costo y por un conjunto de aplicaciones que permite programar y simular situaciones tales como la edición y resolución de laberintos.

  3. Hood Canal Steelhead - Hood Canal Steelhead Supplementation Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hood Canal Steelhead Project is a 17-year before-after-control-impact experiment that tests the effects of supplementation on natural steelhead populations in...

  4. SICOMPC: SIMULADOR PARA CONTROL PREDICTIVO BASADO EN MODELOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBIN SALCEDO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se describe la herramienta computacional SICOMPC desarrollada con el fin de poder disponer de un programa para simulación de control predictivo basado en modelos. Si bien existen en el mercado algunos programas dedicados al control predictivo, ellos son en su mayoría costosos y de estructuracerrada. SICOMPC de otro lado tiene una estructura modular e incluye además ventanas donde se puede simular las estrategias clásicas de control, con el fin de compararlas bajo criterios de estabilidad y robustez en diversos modelos de plantas de procesos.

  5. Method for Constructing Standardized Simulated Root Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Bongert, Udo; Weine, Franklin S.

    1990-01-01

    The construction of visual and manipulative aids, clear resin blocks with root-canal-like spaces, for simulation of root canals is explained. Time, materials, and techniques are discussed. The method allows for comparison of canals, creation of any configuration of canals, and easy presentation during instruction. (MSE)

  6. PRESENTE Y FUTURO DEL CANAL TRADICIONAL EN LA CIUDAD DE CALI

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Areiza Vélez

    2001-01-01

    El artículo muestra la importancia del canal tradicional en la distribución de productos de consumo masivo en la ciudad de Cali y le brinda al lector elementos para el diseño de estrategias efectivas para llegar a sus mercados.

  7. PRESENTE Y FUTURO DEL CANAL TRADICIONAL EN LA CIUDAD DE CALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Areiza Vélez

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo muestra la importancia del canal tradicional en la distribución de productos de consumo masivo en la ciudad de Cali y le brinda al lector elementos para el diseño de estrategias efectivas para llegar a sus mercados.

  8. The Love Canal: Beyond science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    When in 1978, the New York State Department of Health issued the report, ‘Love Canal—Public Health Time Bomb,’ the serious effects of chemical waste contamination in the Love Canal area became an issue of national concern. A few ‘studies’ since then have produced results in concert with those of initial reports that described ‘conditions of acute health effects’ as being linked to hazardous wastes incorporated in landfill in the Love Canal site near Niagara Falls, New York. Now that a ‘blue ribbon’ panel of experts from the medical sciences has reviewed the problems of Love Canal, however, a different view has emerged. The ‘Report of the Governors' Panel to Review Scientific Studies and the Development of Public Policy on Problems Resulting from Hazardous Wastes,’ transmitted in October of this year, identifies the following factors about the health effects at Love Canal:

  9. Ultrasonic cleaning of root canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaagen, Bram; Boutsioukis, Christos; Jiang, Lei-Meng; Macedo, Ricardo; van der Sluis, Luc; Versluis, Michel

    2011-11-01

    A crucial step during a dental root canal treatment is irrigation, where an antimicrobial fluid is injected into the root canal system to eradicate all bacteria. Agitation of the fluid using an ultrasonically vibrating miniature file has shown significant improvement in cleaning efficacy over conventional syringe irrigation. However, the physical mechanisms underlying the cleaning process, being acoustic streaming, cavitation or chemical activity, and combinations thereof, are not fully understood. High-speed imaging allows us to visualize the flow pattern and cavitation in a root canal model at microscopic scales, at timescales relevant to the cleaning processes (microseconds). MicroPIV measurements of the induced acoustic streaming are coupled to the oscillation characteristics of the file as simulated numerically and measured with a laser vibrometer. The results give new insight into the role of acoustic streaming and the importance of the confinement for the cleaning of root canals.

  10. Horizontal Canal Benign Positional Vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtaram Najafi

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV is a syndrome characterized by transient episodes of vertigo in association with rapid changes in head position in Dix-Halpike Maneuver. This kind of vertigo is thought to be caused by migration of otoconial debris into canals other than the posterior canal, such as the anterior or lateral canals. It is also theoretically possible for many aberrant patterns of BPPV to occur from an interaction of debris in several canals, location of debris within the canal, and central adaptation patterns to lesions. The symptoms of BPPV are much more consistent with free-moving densities (canaliths in the posterior SCC rather than fixed densities attached to the cupula. While the head is upright, the particles sit in the PSC at the most gravity-dependent position. The best method to induce and see vertigo and nystagmus in BPPV of the lateral semicircular canal is to rotate head 90°while patient is in the supine position, nystagmus would appear in the unaffected side weaker but longer than the affected side. canal paresis has been described in one third of the patients with BPPV. Adaptation which is one of the remarkable features of BPPV in PSC is rarely seen in LSC. Rotations of 270° or 360° around the yaw axis (the so-called barbecue maneuver toward the unaffected ear are popular methods for the treatment of geotropic HC-BPPV. These maneuvers consist of sequential head turning of 90° toward the healthy side while supine. With these maneuvers, the free-floating otoconial debris migrates in the ampullofugal direction, finally entering the utricle through the nonampullated end of the horizontal canal. This kind of vertigo recovers spontaneously more rapidly and suddenly.

  11. RETRATAMENTO ENDODÔNTICO: ESTUDO COMPARATIVO ENTRE TÉCNICA MANUAL, ULTRA-SOM E CANAL FINDER ENDODONTIC RETREATMENT: COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN MANUAL TECHNIQUE, ULTRASONIC SCALER, AND CANAL FINDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Monteiro BRAMANTE

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Instrumentações manual, ultra-sônica e com Canal Finder foram utilizadas para retratamento de 30 dentes com canais obturados com guta-percha e óxido de zinco e eugenol. Avaliaram-se: 1. tempo gasto para a penetração inicial até o ápice; 2. tempo para completar a limpeza; 3. extrusão de material e 4. limpeza dos canais. O Canal Finder foi a técnica que propiciou melhor limpeza, seguida da manual e da ultra-sônica. A parede palatina do canal foi constantemente mais limpa do que a vestibular. Quanto à extrusão, a técnica de ultra-som foi a que propiciou mais extravasamento de material obturador.Endodontic retreatment of 30 teeth filled with guta percha and zinc oxide-eugenol was carried out using manual instrumentation, ultrasonic scaler, and the Canal Finder System. The following variables were evaluated: time spent to reach the apex; time spent to complete cleaning of the canal; apical extrusion of material; and cleanliness of the canals. Results showed the Canal Finder System as providing the highest level of cleanliness of the canal system; lingual walls were constantly cleaner than buccal walls; ultrasonic technique presented a greater degree of apical extrusion of filling material.

  12. Hidrotransporte de pulpa de papel en un canal abierto de sección circular

    OpenAIRE

    Hernán Javier Gómez Zambrano

    2009-01-01

    Este artículo presenta los resultados de la investigación experimental llevada a cabo sobre el transporte hidráulico de mezclas en canales abiertos. Se investigó acerca de las mezclas no sedimentables compuestas de pulpa de papel y agua en un canal abierto de sección transversal circular. El objeto de la investigación fue determinar las pérdidas de energía debido al flujo de agua y pulpa de papel, a fin de proponer una metodología para el diseño de canales abiertos a mezclas. A causa del desa...

  13. Género y dirección frontera en relaciones interorganizativas: estudio exploratorio de su influencia sobre los sistemas de control para la gestión de los canales de exportación independientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Araújo Pinzón

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación contribuye al conocimiento sobre los sistemas de control de gestión (SCG en las relaciones inter-organizativas introduciendo la diversidad de género de la persona responsable de la dirección frontera. A través de un análisis cuantitativo exploratorio desarrollado en el contexto de la gestión de los canales de exportación externalizados, se investiga el efecto de las diferencias de género en el nivel de implantación de los diversos tipos de control (de resultados, de comportamiento y social y en el modo de uso (diagnóstico e interactivo de los SCG. Los resultados no evidencian diferencias significativas asociadas al género en cuanto al grado de implantación de los tipos de control ni a la utilidad e importancia conferida a los modos de uso de la información de los SCG. No obstante, los resultados sí indican una cierta preferencia de las mujeres por el uso interactivo, acorde con las habilidades y características socialmente atribuidas a su género.

  14. Canals - CANALS_HISTORIC_STRUCTURES_IN: Historic Canal Structures in Indiana (Bernardin-Lochmueller & Associates, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Data depicts the locations of historic structures associated with the Wabash-Erie, Central, and Whitewater Canals constructed in Indiana in from 1830-1870. Canal...

  15. Género y dirección frontera en relaciones interorganizativas: estudio exploratorio de su influencia sobre los sistemas de control para la gestión de los canales de exportación independientes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Araujo Pinzon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación contribuye al conocimiento sobre los sistemas de control de gestión (SCG en las relaciones inter-organizativas introduciendo la diversidad de género de la persona responsable de la dirección frontera. A través de un análisis cuantitativo exploratorio desarrollado en el contexto de la gestión de los canales de exportación externalizados, se investiga el efecto de las diferencias de género en el nivel de implantación de los diversos tipos de control (de resultados, de comportamiento y social y en el modo de uso (diagnóstico e interactivo de los SCG. Los resultados no evidencian diferencias significativas asociadas al género en cuanto al grado de implantación de los tipos de control ni a la utilidad e importancia conferida a los modos de uso de la información de los SCG. No obstante, los resultados sí indican una cierta preferencia de las mujeres por el uso interactivo, acorde con las habilidades y características socialmente atribuidas a su género.This research is intended to contribute to knowledge about the role of management control systems (MCS in interorganisational relationships analysing gender diversity of boundary managers. By means of an exploratory quantitative analysis in the setting of externalized export channels, we research the effect of gender differences on implementation level of MCS control types (output, behaviour and social controls and on MCS use mode (diagnostic and interactive uses. Results do not show significant differences related to gender regarding level of implementation of control types, or utility and importance conferred to use modes of MCS information. Notwithstanding, results suggest a slight preference of women for interactive use, according to skills and characteristics socially attributed to this gender.

  16. Propuesta de rediseño del canal "AOG" para la distribución de repuestos aeronáuticos de la Jefatura de Operaciones Logísticas de la Fuerza Aérea Colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Adrián Castro Barona

    2009-01-01

    Es necesario resaltar la necesidad de adaptar y estandarizar las Polìticas, Objetivos y Misión contemplados en el Plan Estratégico Institucional 2006-2019 de la Fuerza Aérea, orientándolos a mejorar la logística integral de las aeronaves para de esta manera cumplir adecuadamente con la prioridad de nivel uno en el alistamiento de las mismas.

  17. Fluidmechanics of semicircular canals revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrist, Dominik

    2008-05-01

    In this work we find the exact solution for the flow field in a semicircular canal which is the main sensor for angular motion in the human body. When the head is rotated the inertia of the fluid in the semicircular canal leads to a deflection of sensory hair cells which are part of a gelatinous structure called cupula. A modal expansion of the governing equation shows that the semicircular organ can be understood as a dynamic system governed by duct modes and a single cupular mode. We use this result to derive an explicit expression for the displacement of the cupula as a function of the angular motion of the head. This result shows in a mathematically and physically clean way that the semicircular canal is a transducer for angular velocity.

  18. INSTRUMENTATION OF CURVED CANALS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nature seldom draws a straight line. Nowhere is thi s more apparent than in the anatomy of teeth roots and root canal systems o f human teeth. Even teeth with straight roots can harbor severely curved canals. Canal shapi ng is a critical aspect of endodontic treatment because it influences the outcome of the subsequent phases of canal irrigation and filling and the success of the treatment itself. In fact, curved canals are the most common endodontic complexity 1 . The need for some manner of root canal preparation pri or to root canal filling has long been recognized as an essential step in endodontic t reatment. Concepts concerning the role and purpose of this canal preparation, however, have differ ed remarkably at different times in the development of endodontics and in the hands of diffe rent practitioners 2

  19. Computed tomography of the thoracic canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the adequate CT condition, thoracic canal was studied in twelve normal cases, nine cases of cervical myelopathy with developmental cervical canal stenosis and four cases of thoracic myelopathy with ossification of thoracic yellow ligament. The results were as follows. 1) The adequate condition for delineation of thoracic canal seemed to be nearly 400 EMI units in window width and 150 in level. Scanning angle was permitted within about 100. Bony thoracic canal was well scanned at the center of vertebral body. 2) The configulation of the normal thoracic canal was oval at Th1, Th2 levels and round at Th3-Th10 and large oval at Th11, Th12. The sagittal diameter was almost fixed at each level and the transverse diameter was large at upper and lower levels and small at middle levels. 3) Thoracic canal was narrowed in the cases of cervical myelopathy with developmental cervical canal stenosis especially in sagittal diameter, but not narrowed in transverse diameter. Three of four cases who had myelopathy with ossification of thoracic yellow ligament had narrow canals. 4) There was a good relation between sagittal diameter of cervical canal and thoracic canal. 5) There was a good relation between sagittal diameter of thoracic canal measured by conventional radiographs (Hattori's method) and CT scans. The author thinks that Hattori's method is useful to diagnose the thoracic canal stenosis. (author)

  20. Análisis del foreland y de la conectividad portuaria de Cartagena de Indias : bases para los desarrollos derivados de la ampliación del Canal de Panamá

    OpenAIRE

    González Laxe, Fernando; Pais Montes, Carlos; Freire Seoane, María Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Los últimos años han sido de grandes y rápidos crecimientos en las operativas de las industrias portuarias y del transporte marítimo, y la globalización de los intercambios y relaciones económicas ha traído consigo un intenso proceso de contenerización. Estas transformaciones significaron una buena prueba para medir la constitución y asentamiento de las redes comerciales de los puertos en el ámbito global. En el trabajo se subraya la relevancia del puerto de Cartagena de Ind...

  1. The Dehiscent Facial Nerve Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertac Yetiser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidental injury to the facial nerve where the bony canal defects are present may result with facial nerve dysfunction during otological surgery. Therefore, it is critical to know the incidence and the type of facial nerve dehiscences in the presence of normal development of the facial canal. The aim of this study is to review the site and the type of such bony defects in 144 patients operated for facial paralysis, myringoplasty, stapedotomy, middle ear exploration for sudden hearing loss, and so forth, other than chronic suppurative otitis media with or without cholesteatoma, middle ear tumors, and anomaly. Correlation of intraoperative findings with preoperative computerized tomography was also analyzed in 35 patients. Conclusively, one out of every 10 surgical cases may have dehiscence of the facial canal which has to be always borne in mind during surgical manipulation of the middle ear. Computerized tomography has some limitations to evaluate the dehiscent facial canal due to high false negative and positive rates.

  2. Contemporary root canal filling strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.T. Moinzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Currently, clinicians can choose from a wide range of root canal filling materials and techniques, some of which have been evaluated in this thesis. Methacrylate resin-based sealers suffer from polymerization shrinkage stresses. This limitation may partly be overcome by a two-step cementation proced

  3. Canal Water Scarcity Hits Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠潮

    2007-01-01

    Acute shortage of canal water for irrigation in this district has caused resentment among the farmers.The water is being released in the various channels for just one week in a month,which is not enough to meet the irrigation needs of the farmers who are preparing their fields for paddy

  4. Mandibular Second Premolar with Four Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Ghiasi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A mandibular second premolar with four canals is an interesting example of anatomic variations. This report describes a case of a mandibular second premolar with three roots and four canals (one mesiobuccal, two distobuccal and one lingual. The canals were prepared using K-files and irrigated with NaOCl (5.25% and normal saline as the final irrigant. The canals were filled laterally with gutta percha and AH26 sealer (De Trey, Dentsply, Switzerland. This case shows a rare anatomic configuration and points out the importance of looking for additional canals.

  5. A STUDY OF ROOT CANAL MORPHOLOGY OF Cebus apella TEETH ESTUDO ANATÔMICO DO CANAL RADICULAR DE DENTES DE Cebus apella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Rocha Afonso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo anatômico em dentes do Cebus apella, para análise da anatomia interna do canal radicular dessa espécie, normatizando seu uso como modelo experimental. Utilizaram-se doze animais adultos. Após a remoção do tecido orgânico, os dentes foram removidos, seccionados e fotografados, sendo analisados com um estereomicroscópio. Os resultados mostraram que os dentes apresentaram características semelhantes às dos seres humanos, mas com algumas peculiaridades, tais como: a anatomia do canal radicular variou de oval para circular; nos caninos inferiores, os canais são semelhantes a um rim, o que reflete o contorno externo da raiz; nos molares superiores, os canais mesiobucal e distobucal são ovais, seguindo o contorno geral do dente. Os autores concluem que esta espécie pode ser utilizada como modelo em pesquisas odontológicas, principalmente em estudos do tratamento do sistema de canal radicular.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Anatomia, dentes, Cebus apella. An anatomic study of Cebus apella root teeth was performed to analyze the internal anatomy of permanent dentition, normalizing its use as experimental model endodontic research. Twelve adult animals were used in this study. After the removal of the organic tissue, the all teeth were removed, sectioned, analyzed and photographed with a stereomicroscope. The results showed that the anatomy of root canal of this species are similar to human dental anatomy, considering the shape, pathway and number of canals, but with some peculiarities, such as: the root canal anatomy varied from oval to circular; in the lower canines, the canals are resembled a kidney, reflecting the outside contour of the root; in the upper molars, the mesiobuccal and distobuccal canals are oval, following the general contour of the tooth. The authors conclude that this primate can be applied as models for study of root canal treatment in human beings, in special the upper central and lateral incisors

  6. Retention of Root Canal Posts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, A; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Flury, S;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the cement film thickness of a zinc phosphate or a resin cement on retention of untreated and pretreated root canal posts. Prefabricated zirconia posts (CosmoPost: 1.4 mm) and two types of luting cements (a zinc phosphate cement [DeTrey Zinc...... received tribochemical silicate coating according to the manufacturer's instructions. Posts were then luted in the prepared root canals (n=30 per group). Following water storage at 37°C for seven days, retention of the posts was determined by the pull-out method. Irrespective of the luting cement......, pretreatment with tribochemical silicate coating significantly increased retention of the posts. Increased cement film thickness resulted in decreased retention of untreated posts and of pretreated posts luted with zinc phosphate cement. Increased cement film thickness had no influence on retention...

  7. Scalloping at the lumbosacral canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalloping is an indentation of the dorsal side of the vertebral body (anterior wall of the lumbosacral or sacral canal) which typically involves several adjacent lumbal vertebral body segments and the anterior wall of the canalis sacralis. Occurrence without underlying disease is rare; it occurs most frequently with chondrodystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Morquio's syndrome, Hurler's syndrome, acromegaly, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, cysts, tumors and in peridural lipomas. (orig.)

  8. Scalloping at the lumbosacral canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, R.

    1987-07-01

    Scalloping is an indentation of the dorsal side of the vertebral body (anterior wall of the lumbosacral or sacral canal) which typically involves several adjacent lumbal vertebral body segments and the anterior wall of the canalis sacralis. Occurrence without underlying disease is rare; it occurs most frequently with chondrodystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Morquio's syndrome, Hurler's syndrome, acromegaly, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, cysts, tumors and in peridural lipomas.

  9. Contemporary root canal filling strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Moinzadeh, A.T.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, clinicians can choose from a wide range of root canal filling materials and techniques, some of which have been evaluated in this thesis. Methacrylate resin-based sealers suffer from polymerization shrinkage stresses. This limitation may partly be overcome by a two-step cementation procedure. This alternative placement technique results in an increase and homogenization of the adhesion of the material to intraradicular dentin. Subsequent research should aim at developing sealers wi...

  10. Desarrollo de Simuladores para Procesos Industriales. Parte III (Colada continua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez, A.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This work was written for illustrating the use of Monte Carlo methods and generating of random number in combination with the information of the simulation system for thermal behavior described previously in order to reproduce in a computer the solidification process of the steel and simulate the formation of structures of casting step by step.

    Este trabajo muestra el empleo de técnicas de métodos de Monte Carlo y generación de números aleatorios en combinación con datos obtenidos del sistema de simulación (SSCC para comportamiento térmico previamente descrito para la reproducción computacional del proceso de solidificación del acero y simular la formación de estructuras de colada paso a paso.

  11. Interferencia co-canal en redes WiMax

    OpenAIRE

    Durán Vicente, María Isabel

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este proyecto es estudiar las redes WIMAX para determinar las prestaciones de la red cuando se da una situación en la que existe interferencia co-canal. Este tipo de interferencia, al igual que otras, ocasionará una pérdida de prestaciones que será lo que se evalúe a través de diversas simulaciones en distintos escenarios. En el primer capítulo se hará una descripción del estándar comentando todos sus aspectos relevantes, poniendo especial énfasis en los puntos que so...

  12. Nested Canalizing Functions and Their Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kadelka, Claus; Adeyeye, John O; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    The concept of a nested canalizing Boolean function has been studied over the last decade in the context of understanding the regulatory logic of molecular interaction networks, such as gene regulatory networks. Such networks are predominantly governed by nested canalizing functions. Derrida values are frequently used to analyze the robustness of a Boolean network to perturbations. This paper introduces closed formulas for the calculation of Derrida values of networks governed by Boolean nested canalizing functions, which previously required extensive simulations. Recently, the concept of nested canalizing functions has been generalized to include multistate functions, and a recursive formula has been derived for their number, as a function of the number of variables. This paper contains a detailed analysis of the class of nested canalizing functions over an arbitrary finite field. In addition, the concept of nested canalization is further generalized and closed formulas for the number of such generalized fun...

  13. Stability of guest molecules in urea canal complexes by canal polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was found that various organic materials are attracted into urea canal by hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) and long chain compounds. This means that materials which does not form complex by itself are induced in canal by HDDA and long chain compounds. To include with stability perfumes, insecticides, attractants and repellents in urea canal, leaf alcohol was used as a model compound for guest molecules in the canal. The leaf alcohol from the canal released gradually over many days and the release was inhibited for 15 days by long chain compounds and for 30 days by polymerized HDDA after irradiation. After releasing, the leaf alcohol in the canal remained 25 % stable for long chain compounds and 40 % for polymerized HDDA. The dose required for stabilization of leaf alcohol in the urea canal by canal polymerization of HDDA was 30 kGy. (author)

  14. Stability of guest molecules in urea canal complexes by canal polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1995-03-01

    It was found that various organic materials are attracted into urea canal by hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) and long chain compounds. This means that materials which does not form complex by itself are induced in canal by HDDA and long chain compounds. To include with stability perfumes, insecticides, attractants and repellents in urea canal, leaf alcohol was used as a model compound for guest molecules in the canal. The leaf alcohol from the canal released gradually over many days and the release was inhibited for 15 days by long chain compounds and for 30 days by polymerized HDDA after irradiation. After releasing, the leaf alcohol in the canal remained 25 % stable for long chain compounds and 40 % for polymerized HDDA. The dose required for stabilization of leaf alcohol in the urea canal by canal polymerization of HDDA was 30 kGy. (author).

  15. Canals, DMADCanals-Irrigation canals in Millard Co., Published in 2007, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Canals dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'DMADCanals-Irrigation canals in Millard Co.'. Data by this...

  16. Complicated canal morphology of mandibular first premolar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavi, Vyapaka; Kumar, Janga Ravi; Mandava, Ramesh Babu; Rao, Subramanian Hari

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article was to report an unusual anatomic variation of mandibular first premolar, with one root and three distinct canals, which leave pulp chamber and merge short of apex to exit as two separate apical foramina. The incidence of three canals existing as two apical foramina has only been documented in the literature by a few case reports. To achieve successful endodontic treatment, the clinician has to identify the different canal configurations and treat them properly. PMID:26538977

  17. The number and probability of canalizing functions

    OpenAIRE

    Just, Winfried; Shmulevich, Ilya; Konvalina, John

    2003-01-01

    Canalizing functions have important applications in physics and biology. For example, they represent a mechanism capable of stabilizing chaotic behavior in Boolean network models of discrete dynamical systems. When comparing the class of canalizing functions to other classes of functions with respect to their evolutionary plausibility as emergent control rules in genetic regulatory systems, it is informative to know the number of canalizing functions with a given number of input variables. Th...

  18. Ajuste dos simuladores de dados meteorológicos do modelo EPIC para diferentes locais do Estado de São Paulo Adjustment of the simulators of meteorological data of the EPIC model for different localities in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Angélica G. Picini; Márcio de M. Valeriano; Francisco Lombardi Neto; Jurandir Zullo Júnior

    2005-01-01

    O modelo EPIC (Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator) foi desenvolvido para simular o efeito de estratégias de manejos agrícolas em recursos hídricos e produtividade de solos. No presente estudo, o desempenho dos simuladores de dados meteorológicos foi avaliado para localidades do Estado de São Paulo (Campinas, Jaú, Manduri, Mococa, Pindorama e Ubatuba), incluindo: a Cadeia de Markov para probabilidades de seqüências de dias úmidos e secos; a equação de temperatura máxima ajustada para dias ...

  19. Evaluation of the anterior and posterior ethmoidal canal by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To examine the anatomy, length and angulation of the anterior and posterior ethmoidal canals (AECs and PECs) using computed tomography (CT), and to determine the anatomical landmarks in which the canals are expected to be seen in transverse and coronal planes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CT images of 150 patients were analysed. One, 2, and 3 mm thick sections were obtained separately in axial and coronal images. The frequency of visualization of the AECs and PECs, and if present, a third canal, was noted. The course and the angulation of the AEC and the PEC in transverse and coronal planes were recorded. On axial sections the distance between the AEC and PEC and the previously defined landmarks were measured. On coronal images, the distances were calculated from the thickness of the cross-section and the number of sections between the various structures. RESULTS: The AEC was identified as a separate canal in 84% of patients, and was embedded in the ethmoid roof in 16%. The PEC was seen as a separate canal in 8% and was present in the ethmoid roof in 92%. On the 1 mm thick coronal and transverse sections, a third canal was identified at the junction of the middle and posterior third of the AEC-PEC distance in both of the images. The average lengths of these canals were 4-12 mm (mean 8.2 mm) for the AEC, and 2-13 mm (mean 7.6 mm) for the PEC. CONCLUSIONS: To avoid the complications that can develop during endoscopic sinus surgery; the course, length and the angulations of the anterior and posterior ethmoidal arteries and their canals can be identified by CT in standard positions if a sufficiently thin section thickness is used. The present study has shown the exact CT localization of the AECs and PECS, which are frequently overlooked when evaluating para-nasal sinuses

  20. Narrow, duplicated internal auditory canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, T. [Servico de Neurorradiologia, Hospital Garcia de Orta, Avenida Torrado da Silva, 2801-951, Almada (Portugal); Shayestehfar, B. [Department of Radiology, UCLA Oliveview School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Lufkin, R. [Department of Radiology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2003-05-01

    A narrow internal auditory canal (IAC) constitutes a relative contraindication to cochlear implantation because it is associated with aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve or its cochlear branch. We report an unusual case of a narrow, duplicated IAC, divided by a bony septum into a superior relatively large portion and an inferior stenotic portion, in which we could identify only the facial nerve. This case adds support to the association between a narrow IAC and aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The normal facial nerve argues against the hypothesis that the narrow IAC is the result of a primary bony defect which inhibits the growth of the vestibulocochlear nerve. (orig.)

  1. Exploraciones osteológicas de la salud de las poblaciones humanas del Canal Beagle

    OpenAIRE

    Suby, Jorge A.; Zangrando, Francisco Atilio; Piana, Ernesto Luis

    2011-01-01

    Algunas evidencias acerca de la salud de las poblaciones aborígenes han comenzado a ser reportadas en varias regiones de Patagonia Austral. Por el contrario, hasta el momento carecemos de información comparable para la región del canal Beagle. El objetivo de este trabajo es comunicar los resultados de las investigaciones bioarqueológicas y paleopatológicas de los restos humanos recuperados en excavaciones realizadas en la margen norte del canal durante la primera década del siglo XXI. Estos e...

  2. Root Canal Treatment of a Maxillary Second Premolar with Two Palatal Root Canals: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmohammadi, Maryam; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of the root canal morphology and anatomy is essential for thorough shaping and cleaning of the entire root canal system and consequent successful treatment. This report describes a case of maxillary second premolar with two roots and three root canals (two mesial and distal palatal canals). The case report underlines the importance of complete knowledge about root canal morphology and possible variations, coupled with clinical and radiographic examination in order to increase the ability of clinicians to treat difficult cases. PMID:27471538

  3. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum. PMID:1659854

  4. 33 CFR 117.438 - Company Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Company Canal. 117.438 Section 117.438 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.438 Company Canal. (a) The draw of...

  5. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum.

  6. Blending Canal Surfaces Based on PH Curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Dong Xu; Fa-Lai Chen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for blending two canal surfaces is proposed. The blending surface is itself a generalized canal surface, the spine curve of which is a PH (Pythagorean-Hodograph) curve. The blending surface possesses an attractive property - its representation is rational. The method is extensible to blend general surfaces as long as the blending boundaries are well-defined.

  7. Periodismo en YouTube: análisis de contenido en los canales de Atresmedia y RTVE

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández López, Sergio Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Este Trabajo de Fin de Grado estudia el contenido en YouTube de los canales de Atresmedia y RTVE para conocer cuáles son sus actividades, su programación y las características básicas de sus publicaciones. Para ello, se ha realizado un análisis de contenido cuantitativo y semicualitativo de un total de 48 canales en YouTube durante una semana así como el estudio de la presencia de estos grupos en esta plataforma audiovisual propia de la Web 2.0. Los resultados obtenidos permiten determinar, e...

  8. Calidad sanitaria de los canales de Tortuguero y su efecto sobre los diferentes usos del agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darner Mora Alvarado

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la importancia turística y socioeconómica de los canales de Tortuguero para la provincia de Limón, pero sobre todo a que este sistema de agua sirve como cuerpo receptor de los ríos Colorado, Tortuguero,. Reventazón-Parismina, Pacuare y Matina, se presenta este estudio con el objetivo de determinar el grado de contaminación fecal de dichos canales. Para cumplir con el mismo se ubicó 10 estaciones de muestreo a lo largo de los 122 kilómetros, antes y después de las desembocaduras de los ríos mencionados. Los resultados de los análisis indican que en su mayor parte son buenos para ser utilizados como fuentes de agua para potabilización, pero no para la natación ni el cultivo de peces, pues muy pocos puntos de muestreo son aceptables para la irrigación de cultivos para consumir crudos, y no se pueden utilizar para agua de consumo humano sin previo tratamiento.

  9. Type III apical transportation of root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv P Mantri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Procedural accidents leading to complications such as canal transportation have been ascribed to inapt cleaning and shaping concepts. Canal transportation is an undesirable deviation from the natural canal path. Herewith a case of apical transportation of root canal resulting in endodontic retreatment failure and its management is presented. A healthy 21-year-old young male presented discomfort and swelling associated with painful endodontically retreated maxillary incisor. Radiograph revealed periradicular radiolucency involving underfilled 11 and overfilled 12. Insufficiently obturated 11 exhibited apical transportation of canal. This type III transportation was treated by periradicular surgery and repair using white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Comfortable asymptomatic patient presented uneventful healing at third and fourth month recall visits. A decrease in the size of radiolucency in radiograph supported the clinical finding. In the present case, MTA is useful in repairing the transportation defect. The result of these procedures is predictable and successful.

  10. Clinical management of infected root canal dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, R M

    1996-08-01

    Several hundred different species of bacteria are present in the human intraoral environment. Bacterial penetration of root canal dentin occurs when bacteria invade the root canal system. These bacteria may constitute a reservoir from which root canal reinfection may occur during or after endodontic treatment. The learning objective of this article is to review endodontic microbiology, update readers on the role of bacteria in pulp and periapical disease, and discuss the principles of management of infected root canal dentin. Complete debridement, removal of microorganisms and affected dentin, and chemomechanical cleansing of the root canal are suggested as being the cornerstones of successful endodontic therapy, followed by intracanal medication to remove residual bacteria, when required.

  11. MRI Findings in Spinal Canal Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Barzin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Spinal canal stenosis results from progressive narrowing of the central spinal canal and the lateral recesses. Primary (congenital lumbar spinal stenosis is associated with achondroplastic dwarfism. The spinal canal may become narrowed by bulging or protrusion of the intervertebral disc annulus, herniation of the nucleus pulposus posteriorly, thickening of the posterior longitudinal ligament, hypertrophy of the facet joints, hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum, epidural fat deposition, spondylosis of the intervertebral disc margins and uncovertebral joint hypertrophy in the neck. The central canal and the neurorecess may be compromised by tumor infiltration, such as metastatic disease, or by infectious spondylitis."nAP diameter of the normal adult cervical canal has a mean value of 17-18 mm at vertebral levels C3-5. The lower cervical canal measures 12-14 mm. Cervical stenosis is associated with an AP diameter of less than 10 mm. The thoracic spinal canal varies from 12 to 14 mm in diameter in the adult. The diameter of the normal lumbar spinal canal varies from 15 to 27 mm. Lumbar stenosis results from a spinal canal diameter of less than 12 mm in some patients; a diameter of 10 mm is definitely stenotic."nSpinal MRI is the most suitable technique for the diagnosis of spinal stenosis. The examination should be performed using thin sections (3 mm and high resolution, including the axial and sagittal planes using T1-weighted, proton-density, and T2-weighted techniques. The bony and osteophytic components are seen best using a T2-weighted gradient-echo technique."nOn MRI, findings of spinal stenosis have a variable presentation depending on the specific disease. The goal of spinal imaging is to localize the site and level of disease and to help differentiate between conditions in which patients require surgery or conservative treatment."nIn this presentation, different kinds of spinal canal stenosis and their MRI findings would be discussed.

  12. Implementación de un prototipo IEEE 802.21 para realizar handovers entre diferentes tecnologías

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Ascensión, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    La finalidad de este trabajo es la implementación de un prototipo que permite simular la realización de un handover entre dos redes utilizando el protocolo MIH definido en el estándar IEEE 802.21. Dicho prototipo ha sido implementado mediante el lenguaje de programación C. La implementación del prototipo se lleva a cabo mediante la definición en lenguaje C de las funciones descritas en el estándar IEEE 802.21 necesarias para la optimización de un handover entre dos redes, tanto en el caso de ...

  13. Una propuesta para enseñar temas científicos en entornos tecnológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Irazoque Palazuelos, G.; Zaldívar Coria, I.; Amador Bedolla, C.; Herrera Hernández, A.; Gasca Pineda, L.

    2009-01-01

    Las ventajas del uso de las TICs en la enseñanza de las ciencias nos brinda la posibilidad, entre otras cosas, de simular fenómenos naturales difíciles de observar en la realidad o de representar modelos de sistemas físicos inaccesibles. Esto exige el diseño y elaboración de nuevos materiales y maestros bien preparados en sus disciplinas y motivados para enfrentar la capacitación continua que exige la dinámica de la tecnología, dentro de políticas institucionales que favorezcan dicha capacita...

  14. Panama Canal Watershed Experiment- Agua Salud Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Robert F.; Ogden, Fred L.; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Hall, Jefferson S.

    2010-01-01

    The Agua Salud Project utilizes the Panama Canal’s (Canal) central role in world commerce to focus global attention on the ecosystem services provided by tropical forests. The Canal was one of the great engineering projects in the world. Completed in 1914, after almost a decade of concerted effort, its 80 km length greatly shortened the voyage between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. An entire class of ships, the Panamax, has been constructed to maximize the amount of cargo that can be carried in a Canal passage. In today’s parlance, the Canal is a “green” operation, powered largely by water (Table 1). The locks, three pairs on each end with a net lift of 27 meters, are gravity fed. For each ton of cargo that is transferred from ocean to ocean, about 13 tons of water (m3) are used. Lake Gatún forms much of the waterway in the Canal transect. Hydroelectricity is generated at the Gatún dam, whenever there is surplus water, and at Madden Dam (completed in 1936) when water is transferred from Lake Alhajuela to Lake Gatún. The Canal watershed is the source of drinking water for Panama City and Colon City, at either end of the Canal, and numerous towns in between.

  15. How to bond to root canal dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nica, Luminita; Todea, Carmen; Furtos, Gabriel; Baldea, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Bonding to root canal dentin may be difficult due to various factors: the structural characteristic of the root canal dentin, which is different from that of the coronal dentin; the presence of the organic tissue of the dental pulp inside the root canal, which has to be removed during the cleaning-shaping of the root canal system; the smear-layer resulted after mechanical instrumentation, which may interfere with the adhesion of the filling materials; the type of the irrigants used in the cleaning protocol; the type of the sealer and core material used in the obturation of the endodontic space; the type of the materials used for the restoration of the endodontically treated teeth. The influence of the cleaning protocol, of the root canal filling material, of the type of the adhesive system used in the restoration of the treated teeth and of the region of the root canal, on the adhesion of several filling and restorative materials to root canal dentin was evaluated in the push-out bond strength test on 1-mm thick slices of endodontically treated human teeth. The results showed that all these factors have a statistically significant influence on the push-out bond strength. Formation of resin tags between radicular dentin and the investigated materials was observed in some of the samples at SEM analysis.

  16. 21 CFR 872.3810 - Root canal post.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal post. 872.3810 Section 872.3810 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3810 Root canal post. (a) Identification. A root canal... of the platinum group intended to be cemented into the root canal of a tooth to stabilize and...

  17. "Desarrollo software de un módulo de cinética química en fase gaseosa para simulación 3D de motores de Combustión interna"

    OpenAIRE

    Forigua Rodriguez, Carlos Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Un reactor a volumen constante para (RVC) fue implementado utilizando Cantera dentro de KIVA-4 en un acople multifísico con el fin de simular varios motores. Se simuló un motor de encendido por compresión de carga homogénea (HCCI), un motor Diesel de inyección directa y un motor encendido por chispa. Sólo densidades parciales se intercambian entre KIVA y Cantera. Una densidad parcial inicial se calcula en KIVA para Cantera. Nuevas densidades son generadas por Cantera usando el ...

  18. Comparison of Bacterial Leakage between 3 Different Root Canal Obturation Techniques in Oval Shaped Canals

    OpenAIRE

    Eshagh-ali Saberi; Shahram Shahraki; Sediqe Ebrahimipour; Anousheh Rashed Mohassel; Narjes Akbari; Majid Rezaei

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of 3 obturation techniques in oval-shaped canals by bacterial leakage assessment. Methods: Sixty mandibular incisors with oval canals were selected after providing buccolingual and mesiodistal radiographs. The teeth were sectioned at a 10 mm distance from the apex. After instrumentation, the teeth were divided into 3 groups and the canals in the three groups were obturated with lateral condensation (G1), warm vertical...

  19. MANAGEMENT OF LUMBAR SPINAL CANAL STENOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhergee G. S; Kiran Kumar L; Manikumar C. J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Spinal stenosis is one of the most common conditions in the elderly. It is defined as a narrowing of the spinal canal. The term stenosis is derived from the Greek word for narrow, which is “Stenos”. The first description of this condition is attributed to Antoine portal in 1803. Verbiest is credited with coining the term spinal stenosis and the associated narrowing of the spinal canal as its potential cause. [1-10] Kirkaldy–Willis subsequently described the de...

  20. Pain associated with root canal treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Segura-Egea, Juan José; Cisneros Cabello, Rafael; Llamas Carreras, José María; Velasco Ortega, Eugenio

    2009-01-01

    Our purpose was to determine the pain experienced by patients during root canal treatment and to correlate with age and gender, pulpal diagnosis, previous periapical status, dental characteristics and length of treatment. One hundred and seventy-six patients (68 men and 108 women), with ages ranged from 6 to 83 years, were randomly recruited. Patients completed a 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS) that ranked the level of pain experienced during root canal treatment. The mean pain level during...

  1. Two root canals in maxillary central incisor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Almeida Gomes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The success of endodontic treatment requires the knowledge of tooth morphology and its variations. Case report: This clinical article reports an unusual root canal configuration that was detected in a maxillary central incisor with two root canals, demonstrated by radiographic and computerized tomography exams. Conclusion: Knowledge of endodontic anatomy as well as the obtainment of both preoperative radiographs and tomography is important to detect abnormal tooth morphology.

  2. Mechanics of the Panama Canal slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, George F.

    1917-01-01

    Dr. Becker visited the Canal Zone in 1913 as a geologist of the United States Geological Survey and since that time has given the problem the benefit of his study. His appointment as a member of the committee of the National Academy of Sciences has made it appropriate for his conclusions, based upon his personal observations and already reported in part to the Canal Commission, to be stated for the benefit of his associates and other American scientists and engineers.

  3. Efecto del sexo y la explotación sobre la calidad de la canal y de la carne del cordero lechal de raza Ojinegra

    OpenAIRE

    Ripoll Bosch, Raimon; Ripoll García, Guillermo; Alvarez Rodríguez, Javier; Blasco Pérez, Isabel; Panea Doblado, Begoña; Joy Torrens, Margalida

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo pretende caracterizar la calidad de la canal y de la carne de cordero lechal de la raza Ojinegra de Teruel. Para ello se utilizaron 64 corderos lechales, 32 de cada sexo, procedentes de 4 explotaciones comerciales. Los resultados mostraron que la edad al sacrificio, el rendimiento de la canal, las medidas objetivas de la canal y el color instrumental de la grasa y del músculo R. abdominis estuvieron afectados por la explotación de origen (P0,05). La composición...

  4. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L; Gilbertson, M; Eames, I

    2010-12-01

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid

  5. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid

  6. Desarrollo mediante lenguaje de alto nivel de un sistema de simulación de redes basado en FPGA para aplicaciones multiGbps Ethernet

    OpenAIRE

    Lema Sorrosal, Alfredo de

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de este proyecto es crear una aplicación capaz de simular el comportamiento de una red de 10 Gbps con el objetivo de testar equipamiento que se conecta a una red a estas velocidades. Disponer de herramientas de simulación o emulación del tráfico real de red es de gran utilidad para poder comprobar o verificar el uso de nuevos protocolos y equipos en un entorno que pueda parecerse a las condiciones que soporta una red real. Actualmente existen herramientas Software ejecutándo...

  7. Propiedades de algunos estadísticos empleados para la detección de copia de respuestas en la medición educativa

    OpenAIRE

    Ordoñez Camacho, Xavier Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación tiene como objetivo principal analizar la calidad de los estadísticos propuestos en el marco de la presente tesis doctoral en comparación con los estadísticos de referencia. Para analizar esta calidad, es necesario simular tanto las características que se pueden presentar en el diseño de una prueba así como la copia de respuestas entre parejas de examinados. Y por otro lado, también es importante analizar dicha calidad en un conjunto de datos reales. ...

  8. Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence: a morphologic cause of vertigo similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krombach, G.A.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Haage, P.; Guenther, R.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); DiMartino, E. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Prescher, A. [Department of Anatomy, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Kinzel, S. [Department of Experimental Veterinarian Medicine, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    Heading Abstract.The aim of this study was to assess imaging findings of posterior semicircular dehiscence on computed tomography and to evaluate incidence of posterior and superior semicircular canal dehiscence in patients presenting with vertigo, sensorineuronal hearing loss or in a control group without symptoms related to the inner ear. Computed tomography was performed in 507 patients presenting either with vertigo (n=128; 23 of these patients suffered also from sensorineuronal hearing loss), other symptoms related to the inner ear, such as hearing loss or tinnitus (n=183) or symptoms unrelated to the labyrinth (n=196). All images were reviewed for presence of dehiscence of the bone, overlying the semicircular canals. Twenty-nine patients had superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Of these patients, 83% presented with vertigo, 10% with hearing loss or tinnitus and the remaining 7% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. In 23 patients dehiscence of the posterior semicircular canal was encountered. Of these patients, 86% presented with vertigo, 9% with hearing loss or tinnitus and 5% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. Defects of the bony overly are found at the posterior semicircular canal, in addition to the recently introduced superior canal dehiscence syndrome. Significant prevalence of vertigo in these patients suggests that posterior semicircular canal dehiscence can cause vertigo, similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence. (orig.)

  9. Canal mandibular accesorio: análisis de su prevalencia y aspecto imagenológico Accessory mandibular canal: analysis of prevalence and imaging appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Suazo Galdames

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La presencia de canales accesorios en la mandíbula ha sido reportada en la literatura, siendo cuestionado el carácter de variación anatómica de su presentación. El reconocimiento de estas formaciones tiene gran importancia en la práctica de la implantología. El propósito de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia del canal mandibular accesorio y establecer su trayecto y relación con elementos anatómicos circundantes, en mandíbulas secas de individuos adultos pertenecientes al museo de cráneos de la Universidad Federal de São Paulo, mediante imágenes tomografías computarizadas. Material y método: Se analizaron 294 mandíbulas de sexo y edad conocidos, pertenecientes a 195 hombres y 99 mujeres, de entre 18 y 100 años de edad, las cuales fueron inspeccionadas visualmente y con ayuda de un indicador metálico, el cual se mantuvo para obtener sus imágenes en tomografía axial computarizada, examinándose su proyección panorámica y en cortes coronales. Resultados: La prevalencia del canal mandibular accesorio fue de 1,7% (5/294, todos ellos se extendieron paralelos al canal principal, proyectándose anteriormente al foramen mentoniano, con una corticalización parcial. Discusiones: El canal mandibular accesorio presenta una baja prevalencia en la muestra analizada, proponemos que su presencia está asociada a una proyección independiente de los ramos incisivos del nervio alveolar inferior, cuya evaluación es necesaria para evitar su compromiso en los procedimientos implantológicos mandibulares.Introduction: The presence of accessory canals in the mandible has been reported in the literature, still challenge the view that anatomical variation of submission. The recognition of these formations is of great importance in implantology practice. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of accessory mandibular canal and set their course and relationship to surrounding anatomic elements in dry

  10. An in vitro model to investigate filling of lateral canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, Mauro; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Prati, Carlo; Breschi, Lorenzo

    2005-12-01

    Aims of this work were to examine lateral canals in extracted teeth, to propose a new technique to produce artificial lateral canals, and to compare two obturation techniques. Cleared roots were examined to record measure and shape of lateral canals. Artificial lateral canals were prepared on human demineralized teeth before final clearing. Specimens were divided in two groups: canals of group 1 were filled with Schilder's technique, canals of group 2 were filled with vertical compaction with apical backfilling. Stereomicroscopic analysis of lateral canal filling revealed lower filling rates in apical canals compared to coronal ones and higher filling rates with "vertical compaction with apical backfilling" compared to Schilder's group. The tested procedure appears to be a reliable technique to obtain standardized lateral canals and to compare filling procedures.

  11. A radiographic study of mandibular canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Chul; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral Radiology, Division of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-11-15

    The author invested the gonial angle, the angle of mandibular and mental canal to the lower border of the mandible, and a relationship of the position of the mandibular canal to the root apex of the posterior teeth and the cortical plate of the lower of the mandible. The materials consisted of 458 pantomograms in male and female aged 11-40 and divided into 5 groups at year intervals and subdivided into 3 groups by gonial angle. The results were as follows: 1. The gonial angle decreased with age, but slight increase occurred over 26-30 years. 2. The average angle of the mandibular canal to the lower border of the mandible was 151.6 degree and did not correlate with age. 3. The average angle of the mental canal to the lower border of the mandible was 36.9 degree and didn't correlate with age. 4. The angles of mandibular and mental canal to the lower border of mandible correlated with gonial angle. 5. The distance from the root apex of the posterior teeth to the upper wall mandibular canal was most short at the region of the distal root of the mandibular second and increased with age at the region of the mandibular second molar. 6. The distance from the lower wall of the mandibular canal to the cortical plate of the lower border of the mandibule was most short at the region of the mesial root of the mandibular first molar and didn't correlate with age.

  12. Radiological Review Studies On Ismailia Canal Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is a brief review of pr-studies carried out on Ismailia Canal, Egypt, water ecosystem. Ismailia Canal water body is a bicarbonate stream with slight seasonal variations in its water chemical constituents. The canal water pH in all the stream locations are below 8.3 with low suspended matter(SM) content (22-33 mg.l-1). The mineralogical analysis of the canal bottom sediments consist mainly of quartz, smectite and kaolinite minerals. The γ- spectroscopic identification showed traces of naturally occurring radio nuclides (238U, 232Th and 40K). The average activity level of the dry samples ranged from 12 to 89 Bq.Kg-1 for the detected natural radio nuclides. Some parameters affected the sorption behaviour of radio nuclides on suspended matters and bottom sediments; such as solution pH, SM concentration, sediment grain size, carrier concentration and competing ions were studied. The reaction rates were investigated for each radionuclide studied. The distribution of the studied radio nuclides, between the liquid phase and the sediments phase was investigated, for both flowing and static systems. For both flowing and non-flowing (static), the depth penetration of the studied radio nuclides within the bottom sediment layers were found to vary from one radionuclide to the other. The total capacities of bottom sediments and the suspended matter were found to be low. As Ismailia Canal is an important source of water for public domestic uses, irrigation animals and the aquatic species; these situations have led to state that it is not recommended to release any liquid radioactive wastes to this canal. Furthermore, periodical radiometric analysis for the canal water and its components should be carried out.

  13. Metodología para la selección de modelo hidrodinámicos tridimensionales

    OpenAIRE

    Betancur Pérez, Gabriel Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    En este trabajo de desarrolla una propuesta metodológica diseñada para realizar una selección guiada de un modelo hidrodinámico tridimensional, para la simular los procesos físicos de un embalse tropical. La metodología propuesta considera tres etapas: 1) definición y búsqueda, 2) pre-selección y 3) selección, que brindan el marco general. Para ilustrar la metodología se definió como caso de estudio la variación espacial de la estructura térmica del embalse de Riogrande II y se implementaron ...

  14. Simulación de una red Grid con máquinas virtuales para crear un entorno de aprendizaje de la computación de alto desempeño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Eduardo Millán-Rojas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presenta una metodología de construcción de una plataforma para simular una red Grid con máquinas virtuales, con el objetivo de crear entornos virtuales que contribuyan a los procesos de aprendizaje. El diseño utilizado para el desarrollo está basado en un prototipo que contribuye a generar un entorno de simulación de bajo costo a través de la computación de alto desempeño. Como resultado de la investigación se obtuvo un conjunto de máquinas virtuales que pueden ser desplegadas en cualquier equipo de cómputo para simular un entorno Grid; además, se presenta la forma de la configuración de esta red para ser parte integral de la construcción y ejecución de la plataforma como instrumento válido para la enseñanza de la computación de alto desempeño a un bajo coste de hardware y la simulación de los servicios Grid sobre la plataforma.

  15. The Kra Canal and Southeast Asian Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Suryati Sulong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a conceptual study that attempts to analyse the possible effects of the development of the Kra Isthmus Canal on ASEAN relations. The Kra Canal would constitute a mega-project, a passageway that would connect the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand at the Isthmus of Kra, Thailand. Although the proposed Kra Canal is projected to provide many economic and trade benefits to Thailand, and to the region as a whole, steps toward its development have yet to be taken. There has been much debate over the costs for trade, the costs for the environment, national and regional security concerns, as well as major concerns related to political and economic relations in the region. Therefore, one of the main purposes of this study is to contribute to the debate on the possible impact of the devel-opment of the Kra Canal on ASEAN’s regional relations. In particular, it proposes that the development of the Kra Canal could threaten regional solidarity as it would physically divide maritime Southeast Asia from main-land Southeast Asia, which would ultimately result in an economic, cultural and political divide of ASEAN itself.

  16. Efectos ambientales en la agricultura por el uso de aguas residuales del canal de Chilhuacán, Atlixco, Puebla

    OpenAIRE

    Neri Ramírez Efraín

    2012-01-01

    La zona agrícola del canal Chilhuacán se riega con aguas residuales provenientes del río Nexapa, es altamente productiva en hortalizas, forrajes y ornamentales, pero con un riesgo implícito para suelos y cultivos, debido a que las aguas tienen contaminantes, principalmente metales pesados y alta salinidad. El objetivo de esta investigación fue: “Evaluar los efectos ambientales y sociales de la agricultura de riego ocasionados por el uso de aguas residuales del canal Chilhuacán...

  17. Synchronous rectal adenocarcinoma and anal canal adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Jin; LI Jiyou; YAO Yunfeng; LU Aiping; WANG Hongyi

    2007-01-01

    It is difficult to distinguish a tectal carcinoma with anal metastases from coexistent synchronous anorectal carcinomas.The therapeutic strategy for rectal and anal carcinoma is so different that it should be clearly identified.Here,we report on the case of a 63-year-old man who presented with an upper-third rectal adenocarcinoma.Five months after resection,he developed an adenocarcinoma in the anal canal.The histological slides of both tumors were reviewed and immunohistochemical studies for cytokeratins(CKs)7 and 20 were performed.The index tumor demonstrated CK 7-/CK 20+and the second showed CK7+/CK20+.For this reason,we believe the present case had synchronous adenocarcinomas arising from anal canal and the rectum separately.It is very important to difierentiate the anorectal lesions pathologically because of the impact on the therapeutic options available,especially for the lesion arising in the anal canal.

  18. File list: His.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 Histone Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canal...s http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  19. File list: Unc.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 Unclassified Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canal...s http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  20. File list: His.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 Histone Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canal...s http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  1. File list: Unc.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 Unclassified Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canal...s http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  2. File list: Unc.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 Unclassified Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canal...s http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  3. File list: His.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 Histone Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canal...s http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  4. File list: Unc.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 Unclassified Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canal...s http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  5. File list: His.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 Histone Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canal...s http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  6. Stratification and enumeration of Boolean functions by canalizing depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qijun; Macauley, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Boolean network models have gained popularity in computational systems biology over the last dozen years. Many of these networks use canalizing Boolean functions, which has led to increased interest in the study of these functions. The canalizing depth of a function describes how many canalizing variables can be recursively "picked off", until a non-canalizing function remains. In this paper, we show how every Boolean function has a unique algebraic form involving extended monomial layers and a well-defined core polynomial. This generalizes recent work on the algebraic structure of nested canalizing functions, and it yields a stratification of all Boolean functions by their canalizing depth. As a result, we obtain closed formulas for the number of n-variable Boolean functions with depth k, which simultaneously generalizes enumeration formulas for canalizing, and nested canalizing functions.

  7. Stratification and enumeration of Boolean functions by canalizing depth

    CERN Document Server

    He, Qijun

    2015-01-01

    Boolean network models have gained popularity in computational systems biology over the last dozen years. Many of these networks use canalizing Boolean functions, which has led to increased interest in the study of these functions. The canalizing depth of a function describes how many canalizing variables can be recursively picked off, until a non-canalizing function remains. In this paper, we show how every Boolean function has a unique algebraic form involving extended monomial layers and a well-defined core polynomial. This generalizes recent work on the algebraic structure of nested canalizing functions, and it yields a stratification of all Boolean functions by their canalizing depth. As a result, we obtain closed formulas for the number of n-variable Boolean functions with depth k, which simultaneously generalizes enumeration formulas for canalizing, and nested canalizing functions.

  8. Surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canals of maxillary incisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This case report presents surgical endodontic management outcomes of maxillary incisors that were infected via the lateral canals. Two cases are presented in which endodontically-treated maxillary central incisors had sustained lateral canal infections. A surgical endodontic treatment was performed on both teeth. Flap elevation revealed vertical bone destruction along the root surface and infected lateral canals, and microscopy revealed that the lateral canals were the origin of the lesions. After the infected lateral canals were surgically managed, both teeth were asymptomatic and labial fistulas were resolved. There were no clinical or radiographic signs of surgical endodontic management failure at follow-up visits. This case report highlights the clinical significance and surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canal of maxillary incisor. It is important to be aware of root canal anatomy variability in maxillary incisors. Maxillary central incisors infected via the lateral canal can be successfully managed by surgical endodontic treatment. PMID:25671217

  9. [Frequency and most common localisation of root canal curvature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasković-Subat, V

    1991-01-01

    The root canal therapy of the curved canals is a complex operative procedure. Therefore 260 root canals were analysed radiologically to determine the frequency and the most common localisation of the root canal curvature. The frequency of the curved canals averaged at 59%, being greater in the sample of posterior than in the anterior teeth (p less than 0.05). The root canal curvature was most frequently localised at the apical third part (53.9%), followed by the cervical (33.3%) and the middle (12.8%) third part. The apical curvature was predominant in the sample of the anterior, while the cervical predominant (45.2%) in the sample of the posterior teeth. This study pointed out that the frequency of the curved canals is rather high. Consequently, the necessity for practising the modern root canal preparation techniques, bearing in mind their potential danger, is emphasized. PMID:1819932

  10. Calidad y rendimiento en canal de corderos en pastoreo suplementados con caña de azúcar fermentada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Frías

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue medir el rendimiento de la canal y la calidad de la carne de corderos alimentados con pasto, suplementados con caña de azúcar fermentada en forma aeróbica. Se llevó a cabo en dos sitios. Se trabajó con un grupo de 13 corderos de 11.5 kg de peso vivo inicial, estabulados y alimentados con pasto, suplementados con caña de azúcar fermentada en Cunduacán, Tabasco, y 24 corderos con 20 kg de peso vivo inicial, semiestabulado en pastoreo con pasto Estrella Africana, suplementados con caña de azúcar fermentada, en Huimanguillo, Tabasco. Se sacrificaron a un peso de 32 kg. Los resultados fueron analizados mediante estadística descriptiva. La ganancia diaria de peso fue de 109 y 85 g para el sistema Cunduacán y Huimanguillo, respectivamente. El peso y rendimiento de la canal en frío y caliente fue de 13.5 y de 14.14 kg, 42.04 y 43.09% y 40.28 y 41.45%, para el sistema Cunduacán y Huimanguillo, respectivamente. La relación entre el peso al sacrificio con el rendimiento de la canal tuvo correlación negativa de -0.41. Las piezas de mayor peso fueron, pierna, costilla/falda, lomo y paleta. La capacidad de retención de agua fue 12.78, 12.8, y elpH, 5.49 y 5.71, para el sistema Cunduacán y Huimanguillo, respectivamente. El color de la grasa fue blanco para las canales de ovinos, en ambos sitios. Se concluye que los corderos de pelo alimentados con pasto y caña fermentada producen canales con bajo rendimiento magro y con grasa de color blanca.

  11. Viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function using acoustic reflectometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Peter J; Klarskov, Niels; Telford, Karen J;

    2012-01-01

    Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new reproducible technique that allows a viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis.......Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new reproducible technique that allows a viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis....

  12. Computed tomography of the thoracic canal. Experimental and clinical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, S. (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1981-05-01

    Under the adequate CT condition, thoracic canal was studied in twelve normal cases, nine cases of cervical myelopathy with developmental cervical canal stenosis and four cases of thoracic myelopathy with ossification of thoracic yellow ligament. The results were as follows. 1) The adequate condition for delineation of thoracic canal seemed to be nearly 400 EMI units in window width and 150 in level. Scanning angle was permitted within about 10/sup 0/. Bony thoracic canal was well scanned at the center of vertebral body. 2) The configulation of the normal thoracic canal was oval at Th/sub 1/, Th/sub 2/ levels and round at Th/sub 3/-Th/sub 10/ and large oval at Th/sub 11/, Th/sub 12/. The sagittal diameter was almost fixed at each level and the transverse diameter was large at upper and lower levels and small at middle levels. 3) Thoracic canal was narrowed in the cases of cervical myelopathy with developmental cervical canal stenosis especially in sagittal diameter, but not narrowed in transverse diameter. Three of four cases who had myelopathy with ossification of thoracic yellow ligament had narrow canals. 4) There was a good relation between sagittal diameter of cervical canal and thoracic canal. 5) There was a good relation between sagittal diameter of thoracic canal measured by conventional radiographs (Hattori's method) and CT scans. The author thinks that Hattori's method is useful to diagnose the thoracic canal stenosis.

  13. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate,...

  14. Newer Root Canal Irrigants in Horizon: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant P. Jaju; Sushma Jaju

    2011-01-01

    Sodium hypochloride is the most commonly used endodontic irrigant, despite limitations. None of the presently available root canal irrigants satisfy the requirements of ideal root canal irrigant. Newer root canal irrigants are studied for potential replacement of sodium hypochloride. This article reviews the potential irrigants with their advantages and limitations with their future in endodontic irrigation.

  15. Newer Root Canal Irrigants in Horizon: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Jaju

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium hypochloride is the most commonly used endodontic irrigant, despite limitations. None of the presently available root canal irrigants satisfy the requirements of ideal root canal irrigant. Newer root canal irrigants are studied for potential replacement of sodium hypochloride. This article reviews the potential irrigants with their advantages and limitations with their future in endodontic irrigation.

  16. Mobilização do osso pisiforme no tratamento da neuropraxia do nervo ulnar no canal de Guyon: relato de caso Pisiform bone mobilization for treating ulnar nerve neuropraxia at Guyon's canal: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Guilherme Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As neuropraxias do nervo ulnar são lesões bastante freqüentes que provocam efeitos deletérios, como diminuição de força muscular e parestesias; geralmente ocorrem no nível do epicôndilo medial e do túnel ulnar (canal de Guyon. São escassos os relatos referentes a técnicas de terapia manual para compressões do nervo ulnar no canal de Guyon. Este trabalho relata o uso da técnica de mobilização do pisiforme na compressão do nervo ulnar no canal de Guyon de um homem que sofreu luxação do punho direito aos 8 anos e, aos 25, queixava-se de um deficit para adução do dedo mínimo, que atrapalhava a realização de algumas atividades de vida diária. O paciente foi submetido a uma única sessão de mobilização articular do pisiforme. Após a aplicação da técnica, o sinal positivo do teste foi eliminado, restabelecendo-se a função de adução do 5o dedo. Embora carecendo de maior fundamentação teórica, pode-se afirmar que a técnica usada, de mobilização articular do osso pisiforme, é eficaz para melhora do quadro de paresia por neuropraxia do nervo ulnar no canal de Guyon.A common ulnar nerve neuropraxia is lesion that may result in muscle strength decrease and/or paresthesia; it usually takes place at medial epicondyle level and the ulnar tunnel (Guyon's canal. Studies on manual therapy techniques for ulnar nerve compression in Guyon's canal are scarce. This paper reports the use of a technique of pisiform bone mobilization for relieving ulnar nerve compression in Guyon's canal, in a man who had suffered a luxation of the right wrist at the age of 8 and, at 25, complained of adduction deficit of the fifth finger that interfered in his daily life activities. He was submitted to one session of pisiform mobilization; after the session, the positive test sign was eliminated, thus restoring the fifth finger function. Though lacking further grounding, it may be said that the technique used, of mobilizing the pisiform bone

  17. Problemas Del Pollo De Engorde Antes Y Después Del Beneficio (Pollo En Canal). 1º Parte

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Lissette Ricaurte Galindo M.V.Z.

    2005-01-01

    Cuando los pollos llegan a la planta necesitan una ventilación adecuada en la zona de retención para minimizar la mortalidad y la pérdida excesiva de peso vivo. Los pollos que llegan deben ser programados para el procesamiento dentro de las 8 a 12 horas después de haber comido por última vez. De esta manera disminuye la cantidad de material que podría contaminar potencialmente la canal durante el procesamiento permitiendo tiempo suficiente para que el intestino se vacíe. Los pollos que quedan...

  18. Nerve canals at the fundus of the internal auditory canal on high-resolution temporal bone CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Yoon Ha; Youn, Eun Kyung; Kim, Seung Chul [Sungkyunkwan Univ., School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    To identify and evaluate the normal anatomy of nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal which can be visualized on high-resolution temporal bone CT. We retrospectively reviewed high-resolution (1 mm thickness and interval contiguous scan) temporal bone CT images of 253 ears in 150 patients who had not suffered trauma or undergone surgery. Those with a history of uncomplicated inflammatory disease were included, but those with symptoms of vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, or facial nerve palsy were excluded. Three radiologists determined the detectability and location of canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial, superior vestibular and cochlear nerve, and the saccular branch and posterior ampullary nerve of the inferior vestibular nerve. Five bony canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were identified as nerve canals. Four canals were identified on axial CT images in 100% of cases; the so-called singular canal was identified in only 68%. On coronal CT images, canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial and superior vestibular nerve were seen in 100% of cases, but those for the cochlear nerve, the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve, and the singular canal were seen in 90.1%, 87.4% and 78% of cases, respectiveIy. In all detectable cases, the canal for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve was revealed as one which traversed anterolateralIy, from the anterosuperior portion of the fundus of the internal auditory canal. The canal for the cochlear nerve was located just below that for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve, while that canal for the superior vestibular nerve was seen at the posterior aspect of these two canals. The canal for the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve was located just below the canal for the superior vestibular nerve, and that for the posterior ampullary nerve, the so-called singular canal, ran laterally or posteolateralIy from the posteroinferior aspect of

  19. Modulación adaptativa y diversidad en canales de comunicaciones acústicas subacuáticas

    OpenAIRE

    Clemente Medina, María del Carmen

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo general de la tesis es evaluar las técnicas de transmisión de datos a alta velocidad más adecuadas para canales de comunicaciones acústicas subacuáticas. Se centra en la técnica madura de modulación adaptativa, donde el canal se estima en recepción. Esta técnica adaptativa se puede combinar con la codificación de canal que desarrolla y analiza códigos orientados a facilitar la detección y corrección de los errores originados a causa del paso de las señales por el medio de transmis...

  20. Infrared tympanic temperature and ear canal morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Several publications indicate that the infrared tympanic temperature (IRTT) underestimates the core temperature of the body when the ear canal is long, curvy and narrow. In order to quantify these observations, a study was performed in 10 subjects. The IRTT was determined and compared to the oesopha

  1. The crazy project – Canal Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Kundak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It was late April 2011 when “the Crazy Project - Canal Istanbul” was proposed by the Prime Minister of Turkey, during his election campaign.  Although the idea of an artificial canal is not new, since it is initiated without any consensus between the people and institutions in Istanbul, the project immediately set a large number of debates. These vary from the legitimacy of decentralization of governance, to potential impacts of the canal on international politics, economy, environment and urban life.  Regarding past infrastructure projects in Istanbul, such large scale investments have caused extensive acceleration in construction sector in one hand and social and economic shifts on the other.  In this paper, the Canal Istanbul Project is evaluated according to basic motivations and claims of the PM, multi-perspective view through challenges and limitation that the project is likely to face with and speculations on implementation approach. The final discussion on the project is based on benefits/losses of Istanbul once the project will be implemented.

  2. Note on Tendipedidae of the Suez Canal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruseman, G.

    1949-01-01

    Mr. A. C. V. VAN BEMMEL and Dr. A. DIAKONOFF of the Buitenzorg Museum (Java) collected Tendipedidae, which were attracted by artificial lights, when they passed the Suez Canal on 8-XI-1937 and 16-V-1939 respectively. This very interesting collection, containing some new species, was sent to me for d

  3. Assessment of the wetting behavior of three different root canal sealers on root canal dentin

    OpenAIRE

    Muralidhar Tummala; Veeramachaneni Chandrasekhar; A Shashi Rashmi; Kundabala, M; Vasudev Ballal

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the wetting behavior of three different root canal sealers on the root canal dentin surface treated with irrigants and their combination. Materials and Methods: Decoronation and apical third resections of 27 extracted single-rooted human mandibular premolars were done. The roots were then split longitudinally into two halves, and randomly assigned into three treatment groups (n=18). The root dentin surfaces in Group1, Gro...

  4. Preparación de canales curvos y calcificados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Sofia Gallego Lopez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa preparación durante el tratamiento endodóntico consiste en la correcta limpieza y conformación del sistema de conductos radiculares, y que conserve siempre su forma original. Al finalizar la preparación, se debe obtener un conducto con conicidad uniforme y con un tope apical, que permita un selle hermético al momento de la obturación. Se debe tener en cuenta la dificultad para lograr resultados satisfactorios sobre todo en conductos curvos y calcificados debido a la complejidad de éstos. Las técnicas implementadas y el instrumental adecuado para la preparación de conductos, han sido muchos con el fin de minimizar los errores durante la preparación. No obstante, ninguna técnica ni instrumental por sí solo resulta ideal en la prevención de estos errores; es necesario el cumplimiento de algunos principios básicos durante la preparación de estos conductos, tales como la correcta preparación coronal, el uso continuo de irrigantes y agentes quelantes, el mantenimiento de la permeabilidad, el limado anticurvatura y la doble conicidad. La incorrección de estos principios conlleva a errores, los cuales dificultan el éxito del tratamiento endodóntico. Los avances de la ciencia y el advenimiento de los instrumentos de níquel-titanio, han logrado facilitar el tratamiento de endodoncia, tanto que ya no es considerado como anteriormente se le atribuía que era un procedimiento difícil, lo importante predecir la orientación y anatomía del conducto antes de emplear técnicas o instrumentales, ya que un error en ellas nos llevará al fracaso del tratamiento. (DUAZARY 2011, 66 - 73AbstractThe preparation for the endodontic treatment is proper cleaning and shaping the root canal system, and always keep its original shape. After the preparation, must be obtained through uniform and tapered with an apical stop, allowing a tight seal when the seal. It must take into account the difficulty of achieving satisfactory results especially

  5. MR determination of neonatal spinal canal depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen, E-mail: owenarthurs@uk2.net [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London WC1N 3JH (United Kingdom); Thayyil, Sudhin, E-mail: s.thayyil@ucl.ac.uk [Academic Neonatology, Institute for Women' s Health, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom); Wade, Angie, E-mail: a.wade@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Chong, W.K., E-mail: Kling.Chong@gosh.nhs.uk [Paediatric Neuroradiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J., E-mail: Neil.Sebire@gosh.nhs.uk [Histopathology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom); Taylor, Andrew M., E-mail: a.taylor76@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Cardiorespiratory Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children and UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Objectives: Lumbar punctures (LPs) are frequently performed in neonates and often result in traumatic haemorrhagic taps. Knowledge of the distance from the skin to the middle of the spinal canal (mid-spinal canal depth - MSCD) may reduce the incidence of traumatic taps, but there is little data in extremely premature or low birth weight neonates. Here, we determined the spinal canal depth at post-mortem in perinatal deaths using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients and methods: Spinal canal depth was measured in 78 post-mortem foetuses and perinatal cases (mean gestation 26 weeks; mean weight 1.04 kg) at the L3/L4 inter-vertebral space at post-mortem MRI. Both anterior (ASCD) and posterior (PSCD) spinal canal depth were measured; MSCD was calculated and modelled against weight and gestational age. Results: ASCD and PSCD (mm) correlated significantly with weight and gestational age (all r > 0.8). A simple linear model MSCD (mm) = 3 Multiplication-Sign Weight (kg) + 5 was the best fit, identifying an SCD value within the correct range for 87.2% (68/78) (95% CI (78.0, 92.9%)) cases. Gestational age did not add significantly to the predictive value of the model. Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between MSCD and body weight at post-mortem MRI in foetuses and perinatal deaths. If this association holds in preterm neonates, use of the formula MSCD (mm) = 3 Multiplication-Sign Weight (kg) + 5 could result in fewer traumatic LPs in this population.

  6. Gradually varied flow in compound open channels; Flujo gradualmente variado en canales de seccion compuesta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotela Avila, Gilberto [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2001-03-01

    The author shows that the computation of gradually-varied-flow profiles in prismatic compound channels involves the solution of the dynamic equation, but using the compound channel Froude number defined by Blalock and Sturm. The same equation is used for non-prismatic channels by dividing the channel into short reaches and carrying the computation step by step through an iterative process. [Spanish] El autor demuestra que los perfiles del flujo gradualmente variado en canales prismaticos de seccion compuesta se pueden determinar mediante la integracion de la llamada ecuacion dinamica, pero usando el numero de Froude definido por Blalock y Sturm para este tipo de canales. Cuando no son prismaticos, tambien se aplica la ecuacion de la energia por tramos y el calculo sigue un proceso iterativo una vez definidos los tirantes criticos multiples y la zona en que se desarrolla el perfil.

  7. Evaluation of accessory furcation canals of permanent mandibular molars using radiography and clearing = Avaliação do canal cavo-interradicular em molares inferiores permanentes através de Rx e diafanização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harb, Leandro José Corrêa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a presença do canal cavo-interradicular em molares inferiores permanentes através de radiografias e diafanização. Metodologia: A amostra foi constituída por 344 molares inferiores re-hidratados, preparados e armazenados individualmente em recipientes de vidro. A presença do canal cavo-interradicular foi investigada por um único operador treinado usando lupa (4x para as radiografias e microscópio óptico odontológico (30x para as amostras diafanizadas. Microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV foi usada para verificar diferenças morfológicas do assoalho pulpar. Resultados: A análise radiográfica mostrou que 9% das amostras tinham uma zona levemente radiolúcida, 2% mostravam uma imagem sugestiva, e 89% das amostras não tinham nenhuma evidência. Pela diafanização, o canal não foi encontrado nas amostras avaliadas. Pela MEV, as amostras recém extraídas mostraram com canalículos dentinários uniformes; as demais apresentaram pequenos sítios com canalículos uniformes. Conclusão: O exame radiográfico não foi o melhor método de diagnóstico; a diafanização é um excelente método avaliativo, pois permite a visualização tridimensional da anatomia interna dental em pesquisas in vitro

  8. Dorello's Canal for Laymen: A Lego-Like Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Haim; Banerjee, Anirban Deep; Thakur, Jai Deep; Nanda, Anil

    2012-06-01

    Objective Dorello's canal was first described by Gruber in 1859, and later by Dorello. Vail also described the anatomy of Dorello's canal. In the preceding century, Dorello's canal was clinically important, in understanding sixth nerve palsy and nowadays it is mostly important for skull base surgery. The understanding of the three dimensional anatomy, of this canal is very difficult to understand, and there is no simple explanation for its anatomy and its relationship with adjacent structures. We present a simple, Lego-like, presentation of Dorello's canal, in a stepwise manner. Materials and Methods Dorello's canal was dissected in five formalin-fixed cadaver specimens (10 sides). The craniotomy was performed, while preserving the neural and vascular structures associated with the canal. A 3D model was created, to explain the canal's anatomy. Results Using the petrous pyramid, the sixth nerve, the cavernous sinus, the trigeminal ganglion, the petorclival ligament and the posterior clinoid, the three-dimensional structure of Dorello's canal was defined. This simple representation aids in understanding the three dimensional relationship of Dorello's canal to its neighboring structures. Conclusion Dorello's canal with its three dimensional structure and relationship to its neighboring anatomical structures could be reconstructed using a few anatomical building blocks. This method simplifies the understanding of this complex anatomical structure, and could be used for teaching purposes for aspiring neurosurgeons, and anatomy students. PMID:23730547

  9. Research on Canal System Operation Based on Controlled Volume Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Ding

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An operating simulation mode based on storage volume control method for multireach canal system in series was established. In allusion to the deficiency of existing controlled volume algorithm, the improved algorithm was proposed, that is the controlled volume algorithm of whole canal pools, the simulation results indicate that the storage volume and water level of each canal pool can be accurately controlled after the improved algorithm was adopted. However, for some typical discharge demand change operating conditions of canal, if the controlled volume algorithm of whole canal pool is still adopted, then it certainly will cause some unnecessary regulation, and consequently increases the disturbed canal reaches. Therefor, the idea of controlled volume operation method of continuous canal pools was proposed, and its algorithm was designed. Through simulation to practical project, the results indicate that the new controlled volume algorithm proposed for typical operating condition can comparatively obviously reduce the number of regulated check gates and disturbed canal pools for some typical discharge demand change operating conditions of canal, thus the control efficiency of canal system was improved. The controlled volume method of operation is specially suitable for large-scale water delivery canal system which possesses complex operation requirements.

  10. Comparison of the rheological properties of four root canal sealers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seok Woo Chang; Kwang Shik Bae; Young-Kyu Lee; Qiang Zhu; Won Jun Shon; Woo Cheol Lee; Kee Yeon Kum; Seung Ho Baek; In Bog Lee; Bum-Soon Lim

    2015-01-01

    The flowability of a root canal sealer is clinically important because it improves the penetration of the sealer into the complex root canal system. The purpose of this study was to compare the flowabilities of four root canal sealers, measured using the simple press method (ISO 6876), and their viscosities, measured using a strain-controlled rheometer. A newly developed, calcium phosphate-based root canal sealer (Capseal) and three commercial root canal sealers (AH Plus, Sealapex and Pulp Canal Sealer EWT) were used in this study. The flowabilities of the four root canal sealers were measured using the simple press method (n55) and their viscosities were measured using a strain-controlled rheometer (n55). The correlation between these two values was statistically analysed using Spearman’s correlation test. The flow diameters and the viscosities of the root canal sealers were strongly negatively correlated (r520.8618). The viscosity of Pulp Canal Sealer EWT was the lowest and increased in the following order:AH Plus,Sealapex,Capseal (P,0.05). All of the tested root canal sealers showed characteristic time-and temperature-dependent changes in their rheological properties. The viscosities measured using the strain-controlled rheometer were more precise than the flowabilities measured using the simple press method, suggesting that the rheometer can accurately measure the rheological properties of root canal sealers.

  11. Morphology of the mandibular canal and the angulation between the mandibular and mental canals in dry skulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pálsson, S R; Kjaer, I

    2008-01-01

    -angles. In order to analyse internal morphology, a metallic pin was placed in the mental canal on the left side before radiography. The angle between the mental and the mandibular canals was termed the 'mental angle' and that expressing the curvature of the mandibular canal, the 'mandibular angle'. Spearman......-angles. The findings show that the internal courses of the mandibular and mental canals are interrelated. They also indicated that the course and morphology of the mandibular canal are interrelated with external mandibular morphology....

  12. The Canal da Piracema at Itaipu Dam as a fish pass system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Makrakis

    2007-01-01

    polemic fish pass has the potential to contribute to the conservation of fish stocks in Itaipu Reservoir and upstream stretches, because of the presence of spawning and development (nurseries areas for migratory species.O Canal da Piracema é considerado o maior sistema de transposição para peixes no mundo, com 10 km de extensão. A sua construção foi controversa, pois viabilizou a conexão entre duas províncias ictiofaunísticas distintas. Este trabalho buscou avaliar a ictiofauna presente no Canal da Piracema, a abundância e distribuição das espécies migradoras de longa distância ao longo deste sistema de transposição (indicação de seletividade. O Canal da Piracema mostrou-se difícil de ser amostrado, devido a sua elevada heterogeneidade ambiental: lagos artificiais, escadas e canais semi-naturais, sendo utilizados diversos aparelhos de pesca, adequados aos diversos biótopos (litoral não estruturado e estruturado, amostrados com redes de arrasto e pesca elétrica; lêntico, amostrado com redes de espera e espinhel (mais profundo; e águas rápidas, amostradas com tarrafas. A ictiofauna presente seguiu o padrão para a América do Sul e rio Paraná, com amplo domínio de Characiformes e Siluriformes, sendo Characidae, Anostomidae, Pimelodidade e Loricariidae as famílias mais representativas. Ao todo foram capturadas 116 espécies sendo que 17 eram migradoras de longas distâncias. Nas regiões litorâneas estruturadas e não estruturadas do Canal da Piracema, as capturas se restringiram às espécies de pequeno porte, sendo as mais representativas Bryconamericus exodon e Apareiodon affinis.Nas áreas lênticas houve predomínio de Hypostomus spp., seguidos de Iheringichthys labrosus. Nas áreas lênticas profundas a espécie mais capturada foi Hoplias aff. malabaricus. Nas áreas de águas rápidas houve maior captura de espécies migradoras de longa distância, sendo Prochilodus lineatus e Leporinus elongatus as mais capturadas. A redução acentuada

  13. Water quality of the Boca Raton canal system and effects of the Hillsboro Canal inflow, southeastern Florida, 1990-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The City of Boca Raton in southeastern Palm Beach County, Florida, is an urban residential area that has sustained a constant population growth with subsequent increase in water use. The Boca Raton network of canals is controlled to provide for drainage of excess water, to maintain proper coastal ground-water levels to prevent saltwater intrusion, and to recharge the surficial aquifer system from which the city withdraws potable water. Most of the water supplied to the Boca Raton canal system and the surficial aquifer system, other than rainfall and runoff, is pumped from the Hillsboro Canal. The Biscayne aquifer, principal hydrogeologic unit of the surficial aquifer system, is highly permeable and there is a close relation between water levels in the canals and the aquifer. The amount of water supplied by seepage from the conservation areas is unknown. Because the Hillsboro Canal flows from Lake Okeechobee and Water Conservation Areas 1 and 2, which are places of more highly mineralized ground water and surface water, the canal is a possible source of contamination. Water samples were collected at 10 canal sites during wet and dry seasons and analyzed for major inorganic ions and related characteristics, nutrients, and trace elements. All concentrations were generally within or less than the drinking-water standards established by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. The high concentrations of sodium and chloride that were detected in samples from the Boca Raton canal system are probably from the more mineralized water of the Hillsboro Canal. Other water-quality data, gathered from various sources from 1982 through 1991, did not indicate any significant changes nor trends. The effects of the Hillsboro Canal on the water quality of the Boca Raton canal system are indicated by increased concentrations of sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, and total organic carbon. Concentrations of the constituents in the canal water generally decrease with distance

  14. Ewing Sarcoma of the External Ear Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnetoglu, Adem; Baglam, Tekin; Tokuc, Gulnur; Kecelioglu Binnetoglu, Kiymet; Gerin, Fatma; Sari, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a high-grade malignant tumor that has skeletal and extraskeletal forms and consists of small round cells. In the head and neck region, reported localization of extraskeletal ES includes the larynx, thyroid gland, submandibular gland, nasal fossa, pharynx, skin, and parotid gland, but not the external ear canal. Methods. We present the unique case of a 2-year-old boy with extraskeletal ES arising from the external ear canal, mimicking auricular hematoma. Results. Surgery was performed and a VAC/IE (vincristine, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide alternating with ifosfamide, and etoposide) regimen was used for adjuvant chemotherapy for 12 months. Conclusion. The clinician should consider extraskeletal ES when diagnosing tumors localized in the head and neck region because it may be manifested by a nonspecific clinical picture mimicking common otorhinolaryngologic disorders. PMID:27313930

  15. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, F T

    2012-01-31

    Squamous cell carcinoma ofthe anal canal represents 1.5% of all malignancies affectingthe gastrointestinal tract. Over the past 20 years dramatic changes have been seen in both the epidemiological distribution of the disease and in the therapeutic modalities utilised to manage it. CLINICAL MANAGEMENT: Historically abdominoperineal resection had been the treatment of choice with local resection reserved for early stage disease. Work by Nigro et al. has revolutionised how we currently manage carcinoma of the anal canal, demonstrating combined modality chemoradiotherapy as an appropriate alternative to surgical resection with the benefit of preserving sphincter function. Surgery is then reserved for recurrent disease with salvage abdominoperineal resection. This article reviews current literature and highlights the changing therapeutic modalities with selected clinical cases

  16. Cancer of the external auditory canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyrop, Mette; Grøntved, Aksel

    2002-01-01

    . PATIENTS: Ten women and 10 men with previously untreated primary cancer. Median age at diagnosis was 67 years (range, 31-87 years). Survival data included 18 patients with at least 2 years of follow-up or recurrence. INTERVENTION: Local canal resection or partial temporal bone resection. MAIN OUTCOME......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of surgery for cancer of the external auditory canal and relate this to the Pittsburgh staging system used both on squamous cell carcinoma and non-squamous cell carcinoma. DESIGN: Retrospective case series of all patients who had surgery between 1979 and 2000...... MEASURE: Recurrence rate. RESULTS: Half of the patients had squamous cell carcinoma. Thirteen of the patients had stage I tumor (65%), 2 had stage II (10%), 2 had stage III (10%), and 3 had stage IV tumor (15%). Twelve patients were cured. All patients with stage I or II cancers were cured except 1...

  17. The shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal A forma do canal vertebral lombar humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Zarzur

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on the anatomy of the human vertebral column characterizes the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal as triangular. The purpose of the present study was to determine the precise shape of the lumbar vertebral canal. Ten lumbar vertebral columns of adult male cadavers were dissected. Two transverse sections were performed in the third lumbar vertebra. One section was performed at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava, and the other section was performed at the level of the pedicles. The shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the pedicles tends to be oval or circular, whereas the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava is triangular. Thus, the shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal is not exclusively triangular, as reported in the literature. It is related to the level of the transversal section performed on the lumbar vertebra. This finding should be taken into consideration among factors involved in the spread of solutions introduced into the epidural space.A literatura sobre a anatomia da coluna vertebral descreve como sendo triangular o formato do canal vertebral na região lombar. O objetivo deste estudo é determinar a real forma do canal da coluna vertebral lombar.Dez colunas vertebrais de cadáveres de homens adultos foram dissecadas. Dois cortes transversais foram executados na terceira vértebra lombar. Um corte foi feito no nível das bordas inferiores de dois ligamentos amarelos vizinhos e o outro corte foi transversal, no nível dos pedículos. A forma do canal vertebral variou: no nível dos pedículos ela tende a ser oval ou circular e junto às bordas inferiores dos ligamentos amarelos passa a ser triangular. Portanto, a forma do canal vertebral lombar não é somente triangular; ela depende do nível em que se faz o corte transversal da vértebra. Estes achados devem ser levados em consideração entre os fatores envolvidos na difusão das

  18. Spinal canal narrowing during simulated frontal impact

    OpenAIRE

    Ivancic, Paul C.; Panjabi, Manohar M.; Tominaga, Yasuhiro; Pearson, Adam M.; Elena Gimenez, S.; Maak, Travis G.

    2005-01-01

    Between 23 and 70% of occupants involved in frontal impacts sustain cervical spine injuries, many with neurological involvement. It has been hypothesized that cervical spinal cord compression and injury may explain the variable neurological profile described by frontal impact victims. The goals of the present study, using a biofidelic whole cervical spine model with muscle force replication, were to quantify canal pinch diameter (CPD) narrowing during frontal impact and to evaluate the potent...

  19. Carotid canal dehiscence in the human skull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor Vazquez, J.F.; Gil Verona, J.A. [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valladolid, Ramon y Cajal, 7, E-47005 Valladolid (Spain); Garcia Porrero, M. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valladolid (Spain)

    1999-06-01

    Abnormalities of the floor of the carotid canal have been studied in 538 skulls. These abnormalities range from a fissure to total absence of the floor. This variation may be caused by abnormalities of the internal carotid artery or deficiencies in ossification of the skull base. CT suggests that these changes should be taken into account by surgeons working on the skull base. (orig.) With 4 figs., 8 refs.

  20. Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, O

    2009-02-01

    The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Root canal filling using Resilon: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, D J

    2011-07-01

    Root canal treatment is achieved by chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system followed by filling. The filling material \\'entombs\\' residual bacteria and acts as a barrier which prevents the entrance of oral microorganisms and reinfection of the root canal system through microleakage. However, filling with contemporary root filling materials such as gutta-percha offers limited long-term resistance to microorganisms; as a result other materials such as Resilon have been investigated as alternatives. The aim of this review was to analyse the literature to consider whether Resilon is a suitable root canal filling material. A MEDLINE and Cochrane library search including various keyword searches identified several papers which investigated or discussed Resilon or RealSeal\\/Epiphany. Analysis of the literature demonstrated that the bulk of the literature is in vitro in nature, based largely on leakage-type studies, and demonstrates a wide variety of methodologies with conflicting findings; as a result meaningful conclusions are difficult. Within the limit of these in vitro studies Resilon appears to perform adequately in comparison to gutta-percha, however, as a result of the questionable merit of such studies, it cannot presently be considered an evidence-based alternative to the current gold standard gutta-percha. It is imperative that before Resilon is considered as a replacement material, a better understanding of the physical properties of the resin sealer and the reality of the adhesive \\'monoblock\\' are elucidated. The literature also demonstrates a paucity of quality long-term clinical outcome studies which will need to be addressed before firm conclusions can be reached.

  2. Fat herniation through the canal of Schwalbe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesmebasi, A; Abel, N; Tubbs, R S; Loukas, M

    2014-11-01

    The authors report a case of fat herniation through the canal of Schwalbe noted in a female cadaver during abdominopelvic dissection. Perineal hernias are rare hernias, and herniations through the hiatus of Schwalbe represent a rare posterior lateral perineal hernia. While these hernias are extremely rare, anatomists and surgeons should be aware of them, and the clinical significance and manifestations which may occur with these hernias. PMID:25448911

  3. Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, O

    2012-02-01

    The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Lesions in the external auditory canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyank S Chatra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The external auditory canal is an S- shaped osseo-cartilaginous structure that extends from the auricle to the tympanic membrane. Congenital, inflammatory, neoplastic, and traumatic lesions can affect the EAC. High-resolution CT is well suited for the evaluation of the temporal bone, which has a complex anatomy with multiple small structures. In this study, we describe the various lesions affecting the EAC.

  5. Comparison of Bacterial Leakage between 3 Different Root Canal Obturation Techniques in Oval Shaped Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshagh-ali Saberi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of 3 obturation techniques in oval-shaped canals by bacterial leakage assessment. Methods: Sixty mandibular incisors with oval canals were selected after providing buccolingual and mesiodistal radiographs. The teeth were sectioned at a 10 mm distance from the apex. After instrumentation, the teeth were divided into 3 groups and the canals in the three groups were obturated with lateral condensation (G1, warm vertical condensation (G2 and thermoplasticized injectable gutta percha (G3. The teeth were exposed to human saliva. Observing the turbidity of the BHI broth for a period of 63 days the number of days required for the complete contamination of root canals was recorded. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods and Kruskal-Wallis test with SPSS statistical software. Results: Warm vertical condensation (G2 needed a significantly greater average time for leakage than the two other methods. No significant differences were found between lateral condensations and thermoplasticized injectable G.P techniques. Conclusion: warm vertical condensation provides a better seal against bacterial leakage than lateral condensation and obtura II method in obturating oval-canals.

  6. Endoscopic posterior decompression of lumbar canal stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yad Ram Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar canal stenosis (LCS is quite common. Surgery is indicated when patient fails to improve after conservative treatment. Endoscopic technique can be used in LCS and lateral recess stenosis. It can be performed in degenerative canal stenosis or with disc bulges. Bilateral severe bony canal stenosis and unstable spine are the contraindications. This procedure should be avoided in patients with a history of trauma. Detailed history and thorough physical examination should be performed to find out exact level of pathology responsible for symptoms. Patient′s symptoms must correlate with radiological findings. Magnetic resonance imaging is the investigation of choice because of its superior visualization of soft-tissue. Computed tomography scan does give a more accurate and detailed picture of the bony anatomy. Although the operative time and the complication rate could be more in the initial learning curve, the results of endoscopic decompression are comparable with conventional open procedures with the additional benefit of decreased complications and lower morbidity, when sufficient experience is gained. Complications in endoscopic surgery for LCS could be dural tears, hematomas and root and facet injury. This procedure is also associated with limitations such as steep learning curve and the contra lateral decompression may not be as good as ipsilateral side. Some of the limitations of this technique can be overcome by attending live operative workshop, practice on models and hands on cadaveric dissection. Conversion to an open procedure may be required when there is disorientation, management of dural tear and for control of bleeding.

  7. El comercio justo (ll). Canales de distribución, proceso comercial y tendencias

    OpenAIRE

    González Gascón, Elena; Juan Vigaray, María Dolores de; Kanther, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    El Comercio Justo hace referencia a un comercio más responsable, ético y sostenible para todos sus miembros, especialmente los productores en origen. Con este artículo se completa la serie sobre la tipología comercial de Comercio Justo ofreciendo una visión global de esta particular forma de Distribución y Consumo de productos "justos". En primer lugar se presenta la situación de los canales de distribución del Comercio Justo en España. Se profundiza en las funciones que se realizan a través ...

  8. Regulación mitocondrial de los canales de Ca2+ CRAC en linfocitos T

    OpenAIRE

    Montalvo Mimbrero, Gema Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    La entrada de Ca2+ al interior celular es la señal necesaria para que se produzca la activación del linfocito T. Esta entrada de Ca2+, denominada ICRAC (Ca2+ release activated Ca2+ current) ocurre tras el vaciado de los depósitos intracelulares mediado por IP3, generado tras el reconocimiento del antígeno por el receptor de la célula T (TCR). Los canales CRAC se inactivan de manera dependiente de la concentración de Ca2+ intracelular, por lo que cualquier orgánulo, sistema de transporte o met...

  9. Mischiuen III, un contexto funerario singular en el Canal Beagle (Tierra del Fuego)

    OpenAIRE

    Vila-Mitjà, Assumpció; Casas, Alicia; Oriol Vicente, Campos

    2006-01-01

    (ESP)Presentamos aquí los trabajos realizados en un contexto funerario singular, Mischiuen III, así como los primeros resultados obtenidos. Este estudio aporta nuevos datos para la comprensión de las sociedades cazadoras- recolectoras de Tierra del Fuego, y se enmarca en los proyectos de investigación etnoarqueológica que venimos desarrollando en la costa argentina del canal Beagle desde finales de los años 80. Al mismo tiempo se presentan los resultados de la aplicación de nuevas metodología...

  10. El tratamiento del urbanismo y del agua en los informativos de Canal 9

    OpenAIRE

    Verdú Cueco, Yolanda

    2010-01-01

    E l artículo expone los mecanismos de manipulación periodística detectados en las noticias de la televisión pública valenciana Canal 9, en su tratamiento de dos temas de interés, el urbanismo y el agua, durante los seis primeros meses previos a las elecciones autonómicas de 2007. La muestra empírica sobre la que se ha puesto a prueba un modelo de análisis del sesgo y el encuadre la constituyen ciento cuarenta noticias sobre los dos temas. Para determinar el sesgo examinamos en las noticias: e...

  11. ROOT CANAL IRRIGANTS AND IRRIGATION TECHNIQUES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniketh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Root canal irrigation is not much emphasised in endodontic therapy. Most articles discussed are on root canal shaping and obturation not much emphasis is given for irrigation. There are many irrigation solutions which are introduced into market. The primary objective of root canal therapy is the ret ention of the pulpless or pulpally involved tooth with its associated periapical tissues in a healthy state. Achievement of this objective requires that the pulpal spaces and contents be eliminated as sources of infection. As the Enterococcus faecalis is a lso found to be the most important cause for endodontic failures, the action and efficacy of fewer irrigants against E. faecalis should also be given prime importance as of others. Therefore, the introduction of an antimicrobial endodontic irrigant during root canal therapy should be given priority in the hierarchy of root canal treatment. The purpose of this article is to analyse root canal irrigants, irrigation techniques and irrigation protocol.

  12. Geophysical investigation of a dutch levee and canal using various seismic and GPR techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorlandt, R.P.; Kleine, M.P.E. de; Kruiver, P.P.; Bakker, M.A.J.; Mesdag, C.S.; Hoogendoorn, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    A geophysical survey has been carried out on the Juliana Canal and levee in the south of the Netherlands. For a stretch of about 35 km along this canal various construction works are planned, to deepen and widen the canal. The canal is in a geological setting such that leakage from the canal to the

  13. Desarrollo de simuladores para procesos industriales. Parte II (Colada continua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez, A.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of steel thermal behavior is very important in order to take care the quality of the products like billets and slabs due to these; this work shows the join of a subroutine to simulate the heat transfer conditions during the continuous casting process to the model for simulating the process described by the present authors in a previous work[1]; the result is the temperature profiles and surface temperature graphics of the steel, then they are compared with data carried out of real operating conditions.

    El estudio del comportamiento térmico del acero es de gran importancia para controlar la calidad de productos como perfiles colados, por lo que el presente trabajo muestra el acoplamiento de una subrutina, para simular las condiciones de extracción de calor que ocurren durante el proceso de colada continua, a la rutina de simulación del proceso descrita por los presentes autores en un trabajo previo[1]; como resultado se obtienen los perfiles de temperatura del acero y las graficas de temperatura superficial de este y, posteriormente, se procede a la validación del sistema con datos de condiciones reales de operación.

  14. Optimizing the chemical aspect of root canal irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Wesselink, P.R.; Sluis, van der, J.; Versluis, A.M.; Macedo, de, R.G.

    2013-01-01

    Root canal treatment is aimed at the removal of inflamed and infected tissue present in the root canal system. It will prevent the entrance of new microorganisms or nutrients in order to maintain or create a healthy environment around the root. There is sufficient evidence that shows that traditional endodontic therapy cannot make the root canal system completely free of bacteria. Moreover, it may not always result in complete healing of apical periodontitis, highlighting the need of optimizi...

  15. Choice of root canal irrigants by Serbian dental practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Tošić Goran; Miladinović Milan; Kovačević Milorad; Stojanović Miodrag

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. Root canal treatment is considered to be the one of the most important procedures in endodontic treatment. To irrigate the root canal it is most common to use sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexodine, ethylenediami-netetraacetic acid (EDTA), local anesthetic solution, while the most used in Serbia is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The aim of this survey was to reveal the preferred root canal irrigants used by general dental practitioners in Ser...

  16. ROOT CANAL IRRIGANTS AND IRRIGATION TECHNIQUES: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Aniketh; Mohamed; Geeta; Nandakishore; Gourav Kumar; Patrick Timothy; Jayson Mathew; Sahle Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Root canal irrigation is not much emphasised in endodontic therapy. Most articles discussed are on root canal shaping and obturation not much emphasis is given for irrigation. There are many irrigation solutions which are introduced into market. The primary objective of root canal therapy is the ret ention of the pulpless or pulpally involved tooth with its associated periapical tissues in a healthy state. Achievement of this objective requires that the pulpal spaces and con...

  17. Interactions between root canal irrigants, sealers and dentin

    OpenAIRE

    Neelakantan, P.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to determine the interactions between root filling materials and root dentin and to investigate if root canal irrigating solutions had an impact on these interactions. The following outcomes were assessed in the studies encompassed in this thesis: (i) dislocation resistance of an epoxy resin based root canal sealer and tricalcium silicate based root canal sealers, (ii) the influence of irrigation protocols on the sealing ability and chemical interactions with ...

  18. Endodontic Considerations in Three-canalled Premolars: A Practical Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Giardino, Luciano; Asgary, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    The most difficult clinical considertions in orthograde root canal treatment are generally related to the anatomy of the teeth. Three-canalled maxillary and mandibular premolars (mini-molars) have been reported in several studies. The purpose of this paper was to review various aspects of three-canalled premolars including incidence, clinical and radiographic diagnosis, racial predisposition, access cavity preparation, instrumentation and obturation. PMID:27141223

  19. Three root canals in the maxillary second premolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Almeida-Gomes Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report an endodontic treatment of the maxillary second premolar with three root canals and distinct foramens. The possibility of three root canals in this tooth is quite small; however, it must be taken into account in clinical and radiographic evaluation during endodontic treatment. Many times, their presence is noticed only after canal treatment due to continuing post-operative discomfort.

  20. Feasibility and limitations of endoscopy in Guyon's canal

    OpenAIRE

    Noszczyk, Bartłomiej H.; Zdybek, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This retrospective report summarizes observations from eight operations where the endoscopically assisted approach was used to explore Guyon's canal syndromes of idiopathic aetiology. Aim To evaluate the feasibility and limitations of endoscopic Guyon's canal release performed from a distal forearm incision. Material and methods Eight charts and video records of eight ulnar tunnel syndrome patients presenting concomitant idiopathic Guyon's canal syndromes were retrospectively rev...

  1. Cervical spinal canal narrowing and cervical neurologi-cal injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ling; Chen, Hai-Bin; Wang, Yi; ZHANG Li-ying; Liu, Jing-cheng; WANG Zheng-guo

    2012-01-01

    【Abstract】Cervical spinal canal narrowing can lead to injury of the spinal cord and neurological symptoms in-cluding neck pain, headache, weakness and parasthesisas. According to previous and recent clinical researches, we investigated the geometric parameters of normal cervical spinal canal including the sagittal and transverse diameters as well as Torg ratio. The mean sagittal diameter of cervical spinal canal at C 1 to C 7 ranges from 15.33 mm to 20.46 mm, ...

  2. Determinação do sexo em catfish de canal (Ictalurus punctatus utilizando endoscopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Souza Mendonça De Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A identificação precoce do sexo em peixes é um procedimento importante para o desenvolvimento de estratégias que facilitem o manejo no plantel de reprodutores. A endoscopia pode ser utilizada para essa identificação, embora em peixes seu uso ainda seja restrito. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi validar o uso do endoscópio rígido via poro urogenital para determinação do sexo do catfish de canal (Ictalurus punctatus. O equipamento utilizado foi um endoscópio Multipurpose Rigid™ 30º com 2,7 mm de diâmetro e 18 cm de comprimento. Foram examinados 60 peixes com peso variando entre 86 e 1.032 gramas nos quais foi introduzido o endoscópio via poro genital e, logo em seguida, eutanaziados para confirmação do sexo. Amostras de tecido gonadal foram coletadas para avaliação histológica do estádio de maturação e confirmação do sexo. Os resultados mostraram que dos 60 peixes examinados, 57 tiveram confirmação positiva do sexo via endoscopia, o que corresponde a 95% da amostra. A utilização da endoscopia para determinação do sexo em I. punctatus via poro genital é viável.

  3. Morphometric analysis of the cervical spinal canal on MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveeva, Niki; Janevski, Petar; Nakeva, Natasha; Zhivadinovik, Julija; Dodevski, Ace

    2013-01-01

    Two useful numerical values, called the Torg ratio and the spinal canal diameter (SC diameter) are widely accepted as reliable morphometric determinants of spinal stenosis. The aims of the study were to examine morphometric determinants of the cervical spinal canal on MRI in both sexes and analyse them as reliable indicators of spinal stenosis. Measurements were made on 50 MR images (sagittal T2 weighted images from C3 to C7) of the cervical spine of patients from the Emergency Centre who had undertaken MRI of the cervical spine in addition to CT for various diagnostic indications. Torg ratio, used in evaluation of the spinal canal stenosis on plain x-ray radiographs, cannot be used as a spinal canal stenosis indicator due to the gender differences in the vertebral bodies' width. Sagittal canal diameters were more spread out in males than in females. MRI enables the value of the space available for the spinal cord, (SAC) to be determined, by subtracting the sagittal diameter of the spinal cord from the sagittal diameter of the spinal canal. Not gender, but individual and level differences in the SAC values were evident (cervical cord enlargement). SAC values relied more on the spinal canal than on the spinal cord, so that the differences in the dimensions of the spinal cord accounted for less variability in the SAC values. MR imaging of the cervical spine provides more accurate cervical canal and spinal cord measurements that could serve as morphometric determinants of the cervical canal stenosis. PMID:24280784

  4. Determining optimal transit charges: The Kiel Canal in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Heitmann, Nadine; Rehdanz, Katrin; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The Kiel Canal in Germany connects ports on the Baltic Sea with the rest of the world and is the most-used artificial waterway in the world. Despite this fact, it generates a balance sheet loss. Revenues, which are mainly generated by the transit charge, do not cover its operating expenses. This situation raises the question: What reforms could be made to make the canal generate a balance sheet profit? In this paper, we focus solely on the canal's revenue. Because the canal is a monopoly that...

  5. [Canal infection. Ecological theory and repair with osteodentin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz, M A; Zeberio, T

    1991-01-01

    The characteristics of the infection in the root canal are analyzed, specially its development before pulpal necrosis. It is inferred that it is an ecological infection with a function: to decompose the necrosis. Inactivating the infection in the canal by the formocresol technique, calcium hidroxide or with the conventional basic treatment in Endodontics, cleaning, washing, disinfecting and, in this case, with partial obturation of the canal, it is possible to induce a reparation with osteodentine that can cover all the free extension of the canal. PMID:1882104

  6. Comparison of antimicrobial substantivity of root canal irrigants in instrumented root canals up to 72 h: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    M N Shahani; Subba Reddy, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    Disinfection of the root canal system is one of the primary aims of root canal treatment. This can be achieved through the use of various antimicrobial agents in the form of irrigants and medicaments. The antimicrobial substantivity of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate, 1% povidone iodine, 2.5% hydrogen peroxide followed by 2% sodium hypochlorite, and 2% sodium hypochlorite alone as irrigants was assessed in instrumented root canals. 2% chlorhexidine showed antimicrobial substantivity lasting up to ...

  7. Simulación de procesos termodinámicos cuasi ideales orientados a la generación de trabajo mecánico. Evaluación de combinaciones posibles para su aplicación en motores alternativos de combustión o de aportación de calor

    OpenAIRE

    Llop Garcia, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo del presente proyecto es la obtención de una herramienta informática que, gracias a un modelo matemático, simule los procesos termodinámicos de la fase cerrada de un motor alternativo de combustión interna. El motor que se pretende simular puede seguir un ciclo Otto o un ciclo Diesel y ser alimentado por distintos tipos de combustible. Para la obtención del modelo matemático se aceptaran ciertas hipótesis de simplificación debido a la complejidad de los procesos que tienen luga...

  8. CAVERNOUS HEMANGIOMA OF THE INTERNAL AUDITORY CANAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Hekmatara

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Cavernous hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of the internal auditory canal (IAC of which fourteen cases have been reported so far."nTinnitus and progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL are the chief complaints of the patients. Audiological and radiological planes, CTScan, and magnetic resonance image (MRI studies are helpful in diagnosis. The only choice of treatment is surgery with elective transmastoid trans¬labyrinthine approach. And if tumor is very large, the method of choice will be retrosigmoid approach.

  9. Cancer incidence in the Love Canal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janerich, D T; Burnett, W S; Feck, G; Hoff, M; Nasca, P; Polednak, A P; Greenwald, P; Vianna, N

    1981-06-19

    Data from the New York Cancer Registry show no evidence for higher cancer rates associated with residence near the Love Canal toxic waste burial site in comparison with the entire state outside of New York City. Rates of liver cancer, lymphoma, and leukemia, which were selected for special attention, were not consistently elevated. Among the other cancers studied, a higher rate was noted only for respiratory cancer, but it was not consistent across age groups and appeared to be related to a high rate for the entire city of Niagara Falls. There was no evidence that the lung cancer rate was associated with the toxic wastes buried at the dump site.

  10. Water Environment Evolution along the China Grand Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The China Grand Canal is one of the earliest canals in the world, having lasted for nearly 3000 years. Even its section canals have a rich history, such as the North-South Grand Canal that was established during the Sui Dynasty, whereas the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal was excavated during the Yuan Dynasty and the east line of the South-to-North Water Diversion. As one of the longest in the world, the China Grand Canal's total length is over 3500 kilometers. This length includes the navigable, unnavigable, and underground sections. Making the best use of situations and according to local conditions, the Chinese people harmoniously constructed the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal with nature. Tens of millions of workers took nearly 3000 years to complete the great shipping system. Navigable sections still exist for up to 900 kilometers and the volume of freight traffic is approximately 300 million tons. The canal remains the main logistical channel of the North-to-South Coal Transportation, South-to-North Water Diversion, and resources circulation. To date, China is promoting the success of heritage application. Part of these efforts is the declaration of the China Grand Canal as a World Cultural Heritage by 2014. In addition, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer project is planned to be navigable by 2016. The ancient Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal will usher in the new ecological civilization and cultural revival along the canal. This paper presents technical methods of water environment evolution research on the river system, river, and water quality along the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal through the integration of historical literature and modern remote sensing image data. The study carried out water environment investigation and analysis along the Beijing-Hangzhou canal by using ETM, SPOT image data, and GPS measurement data. Spatial and temporal evolution characteristics and regulations of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal regional water environment in the span of

  11. Water Environment Evolution along the China Grand Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, F.; Wu, Y. X.; Yang, B. F.; Li, X. J.

    2014-03-01

    The China Grand Canal is one of the earliest canals in the world, having lasted for nearly 3000 years. Even its section canals have a rich history, such as the North-South Grand Canal that was established during the Sui Dynasty, whereas the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal was excavated during the Yuan Dynasty and the east line of the South-to-North Water Diversion. As one of the longest in the world, the China Grand Canal's total length is over 3500 kilometers. This length includes the navigable, unnavigable, and underground sections. Making the best use of situations and according to local conditions, the Chinese people harmoniously constructed the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal with nature. Tens of millions of workers took nearly 3000 years to complete the great shipping system. Navigable sections still exist for up to 900 kilometers and the volume of freight traffic is approximately 300 million tons. The canal remains the main logistical channel of the North-to-South Coal Transportation, South-to-North Water Diversion, and resources circulation. To date, China is promoting the success of heritage application. Part of these efforts is the declaration of the China Grand Canal as a World Cultural Heritage by 2014. In addition, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer project is planned to be navigable by 2016. The ancient Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal will usher in the new ecological civilization and cultural revival along the canal. This paper presents technical methods of water environment evolution research on the river system, river, and water quality along the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal through the integration of historical literature and modern remote sensing image data. The study carried out water environment investigation and analysis along the Beijing-Hangzhou canal by using ETM, SPOT image data, and GPS measurement data. Spatial and temporal evolution characteristics and regulations of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal regional water environment in the span of 3000

  12. Root canal treatment of mandibular second premolar tooth with taurodontism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujašković Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Taurodontism is a morphoanatomical change in the shape of a tooth. An enlarged body of a tooth with smaller than usual roots is a characteristic feature. Internal tooth anatomy correlates with this appearance, which means that a taurodontal tooth has a large pulp chamber and apically positioned furcations. This dental anomaly may be associated with different syndromes and congenital discoders. CASE OUTLINE The case report presents the patient of a rare case of taurodontism in the mandibular second premolar with chronic periodontitis. Endodontic treatment was performed after dental history and clinical examination. Special care is required in all segments of endodontic treatment of a taurodontal tooth from the identification orifice, canal exploration, determining working length, cleaning and shaping and obturation of the root canal. Precurved K-file was used for canal exploration and location of the furcation. One mesial and one distal canal with the buccal position were identified in the apical third of the root canal. The working lengths of two canals were determined by radiographic interpretation with two K-files in each canal and verified with the apex locator. During canal instrumentation, the third canal was located in the disto-lingual position. The working length of the third canal was established using the apex locator. CONCLUSION Thorough knowledge of tooth anatomy and its variations can lead to lower percentage of endodontic failure. Each clinical case involving these teeth should be investigated carefully, clinically and radiographically to detect additional root canals. High quality radiographs from different angles and proper instrumentarium improve the quality of endodontic procedure.

  13. Root canal filling evaluation using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Topala, Florin; Nica, Luminita; Ionita, Ciprian; Marcauteanu, Corina; Goguta, Luciana; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Rominu, Mihai; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2010-04-01

    Endodontic therapy consists in cleaning and shaping the root canal system, removing organic debris and sealing the intra-canal space with permanent filling materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate various root canal fillings in order to detect material defects, the marginal adaptation at the root canal walls and to assess the quality of the apical sealing. 21 extracted single-root canal human teeth were selected for this study. We instrumented all roots using NiTi rotary instruments. All canals were enlarged with a 6% taper size 30 GT instrument, 0,5 mm from the anatomical apex. The root canals were irrigated with 5% sodium hypochlorite, followed by 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). After the instrumentation was completed, the root canals were obturated using a thermoplasticizable polymer of polyesters. In order to assess the defects inside the filling material and the marginal fit to the root canal walls, the conebeam micro-computed tomography (CBμCT) was used first. After the CBμCT investigation, time domain optical coherence tomography working in en face mode (TDefOCT) was employed to evaluate the previous samples. The TDefOCT system was working at 1300 nm and was doubled by a confocal channel at 970 nm. The results obtained by CBμCT revealed no visible defects inside the root-canal fillings and at the interfaces with the root-canal walls. TDefOCT investigations permit to visualize a more complex stratificated structure at the interface filling material/dental hard tissue and in the apical region.

  14. Los canales temáticos: una alternativa a la programación de la televisión generalista

    OpenAIRE

    Ruano López, Soledad; Millán Paredes, Tatiana

    2005-01-01

    La televisión, desde su nacimiento por los años cincuenta, pretendía ser cultural, utilizaba su monopolio para imponer unos productos con pretensiones culturales y formar los gustos de la audiencia. Además, entre mediados de la década de los 60 y principios de los años 80, tuvo lugar la implantación en el ámbito nacional de la primera generación de canales culturales. BBC-2 (Gran Bretaña), TVE-2 (España), ARD-3 (Alemania), FR-3 (Francia), RAI-3 (Italia). Estos canales son las segunda...

  15. Avaliação experimental de um modelo numerico para o processo de redistribuição da agua no solo

    OpenAIRE

    Poliseli, Paulo Cesar

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: Para simular o processo transiente da redistnouição da água no solo, para a direção vertical, PREVEDELLO (1996) desenvolveu um modelo numérico em linguagem BASIC de programação (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instructional Code). O desenvolvimento do modelo baseou-se na linearização da equação de RlCHARDS (1931), à qual governa o movimento da água no solo, através da utilização de uma simplificação da relação entre a condutividade hidráulica e a tensão da água (K ('I'm )), sugerida p...

  16. Modelagem numérica para o processo da evaporação da água do solo Numeric modeling to simulate the soil water evaporation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Luiz Prevedello

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados vários ensaios laboratoriais para avaliar o desempenho de um modelo numérico em simular o processo unidimensional da evaporação da água do solo. Este modelo foi desenvolvido a partir da linearização da equação de Richards no espaço e do uso da técnica iterativa de Newton-Raphson, para resolver essa equação não-linear no tempo, e leva em conta o fluxo de vapor dentro do perfil de solo e a taxa de evaporação na sua superfície. Os resultados mostraram que o modelo foi capaz de simular satisfatoriamente o processo, tanto em meios porosos homogêneos quanto estratificadosSeveral laboratory tests were carried out with the objective of evaluating the performance of a numerical model to simulate the unidimensional soil water evaporation process. This model was created based on Richard's equation linearized in space and by an iterative Newton-Raphson method to solve this unlinearized equation in time. The model considers the vapor flow within the soil profile and its evaporation rate on the surface. Results showed that the model simulated the soil water evaporation process satisfactorily for both homogeneous and stratified porous media.

  17. Management of mandibular first molar with four canals in mesial root

    OpenAIRE

    Subbiya, Arunajatesan; Kumar, Krishnamurthy Sathish; Vivekanandhan, Paramasivam; Prakash, Venkatachalam

    2013-01-01

    Successful root canal treatment depends on adequate cleaning, shaping, and filling of the root canal system. The presence of middle mesial (MM) root canal of mandibular molars has been reported by various authors. But incidence of four canals in mesial root of mandibular molar is very rare. The aim of this case report is to present and describe the identification and management of a mandibular first molar with four canals in the mesial root and single canal in the distal root.

  18. New Technologies to Improve Root Canal Disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotino, Gianluca; Cortese, Teresa; Grande, Nicola M; Leonardi, Denise P; Di Giorgio, Gianni; Testarelli, Luca; Gambarini, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Effective irrigant delivery and agitation are prerequisites to promote root canal disinfection and debris removal and improve successful endodontic treatment. This paper presents an overview of the currently available technologies to improve the cleaning of the endodontic space and their debridement efficacy. A PubMed electronic search was conducted with appropriate key words to identify the relevant literature on this topic. After retrieving the full-text articles, all the articles were reviewed and the most appropriate were included in this review. Several different systems of mechanical activation of irrigants to improve endodontic disinfection were analysed: manual agitation with gutta-percha cones, endodontic instruments or special brushes, vibrating systems activated by low-speed hand-pieces or by sonic or subsonic energy, use of ultrasonic or laser energy to mechanically activate the irrigants and apical negative pressure irrigation systems. Furthermore, this review aims to describe systems designed to improve the intracanal bacterial decontamination by a specific chemical action, such as ozone, direct laser action or light-activated disinfection. The ultrasonic activation of root canal irrigants and of sodium hypochlorite in particular still remains the gold standard to which all other systems of mechanical agitation analyzed in this article were compared. From this overview, it is evident that the use of different irrigation systems can provide several advantages in the clinical endodontic outcome and that integration of new technologies, coupled with enhanced techniques and materials, may help everyday clinical practice. PMID:27007337

  19. Visibility of the central canal on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit-Lacour, M.C.; Lasjaunias, P.; Iffenecker, C.; Benoudiba, F.; Hadj Rabia, M.; Doyon, D. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Faculte de Paris Sud (France); Hurth, M. [Department of Neurosurgery, Faculte Paris Sud, Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

    2000-10-01

    The central canal of the spinal cord is present at birth and becomes progressively obliterated. Cadaver studies have shown that it may persiste partially or completely. To our knowledge, this entity has not been described on MRI. We reviewed 794 MRI studies of the spinal cord, and found 12 patients (aged 14 to 65 years) who had an intramedullary cavity. The cavity was at the junction of the ventral {sup 1}/{sub 3} and dorsal {sup 2}/{sub 3} of the spinal cord, except at the level of the lumbar enlargement, where it was central. It was filiform in most cases, although sometimes fusiform (3 to 4 mm in diameter), and had regular contours. The cavity were thoracic in 69 % of cases. The clinical features were totally unrelated to the image, and there were no anatomical factors (Chiari malformation, dysraphism) predisposing to syringomyelia. The images were perfectly compatible with a persistent central canal, which we interpret as a variant of normal anatomy. Therefore it is important to regard these findings as normal, to avoid unnecessary treatment and follow-up. (orig.)

  20. Optimizing the chemical aspect of root canal irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. de Macedo

    2013-01-01

    Root canal treatment is aimed at the removal of inflamed and infected tissue present in the root canal system. It will prevent the entrance of new microorganisms or nutrients in order to maintain or create a healthy environment around the root. There is sufficient evidence that shows that traditiona

  1. 5 CFR 550.714 - Panama Canal Commission employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this subpart, an employee separated from employment with the Panama Canal... a position that meets all the following conditions: (1) The position is with the Panamanian public... below the employee's rate of basic pay as a Panama Canal Commission employee; (3) The position is...

  2. Reform in Indian canal irrigation: does technology matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narain, V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of technology - the design of canal irrigation for irrigation management reform. With reference to two different design systems in Indian irrigation - shejpali and warabandi - it shows that the potential for reform varies with the design of canal irrigation. Thre

  3. RCRA closure of the Building 3001 Storage Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 3001 Storage Canal is located under portions of Buildings 3001 and 3019 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and has a capacity of approximately 62,000 gallons of water. The term canal has historically been used to identify this structure, however, the canal is an in-ground reinforced concrete structure satisfying the regulatory definition of a tank. From 1943 through 1963, the canal in Building 3001 was designed to be an integral part of the system for handling irradiated fuel from the Oak Ridge Graphite Reactor. Because one of the main initial purposes of the reactor was to produce plutonium for the chemical processing pilot plant in Building 3019, the canal was designed to be the connecting link between the reactor and the pilot plant. During the war years, natural uranium slugs were irradiated in the reactor and then pushed out of the graphite matrix into the system of diversion plates and chutes which directed the fuel into the deep pit of the canal. After shutdown of the reactor, the canal was no longer needed for its designed purpose. Since 1964, the canal has only been used to store radioisotopes and irradiated samples under a water pool for radiation protection. This report describes closure alternatives

  4. Fisioterapia em recém-nascidos com persistência do canal arterial e complicações pulmonares Chest physical therapy in newborn infants with patent ductus arteriosus and pulmonary complications

    OpenAIRE

    Ivete Furtado Ribeiro; Ana Paula L. de Melo; Josy Davidson

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Revisar as complicações pulmonares e intervenções fisioterapêuticas disponíveis para recém-nascidos com persistência do canal arterial (PCA). FONTES DE DADOS: Artigos publicados nas fontes de dados Medline e Lilacs, além de capítulos de livros nos idiomas português e inglês, entre 1992 e 2006. As palavras-chave utilizadas para busca foram: "canal arterial", "prematuridade", "síndrome do desconforto respiratório", "complicações" e "pulmão". SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A PCA é uma intercorrên...

  5. EQUILIBRIO DE FASES PARA SISTEMAS ETANOL-AGUA EN PRESENCIA DE POLIALCOHOLES Y SALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS RIOS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se propone un modelo termodinámico semiempírico para el equilibrio líquidovapor del sistema etanolagua con polialcoholes y sales. El modelo usa las ecuaciones GibbsDuhem y DebyeHückel, las cuales modifican el modelo UNIQUACE. Se consideran las fuertes interacciones químicas asociadas a los fenómenos de solvatación e hidratación de iones, y el concepto de solvatación del modelo de Ohe. Se tienen en cuenta las interacciones de corto alcance, dadas por las fuerzas de van der Waals, y las interacciones de largo alcanceconsideradas en el término de DebyeHückel. Se determinaron los parámetros empíricos de ajuste para los sistemas etanolaguapolialcoholcloruro de calcio y acetato de potasio; estos sistemas son de interés industrial debido a que la adición de polialcohol y sal mejora la eficiencia de la separación.. Las mediciones isobáricas del equilibrio líquidovapor se realizaron en un destilador Othmer. Este modelo termodinámico sería útil para diseñar y simular columnas para destilación extractiva aguaetanol.

  6. The Influence of Canalization on the Robustness of Boolean Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kadelka, Claus; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Time- and state-discrete dynamical systems are frequently used to model molecular networks. This paper provides a collection of mathematical and computational tools for the study of robustness in Boolean network models. The focus is on networks governed by $k$-canalizing functions, a recently introduced class of Boolean functions that contains the well-studied class of nested canalizing functions. The activities and sensitivity of a function quantify the impact of input changes on the function output. This paper generalizes the latter concept to $c$-sensitivity and provides formulas for the activities and $c$-sensitivity of general $k$-canalizing functions as well as canalizing functions with more precisely defined structure. A popular measure for the robustness of a network, the Derrida value, can be expressed as a weighted sum of the $c$-sensitivities of the governing canalizing functions, and can also be calculated for a stochastic extension of Boolean networks. These findings provide a computationally eff...

  7. A maxillary central incisor with four root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Almeida-Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to present a case report of endodontic treatment of a maxillary central incisor with 1 root and 4 root canals. The success of endodontic treatment requires knowledge of dental anatomy and its variations. This clinical article reports an unusual anatomy detected in a maxillary central incisor with 4 root canals with an associated periapical lesion. The incidence of 4 root canals in this tooth is rare. However, it must be taken into consideration, the clinical and radiographic evaluations during the endodontic treatment in order to enhance the diagnostic. Many times, the presence of a supernumerary canal is noticed only after canal treatment due to continuing post-operative discomfort or treatment failure.

  8. VARIATION OF MAXILLARY FIRST PREMOLAR WITH THREE ROOT CANALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Kirilova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Successful endodontic treatment requires effective biomechanical preparation of the root canals and three-dimensional obturation of the root canal system. This can be achieved only by knowing and identifying the variations in the root canal system of the endodontically treated teeth. The Aim: The aim of this article is to present cases of endodontic treatment of maxillary first premolar with three root canals – different types. Material and Methods: Five clinical cases of successful endodontic treatment of patients with maxillary first premolar and three root canals are described. Result and Discussion: It is noted that good endodontic practice requires good knowledge of dental anatomy and possible variations, accurate X-ray images, as well as use of magnifying equipment. Conclusion: Knowledge of dental anatomy is fundamental for good endodontic practice.

  9. Apical pressures developed by needles for canal irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, C E; Eleazer, P D; Downs, K E; Scheetz, J P

    2002-04-01

    Drying instrumented canals with pressurized air may result in patient morbidity or even fatality. Low pressure and side vent needles have been suggested to lessen the danger. This study observed apical pressures from different needles inserted deeply into small round and ovoid canals as instrumentation progressed. Low-pressure (5 psi) air was injected through the needles, and apical pressures were recorded after each instrument. Pressures varied greatly within each test group. Generalities that can be drawn are that binding the needle within the canal gives higher pressures than with the needle slightly short of binding and that pressures were higher with apexes instrumented to size 30 and higher. With the needle tightly bound, neither needle size, needle design, nor canal shape resulted in statistically significant mean pressure differences. With the needle slightly withdrawn, larger bore needles gave higher pressures than small diameter needles. Caution is advised with the clinical use of pressurized air in the drying of root canals. PMID:12043877

  10. Hydrology and environmental aspects of Erie Canal (1817-99)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, Walter Basil

    1976-01-01

    As the first major water project in the United States, the old Erie Canal provides an example of the hydrological and environmental consequences of water development. The available record shows that the project aroused environmental fears that the canal might be impaired by the adverse hydrologic effects of land development induced by the canal. Water requirements proved greater than anticipated, and problems of floods and hydraulic inefficiencies beset navigation throughout its history. The Erie Canal proved the practicality of major hydraulic works to the extent that operations and maintenance could cope with the burdens of deficiencies in design. The weight of prior experience that upland streams, such as the Potomac and Mohawk Rivers, had proved unsatisfactory for dependable navigation, led to a decision to build an independent canal which freed the location from the constraints of river channels and made possible a cross-country water route directly to Lake Erie. The decision on dimensioning the canal prism--chiefly width and depth-involved balance between a fear of building too small and thus not achieving the economic potentials, and a fear of building too expensively. The constraints proved effective, and for the first part of its history the revenues collected were sufficient to repay all costs. So great was the economic advantage of the canal that the rising trend in traffic soon induced an enlargement of the canal cross section, based upon a new but riskier objective-build as large as the projected trend in toll revenues would finance. The increased revenues did not materialize. Water supplies were a primary concern for both the planners and the operators of the canal. Water required for lockage, although the most obvious to the planners, proved to be a relatively minor item compared with the amounts of water that were required to compensate for leakage through the bed and banks of the canal. Leakage amounted to about 8 inches of depth per day. The total

  11. Radiographic prevalence of root canal ramifications in a sample of root canal treatments in a Brazilian Dental School Prevalência radiográfica de ramificações do canal radicular em uma amostra de tratamentos endodônticos em uma Faculdade de Odontologia Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iadasa de Quadros

    2007-06-01

    2000. Foram avaliadas as radiografias feitas durante o tratamento para verificar a presença das ramificações dos sistemas de canais radiculares. A radiografia inicial não mostrou a presença de qualquer ramificação. Depois da obturação as radiografias mostraram apenas 3 tipos de ramificação: 3,06% de canais laterais, 2,99% de deltas apicais e 0,1% de canais interradiculares. Os pré-molares superiores mostraram o maior número de canais laterais (n = 13, seguidos pelos pré-molares inferiores (n = 10 e incisivos superiores (n = 10. Deltas apicais foram encontrados principalmente em molares inferiores (n = 14, seguidos por incisivos superiores (n = 9. Apenas molares inferiores apresentaram canais interradiculares. A detecção de ramificações aumentou com o uso do EDTA. Entretanto, nenhuma relação estatisticamente significante foi encontrada entre o tipo de substância química auxiliar usada e o número de ramificações visualizadas após a obturação dos canais radiculares. Foi concluído que a freqüência de ramificações do canal radicular encontrada radiograficamente é baixa em tratamentos executados por estudantes universitários.

  12. Interfaces inteligentes para resolución de problemas en entornos virtuales

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre, Guillermo

    2001-01-01

    Los entornos virtuales basados en texto, MOOs (MUD Object Oriented) originan comunidades con distintos intereses. Este trabajo propone una interfaz de usuario para usar con los MOO en tareas educativas. Estas interfaces deben contar con la inteligencia necesaria como para regular un buen uso del entorno, de los canales de comunicación y de los elementos dispuestos en esos entornos. La posibilidad de incorporar agentes de interfaz, capaces de asistir a los usuarios, para resolver problemas jun...

  13. Reduction of Enterococcus faecalis in curved root canals after various sizes and tapers of canal preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Abbas Moshari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reduction of Enterococcus faecalis in curved root canals after various sizes and tapers of the canal preparation. Materials and Methods: Mandibular first molars (n = 103 with curved mesiobuccal canals were divided into one control (n = 5 and 7 experimental (n = 14 groups, were inoculated with E. faecalis (ATTC 29212 and prepared with the following RaCe files (FKG Dentaire as master apical file: Groups: 25.04, 25.06, 30.04, 30.06, 35.04, 35.06 and 40.06. All the experimental groups were irrigated with 2 mL of 1% sodium hypochlorite during instrumentation and finally rinsed with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA (2 mL followed by 5.25% NaOCl (2 mL and sterile distilled water. Colony counting was performed after incubation. Statistical Analysis Used: Resulting data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey′s post-hoc test, (P < 0.05. Results and Conclusions: All the experimental groups showed significant bacterial reduction (P < 0.001. Although the greater the size/taper or both led to more decreased amount of bacteria, differences between the groups with the identical size and different tapers, and among the groups with the same taper and different sizes were not significant. Based on this study, 25.04 along with using 2 mL of 1% NaOCl during instrumentation, and using 17% EDTA and 5.25% NaOCl as final rinse successively after the termination of preparation, can effectively reduce intra-canal bacteria and preserve root structure.

  14. Detection of Mesiobuccal Canal in Maxillary Molars and Distolingual Canal in Mandibular Molars by Dental CT: A Retrospective Study of 100 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Rathi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To detect presence of MB2 canal in maxillary molars and distolingual canal in mandibular molars by Dental CT. Material and Methods. A retrospective study of 100 Dental CTs was done. Axial and paraxial images obtained were used to assess the presence of MB2 canal in maxillary molars and distolingual canal in mandibular molars. Results. The youngest patient was of 11 years while the eldest patient was of 77 years. Males were 58 in number and females were 42 in number. MB2 canals were present in 57 patients and distolingual canal was present in 18 patients. Maximum MB2 canals were present in age group between 51 and 60 years, while distolingual canals were present in age group of 21–30 years. Conclusion. Dental CT allows adequate visualization of variation in root canal morphology and can be important diagnostic tool for successful endodontic therapy.

  15. Spinal canal surrogate for testing intradural implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, H; Howard, M A; Shurig, R; Gillies, G T

    2012-11-01

    We have designed, built and tested an anthropomorphic-scale surrogate spinal canal, for use in preliminary evaluations of the performance characteristics of a novel intradural spinal cord stimulator. The surrogate employs a silicone mock spinal cord with semi-major and semi-minor diameters of 10 and 6 mm, respectively, commensurate with those of actual thoracic-level spinal cord. The axial restoring force provided by the 300 µm thick silicone denticulate ligament constructs on the mock cord is ~ 0.32 N mm(-1) over a 1.5 mm range of displacement, which is within a factor of 2 of that measured by others in human cadaver specimens. Examples of testing protocols of prototype intradural stimulators that employ this device are discussed. PMID:22953718

  16. Alternative techniques in root canal debridement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Ruxandra; Todea, Carmen; Bǎlǎbuc, Cosmin; Nica, Luminita; Armani, Giacomo; Locovei, Cosmin

    2014-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that conventional chemo-mechanical preparation is limited regarding the decontamination of the endodontic space, which is why alternative techniques such as laser radiation have their importance in the modern endodontic treatment. The present study aims to assess the possibility of improving the debridement of the root canals by removing smear layer using Er: YAG laser radiation. We used 18 extracted teeth, which were subjected to the same initial protocol and then divided into 5 study groups: the control group has not been treated with laser; the other 4 groups were exposed to laser radiation using two different geometries peaks of quartz and two energy levels. Scanning electronic microscopy revealed an increased efficiency in the debridement of all interested areas when using PIPS and XPulse tips at proper energy. In the two groups treated with inferior laser energy, the debridement didn't prove to be superior to the conventional treatment.

  17. MANAGEMENT OF LUMBAR SPINAL CANAL STENOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhergee G. S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Spinal stenosis is one of the most common conditions in the elderly. It is defined as a narrowing of the spinal canal. The term stenosis is derived from the Greek word for narrow, which is “Stenos”. The first description of this condition is attributed to Antoine portal in 1803. Verbiest is credited with coining the term spinal stenosis and the associated narrowing of the spinal canal as its potential cause. [1-10] Kirkaldy–Willis subsequently described the degenerative cascade in the lumbar spine as the cause for the altered anatomy and pathophysiology in spinal stenosis. [11-15] If compression does not occur, the canal should be described as narrow but not stenotic. Some studies defined lumbar spinal stenosis as a “narrowing of the osteoligamentous vertebral canal and/or the intervertebral foramina causing compression of the thecal sac and/or the caudal nerve roots; at a single vertebral level, narrowing may affect the whole canal or part of it” (Postacchini 1983. This definition distinguished between disc herniation and stenosis. [16] . The most common type of spinal stenosis is caused by degenerative arthritis of the spine. Hypertrophy and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament which usually are confined to the cervical spine, and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH syndrome also may result in an acquired form of spinal stenosis. Congenital forms caused by disorders such as achondroplasia and dysplastic spondylolisthesis are much less common. Congenital spinal stenosis usually is central and is evident or imaging studies. Idiopathic congenital narrowing usually involves the anteroposterior dimension of the canal secondary to short pedicles; the patient otherwise is normal. In contrast, in achondroplasia, the canal is narrowed in the anteroposterior plane owing to shortened pedicles and in lateral dimension because of diminished interpedicular distance. Acquired forms of spinal stenosis usually are

  18. Laser scanning dental probe for endodontic root canal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Molly A. B.; Friedrich, Michal; Hamilton, Jeffrey D.; Lee, Peggy; Berg, Joel; Seibel, Eric J.

    2011-03-01

    Complications that arise during endodontic procedures pose serious threats to the long-term integrity and health of the tooth. Potential complexities of root canals include residual pulpal tissue, cracks, mesial-buccal 2 and accessory canals. In the case of a failed root canal, a successful apicoectomy can be jeopardized by isthmuses, accessory canals, and root microfracture. Confirming diagnosis using a small imaging probe would allow proper treatment and prevent retreatment of endodontic procedures. An ultrathin and flexible laser scanning endoscope of 1.2 to 1.6mm outer diameter was used in vitro to image extracted teeth with varied root configurations. Teeth were opened using a conventional bur and high speed drill. Imaging within the opened access cavity clarified the location of the roots where canal filing would initiate. Although radiographs are commonly used to determine the root canal size, position, and shape, the limited 2D image perspective leaves ambiguity that could be clarified if used in conjunction with a direct visual imaging tool. Direct visualization may avoid difficulties in locating the root canal and reduce the number of radiographs needed. A transillumination imaging device with the separated illumination and light collection functions rendered cracks visible in the prepared teeth that were otherwise indiscernible using reflected visible light. Our work demonstrates that a small diameter endoscope with high spatial resolution may significantly increase the efficiency and success of endodontic procedures.

  19. Facial Canal Dehiscence in Patients with Chronic Otitis Surgery

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    Ahmet Uluat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To examine facial canal status in patients with chronic otitis media (COM surgery and to detect the relation between facial canals dehiscence (FCD with middle ear pathology in these patients. Material and Method: The surgery data of patients who were subjected to tympanoplasty with or without mastoidectomy and radical mastoidectomy due to COM were analyzed retrospectively from January 2006 to December 2012. In addition to demonstrative data of the patients, status of facial canal and preoperative diagnoses of patients, type of the operation performed, status of middle ear, number of surgeries, existence of cholesteatoma, existence of ossicular chain defect, lateral canal defect and dura defect were assessed and the relation thereof with facial canal dehiscence (FCD was analyzed statistically. Results: Seven hundred ninety six patients were included in the study. FCD was detected in 10.05% of the patients. FCD was most frequently observed in the tympanic segment. It was found out that there was a statistically significant relationship of middle ear pathology, cholesteatoma, revision surgery, lateral semicircular canal and ossicular chain defect with FCD. Discussion: COM diagnosed patients may have defect in facial canal according to their preoperative diagnoses, middle ear pathologies, number of operations and ossicular chain defects. These patients should be applied a more careful surgery and closely followed up in postoperative periods.

  20. Discharge Estimation in a Lined Canal Using Information Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chang Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study applies a new method and technology to measure the discharge in a lined canal in Taiwan. An Acoustic Digital Current Meter mounted on a measurement platform is used to measure the velocities over the full cross-section for establishing the measurement method. The proposed method primarily employs Chiu’s Equation which is based on entropy to establish a constant ratio the relation between the maximum and mean velocities in an irrigation canal, and compute the maximum velocity by the observed velocity profile. In consequence, the mean velocity of the lined canal can be rapidly determined by the maximum velocity and the constant ratio. The cross-sectional area of the artificial irrigation canal can be calculated for the water stage. Finally, the discharge in the lined canal can be efficiently determined by the estimated mean velocity and the cross-sectional area. Using the data of discharges and stages collected in the Wan-Dan Canal, the correlation of stage and discharge is also developed for remote real-time monitoring and estimating discharge from the pumping station. Overall, Chiu’s Equation is demonstrated to reliably and accurately measure discharge in a lined canal, and can serve as reference for future calibration for a stage-discharge rating curve.

  1. Proposition d’un outil d’aide au diagnostic du syndrome du canal carpien pour les acteurs de la santé au travail Proposal of a tool for diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome for Personal of Health at Work Proposición de una herramienta de ayuda en el diagnóstico del síndrome del túnel carpiano para los actores de la salud en el trabajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Bazzaro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Les acteurs de la santé au travail sont confrontés à un manque d’outils quantitatifs de suivi et de diagnostic du syndrome du canal carpien (SCC. Pour répondre à ce manque, un outil de diagnostic du SCC est proposé dans cette communication. Il est composé de deux tests : le test de la roue qui consiste à détecter des encoches sur une roue en mouvement et le test de la poutre qui détecte un niveau de sensibilité à une force exercée sur un doigt concerné par le SCC. Deux études expérimentales ont été conduites pour valider cet appareil. La première étude montre que les mesures effectuées avec l’appareil sont répétables, la seconde vise à étudier la sensibilité et la spécificité de l’outil en comparaison avec une étude électrodiagnostique. Les résultats montrent que l’appareil de détection du SCC a un excellent pouvoir discriminant permettant d’identifier les sujets sains et les sujets atteints du SCC.People involved with occupational health at work are faced with a lack of quantitative tools to monitor and diagnose Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS. In order to fill this gap, we developed a device for rapid CTS diagnosis which is composed of two complementary quantitative tests: the wheel test, which consists in detecting notches on a rotating wheel, and the beam test, which consists in detecting various forces exerted on a finger. We conducted two experimental studies to validate this device. The first one demonstrated the repeatability of the measures. The second one studied the sensitivity and specificity of our tool as compared to an electro-diagnosis test. The results show that our CTS detection device has excellent discriminatory power that allows practitioners to differentiate between healthy and CTS-affected subjects.Los actores de la salud en el trabajo se enfrentan a una falta de herramientas cuantitativas de seguimiento y de diagnóstico del síndrome del túnel carpiano (STC. Como respuesta a esa

  2. Avaliação da ansiedade e do viés de atenção no canal visual para estímulos emocionais em uma amostra não clínica Assessment of anxiety and attentional bias in the visual channel toward emotional stimuli in a non-clinical sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Vieira Melo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A ansiedade vem sendo estudada como fator capaz de influenciar a atenção visual seletiva em experimentos como a Visual Probe Detection Task (VPDT. Este estudo objetivou comparar o viés de atenção para imagens emocionais em pessoas com diferentes níveis de ansiedade de traço e estado usando a VPDT. Oitenta e dois estudantes universitários responderam ao IDATE. Na VPDT, utilizaram-se 12 pares de imagens com alto nível de ativação e valência negativa, pareadas com imagens controles neutras, do International Affective Picture System (IAPS. Os estímulos eram apresentados durante 200 m. O viés de atenção não foi diferente entre os participantes com baixos e altos níveis de ansiedade de traço e estado. Tais resultados indicaram que elas não são importantes para o viés de atenção para estímulos negativos com altos níveis de ativação. Além disso, é possível que o viés de atenção para estímulos ansiogênicos seja observado apenas em populações clínicas.Anxiety has been observed as a factor capable to influence the visual selective attention in experiments such as the Visual Probe Detection Task (VPDT. This study aimed to compare the attentional bias to emotional images in people with different levels of trait and state anxiety using a VPDT. Eighty-two undergraduate students performed VPDT and answered the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory. In VPDT, 12 pairs of images from International Affective Picture System (emotional image with high arousal level and negative valence/and one control, neutral were presented during 200 m. There was no attentional bias difference between the participants neither with low nor high levels of trait or state of anxiety. These results indicated that trait or state anxiety might not be important to attentional bias to negative and arousing visual stimuli. It is possible that just clinical populations with anxiety disorders often show attentional bias to anxiogenic stimuli.

  3. Modelo resorte-paríicula para telas hiperlasticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUEL GARCÍA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un modelo computacional para la simulación de telas hiperelásticas. El modelo propuesto tiene un enfoque multi−partículas y simula la interacción de un material textil con un objeto deformante. La tela está representada por mallas rectangulares compuestas por resortes, este hecho permite al modelo comportarse ortotrópicamente y en consecuencia es posible simular sus propiedades en ambos sentidos. Las relaciones constitutivas del material preservan las capacidades hiperelásticas naturales de la tela. En el modelo desarrollado aquí, inicialmente la tela se encuentra en su estado natural no deformado. Luego se le da una deformación inicial que garantice el no contacto o intersección con el objeto deformante. Finalmente, la tela deformada es liberada, en consecuencia ella comienza a moverse iterativamente hacia a una posición de equilibrio. La posición final de equilibrio es alcanzada cuando las fuerzas internas son balanceadas por las fuerzas externas de contacto causadas por el objeto. Esto se logra cuando el criterio de parada ha sido satisfecho.

  4. Bacterial coronal leakage after obturation with three root canal sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpawat, S; Amornchat, C; Trisuwan, W R

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the bacterial leakage of root canals obturated with three root canal sealers, using Endodontalis faecalis as a microbial tracer to determine the length of time for bacteria to penetrate through the obturated root canal to the root apex. Seventy-five, single-rooted teeth with straight root canals had the crown cut off at the cementoenamel junction. Root canals were instrumented by a step-back technique. The prepared teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups of 19 teeth each and another 2 groups as positive and negative controls (9 teeth each). The experimental groups were dependent on the sealer used: AH-Plus, Apexit, and Ketac-Endo. The root canals were obturated using a lateral condensation technique. After 24 h the teeth were attached to microcentrifuge tubes with 2 mm of the root apex submerged in Brain Heart Infusion broth in glass test tubes. The coronal portions of the root canal filling materials were placed in contact with E. faecalis. The teeth were observed for bacterial leakage daily for 30 and 60 days. With the chi2 test for comparing pairs of groups at the 0.05 level (p 0.06), but Apexit had significantly higher leakage (p 0.05), but Apexit leaked more than AH-Plus. The conclusion drawn from this experiment was that epoxy resin root canal sealer was found to be more adaptable to the root canal wall and filling material than a calcium hydroxide sealer when bacterial coronal leakage was studied.

  5. Methodology for Automatic Generation of Models for Large Urban Spaces Based on GIS Data/Metodología para la generación automática de modelos de grandes espacios urbanos desde información SIG/

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Arturo Ordóñez Medina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the planning and evaluation stages of infrastructure projects, it is necessary to manage huge quantities of information. Cities are very complex systems, which need to be modeled when an intervention is required. Suchmodels allow us to measure the impact of infrastructure changes, simulating hypothetic scenarios and evaluating results. This paper describes a methodology for the automatic generation of urban space models from GIS sources. A Voronoi diagram is used to partition large urban regions and subsequently define zones of interest. Finally, some examples of application models are presented, one used for microsimulation of traffic and another for air pollution simulation.En las etapas de planeación y evaluación de proyectos de infraestructura es necesario manejar grandes cantidades de información. Las ciudades son sistemas complejos que deben ser modeladas para ser intervenidas. Estos modelos permitirón medir el impacto de los cambios de infraestructura, simular escenarios hipotéticos y evaluar resultados. Este artículo describe una metodología para generar automáticamente modelos espaciales urbanos desde fuentes SIG: Un diagrama de Voronoi es usado para dividir grandes regiones urbanas, y a continuación serán definidas las zonas de interés. Finalmente, algunos ejemplos de modelos de aplicación serán presentados, uno usado para microsimulación de tráfico y el otro para simular contaminación atmosférica.

  6. Juntas de contracción en canales y depósitos de agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safránez, Carlos

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available In view of the lack of Information available on the subject of contraction joints in canals and water tanks, and this being of great importance for water-tightness in this type of construction, the data considered as essential for planning joints has been presented in a systematic way. The most common of joints, and their characteristics, are mentioned and listed in accordance with their design and the procedure used for sealing them. The great importance of joint design and dimensions in relation to their performance has been highlighted. In the projects carried out, referring to this type of joint, we see there is a lack of common criteria regarding the minimum requisites and conditions which the joints must have in order to duly fulfill their mission. Experience has proven that the results obtained with contraction joints in canals and water tanks have not been totally satisfactory. In a large number of cases, bothersome and costly repairs were necessary to overercome deficiencies observed. In order to improve this situation, the different factors which influence the contraction joint's performance are discussed and they should be taken into account when planning the joints and their dimensions, in order to insure greatest efficiency.Vista la escasa información disponible sobre las juntas de contracción en canales y depósitos de agua, siendo indiscutible su gran importancia para la estanquidad de estas obras, se han expuesto, en forma sistemática, los datos considerados esenciales para enfocar debidamente el proyecto de las juntas. Se han indicado los tipos de juntas más corrientes, ordenadas de acuerdo con su diseño y con el procedimiento empleado para su sellado, señalando sus características. Se ha tratado de la importancia primordial del diseño y de las dimensiones de las juntas en relación con su comportamiento. En los proyectos de las juntas ejecutadas llama la atención la falta de una unidad de criterio sobre las

  7. Metachronous tubulovillous and tubular adenomas of the anal canal

    OpenAIRE

    NOZAWA, HIROAKI; ISHIHARA, SOICHIRO; Morikawa, Teppei; Tanaka, Junichiro; YASUDA, KOJI; Ohtani, Kensuke; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Kawai, Kazushige; Hata, Keisuke; Kazama, Shinsuke; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Sunami, Eiji; Kitayama, Joji

    2015-01-01

    Anal canal adenoma is an extremely rare disease that has the potential to transform into a malignant tumor. We herein presented a rare case of metachronous multiple adenomas of the anal canal. A 48-year-old woman underwent total colonoscopy following a positive fecal blood test. A 9-mm villous polyp arising from the posterior wall of the anal canal was removed by snare polypectomy. Histologically, the tumor was tubulovillous adenoma with high-grade dysplasia and the cut end was negative for t...

  8. Route Selection by Tankers(Dirty) at the Suez Canal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Risto Laulajainen

    2007-01-01

    <正>The Suez Canal,attached route alternatives with traffic flows and areas are described and theoretical break-even points derived. Logistically,route selection depends on relative distances,the level of spot rates and canal dues,the sensitivity to change growing with rising rate levels.The connection is diluted by the canal /pipeline owners’ price differentiation and the charterers’ capital costs;interest on cargo and change of its value during transit.Ship-owners are largely neutral to route choice as long as rates and main cost items are directly related to distance.

  9. Les pathologies du Canal Péritonio-Vaginal

    OpenAIRE

    DJAZIRI, Sihem Fatima Zohra

    2014-01-01

    Les pathologies du canal péritonéo-vaginal, sont des affections congénitales dues à la persistance du canal au delà de la naissance. Elles regroupent les hernies inguinales et inguino-scrotales, les hydrocèles communicantes ou non, et les kystes du cordon spermatique. Notre travail est une étude rétrospective portant sur 309 malades opérés de pathologies du canal péritonio-vaginal dans le service de chirurgie infantile durant la période allant d’octobre 2011 jusqu'à octobre ...

  10. Cytogenetic findings in persons living near the Love Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, C W; Nadel, M R; Zack, M M; Chen, A T; Bender, M A; Preston, R J

    1984-03-16

    Cytogenetic analyses were performed on peripheral blood from 46 present or past residents of the area surrounding Love Canal, a former dump site for chemical wastes in Niagara Falls, NY. Participants included 17 persons in whom cytogenetic analyses had been performed in 1980 and 29 persons who had been living in 1978 in seven homes that directly adjoined the canal and in which environmental tests showed elevated levels of chemicals spreading from the canal. Frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) did not differ significantly from control levels. For all participants, cigarette smoking was associated with an increase in sister chromatid exchange frequency.

  11. [An analysis of key points for root canal therapy technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, M W

    2016-08-01

    The success rate of root canal therapy(RCT)have been improved continuously along with the advancement in RCT techniques in the past several decades. If standard procedures of modern RCT techniques are strictly followed, the success rate of RCT may exceed 90%. The success of RCT is mainly affected by such factors as clear concept of the anatomy of root canals, proper mechanical and chemical preparation and perfect filling of root canal system. If these factors are sufficiently noted, a success is easy to achieve. Even though the primary RCT fails, retreatment can further be conducted to save the diseased teeth. PMID:27511032

  12. TWO CANALS IN MAXILLARY FIRST MOLAR: A RARE DENTAL ENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Root anatomy studies were divided into laboratory studies (In-Vitro, clinical root canal system anatomy studies (In vivo and clinical case reports of anomalies. Over 95% (95.9% of maxillary first molars had three roots and 3.9% had two roots. The incidence of fusion of any two or three roots was approximately 5.2%. Conical and C-shaped roots and canals were rarely found (0.12%.The fusion of the two buccal roots has the prevalence of 0.4% in maxillary first molars. Nevertheless, presence of only one buccal root with one canal is extremely rare.

  13. The classification and staging of cancerous growths of the anal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter authors give information about frequency of cancerous growths of the anal canal, general analysis of observations the classification and staging of cancerous growths of the anal canal, clinical-anatomy classification of cancerous growths of the anal canal and staging of cancerous growths of anal canal

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  18. 75 FR 42678 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Logan Northern Canal Reconstruction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... invites all interested individuals and organizations, public agencies, and Native American Tribes to... are as follows: Alternative 1: Divert LN Canal water into the existing LHPS Canal alignment, from...: Divert LN Canal water into the existing LHPS Canal alignment, from Logan River to Lundstrom Park,...

  19. Clinical Treatment and Anatomy Study of Maxillary First Molars with Five Root Canals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kuo Wan; Shun-yun Luo; Ji-zhi Zhao; Hai-yun Wang; Lin Ma; Wen-dong Yang

    2011-01-01

    @@ THE purpose of root canal treatment is to thoroughly clean the root canal system and fill it in all its dimensions.1 To achieve this goal, the entire root canal system must be adequately debrided and completely filled.In clinical practice, variations in the canal morphology pose a constant challenge to Received for publication April 26, 2011.

  20. Aditivos para concretos de projeção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pileggi R. G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A crescente utilização de procedimentos automatizados para a instalação de concretos refratários, como bombeamento e projeção, deve-se ao entendimento simultâneo das solicitações de cada técnica de instalação e dos fatores que determinam a natureza reológica destes materiais. No caso dos concretos de projeção, importante ainda é avaliar a ação dos aditivos (floculantes, aceleradores de pega, etc. normalmente utilizados para auxiliar a consolidação e adesão do material na superfície aplicada, reduzindo o desperdício (rebote durante a aplicação. Contudo, os procedimentos convencionais de análise, baseados em ensaios de consistência ou em análises pós-cura, não permitem simular a influência dos aditivos na projeção do material. Neste trabalho, foi desenvolvida uma nova técnica experimental baseada na reometria de concretos, a qual foi utilizada na análise de aditivos comerciais, além de outros que teoricamente possuem potencial para auxiliar a consolidação da aplicação de concretos por projeção. Os resultados comprovaram a eficácia da técnica de ensaio desenvolvida e possibilitaram a identificação de novos aditivos que elevam a eficiência da projeção.

  1. Implementación y prueba de un modelo de decisión de estrategia de distribución a canal tradicional en un mercado emergente en una empresa colombiana de consumo masivo atendiendo la ciudad de Bogotá

    OpenAIRE

    Amado Ariza, Luisa Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    En este trabajo de grado se aplica el modelo de selección de la estrategia de distribución para atender al canal tradicional, desarrollado por el Centro Latinoamericano de Innovación en Logística (CLI) en asociación con el Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), para lo que se seleccionó una empresa de consumo masivo con presencia en Colombia atendiendo el canal tradicional en Bogotá. A través del estudio de caso se emplearon distintos métodos para la recolección y análisis de informació...

  2. VAPD-2D: Simulador para Apoio ao Ensino de Engenharia Ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vitor de Alencar Carvalho

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento de um software educativo, chamado VAPD-2D para apoio às soluções para problemas da Engenharia Ambiental, mais especificamente de problemas onde o transporte por difusão é predominante. O mecanismo de transporte por difusão tem várias aplicações práticas na Engenharia, destacando os estudos da contaminação do solo e de águas subterrâneas por produtos químicos orgânicos e inorgânicos. Estes estudos envolvem, basicamente, a determinação dos parâmetros físicos e químicos dos contaminantes e a forma como estes se movem, quando dissolvidos na água subterrânea. O VAPD-2D é um simulador numérico de interface bastante simples que permite aos estudantes da Engenharia simular e testar parâmetros para diversos tipos de problemas.

  3. Comparison of antimicrobial substantivity of root canal irrigants in instrumented root canals up to 72 h: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M N Shahani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Disinfection of the root canal system is one of the primary aims of root canal treatment. This can be achieved through the use of various antimicrobial agents in the form of irrigants and medicaments. The antimicrobial substantivity of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate, 1% povidone iodine, 2.5% hydrogen peroxide followed by 2% sodium hypochlorite, and 2% sodium hypochlorite alone as irrigants was assessed in instrumented root canals. 2% chlorhexidine showed antimicrobial substantivity lasting up to 72 h, followed by 1% povidone iodine, and 2% sodium hypochlorite. Thus 2% chlorhexidine should be used as a final rinse irrigant in endodontic treatment protocols.

  4. Seepage from canals having variable shape and partial lining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirnateghi, A.; Bruch, J. C.

    1983-07-01

    The numerical models presented here are solutions to the steady two-dimensional flow through a porous medium from canals of variable shape with partial lining. Two main cases are studied. The first case is the seepage flow from canals with impervious lining on their sloping sides. The second case is for seepage from canals in which the impervious lining is located on the base of the canal and the sides are unlined. The Baiocchi transformation and method is used to develop a boundary value problem which is then solved by the finite-difference successive over-relaxation method with projection. A sample problem of each case is presented. The discharge rates and free surfaces of the seepage flows are obtained through the numerical scheme, and are compared with available analytical results.

  5. Optimal volume of local anaesthetic for the adductor canal block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, P.; Jenstrup, M. T.; Lund, J.;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Theoretically, the ideal volume of local anaesthetic for adductor canal block (ACB) would ensure sufficient filling ofthe canal and avoid proximal spread to the femoral triangle. In this dose-finding study, we aimed to investigate the minimaleffective volume for an ACB needed to fill...... the adductor canal distally in at least 95% of patients (ED95). Methods: We performed a blinded trial, enrolling 40 healthy men. All subjects received an ACB with lidocaine 1%. Volumes wereassigned sequentially to the subjects using the continual reassessment method followed by Bayesian analysis to determine...... theED95. Distal filling of the adductor canal was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (primary outcome). Secondary outcomeswere the effect of volume on proximal spread to the femoral triangle (also assessed by magnetic resonance imaging), quadricepsmuscle weakness (decrease by ≥25% from baseline...

  6. Synergistic growth effect among bacteria recovered from root canal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Moreira Júnior

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the ecological relationships between bacterial species that colonize infected root canals. Root canal bacteria recovered from one patient with pulp canal necrosis were evaluated in vitro for synergistic and antagonistic activities determined by mono and co-culture growth kinetics and the production of bacteriocin-like substances using the double layer diffusion method. Peptostreptococcus prevotii triggered a significant increase of Fusobacterium nucleatum growth, while the former bacteria did not affect the growth of P. prevotii. The bacterial species did not produce antagonism activity against itself or against any of the other two species. Despite many studies have demonstrated the capability of root canal microorganisms to produce antagonistic substances, these in vitro experimental tests show the synergistic effect of P. prevotii on the growth of F. nucleatum.

  7. Atypical situations in root canals anatomy of human mandibular premolars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício SCAINI

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the teeth internal anatomy that will receive endodontic treatment is very important for the success of the treatment and prognosis of those teeth. In this study, the morphological variations that may occur in relation to the number of root canals present in the premolar mandibular teeth group were discussed, as well as the most efficient methods to diagnose the existence of these variations, in order to have a clearer diagnosis of the number of root canals to be treated.A case of an endodontic treatment of a mandibular premolar with 4 root canals was reported and some cases of endodontic treatment in mandibular premolars with 1, 2 and 3 root canals were shown.

  8. Functional outcome of surgical management of degenerative lumbar canal stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Nath

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Operative treatment in patients of degenerative lumbar canal stenosis yields excellent results as observed on the basis of JOA scoring system. No patient got recurrence of symptoms of nerve compression.

  9. Research progress of antagonistic interactions among root canal irrigations disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen QU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Root canal therapy is the most effective way to treat various pulposis and periapical disease. Simple mechanical apparatus can not clean root canal thoroughly, but may affect tight filling instead. It can achieve a satisfactory cleansing effect only when it is combined with a chemical solution. Irrigation fluid for root canal should possess the properties of tissue dissolution, antimicrobial, lubrication, and removal of smear layer. So far, no solution is able to fulfill all these functions. Therefore, a combined use of multiple irrigation solutions is suggested. It can not only achieve good effect in cleaning and disinfection, also it can lower the concentration of different solutions, thus reducing the side effects. Nevertheless, some experiments proved that antagonism existed among the chemicals used for irrigations. The purpose of present article is to review the antagonistic effect among the chemicals used for irrigation when they are used together for root canal treatment.

  10. Canals, Midview Lateral, Published in 2002, Duchesne County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Canals dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2002. It is described as 'Midview Lateral'. Data by this publisher are often provided...

  11. Root canal irrigants: a review of their interactions, benefits, and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Amit; Sahoo, Sanjit Kumar; Govind, Shashirekha

    2015-04-01

    Endodontic treatment success depends on a combination of appropriate instrumentation, effective irrigation and decontamination of root canal spaces to apices, and obturation of the root canals. Irrigation of the root canal is paramount in determining periapical tissue healing. This article reviews presently available root canal irrigants, their interactions, advantages, and limitations. For this review, the authors performed a Medline search for all English language articles published through January 2014 with "root canal irrigants" and "endodontic irrigants" as keywords. PMID:25821937

  12. Canals in the Roof of the Pharynx :Anatomic Study and their Clinical Meaning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1 IntroductionThe palatovaginal canal and the vomerovaginal canal are small canals which connect the roof of the nasopharynx to the posterior wall of the pterygopalatine fossa. The pterygopalatine fossa represents a major pathway for spread of malignant tumors and infections. In most of the classic anatomy texts brief descriptions of the palatovaginal canal and the vomerovaginal canal are provided. There is still a scarcity of studies comparing the radiologic and microdissection findings~([1]). The aim of t...

  13. The Evaluation of Lumbar Spinal Canal Diameters by MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz Mashoufi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Lumbar spinal stenosis is the common cause of low back pain. MRI is the best modality for diagnosis of spinal canal stenosis. The aim of this study is to evaluate lumbar spinal canal diameters and relationship with gender, age, stature, weight and job."nPatients and Methods: One-hundred men and 100 women in the age range of 25 to 40 years from East Azarbayjan who were referred to Sheikholrais MRI Center were selected. The diameters of the spinal canal were measured on the midsagittal and axial section on T2 weighted images by 0.3 T MRI Unite. The results of measurements were analyzed by SPSS software. "nResults: The results showed that the least anteroposterior diameter was at the third lumbar vertebra but the narrowest transverse diameter was at the first lumbar vertebra. The mean anteroposterior diameter of the lumbar spinal canal decreased from the first to the third lumbar vertebra, followed by an increase from the third to the fifth. From the first to the fifth lumbar vertebra, there was an increase in the mean transverse diameters. The mean transverse diameter in the middle part of the vertebra is longer than the lower part. A frank relation was seen between the gender of physical workers with lumbar spinal canal stenosis, although there was no relation between age, stature, and weight with lumbar spinal canal stenosis."nConclusion: Considering the high incidence of lumbar canal stenosis and the relationship with heavy manual work, it is recommended that a plain radiography is taken before choosing heavy manual work and exercises. People whose canal is relatively narrow should be refused from heavy manual work and exercises.

  14. Absent posterior semicircular canal: HRCT feature of Waardenburg syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep M Mahajan; Manish Pithwa; Apeksha Chavan; Deepti Pimple

    2012-01-01

    Absence of posterior semicircular canal is a rare condition, having been reported with only a few syndromes such as Waardenburg syndrome (WS), Alagellie, CHARGE, and Goldenhaar syndromes. We report a 12- year old male with bilateral absent posterior semicircular canals. These phenotypic characteristics of the patient favored the diagnosis of WS. WS is a rare autosomal dominant condition characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, in conjunction with pigmentary abnormalities and defects of th...

  15. Bifid mandibular canal: a rare or underestimated entity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Nasseh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the rare anatomical variations that can be of significant importance for the dentist is the bifid mandibular canal. Many complications can occur from this condition such as failure of anesthesia when performing inferior alveolar nerve block, difficulties during the surgical extraction of the third mandibular molar, and during implants placement. Therefore, good knowledge of this condition is essential. In this report, we describe the radiographic finding of a unilateral bifid mandibular canal.

  16. An investigation of the geochemistry and petrology of canal sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Dodd, Juliet S.

    2000-01-01

    Canals are artificial waterways, which are distinct from natural aquatic systems. As a result of their industrial heritage they have experienced high loadings of anthropogenic material, and consequently their sediments tend to have a bulk composition that is distinct from natural sediment. It is therefore expected that the geochemical behaviour of canal sediment may deviate significantly from that of natural sediment. This study investigates and contrasts the geochemistry and petrology of a r...

  17. Predictive control applied to a water canal prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Canarias, Daniel; Figueiredo, João; Rijo, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Predictive control is an intelligent tool to manage complex systems. This control strategy is getting more and more application in industrial fields. This paper shows the application of the predictive control methodology to a water distribution canal. Water canals are complex hydraulic systems because they are open and big scale systems, characterized by big delays and great inertia. Many models and control strategies have already been simulated using linear control theory. In the present stu...

  18. CT findings of the osteoma of the external auditory canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ha Young; Song, Chang Joon; Yoon, Chung Dae; Park, Mi Hyun; Shin, Byung Seok [Chungnam National University, School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-15

    We wanted to report the CT image findings of the osteoma of the external auditory canal. Temporal bone CT scanning was performed on eight patients (4 males and 4 females aged between 8 and 41 years) with pathologically proven osteoma of the external auditory canal after operation, and the findings of the CT scanning were retrospectively reviewed. Not only did we analyze the size, shape, distribution and location of the osteomas, we also analyzed the relationship between the lesion and the tympanosqumaous or tympanomastoid suture line, and the changes seen on the CT scan images for the patients who were able to undergo follow-up. All the lesions of the osteoma of the external auditory canal were unilateral, solitary, pedunculated bony masses. In five patients, the osteomas occurred on the left side and for the other three patients, the osteomas occurred on the right side. The average size of the osteoma was 0.6 cm with the smallest being 0.5 cm and the largest being 1.2 cm. Each of the lesions was located at the osteochondral junction in the terminal part of the osseous external ear canal. The stalk of the osteoma of the external auditory canal was found to have occurred in the anteroinferior wall in five cases (63%), in the anterosuperior wall (the tympanosqumaous suture line) in two cases (25%), and in the anterior wall in one case. The osteoma of the external auditory canal was a compact form in five cases and it was a cancellous form in three cases. One case of the cancellous form was changed into a compact form 35 months later due to the advanced ossification. Osteoma of the external auditory canal developed in a unilateral and solitary fashion. The characteristic image findings show that it is attached to the external auditory canal by its stalk. Unlike our common knowledge about its occurrence, osteoma mostly occurred in the tympanic wall, and this is regardless of the tympanosquamous or tympanomastoid suture line.

  19. Bundling ecosystem services in the Panama Canal watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Simonit, Silvio; Perrings, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Land cover change in watersheds affects the supply of a number of ecosystem services, including water supply, the production of timber and nontimber forest products, the provision of habitat for forest species, and climate regulation through carbon sequestration. The Panama Canal watershed is currently being reforested to protect the dry-season flows needed for Canal operations. Whether reforestation of the watershed is desirable depends on its impacts on all services. We develop a spatially ...

  20. Prevalencia del segundo canal en la raíz mesiovestibular de los primeros molares maxilares mediante tomografía computarizada de haz de cono Prevalence of a second canal in the mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molars by Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Betancourt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La morfología del sistema de canales radiculares es compleja y variable. El primer molar maxilar permanente presenta habitualmente un segundo canal en la raíz mesiobucal (MB2. Su falta de localización y total desbridamiento, es la principal causa de fracaso terapéutico. El objetivo fue determinar la prevalencia in vivo del canal MB2 en la raíz mesiovestibular de primeros molares maxilares mediante tomografía computarizada de haz de cono (TCHC. Material y método: Se examinaron imágenes TCHC de primeros molares maxilares, izquierdos y derechos, en ambos sexos. Se excluyeron las raíces con canales radiculares tratados endodónticamente o con postes, rehabilitados mediante prótesis fija, calcificación de canales, evidencia de radectomía o cirugía periapical. Fueron seleccionadas 32 imágenes TCHC. En todos los casos, se realizó un estudio sistemático de la raíz mesiobucal a través de cortes en el plano axial. Resultados: Se observó una prevalencia del 68,75% del canal MB2. No se encontraron diferencias según sexo o lateralidad. El promedio de edad fue de 25,31 años de edad. Discusión: La alta prevalencia encontrada del canal MB2, debe ser considerada antes de establecer un tratamiento de endodoncia para lograr un resultado óptimo y evitar el fracaso terapéutico. La TCHC es una herramienta útil para su detección, y presenta alta sensibilidad.Introduction: The morphology of the root canal system is complex and variable. The first permanent maxillary molar has usually a second canal in the mesiobuccal root (MB2. Its location and total lack of debridement, is the leading cause of treatment failure. The objective was to determine in vivo the prevalence of MB2 canal in mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molars using Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. Methods: CBCT images of first maxillary molars, left and right, in both sexes, were reviewed. We excluded roots endodontically treated or with posts, rehabilitated

  1. Root canal preparation in endodontics: conventional versus laser methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodis, Harold E.; White, Joel M.; Marshall, Sally J.; Marshall, Grayson W.; Moskowitz, Emrey

    1992-06-01

    Conventional cleaning and shaping of root canal systems employs hand and/or rotary instrumentation to remove the contents of the canal and shape the canal to receive a filling material. With the advent of the Nd:YAG laser system another method of accomplishing proper cleaning and shaping is evaluated. Single rooted teeth were radiographed bucco- lingually and mesio-distally and were divided into 2 groups. The first group was accessed and the root canal systems cleaned and shaped with a step back technique utilizing hand files and gates glidden burs. At completion of the procedure the teeth were again radiographed at the same positions as those prior to the procedure. The teeth were split longitudinally and examined under scanning electron microscopy to assess cleaning. The second group of teeth were accessed, and cleaning and shaping was accomplished using the Nd:YAG laser in combination with hand files and rotary instruments. These teeth were subjected to the same analysis as those in the first group. The before and after radiographs of each group were subjected to image analysis to determine effectiveness of the two methods in shaping the canal systems. We will discuss the ability of Nd:YAG to clean and shape root canal spaces and remove smear layer and organic tissue remnants from those areas.

  2. Verrucous Carcinoma in External Auditory Canal – A Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zillur Rahman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Verrucous carcinoma is a variant of squamous cell carcinoma. It is of low grade malignancy and rarely present with distant metastasis. Oral cavity is the commonest site of this tumour, other sites are larynx, oesophagus and genitalia. Verrucous carcinoma in external auditory canal is extremely rare. This is the presentation of a 45 years old woman who came to the ENT & Head Neck Surgery department of Delta medical college, Dhaka, Bangladesh with discharging left ear and impairment of hearing on the same side for 7 years. Otoscopic examination showed a mass occupying almost whole of the external auditory canal and the overlying skin was thickened, papillary and blackish. Cytology from external auditory canal scrap showed hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis. External auditory canal bone was found eroded at some parts. Excision of the mass was done under microscope. Split thickness skin grafting was done in external auditory canal. The mass was diagnosed as verrucous carcinoma on histopathological examination. Afterwards she was given radiotherapy. Six months follow up showed no recurrence and healthy epithelialization of external auditory canal.

  3. Long-term cytotoxic effects of contemporary root canal sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Joao Nogueira Leal da SILVA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of root canal sealers on the cytotoxicity of 3T3 fibroblasts during a period of 5 weeks. Material and Methods Fibroblasts (3T3, 1×105 cells per well were incubated with elutes of fresh specimens from eight root canal sealers (AH Plus, Epiphany, Endomethasone N, EndoREZ, MTA Fillapex, Pulp Canal Sealer EWT, RoekoSeal and Sealapex and with elutes of the same specimens for 5 succeeding weeks after immersing in simulated body fluid. The cytotoxicity of all root canal sealers was determined using the MTT assay. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results RoekoSeal was the only sealer that did not show any cytotoxic effects (p<0.05. All the other tested sealers exhibited severe toxicity initially (week 0. MTA Fillapex remained moderately cytotoxic after the end of experimental period. Toxicity of the other tested sealers decreased gradually over time. The evaluated root canal sealers presented varying degrees of cytotoxicity, mainly in fresh mode. Conclusions RoekoSeal had no cytotoxic effect both freshly mixed and in the other tested time points. MTA Fillapex was associated with significantly less cell viability when compared to the other tested root canal sealers.

  4. Estudio de la interacción entre los canales Kv7.2 y la calmodulina utilizando la técnica Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC)

    OpenAIRE

    Lazcanoiturburu Ferreira, Nerea

    2016-01-01

    Empleo de la técnica BiFC para estudiar la interacción entre los canales Kv7.2 y la CaM. Para ello se realizan clonajes, se co-transfectan distintas combinaciones de éstos en células de mamífero y se analiza y cuantifica la intensidad de fluorescencia obtenida mediante microscopía confocal.

  5. Gaussian plume model for the SO{sub 2} in a thermoelectric power plant; Modelo de pluma gaussiano para el SO{sub 2} en una central termoelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes L, C.; Munoz Ledo, C. R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    The Gaussian Plume Model is an analytical extension to simulate the dispersion of the SO{sub 2} concentration at ground level as a function of the emission changes in the spot sources, as well as the pollutant dispersion in the Wind Rose, when the necessary parameters are fed. The model was elaborated in a personal computer and the results produced are generated in text form. [Espanol] El modelo de pluma gaussiano es una extension analitica para simular la dispersion de las concentraciones de SO{sub 2} a nivel del piso en funcion de los cambios de las emisiones en las fuentes puntuales, asi como, la dispersion del contaminante en la rosa de los vientos cuando se le alimentan los parametros necesarios. El modelo fue elaborado en una computadora personal y los resultados que proporciona los genera en modo texto.

  6. A comparative evaluation of the increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation in curved root canals by three rotary systems: A cone-beam computed tomographic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanthi, Nalam NVD; Rambabu, Tanikonda; Sajjan, Girija S; Varma, K Madhu; Satish, R Kalyan; Padmaja, M

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to measure the increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation after biomechanical preparation at 1, 3, and 5 mm short of the apex with three different rotary systems in both continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary motions. Materials and Methods: Sixty freshly extracted human mandibular molars with mesial root canal curvatures between 20° and 30° were included in the study. Teeth were randomly distributed into three groups (n = 20). Biomechanical preparations were done in all the mesial canals. In Group 1, instrumentation was done with ProTaper universal rotary files, Group 2, with K3XF rotary files, and Group 3, with LSX rotary files. Each group was further subdivided into subgroups A and B (n = 10) where instrumentation was done by continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary techniques, respectively. Increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation was measured using the preoperative and postoperative cone-beam computed tomography scans. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey pairwise multiple comparison tests. Results: Increase in root canal surface area was significantly more (P 0.05) in increase of root canal surface area and canal transportation between continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary techniques for ProTaper Universal, K3XF and LSX groups. Conclusion: LSX rotary system showed minimal increase of root canal surface area and minimal canal transportation when compared to ProTaper and K3XF rotary systems. PMID:27656062

  7. Determinantes de la eficiencia en el canal de distribución: análisis en agencias de viajes

    OpenAIRE

    Sellers Rubio, Ricardo; Mas Ruiz, Francisco José

    2009-01-01

    El incremento de la competencia entre agencias de viajes y el impacto del comercio electrónico como una alternativa al canal de distribución turístico tradicional han dado lugar a un entorno en el que la gestión eficiente de los recursos productivos resulta fundamental para las agencias de viajes. Así, el objetivo del trabajo consiste en estimar la eficiencia con la que operan los intermediarios del sector minorista español de distribución turístico, y conocer la influencia de algunos de sus ...

  8. Assessment of the wetting behavior of three different root canal sealers on root canal dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muralidhar Tummala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the wetting behavior of three different root canal sealers on the root canal dentin surface treated with irrigants and their combination. Materials and Methods: Decoronation and apical third resections of 27 extracted single-rooted human mandibular premolars were done. The roots were then split longitudinally into two halves, and randomly assigned into three treatment groups (n=18. The root dentin surfaces in Group1, Group 2 and Group 3 were treated with 17% ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA, 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and combination of 17% EDTA and 3% NaOCl, respectively. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups of 6 specimens each, depending on the the sealer used, i.e. sub group A. zinc oxide (ZnOE, sub group B. AH plus, subgroup C. Guttaflow sealer, respectively. The contact angle was measured using First Ten Angstroms (FTA 200 dynamic contact angle analyzer. Results: The contact angle values for AH Plus sealer were significantly lower when compared to the other two sealer groups. Conclusion: The wettability of AH Plus sealer on the root surface dentin was found to be better than Gutta-Flow and ZnOE sealer.

  9. Water losses from irrigation canals evaluation: comparison among different methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Paolo; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Lasagna, Manuela

    2013-04-01

    The research investigates the field methodologies to evaluate water losses from canals, in order to find a reliable method to identify and quantify them. This study was conducted in five canal lines in Piedmont, north-western Italy, different for hydraulic, morphological, geological and hydrogeological contexts (De Luca et alii, 2012). At a regional scale, Piedmont network consists of several tens of thousands km of irrigation canals. The loss of water due to seepage from irrigation canals constitutes a substantial part of the usable water. Irrigation canals placed in natural soil or fine and coarse sediments are characterized by water losses ranging from 20 % to more than 50 %. These losses cause economic, hydrogeological and environmental consequences: water losses evaluation from irrigation canals in the basis for the sustainable water resource use and management. First, hydrogeological and hydrological characterisation of the study area and of the bottom of the irrigation canals was carried out for every investigated canal, in order to evaluate the relationships between groundwater and stream water (eg. piezometric and hydrogeochemical survey campaigns, infiltrometry tests, penetrometric tests and electrical tomographies, soil characterizations from the bottom of investigated canals). The canals seepage rates were subsequently estimated using different methodologies: empirical formulas, inflow-outflow tests and double tracer tests. The empirical formulas applied for the study underestimated the real amount of the losses probably due to the scarce number of the considered variables. Then the canals seepage rates were evaluated employing inflow-outflow tests, considered the best tool by several authors. This method allows the determination of seepage quantities measuring inflow and outflow of a canal test reach either by instruments. The canal discharge was evaluated using a current meter. This method, even if easy to apply and practical, is not efficient

  10. Lumbar spinal canal size of sciatica patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurme, M.; Alaranta, H.; Aalto, T.; Knuts, L.R.; Vanharanta, H.; Troup, J.D.G. (Turku City Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Surgery; Social Insurance Institution, Turku (Finland). Rehabilitation Research Centre; Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation; Liverpool Univ. (UK). Dept. of Orthopaedic and Accident Surgery)

    Seven measures at the three lowest lumbar interspaces were recorded from conventional radiographs of the lumbar spines of 160 consecutive patients with low back pain and sciatica admitted for myelography and possible surgery. Eighty-eight patients were operated upon for disc herniation, and of the conservatively-treated 72 patients, 18 had a pathologic and 54 a normal myelogram. The results were evaluated after one year using the occupational handicap scales of WHO. Correlations of radiographic measures to stature were moderate and to age small. After adjusting for stature and age, only the male interpedicular distances and the antero-posterior diameter of intervertebral foramen at L3 were greater than those of females. The males with a pathologic myelogram had smaller posterior disc height at L3 and a smaller interarticular distance at L3 and L4 than those with normal myelogram, likewise the midsagittal diameter at L3 and L4 in females. In all patients other measures besides posterior disc height were smaller than those for low back pain patients (p<0.001) or for cadavers (p<0.001). The only correlation between measures and clinical manifestations was between pedicular length at L3 and limited straight leg raising. Where the disc material had been extruded into the spinal canal, the interpedicular distance was significantly wider. Only anterior disc height at L3 revealed differences between good and poor outcome one year after surgery, as did the interarticular distance at S1 in patients with normal myelogram after conservative treatment. (orig.).

  11. Didáctica de las matemáticas y desarrollo profesional de una maestra. El caso de Maria Antònia Canals i Tolosa

    OpenAIRE

    Sotos Serrano, María

    2015-01-01

    [ES]El objetivo general es el de describir y analizar la biografía escolar y profesional de la profesora M. Antònia Canals i Tolosa, relacionada con la enseñanza en general y con la enseñanza de las matemáticas en particular. Para ello se adopta una perspectiva biográfica en el estudio de un caso único, elaborando una historia de vida a partir de diferentes fuentes de datos: observación directa, treinta entrevistas, cartas y documentos secundarios. Para el proceso de análisis se ha seguido...

  12. El proceso constructivo de los teatros del "Canal" del arquitecto Juan Navarro Baldeweg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Aguila García, Alfonso

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This present article studies and chriticizes the building system and the developement of the theater and dance complex of Canal (Teatros del Canal, Madrid, designed by Juan Navarro Baldeweg, Principal Professor of Architectural Design at Madrid School of Architecture Polytechnic University. These theaters are being built in the center of Madrid city. The owner and developer of this complex is Canal de Isabel II (the water supply company of Madrid regional Government. The project consist in a three building complex, two theatres and a choreographic centre, put together by a back service block, each of them with it’s own different building solutions. This article is the result of the work done during the term 2006-07 of the Seminar of "Industrialization of Building Process" that, under the direction of the Principal Professor Alfonso del Águila, takes place within the Ph. D. Program of the Department of Construction and Architectural Technology set in Madrid School of Architecture Polytechnic University. The work includes two different parts: the fi rst one, which introduces is a prologue written by Prof. Navarro and a general description of the building. The second part describes its different construction areas, ranging from the different structural solutions, the hung façades pretending to be theatre curtains, some aspects of the interior design, as acoustics, special furniture and fi nishes, not in a mere descriptive way, but also from a critical manner with the intention to be a consequence with didactical value for the students/ authors.El artículo que se presenta estudia y valora el sistema constructivo, y su desarrollo, de las obras de los Teatros del Canal, obra del Catedrático de Proyectos de la Escuela de Arquitectura de Madrid, Prof. Navarro Baldeweg, que se están llevando a cabo en Madrid, siendo la Promotora y Propietaria el Canal de Isabel II de la Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid. Se trata de un conjunto de tres edifi cios

  13. Endodontic management of a mandibular first molar with six root canal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Dilip; Reddy, Smitha; Venigalla, Bhuvan Shome; Kamishetty, Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Internal anatomy of pulp is complex. The first mandibular molars typically have two roots, one mesial with two root canals and another distal root, which contains one or two canals. A 20-year-old female patient reported with intermittent pain and incomplete root canal treatment in left lower back region since 1-week. Refined access cavity revealed initially two canals in mesial and two canals in the distal root. With operating microscope and cone beam computerized tomography, two additional canals (L-mesio-buccal and B-mesio-lingual) were identified in mesial root. One-year follow-up showed patient was asymptomatic and complete healing of periapical radiolucency. PMID:26430309

  14. Metachronous tubulovillous and tubular adenomas of the anal canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Hiroaki; Ishihara, Soichiro; Morikawa, Teppei; Tanaka, Junichiro; Yasuda, Koji; Ohtani, Kensuke; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Kawai, Kazushige; Hata, Keisuke; Kazama, Shinsuke; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Sunami, Eiji; Kitayama, Joji; Fukayama, Masashi; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Anal canal adenoma is an extremely rare disease that has the potential to transform into a malignant tumor. We herein presented a rare case of metachronous multiple adenomas of the anal canal. A 48-year-old woman underwent total colonoscopy following a positive fecal blood test. A 9-mm villous polyp arising from the posterior wall of the anal canal was removed by snare polypectomy. Histologically, the tumor was tubulovillous adenoma with high-grade dysplasia and the cut end was negative for tumor cells. Six years later, an elevated lesion, macroscopically five millimeters in size, was detected in the left wall of the anal canal in a follow-up colonoscopy. Local excision of the tumor was performed, and the lesion was pathologically confirmed to be tubular adenoma with high-grade dysplasia limited to the mucosa. The patient is currently alive without any evidence of recurrence for six months after surgery. Although she had a past history of cervical cancer, the multiple tumors arising in the anal canal were unlikely to be related to human papilloma virus infection. Our case report underscores the importance of careful observations throughout colonoscopy to detect precancerous lesions, particularly in anatomically narrow segments. PMID:26249723

  15. Micro-Machined Flow Sensors Mimicking Lateral Line Canal Neuromasts

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    Hendrik Herzog

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish sense water motions with their lateral line. The lateral line is a sensory system that contains up to several thousand mechanoreceptors, called neuromasts. Neuromasts occur freestanding on the skin and in subepidermal canals. We developed arrays of flow sensors based on lateral line canal neuromasts using a biomimetic approach. Each flow sensor was equipped with a PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane lamella integrated into a canal system by means of thick- and thin-film technology. Our artificial lateral line system can estimate bulk flow velocity from the spatio-temporal propagation of flow fluctuations. Based on the modular sensor design, we were able to detect flow rates in an industrial application of tap water flow metering. Our sensory system withstood water pressures of up to six bar. We used finite element modeling to study the fluid flow inside the canal system and how this flow depends on canal dimensions. In a second set of experiments, we separated the flow sensors from the main stream by means of a flexible membrane. Nevertheless, these biomimetic neuromasts were still able to sense flow fluctuations. Fluid separation is a prerequisite for flow measurements in medical and pharmaceutical applications.

  16. Origin and evolution of the canal raphe system in diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruck, Elizabeth C; Theriot, Edward C

    2011-11-01

    One lineage of pennate diatoms has a slit through the siliceous cell wall, called a "raphe," that functions in motility. Raphid pennate diatoms number in the perhaps tens of thousands of species, with the diversity of raphe forms potentially matching this number. Three lineages-the Bacillariales, Rhopalodiales, and Surirellales-possess a complex and presumably highly derived raphe that is physically separated from the cell interior, most often by a set of siliceous braces. Because the relationship among these three lineages is unclear, the number of origins of the canal raphe system and the homology of it and its constitutive parts among these lineages, is equally unclear. We reconstructed the phylogeny of raphid pennate diatoms and included, for the first time, members of all three canal raphid diatom lineages, and used the phylogeny to test specific hypotheses about the origin of the canal raphe. The canal raphe appears to have evolved twice, once in the common ancestor of Bacillariales and once in the common ancestor of Rhopalodiales and Surirellales, which form a monophyletic group in our analyses. These results recommend careful follow-up morphogenesis studies of the canal raphe in these two lineages to determine the underlying developmental basis for this remarkable case of parallel evolution.

  17. Kyphoplasty for osteoporotic fractures with spinal canal compromise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the feasibility and clinical outcome of kyphoplasty in the treatment of osteoporotic fractures with canal compromise. Methods: A total of 16 patients with osteoporotic fractures with canal compromise without neurological deficit were attempted to be treated by kyphoplasty. During kyphoplasty, modified techniques including staged bone cement injection and dynamic fluoroscopic monitoring were used. Pain was measured using the self-reporting Visual Analogue pain Scale (VAS) preoperatively, postoperatively and in the final follow-up. Disability was measured using the Oswestry Disability questionnaire (ODI) preoperatively, postoperatively and in the final follow-up. The height of the compromised vertebral body, the kyphotic angle and the spinal canal compromise were measured preoperatively, postoperatively and in the final follow-up. Results: Operations were completed smoothly, with the exception of one patient with less cement leakage but without clinical symptom occurred. Relief of pain was achieved after kyphoplasty. The mean VAS score of these patients decreased from 8.1 ± 1.2 pre-operatively to 2.7 ± 0.6 post-operatively (P0.05). In the final follow-up, the spinal canal compromise was (14.4 ± 3.1)%. Conclusion: Kyphoplasty is a relatively safe and effective method for the treatment of osteoporotic fractures with canal compromise without neurological deficit. (authors)

  18. Microbiological indicators of water quality in the Xochimilco canals, Mexico City Indicadores microbiológicos de la calidad del agua de los canales de Xochimilco de la Ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alfredo Juárez-Figueroa

    2003-10-01

    efectuado en Xochimilco, México. Durante noviembre y diciembre de 2001 se muestrearon 10 sitios, cinco efluentes y cinco canales, para la cuantificación de coliformes fecales y enterococos (filtración en membrana de nitrocelulosa, colifagos somáticos (técnica de doble capa de agar, ooquistes de Cryptosporidium sp. y quistes de Giardia sp. (concentración en filtros Envirocheck y microscopía de inmunofluorescencia. Se efectuó comparación de los promedios de las cuentas de organismos hallados, en efluentes y canales, mediante t de Student. RESULTADOS: El agua tratada que descarga en los canales mostró cantidades bajas de coliformes fecales (media de 40.4/100 ml, enterococos (media de 58.8/100 ml y quistes de Cryptosporidium (media de 13.2/100 l, mientras que los colifagos y quistes de Giardia estuvieron presentes en gran cantidad (media de 1467.5/100 ml y 1199.8/100 l, respectivamente, sugiriendo que el tratamiento del agua puede ser ineficaz para remover estos agentes. En los canales de irrigación de vegetales se encontró una cantidad significativamente menor de quistes de Giardia (media de 45/100 l y no se encontraron ooquistes de Cryptosporidium, lo que sugiere la remoción natural de estos agentes. Algunos aislamientos de E coli obtenidos de un canal contaminado con descargas cloacales mostraron una multirresistencia a antibióticos que fue transferida por conjugación a otras bacterias mediante plásmidos. Esto sugiere la posible diseminación de la resistencia a bacterias del medio (posibles patógenas. Existen numerosos asentamientos humanos cercanos a las chinampas que descargan desechos directamente a los canales. CONCLUSIONES: La implantación de métodos de tratamiento de excretas que resulten costeables y culturalmente aceptables debe realizarse mediante una cuidadosa planeación y consulta, si estos métodos han de ser adoptados y sostenidos por la población local.

  19. Identificación paramétrica en lazo cerrado de sistema de accionamiento neumático para cilindro de doble efecto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Caldas Flautero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los modelos matemáticos que permiten comprender un sistema y predecir o simular su comportamiento suelen presentar inconvenientes cuando se cuenta con poca información a priori o se desconocen los parámetros físicos. Por esa razón, en este trabajo se presenta la identificación de sistemas como estrategia para abordar la construcción de modelos dinámicos complejos, proponiendo soluciones para tratar el comportamiento no-lineal de un sistema neumático, representado por un actuador de doble efecto y un par de válvulas proporcionales para el control de la presión de alimentación y el caudal. Se presenta una aproximación almodelomatemático para determinar el orden del sistema, la identificación en lazo abierto y lazo cerrado y la comparación entre modelos de procesosARX yARMAX, con diferente orden, para concluir con simulaciones comparativas entre la respuesta del sistema real y la del identificado.

  20. Shaping ability of the M4 handpiece and Safety Hedstrom files in simulated root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, A; Jaunberzins, A; Dhopatkar, A; Bryant, S; Dummer, P M

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the shaping ability of the M4 reciprocating handpiece and Safety Hedstrom files in simulated canals. A total of 40 simulated canals of various angles and positions of curvature were prepared with an M4 handpiece using Safety Hedstrom files oriented with the ground, flattened surface towards the inner aspect of the curve. A standard regimen was adopted throughout. Pre- and post-operative longitudinal images of the canals were taken with a video camera and stored and manipulated in a computer with image analysis software. The presence of canal aberrations and the amount and location of resin material removed as a result of preparation were determined from composite images of superimposed pre- and post-operative views. Preparation time varied significantly (P canal types; overall, 20 degrees canals were prepared more quickly than 40 degrees canals. Zips and elbows were observed in 16 out of the 40 canals with most (11) being created in 40 degrees specimens. Ledges were found in 19 canals and perforations in only 1. There were no significant differences between canal shapes for these aberrations. Excessive removal of material from the inner aspect of the canal at the curve to create a danger zone was found in 20 canals, but only in those with 40 degrees curves. Significant differences in total canal width between the canal types were seen at the zips (P danger zones (P danger zones varied significantly (P canal types. Under the conditions of this study, the M4 handpiece and Safety Hedstrom files created hour-glass preparations in a substantial proportion of canals. In reality, the Safety Hedstrom file with its one flattened surface was ineffective at reducing removal of material along the inner aspect of canal curves in severely curved specimens and clearly has the potential to create strip perforations in teeth. PMID:9477790

  1. Comparison of two sonic handpieces during the preparation of simulated root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dummer, P M; Hutchings, R; Hartles, F R

    1993-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess and compare two sonic handpieces during the preparation of simulated root canals. A total of 60 simulated canals in clear resin blocks of various angles and positions of curvature were prepared using Shaper files activated either by an MM1500 Sonic Air or an MM1400 Mecasonic handpiece. Each handpiece was used to prepare 30 canals using an identical preparation procedure which involved a linear filing motion and an anticurvature technique in curved canals. The efficacy of the handpieces was determined for straight and curved canals separately and included an assessment of loss of canal length, weight loss from the blocks, smoothness of canal walls, transportation and overall shape of the prepared canals. Canals were prepared rapidly and effectively by both handpieces. Overall, the MM1500 handpiece was associated with significantly less distance loss (P canals (8%) had hour-glass shapes displaying zips and elbows, each handpiece created two. Only two canals (4%) had danger zones, both were created by the MM1400 handpiece. There was little difference between the handpieces in terms of the smoothness of canal walls, the direction and amount of transportation or the overall shape of canals. Under the conditions of this study, the new MM1400 Mecasonic handpiece performed as well as the established MM1500 Sonic Air. PMID:8406963

  2. Indicadores microbiológicos de la calidad del agua de los canales de Xochimilco de la Ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juárez-Figueroa Luis Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Cuantificar diversos indicadores de contaminación fecal en los efluentes de dos plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales y en muestras recogidas en varios canales de Xochimilco. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal efectuado en Xochimilco, México. Durante noviembre y diciembre de 2001 se muestrearon 10 sitios, cinco efluentes y cinco canales, para la cuantificación de coliformes fecales y enterococos (filtración en membrana de nitrocelulosa, colifagos somáticos (técnica de doble capa de agar, ooquistes de Cryptosporidium sp. y quistes de Giardia sp. (concentración en filtros Envirocheck y microscopía de inmunofluorescencia. Se efectuó comparación de los promedios de las cuentas de organismos hallados, en efluentes y canales, mediante t de Student. RESULTADOS: El agua tratada que descarga en los canales mostró cantidades bajas de coliformes fecales (media de 40.4/100 ml, enterococos (media de 58.8/100 ml y quistes de Cryptosporidium (media de 13.2/100 l, mientras que los colifagos y quistes de Giardia estuvieron presentes en gran cantidad (media de 1467.5/100 ml y 1199.8/100 l, respectivamente, sugiriendo que el tratamiento del agua puede ser ineficaz para remover estos agentes. En los canales de irrigación de vegetales se encontró una cantidad significativamente menor de quistes de Giardia (media de 45/100 l y no se encontraron ooquistes de Cryptosporidium, lo que sugiere la remoción natural de estos agentes. Algunos aislamientos de E coli obtenidos de un canal contaminado con descargas cloacales mostraron una multirresistencia a antibióticos que fue transferida por conjugación a otras bacterias mediante plásmidos. Esto sugiere la posible diseminación de la resistencia a bacterias del medio (posibles patógenas. Existen numerosos asentamientos humanos cercanos a las chinampas que descargan desechos directamente a los canales. CONCLUSIONES: La implantación de métodos de tratamiento de excretas que resulten

  3. Spatial orientation of semicircular canals and afferent sensitivity vectors in pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    Rotational head motion in vertebrates is detected by the semicircular canal system, whose innervating primary afferent fibers carry information about movement in specific head planes. The semicircular canals have been qualitatively examined over a number of years, and the canal planes have been quantitatively characterized in several animal species. The present study first determined the geometric relationship between individual semicircular canals and between the canals and the stereotactic head planes in pigeons. Stereotactic measurements of multiple points along the circumference of the bony canals were taken, and the measured points fitted with a three-dimensional planar surface. Direction normals to the plane's surface were calculated and used to define angles between semicircular canal pairs. Because of the unusual shape of the anterior semicircular canals in pigeons, two planes, a major and a minor, were fitted to the canal's course. Calculated angle values for all canals indicated that the horizontal and posterior semicircular canals are nearly orthogonal, but the anterior canals have substantial deviations from orthogonality with other canal planes. Next, the responses of the afferent fibers that innervate each of the semicircular canals to 0.5 Hz sinusoidal rotation about an earth-vertical axis were obtained. The head orientation relative to the rotation axis was systematically varied so that directions of maximum sensitivity for each canal afferent could be determined. These sensitivity vectors were then compared with the canal plane direction normals. The afferents that innervated specific semicircular canals formed homogeneous clusters of sensitivity vectors in different head planes. The horizontal and posterior afferents had average sensitivity vectors that were largely co-incident with the innervated canal plane direction normals. Anterior canal afferents, however, appeared to synthesize contributions from the major and minor plane components of the

  4. Commentaires sur la valeur piscicole du Canal de Roubaix (Nord

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    ARRIGNON J.

    1970-10-01

    Full Text Available La population piscicole du Canal de ROUBAIX a été inventoriée par pêche électrique. Trois passages, suivis chacun de l'enlèvement des poissons capturés, ont été opérés dans chacun des trois Secteurs d'inventaire. Le peuplement le plus probable ainsi estimé (par la méthode De Lury,est en rapport avec le degré de pollution du canal. On constate aussi queles poissons se cantonnent le long des berges, sur une largeur de 2 à 3mètres.L'estimation à l'hectare représente donc en réalité le stock d'une zone n'ayant que 25 % de la surface totale du Canal. Les poissons contrôlés sont pour la plupart des poissons de repeuplement.

  5. Temporal Bone Fracture Causing Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence

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    Kevin A. Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD is a third window lesion of the inner ear causing symptoms of vertigo, autophony, tinnitus, and hearing loss. A “two-hit” hypothesis has traditionally been proposed, whereby thinly developed bone overlying the superior canal is disrupted by a sudden change in intracranial pressure. Although the symptoms of SCD may be precipitated by head injury, no previous reports have described a temporal bone fracture directly causing SCD. Observations. Two patients sustained temporal bone fractures after closed head trauma, and developed unilateral otologic symptoms consistent with SCD. In each instance, computed tomography imaging revealed fractures extending through the bony roof of the superior semicircular canal. Conclusions and Relevance. Temporal bone fractures, which are largely treated nonoperatively, have not previously been reported to cause SCD. As it is a potentially treatable entity, SCD resulting from temporal bone fracture must be recognized as a possibility and diagnosed promptly if present.

  6. Bioceramic-Based Root Canal Sealers: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Ab Aziz, Zeti A.

    2016-01-01

    Bioceramic-based root canal sealers are considered to be an advantageous technology in endodontics. The aim of this review was to consider laboratory experiments and clinical studies of these sealers. An extensive search of the endodontic literature was made to identify publications related to bioceramic-based root canal sealers. The outcome of laboratory and clinical studies on the biological and physical properties of bioceramic-based sealers along with comparative studies with other sealers was assessed. Several studies were evaluated covering different properties of bioceramic-based sealers including physical properties, biocompatibility, sealing ability, adhesion, solubility, and antibacterial efficacy. Bioceramic-based sealers were found to be biocompatible and comparable to other commercial sealers. The clinical outcomes associated with the use of bioceramic-based root canal sealers are not established in the literature. PMID:27242904

  7. Tullio phenomenon in superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, Gregory J; Cronin, Scott J; Heidenreich, Katherine D

    2014-03-18

    Tullio phenomenon refers to eye movements induced by sound.(1) This unusual examination finding may be seen in superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) syndrome.(2) This disorder is due to absent bone over the superior semicircular canal (figure). Patients complain of dizziness triggered by loud sound, aural fullness, autophony, and pulsatile tinnitus. When Tullio phenomenon exists in SSCD syndrome, the patient develops a mixed vertical-torsional nystagmus in which the slow phase rotates up and away from the affected ear (video on the Neurology® Web site at Neurology.org). This pattern of nystagmus aligns in the plane of the dehiscent semicircular canal and is due to excitation of its afferent nerves.

  8. Bioceramic-Based Root Canal Sealers: A Review

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    Afaf AL-Haddad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioceramic-based root canal sealers are considered to be an advantageous technology in endodontics. The aim of this review was to consider laboratory experiments and clinical studies of these sealers. An extensive search of the endodontic literature was made to identify publications related to bioceramic-based root canal sealers. The outcome of laboratory and clinical studies on the biological and physical properties of bioceramic-based sealers along with comparative studies with other sealers was assessed. Several studies were evaluated covering different properties of bioceramic-based sealers including physical properties, biocompatibility, sealing ability, adhesion, solubility, and antibacterial efficacy. Bioceramic-based sealers were found to be biocompatible and comparable to other commercial sealers. The clinical outcomes associated with the use of bioceramic-based root canal sealers are not established in the literature.

  9. Influence of Root Canal Tapering on Smear Layer Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Mina; Javidi, Maryam; Afkhami, Farzaneh; Tanbakuchi, Behrad; Zadeh, Mohsen Movahed; Mohammadi, Marzieh Maghadam

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the study presented here was to compare the influence of root canal taper on the efficacy of irrigants and chelating agents in smear layer removal. Eighty mesial roots of molar teeth were selected and prepared with rotary instruments. In group A, file 30/0.02 and in group B, file 30/0.4 were placed at working length and the smear layer was removed. In groups C and D, root canal preparation was the same as in groups A and B, respectively, except that the smear layer was not removed. The amount of the smear layer was quantified using a scanning electron microscope. Greater smear layer was detected in the apical portion of each group, whereas no significant difference was detected between groups in other portions. No statistical difference was found between canals with different tapers. PMID:27348950

  10. Classification, mechanism and surgical treatments for spinal canal cysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun Sun

    2016-01-01

    A variety of cystic lesions may develop in spinal canal. These cysts can be divided into intramedullary, intradural, extradural, cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral cysts according to anatomical presentation, as well as arachnoid, meningeal, perineural, juxtafacet, discal, neurenteric cysts, and cyst-like lesions according to different etiologies. Mechanisms of initiation and growth vary for different cysts, such as congenital, trauma, bleeding, inflammatory, instability, hydrostatic pressure, osmosis of water, secretion of cyst wall, and one-way-valve effect, etc. Up to now, many treatment methods are available for these different spinal canal cysts. One operation method can be applied in cysts with different types. On the other hand, several operation methods may be utilized in one type of cyst according to the difference of location or style. However, same principle should be obeyed in surgical treatment despite of difference among spinal canal cysts, given open surgery is melely for symptomatic cyst. The surgical approach should be tailored to the individual patient.

  11. Irrigation and crop management in Gandak Canal command of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gandak Project is one of the biggest irrigation projects in India, covering a culturable command area (CCA) of 4.44 lakh ha in U.P., 9.6 lakh ha CCA in Bihar and 0.44 lakh ha in Nepal (Singh and Khan, 2002). The total culturable command areas are 14.44 lakh hectares. The command area is located in between latitude 25 deg 40' to 27 deg 25' and longitude between 83 deg 15' to 85 deg 15'. It is a diversion project through construction of a barrage on the river Gandak. This project area covers up to five districts in the Command of Tirhut Main Canal (TMC) and 3 districts in the Saran Main Canal (SMC) command. The length of main canal is usually long (990 and 650 R.D.'s in eastern and western side, respectively) and the channels are unlined and seepage loss is quite high. (author)

  12. Funciones de los canales iónicos CFTR y ENAC en la fibrosis quística

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    Alejandra G. Palma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available La fibrosis quística se debe a la ausencia o defecto del canal transmembrana regulador de la fibrosis quística (CFTR, un canal de cloruro codificado en el gen cftr que juega un papel clave en la homeostasis del agua e iones. El CFTR es activado por el AMPc y se localiza en las membranas apicales y basolaterales de las vías aéreas, intestino y glándulas exocrinas. Una de sus funciones primarias en los pulmones es mantener la capa de líquido superficial a través de su función de canal y regular el canal epitelial de sodio sensible al amiloride (ENaC. Se han identificado más de 1900 mutaciones en el gen cftr. La enfermedad se caracteriza por secreciones viscosas en las glándulas exocrinas y por niveles elevados de cloruro de sodio en el sudor. En la fibrosis quística el CFTR no funciona y el ENaC está desregulado; el resultado es un aumento en la reabsorción de sodio y agua con la formación de un líquido viscoso. En las glándulas sudoríparas tanto el Na+ como el Cl- se retienen en el lumen causando una pérdida de electrolitos durante la sudoración y el NaCl se elimina al sudor. Así, los niveles elevados de NaCl son la base del test del sudor inducido por pilocarpina, un método de diagnóstico para la enfermedad. En esta revisión se discuten los movimientos de Cl- y Na+ en las glándulas sudoríparas y pulmón así como el papel del ENaC en la patogénesis de la enfermedad.

  13. Evolution of root canal sealers: An insight story

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    Sanjeev Tyagi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Attainment of ideal root canal treatment comprises various essential factors such as proper instrumentation, biomechanical preparation, obturation, and ultimately depending upon the case, post-endodontic restoration. Main objective of the treatment is to get absolute rid of microbial entity and prevent any future predilection of re-infection. In order to achieve that, proper seal is required to cut down any chance of proliferation of bacteria and future occurrence of any pathology. Although gutta-percha has been the standard obturating material used in root canal treatment, it does not reinforce endodontically treated roots owing to its inability to achieve an impervious seal along the dentinal walls of the root canal. Gutta-percha does not from a monoblock even with the use of a resin-based sealer such as AH Plus because the sealer does not bind to gutta-percha. As a result, a monoblock is formed (consisting of Resilon core material, Resin sealer, bonding agent/primer, and dentin. Another reason of Resilon being a better obturating material could be that the removal of smear layer by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA after biomechanical preparation may have allowed the root canal filling material and root canal sealers to contact the canal wall and penetrate in the dentinal tubules, which may increase the strength of roots. New silicone-based sealers like Roekoseal automix and the most recent GuttaFlow have some affirmative results regarding solubility and biocompatibility, as compared to other sealers. Methacrylate resin-based sealers and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA-based sealers have opened a new horizon for sealers.

  14. Absent posterior semicircular canal: HRCT feature of Waardenburg syndrome

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    Sandeep M Mahajan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Absence of posterior semicircular canal is a rare condition, having been reported with only a few syndromes such as Waardenburg syndrome (WS, Alagellie, CHARGE, and Goldenhaar syndromes. We report a 12- year old male with bilateral absent posterior semicircular canals. These phenotypic characteristics of the patient favored the diagnosis of WS. WS is a rare autosomal dominant condition characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, in conjunction with pigmentary abnormalities and defects of the neural crest-derived tissues. The case is presented for its rarity and for its high resolution computed tomography (HRCT temporal bone findings so as to reach a precise diagnosis.

  15. Germinoma in the Internal Auditory Canal Mimicking a Vestibular Schwannoma

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    Rubén Martín-Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of a primary germinoma in the central nervous system but not on or near the midline or within the brain is exceptional. It may occur at any age; however, it is rare in patients over 50 years old. Only a handful of cases of germinomas located in the cerebellopontine angle were presented, but to our knowledge, there has been no description of an isolated germinoma in the internal auditory canal. We report a case of germinoma in the internal auditory canal in a 51-year-old man simulating the clinical and radiological characteristics of a vestibular schwannoma.

  16. Semicircular canals circumvent Brownian Motion overload of mechanoreceptor hair cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Mees; Heeck, Kier; Elemans, Coen P H

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate semicircular canals (SCC) first appeared in the vertebrates (i.e. ancestral fish) over 600 million years ago. In SCC the principal mechanoreceptors are hair cells, which as compared to cochlear hair cells are distinctly longer (70 vs. 7 μm), 10 times more compliant to bending (44 vs. 500...... to circumvent Brownian motion overload at the hair bundles. We suggest that the selective advantage of detecting such low frequency stimuli may have favoured the evolution of large guiding structures such as semicircular canals and otoliths to overcome Brownian Motion noise at the level of the mechanoreceptors...

  17. Acoustic impedances of ear canals measured by impedance tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciric, Dejan; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2007-01-01

    During hearing sensitivity tests, the sound field is commonly generated by an earphone placed on a subject ear. One of the factors that can affect the sound transmission in the ear is the acoustic impedance of the ear canal. Its importance is related to the contribution of other elements involved...... locations in an impedance tube. The end of the tube representing the measurement plane is placed at the ear canal entrance. Thus, the impedance seen from the entrance inward is measured on 25 subjects. Most subjects participated in the previous measurement of the ratio between the pressures at the open...

  18. Optodynamic Phenomena During Laser-Activated Irrigation Within Root Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukač, Nejc; Gregorčič, Peter; Jezeršek, Matija

    2016-07-01

    Laser-activated irrigation is a powerful endodontic treatment for smear layer, bacteria, and debris removal from the root canal. In this study, we use shadow photography and the laser-beam-transmission probe to examine the dynamics of laser-induced vapor bubbles inside a root canal model and compare ultrasonic needle irrigation to the laser method. Results confirm important phenomenological differences in the two endodontic methods with the laser method resulting in much deeper irrigation. Observations of simulated debris particles show liquid vorticity effects which in our opinion represents the major cleaning mechanism.

  19. A Guyon's canal ganglion presenting as occupational overuse syndrome: A case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Jeffrey C Y

    2008-01-01

    Occupational overuse syndrome (OOS) can present as Guyon\\'s canal syndrome in computer keyboard users. We report a case of Guyon\\'s canal syndrome caused by a ganglion in a computer user that was misdiagnosed as OOS.

  20. News of CanalUGR tracked on Google News, Yahoo! News and Bing News

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero-Solana, V??ctor; Arboledas M??rquez, Luis; Leger??n-??lvarez, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Dataset contains 613 news of CanalUGR (University of Granada Communication Office) tracked on the main online news aggregators (Google News, Yahoo! News and Bing News). We include: number in CanalUGR, media, country, type.

  1. Root Canal Morphology of Mandibular First Permanent Molars in an Indian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Ramesh Chourasia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro study was performed to determine the number of roots, root canals per tooth, root canal configurations, and frequency of isthmi and apical deltas in mandibular first permanent molars in an Indian population. Hundred and fifty mandibular first permanent molars were collected and subjected to clearing technique. The cleared teeth were examined in a stereomicroscope under 7.5x magnifications. The canal configurations were categorized using Vertucci's classification. Overall 94.6% of the mandibular first molars had two roots, and 5.3% had extradistal roots (distolingual root. In addition, 64% of the specimens had three root canals, and 36% had four root canals. The most common canal configurations of mesial and distal roots were Vertucci type IV (54% and type I (65.3%, respectively. Clinician should be aware of the complex root canal morphology of mandibular first molars among the Indian population before and during the root canal treatment.

  2. Endodontic Management of Mandibular First Molar with Middle Distal Canal: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Reddy Venumuddala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of variations in root canal morphology is critical for a successful endodontic treatment. This article presents the endodontic management of a unique case of mandibular molar with middle distal canal which is quite uncommon.

  3. A Clinical Update on the Different Methods to Decrease the Occurrence of Missed Root Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Asgary, Saeed; Shalavi, Sousan; V. Abbott, Paul

    2016-01-01

    One of the main causes of endodontic treatment failure is the clinician’s inability to localize all the root canals. Due to the complex anatomy of the root canal system, missed canals are not uncommon. There are several strategies to decrease the possibility of missed root canals starting with good pre-operative radiographies. In order to overcome the limitations of conventional radiographies, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) can be considered. A correct access cavity preparation is of pivotal importance in localizing the orifices of the root canals. Furthermore, ultrasonics are very important devices to find missed canals. Increasing magnification and illumination enhance the possibility of finding all root canals during root canal treatment. The purpose of the present paper was to review all of the above techniques and devices. PMID:27471533

  4. Development of the lateral line canal system through a bone remodeling process in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Hironori; Iwasaki, Miki; Kawakami, Koichi

    2014-08-01

    The lateral line system of teleost fish is composed of mechanosensory receptors (neuromasts), comprising superficial receptors and others embedded in canals running under the skin. Canal diameter and size of the canal neuromasts are correlated with increasing body size, thus providing a very simple system to investigate mechanisms underlying the coordination between organ growth and body size. Here, we examine the development of the trunk lateral line canal system in zebrafish. We demonstrated that trunk canals originate from scales through a bone remodeling process, which we suggest is essential for the normal growth of canals and canal neuromasts. Moreover, we found that lateral line cells are required for the formation of canals, suggesting the existence of mutual interactions between the sensory system and surrounding connective tissues.

  5. AFSC/ABL: Lynn Canal Overwinter Acoustic Survey, 2004-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The acoustic trawl database for Lynn Canals echo-trawl survey was conducted from 2001 to 2004 throughout southern Lynn Canal in southeast Alaska. Acoustic surveys...

  6. Estudio micológico de El Canal y Los Tiles (La Palma, Islas Canarias. V. Datos adicionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leal, Julio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An annotated catalogue of 66 taxa, collected in the early MAB Reserve El Canal y Los Tiles is presented. Among these taxa, 11 species are new for La Palma island and 5 are recorded for the first time in the Canary Islands. Taxonomic comments on some critical species and information about the distribution in the Macaronesian bioregion of all the studied taxa are given. Based on our previous publications, global data on biodiversity, substrates and distribution of the mycobiota in the different plant communities present in the sampled area are analyzed.

    Se presenta un estudio sobre 66 especies, pertenecientes a las divisiones Myxomycota (21, Ascomycota (29 y Basidiomycota (16, encontradas en la antigua Reserva de la Biosfera El Canal y Los Tiles. De ellas 11 se citan por primera vez para la isla de La Palma, siendo 5 de éstas nuevas para Canarias. Se hacen comentarios taxonómicos sobre algunos táxones conflictivos, además de amplia información sobre su distribución en la Región Macaronésica. En base a publicaciones propias anteriores, se aportan datos globales sobre biodiversidad, sustratos y distribución de la micobiota en las diferentes unidades ambientales presentes en el área de estudio.

  7. Problemas Del Pollo De Engorde Antes Y Después Del Beneficio (Pollo En Canal. 1º Parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lissette Ricaurte Galindo M.V.Z.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Cuando los pollos llegan a la planta necesitan una ventilación adecuada en la zona de retención para minimizar la mortalidad y la pérdida excesiva de peso vivo. Los pollos que llegan deben ser programados para el procesamiento dentro de las 8 a 12 horas después de haber comido por última vez. De esta manera disminuye la cantidad de material que podría contaminar potencialmente la canal durante el procesamiento permitiendo tiempo suficiente para que el intestino se vacíe. Los pollos que quedan sin alimento por largos periodos (más de 13 a 14 horas comienzan a perder la mucosa intestinal y tendrán menor rendimiento en canal.Cuando se pierde la mucosa intestinal, el intestino resultante será mucho más débil y se romperá más fácilmente durante la evisceración, se procesa a los pollos principalmente para convertir sus músculos en carne, eliminar los componentes del cuerpo que no se desean (sangre, plumas, vísceras, patas y cabeza y mantener en un mínimo la contaminación microbiológica. La calidad del producto final depende no sólo de la condición de las aves cuando llegan a la planta, sino también de como se manejan durante el procesamiento. Lesiones, huesos rotos, partes faltantes y un número excesivo de reprocesamientos pueden ocasionar pérdidas económicas significativas. La descarga, aturdimiento, sacrificio, escaldado, desplumado, eviscerado, enfriamiento y empacado son algunas de las etapas del procesamiento que pueden ocasionar defectos en el producto. Así que estas etapas deben ser vigiladas.

  8. Four cuspal maxillary second premolar with single root and three root canals: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Bansal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional configuration of maxillary second premolars has been described to have two cusps, one root and one or two root canals. The endodontic literature reports considerable anatomic aberrations in the root canal morphology of maxillary second premolar but the literature available on the variation in cuspal anatomy and its relationship to the root canal anatomy is sparse. The purpose of this clinical report was to describe the root and root canal configuration of a maxillary second premolar with four cusps.

  9. Four cuspal maxillary second premolar with single root and three root canals: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Parul; Nikhil, Vineeta; Goyal, Ayush; Singh, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    Traditional configuration of maxillary second premolars has been described to have two cusps, one root and one or two root canals. The endodontic literature reports considerable anatomic aberrations in the root canal morphology of maxillary second premolar but the literature available on the variation in cuspal anatomy and its relationship to the root canal anatomy is sparse. The purpose of this clinical report was to describe the root and root canal configuration of a maxillary second premolar with four cusps. PMID:27563190

  10. Treatment of Two Canals in All Mandibular Incisor Teeth in the Same Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana B. Kokane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main reason for unfavourable outcome in endodontic treatment of mandibular incisor is the inability to detect the presence of second canal. Pain even after extirpation of complete pulp tissue from root canal of vital teeth is the main indication of hidden canals. The present case report is also on pain because of another neglected canal in all mandibular incisors in the same patient.

  11. Independent and Confluent Middle Mesial Root Canals in Mandibular First Molars: A Report of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanavelu Deepalakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular molars demonstrate considerable variations with respect to number of roots and root canals. The possibility of additional root canals should be considered even in teeth with a low frequency of abnormal root canal anatomy. This paper discusses the endodontic management of the rare anatomical complexity middle mesial canals in mandibular first molar and also serves to remind the clinicians that such anatomical variations should be taken into account during the endodontic treatment of the mandibular molars.

  12. Aplicação do modelo CERES-maize na análise de estratégias de irrigação para milho "safrinha" em Londrina-PR Analysis of irrigation strategies for corn out season in Londrina with the CERES-maize model

    OpenAIRE

    Célio O. Cardoso; Rogério T. de Faria; Marcos V. Folegatti

    2004-01-01

    Usando-se a capacidade do modelo CERES-maize de simular o crescimento do milho sob várias condições de ambiente e manejo, foram analisadas estratégias de irrigação para o milho "safrinha", em diferentes épocas de semeadura, em Londrina - PR. Os tratamentos simulados constituíram-se no cultivo da cultivar de milho XL-520, em 12 épocas de semeaduras, no período de janeiro a abril, adotando-se cinco critérios para aplicação de irrigação, além de um nível sem irrigação e outro de produção potenci...

  13. File list: His.Oth.05.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: Oth.Oth.20.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  16. File list: Pol.Oth.10.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  15. File list: ALL.Oth.05.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. A central incisor with 4 independent root canals: a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Aznar Portoles; A.T. Moinzadeh; H. Shemesh

    2015-01-01

    The maxillary central incisor is the tooth with the least anatomic variations. Despite the fact that several studies have reported a prevalence of 100% for the presence of a single canal, root canal aberrations of maxillary central incisors with up to 3 canals have also been reported. Such cases rep

  17. DOWNSTREAM-WATER-LEVEL CONTROL TEST RESULTS ON THE WM LATERAL CANAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    On steep canals, distant downstream water-level control can be challenging. SacMan (Software for Automated Canal Management) was developed, in part, to test various distant downstream water level controllers. It was implemented on the WM canal of the Maricopa Stanfield Irrigation and Drainage Distri...

  18. Endodontic Treatment of a Mandibular Second Premolar with Three Roots and Three Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonny Paul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex root canal system with atypical variations is a common finding among mandibular premolars. Endodontic treatment in these teeth may not be successful due to the failure to recognise and treat multiple canals. This paper presents endodontic treatment of a mandibular second premolar with three roots and three canals.

  19. 77 FR 25590 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle... across the Lake Washington Ship Canal, mile 4.3, at Seattle, WA. This deviation is necessary to... crosses the Lake Washington Ship Canal at mile 4.3 and while in the closed position provides 30 feet...

  20. 78 FR 45056 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle... Bridge across the Lake Washington Ship Canal, mile 5.2, at Seattle, WA. The deviation is necessary to... pre-game and post game football traffic. The Montlake Bridge crosses the Lake Washington Ship Canal...

  1. 77 FR 25079 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle... Bridge across the Lake Washington Ship Canal, mile 5.2, at Seattle, WA. This deviation is necessary to... Bridge crosses the Lake Washington Ship Canal at mile 5.2 and while in the closed position provides...

  2. 76 FR 69131 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle... the operation of the Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway Bridge across the Lake Washington Ship Canal... Lake Washington Ship Canal, mile 0.1, for vessel traffic for a 14 day period to facilitate...

  3. 78 FR 26249 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle... Bridge across the Lake Washington Ship Canal, mile 5.2, at Seattle, WA, and the University Bridge across the Lake Washington Ship Canal, mile 4.3, at Seattle, WA. This deviation is necessary to...

  4. 77 FR 33307 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle... Bridge across the Lake Washington Ship Canal, mile 5.2, at Seattle, WA. This deviation is necessary to.... The Montlake Bridge crosses the Lake Washington Ship Canal at mile 5.2 and while in the...

  5. 78 FR 40960 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal at Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal at Seattle....3, all crossing the Lake Washington Ship Canal at Seattle, WA. The deviation is necessary to... 2.6, and the University Bridge, mile 4.3, all crossing the Lake Washington Ship Canal at Seattle,...

  6. 78 FR 55214 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle... Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) Railway Bridge across the Lake Washington Ship Canal, mile 0.1, at Seattle, WA.... Chittenden lock immediately upstream or inland of the bridge on the Lake Washington Ship Canal. This...

  7. The ability of optical coherence tomography to characterize the root canal walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shemesh, Hagay; Van Soest, Gijs; Wu, Min-Kai; Van der Sluis, Lucas W. M.; Wesselink, Paul R.

    2007-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the complexity of root canal systems is imperative to ensure successful root canal therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system in imaging root canal walls after endodontic preparation and to correlate these im

  8. A new strategy in root canal therapy: there is a lot going on in endodontic disinfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.V. van der Waal

    2015-01-01

    Apical periodontitis (AP) is the inflammatory response in the surrounding tissues at the root tip of a tooth to a microbial infection of the root canal system inside the tooth. AP can only resolve after thorough root canal disinfection. However at present, state-of-the-art root canal treatment does n

  9. Role of the confinement of a root canal on jet impingement during endodontic irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaagen, B.; Boutsioukis, C.; Heijnen, G. L.; van der Sluis, L. W. M.; Versluis, M.

    2012-01-01

    During a root canal treatment the root canal is irrigated with an antimicrobial fluid, commonly performed with a needle and a syringe. Irrigation of a root canal with two different types of needles can be modeled as an impinging axisymmetric or non-axisymmetric jet. These jets are investigated exper

  10. Comparison of two endodontic handpieces during the preparation of simulated root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R B; Edmunds, D H

    1997-11-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to compare and assess two endodontic handpieces during the preparation of simulated root canals. One hundred and sixty simulated root canals in clear resin blocks, of two angles and positions of curvature, were prepared using either Shaper files activated by the MM1500 Sonic Air handpiece (Micro-Mega, Besançon, France) or Excalibur files activated by the W & H Excalibur 969 handpiece (W & H, Bürmoos, Austria). Files of 21-mm or 25-mm length were used. When preparing the canals, the files were used either in line with or perpendicular to the canal curvature. Preparation of the canals was carried out using a technique described in the manufacturers' literature. A variety of parameters were used to compare the handpieces, including an assessment of the canal preparation time, the deformation or fracture of instruments, loss of canal length, weight loss from the resin blocks and the overall postpreparation canal shape. Both handpieces provided an efficient and easy method of preparing and shaping the root canal with little operator fatigue. The MM1500 Sonic Air handpiece took significantly more time (P canals and was associated with both more loss of working length (P canals. The MM1500 Sonic Air handpiece created significantly more aberrations than the Excalibur handpiece (P danger zone and coronal narrow). The effects of the variables, canal curvature, file length and the plane of use of the file, on the performance of the handpieces, were also assessed. PMID:9588976

  11. Exposure and direct stimulation of the semicircular canal cupula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, M; Harada, Y

    1985-01-01

    The ampullary wall of the posterior semicircular canal was isolated from the frog, cut and the cupula exposed in frog Ringer's solution. The cupula was stimulated by depression with a fine glass micropipette. Three points on the cupula were selected for depression: point A, the lowest point on the midline of the cupula surface on the utricular side; point B, the uppermost on the midline of the same surface; and point C, in the middle of the lateral surface of the cupula. Depression at points A and B was toward the canal, whereas depression at point C was toward the centre of the cupula. The amount of depression was controlled by a micromanipulator. At point A, the minimum depression facilitating the posterior canal action potential was 1 micron; at point B, a greater amount of depression was needed to produce the action potential. Even a large amount of depression at point C resulted in only a small action potential, possibly because the direction of the sensory cell polarity is along the long axis of the canal.

  12. The spiral ganglion and Rosenthal's canal in beluga whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensor, Jennifer D; Suydam, Robert; George, John C; Liberman, M C; Lovano, Denise; Rhaganti, Mary Ann; Usip, Sharon; Vinyard, Christopher J; Thewissen, J G M

    2015-12-01

    With the increase of human activity and corresponding increase in anthropogenic sounds in marine waters of the Arctic, it is necessary to understand its effect on the hearing of marine wildlife. We have conducted a baseline study on the spiral ganglion and Rosenthal's canal of the cochlea in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) as an initial assessment of auditory anatomy and health. We present morphometric data on the length of the cochlea, number of whorls, neuron densities along its length, Rosenthal's canal length, and cross-sectional area, and show some histological results. In belugas, Rosenthal's canal is not a cylinder of equal cross-sectional area, but its cross-section is greatest near the apex of the basal whorl. We found systematic variation in the numbers of neurons along the length of the spiral ganglion, indicating that neurons are not dispersed evenly in Rosenthal's canal. These results provide data on functionally important structural parameters of the beluga ear. We observed no signs of acoustic trauma in our sample of beluga whales.

  13. [The use of ultrasonic files in canal preparation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calas, P; Terrie, B

    1990-01-01

    The continuous high volume of irrigating solution delivered by the ultrasonic system facilitates the root canal debridement. An excellent cleaning of dentin wall is obtained even on surfaces unreached by the mechanical instrumentation. In order to obtain an efficacious preparation, the use of ultrasonic files were combined with instrumentation. This new technique is described in this article. PMID:2168733

  14. Shape and Deformation Analysis of the Human Ear Canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune

    This thesis presents work on the analysis of the dynamic behavior of the human ear canal. The work is based on two studies designed during the project, a pilot study with 30 normal hearing subjects and a main study with 42 hearing impaired subjects, all hearing-aid users. The main focus is on the......This thesis presents work on the analysis of the dynamic behavior of the human ear canal. The work is based on two studies designed during the project, a pilot study with 30 normal hearing subjects and a main study with 42 hearing impaired subjects, all hearing-aid users. The main focus...... is on the extraction and analysis of the shape and deformation of the ear canal due to movements of the mandible, leaning over, and turning of the head. Methods for surface registration with focus on non-rigid registration are presented, as well as a wide range of statistical methods used for analyzing the shapes...... and deformation fields. The results show that the ear canal changes shape significantly in all subjects and that the deformation is more complicated than previously described in the literature. It is shown that the deformation at specific locations in the ear is significantly correlated to comfort issues reported...

  15. Statistical Surface Recovery: A Study on Ear Canals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Olesen, Oline Vinter; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold;

    2012-01-01

    that are Procrustes aligned. The average shape and point covariances can be estimated from this set. It is shown how missing data in a new given shape can be predicted using the learned statistics. The method is evaluated on a data set of 29 scans of ear canal impressions. By using a leave-one-out approach we...

  16. Adductor Canal Block versus Femoral Nerve Block and Quadriceps Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Pia Therese; Nielsen, Zbigniew Jerzy Koscielniak; Henningsen, Lene Marianne;

    2013-01-01

    : The authors hypothesized that the adductor canal block (ACB), a predominant sensory blockade, reduces quadriceps strength compared with placebo (primary endpoint, area under the curve, 0.5-6 h), but less than the femoral nerve block (FNB; secondary endpoint). Other secondary endpoints were...

  17. Quality improvement of photopolimerizable-cement root canal obturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupato Conrado, Luis A.; Frois, Iris M.; Amaro Zangaro, Renato; Munin, Egberto; Kuranaga, Carlos; Dias da Silva, Marcos; do Carmo de Andrade Nono, Maria; Cerquiera Rezende, Mirabel

    2003-06-01

    The sealing cements commonly used for endodontic applications are of the type cured through chemical reactions. During the polymerization process, mechanical contractions are not uncommon, leading to a non-perfect sealing. Photopolymerizable cements usually presents superior performance as compared to those chemically activated. However, difficulties in carrying the light to difficult-to-reach regions like the dental apex preclude those material of being accepted in the dental office routine. This work reports on a novel technique which allow the light curing of photopolymerizable cements in endodontic applications. A special light guide had been developed to allow the curing light to reach and polymerize the sealing cement in the apex region. The technique was tested by using single-root human teeth with normal canal morphology. The Ultradent EndoREZ root canal sealer and a resin-based photopolymerizable filler specially developed for the current application had been used. The cone-shaped light guide was introduced into treated canals filled with the photopolymerizable material, up to the apical region. Light from an argon laser was launched onto the light guide for polymerization. All test samples were immersed in methylene-blue solution for microleakage testing. All samples treated with the self-polymerizable material presented dye penetration to some extent. No sample within the group which had the filling material polymerized by using the light guide presented dye penetration through the canal wall.

  18. [The use of ultrasonic files in canal preparation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calas, P; Terrie, B

    1990-01-01

    The continuous high volume of irrigating solution delivered by the ultrasonic system facilitates the root canal debridement. An excellent cleaning of dentin wall is obtained even on surfaces unreached by the mechanical instrumentation. In order to obtain an efficacious preparation, the use of ultrasonic files were combined with instrumentation. This new technique is described in this article.

  19. Semicircular canals circumvent brownian motion overload of mechanoreceptor hair cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, Mees; Heeck, Kier; Elemans, Coen P.H.

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate semicircular canals (SCC) first appeared in the vertebrates (i.e. ancestral fish) over 600 million years ago. In SCC the principal mechanoreceptors are hair cells, which as

    compared to cochlear hair cells are distinctly longer (70 vs. 7 μm), 10 times more compliant to bending (4

  20. Anatomo-radiological study of the Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crovetto, M., E-mail: macdlt@telefonica.net [Otolaryngology Department, Hospital de Basurto, University of the Basque Country, Avenida de Montevideo 18, Bilbao 48013, Vizcaya (Spain); Whyte, J., E-mail: jwhite@unizar.es [Faculty of Medicine, Department of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Zaragoza, C/Domingo Mirall s/n, Zaragoza (Spain); Rodriguez, O.M., E-mail: OLIVIAMARIA.RODRIGUEZSANVICENT@osakidetza.net [Hospital de Cruces, Baracaldo, Vizcaya (Spain); Lecumberri, I., E-mail: INIGO.LECUMBERRICORTES@osakidetza.net [Hospital de Basurto, Avenida Montevideo 18, Bilbao 498013 (Spain); Martinez, C., E-mail: claudiorayosx@yahoo.es [Hospital General de la Defensa, Via Iberica s/n Zaragoza (Spain); Elexpuru, J., E-mail: jelexpuru@mac.com [Hospital de Basurto, Avenida de Montevideo 18, Bilbao 48013, Vizcaya (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to determine the radiological incidence of Superior (SSCD) and Posterior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence (PSCD) and to compare radiologic SSCD to the incidence of this condition on cadaver specimen. We have also analysed the relation between the ossification state of the semicircular canals and the degree of mastoid pneumatization and integrity of Tegmen Tympani. Material and methods: Temporal bones have been investigated by means of CT scan on patients and direct observation on cadaver specimen, respectively. Results: 604 ears and 160 cadaver temporal bones have been investigated by means of CT scan and direct observation, respectively. 3.6% and 0.3% of the studied ears had SSCD and PSCD, respectively, on CT scan. Only 0.6% of the cadaver specimen ears did have anatomical SSCD. Degree of pneumatization of the mastoid bone is related to the mean thickness of bone overlying the Superior and Posterior Semicircular Canal. Radiological absence of Tegmen Tympani is more frequent in ears that also have radiologic SSCD. Conclusion: CT scanning gives higher incidence figures of SSCD than anatomical studies, 3.6% vs. 0.6%. We also found a 0.6% incidence of radiological PSCD in the studied ears. There is a direct relation between the degree of ossification of Superior and Posterior Semicircular Canal and certain temporal bone anatomic features: temporal bone pneumatization and absence/presence of Tegmen Tympani or Antri.

  1. 33 CFR 117.1051 - Lake Washington Ship Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Washington Ship Canal. 117.1051 Section 117.1051 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1051 Lake Washington...

  2. Bacteriologic results from 4,000 root canal cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, K.C.; Amerongen, J. van

    1959-01-01

    The bacteriologic results from more than 4,000 root canal cultures are discussed. Streptococci form 61 per cent of the isolated organisms. Among these, the group of hemolytic, indifferent, and indifferent anaerobic streptococci, mainly belonging to serologic groups F, G, and C, seem the most serious

  3. Mimamata and Love Canal: A Pollution Tale of Two Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mary Louise

    1993-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan about case studies of the environmental disasters of Minamata, Japan and Love Canal, New York. Compares how the legal cases were handled in two constitutional democracies. Provides six handouts that include maps, role descriptions for simulations, and student readings. (CFR)

  4. Lightlike Hypersurfaces and Canal Hypersurfaces of Lorentzian Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lightlike hypersurfaces in semi-Euclidean space are of special interest in Relativity Theory. In particular, the singularities of these lightlike hypersurfaces provide good models for the study of different horizon types. And we obtain some geometrical propositions of the canal hypersurfaces of Lorentzian surfaces. We introduce the notions of flatness for these hypersurfaces and study their singularities.

  5. In vitro comparison of passive and continuous ultrasonic irrigation in curved root canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelo-Baz, Pablo; Varela-Patiño, Purificación; Cantatore, Giuseppe; Domínguez-Perez, Ana; Ruíz-Piñón, Manuel; Martín-Biedma, Benjamín

    2016-01-01

    Background The efficacy of endodontic irrigation procedures can be compromised by the complexity of the root canal system. Delivering irrigants to the apical third of curved canals presents a particular challenge to endodontists. This study compared the effects of two ultrasonic irrigation techniques on the penetration of sodium hypochlorite into the main canal and simulated lateral canals of curved roots in extracted teeth. Material and Methods Two sets of simulated lateral canals were created at 2, 4, and 6 mm from the working length in 60 single-rooted teeth (6 canals/tooth, n = 360 canals). The teeth were randomly divided into three experimental irrigation groups: group 1 (n = 20), positive pressure irrigation (PPI); group 2 (n = 20), passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI); and group 3 (n = 20), continuous ultrasonic irrigation (CUI). To assess the irrigation solution penetration, 20% Chinese ink (Sanford Rotring GmbH, Hamburg, Germany) was added to a 5% sodium hypochlorite solution and delivered into the curved root canals. The penetration of contrast solution into the simulated lateral canals was scored by counting the number of lateral canals (0-2) penetrated to at least 50% of the total length. Results The CUI group showed significantly higher (P irrigant penetration into the lateral canals and into the apical third of the main canals. The PPI group showed significantly lower sodium hypochlorite penetration (P irrigant penetration was observed in the PUI group than the PPI group. Conclusions Using CUI as the final rinse significantly increased the penetration of irrigant solution into the simulated lateral canals and apical third of curved roots. Key words:Continuous ultrasonic irrigation, curved root canals, passive ultrasonic irrigation, positive pressure irrigation, root canal irrigation.

  6. Modelo mecânico para simulação do condicionamento pulmonar do ar respirado Mechanical model for simulating the conditioning of air in the respiratory tract

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Bergonse Neto; Luiz Carlos Von Bahten; Luís Mauro Moura; Marlos de Souza Coelho; Wilson de Souza Stori Junior; Gilberto da Fontoura Rey Bergonse

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: A criação de um modelo mecânico que pudesse ser regulado para simular o condicionamento do ar inspirado e expirado nos mesmos valores normais de temperatura, pressão e umidade relativa do aparelho respiratório de um homem jovem hígido sob ventilação mecânica. MÉTODOS: Utilizando-se diversos tipos de materiais, um aparelho mecânico foi construído e regulado com valores normais de capacidade vital, volume corrente, pressão inspiratória máxima, pressão expiratória final positiva e temp...

  7. Improving the accuracy of canal seepage detection through geospatial techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Muhammad

    With climatic change, many western states in the United States are experiencing drought conditions. Numerous irrigation districts are losing significant amount of water from their canal systems due to leakage. Every year, on the average 2 million acres of prime cropland in the US is lost to soil erosion, waterlogging and salinity. Lining of canals could save enormous amount of water for irrigating crops but in present time due to soaring costs of construction and environmental mitigation, adopting such program on a large scale would be excessive. Conventional techniques of seepage detection are expensive, time consuming and labor intensive besides being not very accurate. Technological advancements in remote sensing have made it possible to investigate irrigation canals for seepage sites identification. In this research, band-9 in the [NIR] region and band-45 in the [TIR] region of an airborne MASTER data has been utilized to highlight anomalies along irrigation canal at Phoenix, Arizona. High resolution (1 to 4 meter pixels) satellite images provided by private companies for scientific research and made available by Google to the public on Google Earth is then successfully used to separate those anomalies into water activity sites, natural vegetation, and man-made structures and thereby greatly improving the seepage detection ability of airborne remote sensing. This innovative technique is much faster and cost effective as compared to conventional techniques and past airborne remote sensing techniques for verification of anomalies along irrigation canals. This technique also solves one of the long standing problems of discriminating false impression of seepage sites due to dense natural vegetation, terrain relief and low depressions of natural drainages from true water related activity sites.

  8. Canal mandibular bífido: Presentación de una serie de casos Bifid mandibular canal: Case series report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L. Guzmán Zuluaga

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La ubicación y configuración de las variaciones del canal mandibular son relevantes en diferentes procedimientos clínicos de la mandíbula. En esta serie de casos un radiólogo evaluó el recorrido del canal mandibular identificando la presencia y tipos de canales bífidos. Se observaron cuatro pacientes con canal mandibular bífido tipo retromolar y tres sujetos con canal bífido tipo anterior sin convergencia. En otro paciente se encontraron forámenes dentarios bífidos bilaterales. La Tomografía Computarizada de Haz de Cono, permite la identificación oportuna de condiciones preexistentes como variaciones en la morfología natural de los canales mandibulares, previniendo efectiva y precozmente las consecuencias neurológicas que se derivan de una lesión del nervio dentario inferior.The location and configuration of the mandibular canal variations are relevant in different clinical procedures of the jaw. In this case series, a radiologist assessed the mandibular canal route identifying the presence and types of bifid canals. Four patients with type bifid mandibular retromolar canal and three subjects with type bifida anterior canal without convergence were observed. In one patient, bilateral bifid tooth foramina was found. Computed Tomography Cone Beam allows identification of preexisting conditions such as variations in the natural morphology of the mandibular canals, preventing effective and early neurological consequences arising from alveolar nerve injury.

  9. Assessment of risks of stenosis of the anal canal during a prostatic radiotherapy; evaluation des risques de stenose du canal anal lors de la radiotherapie prostatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almokhles, H.; Pan, Q.; Calitchi, E.; Diana, C.; Muresan, M.; Jiang, M.W.; Wu, J.F.; Wang, X.W.; Lu, H.J.; Lagrange, J.L. [Hopital Henri-Mondor, Creteil (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report a study which aimed at assessing the late tolerance of a prostatic irradiation at the rectum and anal canal level. They assessed the length of the rectum and of the anal canal after prostate irradiation or surgery in patients who suffered from a prostate adenocarcinoma. Data of 154 patients have been analyzed regarding the number of cases of stenosis of rectum or anal canal. They highlight the importance of the irradiated length and dose level. Short communication

  10. MIMO LPV State-Space Identification of Open-Flow Irrigation Canal Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Bolea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Canal systems are complex nonlinear, distributed parameter systems with changing parameters according to the operating point. In this paper, a linear parameter-varying (LPV state-space canal control model is obtained by identification in a local way using a multimodel approach. This LPV identification procedure is based on subspace methods for different operating points of an irrigation canal covering the full operation range. Different subspace algorithms have been used and compared. The model that best represents the canal behavior in a precise manner has been chosen, and it has been validated by error functions and analysis correlation of residuals in a laboratory multireach pilot canal providing satisfactory results.

  11. CANAL CONFIGURATION IN THE ROOTS OF MAXILLARY SECON D PREMOLAR: A CLINICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Modified access cavity preparation and X ray- interpre tation were used clinically to find out the additional canals in the root of maxil lary second premolars. In 85% of the case two canals were located and treated, of these 30% had t wo separate apical foramen and 50.66% had two canal, joined at the apical third in 5% of the cases, two roots with two different canals were located and in 15% of the cases, one canal was loca ted KEY WORDS: Access Preparation, Apical Foramen.

  12. Bilateral presence of two root canals in maxillary central incisors: A rare case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kavitha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Success in root canal treatment is achieved after thorough cleaning and shaping followed by complete obturation of the canal system. Therefore, endodontic therapy requires specific and complete knowledge of the internal and external dental anatomy, and its variations in presentation. The internal anatomy of the maxillary central incisor is well-known and usually presents one root canal system. This case report describes an endodontic treatment of traumatized both maxillary central incisors with two canal systems. Knowledge of dental anatomy is fundamental for proper endodontic practice. When root canal treatment is performed, the clinician should be aware that both external and internal anatomy may be abnormal.

  13. Bilateral presence of two root canals in maxillary central incisors: A rare case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, M; Gokul, Kannan; Ramaprabha, B; Lakshmi, Amudha

    2014-04-01

    Success in root canal treatment is achieved after thorough cleaning and shaping followed by complete obturation of the canal system. Therefore, endodontic therapy requires specific and complete knowledge of the internal and external dental anatomy, and its variations in presentation. The internal anatomy of the maxillary central incisor is well-known and usually presents one root canal system. This case report describes an endodontic treatment of traumatized both maxillary central incisors with two canal systems. Knowledge of dental anatomy is fundamental for proper endodontic practice. When root canal treatment is performed, the clinician should be aware that both external and internal anatomy may be abnormal.

  14. Microstructure and wettability of root canal dentine and root canal filling materials after different chemical irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonijevic, Djordje; Milovanovic, Petar; Brajkovic, Denis; Ilic, Dragan; Hahn, Michael; Amling, Michael; Rakocevic, Zlatko; Djuric, Marija; Busse, Björn

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various irrigation solutions on root canal dentine and gutta-percha surface properties. In addition, the effects of disinfectant chemicals on the wettability and surface morphological properties of the filling materials were evaluated. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, and ozone were employed as irrigation solutions for dentine and gutta-percha treatment. Thereafter, the samples' microstructure, degree of mineralization, and mechanical properties were assessed by means of quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) and reference point indentation (RPI). A contact angle analyzer was used to measure adhesion on the tested materials. Here, EDTA had the most significant affect on both the mechanical properties and the adhesive behavior of dentine. Citric acid did not affect dentine wettability, whereas the indentation properties and the mineralization were reduced. Similar effects were observed when ozone was used. The dentinal tubules were significantly widened in citric acid compared to the ozone group. EDTA causes considerable micromechanical surface alteration of dentine and gutta-percha, but represents the best option in clinical cases where a high adhesiveness of the filling materials is desired.

  15. The width of the incisive canal and labial alveolar bone of the incisive canal: an assessment on CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Yang Gyun; Jang, Hyun Seon; Kim, Byung Ock; Kim, Jin Soo [Chosun Univ. College of Dentistry, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    To assess the width of the labial alveolar bone of the incisive canal and the width of the incisive canal on spiral computed tomographic images of the anterior portion of the maxilla. Study materials included 38 CT scans taken for preoperative planning of implant placement. Axial cross-sectioned image entirely showing the incisive canal at an orifice to the oral cavity, middle portion, and an orifice to the nasal cavity and the diameter of the incisive canal at the middle portion were determined by two specialist using Digora for Windows 2.1. The statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS 12.0.1. When the maxillary central incisors remained, the mean labial alveolar bone width were 6.81{+-}1.41 mm, 6.46{+-}1.33 mm, and 7.91{+-}1.33 mm. When the maxillary central incisors were missed the mean width were 5.42{+-}2.20 mm, 6.23{+-}2.29 mm, and 7.89{+-}2.13 mm. The labial alveolar bone width at middle portion and an orifice to the nasal cavity were of no statistical significant difference according to presence of the maxillary central incisors (P>0.05). The width between oral cavity and nasal cavity, middle portion and to masal cavity revealed statistically significant difference (P<0.05)

  16. Síndrome do canal de Guyon causada por cisto sinovial Guyon's canal syndrome due to a synovial cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Silva Ruas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos um caso de síndrome do canal de Guyon por um cisto sinovial no punho esquerdo de uma paciente do sexo feminino, de 48 anos. A paciente apresentava dor e parestesia na topografia do nervo ulnar, diminuição da força muscular e deformidade na mão esquerda. A eletroneuromiografia evidenciava compressão do nervo ulnar no nível do punho. Realizada a ressecção do cisto e descompressão do nervo no canal de Guyon. Após a cirurgia a paciente apresentou melhora da dor e da parestesia, além de aumento do trofismo muscular e correção da deformidade.The authors present a case of Guyon's canal syndrome due to a synovial cyst within the left wrist of a 48-year-old female patient. The patient reported pain and paresthesia in the topography of the ulnar nerve, loss of muscular strength and left hand deformity. Electromyography showed a compression of the ulnar nerve at the wrist level. Surgical decompression at the Guyon canal with resection of the cyst was performed. After surgery, the patient presented with improvement of pain and paresthesia, as well as an increase in muscular trophism and correction of the deformity.

  17. Adaptation and penetration of resin-based root canal sealers in root canals irradiated with high-intensity lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura-Netto, Cacio; Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi; Palo, Renato Miotto; Prokopowitsch, Igor; Pameijer, Cornelis H.; Marques, Marcia Martins

    2015-03-01

    This research analyzed the quality of resin-based sealer adaptation after intracanal laser irradiation. Extracted teeth (n=168) were root canal treated and divided into four groups, according to dentin surface treatment: no laser; Nd:YAG laser (1.5 W, 100 mJ, 15 Hz) diode laser (2.5 W in CW), and Er:YAG laser (1 W, 100 mJ, 10 Hz). The teeth were divided into four subgroups according to the sealer used: AH Plus, EndoREZ, Epiphany, and EpiphanySE. For testing the sealing after root canal obturation, the penetration of silver nitrate solution was measured, whereas to evaluate the adaptation and penetration of the sealer into the dentin, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) was used. The ESEM images were analyzed using a four-grade criteria score by three evaluators. The inter-examiner agreement was confirmed by Kappa test and the scores statistically compared by the Kruskal-Wallis' test (proot canals were not affected by the laser irradiation. Nd:YAG and diode laser decreased the tracer penetration for AH Plus, whereas EndoREZ and EpiphanySE performances were affected by Nd:YAG irradiation (proot canals were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser.

  18. Surgical management of Guyon's canal syndrome, an ulnar nerve entrapment at the wrist: report of two cases Síndrome de compressão do nervo ulnar a nível do punho (síndrome do canal de Guyon: relato de dois casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Aguiar

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Guyon's canal syndrome, an ulnar nerve entrapment at the wrist, is a well-recognized entity. The most common causes that involve the ulnar nerve at the wrist are compression from a ganglion, occupational traumatic neuritis, a musculotendinous arch and disease of the ulnar artery. We describe two cases of Guyon's canal syndrome and discuss the anatomy, aetiology, clinical features, anatomical classification, diagnostic criteria and treatment. It is emphasized that the knowledge of both the surgical technique and anatomy is very important for a satisfactory surgical result.A síndrome do canal de Guyon, um encarceramento do nervo ulnar a nível do punho, é bem conhecida. Ela é causada por neurite ocupacional traumática, doenças e traumas do arco músculo-tendíneo e doença de artéria ulnar. Descrevemos dois casos de síndrome do canal de Guyon e discutimos os aspectos anatômicos e etiológicos, suas características clínicas, classificação anatômica e critérios de diagnóstico, bem como fazemos uma análise crítica do tratamento imposto. Enfatizamos também que, para obter um resultado cirúrgico satisfatório, é importante conhecer bem tanto as técnicas cirúrgicas como sua anatomia.

  19. Penetração intratubular de cimentos endodônticos Intratubular penetration of root canal sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo de Deus

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi desenvolvido para avaliar a capacidade de penetração de diferentes cimentos endodônticos (Endo Fill, Sealapex, AH Plus e Pulp Canal Sealer nos túbulos dentinários em dentes devidamente modelados e obturados. Foram utilizados 72 incisivos centrais superiores, os quais foram instrumentados no sentido coroa-ápice pela técnica de forças balanceadas. O comprimento de trabalho foi estabelecido a 1 mm do ápice radicular. Durante a limpeza e modelagem, todos os dentes foram irrigados com 10 ml de hipoclorito de sódio a 5,25%. Os dentes foram divididos em 4 grupos, sendo 1 para cada tipo de cimento. Estes grupos foram então subdivididos em função do uso ou não de EDTA a 17% previamente à obturação dos canais radiculares, para a remoção da lama dentinária. Todos os dentes foram obturados pela técnica da onda de condensação com cone médio calibrado. Após obturação, as raízes foram seccionadas no sentido mésio-distal e foi escolhida a secção de melhor qualidade visual. Estas foram então analisadas em microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV, sendo o foco de observação sempre a interface dentina/material obturador. Após obtenção das imagens, mensurou-se os prolongamentos dos cimentos para o interior dos túbulos dentinários. O cimento de Rickert (Pulp Canal Sealer apresentou a maior capacidade de penetração nos túbulos dentinários, sendo os piores resultados apresentados pelo grupo em que se utilizou o Sealapex. Os resultados foram avaliados estatisticamente pelo teste de Spearman, o qual mostrou diferença estatisticamente significante (p The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacity of penetration of four endodontic sealers (Endo Fill, Sealapex, AH Plus and Pulp Canal Sealer into dentinal tubules. Seventy-two extracted human maxillary anterior teeth were utilized in this study. The teeth were cleaned and shaped by means of the balanced-forces technique. The work length was established at 1

  20. Filling of simulated lateral canals using different obturation techniques: analysis through IDA digital radiograph system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Teles Rodrigues

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lateral canals are part of the root canal system and may be related to periodontal-endodontic diseases. The filling techniques that employ thermoplasticized gutta-percha have demonstrated better results in filling lateral canals. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate, through digital radiographs, three techniques of root canal obturation (Lateral Condensation, Obtura II System, Tagger’s Hybrid regarding to the ability of filling artificial lateral canals. Material and methods: 30 extracted human lower premolars were used in this study. The crowns were removed and artificial laterals canals were prepared on the coronal, medium and apical thirds of the roots by using a reamer made of a K 10 file. The root canals were instrumented and obturated by the following techniques: Lateral Condensation, Obtura II System, and Tagger’s Hybrid. The teeth were radiographed with IDA digital radiograph system and the filling of the lateral canals was evaluated by scores for further statistical analysis. Results: No significant difference was found in the filling of lateral canals between Lateral Condensation and Obtura II, but a significant difference was found among these two and Tagger’s Hybrid technique. Conclusion: Tagger’s Hybrid technique promoted the highest numbers of obturated lateral canals. In the three groups, the root thirds presenting greater number of filled lateral canals were coronal and middle, regardless of the obturation technique employed.

  1. Implantación de hidroxiapatita-lignina en canal medular de conejos: evaluación macroscópica y difractográfica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastoby Martínez M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar macroscópica y difractograficamente la respuesta ósea al compuesto hidroxiapatita–lignina implantado en canal medular tibial de conejos. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 20 conejos de raza Nueva Zelanda, en cada uno, la tibia izquierda fue tratada con compuesto y la tibia derecha no fue, sirviendo como control. Se realizó una falla ósea de 4 mm de diámetro en la superficie lateral proximal tibial, hasta alcanzar el canal medular. Del compuesto, 1000 mg fueron ablandados con 10 gotas de solución salina utilizando parte de la masa para revestir la rosca del clavo intramedular de Schanz en acero F 138, de diámetro 2.5 mm para hueso cortical y la otra parte introducida en el canal medular con el auxilio de catéter calibre 16 y jeringa. El clavo revestido se introdujo al canal medular por la falla ósea. Los planos anatómicos fueron suturados. Lo mismo fue realizado en el control, sin utilización del compuesto. La evaluación macroscópica y difractográfica del contenido medular y del material que creció en las rocas de los clavos se hizo a los ocho, 30, 60, 90 y 120 días pos-cirugía. Resultados. Con cada fecha de evaluación la tendencia de la medula ósea en los tratados fue a regenerarse y la del compuesto a perder visibilidad, lo que se demostró con la difracción de rayos X, encontrándose tejido con cristalinidad compatible con el componente mineral del hueso. Conclusiones. El compuesto puede guiar la formación de hueso hasta el clavo intramedular sin afectar la regeneración de médula ósea.

  2. Desarrollo de un circuito integrado de múltiples canales para Silicon fotomultiplicador arrays lectura

    CERN Document Server

    Comerma i Montells, Albert

    2013-10-31

    The aim of this thesis is to present a solution for the readout of Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) arrays improving currently implemented systems. Using as a starting point previous designs with similar objectives a novel current mode input stage has been designed and tested. To start with the design a valid model has been used to generate realistic output from the SiPMs depending on light input. Design has been performed in first place focusing in general applications for medical imaging Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and then using the same topology for a more constrained design in particle detectors (upgrade of Tracker detector at LHCb experiment). A 16 channel ASIC for PET applications including the novel input stage has demonstrated an excellent timing measurement with good energy resolution measurement and pile-up detection. This document starts with the analysis of the requirements needed to fit such a system. Followed by a detailed description of the input stage and analog processing. Signal is ...

  3. Micro‐CT analyses of apical enlargement and molar root canal complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, M.; Darvann, Tron Andre; Larsen, P.;

    2012-01-01

    Markvart M, Darvann TA, Larsen P, Dalstra M, Kreiborg S, Bjørndal L. Micro‐CT analyses of apical enlargement and molar root canal complexity. International Endodontic Journal, 45, 273–281, 2012. Aim To compare the effectiveness of two rotary hybrid instrumentation techniques with focus on apical...... enlargement in molar teeth and to quantify and visualize spatial details of instrumentation efficacy in root canals of different complexity. Methodology Maxillary and mandibular molar teeth were scanned using X‐ray microcomputed tomography. Root canals were prepared using either a GT/Profile protocol or a Ra......Ce/NiTi protocol. Variables used for evaluation were the following: distance between root canal surfaces before and after preparation (distance after preparation, DAP), percentage of root canal area remaining unprepared and increase in canal volume after preparation. Root canals were classified according to size...

  4. Specific immunoglobulin measurements related to exposure and resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection in Sudanese canal cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satti, M.Z.; Lind, Peter; Vennervald, B.J.;

    1996-01-01

    The present work comprises a longitudinal study of Schistosoma mansoni infection in occupationally hyper-exposed canal cleaners in the Sudan and the influence of chemotherapy on humoral immune parameters. The study groups included chronically infected canal cleaners (n = 19), newly recruited canal...... cleaners (n = 17), normally exposed adults (n = 31), school children (n = 46) and Sudanese negative controls (n = 48). Previous studies of the same canal cleaners have demonstrated that chronically infected canal cleaners were more resistant to reinfection than newly recruited canal cleaners. ELISA...... was used to detect specific IgE and IgG subclasses in response to whole worm antigen (WWH) and soluble egg antigen (SEA) before and 3 months after praziquantel treatment in the groups of canal cleaners and before and 1 year after treatment in normally exposed adults. When intensity of infection...

  5. First Branchial Cleft Fistula Associated with External Auditory Canal Stenosis and Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahin abdollahi fakhim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: First branchial cleft anomalies manifest with duplication of the external auditory canal.   Case Report: This report features a rare case of microtia and congenital middle ear and canal cholesteatoma with first branchial fistula. External auditory canal stenosis was complicated by middle ear and external canal cholesteatoma, but branchial fistula, opening in the zygomatic root and a sinus in the helical root, may explain this feature. A canal wall down mastoidectomy with canaloplasty and wide meatoplasty was performed. The branchial cleft was excised through parotidectomy and facial nerve dissection.   Conclusion:  It should be considered that canal stenosis in such cases can induce cholesteatoma formation in the auditory canal and middle ear.

  6. Preliminary study on the application of radio-telemetry techniques to evaluate movements of fish in the Lateral canal at Itaipu Dam, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Hahn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study on the application of radio-telemetry techniques to describe the movements of fish in a bypass channel at Itaipu Dam (Paraná River, known as "Canal da Piracema," was carried out between January and February of 2004. Fourteen individuals of six species (Prochilodus lineatus, Leporinus friderici, Schizodon borellii, Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, Pterodoras granulosus and Cichla kelberi were intragastrically and surgically radiotagged and monitored by three experimental fixed radio-telemetry stations installed in the upper portion of the Canal. The surgical implantation of transmitters and the anesthesia using clove oil proved to be more efficient and allowed easier handling in comparison to intragastric implantation and electronarcosis immobilization. The use of fixed stations to obtain data was found to be very suitable for tracking movements of several different fish species in the Itaipu lateral channel. Three species (P. granulosus, S. borellii and C. kelberi moved downstream after release. Two individuals of P. fasciatum and two of P. lineatus migrated upstream, leaving the channel 7 and 10 days and 2 and 24 days after release, respectively. Leporinus friderici was the only species that did not leave the release site until the end of the study period.Um estudo preliminar sobre a aplicação de técnicas de radiotelemetria para descrever os movimentos de peixes no canal de transposição da UHE Itaipu (Rio Paraná, conhecido como "Canal da Piracema", foi realizado entre janeiro e fevereiro de 2004. Seis espécies (Prochilodus lineatus, Leporinus friderici, Schizodon borellii, Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, Pterodoras granulosus e Cichla kelberi totalizando 14 indivíduos foram marcadas com radiotransmissores via cirúrgica e esofágica e rastreados através de três estações fixas experimentais de radiotelemetria instaladas na porção superior do Canal. A implantação de transmissores através de cirurgia e a anestesia por

  7. Assessment of bifid and trified mandicular canals using cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashsyren, Oyuntugs [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Mongolian National University Medical Science, Ulaanbaatar (United States); Choi, Jin Woo; Han, Won Jeong; Kim Eun Kyung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dankook University College of Dentistry, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    To investigate the prevalence of bifid and trifid mandibular canals using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, and to measure their length, diameter, and angle. CBCT images of 500 patients, involving 755 hemi-mandibles, were used for this study. The presence and type of bifid mandibular canal was evaluated according to a modified classification of Naitoh et al. Prevalence rates were determined according to age group, gender, and type. Further, their diameter, length, and angles were measured using PACSPLUS Viewer and ImageJ 1.46r. Statistical analysis with chi-squared and analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests was performed. Bifid and trifid mandibular canals were found in 22.6% of the 500 patients and 16.2% of the 755 sides. There was no significant difference between genders and among age groups. The retromolar canal type accounted for 71.3% of the identified canals; the dental canal type, 18.8%; the forward canal type, 4.1%; and the trifid canal type, 5.8%. Interestingly, seven cases of the trifid canal type, which has been rarely reported, were observed. The mean diameter of the bifid and trifid mandibular canals was 2.2 mm and that of the main mandibular canal was 4.3 mm. Their mean length was 16.9 mm; the mean superior angle was 149.2 degrees, and the mean inferior angle was 37.7 degrees. Bifid and trifid mandibular canals in the Korean population were observed at a relatively high rate through a CBCT evaluation, and the most common type was the retromolar canal. CBCT is suggested for a detailed evaluation of bifid and trifid mandibular canals before mandibular surgery.

  8. Estudo anatômico do trajeto do canal mandibular em felinos (Felis catus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Cotrim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se descrever, por meio de tomografia computadorizada, o trajeto do canal mandibular (CM em 20 gatos sem raça definida, com ausência de alterações na cavidade oral, provenientes do Centro de Controle de Zoonoses do Distrito Federal. Foram realizados cortes tomográficos com 2mm de espessura, acompanhando todo o trajeto do CM, tendo como referência a região do forame mandibular, as raízes distais e mesiais dos dentes pré-molares e molares e o forame mentoniano, obtendo-se medidas desde o CM até as faces vestibular, lingual, ventral e alveolar (profundidade do corpo da mandíbula, bem como seu diâmetro. Pôde constatar que o CM manteve-se no aspecto lingual do corpo da mandíbula desde o forame mandibular até a raiz mesial do 1º pré-molar, onde se deslocou para a face vestibular, emergindo no forame mentoniano. Com relação à profundidade, seu trajeto sofreu declive a partir do forame mandibular até a região da raiz mesial do 1º molar, onde alcançou seu ponto mais profundo para prosseguir em suave ascensão até o forame mentoniano. Os dados apresentados contribuem para o estudo anatômico da mandíbula de gatos, bem como auxiliam no melhor planejamento e execução de procedimentos cirúrgicos na mandíbula dessa espécie.

  9. The influence of flood pulse on fish communities of floodplain canals in the Middle Solimões River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raniere G. C. Sousa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The functioning of large river systems with adjacent floodplains is strongly influenced by the flood pulse. This phenomenon is the main structuring force for the biota, including fish communities that use floodplain environments for spawning, feeding, nursery and refuge. In floodplains and in the entire basin, the volume of water controls internal flows. During rising water, the high discharge of the river acts as a natural barrier to the canals that connect floodplain lakes and the Solimões River, because the water flows from river to lake. During the dry period, there is a reduction of discharge and the water flow is reversed or stationary. These canals are environments with distinct ecological characteristics such as differentiated limnology and water level variation intensely affected by the hydrological cycle. Therefore, we surveyed the influence of the flood pulse on fish communities that inhabit two canals that connect floodplain lakes to the Middle Solimões River. Particularly, we evaluated the hypothesis that the Solimões River flow direction is not perfectly parallel to its banks, which creates peripheral flows that direct water from the rivers to the floodplain lake canals. Our analysis indicated that the seasonal pattern is stronger than the spatial. Beside this, we observed that the positions of the canals in relation to the main river flow somehow affect the fish assemblages. Finally, we conclude that the flood pulse is the main structuring force acting on these fish communities.A dinâmica dos sistemas de grandes rios com áreas inundadas adjacentes é fortemente influenciada pelo pulso de inundação, sendo este fenômeno o principal agente estruturador da biota, inclusive dos peixes, que utilizam este ambiente para a desova, alimentação, berçário e refúgio. Nesta região e em toda a bacia, a intensidade da vazão controla os fluxos internos. Na época da cheia, a forte vazão atua como uma barreira natural nos canais de

  10. ÍNDICE DE ESTADO LIMNOLÓGICO (IELPARA EVALUAR LAS CONDICIONES ECOLÓGICAS DE LAS CIÉNAGAS DEL CANAL DEL DIQUE, COLOMBIA Limnological State Index (LSI to Evaluate Ecological Conditions of the Canal del Dique Wetlands, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL A. PINILLA A

    Full Text Available Determinar el estado o salud ecológica de un ecosistema brinda herramientas útiles para su gestión y conservación. En Colombia no existen registros de índices que combinen en un solo parámetro las variables físicas, químicas y biológicas de los sistemas acuáticos, de manera que la evaluación de su estado ecológico ha sido fragmentaria o incompleta. En este trabajo se presenta un Índice de Estado Limnológico (IEL para las ciénagas del Canal del Dique, ecosistemas sometidos a constante presión por parte de las comunidades humanas. Para la construcción de este índice multimétrico se elaboraron gráficas de calidad de las variables seleccionadas y se les asignaron valores de importancia. Para construir el IEL se empleó la teoría de los multiatributos considerando 12 variables. También se realizó un análisis de componentes principales de las variables seleccionadas. Se diseñó una versión simplificada (IEL parcial -IELP en la que se excluyeron cuatro de las variables biológicas. Finalmente, se construyó una escala de interpretación de los valores obtenidos con estos índices. El IEL y el IELP se aplicaron a las ciénagas del Canal del Dique para establecer su condición ecológica actual. Los datos muestran que el estado limnológico de la mayoría de ciénagas de esta región es aceptable, lo que sugiere que estos ecosistemas lénticos se encuentran dentro de los límites admisibles de funcionamiento, aunque no están excentos de procesos de deterioro.Determining the ecological state or health of an ecosystem offers useful tools for its management and conservation. In Colombia, indexes of aquatic systems that combine in a single parameter the physical, chemical and biological variables have not been published, and the evaluation of water bodies’ ecological state has been fragmentary or incomplete. In this work a Limnological State Index (LSI for wetlands of the Canal del Dique, ecosystems under constant pressure by the

  11. Sistemas y Tecnologías de Televisión Digital Interactiva para la Educación

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García Pañeda, X.; Cesar Garcia, P.S.

    2012-01-01

    La televisión ha sido tradicionalmente un medio de comunicación utilizado para llevar a cabo procesos de aprendizaje informales. Idiomas, historia y naturaleza han sido materias objeto de numerosos cursos y reportajes a lo largo de los años y el elemento central de numerosos canales temáticos que ll

  12. Juros, câmbio e as imperfeições do canal do crédito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionísio Dias Carneiro

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar o papel do crédito como mecanismo de transmissão da política monetária. Inicialmente apresentamos uma descrição teórica do canal de crédito de uma economia estilizada e quantificamos os efeitos do canal de crédito na economia brasileira via estimação de uma equação de demanda por crédito. Examinamos, então, o canal de crédito como transmissor dos choques de demanda, via balanço das empresas, atuando como um "multiplicador financeiro" desses choques. Por fim, apresentamos evidência empírica da atuação deste "multiplicador financeiro" na economia brasileira por meio de movimentos da taxa de câmbio, o que permite dar uma explicação para os efeitos prolongados de crises cambiais sobre o crescimento.The objective of this paper is to analyze the role of credit as a monetary policy transmission mechanism. First we present a theoretical description of the credit channel of a stylized economy and then quantify the effects of the credit channel on the Brazilian economy by estimating a credit demand equation. We, then, focus on the credit channel as a transmitter of demand shocks via firms' balance sheets, functioning as "financial multiplier" of those shocks. Concluding, we analyze the empirical evidence of that "financial multiplier" through which movements in the exchange rate impact the Brazilian economy, a possible explanation for lasting effects of exchange rate crises on economic growth.

  13. Cisto aracnóideo extradural do canal espinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Pires Ferreira

    1972-09-01

    Full Text Available É relatado o caso de um paciente que apresentava paraparesia sensitivo-motora evolutiva, datando de um ano. As radiográficas da coluna vertebral e mielografia permitiram o diagnóstico de cisto de aracnóide extradural do canal espinal de localização torácica, que foi confirmado pelo ato cirúrgico. Os autores revisam a literatura assinalando 76 casos já publicados. São comentadas a incidência do processo patológico nos diversos grupos etários, sua localização ao longo do canal raqueano, a evolução do quadro clínico, a etiología e a fisiopatologia do crescimento do cisto, o diagnóstico, a terapêutica e o prognóstico.

  14. Molecular mechanisms of canalization: Hsp90 and beyond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neeraj Salathia; Christine Queitsch

    2007-04-01

    The Hsp90 chaperone machine facilitates the maturation of a diverse set of ‘client’ proteins. Many of these Hsp90 clients are essential nodes in signal transduction pathways and regulatory circuits, accounting for the important role Hsp90 plays in organismal development and responses to the environment. Recent findings suggest a broader impact of the chaperone on phenotype: fully functional Hsp90 canalizes wild-type phenotypes by suppressing underlying genetic and epigenetic variation. This variation can be expressed upon challenging the Hsp90 machinery by environmental stress, genetic or pharmaceutical targeting of Hsp90. The existence of Hsp90-buffered genetic and epigenetic variation together with plausible release mechanisms has wide-ranging implication for phenotype and possibly evolutionary processes. Here, we discuss the role of Hsp90 in canalization and organismal plasticity, and highlight important questions for future experimental inquiry.

  15. A comparison of methods used in root canal sealability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matloff, I.R.; Jensen, J.R.; Singer, L.; Tabibi, A.

    1982-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare several methods that have been used to assess marginal leakage of root canal fillings. Sixty-three extracted, single-rooted teeth were instrumented and filled in a standardized manner. Teeth were randomly divided into groups of twenty and exposed to solutions containing methylene blue dye, calcium-45, carbon-14-labeled urea, and iodine-125-labeled albumin for 48 hours to compare the degree of leakage indicated by each technique. Methylene blue dye was found to penetrate farther up the canal than any of the isotope tracers. Carbon-14-labeled urea penetrated farther than the calcium-45- or iodine-125-labeled albumin. The mean volume of solution penetrating the teeth was exceedingly small (0.0011 ml) and probably unimportant physiologically.

  16. A comparison of methods used in root canal sealability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was to compare several methods that have been used to assess marginal leakage of root canal fillings. Sixty-three extracted, single-rooted teeth were instrumented and filled in a standardized manner. Teeth were randomly divided into groups of twenty and exposed to solutions containing methylene blue dye, calcium-45, carbon-14-labeled urea, and iodine-125-labeled albumin for 48 hours to compare the degree of leakage indicated by each technique. Methylene blue dye was found to penetrate farther up the canal than any of the isotope tracers. Carbon-14-labeled urea penetrated farther than the calcium-45- or iodine-125-labeled albumin. The mean volume of solution penetrating the teeth was exceedingly small (0.0011 ml) and probably unimportant physiologically

  17. 3D root canal modeling for advanced endodontic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Shane Y.; Dong, Janet

    2002-06-01

    More than 14 million teeth receive endodontic (root canal) treatment annually. Before a clinician's inspection and diagnosis, destructive access preparation by removing teeth crown and dentin is usually needed. This paper presents a non-invasive method for accessing internal tooth geometry by building 3-D tooth model from 2-D radiographic and endoscopic images to be used for an automatic prescription system of computer-aided treatment procedure planning, and for the root canal preparation by an intelligent micro drilling machine with on-line monitoring. It covers the techniques specific for dental application in the radiographic images acquirement, image enhancement, image segmentation and feature recognition, distance measurement and calibration, merging 2D image into 3D mathematical model representation and display. Included also are the methods to form references for irregular teeth geometry and to do accurately measurement with self-calibration.

  18. MRI study on spinal canal content in Western Maharashtrian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanapurkar SV, Kulkarni DO, Bahetee BH, Vahane MI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the spinal canal content has been studied since the invention of myelography. However, most studies have measured the diameters of the spinal cord only, not the size of the subarachnoid space. The present study complements the current data on the morphology of the spinal contents, and in particular, the spinal subarachnoid space, by analyzing MRI images. Objective: To study morphology of the dural sac, spinal cord & subarachnoid space using MRI. To define the inner geometrical dimensions of spinal canal content that confine the maneuver of an endoscope inserted in cervical spine. 3. To have comprehensive knowledge of the anatomy of cervical spinal canal. Method: Based on MRI images of the spine from 60 normal patients of age between 25-60 years, the dimensions of spinal cord, dural sac & subarachnoid space were measured at mid-vertebral & intervertebral level from C1-C7 vertebrae. The parameters measured were transverse, sagittal diameter of spinal cord & dural sac. The subarachnoid space was measured as anterior, posterior, right, left distance between spinal cord and dura mater. Results: It was found that at each selected transverse level, the subarachnoid space tends to be symmetrical on the right and left sides of the cord, and measures 3.38 mm on an average. However, the anterior and posterior segment, measured on the mid-sagittal plane are generally asymmetric & varies greatly in size ranging 1mm to 6mm with mean 2.57 of anterior & 2.59 of posterior. These measurements match those found in previous studies. The coefficient of variance for the dimensions of the subarachnoid space is as high as 36.16%, while that for the dimensions of the spinal cord (transverse & sagittal are11.08%&13.28%respectively. Conclusion: The findings presented here, expand our knowledge of morphology of spinal canal and show that a thecaloscope must be smaller than 3.38 mm in diameter.

  19. [Membrane model of the cupula of the vestibular semicircular canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrachuk, A V; Shipov, A A; Sirenko, S P

    1987-01-01

    A mathematical model of the time-course variations of the cupula of the semicircular canals of the vestibular apparatus is presented. The model is found to be in good agreement with experimental data which suggests that the cupular matter has viscosity-elasticity properties. Their role in the functioning of the vestibular apparatus is discussed in qualitative terms. The applicability of the membrane model to the description of the time-course variations of the cupula is considered.

  20. Panama canal watershed payment for environmental services project

    OpenAIRE

    IDIAP (Panamanian National Agricultural Research Institute); Montana State University; CIP; Food and Agriculture Organization

    2007-01-01

    Metadata only record The Panama canal produces around 15% of the Panama's gross domestic produce (GDP), and requires large quantities of water to function. The surrounding watershed has been subjected to large scale deforestation and an increase in the population. In order to reduce siltation and improve water storage capacity, this project will look at the feasibility of implementing a payment for environmental services project. It will examine land use alternatives and benefits, evaluate...

  1. Histopathology of subcutaneous tissue reaction to endodontic root canal sealers

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate tissue response of two root canal sealers: Endomethasone (cink oxide eugenol-based sealers) and Ketac Endo Aplicap (glass ionomer based sealers). The sealers were freshly mixed and injected into subcutaneous connective tissue of the dorsal surface of experimental animals (Wistar Furth rats). The inflammatory reaction caused by the sealers was evaluated 7, 30 and 60 days after implantation using descriptive hisopathologic...

  2. Semicircular Canals Circumvent Brownian Motion Overload of Mechanoreceptor Hair Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Mees; Heeck, Kier

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate semicircular canals (SCC) first appeared in the vertebrates (i.e. ancestral fish) over 600 million years ago. In SCC the principal mechanoreceptors are hair cells, which as compared to cochlear hair cells are distinctly longer (70 vs. 7 μm), 10 times more compliant to bending (44 vs. 500 nN/m), and have a 100-fold higher tip displacement threshold (mechanoreceptors of the SCC. PMID:27448330

  3. Semicircular Canals Circumvent Brownian Motion Overload of Mechanoreceptor Hair Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Mees; Heeck, Kier

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate semicircular canals (SCC) first appeared in the vertebrates (i.e. ancestral fish) over 600 million years ago. In SCC the principal mechanoreceptors are hair cells, which as compared to cochlear hair cells are distinctly longer (70 vs. 7 μm), 10 times more compliant to bending (44 vs. 500 nN/m), and have a 100-fold higher tip displacement threshold (level of the mechanoreceptors of the SCC. PMID:27448330

  4. The human semicircular canal model of galvanic vestibular stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Day, B. L.; Ramsay, E.; Welgampola, M. S.; Fitzpatrick, R. C.

    2011-01-01

    A vector summation model of the action of galvanic stimuli on the semicircular canals has been shown to explain empirical balance and perceptual responses to binaural-bipolar stimuli. However, published data suggest binaural-monopolar stimuli evoke responses that are in the reverse direction of the model prediction. Here, we confirm this by measuring balance responses to binaural-monopolar stimulation as movements of the upper trunk. One explanation for the discrepancy is that the galvanic st...

  5. Comparative study of sealing ability of three root canal sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khedmat S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Complete obturation of the prepared root canal is an essential step in endodontic treatment. Combination of gutta-percha and a sealer is widely used in clinical practice for root canal obturation, thus microleakage studies on sealing properties of these materials constitute an important part of endodontic researches. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microleakage of three root canal sealers: Apexit, AH26 and Dorifill by electrochemical method.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 55 extracted human maxillary and mandibular cuspids were used. The coronal part of teeth were removed and the root canals were prepared using the step-back technique. The specimens were randomly divided into 3 groups of 17 samples each. Teeth in each group were filled with one of the sealers and gutta-percha by lateral condensation technique. 4 specimens served as positive and negative controls. An electrochemical method was used for evaluation of apical leakage with the electrical source potential of 10 V. Measurements of current flow through the test system were recorded every 72 hours. Data were analyzed by Kruskall Wallis and Mann Whitney tests. P<0.05 was considered as the level of significance.Results: All specimens of the three groups showed low initial leakage that increased during the test period. The mean leakage in Apexit group was higher than AH26 and Dorifill groups. The lowest mean leakage was related to Dorifill group. Although no statistically significant difference was observed between this sealer and AH26.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the best apical seal was obtained using Dorifill and AH26 sealers. The poorest result was observed in Apexit.

  6. Choice of root canal irrigants by Serbian dental practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Goran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Root canal treatment is considered to be the one of the most important procedures in endodontic treatment. To irrigate the root canal it is most common to use sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, chlorhexodine, ethylenediami-netetraacetic acid (EDTA, local anesthetic solution, while the most used in Serbia is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. The aim of this survey was to reveal the preferred root canal irrigants used by general dental practitioners in Serbia and to determine the influence of the continuing education program, delivered over the 3-year observation period, on work habits of dental practitioners. This was the first comprehensive survey of this nature carried out in Serbia. Methods. The survey was conducted in two instances, a 4-month observation period each, from November 1, 2009 to March 1, 2010 and from November 1, 2012 to March 1, 2013. Internet Web Page Survey was posted on the official web site of the Serbian Association of Private Dentists. In the first survey, 569 completed questionnaires were subjected to analysis. In the next attempt (3 years later, the survey was launched again and 615 completed questionnaires were analyzed using the same criteria. The statistical analysis was carried out with simple descriptive statistics applying the χ2 test, at a significance level of p < 0.05. Results. The first survey included 569 dental practitioners, while 3 years later the number of them was 615. Analyzing the questionnaires revealed the number of 10 to 30 interventins on the root canal montly. The most commonly used irrigant solution was H2O2 in 2009, while in 2012 it was yet H2O2, but also NaOCl, chlorhexodine, and a little less EDTA. Conclusion. This study shows significant changes in the irrigation protocol applied in Serbian dental community. After 3 years of observation, NaOCl became widely accepted as the irrigant of choice, whereas H2O2 lost its popularity.

  7. Integrated Watershed Pollution Control at Wujingang Canal, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Z.; Yang, X.; Luo, X.

    2012-04-01

    With a drainage area of 400 square kilometers, Wujingang Canal is located at the economically developed Yangtz Delta of eastern China. As a major tributary, the canal contributes a significant amount of pollutant load to the Lake Tai. Over the past many years, water quality of the canal and its tributaries could not meet the lowest Category V of Chinese surface water quality standard, indicating that its water is not suitable for the purposes of irrigation or scenic views. Major pollution sources in the watershed include industries, residential households, agriculture, fishery, and animal feedlot operations. A comprehensive plan with a budget of 2 billion RMB for the Wujingang watershed pollution control was developed in 2008 and has been implemented progressively ever since. Major components of the plan include: (1) advanced treatment of wastewater from industries and municipal sewage plants for further removal of nitrogen and phosphorous; (2) industrial wastewater reuse; (3) contiguous treatment of sewage from rural residential households with cost-effective technologies such as tower ecofilter system; (4) recycling of rural wastes to generate high-value added products using technologies such as multi-phase anaerobic co-digestion; and (5) making full use of the local landscape and configuring physical, chemical, and biological pollutant treatment structures to build the "clean river network" for treatment of mildly polluted agricultural discharge and surface runoff. Through the implementation of the above measures, water quality of the Wujingang Canal and its tributaries is expected to improve to meet Category IV of Chinese surface water quality standard by 2012, and Category III standard by 2020. Keywords watershed pollution control, non-point source pollution, rural sewage, rural waste, Lake Tai

  8. Facies del subfondo del canal Beagle, Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bujalesky

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available El canal Beagle conecta los océanos Pacífico y Atlántico en el extremo meridional de Sudamérica y se ubica en el ambiente subantártico. Conforma una cuenca de unos 300 m de profundidad máxima y está separada del océano Atlántico por un umbral de 30 m de profundidad. El canal es un valle tectónico que fue completamente cubierto por el hielo glacial durante la última glaciación. Posteriormente, el canal fue ocupado por un lago glacial desde los 12.000 a los 8.000 años A.P., cuando fue invadido por el mar que alcanzó un nivel máximo entre los 6.000 y 5.000 años A.P. Con el objetivo de analizar las facies sedimentarias superficiales y del subfondo del canal se realizó un relevamiento geofísico con sonar de barrido lateral y un perfilador de 3,5 kHz. Sobre un basamento constituido por rocas metamórficas del Mesozoico, se identificaron depósitos de till y secuencias granodecrecientes que representan distintos estadios del retroceso glaciar, evidenciando hacia la sección superior facies lacustres y por encima depósitos de la transgresión marina del Holoceno. Además, se han identificado paleocauces y secuencias fluviales cubiertas por sedimentos marinos transgresivos.

  9. Cone-beam computed tomography study of root and canal morphology of mandibular premolars in a western Chinese population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional radiography is limited in its ability to give reliable information on the number and morphology of root canals. The application of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) provides a non-invasive three-dimensional confirmatory diagnosis as a complement to conventional radiography. The aim of this study was to evaluate the root and canal morphology of mandibular premolars in a western Chinese population using CBCT scanning. The sample included 149 CBCT images comprising 178 mandibular first premolars and 178 second premolars. The tooth position, number of roots and canals, and canal configuration according to Vertucci’s classification were recorded. The results showed that 98% of mandibular first premolars had one root and 2% had two roots; 87.1% had one canal, 11.2% had two canals and 0.6% had three canals. The prevalence of C-shaped canals was 1.1%. All mandibular second premolars had one root; 97.2% had one canal and 2.2% had two canals. The prevalence of C-shaped canals was 0.6%. The prevalence of multiple canals in mandibular first premolars was mainly of Type V, and mandibular second premolars had a low rate of canal variation in this western Chinese population. Root canal bifurcation occurred at the middle or apical third in most bicanal mandibular premolars. CBCT scanning can be used in the management of mandibular premolars with complex canal morphology

  10. Effect of postmilking teat antisepsis on teat canal infections in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, S C; Watts, J L; Boddie, R L; Ray, C H

    1990-02-01

    Effects of a .18% iodophor teat dip and a fatty acid plus lactic acid teat dip on teat canal infections were studied in two separate trials under experimental challenge procedures using Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. The iodophor teat dip was 90% effective in preventing new S. aureus teat canal infections and 95.6% effective in reducing progression of S. aureus teat canal infections to intramammary infections. The dip also reduced persistence of S. aureus teat canal colonizations from week to week by 94.4%. The fatty acid plus lactic acid dip had no effect on preventing S. aureus teat canal infections but reduced progression of S. aureus teat canal infections to intramammary infections by 43.8%. The fatty acid plus lactic acid dip also reduced the persistence of S. aureus teat canal infections by 39%. An insufficient number of Strep. agalactiae teat canal infections was detected in both trials for valid analyses. Neither dip had any effect on prevalence of naturally occurring, coagulase-negative staphylococcal teat canal infections or on teat canal infections by other organisms. PMID:2184176

  11. Deadbands and the Dynamic Response and Performance of Large Water Transfer Canal System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Zhiliang; WANG Changde; TAN Guangming; GUAN Guanghua

    2009-01-01

    An operating simulation mode for multireach canal system in series under gate regulating is established. The discharge feedforward plus water lever feedback PID controller was adopted. And the performance indicators are introduced to evaluate the control effects of canal operation. Influence on dynamic response process and dynamic performance as well as the control actions of canal system are studied according to the variation of the gate deadband and water level deadband. The results showed that the larger the gate deadband, the worse, the control effect of canal system over water level, and so done the stable process of gate discharge, yet the stable process of gate opening was getting better, while the upstream gate regulation of each canal pool was less at the time when canal stabilizes;the closer to downstream end of canal, the lager steady-state error of this canal pool was, and the lager influence of gate deadband on the steady-state error as well as response time of this canal pool was;the canal system can not acquire superiority in both the control performance and control actions when only the water level deadband was established.

  12. The clinical success of different root canal treatments in primary molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Güler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Objectives: To examine the success rate of root canal treatment in primary molars with the use two different root canal instrumentation ways, irrigation solutions and root canal sealers.

    Materials and Methods: Root canal treatment was applied to 120 second primary molars of 69 children between 5-8 years old. The teeth were divided in 8 groups randomly according to instrumentation ways [conventional stainless-steel hand files / Nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti rotary files], irrigation solutions [0.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and 0.9% saline solution combination / 0.4% chlorhehexidine (CHX] and root canal sealers [Zinc oxide eugenol cement (ZOE and Apexit Plus (AP]. All teeth were restored with stainless steel crowns. The teeth were followed 12 months both clinically and radiographically. All data was analyzed statistically by χ2 and Wilcoxon test.

    Results: Statistical significance were found according to “age” and “root canal sealers” factors on success rate of root canal treatment (p<0.05. No statistical significance were found according to gender, jaw, tooth type, root canal instrumentation ways and irrigation solutions  on success rate of root canal treatment (p>0.05. The clinically and radiographically success rate of ZOE and AP were 98.3% and 68.3%, respectively.

    Conclusions: Root canal treatment is a successful treatment in primary molars. Ni-Ti rotary files and CHX can be a good alternative for root canal treatment in primary molars. The most effective factor to obtain clinical success of root canal treatment is properties of using root canal sealer.

  13. Delineating ground water recharge from leaking irrigation canals using water chemistry and isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, F E; Sibray, S S

    2001-01-01

    Across the Great Plains irrigation canals are used to transport water to cropland. Many of these canals are unlined, and leakage from them has been the focus of an ongoing legal, economic, and philosophical debate as to whether this lost water should be considered waste or be viewed as a beneficial and reasonable use since it contributes to regional ground water recharge. While historically there has been much speculation about the impact of canal leakage on local ground water, actual data are scarce. This study was launched to investigate the impact of leakage from the Interstate Canal, in the western panhandle of Nebraska, on the hydrology and water quality of the local aquifer using water chemistry and environmental isotopes. Numerous monitoring wells were installed in and around a small wetland area adjacent to the canal, and ground water levels were monitored from June 1992 until January 1995. Using the water level data, the seepage loss from the canal was estimated. In addition, the canal, the monitoring wells, and several nearby stock and irrigation wells were sampled for inorganic and environmental isotope analysis to assess water quality changes, and to determine the extent of recharge resulting from canal leakage. The results of water level monitoring within study wells indicates a rise in local ground water levels occurs seasonally as a result of leakage during periods when the canal is filled. This rise redirects local ground water flow and provides water to nearby wetland ecosystems during the summer months. Chemical and isotopic results were used to delineate canal, surface, and ground water and indicate that leaking canal water recharges both the surface alluvial aquifer and upper portions of the underlying Brule Aquifer. The results of this study indicate that lining the Interstate Canal could lower ground water levels adjacent to the canal, and could adversely impact the local aquifer.

  14. Phage therapy against Enterococcus faecalis in dental root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Leron; Shlezinger, Mor; Beyth, Shaul; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Coppenhagen-Glazer, Shunit; Beyth, Nurit; Hazan, Ronen

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem faced by all major sectors of health care, including dentistry. Recurrent infections related to multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in hospitals are untreatable and question the effectiveness of notable drugs. Two major reasons for these recurrent infections are acquired antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm formation. None of the traditionally known effective techniques have been able to efficiently resolve these issues. Hence, development of a highly effective antibacterial practice has become inevitable. One example of a hard-to-eradicate pathogen in dentistry is Enterococcus faecalis, which is one of the most common threats observed in recurrent root canal treatment failures, of which the most problematic to treat are its biofilm-forming VRE strains. An effective response against such infections could be the use of bacteriophages (phages). Phage therapy was found to be highly effective against biofilm and multidrug-resistant bacteria and has other advantages like ease of isolation and possibilities for genetic manipulations. The potential of phage therapy in dentistry, in particular against E. faecalis biofilms in root canals, is almost unexplored. Here we review the efforts to develop phage therapy against biofilms. We also focus on the phages isolated against E. faecalis and discuss the possibility of using phages against E. faecalis biofilm in root canals. PMID:27640530

  15. Dynamic displacement of normal and detached semicircular canal cupula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbitt, Richard D; Breneman, Kathryn D; King, Curtis; Yamauchi, Angela M; Boyle, Richard; Highstein, Stephen M

    2009-12-01

    The dynamic displacement of the semicircular canal cupula and modulation of afferent nerve discharge were measured simultaneously in response to physiological stimuli in vivo. The adaptation time constant(s) of normal cupulae in response to step stimuli averaged 36 s, corresponding to a mechanical lower corner frequency for sinusoidal stimuli of 0.0044 Hz. For stimuli equivalent to 40-200 deg/s of angular head velocity, the displacement gain of the central region of the cupula averaged 53 nm per deg/s. Afferents adapted more rapidly than the cupula, demonstrating the presence of a relaxation process that contributes significantly to the neural representation of angular head motions by the discharge patterns of canal afferent neurons. We also investigated changes in time constants of the cupula and afferents following detachment of the cupula at its apex-mechanical detachment that occurs in response to excessive transcupular endolymph pressure. Detached cupulae exhibited sharply reduced adaptation time constants (300 ms-3 s, n = 3) and can be explained by endolymph flowing rapidly over the apex of the cupula. Partially detached cupulae reattached and normal afferent discharge patterns were recovered 5-7 h following detachment. This regeneration process may have relevance to the recovery of semicircular canal function following head trauma.

  16. Ocean ambient sound south of Bermuda and Panama Canal traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Širović, Ana; Hildebrand, John A; McDonald, Mark A

    2016-05-01

    Comparisons of current and historic ocean ambient noise levels are rare, especially in the North Atlantic. Recent (2013-2014) monthly patterns in ocean ambient sound south of Bermuda were compared to those recorded at the same location in 1966. Additionally, trends in ocean traffic, in particular, Panama Canal traffic, over this time were also investigated. One year of ocean ambient noise measurements were collected in 1966 using cabled, omnidirectional hydrophones at the U.S. Navy Tudor Hill Laboratory in Bermuda, and repeat measurements were collected at the same location from June 2013-May 2014 using a High-frequency Acoustic Recording Package. Average monthly pressure spectrum levels at 44 Hz increased 2.8 ± 0.8 dB from 1966 to 2013, indicating an average increase of 0.6 dB/decade. This low level of increase may be due to topographic shielding at this site, limiting it to only southern exposure, and the limit in the number of ship transits through the Panama Canal, which did not change substantially during this time. The impending expansion of the Canal, which will enable the transit of larger ships at twice the current rate, is likely to lead to a substantial increase in ocean ambient sound at this location in the near future.

  17. [Treatment of a fractured endodontical instrument in the root canal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, M; Peters, L B

    2015-12-01

    A 53-year-old woman with continuing pain coming from a lower first molar was diagnosed with apical periodontitis, with a retained fractured instrument in the root canal. There are a variety of treatment options for dealing with a corpus alienum in a root canal. In this case it was decided to treat the tooth endodontically, and leave the fractured instrument fragment in situ. The selection of this treatment option was made on the basis of knowledge of the original diagnosis and the success rates of the various treatment options as described in the relevant literature, weighed against the possible risks and their effects on the prognosis. This suggested that the use of a dental operating microscope has a positive impact on the success rates of endodontic treatment The prognosis for endodontic treatment when a fractured instrument fragment is left within the root canal, as in this case, is not significantly reduced. The presence of preoperative periapical pathology, however, is a more clinically significant prognostic indicator. PMID:26665200

  18. Intraoperative ultrasonography of the vertebral canal in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Bonelli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intraoperative ultrasound (IOS can provide details on various conditions of the spinal cord and vertebral canal. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using IOS in dogs undergoing spinal surgery and to describe the main findings. The vertebral canal of 21 dogs was examined with intraoperative ultrasonography: 13 underwent spinal surgery for removal of herniated intervertebral disc material, three for stabilization of vertebral fracture/luxation, two for removal of vertebral neoplasia, and three for cauda equina decompression. Particular attention was given to signs of cord compression. Intraoperative ultrasonography was feasible and useful in dogs undergoing surgery for spinal cord or cauda equina decompression and fracture stabilization. It was not paramount for locating the compression when this had been done via computed tomography (CT, but it showed alterations in spinal cord parenchyma not observed on CT and also confirmed adequate decompression of the spinal cord. The main advantages of intraoperative ultrasonography were estimation of vascularization and extent of spinal cord lesion. Most importantly, it allowed real time evaluation of the spinal cord and vertebral canal, which permits the modification of the surgical procedure.

  19. An electrokinetic model of transduction in the semicircular canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, D P

    1970-09-01

    Transduction in the semicircular canal was studied by focusing an infrared beam on either side of exposed ampullae from the posterior canals of Rana pipiens. The direction of fluid movement resulting from a stimulus was inferred by observing the polarity of the change in afferent impulse mean rate relative to the spontaneous value. On the basis of the accepted functional polarization of this receptor, the results indicate that fluid moved toward the warmer side of the ampulla. Convection and thermal reception were shown to be unlikely explanations for these results. Morover, cupular displacements toward the warmer side would not be expected. Because thermo-osmosis can cause fluid to move toward the warmer side in a gelatin membrane, the results can be interpreted as evidence that thermo-osmosis occurred in the gelatinous cupula and influenced the transduction mechanism. Thermo-osmosis of liquids appears to be due to an electric field that is set up in a charged membrane; hence, the hair cells might have detected an electric field that occurred in the cupula during thermo-osmosis. Electroreception might be an important link in the transduction of physiological stimuli also. Rotational stimuli could result in weak electric fields in the cupula by the mechanoelectric effect. Cupular displacements could be important for large stimuli, but extrapolations to threshold stimuli suggest displacements of angstrom amplitudes. Therefore, electroreception by the hair cells could be an explanation of the great sensitivity that has been observed in the semicircular canal and other labyrinthine receptors. PMID:5496906

  20. Ocean ambient sound south of Bermuda and Panama Canal traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Širović, Ana; Hildebrand, John A; McDonald, Mark A

    2016-05-01

    Comparisons of current and historic ocean ambient noise levels are rare, especially in the North Atlantic. Recent (2013-2014) monthly patterns in ocean ambient sound south of Bermuda were compared to those recorded at the same location in 1966. Additionally, trends in ocean traffic, in particular, Panama Canal traffic, over this time were also investigated. One year of ocean ambient noise measurements were collected in 1966 using cabled, omnidirectional hydrophones at the U.S. Navy Tudor Hill Laboratory in Bermuda, and repeat measurements were collected at the same location from June 2013-May 2014 using a High-frequency Acoustic Recording Package. Average monthly pressure spectrum levels at 44 Hz increased 2.8 ± 0.8 dB from 1966 to 2013, indicating an average increase of 0.6 dB/decade. This low level of increase may be due to topographic shielding at this site, limiting it to only southern exposure, and the limit in the number of ship transits through the Panama Canal, which did not change substantially during this time. The impending expansion of the Canal, which will enable the transit of larger ships at twice the current rate, is likely to lead to a substantial increase in ocean ambient sound at this location in the near future. PMID:27250138

  1. Phage therapy against Enterococcus faecalis in dental root canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Leron; Shlezinger, Mor; Beyth, Shaul; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Coppenhagen-Glazer, Shunit; Beyth, Nurit; Hazan, Ronen

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem faced by all major sectors of health care, including dentistry. Recurrent infections related to multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in hospitals are untreatable and question the effectiveness of notable drugs. Two major reasons for these recurrent infections are acquired antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm formation. None of the traditionally known effective techniques have been able to efficiently resolve these issues. Hence, development of a highly effective antibacterial practice has become inevitable. One example of a hard-to-eradicate pathogen in dentistry is Enterococcus faecalis, which is one of the most common threats observed in recurrent root canal treatment failures, of which the most problematic to treat are its biofilm-forming VRE strains. An effective response against such infections could be the use of bacteriophages (phages). Phage therapy was found to be highly effective against biofilm and multidrug-resistant bacteria and has other advantages like ease of isolation and possibilities for genetic manipulations. The potential of phage therapy in dentistry, in particular against E. faecalis biofilms in root canals, is almost unexplored. Here we review the efforts to develop phage therapy against biofilms. We also focus on the phages isolated against E. faecalis and discuss the possibility of using phages against E. faecalis biofilm in root canals. PMID:27640530

  2. Phage therapy against Enterococcus faecalis in dental root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leron Khalifa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem faced by all major sectors of health care, including dentistry. Recurrent infections related to multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE in hospitals are untreatable and question the effectiveness of notable drugs. Two major reasons for these recurrent infections are acquired antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm formation. None of the traditionally known effective techniques have been able to efficiently resolve these issues. Hence, development of a highly effective antibacterial practice has become inevitable. One example of a hard-to-eradicate pathogen in dentistry is Enterococcus faecalis, which is one of the most common threats observed in recurrent root canal treatment failures, of which the most problematic to treat are its biofilm-forming VRE strains. An effective response against such infections could be the use of bacteriophages (phages. Phage therapy was found to be highly effective against biofilm and multidrug-resistant bacteria and has other advantages like ease of isolation and possibilities for genetic manipulations. The potential of phage therapy in dentistry, in particular against E. faecalis biofilms in root canals, is almost unexplored. Here we review the efforts to develop phage therapy against biofilms. We also focus on the phages isolated against E. faecalis and discuss the possibility of using phages against E. faecalis biofilm in root canals.

  3. Sexually antagonistic epigenetic marks that canalize sexually dimorphic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, William R; Friberg, Urban; Gavrilets, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    The sexes share the same autosomal genomes, yet sexual dimorphism is common due to sex-specific gene expression. When present, XX and XY karyotypes trigger alternate regulatory cascades that determine sex-specific gene expression profiles. In mammals, secretion of testosterone (T) by the testes during foetal development is the master switch influencing the gene expression pathways (male vs. female) that will be followed, but many genes have sex-specific expression prior to T secretion. Environmental factors, like endocrine disruptors and mimics, can interfere with sexual development. However, sex-specific ontogeny can be canalized by the production of epigenetic marks (epimarks) generated during early ontogeny that increase sensitivity of XY embryos to T and decrease sensitivity of XX embryos. Here, we integrate and synthesize the evidence indicating that canalizing epimarks are produced during early ontogeny. We will also describe the evidence that such epimarks sometimes carry over across generations and produce mosaicism in which some traits are discordant with the gonad. Such carryover epimarks are sexually antagonistic because they benefit the individual in which they were formed (via canalization) but harm opposite-sex offspring when they fail to erase across generations and produce gonad-trait discordances. SA-epimarks have the potential to: i) magnify phenotypic variation for many sexually selected traits, ii) generate overlap along many dimensions of the masculinity/femininity spectrum, and iii) influence medically important gonad-trait discordances like cryptorchidism, hypospadias and idiopathic hirsutism. PMID:26600375

  4. Costo de servir como variable de decisión estratégica en el diseño de estrategias de atención a canales de mercados emergentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Mejía Argueta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo documentar diferentes enfoques tradicionales sobre el análisis de costos para mercados emergentes a fin de hallar brechas y áreas de oportunidad relacionadas con la temática del costo de servir. El artículo encuentra que no existe una metodología adaptada para mercados emergentes que permita analizar detalladamente la rentabilidad en canales, clientes y productos para crear estrategias de atención acordes con las necesidades que estos grupos expresan. Al final de la revisión y contraste de metodologías, se explica una tabla con los procedimientos analizados y las áreas de oportunidad más importantes que servirán de base para la creación de una metodología de costo de servir para mercados emergentes.

  5. Expresión de canales de potasio voltaje dependientes en ovocitos de Xenopus laevis (Amphibia Voltage gated potassium channels expressed in Xenopus laevis(AMPHIBIA oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clavijo Carlos

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available La expresión en sistemas heterólogos ha sido una herramienta ampliamente utilizada enlos últimos años para el estudio funcional y estructural de proteínas. Para la carac-terización de las propiedades biofísicas de canales, bombas y transportadores engeneral su expresión en ovocitos de Xenopus laevis, ha sido fundamental. Este estudioreporta la expresión de dos canales de potasio voltaje dependientes, Kv1.1y Shakerenovocitos de X. laevisusando un protocolo ajustado a las condiciones de latitud y altitudde Bogotá para la extracción, aislamiento, cultivo y microinyección de éstas células.Heterologous expression has been an important tool for structural and functionalcharacterization of proteins. The study of biophysical properties of ion channels,pumps and transporters has been possible thanks to their expression in Xenopuslaevisoocytes. Here we report the expression of two voltage gated channels, Kv1.1and Shaker, in X. laevisoocytes using a method for oocyte extraction, isolation, cul-ture, and microinjection adapted to the latitude and altitude conditions of Bogotá,Colombia.

  6. El modelo de televisión regional en Colombia: canales públicos bajo los parámetros del mercado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego García Ramírez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La televisión pública regional heredó de la televisión pública nacional sus principales defectos: la politiza - ción y su orientación comercial. Aquí se argumenta que tal situación está asociada al modelo bajo el que se conciben estos canales, en el que los contenidos están pensados más para la rentabilidad que garantice su sostenibilidad económica que para el servicio público. A partir del concepto audiencia-mercancía propuesto desde la economía política de la comunicación se reflexiona sobre la forma en la que debería ser pensada la televisión pública regional para deslindarse de las lógicas impuestas por la TV comercial y de esta manera, generar una ofertar independiente, plural y diversa que no sea medida y evaluada bajo los parámetros del mercado, ni caiga en el abandono e inercia de los canales públicos nacionales.

  7. Parametrização do modelo 3-PG para eucalipto na região do cerrado de Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarbas Silva Borges

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050986623O modelo 3-PG é uma ferramenta eficaz para determinação do potencial produtivo de florestas de eucalipto. No entanto, as parametrizações deste modelo, hoje disponíveis, produzem resultados subestimados quando aplicadas à região do Cerrado de Minas Gerais. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi parametrizar o modelo 3-PG para plantios de eucalipto localizados na região do Cerrado de Minas Gerais. Para isso, foram utilizados dados de povoamentos de híbridos clonais de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla, com idades entre 3 e 84 meses, localizados nas regiões de Curvelo e Itacambira  – MG. As estimativas de crescimento obtidas pelo modelo 3-PG foram comparadas com dados de crescimento de povoamentos florestais medidos nas duas regiões, até a idade de 84 meses. O conjunto de valores de parâmetros e variáveis obtidos neste trabalho permitiu simular com acurácia, em termos das variáveis produzidas pelo modelo, os padrões de crescimento de povoamentos florestais presentes na região do Cerrado mineiro. Dessa forma, conclui-se que a parametrização promoveu melhorias no desempenho do modelo que resultaram em estimativas acuradas de crescimento.

  8. para palmito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Paulo Chaimsohn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Densidades de siembra, arreglos espaciales y fertilización en pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes cv Diamantes-10 para palmito. La investigación se llevó a cabo en la Estación Experimental Los Diamantes (Guápiles, Costa Rica, el 3 de octubre del 2003, cuyo objetivo fue la evaluación del efecto de diferentes densidades de siembra (3.333, 5.000 y 6.666 plantas/ha, arreglos espaciales, y diversos métodos de fertilización (química, orgánica, sobre el crecimiento de las plantas de pejibaye para producción de palmito. Se consideraron las variables diámetro y altura del tallo primario y el número de hojas y rebrotes como indicadores de producción. El período de evolución abarcó sólo los primeros 25 meses de crecimiento en el campo. El número de hojas, la altura y el diámetro del tallo no mostraron diferencias de respuesta relevantes. Sólo el número de rebrotes disminuyó al aumentar la densidad de la población, cuando se midió a los 15 meses de edad. El efecto de la fertilización se hizo evidente después de la primera cosecha, realizada a los 20 meses, debido al aumento de la competencia entre plantas, ahora más desarrolladas. Fue entonces cuando la fertilización química indujo la producción de un mayor número y vigor de los rebrotes. Sin embargo, las prácticas evaluadas 25 meses después de la siembra, no habían infl uido hasta ese momento en el número de palmitos cosechados, ni tampoco había afectado las características físicas de los sectores foliar y caulinar del palmito.

  9. Cadmium and chromium concentrations in six forage species irrigated with canal, sewage or mixed canal and sewage water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) concentrations were investigated in six different forage species, i.e., Trifolium alexandrium, Cichorium intybus, Avena sativa, Medicago polymorpha, Brassica campestris and Medicago sativa, irrigated with canal, sewage or mixed canal and sewage water. The Cd levels of the forages irrigated with different water treatments in this study were greater than the tolerance level for grazing livestock reported in the literature. Thus, the Cd levels in the six plant species found in the current study showed high potential threat for livestock consuming these forages. Similarly, high levels of Cr in the six forages were observed with sewage water treatment only. However, in the present investigation, Cr concentration of forages was below the toxic level. Therefore, there was no threat of Cr toxicity for animals being reared on these forages. (author)

  10. Para Leer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Sanz Cañibano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Jorge L. Tizón, Ramón Ciurana, M del Carmen Fernández (Comps. Libro de casos. Promoción de la salud mental desde la atención primaria. (Adela Sanz Cañibano Grupo de Expertos en Competencia Intercultural. Instrumento para la valoración de la Competencia Intercultural en la Atención en salud mental. Hacia la equidad en salud. (María Goretti Morón Nozaleda Mariano Hernández Monsalve y Pilar Nieto Degregori (Coords.. Psicoterapia y Rehabilitación de pacientes con psicosis. (Francisco Chicharro Lezcano André du Laurens. De las enfermedades melancólicas. Jourdain Guibelet. Del humor melancólico. (Iñaki Markez Julio José? Segarra Valls. Léxico psico(patológico en la obra de Carlos Castilla del Pino. (Eudoxia Gay Pamos Giorgio Nardone y Alessandro Salvini. El diálogo estratégico. (Fernando Mansilla Izquierdo Michel Foucault. Leçons sur la volonté de savoir, suivi de Le savoir d'Edipe. (Mauricio Jalón Camilo Castelo Branco. La novela de un hombre rico. (Alicia Merisi Kenzaburo Oé. Cuadernos de Hiroshima. (Mauricio Jalón Pascal Quignard. Les solidarités mystérieuses. (Beatriz A. Rubín Documentos en la red (Juan Medrano

  11. Aprendizaje interorganizacional: estudio sobre los canales de transmisión de conocimiento en clusters textiles y de indumentaria en Brasil y en Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Sohn, Ana Paula Lisboa; Vieira, Filipa Dionísio; Casarotto, Nelson; Cunha, Idaulo José

    2014-01-01

    Ante el ascenso de una sociedad del conocimiento que estimula y valoriza la formación de redes de empresas, hay un consenso entre los investigadores especializados de que son cruciales los procesos de aprendizaje colaborativo en clusters para la formación de una ventaja competitiva en la esfera individual de las empresas y en el conjunto que forma el aglomerado productivo. En este artículo se pretendió identificar y analizar los canales de aprendizaje en dos clusters textiles y...

  12. La alfabetización mediática en la televisión infantil online: programas del Canal Pakapaka

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Carrero, Jacqueline; Méndiz Rojas, Heleny

    2013-01-01

    Pakapaka es un canal destinado al público infantil ideado para que sus pequeños espectadores aprendan lúdicamente. En este artículo relatamos las razones por las que se considera un modelo de televisión infantil online. También describimos su programación, que se emite tanto por la televisión tradicional como por el medio digital. Por otra parte, nos centramos en algunos de sus programas que profundizan en el propio medio audiovisual, contribuyendo así con la alfabetización med...

  13. "Análisis de Desempeño de un Sistema MIMO-OFDM con Predicción de Canal"

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Morales, Catalina

    2013-01-01

    Las comunicaciones inalámbricas en que el canal de transmisión inalámbrico se define por efectos de dispersión por movimiento y obstáculos físicos entre transmisor y receptor, son un claro ejemplo de los retos que se enfrentan para lograr una comunicación efectiva mediante un ambiente ruidoso. La demanda de múltiples servicios de telecomunicaciones, como transmisión de voz, video y datos, ha hecho que la capacidad de transmisión y recepción de los sistemas de comunicaciones aum...

  14. Endodontic management of a mandibular first molar with six root canal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal anatomy of pulp is complex. The first mandibular molars typically have two roots, one mesial with two root canals and another distal root, which contains one or two canals. A 20-year-old female patient reported with intermittent pain and incomplete root canal treatment in left lower back region since 1-week. Refined access cavity revealed initially two canals in mesial and two canals in the distal root. With operating microscope and cone beam computerized tomography, two additional canals (L-mesio-buccal and B-mesio-lingual were identified in mesial root. One-year follow-up showed patient was asymptomatic and complete healing of periapical radiolucency.

  15. A quantitative analysis of rotary, ultrasonic and manual techniques to treat proximally flattened root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Soares Grecca

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The efficiency of rotary, manual and ultrasonic root canal instrumentation techniques was investigated in proximally flattened root canals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty human mandibular left and right central incisors, lateral incisors and premolars were used. The pulp tissue was removed and the root canals were filled with red die. Teeth were instrumented using three techniques: (i K3 and ProTaper rotary systems; (ii ultrasonic crown-down technique; and (iii progressive manual technique. Roots were bisected longitudinally in a buccolingual direction. The instrumented canal walls were digitally captured and the images obtained were analyzed using the Sigma Scan software. Canal walls were evaluated for total canal wall area versus non-instrumented area on which dye remained. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was found between the instrumentation techniques studied (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study showed that no instrumentation technique was 100% efficient to remove the dye.

  16. The spread of injectate during saphenous nerve block at the adductor canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H L; Andersen, S L; Tranum-Jensen, J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The spread of injectate during a saphenous nerve block at the adductor canal has not been clearly described. METHODS: We examined the spread of 15 ml dyed injectate during ultrasound-guided saphenous nerve blocks at the adductor canal in 15 unembalmed cadavers' lower limbs followed...... by comparative dissections of the same limbs. RESULTS: The spread of the injectates was determined by the fascial limits and the muscles surrounding the adductor canal. The anteromedial limit of the adductor canal (the roof) was found to be a continuous fascia, with a thin proximal part and a thicker distal part...... and reached 1-2 cm into the popliteal fossa. Injections superficial to the adductor canal spread over the femoral artery within the subsartorial fat compartment resembling the injections within the canal but with ultrasonographic distinct features. These injections spread only half the length of the adductor...

  17. Cálculo de las Dimensiones de una Sección de Gasto Máximo en Canales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trueba C. Samuel

    1946-08-01

    Full Text Available Cuando se trata de proyectar un canal para conducir cierta cantidad de agua, hay que excavar una cantidad de material que debe procurarse sea el menor volumen posible. Por otra parte, en ciertas condiciones de topografía y clase de suelo puede presentarse el problema de permitir una velocidad máxima de circulación que no erosione, entonces estaremos en el caso de que dada el área A de la sección, la inclinación θ de los taludes, calcular las dimensiones de aquella sección con la cual se obtiene la mayor velocidad y por lo tanto el gasto máximo.

  18. MIMO LPV state-space identification of open-flow irrigation canal systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yolanda Bolea; Nicolas Chefdor; Antoni Grau

    2012-01-01

    Canal systems are complex nonlinear, distributed parameter systems with changing parameters according to the operating point. In this paper, a linear parameter-varying (LPV) state-space canal control model is obtained by identification in a local way using a multimodel approach. This LPV identification procedure is based on subspace methods for different operating points of an irrigation canal covering the full operation range. Different subspace algorithms have been used and compared. The mo...

  19. The role of perilymph in the response of the semicircular canals to angular acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anliker, M.; Van Buskirk, W.

    1971-01-01

    A new model for the response of the semicircular canals to angular motion is postulated. This model is based on evidence that the bony canal is not compartmentalized and assumes that the ampulla wall is highly flexible. It is shown that the perilymph induces a cupula displacement far greater than that produced by the endolymph alone. The predicted dynamic behavior of the canals on the basis of this model is found to be consistent with experimental observations.

  20. Building and Testing a Statistical Shape Model of the Human Ear Canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Larsen, Rasmus; Laugesen, Søren;

    2002-01-01

    Today the design of custom in-the-ear hearing aids is based on personal experience and skills and not on a systematic description of the variation of the shape of the ear canal. In this paper it is described how a dense surface point distribution model of the human ear canal is built based...... for gender related differences in size and shape of the ear canal....