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Sample records for canal linings

  1. Function of lateral line canal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Adrian; Bleckmann, Horst

    2015-01-01

    Fish perceive water motions and pressure gradients with their lateral line. Lateral line information is used for prey detection, spatial orientation, predator avoidance, schooling behavior, intraspecific communication and station holding. The lateral line of most fishes consists of superficial neuromasts (SNs) and canal neuromasts (CNs). The distribution of SNs and CNs shows a high degree of variation among fishes. Researchers have speculated for decades about the functional significance of this diversity, often without any conclusive answers. Klein et al. (2013) examined how tubules, pore number and pore patterns affect the filter properties of lateral line canals in a marine teleost, the black prickleback (Xiphister atropurpureus). A preliminary mathematical model was formulated and biomimetic sensors were built. For the present study the mathematical model was extended to understand the major underlying principle of how canal dimensions influence the filter properties of the lateral line. Both the extended mathematical model and the sensor experiments show that the number and distribution of pores determine the spatial filter properties of the lateral line. In an environment with little hydrodynamic noise, simple and complex lateral line canals have comparable response properties. However, if exposed to highly turbulent conditions, canals with numerous widely spaced pores increase the signal to noise ratio significantly. © 2014 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Micro-Machined Flow Sensors Mimicking Lateral Line Canal Neuromasts

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrik Herzog; Siegfried Steltenkamp; Adrian Klein; Simon Tätzner; Elisabeth Schulze; Horst Bleckmann

    2015-01-01

    Fish sense water motions with their lateral line. The lateral line is a sensory system that contains up to several thousand mechanoreceptors, called neuromasts. Neuromasts occur freestanding on the skin and in subepidermal canals. We developed arrays of flow sensors based on lateral line canal neuromasts using a biomimetic approach. Each flow sensor was equipped with a PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) lamella integrated into a canal system by means of thick- and thin-film technology. Our artificia...

  3. 33 CFR 117.159 - Grant Line Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant Line Canal. 117.159 Section 117.159 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.159 Grant Line Canal. The draw of the...

  4. Lateral line canal morphology and signal to noise ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Adrian; Herzog, Hendrik; Bleckmann, Horst

    2011-04-01

    The lateral line system of fish is important for many behaviors, including spatial orientation, prey detection, shoaling, intra specific communication and entraining. The smallest sensory unit of the lateral line is the neuromast that occurs free standing on the skin and in fluid filled canals. With aid of the lateral line fish perceive minute water motions. In their natural habitat fish are not only faced with biotic water motion but also with the abiotic fluctuations caused by various inanimate sources. The detection of meaningful signals is crucial for survival, and therefore animals should be able to separate meaningful signals from noise. Fishes live in various habitats (e.g. in still water or in running water). Therefore it is not surprising that the number and distribution of neuromasts as well as canal dimension, canal shape and canal branching patterns differ among fish species. We studied how lateral line canal parameters influence the filter properties of lateral line canals. To do so we exposed artificial lateral line canals, equipped with artificial neuromasts (sensors), to the vortex street shed by a submerged cylinder and to air bubble noise. We found that certain canal parameters significantly can enhance the signal to noise ratio.

  5. Source location encoding in the fish lateral line canal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curcic-Blake, B; van Netten, SM

    2006-01-01

    The position of a hydrodynamic dipole source, as encoded in a linear array of mechano-detecting neuromasts in the fish lateral line canal, was electrophysiologically investigated. Measured excitation patterns along the lateral line were compared to theoretical predictions and were found to be in

  6. Micro-Machined Flow Sensors Mimicking Lateral Line Canal Neuromasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Herzog

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish sense water motions with their lateral line. The lateral line is a sensory system that contains up to several thousand mechanoreceptors, called neuromasts. Neuromasts occur freestanding on the skin and in subepidermal canals. We developed arrays of flow sensors based on lateral line canal neuromasts using a biomimetic approach. Each flow sensor was equipped with a PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane lamella integrated into a canal system by means of thick- and thin-film technology. Our artificial lateral line system can estimate bulk flow velocity from the spatio-temporal propagation of flow fluctuations. Based on the modular sensor design, we were able to detect flow rates in an industrial application of tap water flow metering. Our sensory system withstood water pressures of up to six bar. We used finite element modeling to study the fluid flow inside the canal system and how this flow depends on canal dimensions. In a second set of experiments, we separated the flow sensors from the main stream by means of a flexible membrane. Nevertheless, these biomimetic neuromasts were still able to sense flow fluctuations. Fluid separation is a prerequisite for flow measurements in medical and pharmaceutical applications.

  7. Mudflow utilization for construction materials of tertiary irrigation canal lining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azis, Subandiyah; Kustamar

    2017-11-01

    Mudflow in Siring Village, Sidoarjo Regency, Indonesia, has been in eruption since May 29, 2006. It still shows irregular large bursts which loaded in a sludge reservoir with capacity of 59 million m3. From 2007 until 2015, there were more than 20 studies which concluded that the mudflow could be used as a mixture of building materials. However, the studies were not detailed and needed further research. This research aims to investigate the use of mudflow as tertiary irrigation canal lining material. This research comes with several laboratory tests to obtain a mixture that is solid and water-resistant. The methods that were used are descriptive methods as follows: 1). Sampling of mudflow, to be analyzed in Material Testing Laboratory. 2). Sampling of soil at research site, to be analyzed in Soil Mechanics Laboratory 3). Mixing of materials which are consist of mudflow and other materials and doing strength test in the laboratory. 4). Installation of tertiary irrigation canal lining using materials that have been tested. 5). Observation of lining's strength inactive soil pressure-bearing and its impermeability. It is expected that the results of this research will be applied extensively throughout the tertiary irrigation canals, so mudflow can be utilized as raw materials that are environmentally friendly, which are able to help preserving the environment, also to reduce the removal of sand / rock in the river, which has been used for lining materials, that benefits in preventing damage to the river ecosystem.

  8. Heterochrony, modularity, and the functional evolution of the mechanosensory lateral line canal system of fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Nathan C; Webb, Jacqueline F

    2014-01-01

    The canals of the mechanosensory lateral line system are components of the dermatocranium, and demonstrate phenotypic variation in bony fishes. Widened lateral line canals evolved convergently in a limited number of families of teleost fishes and it had been hypothesized that they evolved from narrow canals via heterochrony and explore modularity in the lateral line system. Two species of cichlids with different canal phenotypes were used to test a hypothesis of heterochrony. Histological material prepared from ontogenetic series of Aulonocara stuartgranti (widened canals) and Tramitichromis sp. (narrow canals) was analyzed using ANCOVA to determine rates of increase in canal diameter and neuromast size (length, width) and to compare the timing of onset of critical stages in canal morphogenesis (enclosure, ossification). A faster rate of increase in canal diameter and neuromast width (but not length), and a delay in onset of canal morphogenesis were found in Aulonocara relative to Tramitichromis. However, rates of increase in canal diameter and neuromast size among canals, among canal portions and among canals segments reveal similar trends within both species. The evolution of widened lateral line canals is the result of dissociated heterochrony - acceleration in the rate of increase of both canal diameter and neuromast size, and delay in the onset of canal morphogenesis, in Aulonocara (widened canals) relative to Tramitichromis (narrow canals). Common rates of increase in canal diameter and neuromast size among canal portions in different dermatocranial bones and among canal segments reflect the absence of local heterochronies, and suggest modular integration among canals in each species. Thus, canal and neuromast morphology are more strongly influenced by their identities as features of the lateral line system than by the attributes of the dermatocranial bones in which the canals are found. Rate heterochrony manifested during the larval stage ensures that the

  9. Development of the lateral line canal system through a bone remodeling process in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Hironori; Iwasaki, Miki; Kawakami, Koichi

    2014-08-01

    The lateral line system of teleost fish is composed of mechanosensory receptors (neuromasts), comprising superficial receptors and others embedded in canals running under the skin. Canal diameter and size of the canal neuromasts are correlated with increasing body size, thus providing a very simple system to investigate mechanisms underlying the coordination between organ growth and body size. Here, we examine the development of the trunk lateral line canal system in zebrafish. We demonstrated that trunk canals originate from scales through a bone remodeling process, which we suggest is essential for the normal growth of canals and canal neuromasts. Moreover, we found that lateral line cells are required for the formation of canals, suggesting the existence of mutual interactions between the sensory system and surrounding connective tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydrodynamic detection by cupulae in a lateral line canal: functional relations between physics and physiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Netten, Sietse M

    2006-01-01

    In the present review, signal-processing capabilities of the canal lateral line organ imposed by its peripheral architecture are quantified in terms of a limited set of measurable physical parameters. It is demonstrated that cupulae in the lateral line canal organ can only partly be described as

  11. The functional significance of lateral line canal morphology on the trunk of the marine teleost Xiphister atropurpureus (Stichaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Adrian; Münz, Heinrich; Bleckmann, Horst

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the filter properties of the highly branched trunk lateral lines of the stichaeid Xiphister atropurpureus and compared them to the filter properties of simple lateral line canals. For this purpose artificial canals were constructed, some of which were fitted with artificial neuromasts. In still water, the response of a simple canal versus two types of Xiphister-like canals to a vibrating sphere stimulus were similar, as was the decrease in the responses as a function of sphere distance. Also comparable was the mechanical coupling between neighboring parts of the main canal. However, compared to the simple canal, the Xiphister-like canals showed a lower spatial resolution. Equipping artificial lateral line canals with artificial neuromasts revealed that Xiphister-like canals, i.e., lateral lines canals with tubuli that contained widely spaced pores, improve the signal-to-noise ratio in a highly turbulent environment. Even though a reduced spatial resolution is the price for this improvement, Xiphister may compensate for this compromise by having four instead of the usual single trunk lateral line canal. We suggest that lateral line canals with tubuli that contain widely spaced pores and multiple lateral line canals on each body side are an adaptation to a highly turbulent aquatic environment.

  12. Morphology and ontogeny of multiple lateral-line canals in the rock prickleback, Xiphister mucosus (Cottiformes: Zoarcoidei: Stichaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clardy, Todd R; Hilton, Eric J; Vogelbein, Wolfgang K

    2015-10-01

    The structure and ontogeny of lateral-line canals in the Rock Prickleback, Xiphister mucosus, were studied using cleared-and-stained specimens, and the distribution and morphology of neuromasts within lateral-line canals were examined using histology. X. mucosus has seven cephalic canals in a pattern that, aside from four branches of the infraorbital canals, is similar to that of most teleostean fishes. Unlike most other teleosts, however, X. mucosus features multiple trunk lateral-line canals. These include a short median posterior extension of the supratemporal canal and three paired, branching canals located on the dorsolateral, mediolateral, and ventrolateral surfaces. The ventrolateral canal (VLC) includes a loop across the ventral surface of the abdomen. All trunk canals, as well as the branches of the infraorbitals, are supported by small, dermal, ring-like ossifications that develop independently from scales. Trunk canals develop asynchronously with the mediodorsal and dorsolateral canals (DLC) developing earliest, followed by the VLC, and, finally, by the mediolateral canal (MLC). Only the mediodorsal and DLC connect to the cephalic sensory canals. Fractal analysis shows that the complexity of the trunk lateral-line canals stabilizes when all trunk canals develop and begin to branch. Histological sections show that neuromasts are present in all cephalic canals and in the DLC and MLC of the trunk. However, no neuromasts were identified in the VLC or its abdominal loop. The VLC cannot, therefore, directly function as a part of the mechanosensory system in X. mucosus. The evolution and functional role of multiple lateral-line canals are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Morphology of lateral line canals in Neotropical freshwater stingrays (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae from Negro River, Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Shibuya

    Full Text Available The relationship between the distribution of the lateral line canals and their functionality has not been well examined in elasmobranchs, especially among Neotropical freshwater stingrays of the family Potamotrygonidae. The spatial distribution of the canals and their tubules and the quantification of the neuromasts were analyzed in preserved specimens of Potamotrygon motoro, P. orbignyi, Potamotrygon sp. "cururu", and Paratrygon aiereba from the middle Negro River, Amazonas, Brazil. The hyomandibular, infraorbital, posterior lateral line, mandibular, nasal and supraorbital canals were characterized and their pores and neuromasts quantified. The ventral canals are known to facilitate the accurate localization of prey items under the body, and our results indicate that the dorsal canals may be employed in identifying the presence of predators or potential prey positioned above the stingray's body. The presence of non-pored canals in the ventral region may be compensated by the high concentration of neuromasts found in the same area, which possibly allow the accurate detection of mechanical stimuli. The concentration of non-pored canals near the mouth indicates their importance in locating and capturing prey buried in the bottom substrate, possibly aided by the presence of vesicles of Savi.

  14. Development of a Flexible Artificial Lateral Line Canal System for Hydrodynamic Pressure Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yonggang; Ma, Zhiqiang; Fu, Jianchao; Zhang, Deyuan

    2017-05-26

    Surface mounted 'smart skin' can enhance the situational and environmental awareness of marine vehicles, which requires flexible, reliable, and light-weight hydrodynamic pressure sensors. Inspired by the lateral line canal system in fish, we developed an artificial lateral line (ALL) canal system by integrating cantilevered flow-sensing elements in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) canal. Polypropylene and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) layers were laminated together to form the cantilevered flow-sensing elements. Both the ALL canal system and its superficial counterpart were characterized using a dipole vibration source. Experimental results showed that the peak frequencies of both the canal and superficial sensors were approximately 110 Hz, which was estimated to be the resonance frequency of the cantilevered flow-sensing element. The proposed ALL canal system demonstrated high-pass filtering capabilities to attenuate low-frequency stimulus and a pressure gradient detection limit of approximately 11 Pa/m at a frequency of 115 ± 1 Hz. Because of its structural flexibility and noise immunity, the proposed ALL canal system shows significant potential for underwater robotics applications.

  15. Impact of lining material on chemical and microbial irrigation water quality of Nubaria canal, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Azzam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effect of lining material (cement of Nubaria canal (Beheira Governorate, Egypt on its water quality. Methods: Trace metal ions (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd and bacterial indictors for water samples collected from two types of stations (lined and unlined during successive four seasons were analyzed. The effect of lining on bacterial indicators; total viable bacterial count at 22 and 37 °C, total coliform, fecal coliform and fecal streptococci and presence of some bacterial species were studied. Results: Bacterial indicators and trace metals showed seasonal variations, where the highest values were recorded during summer. A significant reduction for Cu (P < 0.05, Zn (P < 0.01 and Cd (P < 0.001 was recorded in lined stations compared to those of unlined ones. Bacterial indicators recorded the lowest counts in lined stations during all seasons, while there was a significant reduction (P < 0.05 between total coliform values (1.70 ± 0.50 in lined stations and unlined ones (3.57 ± 1.01 during summer. Escherichia coli bacteria were predominant in water samples of Nubaria canal, where it recorded 34.4% of bacterial isolates. Conclusions: Lined material plays a role for reducing the bacterial growth and metals concentration, therefore the lining of canal helps in preventing the discharge of sewage pollution into canal.

  16. AFFERENT RESPONSE OF A HEAD CANAL NEUROMAST OF THE RUFF (ACERINA-CERNUA) LATERAL LINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WUBBELS, RJ

    1. The fourth neuromast of the supra-orbital canal of the ruff lateral line is innervated by 300-400 fibres. 2. Afferent activity of 46 fibres was investigated as a function of stimulus amplitude and of stimulus frequency. 3. The dynamic range of the fibres exceeded 30 dB. 4. The gain with respect

  17. Comparative squamation of the lateral line canal pores in sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, R W; Motta, P J; Rohr, J R

    2014-05-01

    The current study collected the first quantitative data on lateral line pore squamation patterns in sharks and assessed whether divergent squamation patterns are similar to experimental models that cause reduction in boundary layer turbulence. In addition, the hypothesis that divergent orientation angles are exclusively found in fast-swimming shark species was tested. The posterior lateral line and supraorbital lateral line pore squamation of the fast-swimming pelagic shortfin mako shark Isurus oxyrinchus and the slow-swimming epi-benthic spiny dogfish shark Squalus acanthias was examined. Pore scale morphology and pore coverage were qualitatively analysed and compared. In addition, pore squamation orientation patterns were quantified for four regions along the posterior lateral line and compared for both species. Isurus oxyrinchus possessed consistent pore scale coverage among sampled regions and had a divergent squamation pattern with multiple scale rows directed dorsally and ventrally away from the anterior margin of the pore with an average divergent angle of 13° for the first row of scales. Squalus acanthias possessed variable amounts of scale coverage among the sampled regions and had a divergent squamation pattern with multiple scale rows directed ventrally away from the anterior margin of the pore with an average angle of 19° for the first row of scales. Overall, the squamation pattern measured in I. oxyrinchus fell within the parameters used in the fluid flow analysis, which suggests that this pattern may reduce boundary layer turbulence and affect lateral line sensitivity. The exclusively ventral oriented scale pattern seen in S. acanthias possessed a high degree of divergence but the pattern did not match that of the fluid flow models. Given current knowledge, it is unclear how this would affect boundary layer flow. By studying the relationship between squamation patterns and the lateral line, new insights are provided into sensory biology that warrant

  18. Determination of object position, vortex shedding frequency and flow velocity using artificial lateral line canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Adrian; Bleckmann, Horst

    2011-01-01

    The lateral line system of fish consists of superficial neuromasts, and neuromasts embedded in lateral line canals. Lateral line neuromasts allow fish to sense both minute water motions and pressure gradients, thereby enabling them to detect predators and prey or to recognize and discriminate stationary objects while passing them. With the aid of the lateral line, fish can also sense vortices caused by an upstream object or by undulatory swimming movements of fish. We show here that artificial lateral line canals equipped with optical flow sensors can be used to detect the water motions generated by a stationary vibrating sphere, the vortices caused by an upstream cylinder or the water (air) movements caused by a passing object. The hydrodynamic information retrieved from optical flow sensors can be used to calculate bulk flow velocity and thus the size of the cylinder that shed the vortices. Even a bilateral sensor platform equipped with only one artificial lateral line canal on each side is sufficient to determine the position of an upstream cylinder.

  19. Post-embryonic development of canal and superficial neuromasts and the generation of two cranial lateral line phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Emily A; Bird, Nathan C; Webb, Jacqueline F

    2016-10-01

    The relatively simple structural organization of the cranial lateral line system of bony fishes provides a valuable context in which to explore the ways in which variation in post-embryonic development results in functionally distinct phenotypes, thus providing a link between development, evolution, and behavior. Vital fluorescent staining, histology, and scanning electron microscopy were used to describe the distribution, morphology, and ontogeny of the canal and superficial neuromasts on the head of two Lake Malawi cichlids with contrasting lateral line canal phenotypes (Tramitichromis sp. [narrow-simple, well-ossified canals with small pores] and Aulonocara stuartgranti [widened, more weakly ossified canals with large pores]). This work showed that: 1) the patterning (number, distribution) of canal neuromasts, and the process of canal morphogenesis typical of bony fishes was the same in the two species, 2) two sub-populations of neuromasts (presumptive canal neuromasts and superficial neuromasts) are already distinguishable in small larvae and demonstrate distinctive ontogenetic trajectories in both species, 3) canal neuromasts differ with respect to ontogenetic trends in size and proportions between canals and between species, 4) the size, shape, configuration, physiological orientation, and overall rate of proliferation varies among the nine series of superficial neuromasts, which are found in both species, and 5) in Aulonocara, in particular, a consistent number of canal neuromasts accompanied by variability in the formation of canal pores during canal morphogenesis demonstrates independence of early and late phases of lateral line development. This work provides a new perspective on the contributions of post-embryonic phases of lateral line development and to the generation of distinct phenotypes in the lateral line system of bony fishes. J. Morphol. 277:1273-1291, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Fusarium solani fungal infection of the lateral line canal system in captive scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, G L; Brock, J A; Kaiser, S

    1995-10-01

    Two of five scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) captured May 1987 in Hawaii (USA) developed granulomatous exudative mycotic dermatitis localized in the lateral line canal system. The lesion initially was noted in the cephalic canals, but over a period of months extended into the lateral canal. Fusarium solani and Vibrio spp. were isolated from the canal exudate of both sharks. Bacterial colonies were not observed in the canal walls or surrounding tissues. Fusarium solani infection resulted in a chronic physical and behavioral deterioration of the two sharks; one shark was euthanized in September 1988 and the other in July 1989. This is the first report of Fusarium solani infection in the lateral line canal system and the third account in hammerhead sharks.

  1. Identification of dental root canals and their medial line from micro-CT and cone-beam CT records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyó, Balázs

    2012-10-29

    Shape of the dental root canal is highly patient specific. Automated identification methods of the medial line of dental root canals and the reproduction of their 3D shape can be beneficial for planning endodontic interventions as severely curved root canals or multi-rooted teeth may pose treatment challenges. Accurate shape information of the root canals may also be used by manufacturers of endodontic instruments in order to make more efficient clinical tools. Novel image processing procedures dedicated to the automated detection of the medial axis of the root canal from dental micro-CT and cone-beam CT records are developed. For micro-CT, the 3D model of the root canal is built up from several hundred parallel cross sections, using image enhancement, histogram based fuzzy c-means clustering, center point detection in the segmented slice, three dimensional inner surface reconstruction, and potential field driven curve skeleton extraction in three dimensions. Cone-beam CT records are processed with image enhancement filters and fuzzy chain based regional segmentation, followed by the reconstruction of the root canal surface and detecting its skeleton via a mesh contraction algorithm. The proposed medial line identification and root canal detection algorithms are validated on clinical data sets. 25 micro-CT and 36 cone-beam-CT records are used in the validation procedure. The overall success rate of the automatic dental root canal identification was about 92% in both procedures. The algorithms proved to be accurate enough for endodontic therapy planning. Accurate medial line identification and shape detection algorithms of dental root canal have been developed. Different procedures are defined for micro-CT and cone-beam CT records. The automated execution of the subsequent processing steps allows easy application of the algorithms in the dental care. The output data of the image processing procedures is suitable for mathematical modeling of the central line. The

  2. Standardized method for the measurement of Grabb's line and clival-canal angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jonathan E; Bookland, Markus; Moote, Douglas; Cebulla, Catherine

    2017-10-01

    OBJECTIVE Grabb's line-the perpendicular distance from the basion-C2 line (pB-C2)-is a widely used radiographic measurement with significant clinical implications in patients with a complex Chiari malformation. Rigorous demonstration of the reproducibility of this measurement has not previously been reported. The authors report a standardized measurement technique with excellent inter- and intrarater reliability on T1-weighted sagittal MRI. METHODS The authors developed a standardized measurement technique that included specifications of midline slice selection, landmark and reference line definitions, and measurement technique on T1-weighted sagittal images. Twenty MR images were reviewed by 2 pediatric neurosurgeons, 1 pediatric radiologist, and 1 undergraduate student. Measurements were performed using the technique specified on 2 separate occasions. Intrarater and interrater reliabilities were calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient. RESULTS A combined interrater reliability of 0.879 was achieved for the pB-C2, and 0.916 for the clival-canal angle, another measure of interest in patients with complex Chiari malformations. Intrarater reliability for these measurements exceeded 0.858 for all 4 reviewers. CONCLUSIONS Grabb's line-the pB-C2-can be measured with excellent reliability using a standardized measurement protocol. Individual clinicians and collaborative databases should consider using validated measurement techniques to guide clinical decision making in patients with craniocervical junction pathology.

  3. Temperature dependency of cupular mechanics and hair cell frequency selectivity in the fish canal lateral line organ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga-Post, JEC; van Netten, SM

    2000-01-01

    The mechanical frequency selectivity of the cupula located in the supraorbital lateral line canal and the frequency selectivity of the hair cells driven by the cupula were measured simultaneously in vivo. Laser interferometry was used to measure cupular mechanics and extracellular receptor

  4. Field application of self-healing concrete with natural fibres as linings for irrigation canals in Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierra Beltran, M.G.; Jonkers, H.M.; Mors, R.M.; Mera-Ortiz, W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the first field application of self-healing concrete with alkaliphilic spore-forming bacteria and reinforced with natural fibres. The application took place in the highlands in Ecuador in July 2014. The concrete was cast as linings for an irrigation canal that transports water

  5. canal24

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Canal system center lines in the Central Valley of California and adjacent areas captured from 1:24,000-scale USGS topographic maps. Updates and modifications made...

  6. Geotechnical Investigation : Farmers High Line Canal realignment at Two Ponds Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — As requested by the Farmers High Line (FHL) Board of Director's, Tetra Tech RMC has prepared aGeo technical Investigation Report for the proposed realignment of the...

  7. Canal Lines - USACE IENC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These inland electronic Navigational charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of Navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be...

  8. Um estudo sobre os aspectos que contribuem para a adoção do canal on-line para compra de livros, CDs e DVDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Gouvêa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste estudo foi identificar os fatores relevantes na adoção do canal on-line para a realização de compras, tendo como principais referências os modelos Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT, de Venkatesh et al. (2003, de Heijden, Verhagen e Creemers (2003 e de Bramall, Schoefer e McKechnie (2004. Além da revisão da literatura dos assuntos pertinentes, foi realizada uma pesquisa de campo descritiva, de natureza quantitativa com uma amostra de 172 pessoas residentes na cidade de São Paulo, pertencentes às classes socioeconômicas A, B e C (critério Brasil, compradores de livros, CDs ou DVDs no canal off-line. Os dados coletados foram analisados com o uso de técnicas estatísticas nos contextos uni, bi e multivariado. Aplicou-se a técnica de modelagem de equações estruturais (MEE ou Structural Equation Modeling - SEM para serem identificadas relações de dependência entre construtos e a contribuição de cada um deles na estimação das intenções de adoção da compra pela Internet. Entre os principais resultados encontrados, a atitude em relação ao uso da tecnologia, a confiança e a expectativa de desempenho figuraram como os aspectos mais relevantes para uma possível adoção do canal on-line.

  9. Cytotoxicity and proliferative effects of Iodoform-containing root canal-filling material on RAW 264.7 macrophage and RKO epithelial cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petel, Roy; Moskovitz, Moti; Tickotsky, Nili; Halabi, Amal; Goldstein, Judith; Houri-Haddad, Yael

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of the Iodoform-containing root canal filling material on the viability of cultured macrophages and epithelial cells, and on cytokine secretion. The effect of Endoflas F.S. on the proliferation of a RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line and on a RKO epithelial cell line, and on the production of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) from macrophages was examined. Cell vitality was evaluated using a colourimetric XTT (sodium 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-5-[(phenylamino)-carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium inner salt) assay. The presence of cytokines was determined by two-site enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Direct exposure of Endoflas F.S. and its media, up to a dilution of 1/8, decreased the viability of macrophages and epithelial cells by ∼70% compared to control media (Pmaterial. Direct and indirect exposure to high concentrations of iodoform-containing root canal filling material showed a cytotoxic effect on macrophages and epithelial cells, while low concentrations induced cell proliferation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Tomography of the pterygoid canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazantsev, S V; Kalenov, V E; Russkikh, N A

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an X-ray scheme for calculating the depth of pterygoid canals required for accurate tomography. The scheme includes three lines: line A corresponds to the physiological horizontal line, line B is drawn, normally to line A through the tip of the nose, and line C is the perpendicular from line B to the upper third of the posterior wall of the pterygopalatine fossa. The length of line B plus 1 cm (thickness of external nose soft tissues) is the value to be determined. Twenty-six patients underwent X-ray examinations by an EDK-750B unit (70 kV, 150 mA, 1.65 s). In all cases 1-3 images were sufficient to obtain good visualization of the pterygoid canals.

  11. Relationship between the Mental Foramen, Mandibular Canal, and the Surgical Access Line of the Mandibular Posterior Teeth: A Cone-beam Computed Tomographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuyou; Chen, Kaifeng; Wang, Shuang; Tiwari, Sanjay Kumar; Ye, Ling; Peng, Li

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the location of the mental foramen (MF) and the mandibular canal (MC) and the surgical access line (SAL) of the mandibular posterior teeth using cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) scans. CBCT scans of 204 subjects ranging in age from 18-76 years old were evaluated. The vertical and horizontal distances from the MF to the SAL of the mandibular premolars and first molars and the vertical distance from the MC to the SAL of the second premolars and first molars were measured via CBCT scans. The average vertical distance between the MF and the SALs showed significant increases sequentially from the first premolars to the distal roots of the first molars, and the shortest average distance of 2.74 mm was obtained for the first premolars. The SALs of the second premolars were the closest to the MF in the horizontal direction with an average distance of 1.5 mm. In 19.9% of the cases, the vertical and horizontal distances between the MF and the SALs of the second premolars were less than 2 mm. In addition, the MF was located superior to the root apices in 6.62% of the cases. The majority of the SALs were located at a vertical distance from the MC that was more than 2 mm. Men and women exhibited significant differences in both the horizontal distance from the MF to the SALs of the first premolars and the vertical distance from the MC to the SALs of the second premolars. To improve the success of endodontic microsurgery, adequate knowledge of the anatomic relationships between the location of the MF and MC and the SAL of the mandibular posterior teeth is indispensable to surgeons. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Drag force acting on a neuromast in the fish lateral line trunk canal. I. Numerical modelling of external-internal flow coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Charlotte; Humphrey, Joseph A C

    2009-07-06

    Fishes use a complex, multi-branched, mechanoreceptive organ called the lateral line to detect the motion of water in their immediate surroundings. This study is concerned with a subset of that organ referred to as the lateral line trunk canal (LLTC). The LLTC consists of a long tube no more than a few millimetres in diameter embedded immediately under the skin of the fish on each side of its body. In most fishes, pore-like openings are regularly distributed along the LLTC, and a minute sensor enveloped in a gelatinous cupula, referred to as a neuromast, is located between each pair of pores. Drag forces resulting from fluid motions induced inside the LLTC by pressure fluctuations in the external flow stimulate the neuromasts. This study, Part I of a two-part sequence, investigates the motion-sensing characteristics of the LLTC and how it may be used by fishes to detect wakes. To this end, an idealized geometrical/dynamical situation is examined that retains the essential problem physics. A two-level numerical model is developed that couples the vortical flow outside the LLTC to the flow stimulating the neuromasts within it. First, using a Navier-Stokes solver, we calculate the unsteady flow past an elongated rectangular prism and a fish downstream of it, with both objects moving at the same speed. By construction, the prism generates a clean, periodic vortex street in its wake. Then, also using the Navier-Stokes solver, the pressure field associated with this external flow is used to calculate the unsteady flow inside the LLTC of the fish, which creates the drag forces acting on the neuromast cupula. Although idealized, this external-internal coupled flow model allows an investigation of the filtering properties and performance characteristics of the LLTC for a range of frequencies of biological interest. The results obtained here and in Part II show that the LLTC acts as a low-pass filter, preferentially damping high-frequency pressure gradient oscillations, and

  13. Ildr1b is essential for semicircular canal development, migration of the posterior lateral line primordium and hearing ability in zebrafish: implications for a role in the recessive hearing impairment DFNB42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Qing; Zhang, Junyu; Feng, Ruizhi; Wang, Xu; Li, Qiaoli; Zhao, Xinzhi; Xing, Qinghe; Chen, Weiyu; Du, Jiulin; Sun, Shan; Chai, Renjie; Liu, Dong; Jin, Li; He, Lin; Li, Huawei; Wang, Lei

    2014-12-01

    Immunoglobulin-like domain containing receptor 1 (ILDR1) is a poorly characterized gene that was first identified in lymphoma cells. Recently, ILDR1 has been found to be responsible for autosomal recessive hearing impairment DFNB42. Patients with ILDR1 mutations cause bilateral non-progressive moderate-to-profound sensorineural hearing impairment. However, the etiology and mechanism of ILDR1-related hearing loss remains to be elucidated. In order to uncover the pathology of DFNB42 deafness, we used the morpholino injection technique to establish an ildr1b-morphant zebrafish model. Ildr1b-morphant zebrafish displayed defective hearing and imbalanced swimming, and developmental delays were seen in the semicircular canals of the inner ear. The gene expression profile and real-time PCR revealed down-regulation of atp1b2b (encoding Na(+)/K(+) transporting, beta 2b polypeptide) in ildr1b-morphant zebrafish. We found that injection of atp1b2b mRNA into ildr1b-knockdown zebrafish could rescue the phenotype of developmental delay of the semicircular canals. Moreover, ildr1b-morphant zebrafish had reduced numbers of lateral line neuromasts due to the disruption of lateral line primordium migration. In situ hybridization showed the involvement of attenuated FGF signaling and the chemokine receptor 4b (cxcr4b) and chemokine receptor 7b (cxcr7b) in posterior lateral line primordium of ildr1b-morphant zebrafish. We concluded that Ildr1b is crucial for the development of the inner ear and the lateral line system. This study provides the first evidence for the mechanism of Ildr1b on hearing in vivo and sheds light on the pathology of DFNB42. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Atrioventricular Canal Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tract infections. Atrioventricular canal defect can cause recurrent bouts of lung infections. Heart failure. Untreated, atrioventricular canal ... Leaky heart valves Narrowing of the heart valves Abnormal heart rhythm Breathing difficulties associated with lung damage ...

  15. Is the Lingual Fracture Line Influenced by the Mandibular Canal or the Mylohyoid Groove During a Bilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy? A Human Cadaveric Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, Gertjan; Gooris, Peter J. J.; Bergsma, Eelco J.; Frank, Michael H.; van Gemert, Jan T. M.; van Merkesteyn, J. P. Richard

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although the bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) is a routinely performed procedure, exact control of the lingual fracture line remains problematic. The purpose of this study was to determine the various lingual splitting patterns in cadaveric human mandibles after a BSSO and the

  16. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  17. Design of canals

    CERN Document Server

    Swamee, P K

    2015-01-01

    The book presents firsthand material from the authors on design of hydraulic canals. The book discusses elements of design based on principles of hydraulic flow through canals. It covers optimization of design based on usage requirements and economic constraints. The book includes explicit design equations and design procedures along with design examples for varied cases. With its comprehensive coverage of the principles of hydraulic canal design, this book will prove useful to students, researchers, and practicing engineers. End-of-chapter pedagogical elements make it ideal for use in graduate courses on hydraulic structures offered by most civil engineering departments across the world.

  18. Water Environment Evolution along the China Grand Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, F.; Wu, Y. X.; Yang, B. F.; Li, X. J.

    2014-03-01

    The China Grand Canal is one of the earliest canals in the world, having lasted for nearly 3000 years. Even its section canals have a rich history, such as the North-South Grand Canal that was established during the Sui Dynasty, whereas the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal was excavated during the Yuan Dynasty and the east line of the South-to-North Water Diversion. As one of the longest in the world, the China Grand Canal's total length is over 3500 kilometers. This length includes the navigable, unnavigable, and underground sections. Making the best use of situations and according to local conditions, the Chinese people harmoniously constructed the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal with nature. Tens of millions of workers took nearly 3000 years to complete the great shipping system. Navigable sections still exist for up to 900 kilometers and the volume of freight traffic is approximately 300 million tons. The canal remains the main logistical channel of the North-to-South Coal Transportation, South-to-North Water Diversion, and resources circulation. To date, China is promoting the success of heritage application. Part of these efforts is the declaration of the China Grand Canal as a World Cultural Heritage by 2014. In addition, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer project is planned to be navigable by 2016. The ancient Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal will usher in the new ecological civilization and cultural revival along the canal. This paper presents technical methods of water environment evolution research on the river system, river, and water quality along the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal through the integration of historical literature and modern remote sensing image data. The study carried out water environment investigation and analysis along the Beijing-Hangzhou canal by using ETM, SPOT image data, and GPS measurement data. Spatial and temporal evolution characteristics and regulations of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal regional water environment in the span of 3000

  19. Bilateral bifid mandibular canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Sheikhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the normal interesting variations that we may encounter in the mandible is bifid mandibular canal. This condition can lead to difficulties when performing mandibular anesthesia or during extraction of lower third molar, placement of implants, and surgery in the mandible. Therefore diagnosis of this variation is sometimes very important and necessary.

  20. CT findings of the osteoma of the external auditory canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ha Young; Song, Chang Joon; Yoon, Chung Dae; Park, Mi Hyun; Shin, Byung Seok [Chungnam National University, School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-15

    We wanted to report the CT image findings of the osteoma of the external auditory canal. Temporal bone CT scanning was performed on eight patients (4 males and 4 females aged between 8 and 41 years) with pathologically proven osteoma of the external auditory canal after operation, and the findings of the CT scanning were retrospectively reviewed. Not only did we analyze the size, shape, distribution and location of the osteomas, we also analyzed the relationship between the lesion and the tympanosqumaous or tympanomastoid suture line, and the changes seen on the CT scan images for the patients who were able to undergo follow-up. All the lesions of the osteoma of the external auditory canal were unilateral, solitary, pedunculated bony masses. In five patients, the osteomas occurred on the left side and for the other three patients, the osteomas occurred on the right side. The average size of the osteoma was 0.6 cm with the smallest being 0.5 cm and the largest being 1.2 cm. Each of the lesions was located at the osteochondral junction in the terminal part of the osseous external ear canal. The stalk of the osteoma of the external auditory canal was found to have occurred in the anteroinferior wall in five cases (63%), in the anterosuperior wall (the tympanosqumaous suture line) in two cases (25%), and in the anterior wall in one case. The osteoma of the external auditory canal was a compact form in five cases and it was a cancellous form in three cases. One case of the cancellous form was changed into a compact form 35 months later due to the advanced ossification. Osteoma of the external auditory canal developed in a unilateral and solitary fashion. The characteristic image findings show that it is attached to the external auditory canal by its stalk. Unlike our common knowledge about its occurrence, osteoma mostly occurred in the tympanic wall, and this is regardless of the tympanosquamous or tympanomastoid suture line.

  1. Managing curved canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iram Ansari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilaceration is the result of a developmental anomaly in which there has been an abrupt change in the axial inclination between the crown and the root of a tooth. Dilaceration can be seen in both the permanent and deciduous dentitions, and is more commonly found in posterior teeth and in maxilla. Periapical radiographs are the most appropriate way to diagnose the presence of root dilacerations. The controlled regularly tapered preparation of the curved canals is the ultimate challenge in endodontics. Careful and meticulous technique will yield a safe and sufficient enlargement of the curved canals. This article gives a review of the literature and three interesting case reports of root dilacerations.

  2. Identification of possible factors impacting dental students' ability to locate MB2 canals in maxillary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ellen; Chehroudi, Babak; Coil, Jeffrey M

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the effect of the access size and straight-line path of access on third-year dental students' ability to locate a second mesiobuccal (MB2) canal in maxillary first and second molars. One hundred and six third-year dental students at one Faculty of Dentistry performed simulated root canal treatment with the aid of 2x magnification loupes on extracted teeth. A postgraduate endodontic student subsequently made a reasonable search for an untreated MB2 canal with the aid of a dental operating microscope. The mesiobuccal roots were then sectioned horizontally for determination of the canal configuration. The dental students were able to treat an MB2 canal in 15.8 percent of the teeth, but this was not associated with satisfactory access criteria. The postgraduate endodontic student identified an MB2 canal in 54.7 percent of the remaining tooth samples excluding those where the MB2 canal was found by the dental students; this represented 94.3 percent of those teeth confirmed by horizontal sectioning of the root to have an MB2 canal. The postgraduate student troughed, on average, 2.6 mm before negotiating the MB2 canal. As satisfactory access criteria and straight-line path of access did not correlate with the dental students' ability to find a second mesiobuccal canal, this result has important implications for educational goals with respect to endodontic treatment of maxillary molar teeth.

  3. Canal plane dynamic visual acuity in superior canal dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janky, Kristen L; Zuniga, M Geraldine; Ward, Bryan; Carey, John P; Schubert, Michael C

    2014-06-01

    1) To characterize normal, horizontal active dynamic visual acuity (DVA) and passive canal plane head thrust DVA (htDVA) across ages to establish appropriate control data and 2) to determine whether horizontal active DVA and passive canal plane htDVA are significantly different in individuals with superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) before and after surgical repair in the acute (within 10 d) and nonacute stage (>6 wk). Prospective study. Tertiary referral center Patients diagnosed with SCDS (n = 32) and healthy control subjects (n = 51). Surgical canal plugging on a subset of patients. Static visual acuity (SVA), active horizontal DVA, and canal plane htDVA. Visual acuity (SVA, active DVA, and htDVA) declines with age. In SCDS, SVA and active DVA are not significantly affected in individuals after surgical canal plugging; however, htDVA in the plane of the affected canal is significantly worse after canal plugging. Age-based normative data are necessary for DVA testing. In SCDS, htDVA in the plane of the affected canal is normal before surgery but permanently reduced afterward.

  4. Distributed control at Love canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, G.; Rider, G.J.; Sadowski, B.; Moore, M.

    1994-09-01

    Love Canal is known worldwide as the site of one of the worst non-nuclear environmental disasters in modern history. For 12 years, a Niagara Falls, New York chemical company used the canal bed as a chemical dump. This article discusses the computerized control of equipment used to remove the toxic materials from the ground under Love Canal, and how the minimization of maintenance is reducing maintenance costs and increasing operator safety.

  5. Analysis of sedimentation of canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agunwamba, J.C.,

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The dredged canals in the Niger Delta coastal flood plain are being threatened by siltation. This study is limited to those canals in Rivers State of Nigeria, which are under the influence of tidal waves. A total of eight canals were considered with four each from Ekulama and Cawthorne Channel. Different approaches were used to carry out this study, which includes field reconnaissance survey, hydrographic survey, soil sample analysis and collection of all available data and information. The typical bed materials size (D50 is approximately 0.01mm; which gives a settling velocity of 0.09mm/sec using stroke’s law. Hydrographic survey of the canals from 1992 to 1996 revealed an average siltation rate of 2.35m/yr. A regression equation was also derived which relates the cost of dredging to canal area, rate of siltation and average aggregation. A plot of canal centre profile; entrance, middle and end cross sections showing sediment distribution along the canal profile, shows that majority of the particles that form the sediment enter the canal from the rivers. The sedimentation is caused by the reduction in water current, which has average value of 0.0145m/sec. The bathyorographical check on the canals revealed that the sum of the two exterior angles of the canal with the river at the point of connection has to lie within 1800 + 50 for an effective flow that will minimize settlement of particles. In addition, the canals should be constructed to start and terminate on a moving water body, to avoid dead ends. A regression equation was determined which relates the cost of dredging to canal area, rate of siltation and average aggradations.

  6. Comparative development and evolution of two lateral line phenotypes in lake Malawi cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jacqueline F; Bird, Nathan C; Carter, Lauren; Dickson, Juleen

    2014-06-01

    A comparison of the pattern and timing of development of cranial lateral line canals and canal neuromasts in three species of Lake Malawi cichlids, Labeotropheus fuelleborni and Metriaclima zebra (narrow lateral line canals), and Aulonocara baenschi (widened lateral line canals) was used to test the hypothesis that the evolution of widened canals (thought to be an adaptive phenotype in the lateral line system) from narrow canals is the result of heterochrony. Using histological analysis and scanning electron microscopy, this study has provided the first detailed and quantitative description of the development of widened lateral line canals in a teleost, and has demonstrated that: 1) canal neuromast number and the pattern of canal morphogenesis are conserved among species with different adult canal phenotypes, 2) heterochrony ("dissociated heterochrony" in particular) can explain the evolution of widened canals and variation in morphology between canals within a species with respect to canal diameter and neuromast size, and 3) the morphology of the lateral line canals and the dermal bones in which they are found (e.g., the mandibular canal the dentary and anguloarticular bones of the mandible) can evolve independently of each other, thus requiring the addition of another level of complexity to discussions of modularity and integration in the skull of bony fishes. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Velocity- and acceleration-sensitive units in the trunk lateral line of the trout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, A. B.; Schellart, N. A.

    1992-01-01

    1. The two main types of lateral line organs of lower vertebrates are the superficial neuromasts (SN), with a cupula that protrudes in the surrounding water, and the canal neuromasts (CN), located in the lateral line canal. The scales of the trunk lateral line canal of fish contain SNs as well as

  8. Lumbar canal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazanec, D J; Drucker, Y; Segal, A M

    1997-04-01

    Lumbar canal stenosis is an increasingly recognized condition in patients more than 65 years of age. The clinical syndrome is dominated by neurogenic claudication. The natural history of the Condition is not yet well described. Long-term results of surgical therapy are frequently disappointing, and reoperation is required in more than 10% of patients. Nonoperative treatment options include physical therapy exercise programs, calcitonin, analgesics, and epidural steroid injections. A clinical pathway for management of symptomatic stenosis, emphasizing an initial nonoperative approach, is suggested.

  9. Sensory systems in sawfishes. 2. The lateral line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wueringer, B E; Peverell, S C; Seymour, J; Squire, L; Collin, S P

    2011-01-01

    The lateral line system allows elasmobranchs to detect hydrodynamic movements in their close surroundings. We examined the distribution of pit organs and lateral line canals in 4 species of sawfish (Anoxypristis cuspidata, Pristis microdon, P. clavata and P. zijsron). Pit organs could only be located in A. cuspidata, which possesses elongated pits that are lined by dermal denticles. In all 4 pristid species, the lateral line canals are well developed and were separated into regions of pored and non-pored canals. In all species the tubules that extend from pored canals form extensive networks. In A. cuspidata, P. microdon and P. clavata, the lateral line canals on both the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the rostrum possess extensively branched and pored tubules. Based on this morphological observation, we hypothesized that these 3 species do not use their rostrum to search in the substrate for prey as previously assumed. Other batoids that possess lateral line canals adapted to perceive stimuli produced by infaunal prey possess non-pored lateral line canals, which also prevent the intrusion of substrate particles. However, this hypothesis remains to be tested behaviourally in pristids. Lateral line canals located between the mouth and the nostrils are non-pored in all 4 species of sawfish. Thus this region is hypothesized to perceive stimuli caused by direct contact with prey before ingestion. Lateral line canals that contain neuromasts are longest in P. microdon, but canals containing neuromasts along the rostrum are longest in A. cuspidata. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Spinal canal stenosis; Spinalkanalstenose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Boutchakova, M. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte/Bremen-Ost, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Bremen (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal by a combination of bone and soft tissues, which can lead to mechanical compression of spinal nerve roots or the dural sac. The lumbal spinal compression of these nerve roots can be symptomatic, resulting in weakness, reflex alterations, gait disturbances, bowel or bladder dysfunction, motor and sensory changes, radicular pain or atypical leg pain and neurogenic claudication. The anatomical presence of spinal canal stenosis is confirmed radiologically with computerized tomography, myelography or magnetic resonance imaging and play a decisive role in optimal patient-oriented therapy decision-making. (orig.) [German] Die Spinalkanalstenose ist eine umschriebene, knoechern-ligamentaer bedingte Einengung des Spinalkanals, die zur Kompression der Nervenwurzeln oder des Duralsacks fuehren kann. Die lumbale Spinalkanalstenose manifestiert sich klinisch als Komplex aus Rueckenschmerzen sowie sensiblen und motorischen neurologischen Ausfaellen, die in der Regel belastungsabhaengig sind (Claudicatio spinalis). Die bildgebende Diagnostik mittels Magnetresonanztomographie, Computertomographie und Myelographie spielt eine entscheidende Rolle bei der optimalen patientenbezogenen Therapieentscheidung. (orig.)

  11. Complete atrioventricular canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limongelli Giuseppe

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complete atrioventricular canal (CAVC, also referred to as complete atrioventricular septal defect, is characterised by an ostium primum atrial septal defect, a common atrioventricular valve and a variable deficiency of the ventricular septum inflow. CAVC is an uncommon congenital heart disease, accounting for about 3% of cardiac malformations. Atrioventricular canal occurs in two out of every 10,000 live births. Both sexes are equally affected and a striking association with Down syndrome was found. Depending on the morphology of the superior leaflet of the common atrioventricular valve, 3 types of CAVC have been delineated (type A, B and C, according to Rastelli's classification. CAVC results in a significant interatrial and interventricular systemic-to-pulmonary shunt, thus inducing right ventricular pressure and volume overload and pulmonary hypertension. It becomes symptomatic in infancy due to congestive heart failure and failure to thrive. Diagnosis of CAVC might be suspected from electrocardiographic and chest X-ray findings. Echocardiography confirms it and gives anatomical details. Over time, pulmonary hypertension becomes irreversible, thus precluding the surgical therapy. This is the reason why cardiac catheterisation is not mandatory in infants (less than 6 months but is indicated in older patients if irreversible pulmonary hypertension is suspected. Medical treatment (digitalis, diuretics, vasodilators plays a role only as a bridge toward surgery, usually performed between the 3rd and 6th month of life.

  12. Hood Canal Steelhead - Hood Canal Steelhead Supplementation Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hood Canal Steelhead Project is a 17-year before-after-control-impact experiment that tests the effects of supplementation on natural steelhead populations in...

  13. Method for Constructing Standardized Simulated Root Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Bongert, Udo; Weine, Franklin S.

    1990-01-01

    The construction of visual and manipulative aids, clear resin blocks with root-canal-like spaces, for simulation of root canals is explained. Time, materials, and techniques are discussed. The method allows for comparison of canals, creation of any configuration of canals, and easy presentation during instruction. (MSE)

  14. Water losses from irrigation canals evaluation: comparison among different methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Paolo; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Lasagna, Manuela

    2013-04-01

    The research investigates the field methodologies to evaluate water losses from canals, in order to find a reliable method to identify and quantify them. This study was conducted in five canal lines in Piedmont, north-western Italy, different for hydraulic, morphological, geological and hydrogeological contexts (De Luca et alii, 2012). At a regional scale, Piedmont network consists of several tens of thousands km of irrigation canals. The loss of water due to seepage from irrigation canals constitutes a substantial part of the usable water. Irrigation canals placed in natural soil or fine and coarse sediments are characterized by water losses ranging from 20 % to more than 50 %. These losses cause economic, hydrogeological and environmental consequences: water losses evaluation from irrigation canals in the basis for the sustainable water resource use and management. First, hydrogeological and hydrological characterisation of the study area and of the bottom of the irrigation canals was carried out for every investigated canal, in order to evaluate the relationships between groundwater and stream water (eg. piezometric and hydrogeochemical survey campaigns, infiltrometry tests, penetrometric tests and electrical tomographies, soil characterizations from the bottom of investigated canals). The canals seepage rates were subsequently estimated using different methodologies: empirical formulas, inflow-outflow tests and double tracer tests. The empirical formulas applied for the study underestimated the real amount of the losses probably due to the scarce number of the considered variables. Then the canals seepage rates were evaluated employing inflow-outflow tests, considered the best tool by several authors. This method allows the determination of seepage quantities measuring inflow and outflow of a canal test reach either by instruments. The canal discharge was evaluated using a current meter. This method, even if easy to apply and practical, is not efficient

  15. Looking back at Love Canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deegan, J. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    In the first part of this series (ES and T, April 1987, pp. 328-31) it was pointed out that the methods and conclusions of EPA's Love Canal Study were the subject of some controversy in the environmental community. Others defended the agency's approaches and methods. Part 2 makes no attempt to resolve the controversy; its purpose is to present the results and conclusions of the Love Canal.

  16. Assessment of the Second Mesiobuccal Root Canal in Maxillary First Molars: A Cone-beam Computed Tomographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuerong; Xu, Hai; Wang, Dongmiao; Gu, Yongchun; Wang, Juan; Tu, Shuzhen; Qiu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Fuyu; Luo, Yao; Xu, Shi; Bai, Jianling; Simone, Grandini; Zhang, Guangdong

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and location of the second mesiobuccal (MB2) root canal of the maxillary first molar and the relationship between the presence of an MB2 canal and the distribution of canal orifices on the pulpal floor with the aid of cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) technology. A total of 1008 maxillary first molars (548 patients) were randomly selected and analyzed through CBCT imaging. The association between the incidence of MB2 canals and potential impacting factors including sex, side, age, and the distribution of the main root canal orifices on the pulpal floor was explored. The interorifice distances (ie, the length of a line between the center point of any 2 orifices) at the pulpal floor level were measured using Mimics 10.01 software (ImageWorks, Materialise, Belgium). The majority of 3-rooted maxillary first molars showed 2 root canals (85.4%) in the mesiobuccal root. The incidence of MB2 canals had no statistically significant difference between the left and right sides (P > .05) but had a significant association with the patients' sex and age (P 1.26) indicated a highly probable existence of an MB2 canal. In this study, no molar presented an MB2 canal with a distance ratio of less than 1.16, whereas all molars with a ratio greater than 1.37 presented an MB2 canal without exception. A Bland-Altman scatterplot showed great agreement between the distances of the main mesiobuccal and the distobuccal canal orifices and the second mesiobuccal and the distobuccal canal orifices. Understanding the incidence of MB2 canals and the distribution pattern of canal orifices on the pulpal floor may help clinicians to quickly identify and locate MB2 canals. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Slope restoration for a 100-year old canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaggs, R.L.; Lewis, S.W. [Condor Earth Technologies, Inc., Sonora, CA (United States); Liebersbach, D.C. [Turlock Irrigation District, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Turlock Irrigation District (TID) is located in the northern portion of the fertile San Joaquin Valley of California. TID`s primary water supply is conveyed from the 100-year-old LaGrange Diversion Dam via their historic Upper Main Canal. The original canal was constructed by excavating into slate bedrock for the uphill (cut) bank, and constructing unmortared rock walls and rock fill for the downhill (fill) embankment; the excavation was then lined with concrete. Soil fill raises of the downhill embankment over the last 30 years have reduced the slope stability to unacceptable levels in the steepest embankment areas. In March of 1994, two surficial slides prompted investigation of the long term embankment stability in the Warehouse Slide Area. Based on results of analysis for various stabilization scenarios, TID chose a stabilization method which included: (1) excavation of an access bench below the existing canal, (2) installation of steel pipe piles through the existing rock fill and into the bedrock, (3) construction of a mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) retaining wall and (4) construction of a soil-cement canal roadway pavement. The design was chosen by the owner because of cost competitiveness compared to other design alternatives and because the construction sequence allowed uninterrupted use of the canal. By using local river cobble for the MSE wall facing material, TID met the desired 50-year design life of the repair while maintaining the area`s historic visual features.

  18. ANÁLISIS Y ESTUDIO DEL DESEMPEÑO DE LOS ENTRELAZADORES DE BITS DE BLOQUE, DORADO Y DORADO RELATIVO EN UN CANAL DE LÍNEA ELÉCTRICA DE BAJA TENSIÓN ANALYSIS OF THE PERFORMANCE OF THE INTERLEAVERS OF BLOCK, GOLDEN AND RELATIVE GOLDEN IN A OF LOW VOLTAGE POWER LINE CHANNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Fernández R

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizan y se estudian tres tipos de entrelazadores de bit: bloque, dorado y dorado relativo, y se determina su desempeño en un canal de línea eléctrica de baja tensión. Se utiliza el modelo de ruido dado por Middleton, para la simulación del canal de línea eléctrica de baja tensión y el algoritmo que se utiliza para generar ruido gaussiano es el método de Box-Muller. Se compara el desempeño de los entrelazadores de bits de bloque, dorado y dorado relativo, en relación al largo de la palabra versus la razón de señal a ruido y bits erróneos por palabras versus la razón de señal a ruido. La codificación de línea que se utiliza es no retorno a cero. El entrelazador de bit dorado es el que tiene el mejor desempeño, por lo tanto, se puede emplear en la transmisión por línea eléctrica de baja tensión para disminuir los errores de bits consecutivos producido por el ruido impulsivo.This paper analyzes three types of interleavers: block, golden and golden relative to determine their performance in of low voltage power line channel. The model of noise given by Middleton is used for the simulation of the low voltage power line channel and the algorithm used to generate Gaussian noise is based on the Box-Muller method. The performance of interleavers block, golden and golden relative is compared in relationship to the length of the words versus the signal to noise ratio. The error bit by word versus signal to noise ratio is compared also. The codification of line used is no return to zero. It is concluded that the interleavers of golden has the best performance, thus it can be used in data transmission in low-voltage power line, reducing errors consecutive bits produced by impulse noise.

  19. A study of angle of mandibular canal and mental foramen on the panoramic radiograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Moon [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Oral Science Institute, College of Dentistry, Kangnung-Wonju National University, Kangnung (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    To assessment the angle between mandibular canal and occlusal plane at each posterior tooth region and location of mental foramen on the panoramic radiographs. This study analysed 46 half-mandibles of panoramic radiographs. Inferior border of mandibular canal was traced. Occlusal plane was drawn from lingual cusp tip of the first premolar to distolingual cusp tip of the second molar. Perpendicular line from occlusal plane was drawn at each tooth region and then tangential lines were drawn from the crossing points at canal. The angle between occlusal plane and tangential line was measured. The location of mental foramen was also studied. According to the location of mental foramen, radiographs were divided into M (mesial) group and D (distal) group on the basis of the second premolar. and then inter-group analysis about mandibular canal angle was done. The angles of mandibular canals were -17.7 .deg. C, -9.5 .deg. C, 8.2 .deg. C, 22.3 .deg. C, and 39.2 .deg. C at first premolar, second premolar, first molar, second molar, and third molar, respectively. The commonest position of the mental foramen was distal to the second premolar. Inter-group comparison showed statistically significant difference at the second premolar and the first molar (p<0.001). The acknowledgement of mandibular canal angulation and location of mental foramen can help understanding the course of mandibular canal.

  20. El Canal del Atazar I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López de Berges y de los Santos, Emilio

    1967-03-01

    Full Text Available The Atazar Canal helps to supply Madrid with water, from the rivers Lozoya, Jarama and Sorbe. The section which operates at present starts at the Torrelaguna dam and finishes at the El Goloso reservoir. Later a further section will be added, from the Atazar dam, on the Lozoya river, to link up with the control dam at Torrelaguna. The canal capacity is 16 m3/sec, and it is 43.47 km long. It has a slope of 4/10.000. The cross section is similar to that of the Jarama canal, already built. There are interconnections between this canal and the Canal Alto, which previously supplied the high and medium part of Madrid. To overcome the ground unevenness 5 syphons have been built, the most important of which is the Colmenar Goloso syphon, which is 10.88 km in length. Construction commenced on December 10, 1962, and water reached Madrid on June 15th, 1966. The initial budget for this project was 1,500 million pesetas.El canal del Atazar refuerza considerablemente el abastecimiento de aguas a Madrid, procedentes de los ríos Lozoya, Jarama y, en un próximo futuro, del Sorbe. El tramo, actualmente en funcionamiento, empieza en el salto de Torrelaguna y finaliza en los depósitos de El Goloso. Más adelante se completará su trazado mediante un nuevo tramo que partirá del embalse de Atazar, en el Lozoya, para unirse al actual en el depósito regulador de Torrelaguna. Su capacidad es de 16 m3/s; su longitud, 43,471 km, y su pendiente, 4 diezmilésimas. La sección tipo es análoga a la del canal del Jarama, de construcción anterior. Mediante la oportuna obra de transvase se realizan intercambios entre este Canal y el Canal Alto que abastecía anteriormente la parte media y alta de la capital. Para salvar los desniveles del terreno se han construido 5 sifones, siendo el más importante el de Colmenar-Goloso, con una longitud de 10,8S4 km. El comienzo de las obras tuvo lugar el 10 de diciembre de 1962, y el agua llegó a Madrid el 15 de junio de 1966. Su

  1. Ab interno Schlemm's Canal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Brian A; Akil, Handan; Bert, Benjamin B

    2017-01-01

    In primary open-angle glaucoma, the site of greatest resistance to aqueous outflow is thought to be the trabecular meshwork (TM) and inner wall of Schlemm's canal. Augmentation of the conventional (trabecular) outflow pathway can facilitate physiologic outflow and subsequently lower intraocular pressure. The most recent approach to enhancing the conventional outflow pathway is via an internal approach to the TM and Schlemm's canal. Ab interno Schlemm's canal surgery includes 4 novel surgical approaches: (1) removal of the TM and inner wall of Schlemm's canal by an internal approach (ab interno trabeculectomy), (2) implantation of a microstent to bypass the TM, (3) disruption of the TM and inner wall of Schlemm's canal via an internal approach (ab interno trabeculotomy), and (4) dilation of Schlemm's canal via an internal approach (ab interno canaloplasty). The first category includes the Trabectome (Neomedix, Tustin, CA, USA), and Kahook Dual Blade (New World Medical, Rancho Cucamonga, CA, USA). The second category includes the iStent (Glaukos, Laguna Hills, CA, USA), as well as the investigational Hydrus Microstent implant (Ivantis, Irvine, CA, USA). The third category includes gonioscopic-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy (iSciences catheter; Ellex, Adelaide, Australia), and 360° suture trabeculotomy (TRAB360, Sight Sciences, Menlo Park, CA, USA). The fourth category includes ab interno canaloplasty or AbiC (Ellex), and Visco360 (Sight Sciences). In contrast to external filtration surgeries, such as trabeculectomy and aqueous tube shunt, these procedures are categorized as internal filtration surgeries and are performed from an internal approach via gonioscopic guidance. Published results suggest that these surgical procedures are both safe and efficacious for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Shape-shift: semicircular canal morphology responds to selective breeding for increased locomotor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, Heidi; Jamniczky, Heather A; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Garland, Theodore

    2014-11-01

    Variation in semicircular canal morphology correlates with locomotor agility among species of mammals. An experimental evolutionary mouse model was used to test the hypotheses that semicircular canal morphology (1) evolves in response to selective breeding for increased locomotor activity, (2) exhibits phenotypic plasticity in response to early-onset chronic exercise, and (3) is unique in individuals possessing the minimuscle phenotype. We examined responses in canal morphology to prolonged wheel access and selection in laboratory mice from four replicate lines bred for high voluntary wheel-running (HR) and four nonselected control (C) lines. Linear measurements and a suite of 3D landmarks were obtained from 3D reconstructions of μCT-scanned mouse crania (μCT is microcomputed tomography). Body mass was smaller in HR than C mice and was a significant predictor of both radius of curvature and 3D canal shape. Controlling for body mass, radius of curvature did not differ statistically between HR and C mice, but semicircular canal shape did. Neither chronic wheel access nor minimuscle affected radius of curvature or canal shape These findings suggest that semicircular canal morphology is responsive to evolutionary changes in locomotor behavior, but the pattern of response is potentially different in small- versus large-bodied species. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Developmental spinal canal stenosis and somatotype.

    OpenAIRE

    Nightingale, S.

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis that somatotype and cervical spine developmental canal stenosis may be associated has been investigated by anthropometry and measurement of lateral projection cervical spine radiographs. A significant association of canal size with somatotype has been found such that those with developmentally narrow canals are more likely to have relatively shorter long-bones, particularly in the upper arm, and longer trunks.

  4. Erie Canal Technology: Stump Pullers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Many years ago I saw a picture of a huge set of wheels that was used to remove tree stumps during the construction of the Erie Canal (1817-1825) and was intrigued by its use of leverage, mechanical advantage, and torque. Figure 1 is a scale model of the device based on my memory of the (lost) picture and published accounts.

  5. Contemporary root canal filling strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moinzadeh, A.T.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, clinicians can choose from a wide range of root canal filling materials and techniques, some of which have been evaluated in this thesis. Methacrylate resin-based sealers suffer from polymerization shrinkage stresses. This limitation may partly be overcome by a two-step cementation

  6. Retention of Root Canal Posts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, A; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Flury, S

    2015-01-01

    ] and a self-etch adhesive resin cement [Panavia F2.0]) were used. After removal of the crowns of 360 extracted premolars, canines, or incisors, the root canals were prepared with a parallel-sided drill system to three different final diameters. Half the posts did not receive any pretreatment. The other half...

  7. Correlation of panoramic radiographs and cone beam computed tomography in the assessment of a superimposed relationship between the mandibular canal and impacted third molars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Nah, Kyung Soo; Cho, Bong Hae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    This study evaluated the association between cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and panoramic radiographs in the assessment of a superimposed relationship between the mandibular canal and impacted third molars. The study samples consisted of 175 impacted third molars from 131 patients who showed a superimposed relationship between the mandibular canal and third molars on panoramic radiographs and were referred for the examination of the mandibular canal with CBCT. Panoramic images were evaluated for the darkening of the root and the interruption of the mandibular canal wall. CBCT images were used to assess the buccolingual position of the mandibular canal relative to the third molar, the proximity of the roots to the canal, and lingual cortical bone loss. The association of the panoramic and CBCT findings was examined using a Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Panoramic radiographic signs were statistically associated with CBCT findings (P<0.01). In cases of darkening roots, lingual cortical bone loss or buccally positioned canals were more frequent. In cases in which the mandibular canal wall was interrupted on panoramic radiographs, contact or lingually positioned canals were more frequent. The results of this study suggest that contact between the mandibular third molar and canal and a lingually positioned canal could be more frequently observed in cases of the interruption of the white line of the mandibular canal and that there could be more lingual cortical loss in cases of darkening roots.

  8. Mandibular Second Premolar with Four Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Ghiasi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A mandibular second premolar with four canals is an interesting example of anatomic variations. This report describes a case of a mandibular second premolar with three roots and four canals (one mesiobuccal, two distobuccal and one lingual. The canals were prepared using K-files and irrigated with NaOCl (5.25% and normal saline as the final irrigant. The canals were filled laterally with gutta percha and AH26 sealer (De Trey, Dentsply, Switzerland. This case shows a rare anatomic configuration and points out the importance of looking for additional canals.

  9. 75 FR 39632 - Regulated Navigation Area; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ..., Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey Canal, Algiers Canal, New Orleans, LA; Correction ACTION: Interim... Navigation Canal, Harvey Canal, Algiers Canal, New Orleans, LA into the Code of Federal Regulations. That...

  10. Effect of Canal Bank Filtration on Quality of Water Long Hyderabad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMDAD ALI KANDHAR

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the present study was to examine the effect of canal bank filtration on the quality of water and the geological settings along the banks of canals at the shallow depth aquifers. The four Model wells were drilled at different locations of the Line channel, Pinyari and phulali canals in the study area. The samples of soil were collected throughout drilling of the model wells for the analysis of grain size distribution .In addition to this, canal water and model well water samples were collected and analyzed for the water quality characteristics during winter and summer seasons. The analysis of soil and water samples reveals that the ground water is influenced by the grain size distribution, hydraulic conductivity and the location of the model Wells. The model well that has higher percentage of 0.075 mm of grain size distribution(hydraulic conductivity between 10-25 ft/day was more suitable for the filtration of the canal water through its banks, followed by 0.15 mm of grain size distribution (hydraulic conductivity > 25ft/ day. Moreover, the present study also shows that the canal water filtration is suitable in terms of total alkalinity, nitrate-nitrogen, total iron and pH to get the potable water at the location near upstream of the canal, especially in the summer season.

  11. Scalloping at the lumbosacral canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, R.

    1987-07-01

    Scalloping is an indentation of the dorsal side of the vertebral body (anterior wall of the lumbosacral or sacral canal) which typically involves several adjacent lumbal vertebral body segments and the anterior wall of the canalis sacralis. Occurrence without underlying disease is rare; it occurs most frequently with chondrodystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Morquio's syndrome, Hurler's syndrome, acromegaly, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, cysts, tumors and in peridural lipomas.

  12. Endometriosis en el canal inguinal

    OpenAIRE

    Quirós, José Luis; Corrales, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Resumen: Endometriosis se define como la presencia de tejido glandular y estromal endometrial fuera de la cavidad uterina y este tejido ectópico es dependiente de la estimulación estrogénica. Usualmente se presenta en ovarios, fondos de saco, ligamento ancho, ligamento uterosacro, útero, trompas de Falopio, tracto gastrointestinal y geniturinario. Sin embargo, puede presentarse en otras localizaciones, como en el canal inguinal. Prevalece en 10% de las mujeres en edad reproductiva. Existen mu...

  13. Microbiology of normal external auditory canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroman, D W; Roland, P S; Dohar, J; Burt, W

    2001-11-01

    To isolate and characterize bacteria and fungi from the healthy ear and to obtain susceptibility profiles on each bacterial isolate. Prospective. Specimens were collected from the external canals and cerumen of healthy subjects. Species-level identification was obtained by combining phenotypic and genotypic data. End-point minimal inhibitory concentration testing was performed using National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards recommended methods. One hundred sixty-four subjects were cultured. Seventeen canal and 16 cerumen specimens showed no growth. One hundred forty-eight cerumen specimens yielded 314 organisms, including 23 fungi. One hundred forty-seven canal specimens yielded 310 organisms, including 7 fungi. Of 291 bacteria isolated from cerumen, 99% were Gram-positive. Of 302 bacteria isolated from the canal, 96% were Gram-positive. Staphylococci were 63% of both the cerumen bacteria and the canal bacteria. Coryneforms represented 22% of the bacteria in cerumen and 19% in the canal. Turicellaotitidis was the primary coryneform isolated from both the canal and the cerumen. Streptococci-like bacteria were 10% from the cerumen, 7% from the canal. In both cerumen and canal, Alloiococcusotitis was more than 95% of the streptococci-like bacteria. Fifteen gram-negative organisms were isolated from the canal and cerumen, including four Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. The percentages of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates that had high-level resistance (> or =8 microg/mL) were as follows: to neomycin, 28% from cerumen and 11% from the canal; to oxacillin, 28% from cerumen and 25% from the canal; and to ofloxacin, 15% from cerumen and 19% from the canal. Turcellaotitidis and A. otitidis were present with a much higher frequency than previously described, lending evidence that they be considered normal otic flora. Corynebacterium auris, previously reported only in children, was isolated from normal adults.

  14. Naegleria fowleri from a canal draining cooling water from a factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerva, L; Jecná, P; Hyhlík, R

    1980-01-01

    In 1968, a canal draining cooling water from a factory was found to be the source of infection with primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAME) (one case). The bed of the canal lined with stone slabs was about 2 m wide, the flow rate of water was approximately 2 m/sec. Average annual water temperatures ranged from 27-30 degrees C. In culture, Naegleria fowleri was not found in the water of the canal, but it was present in scrapings off the canal walls and in its bottom sediment for a length of about 2 km starting at the site of the outlet of the water from the factory. The maximum number of amoebae in 1 liter of the sample was 800 individuals. The present paper discusses the detective efficacy of the culture methods employed, and the epidemiological bearing of the findings.

  15. A study of the mandibular canal in digital panoramic radiographic images of a selected Korean population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Duk; Kim, Jin Soo [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    To determine the more valuable information to detect the mandibular canal and the mental foramen in panoramic radiographs of a selected Korean population for the implant. This study analysed 288 panoramic radiographic images of patients taken at the Dental hospital of Chosun University retrospectively. Indirect digital panoramic X-ray machine (ProlineXC, PLANMECA, Finland) with processing by using Directview CR950 (Kodak, U.S.A.) and Direct digital panoramic X-ray machine (Promax, PLANMECA, Finland) were used for all exposures. All images were converted into Dicom format. The common position of the mental foramen was in line with the longitudinal axis of the second premolar (68.1%). The mental foramen was lower symmetrical in 81.8% of cases. The mandibular canal was not identified at anterior portion and discontinued with the mental foramen in 27.8% of all cases, in 42.4% identified with lower border line continued with the mental foramen, in 14.6% with both upper and lower border lines, and in 15.3% unilaterally identified with lower border line. Clinicians can estimate the upper border line of the mandibular canal from the confirmation of the mental foramen and the lower border line of the mandibular canal symmetrically on the panoramic radiography taken in adjusted midsaggital plane of patient's head.

  16. Developmental spinal canal stenosis and somatotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, S

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis that somatotype and cervical spine developmental canal stenosis may be associated has been investigated by anthropometry and measurement of lateral projection cervical spine radiographs. A significant association of canal size with somatotype has been found such that those with developmentally narrow canals are more likely to have relatively shorter long-bones, particularly in the upper arm, and longer trunks. Images PMID:2769282

  17. Development of the anterior chordal canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Miklós; Moser, Gerhard; Patonay, Lajos; Oláh, Imre

    2006-01-01

    Resent advances have led to the reexamination of the intraosseous pathway of the chorda tympani a few years ago and they stated that the nerve never enters the mandibular fossa and its exit the skull base in the sphenopetrosal fissure. In our report, 58 temporal bones were investigated after maceration and formalin fixation in order to understand the development of the anterior chordal canal. Our study revealed that the chorda tympani leaves the tympanic cavity through the tympanosquamosal fissure before formation of the anterior chordal canal of Huguier. This canal is situated parallel to and in front of the musculotubal canal and formed by the processus inferior tegminis tympani and the sphenoid bone between the second and fifth years of age. Prior to the age of 2, only the exit of the bony canal exists which is gradually followed by the appearance of a groove in the growing processus inferior tegminis tympani. The borders of the groove elevate and develop to upper and lower plates which lengthen with similar plates of the sphenoid bone, completing the anterior chordal canal by the fifth postnatal year. The entrance of the canal develops above the petrotympanic fissure and similar to the canal itself, it is also completely formed in the fifth year. In case of an incomplete development the anterior chordal canal remains partially opened laterally which might allow the head of the mandibula to effect the chorda tympani mechanically causing Costen's syndrome.

  18. Root canal treatment of mandibular second premolar with four root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bander Al-Abdulwahhab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the morphology of the root canal system of mandibular premolars has been demonstrated. This diverse morphology challenges for the clinician to clean, shape, and fill the entire root canal system. A case report of a mandibular second premolar with four root canals separated at the apical third and underwent endodontic treatment is presented.

  19. 5 CFR 315.601 - Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. 315.601 Section 315.601 Administrative... employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. (a) Agency authority. This... Zone Merit System, which was in effect before March 31, 1982, or under the Panama Canal Employment...

  20. Cytotoxicity of 5% Tamarindus indica extract and 3% hydrogen peroxide as root canal irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erawati Wulandari

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preparation of root canal is an important stage in endodontic treatment. During conducting preparation, it is always be followed with root canal irrigation that has aim to clean root canal from necrotic tissue remains, grind down dentin powder, micro organism, wet the root canal to make preparation process of root canal easier, and solute root canal content at area that can not be reached by equipment. Flesh of Tamarindus indica (pulpa tamarindorum is used as traditional medicine and it contains vitamin C (antioxidant, protein, fat, glucose, etc. Previous research shows that 5% tamarindus indica extract can clean smear layer but it is more cytotoxicity to cell line BHK–21 than sterilized aquabides. Purpose: This research is to compare cytotoxicity between 5% Tamarindus indica extract with 3% H2O2 as root canal irrigation material. Method: Four teen culture cell line BHK 21 divides into 2 groups. Group 1 is treated with 3% H2O2 and Group 2 is treated with 5% Tamarindus indica extract, for about 2.5 minutes in every group. Then, living and death cell percentage is measured. Data is analyzed with independent t test with significant level of 0.05%. Result: The research showed that death cell in group 1 was 29.3% and in group 2 was 21.1%. There was a significant different (p < 0.05 between group 1 and group 2. Conclusion: Cytotoxicity of 5% Tamarindus indica extract to the cell line BHK–21 is lower than 3% H2O2.

  1. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum.

  2. 33 CFR 117.438 - Company Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Company Canal. 117.438 Section 117.438 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.438 Company Canal. (a) The draw of the...

  3. The enigma of the lateral canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weine, F S

    1984-10-01

    It is difficult to summarize an article of this type, in which the author is certain that his case has been presented fairly, but is aware that other views that are contrary could be stated and endorsed by pertinent clinical cases. Bearing this fact in mind, I wish to reiterate the following: Lateral canals are demonstrated in endodontic cases with much less frequency than they exist. This variance rarely, if ever, causes an endodontic failure. Some demonstrated lateral canals may really be other conditions. Preoperative evaluation should include examination of radiographs for lateral, as well as periapical, lesions. Lateral canals may be demonstrated by a variety of filling techniques. Careful canal preparation may enhance the frequency of such demonstration. Cases with necrotic pulps probably yield more frequent demonstration than do cases with vital pulps. Lateral canals harboring inflamed and/or infected material may cause pain during endodontic treatment. They may simulate periodontal disease and may cause problems with treatment if present when a tooth is left open for drainage. Periodontal disease may cause pulp exposure via lateral canals located coronally. Improper use of post room may lead to lateral failure from breakdown of tissue in a lateral canal. The enigma of the lateral canal has been the object of description and discussion in many articles, but no one is truly certain of their exact significance in endodontic therapy for the long haul.

  4. Computed Tomography Findings of Mandibular Nutrient Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Yusuke; Sekiya, Kotaro; Sasaki, Yusuke; Tsukioka, Tsuneyuki; Muramatsu, Teruaki; Kaneda, Takashi

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess computed tomography (CT) findings of mandibular nutrient canals using CT images. We retrospectively analyzed the mandibular CT images of 194 consecutive patients. For image analysis such as canal prevalence, location, number, size, shape, and the CT value of nutrient foramina were determined using CT axial images of 0.5 and 3 mm slice thickness. We revealed that the nutrient canals were seen 94.3% in the mandible, mostly seen in the anterior region. By location, nutrient canals were particularly seen between the central and lateral incisors. The mean number of nutrient canals was 2.7. The mean diameter of the nutrient foramen between the central and lateral incisors was 1.0 mm. In about 80% of the cases, foramina between the central and lateral incisors were ovoid. The mean CT value for the nutrient foramina between the central and lateral incisors was 411 HU. Mandibular nutrient canals were ovoid shape, and the mean CT value was 411 HU. By preoperative knowledge of the position and anatomy of the mandibular nutrient canals, complications such as injury to the nutrient canals can be avoided.

  5. Type III apical transportation of root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv P Mantri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Procedural accidents leading to complications such as canal transportation have been ascribed to inapt cleaning and shaping concepts. Canal transportation is an undesirable deviation from the natural canal path. Herewith a case of apical transportation of root canal resulting in endodontic retreatment failure and its management is presented. A healthy 21-year-old young male presented discomfort and swelling associated with painful endodontically retreated maxillary incisor. Radiograph revealed periradicular radiolucency involving underfilled 11 and overfilled 12. Insufficiently obturated 11 exhibited apical transportation of canal. This type III transportation was treated by periradicular surgery and repair using white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Comfortable asymptomatic patient presented uneventful healing at third and fourth month recall visits. A decrease in the size of radiolucency in radiograph supported the clinical finding. In the present case, MTA is useful in repairing the transportation defect. The result of these procedures is predictable and successful.

  6. Updated regime equations for alluvial Egyptian canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahmy Salah Abdelhaleem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Real accuracy of several regime relationships for designing stable alluvial channels in Egypt was determined. Extensive field measurements had been carried out on 26 Egyptian stable canals, which cover various categories of irrigation canals starting from distributary, branch to carrier canals in Egypt. Analysis of 1484 velocity profiles for 371 cross sections was employed in order to formulate new regime equations characterizing Egyptian canals. The functional formulations to include the flow depth, cross section area, hydraulic radius and mean velocity were achieved. This research compared the deduced formulas from the measured data with the equations derived by other researchers for stable channel design. It was found that the derived formulas are reliable and could help in the design of Egyptian canals to convey a discharge ranging from 0.11 to 287.5 m3/s (0.0095–24.84 millions m3/day.

  7. Looking back at Love Canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deegan, J. Jr.

    1987-04-01

    The comprehensive environmental study which describes the results of a monitoring program conducted by EPA at Love Canal is evaluated by EPA's former study director. Attention is focused on the episode's history and the agency's study methods. The aim of the program was to constitute a study team, design a monitoring study, reprogram and reallocate the financial resources needed to conduct the study, and identify and employ contractors who would collect and analyze environmental samples. The agency was directed to ensure the quality of the data acquired from various environmental media and analyzed by numerous laboratories; to integrate, interpret, and report the data; and to assess, from an environmental perspective, the habitability of the area.

  8. Wave Mechanics of the Vestibular Semicircular Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Marta M; Rabbitt, Richard D

    2017-09-05

    The semicircular canals are biomechanical sensors responsible for detecting and encoding angular motion of the head in 3D space. Canal afferent neurons provide essential inputs to neural circuits responsible for representation of self-position/orientation in space, and to compensatory circuits including the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-collic reflex arcs. In this work we derive, to our knowledge, a new 1D mathematical model quantifying canal biomechanics based on the morphology, dynamics of the inner ear fluids, and membranous labyrinth deformability. The model takes the form of a dispersive wave equation and predicts canal responses to angular motion, sound, and mechanical stimulation. Numerical simulations were carried out for the morphology of the human lateral canal using known physical properties of the endolymph and perilymph in three diverse conditions: surgical plugging, rotation, and mechanical indentation. The model reproduces frequency-dependent attenuation and phase shift in cases of canal plugging. During rotation, duct deformability extends the frequency bandwidth and enhances the high frequency gain. Mechanical indentation of the membranous duct at high frequencies evokes traveling waves that move away from the location of indentation and at low frequencies compels endolymph displacement along the canal. These results demonstrate the importance of the conformal perilymph-filled bony labyrinth to pressure changes and to high frequency sound and vibration. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. How to bond to root canal dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nica, Luminita; Todea, Carmen; Furtos, Gabriel; Baldea, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Bonding to root canal dentin may be difficult due to various factors: the structural characteristic of the root canal dentin, which is different from that of the coronal dentin; the presence of the organic tissue of the dental pulp inside the root canal, which has to be removed during the cleaning-shaping of the root canal system; the smear-layer resulted after mechanical instrumentation, which may interfere with the adhesion of the filling materials; the type of the irrigants used in the cleaning protocol; the type of the sealer and core material used in the obturation of the endodontic space; the type of the materials used for the restoration of the endodontically treated teeth. The influence of the cleaning protocol, of the root canal filling material, of the type of the adhesive system used in the restoration of the treated teeth and of the region of the root canal, on the adhesion of several filling and restorative materials to root canal dentin was evaluated in the push-out bond strength test on 1-mm thick slices of endodontically treated human teeth. The results showed that all these factors have a statistically significant influence on the push-out bond strength. Formation of resin tags between radicular dentin and the investigated materials was observed in some of the samples at SEM analysis.

  10. Panama Canal Watershed Experiment- Agua Salud Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Robert F.; Ogden, Fred L.; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Hall, Jefferson S.

    2010-01-01

    The Agua Salud Project utilizes the Panama Canal’s (Canal) central role in world commerce to focus global attention on the ecosystem services provided by tropical forests. The Canal was one of the great engineering projects in the world. Completed in 1914, after almost a decade of concerted effort, its 80 km length greatly shortened the voyage between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. An entire class of ships, the Panamax, has been constructed to maximize the amount of cargo that can be carried in a Canal passage. In today’s parlance, the Canal is a “green” operation, powered largely by water (Table 1). The locks, three pairs on each end with a net lift of 27 meters, are gravity fed. For each ton of cargo that is transferred from ocean to ocean, about 13 tons of water (m3) are used. Lake Gatún forms much of the waterway in the Canal transect. Hydroelectricity is generated at the Gatún dam, whenever there is surplus water, and at Madden Dam (completed in 1936) when water is transferred from Lake Alhajuela to Lake Gatún. The Canal watershed is the source of drinking water for Panama City and Colon City, at either end of the Canal, and numerous towns in between.

  11. Rapid responses of the cupula in the lateral line of ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curcic-Blake, B; van Netten, SM

    Displacements of cupulae in the supraorbital lateral line canal in ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) have been measured using laser interferometry and by applying transient as well as sinusoidal fluid stimuli in the lateral line canal. The cupular displacement in response to impulses of fluid velocity

  12. Mandibular Canal Enlargement: Clinical and Radiological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Jun Ai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enlargement of the mandibular canal is a rare radiological finding. Clinically, it may or may not be associated with sensory deficits. We report four cases of widening of the mandibular canal observed with various methods of imaging with different clinical characteristics. We describe this unique radiological finding and elaborate the importance of quality assessment of the imaging that is vital for accurate diagnosis and treatment planning. Clinicians should be mindful when assessing the imaging whenever the size of the mandibular canal is implicated. The case ranged from a benign tumor to malignancy, radiological errors, and artifacts. A more superior imaging or treatment modality was necessary to ascertain the diagnosis.

  13. Scanning electron microscopy investigation of canal cleaning after canal preparation with nickel titanium files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Slavoljub

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Root canal preparation is the most important phase of endodontic procedure and it consists of adequate canal space cleaning and shaping. In recent years, rotary instruments and techniques have gained importance because of the great efficacy, speed and safety of the preparation procedure. Objective. The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of different NiTi files on the canal wall cleaning quality, residual dentine debris and smear layer. Methods. The research was conducted on extracted human teeth in vitro conditions. Teeth were divided in 7 main groups depending on the kind of instruments used for root canal preparation: ProTaper, GT, ProFile, K-3, FlexMaster, hand ProTaper and hand GT. Root canal preparation was accomplished by crown-down technique. Prepared samples were assessed on scanning electron microscopy JEOL, JSM-6460 LV. The evaluation of dentine debris was done with 500x magnification, and the evaluation of smear layer with 1,000 times magnification. Quantitive assessment of dentine debris and smear layer was done according to the criteria of Hulsmann. Results. The least amount of debris and smear layer has been found in canals shaped with ProFile instruments, and the largest amount in canals shaped with FlexMaster instruments. Canal cleaning efficacy of hand GT and ProTaper files has been similar to cleaning efficacy of rotary NiTi files. Statistic analysis has shown a significant difference in amount of dentine debris and smear layer on the canal walls between sample groups shaped with different instruments. Conclusion. Completely clean canals have not been found in any tested group of instruments. The largest amount of debris and smear layer has been found in the apical third of all canals. The design and the type of endodontic instruments influence the efficacy of the canal cleaning.

  14. Incidence of accessory canals in Japanese anterior maxillary teeth following root canal filling ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, C G; Yoshioka, T; Suda, H

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the vertical and horizontal distribution and the incidence of accessory canals in Japanese maxillary anterior teeth following root filling. The study included maxillary teeth; 69 central incisors, 61 lateral incisors and 31 canines. After the canal systems had been dyed and root canal instrumentation had been carried out, all prepared canals were filled with gutta-percha without using sealer. Transparent specimens were then obtained and examined with a digital microscope for horizontal and vertical distributions of accessory canals. The incidence of teeth with accessory canals in the apical 3 mm was 46%, 29% and 38% for the maxillary central incisors, lateral incisors and canines, respectively. The horizontal distribution was mainly buccal for central incisors, palatal for lateral incisors and distal and palatal for canines. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the apical 3 mm and the rest of the root (16%, 20% and 19% for the maxillary central incisors, lateral incisors and canines, respectively) in terms of the presence of accessory canals. A high percentage of accessory canals can be found in apical 3 mm of the root. The horizontal distribution of accessory canals differed amongst the tooth types studied.

  15. Canal and isthmus debridement efficacy using a sonic irrigation technique in a closed-canal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Meenal; Sidow, Stephanie J; Looney, Stephen W; Lindsey, Kimberly; Niu, Li-na; Tay, Franklin R

    2012-09-01

    This in vitro study compared debridement efficacies of a sonic irrigation technique (Vibringe; Cavex Holland BV, Haarlem, The Netherlands) with side-vented needle irrigation (SNI) in the mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molars. Twenty roots with narrow isthmuses (≤ 1/4 canal diameter) were selected using micro-computed tomography scanning. Collagen solution was injected into canals/isthmuses and reconstituted with NH(4)OH to simulate canal debris. Each root was sealed apically and embedded in polyvinyl siloxane simulating a closed-canal system. Canals were instrumented to size 40/.04 taper 1 mm short of the anatomic apex. The final irrigation was performed with the Vibringe or SNI. Roots were demineralized, sectioned at 6 levels (1.2-3.2 mm) from the anatomic apex, and stained using Masson trichrome stain. The areas occupied by canals and isthmus and the debris-containing areas were statistically analyzed with repeated-measures analyses using "irrigation technique" as the between factor and "canal level" as the within factor (α = 0.05). Canals had significantly more debris at 1.2 and 1.6 mm (P .05). Considerably more debris remained at 1.2 and 2.0 mm for the Vibringe (P < .05). A significant difference was observed between the canal and the isthmus (P < .001). There is no difference between the Vibringe and SNI in their overall debridement efficacy in apical one third of the mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molars. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Semicircular canal modeling in human perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Houshyar; Mohamed, Shady; Lim, Chee Peng; Nahavandi, Saeid; Nalivaiko, Eugene

    2017-07-26

    The human vestibular system is a sensory and equilibrium system that manages and controls the human sense of balance and movement. It is the main sensor humans use to perceive rotational and linear motions. Determining an accurate mathematical model of the human vestibular system is significant for research pertaining to motion perception, as the quality and effectiveness of the motion cueing algorithm (MCA) directly depends on the mathematical model used in its design. This paper describes the history and analyses the development process of mathematical semicircular canal models. The aim of this review is to determine the most consistent and reliable mathematical semicircular canal models that agree with experimental results and theoretical analyses, and offer reliable approximations for the semicircular canal functions based on the existing studies. Selecting and formulating accurate mathematical models of semicircular canals are essential for implementation into the MCA and for ensuring effective human motion perception modeling.

  17. Sugar receptor response of the food-canal taste sensilla in a nectar-feeding swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takashi A.; Asaoka, Kiyoshi; Seta, Kazuaki; Imaeda, Daisuke; Ozaki, Mamiko

    2009-03-01

    The feeding behavior in nectar-feeding insects is triggered by a sugar-receptor response in contact chemosensilla. The contact chemosensilla are distributed not only on tarsi and the outside of the proboscis but also on the inside of the food canal in Lepidoptera. Although the chemosensilla inside the food canal are assumed to detect sweet taste during the passage of nectar through the food canal, their electrophysiological function has received little attention. In the nectar-feeding Asian swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), we found 15- to 30-μm-long sensilla neatly lined up along the inside galea wall, which forms the food canal in the proboscis. The receptor neurons of these sensilla responded to sucrose. We hypothesized that starch and sucrose compete with each other for a taste receptor site on the sensilla. When we added starch and sucrose to the food-canal sensilla, the electrophysiological responses of food-canal sensilla were inhibited in parallel with the food-sucking behavior of the butterflies. These results suggest that the food-canal sensilla are involved in the behavioral control of nectar-sucking in this butterfly species.

  18. The ability of 5% Tamarindus indica extract as cleaner of the root canal wall smear layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erawati Wulandari

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus indica is one of traditional medicines. Pulpa tamaridorum consist of organic acid that is usually used as irrigant and to remove root canal wall smear layer. The aimed of this study was to elucidate the ability of 5% Tamarindus indica extract as a root canal irrigant to remove root canal wall smear layer. Eighteen tooth samples were cut on cervical line and divided into 2 then groups were prepared with K file and irrigated. Group 1 was irrigated by sterile aquabidest and group 2 was irrigated by 5% Tamarindus indica extract. Samples were cut longitudinally and formed 7 × 2× 2 mm specimen. Each specimen was photographed by scanning electron microscope, scored and summed. The total score obtained is used as the hygiene value of root canal wall. The collected data were statistically analyzed by using independent t test at 0.05 level. The result of the study showed there was a significant difference between 5% Tamarindus indica extract and sterile aquabidest (p < 0.05, the hygiene value of 5% Tamarindus indica extract was higher than sterile aquabidest. The conclusion of this investigation showed that 5% Tamarindus indica extract remove root canal wall smear layer.

  19. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L; Gilbertson, M; Eames, I

    2010-12-01

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid

  20. Radiotherapy for carcinomas of the anal canal Tenon hospital experience; Traitement des cancers du canal anal par irradiation experience de l'hopital Tenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touboul, E.; Moureau-Zabotto, L.; Lerouge, D.; Pene, F.; Deniaud-Alexandre, E.; Schlienger, M.; Laugier, A. [Hopital Tenon, Service d' Oncologie-Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France); Tiret, E.; Parc, R. [Hopital Saint Antoine, Service de Chirurgie Digestive, 75 - Paris (France); Sezeur, A. [Hopital des Diaconesses, Service de Chirurgie Generale, 75 - Paris (France); Houry, S. [Hopital Tenon, Service de Chirurgie Digestive, 75 - Paris (France); Gallot, D. [Groupe Hospitalier Bichat Claude-Bernard, Service de Chirurgie Generale et Digestive B, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-11-01

    Since 1980, curative-intent radiation therapy of epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal is the standard first line treatment. The combined concomitant chemotherapy and radiation therapy is presently established for locally advanced tumors more than 4 cm in length and/or with nodal involvement. We report the Tenon hospital experience since 1972 concerning the long term results after radiation therapy, the modifications of the radiation technique, and the evolution of treatment strategy. (author)

  1. Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence: a morphologic cause of vertigo similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krombach, G.A.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Haage, P.; Guenther, R.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); DiMartino, E. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Prescher, A. [Department of Anatomy, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Kinzel, S. [Department of Experimental Veterinarian Medicine, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    Heading Abstract.The aim of this study was to assess imaging findings of posterior semicircular dehiscence on computed tomography and to evaluate incidence of posterior and superior semicircular canal dehiscence in patients presenting with vertigo, sensorineuronal hearing loss or in a control group without symptoms related to the inner ear. Computed tomography was performed in 507 patients presenting either with vertigo (n=128; 23 of these patients suffered also from sensorineuronal hearing loss), other symptoms related to the inner ear, such as hearing loss or tinnitus (n=183) or symptoms unrelated to the labyrinth (n=196). All images were reviewed for presence of dehiscence of the bone, overlying the semicircular canals. Twenty-nine patients had superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Of these patients, 83% presented with vertigo, 10% with hearing loss or tinnitus and the remaining 7% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. In 23 patients dehiscence of the posterior semicircular canal was encountered. Of these patients, 86% presented with vertigo, 9% with hearing loss or tinnitus and 5% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. Defects of the bony overly are found at the posterior semicircular canal, in addition to the recently introduced superior canal dehiscence syndrome. Significant prevalence of vertigo in these patients suggests that posterior semicircular canal dehiscence can cause vertigo, similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence. (orig.)

  2. Analyzing endosonic root canal file oscillations: an in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Simon C; Walmsley, A Damien; Lumley, Philip J

    2010-05-01

    Passive ultrasonic irrigation may be used to improve bacterial reduction within the root canal. The technique relies on a small file being driven to oscillate freely within the canal and activating an irrigant solution through biophysical forces such as microstreaming. There is limited information regarding a file's oscillation patterns when operated while surrounded by fluid as is the case within a canal root. Files of different sizes (#10 and #30, 27 mm and 31 mm) were connected to an ultrasound generator via a 120 degrees file holder. Files were immersed in a water bath, and a laser vibrometer set up with measurement lines superimposed over the files. The laser vibrometer was scanned over the oscillating files. Measurements were repeated 10 times for each file/power setting used. File mode shapes are comprised of a series of nodes/antinodes, with thinner, longer files producing more antinodes. The maximum vibration occurred at the free end of the file. Increasing generator power had no significant effect on this maximum amplitude (p > 0.20). Maximum displacement amplitudes were 17 to 22 microm (#10 file, 27 mm), 15 to 21 microm (#10 file, 31 mm), 6 to 9 microm (#30 file, 27 mm), and 5 to 7 microm (#30, 31 mm) for all power settings. Antinodes occurring along the remaining file length were significantly larger at generator power 1 than at powers 2 through 5 (p < 0.03). At higher generator powers, energy delivered to the file is dissipated in unwanted vibration resulting in reduced vibration displacement amplitudes. This may reduce the occurrence of the biophysical forces necessary to maximize the technique's effectiveness. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Management of C-shaped canals: Two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Suryakant Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A C-shaped canal with varying configuration is commonly observed in single-rooted mandibular second molars. Cooke and Cox (1979 first documented the C-shaped canal in endodontic literature. The presence of high incidence of transverse anastomoses, lateral canals, and apical deltas makes it difficult to clean and seal the root canal system in these teeth. The main reason for failure in endodontic treatment of mandibular second molars is the inability to detect the presence of C-shaped canals prior to an endodontic therapy. This case report presents successful management of two rare cases of C-shaped canal configurations.

  4. What We Can Learn from Artificial Lateral Line Sensor Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, A T; Kaldenbach, F; Rüter, A; Bleckmann, H

    2016-01-01

    The lateral line system of fish is important for many behaviors, including spatial orientation, prey detection, intraspecific communication, and entraining. With aid of the lateral line, fish perceive minute water motions. The smallest sensory unit of the lateral line is the neuromast, which occurs freestanding on the skin and in fluid-filled canals. We have built artificial lateral line canal systems that can be used to measure spatiotemporal flow patterns. Those patterns can, for instance, be used to distinguish between different environments and upstream objects.

  5. Study of root canal accessibility in human primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminabadi, Naser A; Farahani, Ramin M Z; Gajan, Esrafil B

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide a general scheme for pulpectomy of primary molars that may be useful for decision-making about negotiation of root canals and selection of appropriate instruments. A total of 160 vital primary molars in 85 patients (40 males, 45 females) aged 4-6 years were selected. After taking primary radiographs, local anesthesia was induced, and the teeth were isolated using a rubber dam. Canal accessibility index (CAI) and tooth accessibility index (TAI) were calculated according to initial file size. Mandibular first molars had either three canals (79.2%) or four canals (20.8%), and all second molars had four canals. Maxillary first molars had three canals and second molars had either three canals (70.9%) or four canals (29.1%). Lower accessibility of the mandibular first molar distobuccal root accounted for the lower accessibility of these teeth in comparison with mandibular second molars. While three-canal maxillary second molars were more accessible due to the lower accessibility of the distobuccal canal of the maxillary first molar, poor accessibility of the distal canal in four-canal second molars was responsible for the difficult accessibility of these teeth. In conclusion, it seems that the accessibility of a single canal in each tooth determines the difficulty of accessibility for any given tooth. Moreover, while primary second molars are more accessible than first molars, all of them are negotiable.

  6. Root canal debridement: an online study guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    The Editorial Board of the Journal of Endodontics has developed a literature-based study guide of topical areas related to endodontics. This study guide is intended to give the reader a focused review of the essential endodontic literature and does not cite all possible articles related to each topic. Although citing all articles would be comprehensive, it would defeat the idea of a study guide. This section will present root canal debridement including subdivisions on canal access, canal debridement, orifice enlargement and preflaring, crown-down technique, balanced force, nickel titanium and other shape memory alloys, rotary engine-driven techniques, endodontic instruments, irrigation, electronic apex locators, sonics/ultrasonics, smear layer, and intracanal medicaments.

  7. Effect of two contemporary root canal sealers on root canal dentin microhardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallaf, Maram E

    2017-01-01

    Successful root canal treatment depends on proper cleaning, disinfecting and shaping of the root canal space. Pulpless teeth have lower dentin microhardness value compared to that of vital teeth. A material which can cause change in dentin composition may affect the microhardness. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of two root canal sealers on dentin microhardness. Forty two single rooted teeth were selected and divided into 3 equal groups; Apexit, iRootSP and control groups (n=14) Each group was then divided into 2 subgroups according to the post evaluation period; 1 week and 2 months (n=7). Root canal procedure was done in the experimental groups and obturation was made using either; Apexit, iRootSP or left unprepared and unobturated in the control group. Roots were sectioned transversely into cervical, middle and apical segments. The three sections of each root were mounted in a plastic chuck with acrylic resin. The coronal dentin surfaces of the root segments werepolished. Microhardness of each section was measured at 500 µm and 1000 µm from the canal lumen. Four way-ANOVA revealed that different tested sealer materials, canal third, measuring distance from the pulp and time as independent variables had statistically non significant effect on mean microhardness values (VHN) at p≤0.001. Among iRootSP groups there was a statistically significant difference between iRoot SP at coronal root portion (87.79±17.83) and iRoot SP at apical root portion (76.26±9.33) groups where (p=0.01). IRoot SP at coronal canal third had higher statistically significant mean microhardness value (87.79±17.83) compared to Apexit at coronal third (73.61±13.47) where (p=0.01). Root canal sealers do not affect dentin microhardness. Key words:Root canal, dentin, sealers, microhardness, bioceramic.

  8. Cochlear implant outcomes in patients with superior canal dehiscence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puram, Sidharth V.; Roberts, Daniel S.; Niesten, Marlien E F|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/377125202; Dilger, Amanda E.; Lee, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether adult cochlear implant (CI) users with superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) or asymptomatic superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) have different surgical, vestibular, and audiologic outcomes when compared to CI users with normal temporal bone anatomy.

  9. Surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canals of maxillary incisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Min; Yi, Jin-Kyu; Choi, Sung-Baik; Park, Sang-Hyuk

    2015-02-01

    This case report presents surgical endodontic management outcomes of maxillary incisors that were infected via the lateral canals. Two cases are presented in which endodontically-treated maxillary central incisors had sustained lateral canal infections. A surgical endodontic treatment was performed on both teeth. Flap elevation revealed vertical bone destruction along the root surface and infected lateral canals, and microscopy revealed that the lateral canals were the origin of the lesions. After the infected lateral canals were surgically managed, both teeth were asymptomatic and labial fistulas were resolved. There were no clinical or radiographic signs of surgical endodontic management failure at follow-up visits. This case report highlights the clinical significance and surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canal of maxillary incisor. It is important to be aware of root canal anatomy variability in maxillary incisors. Maxillary central incisors infected via the lateral canal can be successfully managed by surgical endodontic treatment.

  10. Intradermal melanocytic nevus of the external auditory canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Renato V; Brandão, Fabiano H; Aquino, José E P; Carvalho, Maria R M S; Giancoli, Suzana M; Younes, Eduado A P

    2005-01-01

    Intradermal nevi are common benign pigmented skin tumors. Their occurrence within the external auditory canal is uncommon. The clinical and pathologic features of an intradermal nevus arising within the external auditory canal are presented, and the literature reviewed.

  11. Radiographic versus electronic root canal working length determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumnije Kqiku

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The present ex vivo study showed that electronic root canal working length determination is not superior to radiographic methods. Both methods provided a good performance in determining the root canal working length.

  12. Report from the Panama Canal Stakeholder Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This project assists the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) in assessing the potential impacts of the Panama Canal expansion on Texas ports and the landside transportation system. TxDOT formed a Panama Canal Stakeholder Working Group (PCSWG) ...

  13. An in vivo evaluation of two types of files used to accurately determine the diameter of the apical constriction of a root canal: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darda, Sumeet; Manwar, Narendra; Chandak, Manoj; Shori, D D

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare sizes of the first instrument with or without a taper that binds at the apical constriction of a root canal after coronal flaring. A total of 310 canals were evaluated in patients presenting for root canal therapy. Canals with intact apices were selected. After gaining straight line endodontic access, the coronal third was flared using Gates-Glidden drills. Working length was determined using an apex locator. ISO Standard K-files (tapered) were passively introduced into the canals starting with a No. 15 file. The first K-file size to bind against the canal walls without pushing and to reach the working length was recorded as the FKFB (First K File to Bind). Next, ISO Standard Lightspeed files (non-tapered instruments) starting with No. 20 were then gently introduced by hand to each canal in ascending order to the working length. The first size of a Lightspeed instrument to bind against the canal walls and reach the working length was recorded as FLSB (First Light Speed to Bind). In all instances a larger file was introduced to ensure it could not reach the same depth (i.e., working length). Statistical analysis was carried out using a univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA). The average size of the FLSB to bind against the canal walls first at the working length was approximately two ISO sizes larger than the FKFB (Papical canal diameter plays a major factor in identifying the extent of final apical shaping. Because the first non-tapered instrument that binds the apical constriction is larger than the corresponding tapered instrument, it better reflects the actual narrow apical diameter of the canal. The initiation of canal instrumentation with a K-file size three sizes beyond the mean values of the FLSB will result in greater final enlargement of the canal compared to starting with the FKFB. This increased canal enlargement facilitates improved mechanical and chemical cleansing of the root canal ensuring removal of more

  14. Viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function using acoustic reflectometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Peter J; Klarskov, Niels; Telford, Karen J

    2012-01-01

    Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new reproducible technique that allows a viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis.......Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new reproducible technique that allows a viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis....

  15. 75 FR 32275 - Regulated Navigation Area; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ..., Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey Canal, Algiers Canal, New Orleans, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...), Harvey Canal, and Algiers Canal during severe hurricane conditions. Vessels will not be permitted to stay... communities within the IHNC, Harvey, and Algiers Canals from potential hazards associated with vessels being...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate, intended...

  17. 5 CFR 550.714 - Panama Canal Commission employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Panama Canal Commission employees. 550... PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.714 Panama Canal Commission employees. (a) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this subpart, an employee separated from employment with the Panama Canal...

  18. Maxillary First Premolar with Three Root Canals: A Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the tooth is needed to ensure a proper endodontic treatment. This article reports a rare finding of three canals in a maxillary first premolar with non well defined root outline radiographically during an elective root canal treatment. Keywords: Maxillary First Premolar, Endodontic Treatment, Elective, Root Canal Morphology ...

  19. Lumbar Vertebral Canal Diameters in Adult Ugandan Skeletons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Normal values of lumbar vertebral canal diameters are useful in facilitating diagnosis of lumbar vertebral canal stenosis. Various studies have established variation on values between different populations, gender, age, and ethnic groups. Objectives: To determine the lumbar vertebral canal diameters in adult ...

  20. The crazy project – Canal Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Kundak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It was late April 2011 when “the Crazy Project - Canal Istanbul” was proposed by the Prime Minister of Turkey, during his election campaign.  Although the idea of an artificial canal is not new, since it is initiated without any consensus between the people and institutions in Istanbul, the project immediately set a large number of debates. These vary from the legitimacy of decentralization of governance, to potential impacts of the canal on international politics, economy, environment and urban life.  Regarding past infrastructure projects in Istanbul, such large scale investments have caused extensive acceleration in construction sector in one hand and social and economic shifts on the other.  In this paper, the Canal Istanbul Project is evaluated according to basic motivations and claims of the PM, multi-perspective view through challenges and limitation that the project is likely to face with and speculations on implementation approach. The final discussion on the project is based on benefits/losses of Istanbul once the project will be implemented.

  1. Cancer of the external auditory canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyrop, Mette; Grøntved, Aksel

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of surgery for cancer of the external auditory canal and relate this to the Pittsburgh staging system used both on squamous cell carcinoma and non-squamous cell carcinoma. DESIGN: Retrospective case series of all patients who had surgery between 1979 and 2000. M...

  2. Infrared typmanic tempature and ear canal morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Several publications indicate that the infrared tympanic temperature (IRTT) underestimates the core temperature of the body when the ear canal is long, curvy and narrow. In order to quantify these observations, a study was performed in 10 subjects. The IRTT was determined and compared to the

  3. The Panama Canal and Social Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Margaret D., Ed.

    The booklet, designed to explore the issues of international justice in the context of the Gospel, reviews relations between the United States and Panama. It includes background materials and a study guide for parish leaders and other educators. The central question pertaining to the Panama Canal concerns the rights of the United States according…

  4. Residuos de antimicrobianos en canales de vacas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    GESCHE, E; EMILFORK, C

    1998-01-01

    Con la finalidad de conocer la presencia de residuos de antibióticos y sulfamidas en animales de abasto, se analizaron las canales de 300 vacas faenadas en una Planta Faenadora de Carnes de la X Región de Chile...

  5. Utilizing geophysical methods for asessment and characterization of canal seepage in El Paso's lower valley irrigation delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegon, Amanda Brooke

    El Paso County Water Improvement District No. 1 (EPCWID No.1) delivers the Rio Grande water for agricultural production and urban uses through numerous networked irrigation canals. Of the nearly 86 billion gallons of water released annually for irrigation uses in Texas, billions are lost due to evaporation and seepage in unlined canals with 56 million gallons of the billions are lost in Franklin Canal annually due to improper lining and sediment variation of the canals. To characterize seepage patterns and identify areas of high seepage, Electrical Resistivity, Ground Truthing via soil sample analysis were used along three, half-mile long sectioned canals during irrigation and non-irrigation seasons. The data lines acquired were processed in EARTHIMAGER 2D to create 2D vertical resistivity inversion profiles to locate potential areas of high seepage/high resistivity. The research results will help El Paso County Water Improvement District No. 1 to develop management strategies to conserve water and improve the delivery efficiency systems which leads to economic growth in the Rio Grande Basin.

  6. Semiconductor laser irradiation improves root canal sealing during routine root canal therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Dandan; Hu, Xingxue; Wang, Dashan; Cui, Ting; Yao, RuYong; Sun, Huibin

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of semiconductor laser irradiation on root canal sealing after routine root canal therapy (RCT). Methods Sixty freshly extracted single-rooted human teeth were randomly divided into six groups (n = 10). The anatomic crowns were sectioned at the cementoenamel junction and the remaining roots were prepared endodontically with conventional RCT methods. Groups A and B were irradiated with semiconductor laser at 1W for 20 seconds; Groups C and D were ultrasonically...

  7. MR determination of neonatal spinal canal depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen, E-mail: owenarthurs@uk2.net [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London WC1N 3JH (United Kingdom); Thayyil, Sudhin, E-mail: s.thayyil@ucl.ac.uk [Academic Neonatology, Institute for Women' s Health, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom); Wade, Angie, E-mail: a.wade@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Chong, W.K., E-mail: Kling.Chong@gosh.nhs.uk [Paediatric Neuroradiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J., E-mail: Neil.Sebire@gosh.nhs.uk [Histopathology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom); Taylor, Andrew M., E-mail: a.taylor76@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Cardiorespiratory Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children and UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Objectives: Lumbar punctures (LPs) are frequently performed in neonates and often result in traumatic haemorrhagic taps. Knowledge of the distance from the skin to the middle of the spinal canal (mid-spinal canal depth - MSCD) may reduce the incidence of traumatic taps, but there is little data in extremely premature or low birth weight neonates. Here, we determined the spinal canal depth at post-mortem in perinatal deaths using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients and methods: Spinal canal depth was measured in 78 post-mortem foetuses and perinatal cases (mean gestation 26 weeks; mean weight 1.04 kg) at the L3/L4 inter-vertebral space at post-mortem MRI. Both anterior (ASCD) and posterior (PSCD) spinal canal depth were measured; MSCD was calculated and modelled against weight and gestational age. Results: ASCD and PSCD (mm) correlated significantly with weight and gestational age (all r > 0.8). A simple linear model MSCD (mm) = 3 Multiplication-Sign Weight (kg) + 5 was the best fit, identifying an SCD value within the correct range for 87.2% (68/78) (95% CI (78.0, 92.9%)) cases. Gestational age did not add significantly to the predictive value of the model. Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between MSCD and body weight at post-mortem MRI in foetuses and perinatal deaths. If this association holds in preterm neonates, use of the formula MSCD (mm) = 3 Multiplication-Sign Weight (kg) + 5 could result in fewer traumatic LPs in this population.

  8. Cervical spinal canal narrowing in idiopathic syringomyelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struck, Aaron F. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Neurology, Boston, MA (United States); Carr, Carrie M. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Shah, Vinil [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hesselink, John R. [University of California San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Haughton, Victor M. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The cervical spine in Chiari I patient with syringomyelia has significantly different anteroposterior diameters than it does in Chiari I patients without syringomyelia. We tested the hypothesis that patients with idiopathic syringomyelia (IS) also have abnormal cervical spinal canal diameters. The finding in both groups may relate to the pathogenesis of syringomyelia. Local institutional review boards approved this retrospective study. Patients with IS were compared to age-matched controls with normal sagittal spine MR. All subjects had T1-weighted spin-echo (500/20) and T2-weighted fast spin-echo (2000/90) sagittal cervical spine images at 1.5 T. Readers blinded to demographic data and study hypothesis measured anteroposterior diameters at each cervical level. The spinal canal diameters were compared with a Mann-Whitney U test. The overall difference was assessed with a Friedman test. Seventeen subjects were read by two reviewers to assess inter-rater reliability. Fifty IS patients with 50 age-matched controls were studied. IS subjects had one or more syrinxes varying from 1 to 19 spinal segments. Spinal canal diameters narrowed from C1 to C3 and then enlarged from C5 to C7 in both groups. Diameters from C2 to C4 were narrower in the IS group (p < 0.005) than in controls. The ratio of the C3 to the C7 diameters was also smaller (p = 0.004) in IS than controls. Collectively, the spinal canal diameters in the IS were significantly different from controls (Friedman test p < 0.0001). Patients with IS have abnormally narrow upper and mid cervical spinal canal diameters and greater positive tapering between C3 and C7. (orig.)

  9. Cervical spinal canal narrowing in idiopathic syringomyelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, Aaron F; Carr, Carrie M; Shah, Vinil; Hesselink, John R; Haughton, Victor M

    2016-08-01

    The cervical spine in Chiari I patient with syringomyelia has significantly different anteroposterior diameters than it does in Chiari I patients without syringomyelia. We tested the hypothesis that patients with idiopathic syringomyelia (IS) also have abnormal cervical spinal canal diameters. The finding in both groups may relate to the pathogenesis of syringomyelia. Local institutional review boards approved this retrospective study. Patients with IS were compared to age-matched controls with normal sagittal spine MR. All subjects had T1-weighted spin-echo (500/20) and T2-weighted fast spin-echo (2000/90) sagittal cervical spine images at 1.5 T. Readers blinded to demographic data and study hypothesis measured anteroposterior diameters at each cervical level. The spinal canal diameters were compared with a Mann-Whitney U test. The overall difference was assessed with a Friedman test. Seventeen subjects were read by two reviewers to assess inter-rater reliability. Fifty IS patients with 50 age-matched controls were studied. IS subjects had one or more syrinxes varying from 1 to 19 spinal segments. Spinal canal diameters narrowed from C1 to C3 and then enlarged from C5 to C7 in both groups. Diameters from C2 to C4 were narrower in the IS group (p < 0.005) than in controls. The ratio of the C3 to the C7 diameters was also smaller (p = 0.004) in IS than controls. Collectively, the spinal canal diameters in the IS were significantly different from controls (Friedman test p < 0.0001). Patients with IS have abnormally narrow upper and mid cervical spinal canal diameters and greater positive tapering between C3 and C7.

  10. MAXILLARY FIRST PREMOLARS WITH THREE ROOT CANALS: TWO CASE REPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeliha UĞUR

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It is very important that the dentists have sufficient information about possible variations in the expected root canal configurations in order to achieve success in endodontic treatment. In addition to having adequate knowledge on the variations of the root canal anatomy, periapical radiographs from different angles, careful examination of the pulp chamber floor, and use of dental operation microscope during the procedure are also important factors that contribute to the diagnosis of the additional roots and canals. The aims of this article are to present the diagnostic approach and root canal treatments of two maxillary first premolar teeth with three canals in two patients.

  11. Endodontic treatment options after unsuccessful initial root canal treatment: Alternatives to single-tooth implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabinejad, Mahmoud; White, Shane N

    2016-03-01

    Initial root canal treatment is highly successful, appreciated by patients, and cost-effective, but failures occur. Should a tooth with unsuccessful initial root canal treatment be treated by means of other endodontic procedures or be replaced by a single-tooth implant? Results from systematic reviews of the outcomes of nonsurgical retreatment, apical surgery, replantation, and autotransplantation show high tooth survival rates. Nonsurgical retreatment generally is prioritized before surgical endodontic treatment. Microsurgical endodontic treatment is superior to traditional surgical endodontic treatment and has high survival rates. Intentional replantation remains a viable alternative to extraction. Autotransplantation has a place, particularly in growing patients with an appropriate donor tooth. Single-tooth implants have higher survival rates, but the natural state has intrinsic value. The first-line treatment option after failure of initial root canal treatment is nonsurgical retreatment. Endodontic surgery, intentional replantation, and autotransplantation should be considered before extraction and replacement by a single-tooth implant. Comprehensive case assessment, evaluation of all endodontic options, and risk assessment for caries and periodontal disease are always necessary when choosing the optimal treatment for a patient when initial root canal treatment has failed to heal. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sagittal MR findings of L5 spondylolysis : changes of spinal canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Cheol; Choi, Woo Suk; Kim, Eui Jong; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Kim, Ihn Sub; Yoon, Yup [Kyunghee Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    To evaluate changes in the spinal canal in cases of L5 spondylolysis, as seen on sagittal MR images. We retrospectively analysed the MR findings of 27 patients suffering from L5 spondylolysis without spondylolisthesis and compared them with 100 control subjects. Spondylolysis had been confirmed by conventional radiography. On midsagittal MR images, sagittal canal ratio (SCR) was defined as midsagittal canal diameter at L5 devided by that at L1. We analysed the frequency of posterior epidural fat deposition(posterior epidural fat between the posterior margin of the dural sac and the anterior cortical margin of the spinous process on the midsagittal line), and compared this with the frequency in 100 control subjects. Mean SCR value in 27 patients with L5 spondylolysis(1.22) was significantly greater than 100 control subjects(0.96, p<0.001). Mean SCR value in 17 patients with L5 spondylolysis and posterior epidural fat deposition(1.27) was significantly higher than in nine control subjects with posterior epidural fat deposition(0.97). Posterior epidural fat deposition was more frequently indentified in patients with L5 spondylolysis(63%) than in control subjects(9%). The possibility of L5 spondylolysis is suggested when on midsaggital MR imaging, the anteroposterior diameter of the L5 spinal canal is seen to be widened and posterior epidural fat deposition is noted.

  13. Numerical modeling of the 1964 Alaska tsunami in western Passage Canal and Whittier, Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Nicolsky

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A numerical model of the wave dynamics in Passage Canal, Alaska during the Mw 9.2 megathrust earthquake is presented. During the earthquake, several types of waves were identified at the city of Whittier, located at the head of Passage Canal. The first wave is thought to have been a seiche, while the other two waves were probably triggered by submarine landslides. We model the seiche wave, landslide-generated tsunami, and tectonic tsunami in Passage Canal and compute inundation by each type of wave during the 1964 event. Modeled results are compared with eyewitness reports and an observed inundation line. Results of the numerical experiments let us identify where the submarine landslides might have occurred during the 1964 event. We identify regions at the head and along the northern shore of Passage Canal, where landslides triggered a wave that caused most of the damage in Whittier. An explanation of the fact that the 1964 tectonic tsunami in Whittier was unnoticed is presented as well. The simulated inundation by the seiche, landslide-generated tsunami, and tectonic tsunami can help to mitigate tsunami hazards and prepare Whittier for a potential tsunami.

  14. A new system for classifying tooth, root and canal anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, H M A; Dummer, P M H

    2017-10-12

    Understanding the normal anatomical features as well as the more unusual developmental anomalies of teeth, roots and root canals is essential for successful root canal treatment. In addition to various types of root canal configuration and accessory canal morphology, a wide range of developmental tooth, root and canal anomalies exists, including C-shaped canals, dens invaginatus, taurodontism, root fusion, dilacerations and palato-gingival grooves. There is a direct association between developmental anomalies and pulp and periradicular diseases that usually require a multidisciplinary treatment approach to achieve a successful outcome. A number of classifications have categorized tooth, root and canal anomalies; however, several important details are often missed making the classifications less than ideal and potentially confusing. Recently, a new coding system for classifying root, root canal and accessory canal morphology has been introduced. The purpose of this article is to introduce a new system for classifying tooth, root and canal anomalies for use in research, clinical practice and training, which can serve as complementary codes to the recently described system for classifying root, as well as main and accessory canal morphology. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [Measurements of semicircular canal space direction with MRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaokai; Wu, Shuzhi; Ye, Hua

    2015-10-01

    Measure the space direction of semicircular canals to provide the anatomical basis for the diagnosis and treatment of BPPV. We calculated angles among semicircular canals of 24 patients using MRI scaning with 3D-CISS sequence. The angle between the left and right posterior semicircular canals was 106.61 degress ± 8.58 degrees, so the angle among the posterior semicircular canals and sagittal head plane was 53.31 degrees ± 4.29 degrees. Pairs of contralateral synergistic canal planes were not parallel, forming 171.67 degrees ± 4.36 degrees between the left and right horizontal semicircular canal planes, 154.37 degrees ± 10.87 degrees between the left posterior and right anterior semicircular canal planes and 156.84 degrees ± 9.34 degrees between the right posterior and left anterior semicircular canal planes. Our measurement of the angles among semicircular canals coincided with those of previous reports. The angles between contralateral synergistic canal planes were close to parallel, but the angle between the posterior semicircular canals and sagittal head plane was great than 45 degrees that traditionally thought to be.

  16. Anal cancer; Cancer du canal anal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesneau, M.; Champeaux-Orange, E. [Service de radiotherapie, Centre regional universitaire de cancerologie Henry-S.-Kaplan CHU de Tours, Hopital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France); Champeaux-Orange, E. [Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, Centre hospitalier regional d' Orleans, 45 - Orleans (France); Hennequin, C. [Service de cancerologie-radiotherapie, hopital Saint-Louis, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    Anal canal epidermoid carcinomas represent 1.2% of digestive cancers and 6% of ano-rectal cancers. For localized diseases, the treatment is based on radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy (5-FU and cisplatin or mitomycin), according to tumour and nodal extension. The recommended treatment dose is 45 Gy in the anal canal, the mesorectum, para-rectal lymph nodes, and inguinal lymph nodes. An additional dose of 15 to 20 Gy is delivered in the initial tumour for good responders. Salvage surgery is necessary in case of poor response. The organs at risk to be considered are bladder, femur heads, small intestine and vulva. The objective of this work is to summarize the epidemiological and radio-anatomic and prognostic characteristics of this tumour. The conformal radiotherapy technique is illustrated by a case report. (authors)

  17. Root Canal Filling after Revascularization/Revitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascencia, Hugo; Cruz, Álvaro; Díaz, Mariana; Jiménez, Ana Laura; Solís, Rodrigo; Bernal, Cesar

    Revascularization/revitalization therapy is considered an alternative procedure for management of teeth with an immature apex and necrotic pulp, mainly when root development is interrupted in the early phases of formation. However, this clinical treatment protocol should be considered a permanent procedure? A maxillary central incisor with a previous and successful RR treatment was intentionally filled with a biocompatible material with the periapical tissues due to the patient's lack of adherence to the follow-up protocol. The 20-month follow-up showed absence of clinical, radiological and tomographic signs and symptoms of an endodontic re-infection. This case demonstrates that once the increased thickening of the canal walls, incrementing the root length, apical closure and the total resolution of the apical lesion are observed, the main canal of a previously treated tooth with an RR procedure can be filled.

  18. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, F T

    2012-01-31

    Squamous cell carcinoma ofthe anal canal represents 1.5% of all malignancies affectingthe gastrointestinal tract. Over the past 20 years dramatic changes have been seen in both the epidemiological distribution of the disease and in the therapeutic modalities utilised to manage it. CLINICAL MANAGEMENT: Historically abdominoperineal resection had been the treatment of choice with local resection reserved for early stage disease. Work by Nigro et al. has revolutionised how we currently manage carcinoma of the anal canal, demonstrating combined modality chemoradiotherapy as an appropriate alternative to surgical resection with the benefit of preserving sphincter function. Surgery is then reserved for recurrent disease with salvage abdominoperineal resection. This article reviews current literature and highlights the changing therapeutic modalities with selected clinical cases

  19. Neuronal hyperplasia in the anal canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, C; Schrøder, H D

    1990-01-01

    In a consecutive series of minor surgical specimens from the anal canal, neuronal hyperplasia was found in nine of 56 haemorrhoidectomy specimens and in four of 23 fibrous polyps. In an additional series of 14 resections of the anal canal, neuronal hyperplasia was present in six cases, of which...... five showed haemorrhoids. In all cases, neuronal hyperplasia was located in the submucosa beneath squamous epithelium and extended over an area from 5 to 12 mm. Immunohistochemically, the foci of hyperplasia were found to consist of both neuronal and Schwann cell components. Staining for vasoactive...... intestinal peptide, neuropeptide Y and calcitonin gene related peptide, did not demonstrate any increased terminal density. It is suggested that anal neuronal hyperplasia in these cases represents an acquired lesion due to local mechanical influence....

  20. The shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal A forma do canal vertebral lombar humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Zarzur

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on the anatomy of the human vertebral column characterizes the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal as triangular. The purpose of the present study was to determine the precise shape of the lumbar vertebral canal. Ten lumbar vertebral columns of adult male cadavers were dissected. Two transverse sections were performed in the third lumbar vertebra. One section was performed at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava, and the other section was performed at the level of the pedicles. The shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the pedicles tends to be oval or circular, whereas the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava is triangular. Thus, the shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal is not exclusively triangular, as reported in the literature. It is related to the level of the transversal section performed on the lumbar vertebra. This finding should be taken into consideration among factors involved in the spread of solutions introduced into the epidural space.A literatura sobre a anatomia da coluna vertebral descreve como sendo triangular o formato do canal vertebral na região lombar. O objetivo deste estudo é determinar a real forma do canal da coluna vertebral lombar.Dez colunas vertebrais de cadáveres de homens adultos foram dissecadas. Dois cortes transversais foram executados na terceira vértebra lombar. Um corte foi feito no nível das bordas inferiores de dois ligamentos amarelos vizinhos e o outro corte foi transversal, no nível dos pedículos. A forma do canal vertebral variou: no nível dos pedículos ela tende a ser oval ou circular e junto às bordas inferiores dos ligamentos amarelos passa a ser triangular. Portanto, a forma do canal vertebral lombar não é somente triangular; ela depende do nível em que se faz o corte transversal da vértebra. Estes achados devem ser levados em consideração entre os fatores envolvidos na difusão das

  1. Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, O

    2009-02-01

    The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, O

    2012-02-01

    The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

  3. Root canal filling using Resilon: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, D J

    2011-07-01

    Root canal treatment is achieved by chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system followed by filling. The filling material \\'entombs\\' residual bacteria and acts as a barrier which prevents the entrance of oral microorganisms and reinfection of the root canal system through microleakage. However, filling with contemporary root filling materials such as gutta-percha offers limited long-term resistance to microorganisms; as a result other materials such as Resilon have been investigated as alternatives. The aim of this review was to analyse the literature to consider whether Resilon is a suitable root canal filling material. A MEDLINE and Cochrane library search including various keyword searches identified several papers which investigated or discussed Resilon or RealSeal\\/Epiphany. Analysis of the literature demonstrated that the bulk of the literature is in vitro in nature, based largely on leakage-type studies, and demonstrates a wide variety of methodologies with conflicting findings; as a result meaningful conclusions are difficult. Within the limit of these in vitro studies Resilon appears to perform adequately in comparison to gutta-percha, however, as a result of the questionable merit of such studies, it cannot presently be considered an evidence-based alternative to the current gold standard gutta-percha. It is imperative that before Resilon is considered as a replacement material, a better understanding of the physical properties of the resin sealer and the reality of the adhesive \\'monoblock\\' are elucidated. The literature also demonstrates a paucity of quality long-term clinical outcome studies which will need to be addressed before firm conclusions can be reached.

  4. Carotid canal dehiscence in the human skull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor Vazquez, J.F.; Gil Verona, J.A. [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valladolid, Ramon y Cajal, 7, E-47005 Valladolid (Spain); Garcia Porrero, M. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valladolid (Spain)

    1999-06-01

    Abnormalities of the floor of the carotid canal have been studied in 538 skulls. These abnormalities range from a fissure to total absence of the floor. This variation may be caused by abnormalities of the internal carotid artery or deficiencies in ossification of the skull base. CT suggests that these changes should be taken into account by surgeons working on the skull base. (orig.) With 4 figs., 8 refs.

  5. Roentgenographic study of the mandibular canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hyung Kyu [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-11-15

    The mandibular canal must be considered carefully during the surgical treatment, especially surgical extraction of the impacted tooth and intraosseous implant, because it contains the important inferior alveolar nerve and vessels. The author investigated the curvature of the mandibular canal and its relation to the mandibular molars and positional relation between the mental foramen and the mandibular premolars in orthopantomogram. The materials consisted of 441 orthopantomograms divided four groups; Group I consisted of 56 males and 44 females from 1 to 6 years of age, Group II consisted of 58 males and 45 females from 7 to 12 years of age, Group III consisted of 65 males and 33 females from 13 to 18 years of age, Group IV consisted of 86 males and 54 females over 19 years of age. The results were as followings; 1. The curvature of mandibular canal was 144.50 .deg. in Group II, 148.11 .deg. in Group III, 147.33 .deg. in Group IV. 2. The curvature of mandibular canal was located most frequently on the area between mandibular 1st molar and mandibular 2nd molar in Group I (42%) and on the mandibular 2nd molar area in Group II (54%), Group III (59%), Group IV (53%). 3. The position of mental foramen was most frequently below the mandibular 1st premolar in Group I (58%), between the mandibular 1st premolar and the 2nd premolar in Group II (62%), Group III (47%), and below the mandibular 2nd premolar in Group IV (58%).

  6. Lesions in the external auditory canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyank S Chatra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The external auditory canal is an S- shaped osseo-cartilaginous structure that extends from the auricle to the tympanic membrane. Congenital, inflammatory, neoplastic, and traumatic lesions can affect the EAC. High-resolution CT is well suited for the evaluation of the temporal bone, which has a complex anatomy with multiple small structures. In this study, we describe the various lesions affecting the EAC.

  7. Semiconductor laser irradiation improves root canal sealing during routine root canal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dandan; Hu, Xingxue; Wang, Dashan; Cui, Ting; Yao, Ruyong; Sun, Huibin

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of semiconductor laser irradiation on root canal sealing after routine root canal therapy (RCT). Sixty freshly extracted single-rooted human teeth were randomly divided into six groups (n = 10). The anatomic crowns were sectioned at the cementoenamel junction and the remaining roots were prepared endodontically with conventional RCT methods. Groups A and B were irradiated with semiconductor laser at 1W for 20 seconds; Groups C and D were ultrasonically rinsed for 60 seconds as positive control groups; Groups E and F without treatment of root canal prior to RCT as negative control groups. Root canal sealing of Groups A, C and E were evaluated by measurements of apical microleakage. The teeth from Groups B, D and F were sectioned, and the micro-structures were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). One way ANOVA and LSD-t test were used for statistical analysis (α = .05). The apical sealing of both the laser irradiated group and the ultrasonic irrigated group were significantly different from the control group (p0.5). SEM observation showed that most of the dentinal tubules in the laser irradiation group melted, narrowed or closed, while most of the dentinal tubules in the ultrasonic irrigation group were filled with tooth paste. The application of semiconductor laser prior to root canal obturation increases the apical sealing of the roots treated.

  8. Semiconductor laser irradiation improves root canal sealing during routine root canal therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Su

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of semiconductor laser irradiation on root canal sealing after routine root canal therapy (RCT.Sixty freshly extracted single-rooted human teeth were randomly divided into six groups (n = 10. The anatomic crowns were sectioned at the cementoenamel junction and the remaining roots were prepared endodontically with conventional RCT methods. Groups A and B were irradiated with semiconductor laser at 1W for 20 seconds; Groups C and D were ultrasonically rinsed for 60 seconds as positive control groups; Groups E and F without treatment of root canal prior to RCT as negative control groups. Root canal sealing of Groups A, C and E were evaluated by measurements of apical microleakage. The teeth from Groups B, D and F were sectioned, and the micro-structures were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM. One way ANOVA and LSD-t test were used for statistical analysis (α = .05.The apical sealing of both the laser irradiated group and the ultrasonic irrigated group were significantly different from the control group (p0.5. SEM observation showed that most of the dentinal tubules in the laser irradiation group melted, narrowed or closed, while most of the dentinal tubules in the ultrasonic irrigation group were filled with tooth paste.The application of semiconductor laser prior to root canal obturation increases the apical sealing of the roots treated.

  9. Comparison of Bacterial Leakage between 3 Different Root Canal Obturation Techniques in Oval Shaped Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshagh-ali Saberi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of 3 obturation techniques in oval-shaped canals by bacterial leakage assessment. Methods: Sixty mandibular incisors with oval canals were selected after providing buccolingual and mesiodistal radiographs. The teeth were sectioned at a 10 mm distance from the apex. After instrumentation, the teeth were divided into 3 groups and the canals in the three groups were obturated with lateral condensation (G1, warm vertical condensation (G2 and thermoplasticized injectable gutta percha (G3. The teeth were exposed to human saliva. Observing the turbidity of the BHI broth for a period of 63 days the number of days required for the complete contamination of root canals was recorded. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods and Kruskal-Wallis test with SPSS statistical software. Results: Warm vertical condensation (G2 needed a significantly greater average time for leakage than the two other methods. No significant differences were found between lateral condensations and thermoplasticized injectable G.P techniques. Conclusion: warm vertical condensation provides a better seal against bacterial leakage than lateral condensation and obtura II method in obturating oval-canals.

  10. Anterior canal lithiasis: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casani, Augusto Pietro; Cerchiai, Niccolò; Dallan, Iacopo; Sellari-Franceschini, Stefano

    2011-03-01

    To describe the clinical and oculographic features in patients with anterior semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and to determine the efficacy of a canalith repositioning procedure for its management. Case series with chart review of patients presenting positional vertigo and positional downbeating nystagmus during a 2-year period. Outpatients' tertiary referral center for balance disorders. Eighteen patients suffering from positional vertigo and presenting positional downbeating nystagmus were treated with a maneuver based on a modification of the procedure proposed by Crevits. disappearance of positional downbeating nystagmus. Positional downbeating nystagmus was elicited unilaterally with the Dix-Hallpike maneuver in 6 cases. In 4 patients, it was triggered by both left and right Dix-Hallpike tests. In 8 patients, the positional nystagmus was elicited by a straight head-hanging maneuver. The positional nystagmus was purely downbeating in 12 patients. In the remaining, a torsional component was detected. After the treatment, only 1 patient showed positional nystagmus at 30 days. In anterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, the presence of a positional downbeating nystagmus in response to positional tests is key for diagnosis. In a significant number of patients, the affected side may not be detected because of the inconstant presence of a torsional component. Treatment with a simplified maneuver based on Crevits's technique can be considered an effective method for the treatment of anterior canal lithiasis, especially when the affected side cannot be detected clearly.

  11. Effects of root canal sealers on alkaline phosphatase in human osteoblastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fu-Mei; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2010-07-01

    Histologic investigations have demonstrated that root canal sealers can induce mild to severe bone resorption. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a membrane-bound glycoprotein, which is one of the osteogenic differentiation markers considered to indicate the formation of new bone. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an epoxy resin-based sealer AH26, a zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealer Canals, and a paste sealer N2 on the expression of ALP in human osteoblastic cell line U2OS cells. Freshly mixed materials were filled in glass rings and eluted in 10 mL of culture medium for 1 day. Subsequently, various dilutions (final dilution: 1/2, 1/4, and 1/8) of these extraction media were prepared for this study. Cytotoxicity was measured by the almar blue dye assay. Gene expression of ALP was examined by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. ALP activity was further evaluated by using substrate assay. The results showed that AH26, Canals, and N2 were cytotoxic to U2OS cells in a concentration-dependent manner (P < .05). The exposure of U2OS cells to AH26 and N2 resulted in the down-regulation of ALP mRNA gene expression (P < .05). ALP activity was significantly suppressed by 3 root canal sealers (P < .05). The inhibition of ALP expression might play an important role in the pathogenesis of root canal sealer-induced periapical bone destruction. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Author the red-med railway project a serious competitor to the suez canal for cargo containers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Y. Lakhal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Israel and China have finalized a project plan initiated in 2012. This project received the green light from Israeli cabinet in March 2014. With this venture, China will build a cargo railway line connecting the port of Eilat in the Red Sea to the ports of Ashdod and Haifa on the Mediterranean coast in Israel. This project will be a shipping alternative to the Suez Canal. This statement is the corner stone of this paper and considered an hypothesis to be verified within this paper. The methodology used is based on the concept of “market position.” The main conclusion, theoretically, the Red-Med railway could be an alternative to the Suez Canal for in the 4,000 TFE Vessels containers transportation as far as costs are concerned. However, other concerns, such as the security in the Suez Canal and the risk of its shutdown, must be considered too.

  13. A comparative evaluation of cytotoxicity of root canal sealers: an in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhadpande, Manjusha Madhukar; Meshram, Ganesh Kothiramji; Bahadure, Rakesh Namdeoraoji; Tawani, Shubha Gopal; Tawani, Gopal; Badole, Shital Gautam

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the cytotoxicity of four different root canal sealers i.e. Apexit Plus (Ivoclar Vivadent), Endomethasone N (Septodont), AH-26 (Dentsply) and Pulpdent Root Canal Sealer (Pulpdent), on a mouse fibroblast cell line (L929). Materials and Methods Thirty two discs for each sealer (5 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height) were fabricated in Teflon mould. The sealer extraction was made in cell culture medium (Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium, DMEM) using the ratio 1.25 cm2/mL between the surface of the sealer samples and the volume of medium in a shaker incubator. Extraction of each sealer was obtained at 24 hr, 7th day, 14th day, and one month of interval. These extracts were incubated with L929 cell line and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was done. Two-way ANOVA for interaction effects between sealer and time and Post-hoc multiple comparison using Tukey's test across all the 16 different groups were used for statistical analysis. Results Apexit Plus root canal sealer was significantly less toxic than other sealers (p Sealer showed severe to moderate toxicity. Conclusions Apexit Plus was relatively biocompatible sealer as compared to other three sealers which were cytotoxic at their initial stages, however, they became biocompatible with time. PMID:24303354

  14. Comparison of bacterial leakage resistance of various root canal filling materials and methods: Confocal laser-scanning microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ji Hee; Chung, Jin; Na, Hee-Sam; Park, Eunjoo; Kwak, Sangwon; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the bacterial leakage resistance and root canal lining efficacy of various root canal filling materials and methods by using confocal laser-scanning microscope (CLSM). Sixty extracted human premolars with mature apex and single root canal were randomly divided into 2 control groups and 4 experimental groups. Group CW was filled with continuous wave technique using gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. Group GC was coated with AH-Plus sealer and then obturated with soften GuttaCore. Group GF was obturated using GuttaFlow and gutta-percha. Group EM was filled with EndoSeal MTA and gutta-percha using ultrasonic vibration. The AH-Plus, GuttaFlow, and EndoSeal were labeled with Hoechst 33342 to facilitate fluorescence. The obturated root tip was incubated with Carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-stained E. faecalis for 14 days. CLSM was performed to evaluate the sealer distribution and bacterial leakage for the apical 1-, 2-, 3-mm specimens. Statistically significant differences were determined by 1-way ANOVA with Tukey's post-hoc test and Pearson's correlation analysis. Group EM showed the better sealer distribution score than the other groups (p  0.05). Under the conditions of this study, different root canal filling materials and methods showed different efficacy for canal distribution and bacterial leakage resistance. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Environmental pollution and shipping feasibility of the Nicaragua Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jihong; Zeng, Xin; Deng, Yibing

    2016-12-15

    In recent years, the Nicaraguan government's renewed interest in constructing this interoceanic canal has once again aroused widespread concern, particularly in the global shipping industry. The project's immense ecological risks, coupled with the recent expansions of both the Panama Canal and the Suez Canal, have raised questions among scientists and experts about its viability. Whether the Nicaragua Canal is really feasible for international shipping, given its high marine pollution risks, requires the further study. This paper discusses and analyses the feasibility of the Nicaragua Canal in the context of its environmental impact and value as a shipping service. This paper aims to provide an important information reference to inform strategic decision-making among policymakers and stakeholders. Our research results indicate that the environmental complexity, economic costs and safety risks of building a new transoceanic canal are simply too high to justify the project. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Root canal filling evaluation using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Hughes, Michael; Bradu, Adrian; Todea, Carmen; Balabuc, Cosmin I.; Filip, Laura M.; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2008-04-01

    The root canal fillings are destined to seal the root canal especially in the apical areea. Invasive techniques are known which are used to assess the quality of the seal. These lead to the destruction of the probes and often no conclusion could be drawn in respect to the existence of any microleakage in the investigated areas of interest. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a relatively novel non-invasive imaging technique which presents potential in assessing the microleakage of the apical area in the root canal fillings with micron depth resolution. 3D reconstruction allows a complete view with obvious display of gaps in the apical root canal filling. For this study, 30 monoradicular teeth were prepared by conventional and rotative methods. Afterwards, root canal fillings were produced in each tooth. The images obtained show some microleakage in all the investigated root canal fillings. The advantages of the OCT method consist in non-invasiveness and high resolution.

  17. Canal of Nuck hernia: a multimodality imaging review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, Mitchell A. [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Squires, James E. [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Gastroenterology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Tadros, Sameh; Squires, Judy H. [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Canal of Nuck abnormalities are a rare but important cause of morbidity in girls, most often those younger than 5 years of age. The canal of Nuck, which is the female equivalent of the male processus vaginalis, is a protrusion of parietal peritoneum that extends through the inguinal canal and terminates in the labia majora. The canal typically obliterates early in life, but in some cases the canal can partially or completely fail to close, potentially resulting in a hydrocele or hernia of pelvic contents. Recognition of this entity is especially important in cases of ovarian hernia due to the risk of incarceration and torsion. We aim to increase awareness of this condition by reviewing the embryology, anatomy and diagnosis of canal of Nuck disorders with imaging findings on US, CT and MRI using several cases from a single institution. (orig.)

  18. Single visit root canal treatment: A prospective study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-31

    Aug 31, 2013 ... Post‑operative pain in multiple‑visit and single‑visit root canal treatment. J Endod 2010;36:36‑9. 13. Ferranti P. Treatment of the root canal of an infected tooth in one appointment: A report of 340 cases. Dent Dig 1959;65:49‑53. 14. Ufomata D. One‑visit root canal therapy: A preliminary clinical study in ...

  19. Three root canals in the maxillary second premolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Almeida-Gomes Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report an endodontic treatment of the maxillary second premolar with three root canals and distinct foramens. The possibility of three root canals in this tooth is quite small; however, it must be taken into account in clinical and radiographic evaluation during endodontic treatment. Many times, their presence is noticed only after canal treatment due to continuing post-operative discomfort.

  20. STIFFNESS CHANGES OF THE CUPULA ASSOCIATED WITH THE MECHANICS OF HAIR-CELLS IN THE FISH LATERAL-LINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Netten, S.M.; KHANNA, SM

    1994-01-01

    Cupular vibration in the lateral-line canal of fish was measured in response to motion of the fluid in the canal by laser-heterodyne interferometry. The results show that the mechanical output/input ratio of the cupula depends on the stimulus amplitude; the cupula thus behaves nonlinearly. The

  1. [Canal infection. Ecological theory and repair with osteodentin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz, M A; Zeberio, T

    1991-01-01

    The characteristics of the infection in the root canal are analyzed, specially its development before pulpal necrosis. It is inferred that it is an ecological infection with a function: to decompose the necrosis. Inactivating the infection in the canal by the formocresol technique, calcium hidroxide or with the conventional basic treatment in Endodontics, cleaning, washing, disinfecting and, in this case, with partial obturation of the canal, it is possible to induce a reparation with osteodentine that can cover all the free extension of the canal.

  2. Mandibular second premolar with three canals: Re-treatment of a case with unusual root canal anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjan Desai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A thorough knowledge of root canal anatomy along with the anatomical variations that may be present is essential for success of endodontic therapy. Unusual presentations in the number of the roots or the canals should be expected in every tooth. Mandibular second premolars are thought of as having a single root and canal. Studies have stated that the prevalence of three canals with three orifices in this tooth is 0.4%. The mandibular second premolar is particularly difficult to treat owing to the fact that a wide variation in the number, location and curvature of the roots and canals exist. Added to this is the fact that the access opening is restricted and location of the lingually placed orifices is difficult. This case report details the re-treatment of a mandibular second premolar with three canals and three separate orifices using the surgical microscope.

  3. Revestimientos especiales para diques y canales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorzi, Silvano

    1964-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the possibilities and advantages of adopting special facings for dykes and canals, and generally for all large hydraulic works, where waterproofing is of paramount importance. Technical advances in recent years have made it possible to prefabricate many facing units used in these types of works; large slabs, made in reinforced and prestressed concrete, are flexible, and watertight. Although there are many possibilities and types of facing treatments, the one described here is outstanding. It consists of narrow slabs, highly flexible, placed transversally with respect to the canal axis. They are attached with cement mortar, and the joints are finally sealed with a special mortar, called «Emboco». In this article a description is also given of a series of projects, where facing treatments have been used, which are now successfully in service. Finally some general and simple advise is given on the best procedure to apply these facing treatments in the most effective and economic manner.En este trabajo se resumen las posibilidades y ventajas que ofrecen los revestimientos especiales de diques y taludes de canales y, en general, en todas las grandes obras hidráulicas, en que la impermeabilización es de mayor importancia al tratar de conservar los caudales iniciales o la retención de aguas embalsadas, según los casos. Los progresos de las técnicas modernas, en particular la prefabricación, han permitido este tipo de revestimientos con losas de gran longitud, extremadamente flexibles e impermeables, de hormigón armado y pretensado. Aunque son muchas las posibilidades y tipos de revestimiento, destaca el que a continuación se expone: consiste en placas o losas estrechas, de gran flexibilidad, colocadas transversalmente al eje del canal sobre tongadas de mortero de cemento, y cuyas juntas se sellan, finalmente, con un mortero especial llamado «Emboco». Complementan la exposición teórica del método una serie de

  4. Three distal root canals in mandibular first molar with different canal configurations: Report of two cases and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing number of reports of aberrant root canal morphology, the clinician needs to be aware of the variable anatomy. Various case reports have been published with the finding of middle mesial canal in mandibular first molar, however finding of three distal canals in distal roots of mandibular first molar is rare. This article reports endodontic management of two mandibular first molars presented with three distal canals present in a single distal root (Sert and Bayirli type XVIII and distal and distolingual root.

  5. Root canal treatment of mandibular second premolar tooth with taurodontism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujašković Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Taurodontism is a morphoanatomical change in the shape of a tooth. An enlarged body of a tooth with smaller than usual roots is a characteristic feature. Internal tooth anatomy correlates with this appearance, which means that a taurodontal tooth has a large pulp chamber and apically positioned furcations. This dental anomaly may be associated with different syndromes and congenital discoders. CASE OUTLINE The case report presents the patient of a rare case of taurodontism in the mandibular second premolar with chronic periodontitis. Endodontic treatment was performed after dental history and clinical examination. Special care is required in all segments of endodontic treatment of a taurodontal tooth from the identification orifice, canal exploration, determining working length, cleaning and shaping and obturation of the root canal. Precurved K-file was used for canal exploration and location of the furcation. One mesial and one distal canal with the buccal position were identified in the apical third of the root canal. The working lengths of two canals were determined by radiographic interpretation with two K-files in each canal and verified with the apex locator. During canal instrumentation, the third canal was located in the disto-lingual position. The working length of the third canal was established using the apex locator. CONCLUSION Thorough knowledge of tooth anatomy and its variations can lead to lower percentage of endodontic failure. Each clinical case involving these teeth should be investigated carefully, clinically and radiographically to detect additional root canals. High quality radiographs from different angles and proper instrumentarium improve the quality of endodontic procedure.

  6. [Root canal treatment of mandibular second premolar tooth with taurodontism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujasković, Mirjana; Karadzić, Branislav; Miletić, Vesna

    2008-01-01

    Taurodontism is a morphoanatomical change in the shape of a tooth. An enlarged body of a tooth with smaller than usual roots is a characteristic feature. Internal tooth anatomy correlates with this appearance, which means that a taurodontal tooth has a large pulp chamber and apically positioned furcations. This dental anomaly may be associated with different syndromes and congenital discoders. The case report presents the patient of a rare case of taurodontism in the mandibular second premolar with chronic periodontitis. Endodontic treatment was performed after dental history and clinical examination. Special care is required in all segments of endodontic treatment of a taurodontal tooth from the identification orifice, canal exploration, determining working length, cleaning and shaping and obturation of the root canal. Precurved K-file was used for canal exploration and location of the furcation. One mesial and one distal canal with the buccal position were identified in the apical third of the root canal. The working lengths of two canals were determined by radiographic interpretation with two K-files in each canal and verified with the apex locator. During canal instrumentation, the third canal was located in the disto-lingual position. The working length of the third canal was established using the apex locator. Thorough knowledge of tooth anatomy and its variations can lead to lower percentage of endodontic failure. Each clinical case involving these teeth should be investigated carefully, clinically and radiographically to detect additional root canals. High quality radiographs from different angles and proper instrumentarium improve the quality of endodontic procedure.

  7. File list: His.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. Endodontic management of permanent mandibular left first molar with six root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The endodontic treatment of a mandibular molar with aberrant canal configuration can be diagnostically and clinically challenging. This case report presents the treatment of a mandibular first molar with six root canals, of which three canals were located in the mesial root and three in distal root. Third canals were found between the two main root canals. This case presents a rare anatomic configuration and points to the importance of expecting and searching for additional canals.

  16. Visibility of the central canal on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit-Lacour, M.C.; Lasjaunias, P.; Iffenecker, C.; Benoudiba, F.; Hadj Rabia, M.; Doyon, D. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Faculte de Paris Sud (France); Hurth, M. [Department of Neurosurgery, Faculte Paris Sud, Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

    2000-10-01

    The central canal of the spinal cord is present at birth and becomes progressively obliterated. Cadaver studies have shown that it may persiste partially or completely. To our knowledge, this entity has not been described on MRI. We reviewed 794 MRI studies of the spinal cord, and found 12 patients (aged 14 to 65 years) who had an intramedullary cavity. The cavity was at the junction of the ventral {sup 1}/{sub 3} and dorsal {sup 2}/{sub 3} of the spinal cord, except at the level of the lumbar enlargement, where it was central. It was filiform in most cases, although sometimes fusiform (3 to 4 mm in diameter), and had regular contours. The cavity were thoracic in 69 % of cases. The clinical features were totally unrelated to the image, and there were no anatomical factors (Chiari malformation, dysraphism) predisposing to syringomyelia. The images were perfectly compatible with a persistent central canal, which we interpret as a variant of normal anatomy. Therefore it is important to regard these findings as normal, to avoid unnecessary treatment and follow-up. (orig.)

  17. Root canals-from concretion to patency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakar Chaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Teeth with calcification provide an endodontic treatment challenge; traumatized teeth usually develop partial or total pulpal obliteration which is characterized by apparent loss of the pulp space radiographically and a yellow discoloration of the clinical crown. Since only 7-27% of such teeth develop pulp necrosis with radiographic signs of apical periodontitis, it is difficult to decide whether to treat these teeth immediately upon detection of the pulpal obliteration or to wait until signs and symptoms of pulp and/or apical periodontitis occur. This article reviews the etiology, prevalence, classification, mechanism, diagnosis as well as treatment options for teeth with pulp obliteration and the various management approaches and treatment strategies for overcoming potential complications. A search of articles from "PubMed" and "Medline" from 1965 to present was done with the keywords dental trauma, discoloration, pathfinding instruments, pulp canal obliteration, and root canal treatment was conducted. A total of 94 abstracts were collected, of which 70 relevant articles were read and 31 most relevant articles were included in this article.

  18. Assessment of three root canal preparation techniques on root canal geometry using micro-computed tomography: In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikha M Al-Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the effects of three root canal preparation techniques on canal volume and surface area using three-dimensionally reconstructed root canals in extracted human maxillary molars. Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted Human Maxillary Molars having three separate roots and similar root shape were randomly selected from a pool of extracted teeth for this study and stored in normal saline solution until used. A computed tomography scanner (Philips Brilliance CT 64-slice was used to analyze root canals in extracted maxillary molars. Specimens were scanned before and after canals were prepared using stainless steel K-Files, Ni-Ti rotary ProTaper and rotary SafeSiders instruments. Differences in dentin volume removed, the surface area, the proportion of unchanged area and canal transportation were calculated using specially developed software. Results: Instrumentation of canals increased volume and surface area. Statistical analysis found a statistically significant difference among the 3 groups in total change in volume (P = 0.001 and total change in surface area (P = 0.13. Significant differences were found when testing both groups with group III (SafeSiders. Significant differences in change of volume were noted when grouping was made with respect to canal type (in MB and DB (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The current study used computed tomography, an innovative and non destructive technique, to illustrate changes in canal geometry. Overall, there were few statistically significant differences between the three instrumentation techniques used. SafeSiders stainless steel 40/0.02 instruments exhibit a greater cutting efficiency on dentin than K-Files and ProTaper. CT is a new and valuable tool to study root canal geometry and changes after preparation in great details. Further studies with 3D-techniques are required to fully understand the biomechanical aspects of root canal preparation.

  19. Endodontic management of mandibular canine with two canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Shrivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endodontic treatment may sometimes fail because morphological features of the tooth adversely affect the treatment procedures. Many investigators have reported the anatomical variations associated with mandibular canines. Mandibular canines are recognized as usually having one root and one root canal in most cases. This case report describes a clinical case of mandibular canine with two canals. Human mandibular canines do not present internal anatomy as simple as could be expected; there are such canines with a single root and two canals, two roots or fused roots. The existence of mandibular canines with more than one root canal is a fact that clinicians ought to keep in mind, in order to avoid failure during endodontic treatment. In spite of the low incidence of lower canines with one root and two canals, this possibility cannot be forgotten, inasmuch as the presence of a second canal in these teeth leads to difficulties in endodontic treatment. The precise knowledge of the dental endocanalicular system′s anatomy is essential in the success of the root canal therapy, because the failure to detect the accessories canals and the incomplete radicular obturation leads to the infection of the periapical space, which will ultimately result in the loss of the tooth.

  20. Technical quality of root canal treatment in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueh, L-H; Chen, S-C; Lee, C-M; Hsu, Y-Y; Pai, S-F; Kuo, M-L; Chen, C-S; Duh, B-R; Yang, S-F; Tung, Y-L; Hsiao, Chuhsing Kate

    2003-06-01

    To evaluate the current technical quality of root canal treatment (RCT) in Taiwan. A total of 1085 RCT cases, randomly selected from a large sample and representative of the Taiwanese population from April to September 2000, were evaluated by eight endodontic specialists. The qualitative evaluation of RCT cases was based on two variables: length of the root filling and density of the obturation. A root canal with both adequate filling length (the apical termination of the root filling within 2 mm of the radiographic apex) and complete obturation (no lateral or apical canal lumen visible in the apical one-third of the root canal) was defined as having good-quality endodontic work (GQEW). A tooth was defined as having a GQEW when all its canals were categorized as GQEW. From a total of 1867 root canals, overfilling occurred in 235 (12.6%), adequate filling length in 1152 (61.7%), underfilling in 466 (25.0%) and no filling in 12 (0.6%). Of the 1867 root canals, 710 (38.0%) demonstrated complete obturation and 1157 (62%) demonstrated incomplete obturation. GQEW was found in 650 (34.8%) root canals and 329 (30.3%) teeth. The percentage of teeth with GQEW in hospital cases (38.1%) was significantly greater (P RCT in Taiwan were either of inadequate filling length or sealing density.

  1. 33 CFR 117.769 - Black Rock Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black Rock Canal. 117.769 Section 117.769 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.769 Black Rock Canal. The draws of the...

  2. Segmental carpal canal pressure in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kazuo; Osamura, Naoki; Tomita, Katsuro

    2006-01-01

    To clarify which part of the median nerve is the most compressed and to compare carpal canal pressure with the latency of the sensory nerve potential and the duration of symptoms. Fifteen patients with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome were studied using a pressure guidewire system to record canal pressure. The wire was introduced from the distal end of the carpal canal to 2 cm proximal to the distal wrist crease (DWC) and then retracted in 5-mm increments using an image intensifier to guide the progress. A nerve conduction study was performed, and all patients were asked how long the symptoms lasted. Carpal canal pressure was significantly higher 5 to 15 mm distal to the DWC. The most compressed point was 10 mm distal to the DWC, with a pressure of 44.9 +/- 26.4 mm Hg. The correlation coefficient between the highest canal pressure and the latency was 0.393 and between highest canal pressure and duration of symptoms was 0.402. Our study showed that the most compressed part of the median nerve in the carpal canal is 10 mm distal to the DWC. The carpal canal pressure was related to the latency and to the duration of symptoms.

  3. Sexual dimorphism in cervical vertebral canal measurements of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual dimorphism in cervical vertebral canal measurements of human foetuses. ... Anatomy Journal of Africa ... Cervical parts of vertebral canal in 30 normal human foetuses was exposed in coronal plane and were divided in groups 1 and 2 which correspond with 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy respectively. Groups 1 ...

  4. Morphology of root canals in lower human premolars | Baroudi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background The knowledge of the root canal morphology and the possible anatomical variations of mandibular premolars are important for the successful endodontic treatment of such cases. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of two or three root canals in extracted first and second mandibular premolars ...

  5. Reform in Indian canal irrigation: does technology matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narain, V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of technology - the design of canal irrigation for irrigation management reform. With reference to two different design systems in Indian irrigation - shejpali and warabandi - it shows that the potential for reform varies with the design of canal irrigation.

  6. The lateral line receptor array of cyprinids from different habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Anke; Bleckmann, Horst; Mogdans, Joachim

    2014-04-01

    The lateral line system of teleost fishes consists of an array of superficial and canal neuromasts (CN). Number and distribution of neuromasts and the morphology of the lateral line canals vary across species. We investigated the morphology of the lateral line system in four diurnal European cyprinids, the limnophilic bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus), the indifferent gudgeon (Gobio gobio), and ide (Leuciscus idus), and the rheophilic minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus). All fish had lateral line canals on head and trunk. The total number of both, CN and superficial neuromasts (SN), was comparable in minnow and ide but was greater than in gudgeon and bitterling. The ratio of SNs to CNs for the head was comparable in minnow and bitterling but was greater in gudgeon and ide. The SN-to-CN ratio for the trunk was greatest in bitterling. Polarization of hair cells in CNs was in the direction of the canal. Polarization of hair cells in SNs depended on body area. In cephalic SNs, hair cell polarization was dorso-ventral or rostro-caudal. In trunk SNs, it was rostro-caudal on lateral line scales and dorso-ventral on other trunk scales. On the caudal fin, hair cell polarization was rostro-caudal. The data show that, in the four species studied here, number, distribution, and orientation of CNs and SNs cannot be unequivocally related to habitat. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Traditional and contemporary techniques for optimizing root canal irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Richard; Alani, Aws

    2014-01-01

    Canal irrigation during root canal treatment is an important component of chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system. Traditional syringe irrigation can be enhanced by activating the irrigant to provide superior cleaning properties. This activation can be achieved by simple modifications in current technique or by contemporary automated devices. Novel techniques are also being developed, such as the Self-adjusting File (Re-Dent-Nova, Ra'anana, Israel), Ozone (Healozone, Dental Ozone, London, UK), Photoactivated Disinfection and Ultraviolet Light Disinfection. This paper reviews the techniques available to enhance traditional syringe irrigation, contemporary irrigation devices and novel techniques, citing their evidence base, advantages and disadvantages. Recent advances in irrigation techniques and canal disinfection and debridement are relevant to practitioners carrying out root canal treatment.

  8. Hydrology and environmental aspects of Erie Canal (1817-99)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, Walter Basil

    1976-01-01

    As the first major water project in the United States, the old Erie Canal provides an example of the hydrological and environmental consequences of water development. The available record shows that the project aroused environmental fears that the canal might be impaired by the adverse hydrologic effects of land development induced by the canal. Water requirements proved greater than anticipated, and problems of floods and hydraulic inefficiencies beset navigation throughout its history. The Erie Canal proved the practicality of major hydraulic works to the extent that operations and maintenance could cope with the burdens of deficiencies in design. The weight of prior experience that upland streams, such as the Potomac and Mohawk Rivers, had proved unsatisfactory for dependable navigation, led to a decision to build an independent canal which freed the location from the constraints of river channels and made possible a cross-country water route directly to Lake Erie. The decision on dimensioning the canal prism--chiefly width and depth-involved balance between a fear of building too small and thus not achieving the economic potentials, and a fear of building too expensively. The constraints proved effective, and for the first part of its history the revenues collected were sufficient to repay all costs. So great was the economic advantage of the canal that the rising trend in traffic soon induced an enlargement of the canal cross section, based upon a new but riskier objective-build as large as the projected trend in toll revenues would finance. The increased revenues did not materialize. Water supplies were a primary concern for both the planners and the operators of the canal. Water required for lockage, although the most obvious to the planners, proved to be a relatively minor item compared with the amounts of water that were required to compensate for leakage through the bed and banks of the canal. Leakage amounted to about 8 inches of depth per day. The total

  9. VARIATION OF MAXILLARY FIRST PREMOLAR WITH THREE ROOT CANALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Kirilova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Successful endodontic treatment requires effective biomechanical preparation of the root canals and three-dimensional obturation of the root canal system. This can be achieved only by knowing and identifying the variations in the root canal system of the endodontically treated teeth. The Aim: The aim of this article is to present cases of endodontic treatment of maxillary first premolar with three root canals – different types. Material and Methods: Five clinical cases of successful endodontic treatment of patients with maxillary first premolar and three root canals are described. Result and Discussion: It is noted that good endodontic practice requires good knowledge of dental anatomy and possible variations, accurate X-ray images, as well as use of magnifying equipment. Conclusion: Knowledge of dental anatomy is fundamental for good endodontic practice.

  10. Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome Affecting 3 Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Katherine D; Kileny, Paul R; Ahmed, Sameer; El-Kashlan, Hussam K; Melendez, Tori L; Basura, Gregory J; Lesperance, Marci M

    2017-07-01

    Superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) is an increasingly recognized cause of hearing loss and vestibular symptoms, but the etiology of this condition remains unknown. To describe 7 cases of SCDS across 3 families. This retrospective case series included 7 patients from 3 different families treated at a neurotology clinic at a tertiary academic medical center from 2010 to 2014. Patients were referred by other otolaryngologists or were self-referred. Each patient demonstrated unilateral or bilateral SCDS or near dehiscence. Clinical evaluation involved body mass index calculation, audiometry, cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing, electrocochleography, and multiplanar computed tomographic (CT) scan of the temporal bones. Zygosity testing was performed on twin siblings. The diagnosis of SCDS was made if bone was absent over the superior semicircular canal on 2 consecutive CT images, in addition to 1 physiologic sign consistent with labyrinthine dehiscence. Near dehiscence was defined as absent bone on only 1 CT image but with symptoms and at least 1 physiologic sign of labyrinthine dehiscence. A total of 7 patients (5 female and 2 male; age range, 8-49 years) from 3 families underwent evaluation. Family A consisted of 3 adult first-degree relatives, of whom 2 were diagnosed with SCDS and 1 with near dehiscence. Family B included a mother and her child, both of whom were diagnosed with unilateral SCDS. Family C consisted of adult monozygotic twins, each of whom was diagnosed with unilateral SCDS. For all cases, dehiscence was located at the arcuate eminence. Obesity alone did not explain the occurrence of SCDS because 5 of the 7 cases had a body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) less than 30.0. Superior canal dehiscence syndrome is a rare, often unrecognized condition. This report of 3 multiplex families with SCDS provides evidence in support of a potential genetic contribution to the etiology

  11. [The effect of left bacteria in the root canal on prognosis of the root canal therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin-mei; Bian, Zhuan; Fan, Ming-wen; Fan, Bing

    2004-06-01

    To study the effect of the left bacteria on the root canal therapy. 50 single-rooted teeth with chronic apical periodontitis were divided into two groups, one was instrumented with step-back technique and 2.5%NaOCl ultrasonic irrigation for 3 min, then filled with Thermafil. Samples were taken after instrumentation to culture. The other was treated with traditional RCT at three visits. In 24 months the apical radiolucency were greatly reduced in all cases. There weren't significant relationship among the postoperative pain and the left bacteria, the degree of the obturation or the pre-operative symptoms (P > 0.05). The effect of left bacteria in root canal filled with Thermafil wasn't observed.

  12. Closing a chapter on Love Canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-11-01

    The toxic wastes that were dumped in the 1950s at Love Canal in New York and then seeped into groundwater and the basements of local residents in the late 1970s are to be finally incinerated, according to a plan recently announced by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This last, five-year stage in the cleanup will entail the building of an incinerator for burning 35,000 cubic yards of dioxin-contaminated sediment dredged from creeks and sewers in the area at a cost of up to $31 million. The incinerated residue - which will be purified of detectable levels of dioxin, says EPA - will be returned to the site and spread several feet deep.

  13. 8. Le TGV et le canal

    OpenAIRE

    Fortier, Agnès

    2013-01-01

    7. Le TGV près du Creusot Une double rame du tgv Sud-Est se dirige vers Paris. Elle vient de franchir le viaduc du canal du Centre qui longe l’un de ses réservoirs d’alimentation, l’étang de Longpendu, visible sur la droite. Elle croise la voie « plm » dont on note le discret ballast en avant de l’étang. Plusieurs lignes à très haute tension partent d’un important équipement de répartition tout proche. L’une d’elles sert notamment à l’alimentation du tgv. La photographie est prise d’un des ra...

  14. Seismically observed seiching in the Panama Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D.E.; Ringler, A.T.; Hutt, C.R.; Gee, L.S.

    2011-01-01

    A large portion of the seismic noise spectrum is dominated by water wave energy coupled into the solid Earth. Distinct mechanisms of water wave induced ground motions are distinguished by their spectral content. For example, cultural noise is generally Panama Canal there is an additional source of long-period noise generated by standing water waves, seiches, induced by disturbances such as passing ships and wind pressure. We compare seismic waveforms to water level records and relate these observations to changes in local tilt and gravity due to an oscillating seiche. The methods and observations discussed in this paper provide a first step toward quantifying the impact of water inundation as recorded by seismometers. This type of quantified understanding of water inundation will help in future estimates of similar phenomena such as the seismic observations of tsunami impact. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. MANAGEMENT OF LUMBAR SPINAL CANAL STENOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhergee G. S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Spinal stenosis is one of the most common conditions in the elderly. It is defined as a narrowing of the spinal canal. The term stenosis is derived from the Greek word for narrow, which is “Stenos”. The first description of this condition is attributed to Antoine portal in 1803. Verbiest is credited with coining the term spinal stenosis and the associated narrowing of the spinal canal as its potential cause. [1-10] Kirkaldy–Willis subsequently described the degenerative cascade in the lumbar spine as the cause for the altered anatomy and pathophysiology in spinal stenosis. [11-15] If compression does not occur, the canal should be described as narrow but not stenotic. Some studies defined lumbar spinal stenosis as a “narrowing of the osteoligamentous vertebral canal and/or the intervertebral foramina causing compression of the thecal sac and/or the caudal nerve roots; at a single vertebral level, narrowing may affect the whole canal or part of it” (Postacchini 1983. This definition distinguished between disc herniation and stenosis. [16] . The most common type of spinal stenosis is caused by degenerative arthritis of the spine. Hypertrophy and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament which usually are confined to the cervical spine, and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH syndrome also may result in an acquired form of spinal stenosis. Congenital forms caused by disorders such as achondroplasia and dysplastic spondylolisthesis are much less common. Congenital spinal stenosis usually is central and is evident or imaging studies. Idiopathic congenital narrowing usually involves the anteroposterior dimension of the canal secondary to short pedicles; the patient otherwise is normal. In contrast, in achondroplasia, the canal is narrowed in the anteroposterior plane owing to shortened pedicles and in lateral dimension because of diminished interpedicular distance. Acquired forms of spinal stenosis usually are

  16. [Latest treatment of lumbar canal stenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyongsong; Isu, Toyohiko

    2009-06-01

    Lumbar canal stenosis (LCS) is a degenerative disease involving the lumbar vertebrae, discs, and ligamentum flavum that result in neurological deficit to some extent. The natural history of symptoms of LCS is highly important because they do not necessarily worsen with progressive degeneration. Therefore, a observation therapy is adopted for the treatment of this condition. Although invasive treatment is required for some patients, surgery cannot be performed solely on the basis of radiological findings and careful evaluation of neurological symptoms is necessary. In the event that spinal surgery is required, it is important to minimize degree of invasiveness; various devices and operative approaches and methods have been developed to this end. Our strategy for the surgical treatment of LCS involves microscopic decompression via a posterior approach. In our method, modified bilateral decompression via the splitting of the spinous process using an ultrasonic bone curette (SONOPET), and the results of this approach have been excellent. Our method is less invasive, facilitates the preservation of the paraspinal muscle, and represents a useful approach to posterior spinal elements. Our findings indicate that this method involves less muscle damage as compared to other methods. LCS should be differentiated from conditions other than those involving the spinal canal such as foraminal stenosis and far-out syndrome, piriformis syndrome, and tarsal tunnel syndrome. The incidence of these conditions is higher than appreciated and they present with neurological deficits similar to observed in LCS. Here, we report our criteria of operative indications for surger and the procedures that we developed for the treatment of LCS, based on a review of the available literature.

  17. Comparison of two canal preparation techniques using mtwo rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamze, Faeze; Honardar, Kiamars; Nazarimoghadam, Kiumars

    2011-01-01

    Root canal preparation is an important process in endodontic therapy. Nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary file system can be used in single length technique (simultaneous technique) without early coronal enlargement, as well as in crown-down method. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare single length with crown-down methods' shaping ability using Mtwo NiTi files. Fifteen acrylic-resin blocks containing simulated canals were divided into two experimental groups. In group A, single length technique was used and in group B root canals were prepared by crown-down technique. Pre- and post-preparation canals were photographed in a standardized manner and were superimposed. The inner and outer walls of canal curvature were evaluated at three points (apical, middle and coronal) to determine the greatest change. The data was statistically analyzed using the Student t-test by Statistical Analysis System (SAS) software. Statistical analysis revealed that in group B, dentine was equally removed within the canal coronal to the curvature, whereas in group A, the inner wall was predominantly removed (Plength method and crown-down technique using Mtwo for preparation of apical and middle portion of canal curvature.

  18. Laser scanning dental probe for endodontic root canal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Molly A. B.; Friedrich, Michal; Hamilton, Jeffrey D.; Lee, Peggy; Berg, Joel; Seibel, Eric J.

    2011-03-01

    Complications that arise during endodontic procedures pose serious threats to the long-term integrity and health of the tooth. Potential complexities of root canals include residual pulpal tissue, cracks, mesial-buccal 2 and accessory canals. In the case of a failed root canal, a successful apicoectomy can be jeopardized by isthmuses, accessory canals, and root microfracture. Confirming diagnosis using a small imaging probe would allow proper treatment and prevent retreatment of endodontic procedures. An ultrathin and flexible laser scanning endoscope of 1.2 to 1.6mm outer diameter was used in vitro to image extracted teeth with varied root configurations. Teeth were opened using a conventional bur and high speed drill. Imaging within the opened access cavity clarified the location of the roots where canal filing would initiate. Although radiographs are commonly used to determine the root canal size, position, and shape, the limited 2D image perspective leaves ambiguity that could be clarified if used in conjunction with a direct visual imaging tool. Direct visualization may avoid difficulties in locating the root canal and reduce the number of radiographs needed. A transillumination imaging device with the separated illumination and light collection functions rendered cracks visible in the prepared teeth that were otherwise indiscernible using reflected visible light. Our work demonstrates that a small diameter endoscope with high spatial resolution may significantly increase the efficiency and success of endodontic procedures.

  19. Management of middle mesial canal in mandibular second molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J V Karunakaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of endodontic therapy is to achieve a three-dimensional obturation of the root canal space after adequate preparation of the canal space to remove the tissue debris, microorganisms, and their byproducts. Anatomical variations have frequently been encountered in endodontic practice and have to be adequately managed by the clinician. Missed roots and canals are a major reason for failure of therapy. Technological advances have given the clinician ample opportunity to identify and treat these aberrations successfully. The present report describes a left mandibular second permanent molar requiring root canal treatment, found to have three separate canals in the mesial root. This case demonstrates a rare anatomical configuration and emphasizes the need for the clinician to be aware of and look out for such variations and use adequate diagnostic methodologies prior to and during therapy to detect such variations. The possibility of additional canals, whenever in doubt, should be explored with the assistance of technologies such as those of magnification and illumination and various diagnostic aids. Operator experience has also shown to be a key factor in negotiation and management of these aberrant canal configurations.

  20. Variations in the Anatomical Structures of the Guyon Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, Zahir T; Samargandi, Osama A; Tang, David T

    2017-05-01

    Compression neuropathy of the ulnar nerve at the Guyon canal is commonly seen by hand surgeons. Different anatomical variations of structures related to the Guyon canal have been reported in the literature. A thorough knowledge of the normal contents and possible variations is essential during surgery and exploration. To review the recognized anatomical variations within and around the Guyon canal. This study is a narrative review in which relevant papers, clinical studies, and anatomical studies were selected by searching electronic databases (PubMed and EMBASE). Extensive manual review of references of the included studies was performed. We also describe a case report of an aberrant muscle crossing the Guyon canal. This study identified several variations in the anatomical structures of the Guyon canal reported in the literature. Variations of the ulnar nerve involved its course, branching pattern, deep motor branch, superficial sensory branch, dorsal cutaneous branch, and the communication with the median nerve. Ulnar artery variations involved its course, branching pattern, the superficial ulnar artery, and the dorsal perforating artery. Aberrant muscles crossing the Guyon canal were found to originate from the antebrachial fascia, pisiform bone, flexor retinaculum, the tendon of palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris, or flexor carpi radialis; these muscles usually fuse with the hypothenar group. The diverse variations of the contents of the Guyon canal were adequately described in the literature. Taking these variations into consideration is important in preventing clinical misinterpretation and avoiding potential surgical complications.

  1. Modeling and measurement of root canal using stereo digital radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analoui, Mostafa; Krisnamurthy, Satthya; Brown, Cecil

    2000-04-01

    Determining root canal length is a crucial step in success of root canal treatment. Root canal length is commonly estimated based on pre-operation intraoral radiography. 2D depiction of a 3D object is the primary source of error in this approach. Techniques based on impedance measurement are more accurate than radiographic approaches, but do not offer a method for depicting the shape of canal. In this study, we investigated a stererotactic approach for modeling and measurement of root canal of human dentition. A weakly perspective model approximated the projectional geometry. A series of computer-simulated objects was used to test accuracy of this model as the first step. The, to assess the clinical viability of such an approach, endodontic files inserted in the root canal phantoms were fixed on an adjustable platform between a radiographic cone and an image receptor. Parameters of projection matrix were computed based on the relative positions of image receptors, focal spot, and test objects. Rotating the specimen platform from 0 to 980 degrees at 5-degree intervals set relative angulations for stereo images. Root canal is defined as the intersection of two surfaces defined by each projection. Computation of error for length measurement indicates that for angulations greater than 40 degrees the error is within clinically acceptable ranges.

  2. A radiographic study of the prevalence of endodontically treated teeth and procedural errors of root canal filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamani, K D; Fayyad, M A

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this radiographic investigation was to study procedural errors encounterd in root canal treatment in a Jordanian population as evidenced using periapical radiographs A total of 2380 periapical radiographs including 3178 endodontically treated teeth were assessed in respect of the quality of endodontic treatment. The results indicated that the prevalence of endodontically treated teeth in the maxilla was higher than that in the mandible ( P endodontic treatment, and the maxillary second molars have the lowest prevalence of endodontic treatment. In respect of the quality of endodontic treatment, 30.2% of endodontically treated teeth exhibited an ideal length of root canal filling, 23.64% of the evaluated teeth were mummified, 37.45% of the teeth have short root canal fillings, 6.25% were overfilled, 1.35% were with preparations which deviated from the line of the root canal and 1.10% of the evaluated teeth have perforations of the root walls or the floor of the pulp chamber. It is concluded that the Maxillary teeth were found to be endodontically treated more frequently than the mandibular teeth, anterior teeth were found to be endodontically treated more than premolar and molar teeth, maxillary central incisors have the highest prevalence of endodontic treatment whilst the maxillary second molars have the lowest prevalence. The quality of endodontic treatment was disappointing. Therefore, emphasis on continuing education and post graduate courses in endodontics must be a priority in Jordan.

  3. Antibacterial activity of different root canal sealers against Enterococcus faecalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovati, Federico; Ceci, Matteo; Colombo, Marco; Pietrocola, Giampiero

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to compare in vitro the antimicrobial activity of different root canal sealers against Enterococcus faecalis, prior and subsequent to setting. Material and Methods Agar diffusion test (ADT) was used for evaluating the antibacterial activity of non-set sealer while the direct contact test (DCT) was used for after setting. Results ADT: Except for TotalFill BC Sealer all the others sealers tested showed antibacterial activity. BioRoot™RCS, MTA Fillapex and Sealapex Root Canal Sealer showed the lowest antibacterial activity, a significant increase in antibacterial effect for both Pulp Canal Sealer™ and AH plus sealers were found. Significantly higher were the mean diameters of the bacterial inhibition zone by both EasySeal or N2 sealers. DCT: AH plus and Sealapex Root Canal Sealer doesn’t show any bactericidal effect after 6 min of contact. After 15 and 60 min of contact a significant increment for AH plus and for Sealapex Root Canal Sealer of the bactericidal effect was found. Significantly much higher was the antibacterial effect of Sealapex Root Canal Sealer compare to that observed for AH plus. BioRootTMRCS, MTA Fillapex, Pulp Canal Sealer™ and N2 showed at least means of the number of colonies formed in milliliter after 6 min of contact. Except for N2, a significant increase in bactericidal effect after 15 and 60 min for the other compared sealers (BioRootTMRCS, MTA Fillapex and Pulp Canal Sealer™). Conclusions For every contact times considered, both TotalFill BC Sealer and EasySeal were bactericidal against E. faecalis and killed all bacteria. Key words:Agar diffusion test, antibacterial activity, direct contact test, Enterococcus faecalis, root canal sealer. PMID:28638549

  4. [Effect of quality of root canal obturation on the long-term results of root canal therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ya-ping; Zhu, Ya-qin; Fan, Lin-feng; DU, Rong; Gu, Ying-xin; Qin, Feng

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the quality of obturation affecting the long-term results of root canal therapy (RCT) by radiographic evaluation. Teeth of RCT for 2 or more than 2 years were chosen, and periapical radiographs were taken with paralleling technique. The patients' age, gender, etiology, the time of therapy were recorded. The current apical periodontal status of these endodontically treated teeth were examined and recorded. The data were subjected to univariate and multivariate analysis with SPSS13.0 software package. This study investigated 215 cases with 376 endodontically treated teeth. The success rate was 54.79%. If counted by root canal, there were 513 root canals, the success rate was 61.4%. The quality of obturation including obturation position and obturation density affected significantly the results of root canal therapy (Pobturation position for successful treated canals was 0.5-2mm from the radiographic apex. The success rate was higher for a good obturation density, especially in the apical third. No statistically significant differences were found based on gender, age and obturation time. The quality of root canal obturation significantly affected the long-term results of root canal therapy.

  5. A scanning electron microscopy evaluation of the cleanliness of un-instrumented areas of canal walls after root canal preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah J Dohaithem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cleanliness of the canal space is the ultimate goal of its preparation. Nevertheless, some portion of the canal walls are left un-instrumented during preparation. Therefore, the aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the cleanliness of un-instrumented canal walls after root canal preparation for the presence or absence of debris and smear layer. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 single-rooted extracted teeth were prepared with the crown-down technique using Protaper universal rotary file system. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT was used to scan the specimens before and after instrumentation. The un-instrumented area was measured and localized. The roots were split longitudinally and then subjected to scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The presence of debris and smear layer in the instrumented and un-instrumented areas of the canal were evaluated by analysing the SEM images with a five-score evaluation system based on the reference photographs. Results: High levels of root canal cleanliness (≤ score 2 were found for the instrumented areas were detected (P = 0.003. Conclusions: Under the condition of this study, un-instrumented areas of the canal were less clean in comparison to instrumented portion.

  6. Morphological structure and peripheral innervation of the lateral line system in the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Song, Jiakun

    2012-03-01

    Light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to study the epidermal lateral line system of the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii Brandt, 1869). This system consists of mechanoreceptive neuromasts, ampullae and the electroreceptive organ. The neuromasts are located in 5 pairs of cephalic and 1 pair of trunk canals and superficially in the middle and posterior pit lines that lie dorsomedially along the top of the skull immediately adjacent to the otic ampullae field. Both canal neuromasts and pit organ superficial neuromasts have opposite polarized hair cells that are parallel along the axis of the canal and pit line, respectively. However, they differ in both size and shape and in the density and length of the hair bundles. The ampullae are confined on the head, adjacent to the neuromast lines. The morphological structure of the ampullae in the Siberian sturgeon is similar to the ampullae in elasmobranchs and other primitive fish. Nevertheless, it has a relatively large mucus-filled ampulla, and a shorter and narrower canal leading to a small opening to the outer epidermal surface. We also present new information concerning the peripheral innervation of lateral line receptors in sturgeons. The receptors of the lateral line system are innervated by 2 pairs of cranial nerves: anterior and posterior lateral line nerves. The peripheral processes of the anterior lateral line nerve form superficial ophthalmic, buccal, otic and anteroventral rami. The peripheral processes of the posterior lateral line nerve form middle, supratemporal and lateral rami. © 2012 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  7. Comparison of antimicrobial substantivity of root canal irrigants in instrumented root canals up to 72 h: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M N Shahani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Disinfection of the root canal system is one of the primary aims of root canal treatment. This can be achieved through the use of various antimicrobial agents in the form of irrigants and medicaments. The antimicrobial substantivity of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate, 1% povidone iodine, 2.5% hydrogen peroxide followed by 2% sodium hypochlorite, and 2% sodium hypochlorite alone as irrigants was assessed in instrumented root canals. 2% chlorhexidine showed antimicrobial substantivity lasting up to 72 h, followed by 1% povidone iodine, and 2% sodium hypochlorite. Thus 2% chlorhexidine should be used as a final rinse irrigant in endodontic treatment protocols.

  8. Functional outcome of surgical management of degenerative lumbar canal stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Nath

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Operative treatment in patients of degenerative lumbar canal stenosis yields excellent results as observed on the basis of JOA scoring system. No patient got recurrence of symptoms of nerve compression.

  9. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of root canal surfaces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-07-15

    50. How to cite this article: Hema BS, Chandu GS, Shiraguppi VL. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of root canal surfaces prepared with three rotary endodontic systems: Lightspeed, ProTaper and EndoWave. Niger J.

  10. Pneumocystis jirovecii infection of the external auditory canal : case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    primaquine, atovaquone and pentamidine isethionate.1,3 Although there is usually resolution of symptoms after medical therapy, surgical excision of lesions in the external auditory canal may be clinically indicated. Disseminated pneumocystosis, like ...

  11. Research progress of antagonistic interactions among root canal irrigations disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen QU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Root canal therapy is the most effective way to treat various pulposis and periapical disease. Simple mechanical apparatus can not clean root canal thoroughly, but may affect tight filling instead. It can achieve a satisfactory cleansing effect only when it is combined with a chemical solution. Irrigation fluid for root canal should possess the properties of tissue dissolution, antimicrobial, lubrication, and removal of smear layer. So far, no solution is able to fulfill all these functions. Therefore, a combined use of multiple irrigation solutions is suggested. It can not only achieve good effect in cleaning and disinfection, also it can lower the concentration of different solutions, thus reducing the side effects. Nevertheless, some experiments proved that antagonism existed among the chemicals used for irrigations. The purpose of present article is to review the antagonistic effect among the chemicals used for irrigation when they are used together for root canal treatment.

  12. Morphometric study of the greater palatine canal: cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapado-González, O; Suárez-Quintanilla, J A; Otero-Cepeda, X L; Fernández-Alonso, A; Suárez-Cunqueiro, M M

    2015-12-01

    To analyze greater palatine canal (GPC) dimensions using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, and to evaluate the position of the greater palatine foramen (GPF) with respect to various landmarks selected in relation to dental status. This study included 150 CBCTs. Axial slices were used to determine the position and dimensions of the GPF. Sagittal slices were used to assess GPC length. Reference lines were established to evaluate the GPC diameter in sagittal and coronal slices. From the 77 GPF analyzed, 76 were located on level 2. Average posterior GPF distance was 6.59 ± 3.27 mm on right side and 7.35 ± 3.40 mm on left side. Several measurements to determine the position and dimensions of the GPF presented significant values (p ≤ 0.05). GPC length was 12.31 ± 1.96 mm on right side and 12.52 ± 2.15 mm on left side, statistically significant differences were detected between genders only on right canal (p ≤ 0.004). Sagittal and coronal reference lines presented significantly higher values for men except for the S3 (p plane and posterior nasal plane are two intraoral anatomical landmarks for the location of the GPF. Their scant variability allows accurate identification of GPFs in both dentate as well as edentulous patients.

  13. Comparison of panoramic radiography with cone beam CT in predicting the relationship of the mandibular third molar roots to the alveolar canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahidi, Shoaleh; Zamiri, Barbod; Bronoosh, Pegah [School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Preoperative radiographic assessment of the mandibular third molars is essential to prevent inferior alveolar nerve damage during extraction. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of panoramic signs of association between the roots of teeth and the canal, and to compare the panoramic signs with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) findings. CBCT images of 132 impacted mandibular third molars were evaluated to determine the association of the root to the canal. The CBCT findings were compared with the corresponding panoramic images. Logistic regression analysis was used to define the diagnostic criteria of the panoramic images. Among the panoramic signs, loss of the cortical line was the most frequent radiographic sign predicting association (sensitivity: 79.31). Contact of the tooth with the canal was observed in all cases in which the loss of cortical line of the canal or darkening of the roots was found on the panoramic radiographs. Darkening of the roots and loss of the cortical line on panoramic radiographs might be highly suggestive of the risk of nerve injury.

  14. Comparison of Two Canal Preparation Techniques Using Mtwo Rotary Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Hamze, Faeze; Honardar, Kiamars; Nazarimoghadam, Kiumars

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Root canal preparation is an important process in endodontic therapy. Nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary file system can be used in single length technique (simultaneous technique) without early coronal enlargement, as well as in crown-down method. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare single length with crown-down methods’ shaping ability using Mtwo NiTi files. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifteen acrylic-resin blocks containing simulated canals were divided into two experimenta...

  15. A Successful Endodontic Outcome with Non-Obturated Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Saeed; Fazlyab, Mahta

    2015-01-01

    This case report represents the outcome of endodontic treatment in an infected mandibular molar with periradicular periodontitis and inherent poor prognosis of root canal treatment due to severe root curvature. The tooth was successfully treated by leaving the mesial root non-obturated, the canal orifices were coronally sealed with calcium enriched mixture cement and a definitive coronal amalgam restoration, was placed at the subsequent visit. PMID:26213546

  16. Nanodiamond?Gutta Percha Composite Biomaterials for Root Canal Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Dong-Keun; Kim, Sue Vin; Limansubroto, Adelheid Nerisa; Yen, Albert; Soundia, Akrivoula; Wang, Cun-Yu; Shi, Wenyuan; Hong, Christine; Tetradis, Sotirios; Kim, Yong; Park, No-Hee; Kang, Mo K.; Ho, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Root canal therapy (RCT) represents a standard of treatment that addresses infected pulp tissue in teeth and protects against future infection. RCT involves removing dental pulp comprising blood vessels and nerve tissue, decontaminating residually infected tissue through biomechanical instrumentation, and root canal obturation using a filler material to replace the space that was previously composed of dental pulp. Gutta percha (GP) is typically used as the filler material, as it is malleable...

  17. Mesiodens within the nasopalatine canal: an exceptional entity

    OpenAIRE

    Georges Aoun; Ibrahim Nasseh

    2016-01-01

    A supernumerary tooth is one that is supplementary to the normal dentition. It can be found anywhere at the dental arch. A mesiodens is a supernumerary tooth located between the two maxillary central incisors usually palatally or within the alveolar process. Less frequently, the mesiodens is in relation with the nasal floor and the nasopalatine canal walls. This paper presents a very rare case of an impacted inverted mesiodens located inside the nasopalatine canal and found incidentally with ...

  18. Unusal canal configuration in maxillary and mandibular second molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Ragunathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This clinical article describes three different case reports of maxillary and mandibular second molars with the unusual anatomy of single root with a single canal and their endodontic management. An unusual case of bilateralism is observed in the first two cases in the form of single-rooted second mandibular molars in both the quadrant of the same patient. The presence of maxillary second molar with single root and single canal in the third case is unusual.

  19. Rare case of gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the anal canal

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    Madhu Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. GIST of anal canal is very rare representing only 3% of all anorectal mesenchymal tumors. We report an extremely rare case of GIST of the anal canal in 60-years-old man with history of irregular bowel habits with dark colored stool mixed with blood and constipation from 6 month. Diagnosis was made on the basis of histomorphological and immunohistochemical examination.

  20. The Nicaragua Canal:Security And Economic Boom Or Bust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    but is the property of the United States government. Abstract Since the 1800s nations and entrepreneurs have sought a maritime route across...across Central America to compete with the Panama Canal and thus secure his future with Nicaragua. Since the 1800s nations and entrepreneurs have...for the environmental effects that construction and operation of a canal could have on the regional ecosystem . As a result, environmentalists have

  1. A novel anatomical ceramic root canal simulator for endodontic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robberecht, L; Chai, F; Dehurtevent, M; Marchandise, P; Bécavin, T; Hornez, J-C; Deveaux, E

    2017-11-01

    Endodontic therapy is often complicated and technically demanding. The aim of this study was to develop a reproducible biomimetic root canal model for pre-clinical and postgraduate endodontic training. A specific ceramic shaping technique (3D printing and slip casting of a root canal mould) was developed to reproduce canal systems with the desired shape and complexity using a microporous hydroxyapatite (HAp)-based matrix. The microstructural morphology, pore size and porosity, as well as the Vickers microhardness of the ceramic simulators (CS) were assessed and were compared with natural dentin and commercial resin blocks. The reproducibility of the root canal shapes was assessed using the Dice-Sørensen similarity index. Endodontic treatments, from refitting the access cavity to obturation, were performed on the CS. Each step was controlled by radiography. Many properties of the CS were similar to those of natural dental roots, including the mineral component (HAp), porosity (20%, porous CS), pore size (3.4 ± 2.6 μm) and hardness (120.3 ± 18.4 HV). We showed that it is possible to reproduce the radio-opacity of a tooth and variations in root canal morphology. The endodontic treatments confirmed that the CS provided good tactile sensation during instrumentation and displayed suitable radiological behaviour. This novel anatomic root canal simulator is well suited for training undergraduate and postgraduate students in endodontic procedures. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Could spinal canal compression be a cause of polyneuropathy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bostelmann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Causality between spinal cord compression and polyneuropathy is difficult to define, especially under the circumstances that polyneuropathy can have many causes. Seven patients with spinal cord compression and electrophysiological signs of polyneuropathy were treated surgically on decompression of their spinal canal stenosis in the time from April 2010 to January 2013. Median follow up time was 9 months (2-23 months. Causes of polyneuropathy were: 1 patient with methotrexate-induced polyneuropathy, 1 endocrine-dysfunction-induced, 2 with diabetic- polyneuropathy, and 3 patients had unknown reasons. The localization of the spinal canal stenosis was also varying: 2 patients suffered of cervical spinal canal stenosis and 5 of lumbar. Decompressive surgery led to pain relieve in all patients initially. Surprisingly, also symptoms of polyneuropathy seemed to regress in all 7 patients for the first 5 months after surgery, and in 5 patients for the time of 9 months after surgery. There are two points we would like to emphasize in this short report. Since 5/7 patients with polyneuropathy and spinal canal stenosis improved clinically after surgery, surgery has a place in the treatment of such a combined pathology. Since it seems to be a possible causality between polyneuropathy of unknown origin and spinal cord stenosis, decompression of the spinal canal could also be a therapeutic step in a specific kind of polyneuropathy. Which patients could possibly have a spinal canal stenosis induced polyneuropathy remains a subject of further studies.

  3. Long-term cytotoxic effects of contemporary root canal sealers

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    Emmanuel Joao Nogueira Leal da SILVA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of root canal sealers on the cytotoxicity of 3T3 fibroblasts during a period of 5 weeks. Material and Methods Fibroblasts (3T3, 1×105 cells per well were incubated with elutes of fresh specimens from eight root canal sealers (AH Plus, Epiphany, Endomethasone N, EndoREZ, MTA Fillapex, Pulp Canal Sealer EWT, RoekoSeal and Sealapex and with elutes of the same specimens for 5 succeeding weeks after immersing in simulated body fluid. The cytotoxicity of all root canal sealers was determined using the MTT assay. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results RoekoSeal was the only sealer that did not show any cytotoxic effects (p<0.05. All the other tested sealers exhibited severe toxicity initially (week 0. MTA Fillapex remained moderately cytotoxic after the end of experimental period. Toxicity of the other tested sealers decreased gradually over time. The evaluated root canal sealers presented varying degrees of cytotoxicity, mainly in fresh mode. Conclusions RoekoSeal had no cytotoxic effect both freshly mixed and in the other tested time points. MTA Fillapex was associated with significantly less cell viability when compared to the other tested root canal sealers.

  4. Effectiveness of Transmastoid Plugging for Semicircular Canal Dehiscence Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banakis Hartl, Renee M; Cass, Stephen P

    2018-01-01

    Objectives (1) Evaluate changes in subjective symptoms in patients following transmastoid canal plugging for superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) syndrome. (2) Quantify changes in hearing in patients who have undergone transmastoid canal plugging for SSCD syndrome. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Single tertiary care institution. Subjects and Methods We retrospectively reviewed patients with SSCD who underwent repair with canal plugging via a transmastoid approach between January 2012 and January 2017. Symptom severity was assessed prospectively (autophony, sound/pressure-induced vertigo, disequilibrium, aural fullness, and pulsatile tinnitus) and after surgery. Pure-tone and speech audiometry were measured before and after surgery. Two-sided Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to evaluate changes in subjective symptoms and audiometric outcomes. Results Seventeen patients (19 ears) met inclusion criteria. The superior canal was successfully plugged via the transmastoid approach in all cases. Patients reported a statistically significant improvement in autophony, vertigo, aural fullness, and pulsatile tinnitus ( P study, patients with SSCD demonstrated excellent hearing outcomes and resolution of most otologic symptoms after surgical repair. Transmastoid canal plugging, which has been described to date only in smaller case series, is a safe and effective alternative to the traditional middle cranial fossa approach.

  5. Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome: Lessons from the First 20 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan K. Ward

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome was first reported by Lloyd Minor and colleagues in 1998. Patients with a dehiscence in the bone overlying the superior semicircular canal experience symptoms of pressure or sound-induced vertigo, bone conduction hyperacusis, and pulsatile tinnitus. The initial series of patients were diagnosed based on common symptoms, a physical examination finding of eye movements in the plane of the superior semicircular canal when ear canal pressure or loud tones were applied to the ear, and high-resolution computed tomography imaging demonstrating a dehiscence in the bone over the superior semicircular canal. Research productivity directed at understanding better methods for diagnosing and treating this condition has substantially increased over the last two decades. We now have a sound understanding of the pathophysiology of third mobile window syndromes, higher resolution imaging protocols, and several sensitive and specific diagnostic tests. Furthermore, we have a treatment (surgical occlusion of the superior semicircular canal that has demonstrated efficacy. This review will highlight some of the fundamental insights gained in SCDS, propose diagnostic criteria, and discuss future research directions.

  6. Root canal preparation in endodontics: conventional versus laser methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodis, Harold E.; White, Joel M.; Marshall, Sally J.; Marshall, Grayson W.; Moskowitz, Emrey

    1992-06-01

    Conventional cleaning and shaping of root canal systems employs hand and/or rotary instrumentation to remove the contents of the canal and shape the canal to receive a filling material. With the advent of the Nd:YAG laser system another method of accomplishing proper cleaning and shaping is evaluated. Single rooted teeth were radiographed bucco- lingually and mesio-distally and were divided into 2 groups. The first group was accessed and the root canal systems cleaned and shaped with a step back technique utilizing hand files and gates glidden burs. At completion of the procedure the teeth were again radiographed at the same positions as those prior to the procedure. The teeth were split longitudinally and examined under scanning electron microscopy to assess cleaning. The second group of teeth were accessed, and cleaning and shaping was accomplished using the Nd:YAG laser in combination with hand files and rotary instruments. These teeth were subjected to the same analysis as those in the first group. The before and after radiographs of each group were subjected to image analysis to determine effectiveness of the two methods in shaping the canal systems. We will discuss the ability of Nd:YAG to clean and shape root canal spaces and remove smear layer and organic tissue remnants from those areas.

  7. Cleaning of Root Canal System by Different Irrigation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanomaru-Filho, Mário; Miano, Lucas Martinati; Chávez-Andrade, Gisselle Moraima; Torres, Fernanda Ferrari Esteves; Leonardo, Renato de Toledo; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the cleaning of main and lateral canals using the irrigation methods: negative pressure irrigation (EndoVac system), passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) and manual irrigation (MI). Resin teeth were used. After root canal preparation, four lateral canals were made at 2 and 7 mm from the apex. Root canals were filled with contrast solution and radiographed pre- and post-irrigation using digital radiographic system [radiovisiography (RVG)]. The irrigation protocols were: MI1-manual irrigation [22 G needle at 5 mm short of working length-WL]; MI2-manual irrigation (30G needle at 2 mm short of WL); PUI; EV1-EndoVac (microcannula at 1 mm short of WL); EV2-Endovac (microcannula at 3 mm short of WL). The obtained images, initial (filled with contrast solution) and final (after irrigation) were analyzed by using image tool 3.0 software. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey tests (5% significance level). EV1 and EV2, followed by PUI showed better cleaning capacity than manual irrigation (MI1 and MI2) (p irrigation and PUI promoted better cleaning of main and simulated lateral canals. Conventional manual irrigation technique may promote less root canal cleaning in the apical third. For this reason, the search for other irrigation protocols is important, and EndoVac and PUI are alternatives to contribute to irrigation effectiveness.

  8. Histomorphological and mucin histochemical study of the alimentary canal of pangas catfish, Pangasius pangasius (Hamilton 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javd Sadeghinezhad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the histological and mucin histochemical properties of the alimentary canal (AC of the pangas catfish, Pangasius pangasius. The results revealed that the mucosa of the oesophagus was lined by a stratified epithelium containing chloride cells and taste buds which suggested mechanic, gustatory and physiologic roles of the oesophagus in this species. The stomach mucosa was lined by a simple columnar epithelium. The lamina propria-submucosa in cardiac and fundic stomach contained gastric glands. The pyloric stomach had the thickest muscularis layer among all the parts of the AC. The villi showed the maximum height and width in the middle intestine. The tunica muscularis and serosa showed the thinnest thickness among all parts of AC. The mucin histochemistry showed that the goblet cells of oesophagus and intestine contained both neutral and acidic with carboxylated and sulfated mucins and there was not acidic mucins in epithelial cells of the stomach.

  9. Significance of temporal bone CT scan for exposure of the facial canal and the lateral semicircular canal in cholesteatoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Ki Joon; Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Myung Soon; Kim, Young Ju; Kweon, Joon [Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-09-15

    By reviewing retrospectively the HRCT findings in 130 surgically proven cases of chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma, we estimated the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictability of the HRCT compared to surgical findings. For exposure of the facial canal, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictability was 59.7%, 84.9%, and 85.2% respectively. For exposure of the lateral semicircular canal, the sensitivity was 80.6%, the specificity 99.0%, and the positive predictability 96.2%. Conclusively, the diagnostic accuracy of preoperative temporal bone CT regarding the state of the lateral semicircular canal seems to be highly reliable. Gross invasion of the facial canal can be usually detected. However, relatively low sensitivity suggests that evaluation of the ultra-thin structures of the tympanic segment is often problematic.

  10. Damaged anal canal as a cause of fecal incontinence after surgical repair for Hirschsprung disease - a preventable and under-reported complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Andrea; Frischer, Jason; Knod, Jennifer Leslie; Dickie, Belinda; Levitt, Marc A; Holder, Monica; Jackson, Lyndsey; Peña, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    Fecal incontinence after the surgical repair of Hirschsprung disease is a potentially preventable complication that carries a negative impact on patient's quality of life. Patients that were previously operated for Hirschsprung disease and presented to our bowel management clinic with the complaint of fecal incontinence were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent a rectal examination under anesthesia looking for anatomic explanations for their incontinence. One hundred three patients were identified. 54 patients had a damaged anal canal. 22 patients also had a patulous anus. The operative reports mentioned the pectinate line in 32 patients, in 12 it was not mentioned, and in 10 patients the operative report was not available. All patients with a damaged anal canal suffered from true fecal incontinence; 45 of them are on daily enemas (41 are clean and 4 are still having "accidents"), 7 are not doing bowel management due to noncompliance and 2 patients have a permanent ileostomy. 49 patients did not have a damaged anal canal, 25 of those responded to changes in diet and medication and are having voluntary bowel movements. Fecal incontinence may occur after an operation for Hirschsprung disease. When the anal canal is damaged, incontinence is always present, severe, and probably permanent. The preservation of the anal canal may avoid this complication. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Necrotic pulp tissue dissolution by passive ultrasonic irrigation in simulated accessory canals: impact of canal location and angulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jadaa, A; Paqué, F; Attin, T; Zehnder, M

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate whether passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) of 2.5% NaOCl would dissolve necrotic pulp tissue from simulated accessory root canals (SACs) better than passive placement of the irrigant, when temperature was equilibrated between the two treatments. Transparent root canal models (n = 6) were made from epoxy resin. SACs of 0.2 mm diameter were placed at defined angles and positions in the mid-canal and apical area. SACs were filled with necrotic bovine pulp tissue. PUI was performed five times for 1 min each with irrigant replenishment after every minute. Main canal temperature was measured after each minute, and a digital photograph was taken. In control experiments, mock treatments were performed with the same set-up without activation of the file using heated NaOCl to mimic the temperature created by PUI. Experiments were repeated five times. Digital photographs were analysed for the distance of dissolved tissue into the SACs in mm. Overall comparison (sum of dissolved tissue from all five accessory canals) between treatments was performed using paired t-test. Differences between SAC angulation and position after PUI were investigated using anova/Bonferroni (alpha temperature in the main canal to 53.5 +/- 2.7 degrees C after the fifth minute. PUI dissolved a total of 6.4 +/- 2.1 mm, mock treatment controlled for heat: 1.4 +/- 0.6 mm (P temperature.

  12. The effect of working length and root canal preparation technique on crack development in the apical root canal wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, C G; Yoshioka, T; Suda, H

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of working length and root canal preparation technique on crack development in the apical root canal wall. Seventy extracted mandibular premolars were mounted in a resin block with simulated periodontal ligaments and divided into seven groups according to preparation technique and working length: group A, step-back preparation with stainless steel files with working length set at the apical foramen and defined as root canal length (CL); group B, same as for A, except that the working length was CL-1 mm; group C, crown-down preparation with Profile instruments followed by an apical enlargement sequence with CL as working length and group D, same as for C, except that the working length was CL-1 mm. Groups E, F and G served as controls. Groups E and F were prepared only with the crown-down sequence up to CL and CL-1 mm, respectively. Group G was left unprepared. Digital images of the apical root surface (AS) were recorded before preparation, immediately after instrumentation and after removing the apical 1 mm (AS-1 mm) and 2 mm (AS-2 mm) of the root end. Working length significantly affected crack development at AS (P crack development at AS-1 mm (P crack development on the canal wall. Root canal preparation alone, regardless of the technique used, can potentially generate cracks on the apical root canal wall as well as the apical surface. Working 1- mm short of the apical foramen might produce fewer cracks in the apical region.

  13. Mejoras en el canal de Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandl, Charles McG.

    1963-07-01

    Full Text Available The Panama Canal, together with the Suez Canal, is an engineering accomplishment which is now regarded as a master work marking the initiation of modern civil engineering. Other projects, also of great magnitude, do not seem to maintain the reputation of the above two, because they cannot continue to serve their function with sustained usefulness in the new circumstances of today. The Panama Canal, with its limited dock capacity, and the narrow, so called Serpent, canal, has had to cope with a continuously increasing volume of shipping traffic; a natural consequence of commercial evolution. In order to keep up with these increasing demands, it has been necessary to carry out an almost uninterrupted series of modifications and improvements, affecting both the method of operation and organisation, and the actual nature of the canal. Thanks to these alterations the Panama Canal has continued to maintain, at least nominally, an adequate standard of functional efficiency. At present the canal is being widened over certain sections to enable the easy passage of ships of great displacement. The work is being done very rapidly, and in order to gain time, it has been distributed to various contractors simultaneously.El canal a través del ismo de Panamá es una obra de ingeniería civil que, junto con el de Suez, empiezan ya a clasificarse como obras maestras que señalan el primer jalón del desarrollo de la ingeniería moderna. Otras obras, también importantes, no conservan, sin embargo, la misma reputación que aquéllas, por no seguir un paralelismo con las exigencias en cada época. El canal de Panamá, con sus exclusas, y angosto paso llamado de la. Culebra, ha tenido que afrontar un tráfico creciente de navíos que siguen la evolución del tiempo. Para conseguir este paralelismo, tanto el material de explotación como la organización, dragados y mejoras, han tenido que conocer una sucesión ininterrumpida de modificaciones que han permitido

  14. Semicircular canal plane head impulses detect absent function of individual semicircular canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, P D; Halmagyi, G M; Aw, S T; Curthoys, I S; McGarvie, L A; Todd, M J; Black, R A; Hannigan, I P

    1998-04-01

    We studied the human vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in response to head 'impulses': brief, unpredictable, passive, high-acceleration (up to 4000 degrees/s2), low-amplitude (20-30 degrees) head rotations. We delivered the head impulses approximately in the plane of the semicircular canal (SCC) being tested. To test the anterior and posterior SCCs, the head impulses were delivered in a diagonal plane, midway between the frontal (roll) and sagittal (pitch) planes. We recorded head and eye position in three dimensions with scleral search coils in nine normal subjects, seven patients following unilateral surgical vestibular neurectomy and three patients following unilateral posterior SCC occlusion. In the post-surgical patients we demonstrated a severe, permanent VOR gain deficit (0.2-0.3) for head impulses directed toward any single non-functioning SCC. The sensitivity of the test depends on the physiological properties of primary vestibular afferents, and its specificity depends on the anatomical orientation of the SCCs. The diagonal head impulse is the first test of individual vertical SCC function in humans, and together with the horizontal head impulse, forms a comprehensive battery of SCC-plane tests. These canal-plane impulses could be useful in evaluating patients with vertigo or other vestibular disorders.

  15. Comparative evaluation of canal cleaning ability of various rotary endodontic filesin apical third: A scanning electron microscopic study

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    Ganesh Ranganath Jadhav

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: In apical third of root canal, SAF showed statistically significant canal cleaning ability due to combined effect of continuous streaming irrigation with effectively replacing the irrigant from the apical portion of the root canal, irrigants activation through the creation of turbulence, and its self-adapting design to root canal anatomy with a scrubbing motion on the canal walls.

  16. Endodontic management of mandibular first molar with seven canals using cone-beam computed tomography

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    Ankur Mahesh Banode

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The endodontic treatment of a mandibular molar with aberrant canal configuration can be diagnostically and clinically challenging. Successful endodontic therapy thus depends on the clinician's ability to anticipate and look for these aberrant variations. A mandibular first molar with seven canals represents a rare anatomical variant, particularly when four canals are found in distal root. Based on in vitro studies, its incidence is reported to be between 0.2% and 3%. With the advent of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT as an adjunctive diagnostic aid, the determination of root canal anatomy in teeth with complex canal configurations has become more precise. The present case report discusses successful nonsurgical management of radix entomolaris along with middle mesial canal and middle distal canal in mandibular first molar with seven canals (four canals in distal and three in mesial employing CBCT as an adjunctive diagnostic aid to conventional radiography.

  17. Cervical spinal canal narrowing and cervical neurologi-cal injuries

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    ZHANG Ling

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Cervical spinal canal narrowing can lead to injury of the spinal cord and neurological symptoms in-cluding neck pain, headache, weakness and parasthesisas. According to previous and recent clinical researches, we investigated the geometric parameters of normal cervical spinal canal including the sagittal and transverse diameters as well as Torg ratio. The mean sagittal diameter of cervical spinal canal at C 1 to C 7 ranges from 15.33 mm to 20.46 mm, the mean transverse diameter at the same levels ranges from 24.45 mm to 27.00 mm and the mean value of Torg ratio is 0.96. With respect to narrow cervical spinal canal, the following charaterstics are found: firstly, extension of the cervical spine results in statistically significant stenosis as compared with the flexed or neutral positions; secondly, females sustain cervical spinal canal narrowing more easily than males; finally, the consistent narrowest cervical canal level is at C 4 for all ethnicity, but there is a slight variation in the sagittal diameter of cervical spinal stenosis (≤14 mm in Whites, ≤ 12 mm in Japanese, ≤13.7 mm in Chinese. Narrow sagittal cervical canal diameter brings about an increased risk of neurological injuries in traumatic, degenerative and inflam-matory conditions and is related with extension of cervical spine, gender, as well as ethnicity. It is hoped that this re-view will be helpful in diagnosing spinal cord and neuro-logical injuries with the geometric parameters of cervical spine in the future. Key words: Spinal cord injuries; Spinal stenosis; Trauma, nervous system

  18. Canal configuration of mandibular first premolars in an Egyptian population

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    Hatem A. Alhadainy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate canal configuration of mandibular first premolars in an Egyptian population. Two hundred fifty human extracted mandibular first premolars were collected from Egyptian patients and a small hole in the center of the occlusal surface of each tooth was made perforating the roof of the pulp chamber. Teeth were decalcified by immersing in nitric acid and dehydrated in ascending concentrations of ethyl alcohol. A waterproof black ink was passively injected from the occlusal hole into pulp system and stained teeth were immersed in methyl salicylate solution for clearing. Standardized pictures of the cleared teeth were obtained and anatomical features of the root canal were observed. The average length of the mandibular first premolar teeth was 22.48 ± 1.74 mm, one-rooted teeth were 96.8% and the two-rooted were 3.2%. Vertucci Type I canal configuration represented the highest percentage (61.2% followed by Type V (16.4%, Type IV (13.2%, Type II (5.6% and Type III (2.8%. Vertucci Type VI canal configuration represented the lowest percentage (0.4% and a complex configuration was found in one tooth. Accessory canals were detected in 22.8% and inter-canal connections were observed in 24.8% while 54% showed apical delta. Such knowledge is clinically useful for localization and negotiation of canals of mandibular first premolar, as well as their subsequent management in Egyptian population.

  19. Lumbar spinal canal size of sciatica patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurme, M.; Alaranta, H.; Aalto, T.; Knuts, L.R.; Vanharanta, H.; Troup, J.D.G. (Turku City Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Surgery; Social Insurance Institution, Turku (Finland). Rehabilitation Research Centre; Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation; Liverpool Univ. (UK). Dept. of Orthopaedic and Accident Surgery)

    Seven measures at the three lowest lumbar interspaces were recorded from conventional radiographs of the lumbar spines of 160 consecutive patients with low back pain and sciatica admitted for myelography and possible surgery. Eighty-eight patients were operated upon for disc herniation, and of the conservatively-treated 72 patients, 18 had a pathologic and 54 a normal myelogram. The results were evaluated after one year using the occupational handicap scales of WHO. Correlations of radiographic measures to stature were moderate and to age small. After adjusting for stature and age, only the male interpedicular distances and the antero-posterior diameter of intervertebral foramen at L3 were greater than those of females. The males with a pathologic myelogram had smaller posterior disc height at L3 and a smaller interarticular distance at L3 and L4 than those with normal myelogram, likewise the midsagittal diameter at L3 and L4 in females. In all patients other measures besides posterior disc height were smaller than those for low back pain patients (p<0.001) or for cadavers (p<0.001). The only correlation between measures and clinical manifestations was between pedicular length at L3 and limited straight leg raising. Where the disc material had been extruded into the spinal canal, the interpedicular distance was significantly wider. Only anterior disc height at L3 revealed differences between good and poor outcome one year after surgery, as did the interarticular distance at S1 in patients with normal myelogram after conservative treatment. (orig.).

  20. Canal switch after canalith repositioning procedure for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Giant C; Basura, Gregory J; Wong, Hiu Tung; Heidenreich, Katherine D

    2012-09-01

    Canal switch is a complication following canalith repositioning procedure (CRP) for posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Instead of being returned to the utricle, the loose otoconia migrate into the superior or horizontal semicircular canal. Patients remain symptomatic, and treatment can be ineffective unless the switch is recognized and additional repositioning maneuvers directed toward the appropriate semicircular canal are performed. This report provides the first videographic documentation of canal switch involving conversion of unilateral posterior semicircular canal BPPV to geotropic horizontal canalithiasis. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Strategies of Coping With Stress During Root Canal Therapy

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    Zare Jahromi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Endodontic treatment is one of the stress producing situations. Objectives The purpose of this article was to determine the most stressful stage of root canal therapy among endodontists, endodontic residents, and undergraduate dental students and offering some strategies for reducing stress during this treatment. Patients and Methods This descriptive survey comprised three groups. Thirty-six endodontists, 41 endodontic residents, and 47 undergraduate dental students selected by convenience sampling. Participants were asked about age, sex, the most stressful stage of root canal therapy and stress reducing strategies during the procedure. Results The most stressful stage of root canal therapy was endodontic treatment for children in male endodontists and residents, preparing access cavity on crowns in female endodontists, obturation of apically root Resorped canals in female residents, obturation in female students, and preparing access cavity on molar teeth in male students. The most suggested strategy for reducing stress during root canal therapy was related to experience, knowledge, enough study, and technical mastery. Conclusions It is required to consider the strategies during student education in dental schools for both under and post-graduation dental students and better to follow them in workshops for other dentists and even endodontists.

  2. Nanodiamond-Gutta Percha Composite Biomaterials for Root Canal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Keun; Kim, Sue Vin; Limansubroto, Adelheid Nerisa; Yen, Albert; Soundia, Akrivoula; Wang, Cun-Yu; Shi, Wenyuan; Hong, Christine; Tetradis, Sotirios; Kim, Yong; Park, No-Hee; Kang, Mo K; Ho, Dean

    2015-11-24

    Root canal therapy (RCT) represents a standard of treatment that addresses infected pulp tissue in teeth and protects against future infection. RCT involves removing dental pulp comprising blood vessels and nerve tissue, decontaminating residually infected tissue through biomechanical instrumentation, and root canal obturation using a filler material to replace the space that was previously composed of dental pulp. Gutta percha (GP) is typically used as the filler material, as it is malleable, inert, and biocompatible. While filling the root canal space with GP is the standard of care for endodontic therapies, it has exhibited limitations including leakage, root canal reinfection, and poor mechanical properties. To address these challenges, clinicians have explored the use of alternative root filling materials other than GP. Among the classes of materials that are being explored as novel endodontic therapy platforms, nanodiamonds (NDs) may offer unique advantages due to their favorable properties, particularly for dental applications. These include versatile faceted surface chemistry, biocompatibility, and their role in improving mechanical properties, among others. This study developed a ND-embedded GP (NDGP) that was functionalized with amoxicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic commonly used for endodontic infection. Comprehensive materials characterization confirmed improved mechanical properties of NDGP over unmodified GP. In addition, digital radiography and microcomputed tomography imaging demonstrated that obturation of root canals with NDGP could be achieved using clinically relevant techniques. Furthermore, bacterial growth inhibition assays confirmed drug functionality of NDGP functionalized with amoxicillin. This study demonstrates a promising path toward NDGP implementation in future endodontic therapy for improved treatment outcomes.

  3. Stereomicroscopic Dye Leakage Measurement of Six Different Root Canal Sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballullaya, Srinidhi V; Vinay, Vusurumarthi; Thumu, Jayaprakash; Devalla, Srihari; Bollu, Indira Priyadarshini; Balla, Sagarika

    2017-06-01

    Hermetic sealing of the root canal is the most desirable outcome of any root canal treatment, but almost always the filling of the root canal is defective, which is a multifactorial outcome. One such factor majorly influencing the obturation is the root canal sealer used. The present study was done for evaluating microleakage in different root canal sealers. Sixty extracted human single rooted teeeth were used in this in-vitro study. Sealers tested for microleakage in this study were zinc oxide eugenol based sealer, Sealapex, AH Plus, MTA Plus, EndoRez, Endosequence BC. All the specimens were examined under stereomicroscope for microleakage and the obtained data were statistically analysed using One-way ANOVA test and Tukey's multiple comparision tests using the software GraphPad Prism 7.02. The Endosequence BC group showed the least dye leakage and the highest leakage was seen in Zinc oxide Eugenol based sealer. Bio ceramic salers being hydrophilic show better sealing ability compared to resin based and eugenol based sealers.

  4. Labyrinthine artery aneurysm as an internal auditory canal mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Rodney C; Konia, Thomas; Brunberg, James

    2014-08-01

    We present the first case report of a labyrinthine artery aneurysm masquerading as an internal auditory canal tumor. A 72-year-old woman presented with sudden onset right facial paralysis, facial pain, hearing loss, and vertigo. She demonstrated dense right-sided facial paralysis involving all branches of the facial nerve, left beating horizontal nystagmus, and anacusis of the right ear. Magnetic resonance imaging with contrast demonstrated a 6 × 7 mm peripherally enhancing lesion with lack of central uptake filling the right internal auditory canal. The patient elected to proceed with translabyrinthine approach to the internal auditory canal for definitive resection of the mass as well as to decompress the neural structures of the internal auditory canal in an attempt to recover neural function, particularly of the facial nerve. Intraoperatively, the internal auditory canal mass was resected with minimal difficulty, with intraoperative dissection notable for brisk bleeding at the medial base of the tumor just as the tumor was dissected off its medial fibrous attachments. Final pathology of the resected mass revealed a blood vessel with mucinous degeneration of the medial layer of the vessel wall, with immunohistochemical staining confirming the presence and structure of aneurysmal blood vessel.

  5. Partial ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eatwell, K; Mancinelli, E; Hedley, J; Keeble, E; Kovalik, M; Yool, D A

    2013-06-01

    Six lop rabbits were presented with clinical signs of otitis media or externa. The presence of disease was confirmed by computerized tomography examination, with two rabbits suffering from bilateral disease. The rabbits were anaesthetized and underwent surgery of the affected bulla. Rabbits with bilateral disease had a minimum of 2 weeks between procedures. A single vertical incision was made over the base of the vertical canal, which was bluntly dissected free from surrounding tissue. The ventral portion of the vertical canal was removed and a lateral bulla osteotomy was performed. The mucosa at the base of the dorsal vertical canal was apposed and the aural cartilage sutured to form a blind-ending pouch open at the pretragic incisure. Histopathological samples taken from the dorsal margin of the vertical canal yielded subtle and non-specific changes in the six samples submitted. All rabbits were discharged within 48 hours of surgery. The cosmetic outcome was excellent with animals retaining visually normal aural anatomy. The partial ear canal ablation/lateral bulla osteotomy procedure is quick and has a good cosmetic result when performed in rabbits. © 2013 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  6. CT and MR Imagings of Semicircular Canal Aplasia

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    Shin, Chung Hee; Hong, Hyun Sook; Yi, Beom Ha; Cha, Jang Gyu; Park, Seong Jin; Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kim, Shi Chan [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    To evaluate the clinical, CT and MR imaging findings of semicircular canal (SCC) aplasia and to evaluate if a correlation exists between these findings and the associated anomalies or syndromes. This study retrospectively reviewed the CT and MRI findings of five patients with SCC aplasia. The CT and MR findings were analyzed for SCC, direction of facial nerve canal, cochlea, vestibule, oval or round window, middle ear ossicles, and internal auditory canal (IAC). The subjects included three boys and two girls ranging in age from one to 120 months (mean age; 51 months). Four of the subjects had the CHARGE syndrome, and one had the Goldenhar syndrome. Moreover, four subjects had sensorineural hearing loss and one had combined hearing loss. The course of the facial nerve canal was abnormal in all five cases. Moreover, trapped cochlea and dysplastic modiolus were each observed in one case. Four subjects had atresia of the oval window; whereas ankylosis of the ossicles was present in three subjects. IAC stenosis was present in one patient with the CHARGE syndrome. The aberrant course of the facial nerve canal, atresia of the oval window, and abnormal ossicles were frequently associated in patients with SCC aplasia. In addition, the Goldenhar and CHARGE syndromes were also commonly associated syndromes.

  7. The best radiographic method for determining root canal morphology in mandibular first premolars: A study of Chinese descendants in Taiwan

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    Yu Sun

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Combined X-ray analyses, such as performing the buccolingual view for identification of canal bifurcation and canal continuity, may increase the accuracy of identifying complex root canal morphology.

  8. Microstructure and wettability of root canal dentine and root canal filling materials after different chemical irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonijevic, Djordje; Milovanovic, Petar [Laboratory for Anthropology, Institute for Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Brajkovic, Denis [Department of Dentistry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac (Serbia); Ilic, Dragan [Department of Restorative Medicine, School of Dental Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Hahn, Michael; Amling, Michael [Department of Osteology and Biomechanics (IOBM), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Lottestr. 55A, 22529 Hamburg (Germany); Rakocevic, Zlatko [Laboratory for Atomic Physics, Institute for Nuclear Science “Vinca”, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Djuric, Marija [Laboratory for Anthropology, Institute for Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Busse, Björn, E-mail: b.busse@uke.uni-hamburg.de [Department of Osteology and Biomechanics (IOBM), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Lottestr. 55A, 22529 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Different irrigation solutions and disinfectants were used for treatment of root canal dentine and gutta-percha points. • Materials surface characteristics were assessed using quantitative backscattered electron imaging, reference point indentation, and contact angle analyzer. • The most significant differences in mineralization, indentation, and adhesive outcomes were observed after ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid treatment. • Irrigation solutions confer to superior sealing ability of endodontic filling materials. • Micromechanical characteristics of dentine after irrigation are considerable reduced. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various irrigation solutions on root canal dentine and gutta-percha surface properties. In addition, the effects of disinfectant chemicals on the wettability and surface morphological properties of the filling materials were evaluated. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, and ozone were employed as irrigation solutions for dentine and gutta-percha treatment. Thereafter, the samples’ microstructure, degree of mineralization, and mechanical properties were assessed by means of quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) and reference point indentation (RPI). A contact angle analyzer was used to measure adhesion on the tested materials. Here, EDTA had the most significant affect on both the mechanical properties and the adhesive behavior of dentine. Citric acid did not affect dentine wettability, whereas the indentation properties and the mineralization were reduced. Similar effects were observed when ozone was used. The dentinal tubules were significantly widened in citric acid compared to the ozone group. EDTA causes considerable micromechanical surface alteration of dentine and gutta-percha, but represents the best option in clinical cases where a high adhesiveness of the filling materials is desired.

  9. Evaluation of a new nickel-titanium system to create the glide path in root canal preparation of curved canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amario, Maurizio; Baldi, Mario; Petricca, Roberto; De Angelis, Francesco; El Abed, Rashid; D'Arcangelo, Camillo

    2013-12-01

    Nickel-titanium rotary instruments recently have been introduced with the purpose of creating an initial glide path. The purpose of this study was to compare the maintenance of canal anatomy, the occurrence of apical transportation, and the working time observed using mechanised instrumentation with the new G-File rotary system (Micro-Mega, Besançon Cedex, France) with those observed using instrumentation with the PathFile system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and manual instrumentation with K-type files (Micro-Mega) to create a glide path in curved root canals. The mesial canals of 45 mandibular molars (with curvature angles between 25° and 35°) were selected. The specimens were randomly divided into 3 groups with 15 canals each, and canal preparations were performed by an endodontist using #12-17 G-File rotary instruments (group GF), #13-16-19 PathFile rotary instruments (group PF), and #10-15-20 K-type stainless steel manual files (group M). A digital double radiographic technique was used to determine apical transportation and the change in the angle of curvature. The working time was also calculated. No statistically significant differences in the angle of canal curvature and apical transportation were found between the groups. However, concerning the working time, specimens from the group who underwent canal preparation using #12-17 G-File rotary instruments achieved significantly lower mean values when compared with the other 2 groups, whereas the group who underwent canal preparation using the #10-15-20 K-type stainless steel manual files had the highest values. The G-File rotary instruments, the PathFile system, and the manual instruments did not have any influence on the occurrence of apical transportation nor did they produce a change in the angle of canal curvature. The G-File instruments seemed to be the most rapid system in creating a safe glide path. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc

  10. Development and Characterization of A Novel Prox1-EGFP Lymphatic and Schlemm's Canal Reporter Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eunson; Gardner, Daniel; Choi, Dongwon; Park, Eunkyung; Jin Seong, Young; Yang, Sara; Castorena-Gonzalez, Jorge; Louveau, Antoine; Zhou, Zhao; Lee, Gene K; Perrault, David P; Lee, Sunju; Johnson, Maxwell; Daghlian, George; Lee, Maria; Jin Hong, Yeo; Kato, Yukinari; Kipnis, Jonathan; Davis, Michael J; Wong, Alex K; Hong, Young-Kwon

    2017-07-17

    The lymphatic system plays a key role in tissue fluid homeostasis, immune cell trafficking, and fat absorption. We previously reported a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based lymphatic reporter mouse, where EGFP is expressed under the regulation of the Prox1 promoter. This reporter line has been widely used to conveniently visualize lymphatic vessels and other Prox1-expressing tissues such as Schlemm's canal. However, mice have a number of experimental limitations due to small body size. By comparison, laboratory rats are larger in size and more closely model the metabolic, physiological, and surgical aspects of humans. Here, we report development of a novel lymphatic reporter rat using the mouse Prox1-EGFP BAC. Despite the species mismatch, the mouse Prox1-EGFP BAC enabled a reliable expression of EGFP in Prox1-expressing cells of the transgenic rats and allowed a convenient visualization of all lymphatic vessels, including those in the central nervous system, and Schlemm's canal. To demonstrate the utility of this new reporter rat, we studied the contractile properties and valvular functions of mesenteric lymphatics, developed a surgical model for vascularized lymph node transplantation, and confirmed Prox1 expression in venous valves. Together, Prox1-EGFP rat model will contribute to the advancement of lymphatic research as a valuable experimental resource.

  11. Temporal Bone Fracture Causing Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence

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    Kevin A. Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD is a third window lesion of the inner ear causing symptoms of vertigo, autophony, tinnitus, and hearing loss. A “two-hit” hypothesis has traditionally been proposed, whereby thinly developed bone overlying the superior canal is disrupted by a sudden change in intracranial pressure. Although the symptoms of SCD may be precipitated by head injury, no previous reports have described a temporal bone fracture directly causing SCD. Observations. Two patients sustained temporal bone fractures after closed head trauma, and developed unilateral otologic symptoms consistent with SCD. In each instance, computed tomography imaging revealed fractures extending through the bony roof of the superior semicircular canal. Conclusions and Relevance. Temporal bone fractures, which are largely treated nonoperatively, have not previously been reported to cause SCD. As it is a potentially treatable entity, SCD resulting from temporal bone fracture must be recognized as a possibility and diagnosed promptly if present.

  12. El fomento ilustrado. Un ejemplo significativo: el Canal de Castilla

    OpenAIRE

    Benito Martín, José María

    2016-01-01

    El Canal de Castilla es la obra de ingeniería hidráulica más importante y de mayor envergadura que se llevó a cabo en España durante la Época Moderna. A través del desarrollo de la historia del Canal se analizará la repercusión económica de la región castellana y su importancia tanto a nivel cultural como patrimonial. El Canal representaría la vía fluvial de comunicación entre Castilla y el mar del norte para transportar los excedentes de cereales a otros países y al propio, siendo años de gr...

  13. [Benign postural vertigo and nystagmus of the horizontal semicircular canal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waespe, W

    1997-02-22

    Benign paroxysmal vertigo and nystagmus are induced not only by the posterior but also by the horizontal semicircular canal. Benign positional nystagmus of the horizontal canal is more often observed than was previously thought. In 10 patients we analyzed the characteristics and the variability of nystagmus which accompanies positional vertigo of the horizontal canal. There are two forms of nystagmus: primary-geotropic, most often paroxysmal nystagmus (7 patients), and primary-apogeotropic, non-paroxysmal nystagmus (3 patients). Interestingly, in 2 patients with the primary-apogeotropic form the nystagmus converted during the examination into the primary-geotropic form. The reverse was not observed. We discuss the possible pathophysiological mechanisms which could be relevant for provoking manoeuvres.

  14. Tullio phenomenon in superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, Gregory J; Cronin, Scott J; Heidenreich, Katherine D

    2014-03-18

    Tullio phenomenon refers to eye movements induced by sound.(1) This unusual examination finding may be seen in superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) syndrome.(2) This disorder is due to absent bone over the superior semicircular canal (figure). Patients complain of dizziness triggered by loud sound, aural fullness, autophony, and pulsatile tinnitus. When Tullio phenomenon exists in SSCD syndrome, the patient develops a mixed vertical-torsional nystagmus in which the slow phase rotates up and away from the affected ear (video on the Neurology® Web site at Neurology.org). This pattern of nystagmus aligns in the plane of the dehiscent semicircular canal and is due to excitation of its afferent nerves.

  15. Application of Different Algorithms to Optimal Design of Canal Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kentli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Today the increased world population and therefore the growth demand has forced the researchers to investigate better water canal networks distributing much more water while at least keeping its quality. Canal design formulas are explicitly obtained for different cross-sections considering minimum area but optimal design of canal sections considering seepage and evaporation losses are still an open area to study. In this study, two different algorithms are applied to this problem and results are compared with the one in literature. Genetic algorithm and sequential quadratic programming technique are used in optimization. Triangular, rectangular and trapezoidal cross-sections are optimized. It is seen that both algorithms are giving more accurate results than in literature.

  16. Commentaires sur la valeur piscicole du Canal de Roubaix (Nord

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    ARRIGNON J.

    1970-10-01

    Full Text Available La population piscicole du Canal de ROUBAIX a été inventoriée par pêche électrique. Trois passages, suivis chacun de l'enlèvement des poissons capturés, ont été opérés dans chacun des trois Secteurs d'inventaire. Le peuplement le plus probable ainsi estimé (par la méthode De Lury,est en rapport avec le degré de pollution du canal. On constate aussi queles poissons se cantonnent le long des berges, sur une largeur de 2 à 3mètres.L'estimation à l'hectare représente donc en réalité le stock d'une zone n'ayant que 25 % de la surface totale du Canal. Les poissons contrôlés sont pour la plupart des poissons de repeuplement.

  17. Morphological examination of the obturator notch and canal in Cervidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tae, Hyun-Jin; Park, Byung-Yong; Kim, In-Shik; Ahn, Dongchoon

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gross findings of the obturator notch (ON) and obturator canal (OC) in Cervidae. A total of 183 pelvic girdles from 26 species of deer were examined, and the obturator canal (OC) was classified into 4 types based on the degree of separation from the obturator foramen (OF). The deep ON was observed primarily in the subfamily Capreolinae (telemetacarpal deer). The small bony OC was frequently observed in Hydropotes inermis, Mazama gouazoubira and Ozotoceros bezoarticus. A canal without a tubercle or bony bridge structure was mainly observed in the subfamily Cervinae (plesiometacarpal deer). These results suggest that the deep ONs or the OCs separated by bony structures are more common in telemetacarpal rather than plesiometacarpal deer.

  18. A RARE CASE OF HYDROCOELE OF CANAL OF NUCK

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    Abhishek Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Hydrocele of canal of Nuck of female is a rare developmental disorder corresponding to the hydrocele of the spermatic cord of males It results from the failure of obliteration of the distal portion of evaginated parietal peritoneum within the inguinal canal which forms a sac containing fluid. It can be diagnosed on the operating table at the time of operation of suspected incarcerated inguinal hernia. We present a rare case of a 15 year old girl with right-sided groin swelling over 4 years, diagnosed as hydrocele of canal of Nuck. Patient underwent surgical exploration and excision of hydrocele. This entity should be considered in young females presenting with an inguinal swelling.

  19. Capacitively coupled and direct-current resistivity surveys of selected reaches of Cozad, Thirty-Mile, Orchard-Alfalfa, Kearney, and Outlet Canals in Nebraska, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobza, Christopher M.; Burton, Bethany L.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Tompkins, Ryan E.

    2014-01-01

    Canal mile post 15.55 along 5 separate profiles. DC-resistivity results were compared to a schematic cross section of the Outlet Canal north embankment that include the original surfaces and modifications to the compacted-core bank structure. Along the canal road south line, there is a transition from high resistivity at land surface to much lower resistivity near the estimated depth of the northern slope of the original compacted-core bank; however, the surveyed elevation of the water surface in the canal also is at this elevation. Along the canal road north line, there is a transition from high resistivity near land surface to lower resistivity at depth. Although the transition is rapid near the estimated depth of the first-modified bank slope, it also is coincident with the groundwater level measured in piezometer PZ-4. Currently (2013), it is unknown if the indicated changes in resistivity at these elevations was the effect of saturation of the underlying sediments or caused by the compacted-core bank.

  20. blood in the canal space of the teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soleymani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Apical seal in blood or dry root canal is a problem in endodontic treatment. Failure of apical seal causes inflammatory reaction and failure root canal treatment. Because of the sealer properties, root canal should be dry for obturation. But hydrophilic sealers can adhere to root canal walls nowadays and this problem is still controversial. This study aimed at determining the apical microleakage of AH26 and MTA Fillapex sealers in dry and bloody condition. Methods: This experimental in vitro study was done on 48 extracted central teeth. The researchers used the Mtwo rotary files for root canal instrumentation. In this process, the teeth were divided into four groups (2 dry groups and 2 bloody groups and two groups as positive and negative control (each group of 4 teeth. All sealers were prepared according to the factory instruction and the obturation was done with gutta-percha and sealer. After 7 days in 100% moisture condition, the teeth were placed in the ink for 3 days and then were cut across longitudinal axis and the level of microleakage was measured by stereomicroscope.Finally, the data were analyzed by SPSS software, ANOVA, Chi-Square and t-test statistical tests. Results:The mean of MTA Fillapex and AH26 apical microleakage in blood groups were (448.61± 34.67 Mm and (429.84± 31.63 Mm respectively. The minimum microleakage belonged to AH26 sealer, but it was not significant. Conclusion: AH26 sealer is a better barrier against microleakage in comparison with MTA Fillapx, although it is not significant. Also, the evidence suggests drying the canal leads to a better apical seal and the blood significantly increases apical microleakage. 

  1. Facial nerve canal dehiscence in chronic otitis media without cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomiya, Shigenobu; Kariya, Shin; Nomiya, Rie; Morita, Norimasa; Nishizaki, Kazunori; Paparella, Michael M; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2014-03-01

    The information on incidence of the facial nerve canal dehiscence in chronic otitis media is important for surgeons. The purpose of this study is to disclose the histopathologic findings of facial nerve canal dehiscence in human temporal bones with chronic otitis media. We divided the human temporal bones into two groups (age 4 years, and under 4 years of age). We evaluated the incidence and the area of the facial nerve canal dehiscence in chronic otitis media under light microscopy. Age-matched normal control temporal bones were also examined. In the age group of 4 years, 68.9 % of temporal bones with chronic otitis media and 71.9 % of controls had the facial nerve canal dehiscence. There was no significant difference between them (P = 0.61). The area of the dehiscence in temporal bones with chronic otitis media was not statistically different from controls (P = 0.53). In the age group under 4 years, 88.2 % of temporal bones with chronic otitis media and 76.5 % of controls had the dehiscence. No significant difference was found between them (P = 0.66). The area of the dehiscence in temporal bones with chronic otitis media was not statistically different from controls in the age group under 4 years (P = 0.43). In chronic otitis media, the incidence of facial nerve canal dehiscence was high and was not statistically different from controls. These results suggest that there is no association between chronic otitis media and the presence of facial nerve canal dehiscence.

  2. Ligament structures in the tarsal sinus and canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Yuan; Hou, Zhi-Dian; Zhang, Peng; Li, Hong-Liang; Ding, Zi-Hai; Liu, Yu-Jie

    2013-12-01

    The concrete anatomy and functional characteristics of the subtalar ligaments have been a matter of debate that some believe has hampered the progress of clinical ligament reconstruction. In 32 fresh-frozen cadaver feet, the course of the inferior extensor retinaculum (IER) and other subtalar ligaments was carefully measured and photographed both from the portal of the tarsal sinus and from a posterior view. The IER inserted inside the tarsal sinus and canal by means of 3 roots: a lateral, an intermediate, and a medial one. These roots, along with the tarsal canal, divided the subtalar space into 3 parts. In front of the IER and inside the tarsal sinus, the thick cervical ligament (CL) lay at a 45-degree angle to the calcaneus. Behind the IER and inside the posterior capsule, in most cases (25 of 32 specimens), the posterior capsular ligament (PCaL) lay directly in front of the posterior talocalcaneal facet. Inside the tarsal canal, the fan-shaped medial root of the IER spread from outside upper lateral to lower medial, and the interosseous talocalcaneal ligament (ITCL) ran from upper medial to lower lateral; fibers of these 2 ligaments blended tightly together to form a V-shaped ligament complex. Just anterior to this complex in some cases (20 of 32 specimens), a short narrow upright ligament, the tarsal canal ligament (TCL), was located behind the middle talocalcaneal joint. The results of this study show that the CL is the primary ligament in the tarsal sinus and that the ITCL is a thin single band rather than a strong bilaminar ligament located inside the tarsal canal. Instead, the medial root of the IER is the primary ligamentous structure in the tarsal canal. The anatomical description provided here may provide a more accurate theoretical foundation for clinical subtalar stability restoration.

  3. Root Canal Treatment for Deciduous Teeth: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müge Daloğlu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The early loss of deciduous teeth leads to many negations in terms of physiological, functional and aesthetic. The structure of the deciduous teeth causes decay to progress much easier and less time and this is the need for frequent dental pulp treatment to be kept in the mouth. The new materials that will increase the success of deciduous teeth root canal treatment are continuing to investigate. In this study, it is aimed that recently prominent current approaches are to be compiled in root canal treatment of deciduous teeth.

  4. Mesiodens Within the Nasopalatine Canal: An Exceptional Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, Georges; Nasseh, Ibrahim

    2016-10-24

    A supernumerary tooth is one that is supplementary to the normal dentition. It can be found anywhere at the dental arch. A mesiodens is a supernumerary tooth located between the two maxillary central incisors usually palatally or within the alveolar process. Less frequently, the mesiodens is in relation with the nasal floor and the nasopalatine canal walls. This paper presents a very rare case of an impacted inverted mesiodens located inside the nasopalatine canal and found incidentally with a cone-beam computed tomography examination.

  5. Mesiodens within the nasopalatine canal: an exceptional entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Aoun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A supernumerary tooth is one that is supplementary to the normal dentition. It can be found anywhere at the dental arch. A mesiodens is a supernumerary tooth located between the two maxillary central incisors usually palatally or within the alveolar process. Less frequently, the mesiodens is in relation with the nasal floor and the nasopalatine canal walls. This paper presents a very rare case of an impacted inverted mesiodens located inside the nasopalatine canal and found incidentally with a cone-beam computed tomography examination.

  6. Agrandamiento gingival por bloqueantes de canales de calcio

    OpenAIRE

    Ocaña Diestra, Tania; Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Perú; García Linares, Sixto; Departamento Académico Médico Quirúrgico, Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Perú

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia del agrandamiento gingival en pacientes hipertensos que consumen fármacos bloqueantes de canales de calcio y compararlo con otro grupo de pacientes hipertensos que no consumen dichos fármacos. Métodos: En el estudio descriptivo transversal se evaluaron a 50 pacientes hipertensos que consumían bloqueantes de canales de calcio (grupo de estudio) y a 50 pacientes hipertensos que recibían tratamiento con otro tipo de antihipertensivos (grupo control). Se les rea...

  7. Optimal volume of local anaesthetic for the adductor canal block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, P.; Jenstrup, M. T.; Lund, J.

    2015-01-01

    theED95. Distal filling of the adductor canal was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (primary outcome). Secondary outcomeswere the effect of volume on proximal spread to the femoral triangle (also assessed by magnetic resonance imaging), quadricepsmuscle weakness (decrease by ≥25% from baseline......, respectively (P=0.25). Seven subjects had a reduction in muscle strength, but there was no difference betweengroups (P=0.85). Conclusions: For an ACB, the dose closest to the ED95 needed to fill the adductor canal distally was 20 ml. There was nosignificant correlation between volume and proximal spread...... or muscle strength.Clinical trial registration: NCT02033356....

  8. Shape and Deformation Analysis of the Human Ear Canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune

    is on the extraction and analysis of the shape and deformation of the ear canal due to movements of the mandible, leaning over, and turning of the head. Methods for surface registration with focus on non-rigid registration are presented, as well as a wide range of statistical methods used for analyzing the shapes...... and deformation fields. The results show that the ear canal changes shape significantly in all subjects and that the deformation is more complicated than previously described in the literature. It is shown that the deformation at specific locations in the ear is significantly correlated to comfort issues reported...

  9. Root canal obturation of primary teeth: Disposable injection technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to outline a simple, cost-effective technique for obturation of primary tooth root canals. A total of 75 primary teeth were treated in 52 subjects by the technique discussed, i.e. injecting plastic flowable material into the root canals after desired preparation, using disposable needle and syringe. All the patients were followed up for 3 years and 6 months, with no clinical or radiologic evidence of pathology or need for untimely extraction. In conclusion, the technique described is simple, economical, can be used with almost all filling materials used for the purpose, and is easy to master with minimal chances of failure.

  10. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    factories and warehouses on Gansevoort Street. Today the High Line is a beautiful park covered with new tiles, viewing platforms and smaller recreational areas. The park bridge has simple, uniform, urban fittings and features a variety of flowering plants, grasses, shrubs and trees from around the world......, and galleries. With the High Line, a new urban architectural typology has been created that is aesthetically enriching and sets new standards for urban transformation and urban life. “The park accommodates the wild, the cultivated, the intimate and the social. Access points are durational experiences designed...

  11. A Guyon's canal ganglion presenting as occupational overuse syndrome: A case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Jeffrey C Y

    2008-01-01

    Occupational overuse syndrome (OOS) can present as Guyon\\'s canal syndrome in computer keyboard users. We report a case of Guyon\\'s canal syndrome caused by a ganglion in a computer user that was misdiagnosed as OOS.

  12. Root Canal Stripping: Malpractice or Common Procedural Accident-An Ethical Dilemma in Endodontics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ciobanu, Ionela Elisabeta; Rusu, Darian; Stratul, Stefan-Ioan; Didilescu, Andreea Cristina; Cristache, Corina Marilena

    2016-01-01

    Root canal stripping is defined as an oblong, vertical perforation that appears especially in the middle section of curved root canals during endodontic treatments with nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) instruments...

  13. AFSC/ABL: Lynn Canal Overwinter Acoustic Survey, 2004-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The acoustic trawl database for Lynn Canals echo-trawl survey was conducted from 2001 to 2004 throughout southern Lynn Canal in southeast Alaska. Acoustic surveys...

  14. AFSC/ABL: Lynn Canal Echo-Integrated Trawl Surveys, 2001-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The acoustic trawl database for Lynn Canals echo-trawl survey was conducted from 2001 to 2004 throughout southern Lynn Canal in southeast Alaska. Acoustic surveys...

  15. Evaluation of Mandibular Anterior Nutrient Canals in Periodontal Diseases: A Prospective Case Control Radiographic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Singh

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of nutrient canals was higher in patients with periodontitis. As age advanced, prevalence was more. Increased frequency of nutrient canals of 3 or more than 3 was seen with increased seventy of bone loss.

  16. Allegheny County Hydrology Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Hydrology Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled water drainage features and structures including rivers, streams, drainage canals, locks, dams,...

  17. Morphology of the mandibular canal and the angulation between the mandibular and mental canals in dry skulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pálsson, S R; Kjaer, I

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the correlation between external and internal mandibular morphology in adult or adolescent normal anthropological mandibles. Lateral radiographs of 31 symmetrical mandibles were analysed. The external morphology was defined by the gonial and beta-angles....... In order to analyse internal morphology, a metallic pin was placed in the mental canal on the left side before radiography. The angle between the mental and the mandibular canals was termed the 'mental angle' and that expressing the curvature of the mandibular canal, the 'mandibular angle'. Spearman...... correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationships between the angles. Internal morphology: a statistically significant correlation was found between the mental and mandibular angles (correlation coefficient: -0.60, P=0.0004). When the mental angle was narrow, the mandibular angle tended...

  18. Form and function of the teleost lateral line revealed using three-dimensional imaging and computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Hendrik; Klein, Birgit; Ziegler, Alexander

    2017-05-01

    Fishes sense weak water motion using the lateral line. Among the thousands of described fish species, this organ may differ in size, shape and distribution of individual mechanoreceptors or lateral line canals. The reasons for this diversity remain unclear, but are very likely related to habitat preferences. To better understand the performance of the organ in natural hydrodynamic surroundings, various three-dimensional imaging datasets of the cephalic lateral line were gathered using Leuciscus idus as representative freshwater teleost. These data are employed to simulate hydrodynamic phenomena around the head and within lateral line canals. The results show that changes in canal dimensions alter the absolute stimulation amplitudes, but have little effect on the relation between bulk water flow and higher frequency signals. By contrast, depressions in the skin known as epidermal pits reduce bulk flow stimulation and increase the ratio between higher-frequency signals and the background flow stimulus. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Maxillary first molars with six canals confirmed with the aid of cone-beam computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahra Mohammad Al-Habboubi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The maxillary first molar exhibits unpredictable root canal morphology. Different number of root canals has been reported with the aids of new tools. It is very important to clinically detect all canals for better outcome results. The purpose of the present case is to present a case of the maxillary first molar in a Saudi male patient with an anatomical variation of having six root canals that were confirmed with cone-beam computed tomography.

  20. Macroanatomic and radiologic characteristics of the superior genial spinal foramen and its bony canal

    OpenAIRE

    Vandewalle, Giovani; Liang, Xin; JACOBS, Romain; Lambrichts, Ivo

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence, size, location, course, and content of the superior genial spinal foramen and its bony canal. Materials and Methods: Three hundred eighty dry human cadaver mandibles were morphometrically analyzed by measuring the distance from the foramen to the mandibular base and the size of the foramen and bony canal. Radiologically, the course of the bony canal and its relation to the mandibular incisive canal were investigated after injecting contrast medium (Omnipaq...

  1. Extracting Environmental Benefits from a New Canal in Nicaragua: Lessons from Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condit, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Biologists have raised objections to a new canal in Nicaragua, but in this Essay I argue that dire predictions of environmental catastrophe are exaggerated. I present an alternative view based on my research experience in Panama, where Canal operations foster forest conservation. Currently in Nicaragua, the rate of forest loss is so rapid that the canal cannot make it worse. Rather, I contend, adoption of international standards in canal construction could lead to net environmental and social benefits for the country.

  2. Kedo-S Paediatric Rotary Files for Root Canal Preparation in Primary Teeth – Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Jeevanandan, Ganesh

    2017-01-01

    Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) instrument are widely used for root canal preparation in permanent tooth compared to primary teeth. Hand instrumentation technique remains the conventional method for root canal preparation in primary teeth. The time taken for root canal preparation with the conventional method is more resulting in patients and clinicians fatigue. Recently Ni-Ti rotary files designed for permanent tooth has been used for root canal preparation in primary teeth. Using rotary instruments...

  3. Five Root Canals for a Maxillary First Molar Tooth – A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Aminul Islam; Md. Shamsul Alam

    2012-01-01

    This case report represents assessment and management of a maxillary left first molar tooth containing five root canals by endodontic treatment. In this case Mesiobuccal 2 (MB2), Mesiopalatal (MP) and Distobuccal (DB) canals were missed as well as very poor obturation at palatal and mesiobuccal1(MB1) canal during previous treatment history. Three mesiobuccal (MB1, MB2, and MP), DB and palatal canals were identified and endodontic retreatment was done followed by final restoration. This case p...

  4. Independent and Confluent Middle Mesial Root Canals in Mandibular First Molars: A Report of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanavelu Deepalakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular molars demonstrate considerable variations with respect to number of roots and root canals. The possibility of additional root canals should be considered even in teeth with a low frequency of abnormal root canal anatomy. This paper discusses the endodontic management of the rare anatomical complexity middle mesial canals in mandibular first molar and also serves to remind the clinicians that such anatomical variations should be taken into account during the endodontic treatment of the mandibular molars.

  5. Retrieval of a metallic obstruction from the root canal of a premolar using Masserann technique

    OpenAIRE

    Vivekananda Pai, A R; Mir, Shugufta; Jain, Rachit

    2013-01-01

    A metallic obstruction in the root canal blocks canal cleaning and shaping procedures and requires either bypassing or retrieval. Many methods have been recommended to retrieve a metallic obstruction from the root canal. This article describes the retrieval of a metallic obstruction from the root canal of a premolar using Masserann technique to facilitate endodontic retreatment. Masserann technique is said to have limited application in posteriors. However, in this case, the obstruction was s...

  6. The revised anatomy of the canals connecting the orbit with the cranial cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regoli, Marì; Bertelli, Eugenio

    2017-04-01

    Orbits are connected with the middle cranial fossa via the optic canal, the superior orbital fissure, the M-type orbitomeningeal foramen, the metoptic canal, an accessory anterior opening of the foramen rotundum, and Warwick's canal. They are also in communication with the anterior cranial fossa via the ethmoidal canals and the A-type orbitomeningeal foramen. The anatomy of these conduits has been recently enriched with several details that are summarized and reviewed in this article.

  7. Spatial and seasonal variations of the contamination within water body of the Grand Canal, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.L.; Han, Jingyi; Xu, L.G.; Zhang, Q.

    2010-01-01

    To delineate the character of contaminations in the Grand Canal, China, a three-year study (2004-2006) was conducted to investigate variations the water quality in the canal. Results showed that the variation of water quality within the Grand Canal was of there is remarkable spatial and seasonal

  8. Endodontic treatment of two-canalled maxillary central and lateral incisors: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Shokouhinejad, Noushin; Sheykhrezaee, Mohammad Saeed; Assadian, Hadi

    2009-01-01

    Familiarity with the intricacies and variations of root canal morphology is essential for successful endodontic treatment. Maxillary central and lateral incisors are known to be single-rooted with one canal, however, this case report describes endodontic treatment of maxillary central and lateral incisors with two buccopalatal root canals.

  9. Endodontic treatment of two-canalled maxillary central and lateral incisors: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokouhinejad, Noushin; Sheykhrezaee, Mohammad Saeed; Assadian, Hadi

    2009-01-01

    Familiarity with the intricacies and variations of root canal morphology is essential for successful endodontic treatment. Maxillary central and lateral incisors are known to be single-rooted with one canal, however, this case report describes endodontic treatment of maxillary central and lateral incisors with two buccopalatal root canals. PMID:23940491

  10. A central incisor with 4 independent root canals: a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aznar Portoles, C.; Moinzadeh, A.T.; Shemesh, H.

    2015-01-01

    The maxillary central incisor is the tooth with the least anatomic variations. Despite the fact that several studies have reported a prevalence of 100% for the presence of a single canal, root canal aberrations of maxillary central incisors with up to 3 canals have also been reported. Such cases

  11. File list: Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: Unc.Oth.10.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: Pol.Oth.05.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Oth.05.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells hg19 RNA polymerase Others Schlemms canal cel...ls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Oth.05.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells.bed ...

  16. Measurement and visualization of file-to-wall contact during ultrasonically activated irrigation in simulated canals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, C.; Verhaagen, B.; Walmsley, A.D.; Versluis, Michel; van der Sluis, L.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim (i) To quantify in a simulated root canal model the file-to-wall contact during ultrasonic activation of an irrigant and to evaluate the effect of root canal size, file insertion depth, ultrasonic power, root canal level and previous training, (ii) To investigate the effect of file-to-wall

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: InP.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. IMPACT OF CANAL DESIGN LIMITATIONS ON WATER DELIVERY OPERATIONS AND AUTOMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation canals are often designed for water transmission. The design engineer simply ensures that the canal will pass the maximum design discharge. However, irrigation canals frequently operated far below design capacity. Because demands and the distribution of flow at bifurcations (branch points...

  11. 46 CFR 69.7 - Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals. 69.7... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS General § 69.7 Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals. (a) All vessels intending to transit the Panama Canal, other than vessels of war, must be measured and...

  12. 19 CFR 4.4 - Panama Canal; report of arrival required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Panama Canal; report of arrival required. 4.4... OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.4 Panama Canal; report of arrival required. Vessels which merely transit the Panama Canal without transacting any...

  13. THE USE OF CUSTOMIZED GUTTA PERCHA FILLING MATERIAL IN WIDE ROOT CANAL SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewa Ayu N. P. A. Dewa Ayu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The necrotic tooth with incomplete formed roots and wide root canal should be treated by apexification. Gutta-percha combined with root canal sealer is widely used as an obturation material. The aim of this case report is to figure out that the use of customized gutta-percha in wide root canal to produce compact and hermetic filling.

  14. 33 CFR 401.49 - Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. 401.49 Section 401.49 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT... Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. Except in an emergency, no vessel shall drop anchor in any canal or...

  15. The Ohio & Erie Canal: Catalyst of Economic Development for Ohio. Teaching with Historic Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Deborah

    In the 19th century, canal boats pulled along by mules carried much cargo. The canal boat was the family business, their livelihood, and their home. In Ohio, these boats glided gracefully along the Ohio and Erie Canal, heavily laden with lumber on its way north to Lake Erie where it was transferred to a lake freighter and sent to Buffalo (New…

  16. Page 1 Steady flow Simulation in irrigation canals 967 Note :- 1 - 5 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Steady flow Simulation in irrigation canals 967. Note :- 1 - 5 correspond to cases listed in table & Case". #. 400 800 1200 1600 20 *. 0 - 00 m Figure 5. Effect of canal con-. Distance dition on flow depth. 6.3 Backwater effect. By and large, canals are designed based on uniform flow criterion and control structures are also ...

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: Unc.Oth.20.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: InP.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: Pol.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: Pol.Oth.10.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: ALL.Oth.20.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: Pol.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: NoD.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: Pol.Oth.20.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. Endodontic Treatment of a Mandibular Second Premolar with Three Roots and Three Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonny Paul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex root canal system with atypical variations is a common finding among mandibular premolars. Endodontic treatment in these teeth may not be successful due to the failure to recognise and treat multiple canals. This paper presents endodontic treatment of a mandibular second premolar with three roots and three canals.

  7. [The use of ultrasonic files in canal preparation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calas, P; Terrie, B

    1990-01-01

    The continuous high volume of irrigating solution delivered by the ultrasonic system facilitates the root canal debridement. An excellent cleaning of dentin wall is obtained even on surfaces unreached by the mechanical instrumentation. In order to obtain an efficacious preparation, the use of ultrasonic files were combined with instrumentation. This new technique is described in this article.

  8. Evaluation of complications of root canal treatment performed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mothanna K. AlRahabi

    2017-07-05

    Jul 5, 2017 ... This study evaluated the technical quality of root canal treatment (RCT) and detected iatrogenic errors in an undergraduate dental clinic at the College of Dentistry, Taibah. University, Saudi Arabia. Dental records of 280 patients who received RCT between 2013 and 2016 undertaken by dental students ...

  9. Radiologic classification of superior canal dehiscence : Implications for surgical repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lookabaugh, Sarah; Kelly, Hillary R.; Carter, Margaret S.; Niesten, Marlien E F|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/377125202; McKenna, Michael J.; Curtin, Hugh; Lee, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Surgical access to repair a superior canal dehiscence (SCD) is influenced by the location of the bony defect and its relationship to surrounding tegmen topography as seen on computed tomography. There are currently no agreed-upon methods of characterizing these radiologic findings. We

  10. Acoustic impedances of ear canals measured by impedance tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciric, Dejan; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2007-01-01

    During hearing sensitivity tests, the sound field is commonly generated by an earphone placed on a subject ear. One of the factors that can affect the sound transmission in the ear is the acoustic impedance of the ear canal. Its importance is related to the contribution of other elements involved...

  11. Pneumocystis jirovecii infection of the external auditory canal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pneumocystis jirovecii is well known to cause interstitial plasma cell pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. It has been implicated as a rare cause of infections in other anatomical sites.¹ We report a rare case of P. jirovecii infection of the external auditory canal. This was the first manifestation of a previously unknown ...

  12. Assessment of lumbar spinal canal stenosis by magnetic resonance phlebography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manaka, Masakazu; Komagata, Masashi; Endo, Kenji; Imakiire, Atsuhiro [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    There is evidence to suggest that cauda equina intermittent claudication is caused by local circulatory disturbances in the cauda equina as well as compression of the cauda equina. We evaluated the role of magnetic resonance phlebography (MRP) in identifying circulatory disturbances of the vertebral venous system in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis. Extensive filling defects of the anterior internal vertebral venous plexus were evident in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis (n=53), whereas only milder abnormalities were noted in patients with other lumber diseases (n=16) and none in normal subjects (n=13). The extent of the defect on MRP correlated with the time at which intermittent claudication appeared. In patients with lumber spinal canal stenosis, extensive defects of the internal vertebral venous plexus on MRP were noted in the neutral spine position, but the defect diminished with anterior flexion of the spine. This phenomenon correlated closely with the time at which intermittent claudication appeared. Our results highlight the importance of MRP for assessing the underlying mechanism of cauda equina intermittent claudication in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis and suggest that congestive venous ischemia is involved in the development of intermittent claudication in these patients. (author)

  13. Microtensile bond strength between adhesive cements and root canal dentin

    OpenAIRE

    Bouillaguet, Serge; Troesch, Sabra; Wataha, John C.; Krejci, Ivo; Meyer, Jean Marc; Pashley, David H

    2003-01-01

    The hypotheses tested were that the bond strength of adhesive cements to root canal dentin (1) would be reduced as a function of configuration factor, polymerization process and type of luting material and (2) would be lowered near the apex of the tooth.

  14. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of root canal surfaces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-07-15

    Jul 15, 2014 ... Root canal preparation for all the teeth was carried out with. 3 different types of rotary instruments. ... which enabled removal of overlapping dentin walls. After completing the preparation of the coronal third of ... on dentine or other surfaces after instrumentation with either rotary instrument or endodontic files, ...

  15. Evaluation of complications of root canal treatment performed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dental records of 280 patients who received RCT between 2013 and 2016 undertaken by dental students were investigated by retrospective chart review. Root canal obturation was evaluated on the basis of the length of obturation being ≤2 mm from the radiographic apex, with uniform radiodensity and good adaptation

  16. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of root canal surfaces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of root canal surfaces prepared with three rotary endodontic systems: Lightspeed, ProTaper and EndoWave. ... presence or absence of debris and smear layer and the photographs were taken at coronal, middle and apical 1/3 with a magnification of ~200 and ~1000 respectively.

  17. Working Length Determination of Root Canal of Young Permanent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Determination of correct working length is one of the keys to success in endodontic therapy. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of various methods to determine working length of root canal. Materials and Methods: Tactile method was assessed using digital radiography and ...

  18. Assessment of Irrigation Performance along the Canal Reach of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the results of irrigation performance assessment made along the canal reaches of community-managed Hare irrigation scheme in. Southern Ethiopia. Field measurement, interview, group discussion and measurement of water supply were undertaken, and output performance indicators were assessed.

  19. Microhardness of different resin cement shades inside the root canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignolo, Valeria; Fuentes, Maria-Victoria; Garrido, Miguel-Angel; Rodríguez, Jesús; Ceballos, Laura

    2012-09-01

    To compare microhardness along the root canal post space of two resin cements in different shades and a dual-cure resin core material. Root canals of 21 bovine incisors were prepared for post space. Translucent posts (X∘Post, Dentsply DeTrey) were luted using one the following resin luting agent: Calibra (Dentsply DeTrey) in Translucent, Medium and Opaque shades, RelyX Unicem (3M ESPE) in Translucent, A2 and A3 shades and the dual-cure resin core material Core∘X flow. All materials were applied according to manufacturers' instructions and were all photopolymerized (Bluephase LED unit, Ivoclar Vivadent, 40s). After 24 hours, roots were transversally cut into 9 slices 1 mm thick from the coronal to apical extremes, three corresponding to each root third. Then, VHNs were recorded (100gf, 30 s) on the resin luting materials along the adhesive interface in all sections. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and SNK tests (α=0.05). A significant influence on microhardness of resin luting material in their respective shades (pmicrohardness values and Calibra the lowest, regardless of the shade selected. All resin luting materials tested exhibited a significantly higher microhardness in the cervical third. Microhardness of resin luting agents tested inside the canal is dependent on material brand and resin cement shade seems to be a less relevant factor. Microhardness decreased along the root canal, regardless of the shade selected.

  20. Vessel electrification feasibility study for the New York state canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of repowering a diesel-fueled : New York State Canal Corporation (NYSCC) work boat with a diesel hybrid-electric or full-electric powertrain. : The project team instr...

  1. Radiographic Localization of the Mental Foramen and Mandibular Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Afkhami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Accurately localizing the mental foramen and mandibular canal is important when administering local anesthesia and performing surgery; therefore, knowing the normal range of the possible locations is essential. Our purpose was to assess the location of the mental foramen and mandibular canal in an Iranian population using panoramic radiography.Materials and Methods: Standard panoramic radiographies were performed. The positions of 100 mental foramens were evaluated. The distances from the center of the mental foramen to the superior and inferior borders of the mandible and to the apexes of the first and second premolar were measured. The distance of the mental foramens from the mandibular midline and the diameter of the mandibular canal in the mental foramen connection were also measured.Results: Among 100 mental foramens, 6% were positioned under the first premolar, 24% were between the first and second premolars, 67% were under the second premolar, and the remaining 3% were behind the second premolar. The mean distance from the mental foramen to the mandibular midline was 27.77±3.20 mm. The mean diameter of the mandibular canal in the mental foramen connection was 3.09±0.69mm.Conclusion: The mental foramen was near the second premolar and the inferior border of the mandible. This information can be used to perform safer mental nerve blocks in surgical interventions.

  2. Canal + Spain & Live Football Broadcasts: A Whole Different Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez Ortega, Vicente; Romero Santos, Rubén

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn 1988 the Law for Private Television Broadcasting was approved by Spanish parliament. Three licenses were initially awarded. Soon thereafter, in 1990, three channels started broadcasting: Antena 3, Berlusconi-related Tele 5 and, against all odds, a pay channel, Canal + Spain. This

  3. Radiographic Localization of the Mental Foramen and Mandibular Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afkhami, Farzaneh; Haraji, Afshin; Boostani, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Accurately localizing the mental foramen and mandibular canal is important when administering local anesthesia and performing surgery; therefore, knowing the normal range of the possible locations is essential. Our purpose was to assess the location of the mental foramen and mandibular canal in an Iranian population using panoramic radiography. Materials and Methods: Standard panoramic radiographies were performed. The positions of 100 mental foramens were evaluated. The distances from the center of the mental foramen to the superior and inferior borders of the mandible and to the apexes of the first and second premolar were measured. The distance of the mental foramens from the mandibular midline and the diameter of the mandibular canal in the mental foramen connection were also measured. Results: Among 100 mental foramens, 6% were positioned under the first premolar, 24% were between the first and second premolars, 67% were under the second premolar, and the remaining 3% were behind the second premolar. The mean distance from the mental foramen to the mandibular midline was 27.77±3.20 mm. The mean diameter of the mandibular canal in the mental foramen connection was 3.09±0.69mm. Conclusion: The mental foramen was near the second premolar and the inferior border of the mandible. This information can be used to perform safer mental nerve blocks in surgical interventions. PMID:24910651

  4. Anatomo-radiological study of the Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crovetto, M., E-mail: macdlt@telefonica.net [Otolaryngology Department, Hospital de Basurto, University of the Basque Country, Avenida de Montevideo 18, Bilbao 48013, Vizcaya (Spain); Whyte, J., E-mail: jwhite@unizar.es [Faculty of Medicine, Department of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Zaragoza, C/Domingo Mirall s/n, Zaragoza (Spain); Rodriguez, O.M., E-mail: OLIVIAMARIA.RODRIGUEZSANVICENT@osakidetza.net [Hospital de Cruces, Baracaldo, Vizcaya (Spain); Lecumberri, I., E-mail: INIGO.LECUMBERRICORTES@osakidetza.net [Hospital de Basurto, Avenida Montevideo 18, Bilbao 498013 (Spain); Martinez, C., E-mail: claudiorayosx@yahoo.es [Hospital General de la Defensa, Via Iberica s/n Zaragoza (Spain); Elexpuru, J., E-mail: jelexpuru@mac.com [Hospital de Basurto, Avenida de Montevideo 18, Bilbao 48013, Vizcaya (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to determine the radiological incidence of Superior (SSCD) and Posterior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence (PSCD) and to compare radiologic SSCD to the incidence of this condition on cadaver specimen. We have also analysed the relation between the ossification state of the semicircular canals and the degree of mastoid pneumatization and integrity of Tegmen Tympani. Material and methods: Temporal bones have been investigated by means of CT scan on patients and direct observation on cadaver specimen, respectively. Results: 604 ears and 160 cadaver temporal bones have been investigated by means of CT scan and direct observation, respectively. 3.6% and 0.3% of the studied ears had SSCD and PSCD, respectively, on CT scan. Only 0.6% of the cadaver specimen ears did have anatomical SSCD. Degree of pneumatization of the mastoid bone is related to the mean thickness of bone overlying the Superior and Posterior Semicircular Canal. Radiological absence of Tegmen Tympani is more frequent in ears that also have radiologic SSCD. Conclusion: CT scanning gives higher incidence figures of SSCD than anatomical studies, 3.6% vs. 0.6%. We also found a 0.6% incidence of radiological PSCD in the studied ears. There is a direct relation between the degree of ossification of Superior and Posterior Semicircular Canal and certain temporal bone anatomic features: temporal bone pneumatization and absence/presence of Tegmen Tympani or Antri.

  5. Atlantoaxial dislocation associated with stenosis of canal at atlas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel A

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Three rare cases of stenosis of spinal canal at the level of atlas associated with atlantoaxial dislocation are presented. An atlantoaxial lateral mass fixation with plate and screws after posterior midline bony decompression was successfully performed in these cases.

  6. Closure of the vertebral canal in human embryos and fetuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K.; Hikspoors, Jill P. J. M.; Mommen, Greet; Kruepunga, Nutmethee; Köhler, S. Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H.

    2017-01-01

    The vertebral column is the paradigm of the metameric architecture of the vertebrate body. Because the number of somites is a convenient parameter to stage early human embryos, we explored whether the closure of the vertebral canal could be used similarly for staging embryos between 7 and 10weeks of

  7. Lightlike Hypersurfaces and Canal Hypersurfaces of Lorentzian Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lightlike hypersurfaces in semi-Euclidean space are of special interest in Relativity Theory. In particular, the singularities of these lightlike hypersurfaces provide good models for the study of different horizon types. And we obtain some geometrical propositions of the canal hypersurfaces of Lorentzian surfaces. We introduce the notions of flatness for these hypersurfaces and study their singularities.

  8. Digestive enzymes in the alimentary canal of Clarias anguillaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three groups of digestive enzymes were observed in the alimentary canals of the fingerlings and adults of Clarias anguillaris. The enzymes were carbohydrases including amylase, sucrase, lactase and maltase, proteases including peptase, tryptase and peptidase, and lipase. The activities of the protease were found to be ...

  9. Evaluation of various filling techniques in distal canals of mandibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of various filling techniques in distal canals of mandibular molars instrumented with different single-file nickel-titanium (NiTi) systems. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 distal roots of mandibular molar teeth were randomly assigned into three main ...

  10. Clinical evaluation of posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, successful treatment is dependent on accurate identification of the implicated canal and the form of lithiasis. Furthermore, clinicians should note that there is no place for pharmacological treatment of BPPV; unless it is to facilitate repositioning. Keywords: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, canalith repositioning ...

  11. External Auditory Canal Stenosis After Traumatic Auricular Amputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong Chung, J.E.; Chussi, D.C; Heerbeek, N. van

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The auricles are easily injured or amputated in case of head trauma. Inadequate treatment of the external auditory canal (EAC) after auricular injury is often seen and can lead to significant complications of the EAC. CASE REPORT: The authors report 4 cases of auricular injury or

  12. Evaluation of Various Filling Techniques in Distal Canals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-06

    Mar 6, 2017 ... among the groups, the analysis was continued with post hoc comparisons using Tamhane's, Dunnett's, or Mann-. Whitney U-test. Bonferroni's correction was applied (P. < 0.05/n; where n = a ..... canal preparation with NiTi rotary instruments: Rationale, performance and safety. Status report for the American.

  13. Interactions between root canal irrigants, sealers and dentin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelakantan, P.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to determine the interactions between root filling materials and root dentin and to investigate if root canal irrigating solutions had an impact on these interactions. The following outcomes were assessed in the studies encompassed in this thesis: (i) dislocation

  14. Nanodiamond–Gutta Percha Composite Biomaterials for Root Canal Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Root canal therapy (RCT) represents a standard of treatment that addresses infected pulp tissue in teeth and protects against future infection. RCT involves removing dental pulp comprising blood vessels and nerve tissue, decontaminating residually infected tissue through biomechanical instrumentation, and root canal obturation using a filler material to replace the space that was previously composed of dental pulp. Gutta percha (GP) is typically used as the filler material, as it is malleable, inert, and biocompatible. While filling the root canal space with GP is the standard of care for endodontic therapies, it has exhibited limitations including leakage, root canal reinfection, and poor mechanical properties. To address these challenges, clinicians have explored the use of alternative root filling materials other than GP. Among the classes of materials that are being explored as novel endodontic therapy platforms, nanodiamonds (NDs) may offer unique advantages due to their favorable properties, particularly for dental applications. These include versatile faceted surface chemistry, biocompatibility, and their role in improving mechanical properties, among others. This study developed a ND-embedded GP (NDGP) that was functionalized with amoxicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic commonly used for endodontic infection. Comprehensive materials characterization confirmed improved mechanical properties of NDGP over unmodified GP. In addition, digital radiography and microcomputed tomography imaging demonstrated that obturation of root canals with NDGP could be achieved using clinically relevant techniques. Furthermore, bacterial growth inhibition assays confirmed drug functionality of NDGP functionalized with amoxicillin. This study demonstrates a promising path toward NDGP implementation in future endodontic therapy for improved treatment outcomes. PMID:26452304

  15. Position and course of the mandibular canal in skulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Ayla; Potluri, Anitha; Vieira, Alexandre R

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine and describe the topography of the mandibular canal (MC) in both vertical and occlusal dimensions. Fifty-two adult skulls deposited in the University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine skull collection were evaluated in this study. Cone-beam computerized tomographic scans of each skull were obtained. The vertical course of MC was classified into 3 types: straight projection (12.2%), catenary-like configuration (51.1%), and progressive descent from posterior to anterior (36.7%). The evaluation of the buccolingual dimension showed that the mandibular canal was located either in contact with or close to the lingual cortical plate (≤ 2 mm) in the molar region of the majority of the cases. As it proceeds anteriorly it moves toward the buccal aspect of the mandible, where it finally emerges through the mental foramen. Three emerging patterns of mandibular canal were observed: sharp turn (53.2%), soft curved exit (28.8%), and straight path (17.4%). The examination of the vertical dimension showed that the canal was located almost 1 cm above the inferior border of the mandible and then ascended to reach the mental foramen, which is located ~16 mm (range 13.4-20.3 mm) above the inferior border of the mandible. We found a strong correlation between height of the mandible and location of the mental foramen (r = 0.64; P mandibular canal described in vertical and axial dimensions and variation in its path have been classified. In addition to variation in location of MC, it has different anatomic configurations which clinicians should be familiar with in any surgical procedures involving the posterior mandible. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Determinants of spatial and temporal coding by semicircular canal afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highstein, Stephen M; Rabbitt, Richard D; Holstein, Gay R; Boyle, Richard D

    2005-05-01

    The vestibular semicircular canals are internal sensors that signal the magnitude, direction, and temporal properties of angular head motion. Fluid mechanics within the 3-canal labyrinth code the direction of movement and integrate angular acceleration stimuli over time. Directional coding is accomplished by decomposition of complex angular accelerations into 3 biomechanical components-one component exciting each of the 3 ampullary organs and associated afferent nerve bundles separately. For low-frequency angular motion stimuli, fluid displacement within each canal is proportional to angular acceleration. At higher frequencies, above the lower corner frequency, real-time integration is accomplished by viscous forces arising from the movement of fluid within the slender lumen of each canal. This results in angular velocity sensitive fluid displacements. Reflecting this, a subset of afferent fibers indeed report angular acceleration to the brain for low frequencies of head movement and report angular velocity for higher frequencies. However, a substantial number of afferent fibers also report angular acceleration, or a signal between acceleration and velocity, even at frequencies where the endolymph displacement is known to follow angular head velocity. These non-velocity-sensitive afferent signals cannot be attributed to canal biomechanics alone. The responses of non-velocity-sensitive cells include a mathematical differentiation (first-order or fractional) imparted by hair-cell and/or afferent complexes. This mathematical differentiation from velocity to acceleration cannot be attributed to hair cell ionic currents, but occurs as a result of the dynamics of synaptic transmission between hair cells and their primary afferent fibers. The evidence for this conclusion is reviewed below.

  17. Síndrome do canal de Guyon causada por cisto sinovial Guyon's canal syndrome due to a synovial cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Silva Ruas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos um caso de síndrome do canal de Guyon por um cisto sinovial no punho esquerdo de uma paciente do sexo feminino, de 48 anos. A paciente apresentava dor e parestesia na topografia do nervo ulnar, diminuição da força muscular e deformidade na mão esquerda. A eletroneuromiografia evidenciava compressão do nervo ulnar no nível do punho. Realizada a ressecção do cisto e descompressão do nervo no canal de Guyon. Após a cirurgia a paciente apresentou melhora da dor e da parestesia, além de aumento do trofismo muscular e correção da deformidade.The authors present a case of Guyon's canal syndrome due to a synovial cyst within the left wrist of a 48-year-old female patient. The patient reported pain and paresthesia in the topography of the ulnar nerve, loss of muscular strength and left hand deformity. Electromyography showed a compression of the ulnar nerve at the wrist level. Surgical decompression at the Guyon canal with resection of the cyst was performed. After surgery, the patient presented with improvement of pain and paresthesia, as well as an increase in muscular trophism and correction of the deformity.

  18. The width of the incisive canal and labial alveolar bone of the incisive canal: an assessment on CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Yang Gyun; Jang, Hyun Seon; Kim, Byung Ock; Kim, Jin Soo [Chosun Univ. College of Dentistry, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    To assess the width of the labial alveolar bone of the incisive canal and the width of the incisive canal on spiral computed tomographic images of the anterior portion of the maxilla. Study materials included 38 CT scans taken for preoperative planning of implant placement. Axial cross-sectioned image entirely showing the incisive canal at an orifice to the oral cavity, middle portion, and an orifice to the nasal cavity and the diameter of the incisive canal at the middle portion were determined by two specialist using Digora for Windows 2.1. The statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS 12.0.1. When the maxillary central incisors remained, the mean labial alveolar bone width were 6.81{+-}1.41 mm, 6.46{+-}1.33 mm, and 7.91{+-}1.33 mm. When the maxillary central incisors were missed the mean width were 5.42{+-}2.20 mm, 6.23{+-}2.29 mm, and 7.89{+-}2.13 mm. The labial alveolar bone width at middle portion and an orifice to the nasal cavity were of no statistical significant difference according to presence of the maxillary central incisors (P>0.05). The width between oral cavity and nasal cavity, middle portion and to masal cavity revealed statistically significant difference (P<0.05)

  19. [Canal Finder System 89!!! Improvements and indications after 4 years of experimentation and use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, G

    1990-01-01

    Actually, the CANAL FINDER SYSTEM is the only entirely automated endodontic device. After four years of existence, many evaluations were able to show the qualities of this system regarding root canal penetration, cleaning and shaping. The earlier concerns such as ergonomical problems were solved: automated extraction of the K-file, automated sodium hypochlorite irrigation. A new file was created, particularly well adapted to the root canal shaping of curved canals. This addition has improved the efficiency of the automated instrumentation. The CANAL FINDER SYSTEM has reached a maturity level permitting an excellent reliability and ease of use.

  20. Nonsurgical Endodontic Retreatment of Maxillary Second Molar with Two Palatal Root Canals: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Eskandarinezhad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful endodontic treatment requires thorough knowledge regarding each root canal system of any tooth and probability of extra canals should be considered. Second maxillary molar with two palatal root canals is not frequent and its incidence reported in literatures is about 0.4–2%. The present case report describes non-surgical retreatment of maxillary second molar with two palatal root canals. Radiographic interpretation is difficult in this region; so, very careful examination of pulpal space and using supportive devices such as loupe and operating microscope is recommended to discover any unusual anatomic features like extra canals.

  1. Managing a mandibular second premolar with three-canal and taurodontism: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Hadi; Niknami, Mahdi; Zand, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Root canal anatomy diversity and aberrations are common especially in permanent dentition. A thorough understanding of the basic root canal anatomy and its diversities are necessary for successful endodontic treatment. Mandibular second premolars are usually single-rooted and have one root canal. Incidence of three separate root canals in this tooth is quite rare and taurodontism with three separate canals has never been reported in literature so far. The use of cone-beam computed tomography scan in this rare case greatly contributed to making a confirmatory diagnosis and successful nonsurgical endodontic management thereafter.

  2. MIMO LPV State-Space Identification of Open-Flow Irrigation Canal Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Bolea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Canal systems are complex nonlinear, distributed parameter systems with changing parameters according to the operating point. In this paper, a linear parameter-varying (LPV state-space canal control model is obtained by identification in a local way using a multimodel approach. This LPV identification procedure is based on subspace methods for different operating points of an irrigation canal covering the full operation range. Different subspace algorithms have been used and compared. The model that best represents the canal behavior in a precise manner has been chosen, and it has been validated by error functions and analysis correlation of residuals in a laboratory multireach pilot canal providing satisfactory results.

  3. Epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Bruce W; Mutch, Matthew G

    2006-05-01

    Anal cancers are rare tumors with only an expected 4000 new diagnoses in 2005. The majority of these are epidermoid or squamous cell cancers. Despite the rarity of this disease, great advances have been made in its understanding and treatment. The human papillomavirus (HPV), immunosuppression for solid organ transplantation, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and sexual practices are changing the demographics of the disease from elderly women to young men who have sex with men and young women infected with HPV and HIV. The treatment of these malignancies was radically changed with Dr. Nigro's description in 1974 of the use of a nonoperative treatment strategy. Today, radiochemotherapy represents first-line therapy and the role of surgery has been largely relegated to that of salvage therapy for treatment failures of nonoperative management.

  4. A cone-beam computed tomography study of the root canal morphology of mandibular first premolars and the location of root canal orifices and apical foramina in a Chinese subpopulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haibing; Tian, Cheng; Li, Guoju; Yang, Lin; Han, Xuan; Wang, Yan

    2013-04-01

    Successful root canal treatment is dependent on detailed knowledge of the morphology of the root canal system. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphology of the root canal systems of mandibular first premolars and the location of root canal orifices and apical foramina in a Chinese subpopulation using cone-beam computed tomography scanning. A total of 440 cone-beam computed tomographic images of mandibular first premolars were obtained from 238 patients. Tooth position, root canal morphology, the distance between the apical foramen and the anatomic apex, and the distance between the 2 root canal orifices of mandibular first premolars with 2 root canals were investigated. The Fisher exact test was used to analyze the correlation between the number of root canals and tooth position. Overall, 1.14% (n = 5) of the teeth had a C-shaped root canal system, 77.14% (n = 335) had 1 root canal, and 22.05% (n = 97) had 2 root canals from type II to type V. The remaining 0.68% (n = 3) were classified as type VIII, which had 3 root canals. The most frequent distribution of the distance between the apical foramen and the anatomic apex in 335 mandibular first premolars with 1 root canal was 1-2 mm (n = 192). The distance between the apical foramen and the anatomic apex of mandibular first premolars with 2 root canals was in accord with that of mandibular first premolars with 1 root canal. The distance between the 2 root canal orifices of mandibular first premolars with 2 root canals was approximately 13 mm. Most mandibular first premolars had 1 root canal. More than 1 of 5 mandibular first premolars had complex root canal systems (with 2 or more root canals). This study provides supplemental information about the root canals of mandibular first premolars in a Chinese subpopulation. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Endodontic retreatment of a mandibular first molar with five root canal systems: an important clinical lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Muhammad; Umer, Fahad

    2014-03-20

    The objective of root canal treatment is to perform complete debridement of the root canals and subsequent obturation to facilitate healing of periapical pathosis. However, this process becomes complicated with the presence of additional root canal systems. The purpose of the present article is to report successful non-surgical retreatment of a mandibular first molar with five canals. This case report discusses the clinical management of a previously root filled mandibular firstmolar with two missed canal systems; distolingual and an additional mesial canal known as the middle mesial canal. The post-treatment radiographs show successful obturation to length in all canals. The middle mesial canal was found to be associated with mesiolingual canal and categorised as confluent. The configuration of canals in the mesial root was type XV, based on the classification given by Sert and Bayirli. This case report highlights the importance of knowledge and its application in the management of abnormal anatomic variants which play a crucial role in the success of endodontic retreatment.

  6. Bifid mandibular canal: confirmation of limited cone beam CT findings by gross anatomical and histological investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, K; Shiozaki, K; Mishima, A; Kuribayashi, A; Hamada, Y; Kobayashi, K

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were (1) to assess the validity of limited cone beam CT (CBCT) in detecting the distribution of bifid mandibular canals in the retromolar region by comparing its findings with those of panoramic radiography and spiral CT imaging, and (2) to confirm the contents of such canals depicted on limited CBCT images by using gross anatomical and histological methods. Methods Bilateral bifid mandibular canals of a Japanese cadaver were investigated. The canals depicted on panoramic radiography, spiral CT and limited CBCT images were compared. Cross-sectional limited CBCT images of these canals were compared with gross anatomical sections of the mandible and their contents were confirmed histologically. Results The spiral CT and limited CBCT images showed the bilateral bifid mandibular canals in the retromolar region whereas the panoramic radiographs indicated the presence of only the left bifid mandibular canal. The canal distribution was more distinct in the limited CBCT images than in the spiral CT images and the cross-sectional limited CBCT images were consistent with the gross anatomical sections. Histologically, the canals contained several nerve bundles and arteries among which the largest nerve and artery were of a similar size. Conclusion Limited CBCT is valuable for assessing the distribution of bifid mandibular canals. It is clinically significant to accurately localize a bifid mandibular canal of the retromolar region because it contains a nerve bundle and artery. PMID:22116121

  7. The effect of four different irrigation systems in the removal of a root canal sealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grischke, J; Müller-Heine, A; Hülsmann, M

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of sonic, ultrasonic, and hydrodynamic devices in the removal of a root canal sealer from the surface and from simulated irregularities of root canals. Fifty-three root canals with two standardized grooves in the apical and coronal parts of longitudinally split roots were covered with AH Plus root canal sealer. Compared were the effects of (control) syringe irrigation, (1) CanalBrush, (2) passive ultrasonic irrigation, (3) EndoActivator, and (4) RinsEndo on the removal of the sealer. The specimens were divided into four groups (N = 12) and one control group (N = 5) via randomization. The amount of remaining sealer in the root canal irregularities was evaluated under a microscope using a 4-grade scoring system, whereas the remaining sealer on the root canal surface was evaluated with a 7-grade scoring system. Passive ultrasonic irrigation is more effective than the other tested irrigation systems or syringe irrigation in removing sealer from root canal walls (p irrigation shows a superior effect on sealer removal from the root canal surface during endodontic retreatment. Cleaning of lateral grooves seems not to be possible with one of the techniques investigated. Incomplete removal of root canal sealer during re-treatment may cause treatment failure. Passive Ultrasonic irrigation seems to be the most effective system to remove sealer from a root canal.

  8. Endodontic management of bilateral mandibular canines with an unusual root canal anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujan Rijal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the endodontic management of bilateral mandibular canines with unusual root canal anatomy in a patient. The right mandibular canine had two separate roots (buccal and lingual, each root having a single canal. The left mandibular molar had two separate canals coronally joining into a single canal in the apical 3 rd (Vertucci Type II. While the presence of two roots and two canals in one root is not uncommon, finding a combination of these morphological variations in the same patient has not been reported previously. This emphasizes the perception of the clinician that a given tooth will contain a specific number of roots and/or root canals canal should be changed, and such variations should be kept in mind during the endodontic treatment of permanent mandibular canines.

  9. First Branchial Cleft Fistula Associated with External Auditory Canal Stenosis and Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahin abdollahi fakhim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: First branchial cleft anomalies manifest with duplication of the external auditory canal.   Case Report: This report features a rare case of microtia and congenital middle ear and canal cholesteatoma with first branchial fistula. External auditory canal stenosis was complicated by middle ear and external canal cholesteatoma, but branchial fistula, opening in the zygomatic root and a sinus in the helical root, may explain this feature. A canal wall down mastoidectomy with canaloplasty and wide meatoplasty was performed. The branchial cleft was excised through parotidectomy and facial nerve dissection.   Conclusion:  It should be considered that canal stenosis in such cases can induce cholesteatoma formation in the auditory canal and middle ear.

  10. production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.

  11. Dimension, anatomy and morphology of the mesiobuccal root canal system in maxillary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degerness, Randy A; Bowles, Walter R

    2010-06-01

    To increase our understanding of the root canal system, we examined the mesiobuccal (MB) roots of maxillary first and second molars, which are considered to be one of the most complex root canal systems. Uninstrumented MB roots from 153 teeth were imbedded, sectioned, and observed at 8x using a stereomicroscope for main canal numbers, isthmus presence, and dimensional size of canals and dentin walls. The number of canals observed in maxillary first and second molars was 20% and 38.1% for one canal, 79.8% and 60.3% for two canals, and 1.1% and 1.6% for three canals, respectively. The buccal canal was larger than lingual or middle canals at all levels of the root. The average distance between the two main canals was 1.2 +/- 0.6 mm in first molars and 1.78 +/- 0.6 mm in second molars. Isthmus tissue increased greatly at 3.6 mm from the apex, suggesting optimal root resection at this level. Little differences in thickness between mesial and distal canal walls were seen until reaching the coronal sections of the root where the average canal wall thickness was found to be thinner (33%) on the distal, suggesting a "danger zone" for maxillary molars at a level where the root joins the crown of the tooth. The observations made here provide a more precise understanding of the maxillary MB root system. Orthograde and retrograde root canal therapy might be improved with a comprehensive understanding of pulpal morphology throughout the entire MB root. Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of bifid and trified mandicular canals using cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashsyren, Oyuntugs [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Mongolian National University Medical Science, Ulaanbaatar (United States); Choi, Jin Woo; Han, Won Jeong; Kim Eun Kyung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dankook University College of Dentistry, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    To investigate the prevalence of bifid and trifid mandibular canals using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, and to measure their length, diameter, and angle. CBCT images of 500 patients, involving 755 hemi-mandibles, were used for this study. The presence and type of bifid mandibular canal was evaluated according to a modified classification of Naitoh et al. Prevalence rates were determined according to age group, gender, and type. Further, their diameter, length, and angles were measured using PACSPLUS Viewer and ImageJ 1.46r. Statistical analysis with chi-squared and analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests was performed. Bifid and trifid mandibular canals were found in 22.6% of the 500 patients and 16.2% of the 755 sides. There was no significant difference between genders and among age groups. The retromolar canal type accounted for 71.3% of the identified canals; the dental canal type, 18.8%; the forward canal type, 4.1%; and the trifid canal type, 5.8%. Interestingly, seven cases of the trifid canal type, which has been rarely reported, were observed. The mean diameter of the bifid and trifid mandibular canals was 2.2 mm and that of the main mandibular canal was 4.3 mm. Their mean length was 16.9 mm; the mean superior angle was 149.2 degrees, and the mean inferior angle was 37.7 degrees. Bifid and trifid mandibular canals in the Korean population were observed at a relatively high rate through a CBCT evaluation, and the most common type was the retromolar canal. CBCT is suggested for a detailed evaluation of bifid and trifid mandibular canals before mandibular surgery.

  13. Parallel Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Worner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available James Worner is an Australian-based writer and scholar currently pursuing a PhD at the University of Technology Sydney. His research seeks to expose masculinities lost in the shadow of Australia’s Anzac hegemony while exploring new opportunities for contemporary historiography. He is the recipient of the Doctoral Scholarship in Historical Consciousness at the university’s Australian Centre of Public History and will be hosted by the University of Bologna during 2017 on a doctoral research writing scholarship.   ‘Parallel Lines’ is one of a collection of stories, The Shapes of Us, exploring liminal spaces of modern life: class, gender, sexuality, race, religion and education. It looks at lives, like lines, that do not meet but which travel in proximity, simultaneously attracted and repelled. James’ short stories have been published in various journals and anthologies.

  14. Mineral trioxide aggregate root canal filling of traumatized immature tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha A Kanfar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An 8-year-old female patient reported to the dental clinic seeking a help to save her traumatized maxillary left central incisor. The tooth had been treated with a temporary filling by a general dentist. The coronal tooth structure was intact, discolored, and a temporary filling was placed on the access opening. She gave a history of trauma about 3 years back. An intraoral periapical radiograph revealed an open apex and dentin bridge in the middle of the root canal. The root canal and the access opening were filled with very poor filling. The tooth was managed successfully by conservative means using intracanal calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medicament, followed by mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA filling. The access opening was filled with glass ionomer and composite resin restoration. One year and 6-month follow-up demonstrated a clinically asymptomatic and adequately functional tooth, with radiological signs of apical regeneration.

  15. Cord Cystic Cavities: Syringomyelia and Prominent Central Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Blaise V

    2017-04-01

    Syringomyelia is the term given to cystic cavities in the spinal cord, most of which are associated with congenital malformations of the craniocervical junction and represent dilation of the central canal of the cord. As such, syrinxes can be considered analogous to hydrocephalus. The exact etiology of syrinx formation remains a subject of debate, but there is ample evidence that they are the result of obstruction of the normal flow of cerebrospinal fluid between the intracranial and spinal compartments. The chances that a syrinx will progress over time are much greater when they are associated with a causative lesion (Chiari malformation, tumor, infection, and trauma), but asymptomatic central canal dilation may be a stable incidental finding. Although spinal cord neoplasms are a recognized etiology for syrinx formation, especially in adults, it is not always necessary to administer contrast when evaluating a syrinx for the first time with magnetic resonance imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cisto aracnóideo extradural do canal espinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Pires Ferreira

    1972-09-01

    Full Text Available É relatado o caso de um paciente que apresentava paraparesia sensitivo-motora evolutiva, datando de um ano. As radiográficas da coluna vertebral e mielografia permitiram o diagnóstico de cisto de aracnóide extradural do canal espinal de localização torácica, que foi confirmado pelo ato cirúrgico. Os autores revisam a literatura assinalando 76 casos já publicados. São comentadas a incidência do processo patológico nos diversos grupos etários, sua localização ao longo do canal raqueano, a evolução do quadro clínico, a etiología e a fisiopatologia do crescimento do cisto, o diagnóstico, a terapêutica e o prognóstico.

  17. [A case of congenital double pyloric canal (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, J C; Dumke, K; Kaiser, K

    1978-01-01

    In the case of 47-year-old patient who had been suffering for several months from a duodenal ulcer disease, a so called double pylorus was traced by applying fiberoptic gastroscopy. At the same time proof was found for the ulcera duodeni. Owing to the fiberoptic result of two regularly pyloric canals it was already doubted, that this was only a question of a secondary pyloro duodenal fistula caused by peptic ulcer. A particular and differentiating pathological anatomical examination of the surgical specimen showed as a result, that the patient was suffering from a congenital duplication of the pyloric canal by a pyloric ligament. The duodenal ulcers, proofed by x-ray examination and gastroscopy, were recognised as a secondary disease of a locus minoris resistentiae.

  18. A comparison of methods used in root canal sealability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matloff, I.R.; Jensen, J.R.; Singer, L.; Tabibi, A.

    1982-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare several methods that have been used to assess marginal leakage of root canal fillings. Sixty-three extracted, single-rooted teeth were instrumented and filled in a standardized manner. Teeth were randomly divided into groups of twenty and exposed to solutions containing methylene blue dye, calcium-45, carbon-14-labeled urea, and iodine-125-labeled albumin for 48 hours to compare the degree of leakage indicated by each technique. Methylene blue dye was found to penetrate farther up the canal than any of the isotope tracers. Carbon-14-labeled urea penetrated farther than the calcium-45- or iodine-125-labeled albumin. The mean volume of solution penetrating the teeth was exceedingly small (0.0011 ml) and probably unimportant physiologically.

  19. Herpes zoster sciatica mimicking lumbar canal stenosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Masao; Mannoji, Chikato; Oikawa, Makiko; Murakami, Masazumi; Okamoto, Yuzuru; Kon, Tamiyo; Okawa, Akihiko; Ikeda, Osamu; Yamazaki, Masashi; Furuya, Takeo

    2015-07-29

    Symptom of herpes zoster is sometimes difficult to distinguish from sciatica induced by spinal diseases, including lumbar disc herniation and spinal canal stenosis. Here we report a case of sciatica mimicking lumbar canal stenosis. A 74-year-old Chinese male patient visited our hospital for left-sided sciatic pain upon standing or walking for 5 min of approximately 1 month's duration. At the first visit to our hospital, there were no skin lesions. A magnetic resonance imaging showed spinal canal stenosis between the 4th and 5th lumbar spine. Thus, we diagnosed the patient with sciatica induced by spinal canal stenosis. We considered decompression surgery for the stenosis of 4th and 5th lumbar spine because conservative therapy failed to relieve the patient's symptom. At that time, the patient complained of a skin rash involving his left foot for several days. A vesicular rash and erythema were observed on the dorsal and plantar surfaces of the great toe and lateral malleolus. The patient was diagnosed with herpes zoster in the left 5th lumbar spinal nerve area based on clinical findings, including the characteristics of the pain and vesicular rash and erythema in the 5th lumbar spinal dermatome. The patient was treated with famciclovir (1,500 mg/day) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. After 1 week of medication, the skin rash resolved and pain relief was obtained. In conclusion, spinal surgeons should keep in mind herpes zoster infection as one of the possible differential diagnoses of sciatica, even if there is no typical skin rash.

  20. Comparative study of sealing ability of three root canal sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khedmat S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Complete obturation of the prepared root canal is an essential step in endodontic treatment. Combination of gutta-percha and a sealer is widely used in clinical practice for root canal obturation, thus microleakage studies on sealing properties of these materials constitute an important part of endodontic researches. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microleakage of three root canal sealers: Apexit, AH26 and Dorifill by electrochemical method.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 55 extracted human maxillary and mandibular cuspids were used. The coronal part of teeth were removed and the root canals were prepared using the step-back technique. The specimens were randomly divided into 3 groups of 17 samples each. Teeth in each group were filled with one of the sealers and gutta-percha by lateral condensation technique. 4 specimens served as positive and negative controls. An electrochemical method was used for evaluation of apical leakage with the electrical source potential of 10 V. Measurements of current flow through the test system were recorded every 72 hours. Data were analyzed by Kruskall Wallis and Mann Whitney tests. P<0.05 was considered as the level of significance.Results: All specimens of the three groups showed low initial leakage that increased during the test period. The mean leakage in Apexit group was higher than AH26 and Dorifill groups. The lowest mean leakage was related to Dorifill group. Although no statistically significant difference was observed between this sealer and AH26.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the best apical seal was obtained using Dorifill and AH26 sealers. The poorest result was observed in Apexit.

  1. Single visit root canal treatment: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edionwe, J I; Shaba, O P; Umesi, D C

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to determine the success rate of single visit root canal treatment (RCT) and thus encourage clinicians to offer this treatment option appropriately. This was a longitudinal clinical study involving all teeth of the secondary dentition except third molars in the upper and lower jaws. Teeth having irreversible pulpitis, pulp necrosis or periapical periodontitis were included in the study. RCT and obturation was done at a single visit. The patients were monitored over 6 months. Forty-five teeth were treated in 21 females and 24 males, aged 18-56 years (34.4+/-12.7). Preoperatively, pain was present in 84.4%, tenderness to percussion in 53.3%, and periapical radiolucency in 24.4% teeth. Forty percent had irreversible pulpitis and 60% had apical periodontitis. Post-operatively, pain reduced to 51.1% on day 1, 15.5% at 1 week, and 0% for the rest of the period. Tenderness to percussion reduced to 15.6% at 1 week and 0% by 1 month. Periapical radiolucency reduced to 9.5% at 6 months. Favorable outcome of 33.3% was recorded on day 1 and increased to 90.5% at 6 months. Six months success rate for teeth which had irreversible pulpitis was 100% and 83.3% for apical periodontitis. The mean time needed to complete a single visit RCT ranged from 77 min for a tooth having one canal to 132 min for one having four canals. Single visit RCT is a viable treatment option for teeth having irreversible pulpitis or apical periodontitis irrespective of tooth type or number of canals. A lot of patients are lost to follow-up visits for teeth requiring RCT once the pulp is extirpated at the first visit due to cessation of pain, subsequently leading to treatment failure. Single visit endodontics eliminates the need for follow-up visits and improves treatment prognosis.

  2. OCC and state of New York settle Love Canal claims

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    Following a 14-year legal battle, the state of New York and Occidental Chemical Corporation (OCC) have entered into a consent judgement in the Love Canal litigation. The June 21, 1994 judgement, which was approved by the US District Court for the Western District of New York on July 1, 1994, requires that OCC pay the state $98 million in exchange for a release of all state claims remaining against the company.

  3. Rehabilitation of teeth with root canal treatment. Multidisciplinary approach

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Concha, Pompeyo H.; Residente 3° año, Segunda Especialidad en Rehabilitación Oral, UNMSM.; Canales Huarhua, Johnny; Residente 2°año, Segunda Especialidad en Periodoncia, UNMSM.; García Linares, Sixto; Especialidad en Periodoncia y Coordinador de Posgrado en Periodoncia, UNMSM.

    2014-01-01

    This clinical case details the teeth reconstruction and root canal retreatment, with recovery of the lost biological space invaded by maladjusted crowns and its subsequent reconstruction with fiberglass preformed poles for the cementation of splinted crowns by the decrease of the crown-root proportion. It is concluded that we must take into account the amount of remaining dental tissue, the periodontal status (biological width), the aesthetic requirements, the root morphology, the location of...

  4. Phage therapy against Enterococcus faecalis in dental root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leron Khalifa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem faced by all major sectors of health care, including dentistry. Recurrent infections related to multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE in hospitals are untreatable and question the effectiveness of notable drugs. Two major reasons for these recurrent infections are acquired antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm formation. None of the traditionally known effective techniques have been able to efficiently resolve these issues. Hence, development of a highly effective antibacterial practice has become inevitable. One example of a hard-to-eradicate pathogen in dentistry is Enterococcus faecalis, which is one of the most common threats observed in recurrent root canal treatment failures, of which the most problematic to treat are its biofilm-forming VRE strains. An effective response against such infections could be the use of bacteriophages (phages. Phage therapy was found to be highly effective against biofilm and multidrug-resistant bacteria and has other advantages like ease of isolation and possibilities for genetic manipulations. The potential of phage therapy in dentistry, in particular against E. faecalis biofilms in root canals, is almost unexplored. Here we review the efforts to develop phage therapy against biofilms. We also focus on the phages isolated against E. faecalis and discuss the possibility of using phages against E. faecalis biofilm in root canals.

  5. Usefulness and limitations of neuroradiological examinations in lumbar canal stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishi, Shogo; Hanakita, Junya; Suwa, Hideyuki; Ohta, Fumito; Sakaida, Hiroshi (Shizuoka General Hospital (Japan))

    1989-09-01

    Since 1983, we have performed 434 spinal surgery operations. Among them are included 51 cases of lumbar canal stenosis. For these 51 cases, we performed several neuroradiological examinations, such as lumbar plain X-ray, myelography, metrizamide-CT scan (Met-CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). On myelography, these 51 patients were divided into three types; a complete block type with 29 patients, soy-beans type with 7 patients and strangulation type with 15 patients. Met CT was performed in 37 cases. In both strangulation type and soy-beans type which had been showed through myelography, Met-CT could clearly demonstrate the subarachnoid space, and several structures around the lumbar spinal canal could be clearly identified. In cases which myelography revealed as complete-block type, we identified two subtypes. In the first type subarachnoid space was clearly demonstrated by Met-CT. The second type was comprised of those cases where Met-CT scan could not demonstrate subarachnoid space at all. MRI was performed on 21 patients. MRI clearly showed the anatomical relationship of disc, subarachnoid space, yellow ligament and hypertrophied bony structure. MRI was thus able to bring useful information about lumbar canal stenosis even in cases where Met-CT gave little information due to the lack of metrizamide penetration of the stenotic subarachnoid space. (J.P.N.).

  6. Effect of hypersaline cooling canals on aquifer salinization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Joseph D.; Langevin, Christian D.; Brakefield-Goswami, Linzy

    2010-01-01

    The combined effect of salinity and temperature on density-driven convection was evaluated in this study for a large (28 km2) cooling canal system (CCS) at a thermoelectric power plant in south Florida, USA. A two-dimensional cross-section model was used to evaluate the effects of hydraulic heterogeneities, cooling canal salinity, heat transport, and cooling canal geometry on aquifer salinization and movement of the freshwater/saltwater interface. Four different hydraulic conductivity configurations, with values ranging over several orders of magnitude, were evaluated with the model. For all of the conditions evaluated, aquifer salinization was initiated by the formation of dense, hypersaline fingers that descended downward to the bottom of the 30-m thick aquifer. Saline fingers reached the aquifer bottom in times ranging from a few days to approximately 5 years for the lowest hydraulic conductivity case. Aquifer salinization continued after saline fingers reached the aquifer bottom and coalesced by lateral movement away from the site. Model results showed that aquifer salinization was most sensitive to aquifer heterogeneity, but was also sensitive to CCS salinity, temperature, and configuration.

  7. Photodynamic therapy: An adjunct to conventional root canal disinfection strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shipra; Nagpal, Rajni; Manuja, Naveen; Tyagi, Sashi Prabha

    2015-08-01

    Although chemical-based root canal disinfectants are important to reduce microbial loads and remove infected smear layer from root dentin, they have only a limited ability to eliminate biofilm bacteria, especially from root complexities. This paper explores the novel photodynamic therapy (PDT) for antimicrobial disinfection of root canals. The combination of an effective photosensitizer, the appropriate wavelength of light and ambient oxygen is the key factor in PDT. PDT uses a specific wavelength of light to activate a non-toxic dye (photosensitizer), leading to the formation of reactive oxygen species. These reactive oxygen molecules can damage bacterial proteins, membrane lipids and nucleic acids, which promote bacterial cell death. In, addition PDT may enhance cross-linking of collagen fibrils in the dentin matrix and thereby improving dentin stability. The concept of PDT is plausible and could foster new therapy concepts for endodontics. The available knowledge should enable and encourage steps forward into more clinical-oriented research and development. This article discusses PDT as related to root canal disinfection, including its components, mechanism of action, reviews the current endodontic literature and also highlights the shortcomings and advancements in PDT techniques. © 2014 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  8. Conductive neuromagnetic fields in the lumbar spinal canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Senichi; Kawabata, Shigenori; Tomizawa, Shoji; Tomori, Masaki; Sakaki, Kyohei; Shinomiya, Kenichi; Sekihara, Kensuke; Sato, Tomoya; Adachi, Yoshiaki; Okawa, Atsushi

    2012-08-01

    To measure neuromagnetic evoked fields in the lumbar spinal canal. Using a newly developed superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) fluxmeter, neuromagnetic fields of 5 healthy male volunteers were measured at the surface of the lower back after stimulation of the tibial nerves at the ankles. For validation, we inserted a catheter-type electrode percutaneously in the lumbar epidural space in 2 of the subjects and measured cauda equina action potentials after tibial nerve stimulation. Neuromagnetic fields propagating from the intervertebral foramina into the spinal canal were measured, and the latencies of the magnetic fields corresponded largely with those of the cauda equina action potentials. We successfully measured ascending neuromagnetic fields originating at the nerve root and the cauda equina with high spatial resolution. Future studies will determine whether neuromagnetic field measurement of the lumbar spine can be a useful diagnostic method for the identification of the disordered site in spinal nerves. We successfully measured neuromagnetic fields in the lumbar spinal canal, which have previously been difficult to verify. Future studies will determine whether neuromagnetic field measurement of the lumbar spine can be a useful diagnostic method for identifying disorders of spinal nerves. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Geminated Maxillary Lateral Incisor with Two Root Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Romano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a case of gemination in a maxillary lateral incisor with two root canals and crown-root dilaceration. A 16-year-old male patient was referred for endodontic treatment of the maxillary left lateral incisor and evaluation of esthetic and functional complaints in the anterior region. The patient reported trauma to the anterior primary teeth. There was no spontaneous pain, but the tooth responded positively to the vertical percussion test and negatively to the pulp vitality test. Clinical examination showed esthetic and functional alterations and normal periodontal tissues. CBCT imaging confirmed the suspicion of gemination and crown-root dilaceration and also revealed the presence of two root canals and periapical bone rarefaction. The root canals were instrumented with Reciproc R40 and 1% NaOCl irrigation and were filled by lateral condensation of gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. The tooth was definitely restored with composite resin to recover esthetics. Continued follow-up over 6 months has shown absence of pain or clinical alterations as well as radiographic image suggestive of apical repair.

  10. Phage therapy against Enterococcus faecalis in dental root canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Leron; Shlezinger, Mor; Beyth, Shaul; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Coppenhagen-Glazer, Shunit; Beyth, Nurit; Hazan, Ronen

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem faced by all major sectors of health care, including dentistry. Recurrent infections related to multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in hospitals are untreatable and question the effectiveness of notable drugs. Two major reasons for these recurrent infections are acquired antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm formation. None of the traditionally known effective techniques have been able to efficiently resolve these issues. Hence, development of a highly effective antibacterial practice has become inevitable. One example of a hard-to-eradicate pathogen in dentistry is Enterococcus faecalis, which is one of the most common threats observed in recurrent root canal treatment failures, of which the most problematic to treat are its biofilm-forming VRE strains. An effective response against such infections could be the use of bacteriophages (phages). Phage therapy was found to be highly effective against biofilm and multidrug-resistant bacteria and has other advantages like ease of isolation and possibilities for genetic manipulations. The potential of phage therapy in dentistry, in particular against E. faecalis biofilms in root canals, is almost unexplored. Here we review the efforts to develop phage therapy against biofilms. We also focus on the phages isolated against E. faecalis and discuss the possibility of using phages against E. faecalis biofilm in root canals. PMID:27640530

  11. Seepage study of six canals in Salt Lake County, Utah, 1982-1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, L.R.; Cruff, R.W.; Waddell, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    A study of selected reaches of the Utah and Salt Lake, Utah Lake Distributing, Provo Reservoir, Draper Irrigation, East Jordan, and Jordan and Salt Lake City Canals in Salt Lake County, Utah, was made to determine gains or losses of flow in those reaches. Three to five sets of seepage measurements were made on each canal during 1982 or 1983. Adjustments for fluctuations in flow were made from information obtained from water-stage recorders operated at selected locations during the time of each seepage run.The study showed an overall net loss of about 9.5 cubic feet per second in the Utah and Salt Lake Canal, 11.0 cubic feet per second in the Utah Lake Distributing canal, 20.5 cubic feet per second in the Provo Reservoir canal, 1.5 cubic feet per second in the Draper Irrigation Canal, and 4.0 cubic feet per second in the East Jordan canal. It also showed a net gain of about 6.0 cubic feet per second in the Jordan and Salt Lake City Canal. The gains and losses are attributed primarily to the relation of the canals to the depth of the water table near the canals.

  12. Comparing the Fracture Rate of Hero 642, FlexMaster and Mtwo in the Simulated Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaf, Hosein; Haghgoo, Roza; Nazarimoghadam, Kiumars; Mohamadibasir, Mahshid

    2014-01-01

    File fracture is one of the main procedural mishaps in endodontic treatment. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the fracture rate of three NiTi rotary systems; Hero 642, Mtwo and FlexMaster in artificial canals. In this study, bovine long bone was used. After primary preparation of bones, longitudinal sections with 4-cm diameter were cut and encoded. Subsequently, semicircular sections were prepared. A total number of 500 canals were created in the same way; the upper 3 mm of the canals were initially prepared with orifice shapers and then canals were filed with FlexMaster files sizes 25/0.02 and 25/0.04 to 13 mm of canal length. The prepared canals were assigned into 3 groups of the following systems: Hero 642, Mtwo and FlexMaster. Six selected instruments were used from each system; the files were applied 13 mm along the canals for 10 sec with manufacturer's suggested speed and torque. The number of the canals prepared by each file before its separation was recorded; finally the data was analyzed with ANOVA test. Mean number of prepared canals in Mtwo, FlexMaster and Hero groups before file separation was 15, 25 and 32, respectively. RESULTS of this study showed that the number of prepared canals by Hero 642 was more than FlexMaster and Mtwo systems.

  13. A comparison of the shaping ability of reciprocating NiTi instruments in simulated curved canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sil Yoo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The study was to compare the shaping ability of Reciproc (VDW and WaveOne (Dentsply Maillefer instruments compared with ProTaper, Profile and hand instrument during the preparation of simulated root canals. Materials and Methods Five groups (n = 5 were established. Reciproc, WaveOne, ProTaper, Profile and K file (K-flexo file were used to prepare the resin simulated canals. A series of preoperative and postoperative images were taken by a microscope and superimposed in 2 different layers. The amount of resin removed from both the inner and the outer sides of the canal was measured to the level of 10 mm from the apical tip, with a 1 mm increment. Results The mean of resin removal from the inner canal wall was not different from the outer canal wall for Reciproc and WaveOne groups at apical third (1 - 3 mm level. There was no difference in the change of working length and maintenance of canal curvature. NiTi instruments are superior to stainless-steel K file in their shaping ability. Conclusions Within the limitation of this present study, Reciproc and WaveOne instruments maintained the original canal curvature in curved canals better than ProTaper and Profile, which tend to transport towards the outer canal wall of the curve in the apical part of the canal.

  14. Regulation of drainage canals on the groundwater level in a typical coastal wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Mou, Xia; Cui, Baoshan; Ping, Fan

    2017-12-01

    Activities related to reclamation alter wetland hydrological regimes and inevitably cause changes to groundwater level, which can result in the ecological degradation of coastal wetlands. Decreasing the groundwater level by the construction of drainage canals is an approach that has been widely used to control levels of root zone soil salinity as well as to protect freshwater wetlands or to expand agricultural land area in coastal wetlands. In this study, we assessed the influences of different drainage canal designs on the groundwater level using the Visual MODFLOW (VMOD) interface. We also provided an optimized drainage canal design suitable for the Yellow River Delta (YRD). Results showed that: (i) the groundwater level decreased in areas close to drainage canals, while only negligible effects were found on the groundwater level in areas with no drainage canals; (ii) the influence of drainage canals on the groundwater level decreased as distance increased; and (iii) a drainage canal network design of a depth of 5 m, with canal configuration of north-south direction and canal spacing of 1000 m was more effective in reducing the groundwater level in the study area. Our findings indicated that changes in groundwater level by the construction of drainage canals could help in our understanding of how groundwater influences freshwater wetlands and also aid in maintaining the integrity of coastal wetlands.

  15. Effectiveness of EDTA as the irrigation solution to remove smear layer in root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniasri Amas Achiar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the objectives of successful endodontic treatment is the hermetic obturation of the root canal system. To achieve this, the root canal filling must seal the canal space both apically and coronally to prevent the ingress of microorganisms or tissue fluids into the canal space. Apical leakage is reported a common reason for the clinical failure of endodontic therapy. Leakage through an obturated root canal is expected to take place at interfaces between sealer and dentin or sealer and gutta-percha, or through voids within the sealer. Hence, the sealing quality of root canal filling depends much on the sealing ability of the sealer. Therefore, anything that may influence the adaptation of the root filling to the canal wall is can determine the degree and the extent of leakage, and ultimately the prognosis of the endodontic therapy. In endodontic therapy, the smear layer formation results from root canal preparation and may influence the effective seal of the root canal system. The smear layer formation is mainly composed of inorganic components (dentin debris and organic materials, such as pulp tissue remnant, bacteria, and blood cells. Removal of the smear layer from the root canal walls before the obturation can reduce the leakage of root canal sealer. To remove the smear layer use 10 ml 17% EDTA followed by 10 ml of 5.25% NaOCl as irrigating solution. This paper discribe about how the effectivity of EDTA as irigating solution to remove the smear layer especially in the apical root canal with many lateral canal to reduce the apical leakage.

  16. Investigations into in situ Enterococcus faecalis biofilm removal by passive and active sodium hypochlorite irrigation delivered into the lateral canal of a simulated root canal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohmmed, S A; Vianna, M E; Penny, M R; Hilton, S T; Mordan, N J; Knowles, J C

    2017-11-27

    To investigate in situ Enterococcus faecalis biofilm removal from the lateral canal of a simulated root canal system using passive or active irrigation protocols. Root canal models (n = 43) were manufactured from transparent resin materials using 3D-printing. Each canal was created with an 18 mm length, apical size 30, a .06 taper, and a lateral canal of 3 mm length, 0.3 mm diameter. Biofilms were grown on the lateral canal and apical 3 mm of the main canal for 10 days. Biofilm of three models was examined using SEM. The other forty models were divided to four groups (n = 10). The models were observed under a fluorescence microscope. Following 60 s of 9 mL of 2.5% NaOCl irrigation using syringe and needle, the irrigant was either left stagnant in the canal or activated using gutta-percha, sonic or ultrasonic methods for 30 s. Images were then captured every second using an external camera. The residual biofilm percentages were measured using image analysis software. The data were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. A significance level of 0.05 was used throughout. The greatest level of biofilm removal was with ultrasonic agitation (66.76%) followed by sonic (45.49%), manual agitation (43.97%), and passive irrigation groups (38.67%) respectively. The differences were significant between the residual biofilm in the passive irrigation and both sonic & ultrasonic groups (P = 0.001). Agitation resulted in better penetration of the 2.5% NaOCl into the lateral canal of an artificial root canal model. Ultrasonic agitation of NaOCl improved the removal of biofilm. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Forced extrusion for removal of impacted third molars close to the mandibular canal Extrusión forzada para extraer los terceros molares impactados cerca del canal mandibular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Flanagan DDS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Impacted mandibular third molars can be located in close proximity to the mandibular canal. This creates a risk for the nerve or artery injury. These are contained in the canal. However, the impacted third molar can be moved coronally by orthodontic means, after removal of overlying bone, and safely extracted. The orthodontic intervention slowly moves the tooth apex away from the mandibular canal and reduces the potential for a neural injury. This method may be useful for older patients with root apices that approximate or are actually located in the mandibular canal. This technique needs further study. There is a theoretical potential for neural or arterial injury from physical contact of the tooth apex as it moves by or through the mandibular canal.Los terceros molares inferiores impactados pueden localizarse muy cerca del canal mandibular. Esto constituye un riesgo de lesión del nervio o la arteria, que se localizan dentro del canal. No obstante, el tercer molar impactado puede desplazarse en dirección coronal con ortodoncia, tras ostectomía del hueso suprayacente, y extraerse sin riesgos. La intervención ortodóncica desplaza lentamente el ápice del diente fuera del canal mandibular y reduce la posibilidad de lesión neural. Este método puede ser útil para pacientes de edad avanzada con ápices dentales que se aproximan o en realidad se localizan en el canal mandibular. La técnica necesita un estudio adicional. Hay la posibilidad teórica de lesión neural o arterial a partir del contacto físico del ápice del diente a medida que se desplaza a través del canal mandibular.

  18. Canal lombar estreito: sinal da sedimentação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Alice Correia Resende

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a presença do sinal de sedimentação nos pacientes com canal lombar estreito (CLE comparando-os com os pacientes sem CLE. MÉTODOS: Realizado um estudo retrospectivo, transversal e descritivo. Realizada a revisão dos processos imagiológicos dos pacientes com CLE operados entre 1 de janeiro de 2008 e 31 de dezembro de 2009, comparando-os com os dos pacientes sem CLE observados em consulta externa. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: grupo I com 34 pacientes com diagnóstico de CLE. Critérios diagnósticos: existência de lombalgia e/ou claudicação neurogénica e/ou radiculopatia, associados a um diâmetro anteroposterior do canal menor que 10mm e grupo II com 40 pacientes observados em consulta externa por lombalgia sem clínica de CLE. Foi feita a medicação do diâmetro do canal e verificada a presença do sinal de sedimentação entre D12 a S1. RESULTADOS: O sinal da sedimentação foi positivo em 31 dos 34 pacientes do grupo I (91,2%, em dois destes 31 pacientes apenas abaixo da estenose. Este sinal não foi encontrado em nenhum paciente do segundo grupo. Verifica-se uma correlação estatisticamente significativa entre as variáveis "diâmetro do canal" e a "presença do sinal da sedimentação" (p<0.01 no grupo de pacientes com canal lombar estreito. CONCLUSÕES: O diagnóstico de CLE nem sempre é fácil atendendo à frequente dissonância entre os achados clínicos e imagiológicos. O sinal de sedimentação é positivo em pacientes com CLE entre os níveis L1 e L5, podendo ser um sinal válido para complementar o diagnóstico de CLE.

  19. [Effect comparison of arachnoid cysts in sacral canal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baichuan; Shao, Zengwu; Wu, Hongbin; Yang, Shuhua; Wu, Yongchao; Ma, Zhilin; Yu, Peng

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical outcomes of two different surgical treatments for arachnoid cysts in sacral canal. From January 2004 to March 2009, 55 cases of arachnoid cysts in the sacral canal were treated by traditional simple sacral laminectomies with resection of the cysts (group A, 25 cases) and novel CT-guided percutaneous fibrin glue therapy of arachnoid cysts (group B, 30 cases). Of them, there were 23 males and 32 females, aging 15-66 years with an average of 42.6 years; the duration of symptoms was 6 months to 15 years with an average of 3.5 years. L5-S1 was involved in 22 cases, S1,2 in 25 cases, S2,3 in 12 cases, S2 in 8 cases, and presacral in 2 cases. The size of cysts was 1.5 cm x 1.0 cm to 6.0 cm x 2.8 cm. The MRI examination showed that all patients had cysts in the sacral canal. There were no significant difference (P > 0.05) in sex, ages, disease duration and cysts size between two groups. Preoperative data and postoperative lumbosacral pain and function improvement were analyzed and compared between two groups. All operations were performed successfully. The operative time, blood loss and hospitalization days of group B were significantly less than those of group A (P root irritation (8 cases) occurred; in group B, mild meningitis (3 cases) and low grade fever (5 cases) occurred. Except for nerve injury, other complications were cured after symptomatic management. During the follow-up, 2 recurrent cases were found in group A and 1 case in group B. Of them, 2 recurrent cases were treated with CT-guided percutaneous fibrin glue therapy of arachnoid cysts, and cysts disappeared. For two groups, there were significant differences in Oswestry functional disability index and visual analogue scale score between preoperation and postoperation (P cysts in the sacral canal is a mini-invasive, safe, effective, and economical method, it may be better choices for the treatment of arachnoid cysts in the sacral canal.

  20. Vestibular rehabilitation following surgical repair for Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome: A complicated case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carender, Wendy J; Grzesiak, Melissa

    2018-02-01

    Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome (SCDS) causes auditory and vestibular symptoms. Following surgical repair of the dehiscence, patients often experience dizziness and imbalance. This case report describes a postoperative vestibular exercise program, focusing on the principles of central compensation and habituation, and how it was modified for a patient with delayed progress secondary to strabismus and visual vertigo. A 63-year-old male with history of strabismus eye surgery, right hearing loss, aural fullness, and sensitivity to loud sounds was referred for vestibular rehabilitation (VR). He was seen for one preoperative and six postoperative PT visits over eight months. Outcome measures two weeks postoperative were as follows: Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) 38/100; Timed Up & Go (TUG) 9.92 seconds; Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) 16/24; and a 3-line difference in Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA). Improved outcomes at discharge included: DHI 18/100; TUG 6.87 seconds; DGI 23/24; and 1-line difference in DVA. He was able to return to work and previously enjoyed recreational activities. Postoperative vestibular rehabilitation programs are functionally and symptomatically beneficial following surgical repair for SCDS. Deviations from expected recovery should be addressed to achieve optimal outcomes as demonstrated in this complicated case report.

  1. Sound pressure distribution within natural and artificial human ear canals: forward stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravicz, Michael E; Tao Cheng, Jeffrey; Rosowski, John J

    2014-12-01

    This work is part of a study of the interaction of sound pressure in the ear canal (EC) with tympanic membrane (TM) surface displacement. Sound pressures were measured with 0.5-2 mm spacing at three locations within the shortened natural EC or an artificial EC in human temporal bones: near the TM surface, within the tympanic ring plane, and in a plane transverse to the long axis of the EC. Sound pressure was also measured at 2-mm intervals along the long EC axis. The sound field is described well by the size and direction of planar sound pressure gradients, the location and orientation of standing-wave nodal lines, and the location of longitudinal standing waves along the EC axis. Standing-wave nodal lines perpendicular to the long EC axis are present on the TM surface >11-16 kHz in the natural or artificial EC. The range of sound pressures was larger in the tympanic ring plane than at the TM surface or in the transverse EC plane. Longitudinal standing-wave patterns were stretched. The tympanic-ring sound field is a useful approximation of the TM sound field, and the artificial EC approximates the natural EC.

  2. Cisto aracnóideo extradural do canal espinal Arachnoideal extradural cyst of the spinal canal. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Pires Ferreira

    1972-09-01

    Full Text Available É relatado o caso de um paciente que apresentava paraparesia sensitivo-motora evolutiva, datando de um ano. As radiográficas da coluna vertebral e mielografia permitiram o diagnóstico de cisto de aracnóide extradural do canal espinal de localização torácica, que foi confirmado pelo ato cirúrgico. Os autores revisam a literatura assinalando 76 casos já publicados. São comentadas a incidência do processo patológico nos diversos grupos etários, sua localização ao longo do canal raqueano, a evolução do quadro clínico, a etiología e a fisiopatologia do crescimento do cisto, o diagnóstico, a terapêutica e o prognóstico.The case of a pacient with thoracic arachnoideal cyst is reported. There was a neurological picture of a spinal cord compression in thoracic level with analgesia and anesthesia in T12 and L1 at left. Radiographs showed compression of the pedicles with widening of interpedicular spaces of the eight to twelfth thoracic vertebrae. The myelogram and the laminectomy confirmed the hypothesis of aracnoideal cyst. This case of extradural cyst of the spinal canal is added to the 76 previously described in the literature. The incidence, etiology, phisiopathology, clinical-picture, diagnosis, surgical treatment and prognosis are discussed.

  3. VT Digital Line Graph Miscellaneous Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of Miscellaineous Transmission Lines. Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic...

  4. A quantitative analysis of rotary, ultrasonic and manual techniques to treat proximally flattened root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Soares Grecca

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The efficiency of rotary, manual and ultrasonic root canal instrumentation techniques was investigated in proximally flattened root canals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty human mandibular left and right central incisors, lateral incisors and premolars were used. The pulp tissue was removed and the root canals were filled with red die. Teeth were instrumented using three techniques: (i K3 and ProTaper rotary systems; (ii ultrasonic crown-down technique; and (iii progressive manual technique. Roots were bisected longitudinally in a buccolingual direction. The instrumented canal walls were digitally captured and the images obtained were analyzed using the Sigma Scan software. Canal walls were evaluated for total canal wall area versus non-instrumented area on which dye remained. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was found between the instrumentation techniques studied (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study showed that no instrumentation technique was 100% efficient to remove the dye.

  5. Second mesiobuccal canal detection in maxillary first molars using microscopy and ultrasonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaçam, Tayfun; Tinaz, Ali Cemal; Genç, Ozgür; Kayaoglu, Guven

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of operating microscope in combination with ultrasonics increased the rate of second mesiobuccal (MB2) canal detection in permanent maxillary first molar teeth. A hundred extracted human maxillary first molars were assessed. After location of the main canals, the MB2 canal was sought in all teeth first without microscopy, then with the aid of the operating microscope and finally with the combined use of the operating microscope and ultrasonics. With these techniques, the MB2 canal was detected in 62%, 67% and 74% of the teeth, respectively. The combination of the operating microscope and ultrasonics detected significantly more MB2 canals than when no microscopy was utilized (P ultrasonics increased the detection of MB2 canals in maxillary first permanent molars.

  6. Maxillary first molar with 7 root canals diagnosed using cone-beam computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldo Rodrigues

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Root canal anatomy is complex, and the recognition of anatomic variations could be a challenge for clinicians. This case report describes the importance of cone beam computed tomographyic (CBCT imaging during endodontic treatment. A 23 year old woman was referred by her general dental practitioner with the chief complaint of spontaneous pain in her right posterior maxilla. From the clinical and radiographic findings, a diagnosis of symptomatic irreversible pulpitis was made and endodontic treatment was suggested to the patient. The patient underwent CBCT examination, and CBCT scan slices revealed seven canals: three mesiobuccal (MB1, MB2, and MB3, two distobuccal (DB1 and DB2, and two palatal (P1 and P2. Canals were successfully treated with reciprocating files and filled using single-cone filling technique. Precise knowledge of root canal morphology and its variation is important during root canal treatment. CBCT examination is an excellent tool for identifying and managing these complex root canal systems.

  7. Value of conventional cytology in the presence of macroscopic lesions of the anal canal

    OpenAIRE

    Barcellos,Lêda Pereira de; Russomano, Fábio; Coutinho,José Ricardo Hildebrandt

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To verify the value of conventional cytology for the diagnosis of macroscopic lesions of the anal canal and to describe the limitations of the samples.METHOD: We evaluated 395 conventional cytology samples obtained by brushing the anal canal of patients (predominantly male, HIV-positive) and compared them to the presence of macroscopic lesions of the anal canal observed under anorectal examination.RESULTS: Of the total, 91.6% of samples were classified as adequate. Cellular elemen...

  8. Efficacy of three methods for inserting calcium hydroxide-based paste in root canals

    OpenAIRE

    Galvão, Thales; Camargo, Bernardo; Armada, Luciana; Alves, Flávio

    2017-01-01

    Background To compare the quality of calcium hydroxide paste fillings performed by three different techniques. Material and Methods Sixty extracted maxillary central incisors, with previous root canal treatment, were decoronated and the gutta-percha was completely removed from the root canals. Subsequently, the canals were filled with a calcium hydroxide-based paste composed of calcium hydroxide, bismuth carbonate, and glycerin. The study samples were divided into the following three groups o...

  9. Partial absence of the posterior semicircular canal in Alagille syndrome: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Bernadette; Egelhoff, John; Benton, Corning [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati (United States); Goold, Amy [Tripler Army Medical Center, Family Practice, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2006-09-15

    We report a case of bilateral partial absence of the posterior semicircular canals (with normal lateral semicircular canals) imaged with CT in a patient with Alagille syndrome. Similar histologic findings have been reported in the pathology literature. This association has been previously reported only for Waardenburg syndrome in the imaging literature. We review the imaging findings and embryology of the semicircular canals, and suggest that this abnormality is specific to patients with Alagille or Waardenburg syndrome. (orig.)

  10. A Digital Stereomicroscopic Study of the Radicular Wall Thickness of Two-Canal Mandibular Incisors

    OpenAIRE

    Sedigheh Khedmat; Sohayla Mohamadian; Fatemeh Dibaji; Mohamad Javad Kharrazifard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess the radicular wall thickness in mandibular incisors with two canals and find the maximum and minimum thickness to prevent root canal treatment (RCT) procedural errors.Materials and Methods: A total of 160 extracted mandibular incisors were selected and radiographed; out of which, 55 had two canals. Three parallel transverse sections were made in each tooth at 1mm below the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), mid-root and 1 millimeter to the apex. Specimens wer...

  11. Radiographic evaluation of the course and visibility of the mandibular canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    This study was performed to investigate the course of the mandibular canal on panoramic radiography and the visibility of this canal on both panoramic radiography and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The study consisted of panoramic radiographs and CBCT images from 262 patients. The course of the mandibular canal, as seen in panoramic radiographs, was classified into four types: linear, elliptical, spoon-shaped, and turning curves. The visibility of this canal from the first to the third molar region was evaluated by visually determining whether the mandibular canal was clearly visible, probably visible, or invisible. The visibility of the canal on panoramic radiographs was compared with that on CBCT images. Elliptical curves were most frequently observed along the course of the mandibular canal. The percentage of clearly visible mandibular canals was the highest among the spoon-shaped curves and the lowest among the linear curves. On panoramic radiographs, invisible mandibular canals were found in 22.7% of the examined sites in the first molar region, 11.8% in the second molar region, and 1.3% in the third molar region. On CBCT cross-sectional images, the mandibular canal was invisible in 8.2% of the examined sites in the first molar region, 5.7% in the second molar region, and 0.2% in the third molar region. The visibility of this canal was lower in the first molar region than in the third molar region. The mandibular canal presented better visibility on CBCT images than on panoramic radiographs.

  12. Management of the Nasopalatine Canal and Foramen Associated With Dental Implant Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, John; Tsuji, Shota; Chiu, Tzu-Shan; Greenstein, Gary

    2016-06-01

    In some patients, the contents of the nasopalatine canal must be removed to facilitate placement of a dental implant into the canal. Reasons to enucleate the canal in preparation for a bone graft or a dental implant include inadvertent perforation into the canal when creating an osteotomy for an implant, severe atrophy of the maxilla, and a large foramen that precludes placing an implant into the desired location along the bony ridge. The authors searched the dental literature for clinical reports in humans that addressed placement of dental implants into or adjacent to the nasopalatine canal. They found that the nasopalatine canal is usually around 10-mm long and 4-mm wide and slants from the horizontal plane at a 66-degree angle, and there is considerable variation regarding these measurements. Several clinical reports demonstrate that the canal can be enucleated and bone grafted before successful implant placement. It is also possible to place an implant into the canal at the time of surgery and this procedure may or may not be combined with an adjunctive bone graft. Numerous case reports indicate there is usually no permanent loss of sensation of the anterior palate when an implant is placed into the nasopalatine canal. The authors concluded that placing an implant into the nasopalatine canal is a viable procedure as part of a surgical and prosthetic treatment plan when there is a dearth of alternate sites for implant placement. In patients with severe atrophy of the maxilla, combination syndrome, or who have a large or malpositioned nasopalatine canal, the canal can be used as a site to place a dental implant to support a fixed or removable dental prosthesis.

  13. A clinical and radiographic study of four different root canal fillings in primary molars

    OpenAIRE

    Alaa O Al-Ostwani; Bashier M Al-Monaqel; Mohamed K Al-Tinawi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Successful treatment of infected primary teeth aims to preserve the child′s health. However, the complex morphology of primary root canals and the desire for shorter therapy sessions put the necessity to search for the ideal root canal paste. Aims: To evaluate pulpectomy of nonvital primary molars using four different root canal filling pastes zinc oxide and propolis (ZOP) as a new paste, endoflas-chlorophenol-free as a new paste free of chlorophenol, metapex paste, and zinc oxide...

  14. Incidence of two canals in extracted mandibular incisors teeth of Saudi Arabian samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid S Al-Fouzan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this in vitro study is to provide clinical data on the presence of the second canal in mandibular incisor teeth of Saudi Arabian Samples. Materials and Methods: Eighty extracted human mandibular incisors were collected from Saudi patients. The teeth were accessed by small round bur then placed in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite for 24 hours to dissolve the organic debris. Indian ink was injected inside the root canal systems under negative pressure. The teeth were decalcified in 5% nitric acid for three days then dehydrated in different concentrations of ethyl alcohol. Following the decalcification process, the teeth were cleared in methyl salicylate and evaluated according to Vertucci′s classification. Result: Fifty six of both mandibular central and lateral incisor teeth (70% had type I canal configuration (one main canal and one main apical foramen, while the remaining 30% of the sample (24 teeth had a type III canal configuration (two separate canals and merged into one canal before exiting the tooth through single apical foramen. Conclusion : The incidence of two canals in mandibular incisor teeth is about one third of the examined Saudi Arabian samples with no difference between the centrals and laterals. The clinician should deal with these teeth as if they have two canals unless it is proved otherwise.

  15. Evaluation of Morphology and Anatomical Measurement of Nasopalatine Canal Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Panjnoush

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Precise radiographic assessment of the nasopalatine canal is required to prevent implant failure. The purpose of the current study was to determine the three dimensional (3D morphology, as well as the dimensions of the nasopalatine canal using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, maxillary CBCT images from 300 patients (150 men, 150 women were retrospectively evaluated. Sagittal and coronal views were reviewed to determine the nasopalatine canal morphology and dimensions. The difference in canal dimensions between men and women was evaluated using the Student’s t-test while the difference in canal morphology between the two sexes was assessed using Chi-square test.Results: A total of 199 (66.3% patients had type A canal (cylindrical without a branch, 69 (23% had type B canal (a canal with a branch in the upper part, and 32 (10.7 % had type C canal (a canal with a branch in the middle part. Incisive foramen diameter was 4.7±1.11mm on the sagittal section. Alveolar bone width in the anterior part of the canal was 12.3±1.7mm in the upper one third, 10.7±1.7mm in the middle one third, and 9.8±1.4mm in the lower one third. The angle of canal with palate was 109.5±5.7°. On the coronal sections, canal length was 14.1±3.0mm, incisive foramen diameter was 4.6±1.0mm, and canal diameter in the nasal floor was 5.1±1.0mm.                          Conclusions: Significant differences in canal morphology were observed among the patients and CBCT was useful in determining nasopalatine canal morphology and its dimensions before implant placement.Keywords: Anatomy; Cone-Beam Computed Tomography; Dental Implants; Maxilla

  16. Effects of irrigation solutions and Calcium hydroxide dressing on root canal treatments of periapical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Nirmala

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of root canal in endodontic treatment plays an important role in treating non vital teeth with periapical lesion. Some factors influence the success of root canal treatment in short and long terms are the irrigation of root canal using antiseptic solution and the use of root canal medicament. The aim of this literature study is to determined the effect of irrigation solution and Calcium hydroxide dressing in root canal treatment of periapical lesions. The use of root canal medicament during the endodontic treatment could sterilized and decreased the number of pathogenic microorganism of root canal. An effective root canal irrigation solution must be able to dissolve organic and anorganic debris, lubricate endodontic instruments, disinfect microorganisms, non toxic and economical. The best irrigation solution has maximum antimicrobial effect with minimum toxicity. Division of calcium hydroxide into Calcium and hydroxyl ions is responsible for alkalinization of cavity, subsequently it makes the condition of cavity to be inappropriate for bacterial endotoxin in vitro as well as in vivo, and considered as the only clinically effective medicament in inactivating bacterial endotoxin. Calcium hydroxide is the only medication which has the ability to clinically inactive bacterial endotoxin in vitro in vivo and accepted as the best of root canal medication.

  17. Chandra Mukerji, Impossible Engineering : Technology and Territoriality on the Canal du Midi

    OpenAIRE

    M. W. Ertsen

    2012-01-01

    Chandra Mukerji nous propose un ouvrage important sur la conception et la construction du Canal du Midi, appelé Canal royal du Languedoc sous l’Ancien Régime. Ce canal exceptionnel fut en effet construit durant le règne de Louis XIV, en parallèle avec les travaux de Versailles. Ce fut le plus vaste chantier de génie civil de son temps et il formait alors le plus grand canal jamais construit dans le monde occidental. Ce livre est important pour une série de raisons. La première est qu’il a tou...

  18. Le Canal du Midi au 17e siècle :

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Guy Degos; Christian Prat Dit Hauret

    2010-01-01

    Pierre-Paul Riquet fit construire au 17e siècle le canal royal du Languedoc, qui devint ensuite le canal du Midi. En son temps, ce fut le projet européen le plus important. Inspiré par d'autres modèles de canaux construits depuis l'Antiquité, il servit de modèle ou d'exemples à beaucoup d'autres. Pour construire leur canal, Riquet et ses collaborateurs choisirent une approche systémique et surent concilier l'aspect global et les détails techniques du projet. Le financement du canal ne doit pa...

  19. Lingual vascular canals of the interforaminal region of the mandible: evaluation with conventional tomography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liang, H; Frederiksen, N L; Benson, B W

    2004-01-01

    The presence of lingual vascular foramina and canals in the interforaminal region may increase the risk of surgical complications during implant placement, bone grafting procedures and osteodistraction...

  20. Detection of a second mesiobuccal canal in the mesiobuccal roots of maxillary first molar teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadi, Leena; Khraisat, Ameen

    2007-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the MB2 canal in the mesiobuccal root (MBR) of maxillary first molars could be identified through a clinical access cavity preparation, with and without magnification. One hundred extracted maxillary first molar teeth were collected. After a clinical access cavity preparation with careful use of bur to locate any additional canal (dentine troughing), the MB2 canals were located in 2 stages. Stage I was located with unaided vision and stage II was located under moderate magnification with x3.5 magnifying dental loupes. All specimens were stained, rendered transparent, and then classified. The number of canals detected by stage was analyzed statistically by a chi-square test. Statistical significance was considered to be P magnification, the number of detected MB2 canals was increased from 55 (56.7%) to 61 (62.9%) teeth. Cleared teeth showed 77.32% of MB2 canals. The effectiveness of MB2 location was 73.3% and 82.7% in stage I and stage II, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 methods of detecting the MB2 canal (P = .3). The use of magnification enhanced the ability to detect the MB2 canals, although the difference was not statistically significant. The MB2 canals could not be detected in 16.5% of the teeth, mainly because of pulpal calcification.

  1. Effects of preparation techniques on root canal shaping assessed by micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavileci, Miranda; Hoxha, Veton; Görduysus, Ömer; Tatar, Ilkan; Laperre, Kjell; Hostens, Jeroen; Küçükkaya, Selen; Berisha, Merita

    2013-06-13

    Root canal shaping without any procedural error is of the utmost preference. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use micro-computed tomography to evaluate and compare the root canal shaping efficacy of ProTaper rotary files and standard stainless steel K-files. Sixty extracted upper second premolars were selected and were divided into 2 groups of 30. Before preparation, all samples were scanned by micro-CT. Then, 30 teeth were prepared with stainless steel files and the remaining 30 with ProTaper rotary files. Canal transportation and centering ability before and after root canal shaping were assessed using micro-CT. The amount and direction of canal transportation and the centering ratio of each instrument were determined in the coronal, middle, and apical parts of the canal. The 2 groups were statistically compared using one-way ANOVA. ProTaper rotary files gave less transportation (p<0.001) and better centering ability (p<0.00001) compared with stainless steel files. The manual technique for preparation of root canals with stainless steel files produces more canal transportation, whereas rotary files remain more centered in the canal.

  2. Configuration and corticalization of the mandibular bifid canal in a Taiwanese adult population: a computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, E-Chin; Fu, Earl; Fu, Martin Ming-Jen; Peng, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The configuration and degree of corticalization of bifid mandibular canals were examined using medical computed tomography (CT) images from 170 hemimandibles obtained from 308 Taiwanese adults. The configurations of the bifid canals were assessed according to their anatomical position in relation to the ramus, molars, premolars, and mental foramen; their course (anterior/posterior or superior/inferior); the presence or absence of confluence with the main mandibular canal; and the presence or absence of penetration through the mandible to form an accessory foramen. The percentage of the canal length that was corticalized was measured. Two different classifications of bifid canals were also briefly summarized and compared. When bifid canals are present (41.2% of patients; 27.6% of hemimandibles), the bifid canals were primarily located in the ramus and retromolar regions (67.7%) running anteriorly (95.9%) and superiorly (95.9%) without confluence with the main mandibular canal (91.1%). Up to 16.5% of bifid canals form accessory foramina on the cortical surface of the mandible. Approximately 78% of the bifid canals have varied degrees of corticalization around the bifid canals. The configuration and course of 170 mandibular bifid canals were evaluated with CT images. The bifid canals were primarily located in the ramus and retromolar regions; however, 32.4% of the bifid canals were located in potential positions for dental implant placement. Most of the bifid canals ran anteriorly superior to the main mandibular canal, did not rejoin with the main mandibular canal, and diminished within the mandibular body. Approximately half of the bifid canals (45%) were completely corticated.

  3. Removal of Root Canal Fillings in Curved Canals Using Either Mani GPR or HyFlex NT Followed by Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Stephanie B; Alves, Flávio R F; Marceliano-Alves, Marília F; Sousa, Júlio Cézar N; Vieira, Victor T L; Siqueira, José F; Lopes, Hélio P; Provenzano, José C

    2018-02-01

    This study compared the efficacy of HyFlex NT (HF; Coltene, New York, NY) and Mani GPR (MN; Mani Inc, Tokyo, Japan) systems followed by a supplementary approach with passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) in removing the filling material from curved root canals during retreatment. The mesial canals from 20 extracted mandibular molars with Vertucci type IV configuration were instrumented and obturated (N = 40). Each mesial canal was retreated using either HF or MN instruments, alternating the system used per canal from root to root. The final preparation size was 40/0.04 for both systems. The volume of canal filling material was assessed by means of micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT) imaging before and after retreatment, and the working time was recorded. Canals still showing remnants of filling material were subjected to a supplementary approach with PUI, and another micro-CT scan was taken. The percentage of filling material removed with MN instruments and HF was similar (95.5% and 92.7%, respectively) (P > .05). MN required significantly less time to remove the filling material (P < .05). The supplementary approach with PUI significantly enhanced the removal of filling material (P < .05). Both systems were equally effective in removing the root canal filling during retreatment. MN was faster than HF. The supplementary approach with PUI significantly improved filling material removal. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative scanning electron microscopy evaluation of Canal Brushing technique, sonic activation, and master apical file for the removal of triple antibiotic paste from root canal (in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Ashoksingh Thakur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare and evaluate the effectiveness of Canal Brushing technique, sonic activation, and master apical file (MAF for the removal of triple antibiotic paste (TAP from root canal using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Materials and Methods: Twenty-two single rooted teeth were instrumented with ProTaper up to the size number F2 and dressed with TAP. TAP was removed with Canal Brush technique (Group I, n: 6, sonic (EndoActivator (Group II, n: 6, and MAF (Group III, n: 6. Four teeth served as positive (n: 2 and negative (n: 2 controls. The roots were split in the buccolingual direction and prepared for SEM examination (×1000 at coronal, middle, and apical third. Three examiners evaluated the wall cleanliness. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal–Wallis test and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results: Difference in cleanliness between three groups is statistically significant in cervical region only. Pairwise comparison in cervical region Canal Brush and sonic activation showed more removal of TAP than MAF. Conclusions: Canal Brush and sonic activation system showed better result than MAF in the cervical and middle third of canal. In the apical third, none of the techniques showed a better result. None of the techniques showed complete removal of TAP from the canal.

  5. Radiographic evaluation of the quality of root canal obturation of single-matched cone Gutta-percha root canal filling versus hot lateral technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randa Suleiman Obeidat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate radiographically the quality of root canal filling in mesiodistal and buccolingual view when comparing matched cone condensation and warm lateral Gutta-percha condensation using system B heating instrument in a low-heat warm lateral condensation technique in0 vitro. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 mandibular premolars with straight single canals were divided into two groups with 20 each. The root canals were shaped by hand file and Revo-S rotary files to size (25, 0.06 at the end point, then they filled by Gutta-percha cone and meta-seal sealer. In group A, a single matched cone technique was used to fill the root canals. In group B, a hot lateral condensation using system B instrument at 101°C was performed. Result: The result of this study showed no significant difference in density of Gutta-percha fill in apical and coronal two-third when comparing matched cone root canal filling and hot lateral technique (P > 0.05. The only significant difference (P < 0.05 was in matched cone between buccolingual and mesiodistal view in the coronal two-third. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, single matched cone technique has a good density in the apical one-third as that of the hot lateral technique so it may be used for filling narrow canals. In the coronal two-third of the root canal, single matched cone technique showed inferior density of root canal filling which can be improved by using accessory cones Gutta-percha in wide canal.

  6. Air-leak effects on ear-canal acoustic absorbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groon, Katherine A; Rasetshwane, Daniel M; Kopun, Judy G; Gorga, Michael P; Neely, Stephen T

    2015-01-01

    Accurate ear-canal acoustic measurements, such as wideband acoustic admittance, absorbance, and otoacoustic emissions, require that the measurement probe be tightly sealed in the ear canal. Air leaks can compromise the validity of the measurements, interfere with calibrations, and increase variability. There are no established procedures for determining the presence of air leaks or criteria for what size leak would affect the accuracy of ear-canal acoustic measurements. The purpose of this study was to determine ways to quantify the effects of air leaks and to develop objective criteria to detect their presence. Air leaks were simulated by modifying the foam tips that are used with the measurement probe through insertion of thin plastic tubing. To analyze the effect of air leaks, acoustic measurements were taken with both modified and unmodified foam tips in brass-tube cavities and human ear canals. Measurements were initially made in cavities to determine the range of critical leaks. Subsequently, data were collected in ears of 21 adults with normal hearing and normal middle-ear function. Four acoustic metrics were used for predicting the presence of air leaks and for quantifying these leaks: (1) low-frequency admittance phase (averaged over 0.1-0.2 kHz), (2) low-frequency absorbance, (3) the ratio of compliance volume to physical volume (CV/PV), and (4) the air-leak resonance frequency. The outcome variable in this analysis was the absorbance change (Δabsorbance), which was calculated in eight frequency bands. The trends were similar for both the brass cavities and the ear canals. ΔAbsorbance generally increased with air-leak size and was largest for the lower frequency bands (0.1-0.2 and 0.2-0.5 kHz). Air-leak effects were observed in frequencies up to 10 kHz, but their effects above 1 kHz were unpredictable. These high-frequency air leaks were larger in brass cavities than in ear canals. Each of the four predictor variables exhibited consistent dependence on

  7. Canal preparation with nickel-titanium or stainless steel instruments without the risk of instrument fracture: preliminary observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan Yared

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This report introduces a novel technique that allows a safe and predictable canal negotiation, creation of a glide path and canal preparation with reciprocating nickel-titanium or stainless steel engine-driven instruments in canals where the use of rotary and the newly developed reciprocating instruments is contraindicated. In this novel technique, the instruments are used in reciprocating motion with very small angles. Hand files are not used regardless of the complexity of the canal anatomy. It also allows achieving predictable results in canal negotiation and glide path creation in challenging canals without the risk of instrument fracture.

  8. Modeling of Unsteady Flow through the Canals by Semiexact Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Ehsani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of free-surface and pressurized water flows in channels has many interesting application, one of the most important being the modeling of the phenomena in the area of natural water systems (rivers, estuaries as well as in that of man-made systems (canals, pipes. For the development of major river engineering projects, such as flood prevention and flood control, there is an essential need to have an instrument that be able to model and predict the consequences of any possible phenomenon on the environment and in particular the new hydraulic characteristics of the system. The basic equations expressing hydraulic principles were formulated in the 19th century by Barre de Saint Venant and Valentin Joseph Boussinesq. The original hydraulic model of the Saint Venant equations is written in the form of a system of two partial differential equations and it is derived under the assumption that the flow is one-dimensional, the cross-sectional velocity is uniform, the streamline curvature is small and the pressure distribution is hydrostatic. The St. Venant equations must be solved with continuity equation at the same time. Until now no analytical solution for Saint Venant equations is presented. In this paper the Saint Venant equations and continuity equation are solved with homotopy perturbation method (HPM and comparison by explicit forward finite difference method (FDM. For decreasing the present error between HPM and FDM, the st.venant equations and continuity equation are solved by HAM. The homotopy analysis method (HAM contains the auxiliary parameter ħ that allows us to adjust and control the convergence region of solution series. The study has highlighted the efficiency and capability of HAM in solving Saint Venant equations and modeling of unsteady flow through the rectangular canal that is the goal of this paper and other kinds of canals.

  9. A study of mandibular foramen and mandibular canal using orthopantomograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Sang; Kim, Jhai Dhuck [Department of Dentistry, Graduate School, Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-11-15

    The mandibular canal must be considered carefully during surgical treatment, especially surgical extraction of the impacted tooth and intraosseous implant because it contains the important inferior alveolar nerve and vessel. Th e author investigated the curvature of the mandibular canal, the positional frequency of mandibular foramen to the occlusal plane and gonial angle and the positional frequency of the mental foramen to the tooth site using orthopantomorgrams. The materials considered of 295 orthopantomograms divided into seven groups ranging from the first decade to 6th decade. The results were as follows: 1. The position of mandibular foramen was most frequently below occlusal plane in Group I (78.6%) and Group II (71.2%) , above occlusal plane in Group III (63.0%), Group IV (71.1%), Group V (57.6%), Group VI (76.7%) and Group VII (70.0%). 2. The curvature of mandibular canal was 142.82 .deg. in Group I, 142.09 .deg. in Group II, 139.34 .deg. in Group III, 141.48 .deg. in Group IV, 138.45 .deg. in Group V, 140.77 .deg. in Group VI and 143.89 .deg. in Group VII. 3. The gonial angle was 125.82 .deg. in Group I, 123.18 .deg. in Group II, 124.06 .deg. in Group III, 120.45 .deg. in Group IV, 121.12 .deg. in Group V, 121.63 .deg. in Group VI and 121.24 .deg. in Group VII. 4. The position of the mental foramen was most frequently below the apex of mandibular first premolar in Group I (57.2%), between the apex of mandibular first and second premolar in Group II (59.6%) and Group III (48.9%), and below the apex of mandibular second premolar in Group IV (39.2%), Group V (48.5%) Group VI (46.7%) and Group VII (56.4%).

  10. Absent semicircular canals in CHARGE syndrome: radiologic spectrum of findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, A K; Wiggins, R H; Hudgins, P A; Hedlund, G L; Hamilton, B; Mukherji, S K; Telian, S A; Harnsberger, H R

    2006-09-01

    This paper describes the CT findings that characterize the middle and inner ear anomalies in coloboma, heart defects, choanal atresia, mental retardation, genitourinary, and ear anomalies (CHARGE) syndrome. With this information, neuroradiologists will be better prepared to provide clinically relevant information to their referring physicians regarding this rare syndrome. CT studies from 13 patients were reviewed by 2 neuroradiologists with Certificate of Additional Qualification. Each ear was counted separately for a total of 26 ears. Middle and inner ear anomalies associated with CHARGE syndrome were categorized. Investigational review board approval was obtained. Twenty of 26 (77%) ears demonstrated cochlear aperture atresia. Four of these ears were evaluated with MR imaging and were found to lack a cochlear nerve. Twenty-one of 26 (81%) cochlea had some form of dysplasia. Six of 26 (23%) round windows were aplastic. Three of 26 (12%) round windows were hypoplastic. Twenty-one of 26 (81%) oval windows were atretic or aplastic. Fifteen of 26 (58%) vestibules were hypoplastic or dysplastic. There were 5 of 26 (19%) enlarged vestibular aqueducts. Twelve of 26 (46%) vestibular aqueducts had an anomalous course. All cases demonstrated absent semicircular canals. Twenty-three of 26 (88%) facial nerve canals had an anomalous course. Four of 26 (15%) tympanic segments were prolapsed. Three of 26 (12%) temporal bones had an anomalous emissary vein referred to as a petrosquamosal sinus. Twenty-one of 26 (81%) middle ear cavities were small. Twenty-three of 26 (93%) ossicles were dysplastic with ankylosis. Three of 26 (12%) internal auditory canals were small. The CT findings that correlate to the anomalies of CHARGE syndrome affect conductive as well as sensorineural hearing. Stenosis of the aperture for the cochlear nerve aperture on CT is suggestive of hypoplasia or absence of the cochlear nerve, which has been demonstrated in some cases by MR. Absence of the cochlear

  11. The imperiled fish fauna in the Nicaragua Canal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härer, Andreas; Torres-Dowdall, Julián; Meyer, Axel

    2017-02-01

    Large-scale infrastructure projects commonly have large effects on the environment. The planned construction of the Nicaragua Canal will irreversibly alter the aquatic environment of Nicaragua in many ways. Two distinct drainage basins (San Juan and Punta Gorda) will be connected and numerous ecosystems will be altered. Considering the project's far-reaching environmental effects, too few studies on biodiversity have been performed to date. This limits provision of robust environmental impact assessments. We explored the geographic distribution of taxonomic and genetic diversity of freshwater fish species (Poecilia spp., Amatitlania siquia, Hypsophrys nematopus, Brycon guatemalensis, and Roeboides bouchellei) across the Nicaragua Canal zone. We collected population samples in affected areas (San Juan, Punta Gorda, and Escondido drainage basins), investigated species composition of 2 drainage basins and performed genetic analyses (genetic diversity, analysis of molecular variance) based on mitochondrial cytb. Freshwater fish faunas differed substantially between drainage basins (Jaccard similarity = 0.33). Most populations from distinct drainage basins were genetically differentiated. Removing the geographic barrier between these basins will promote biotic homogenization and the loss of unique genetic diversity. We found species in areas where they were not known to exist, including an undescribed, highly distinct clade of live bearing fish (Poecilia). Our results indicate that the Nicaragua Canal likely will have strong impacts on Nicaragua's freshwater biodiversity. However, knowledge about the extent of these impacts is lacking, which highlights the need for more thorough investigations before the environment is altered irreversibly. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Historia de los medios de comunicación de Misiones: LT 85 TV Canal 12, el canal de TV de los Misioneros. 16H295

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Norma G., dir.; Pyke, Jorge N.; Garcia Da Rosa, Carlos A; Pernigotti, Gilda; Milton, Terencio; Lima,Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Actividades desarrolladas durante el período: avance en la búsqueda de información respecto de documentación y de fuentes orales de información sobre la historia del Canal 12; rescate testimonios fotográficos y de cintas fílmicas de los primeros años del Canal 12 que están en poder de particulares; rescate de material fílmico existente en el Canal; desgravaciones de las entrevistas realizadas para la entrega posterior a los informantes. Sistematización de la organización de las fotografías qu...

  13. Estudo do canal reverso de alimentos descartados comercialmente no varejo: análise do canal de produtos lácteos

    OpenAIRE

    Suzana Marcia Marangoni

    2010-01-01

    Este trabalho refere-se ao estudo de um canal reverso de distribuição de produtos lácteos. O objetivo foi verificar a estrutura do canal reverso de produtos lácteos não comercializados e como ocorre o seu gerenciamento. Entendem-se como produtos não comercializados, alimentos lácteos não vendidos pelos atacadistas e varejistas, cujos prazos de validade ainda não expiraram. Especificamente, buscou-se identificar o design do canal reverso desses alimentos e quais as funções de cada membro parti...

  14. Radiographic evaluation of the quality of root canal obturation of single-matched cone Gutta-percha root canal filling versus hot lateral technique

    OpenAIRE

    Randa Suleiman Obeidat; Hassan Abdallah

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate radiographically the quality of root canal filling in mesiodistal and buccolingual view when comparing matched cone condensation and warm lateral Gutta-percha condensation using system B heating instrument in a low-heat warm lateral condensation technique in0 vitro. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 mandibular premolars with straight single canals were divided into two groups with 20 each. The root canals were shaped by hand file and Revo-S rotary ...

  15. Alcock canal syndrome due to obturator internus muscle fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insola, Angelo; Granata, Giuseppe; Padua, Luca

    2010-09-01

    Alcock canal syndrome is a rare entrapment neuropathy of the pudendal nerve. We report a case of perineal neuralgia where pudendal nerve compression was due to fibrosis of the obturator internus muscle following an injury of the muscle. After being misdiagnosed for 2 years, the patient was diagnosed only after a combined neurophysiologic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigation. This case underlines the importance of performing focused neurophysiologic and neuroimaging studies in patients with neuropathic perineal pain in order to reach a correct diagnosis.

  16. Endometriosis en el canal inguinal: reporte de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Quirós Alpízar, José Luis; Corrales González, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis se define como la presencia de tejido glandular y estromal endometrial fuera de la cavidad uterina y este tejido ectópico es dependiente de la estimulación estrogénica. Usualmente se presenta en ovarios, fondos de saco, ligamento ancho, ligamento uterosacro, útero, trompas de Falopio, tracto gastrointestinal y geniturinario. Sin embargo, puede presentarse en otras localizaciones, como en el canal inguinal. Prevalece en 10% de las mujeres en edad reproductiva. Existen muchos fact...

  17. Preferential Impairment of the Contralesional Posterior Semicircular Canal in Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Han Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR may be impaired in internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO as the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF conveys VOR-signals from the vertical semicircular canals. It has been proposed that signals from the contralesional posterior semicircular canal (PSC are exclusively transmitted through the MLF, while for the contralesional anterior canal other pathways exist.ObjectiveHere, we aimed to characterize dysfunction in individual canals in INO-patients using the video-head-impulse test (vHIT and to test the hypothesis of dissociated vertical canal impairment in INO.MethodsVideo-head-impulse testing and magnetic resonance imaging were obtained in 21 consecutive patients with unilateral (n = 16 or bilateral (n = 5 INO and 42 controls. VOR-gains and compensatory catch-up saccades were analyzed and the overall function (normal vs. impaired of each semicircular canal was rated.ResultsIn unilateral INO, largest VOR-gain reductions were noted in the contralesional PSC (0.55 ± 0.11 vs. 0.89 ± 0.08, p < 0.001, while in bilateral INO both posterior (0.43 ± 0.11 vs. 0.89 ± 0.08, p < 0.001 and anterior (0.58 ± 0.19 vs. 0.88 ± 0.09, p < 0.001 canals showed marked drops. Small, but significant VOR-gain reductions were also found in the other canals in unilateral and bilateral INO-patients. Impairment of overall canal function was restricted to the contralesional posterior canal in 60% of unilateral INO-patients, while isolated involvement of the posterior canal was rare in bilateral INO-patients (20%. Reviewers correctly identified the INO-pattern in 15/21 (71% patients and in all controls (sensitivity = 84.2% [95%-CI = 0.59.5–95.8]; specificity = 95.5% [95%-CI = 83.3–99.2].ConclusionUsing a vHIT based overall rating of canal function, the correct INO-pattern could be identified with high accuracy. The predominant and often selective impairment of

  18. A study of incisive canal using a cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gyu Tae; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-15

    To investigate the anatomical structure of the incisive canal radiographically by a cone beam computed tomography. 38 persons (male 26, female 12) were chosen to take images of maxillary anterior region in dental CT mode using a cone beam computed tomography. The tube voltage were 65, 67, and 70 kVp, the tube current was 7 mA, and the exposure time was 13.3 seconds. The FH plane of each person was parallel to the floor. The images were analysed on the CRT display. The mean length of incisive canal was 15.87 mm {+-} 2.92. The mean diameter at the side of palate and nasal fossa were 3.49 mm {+-} 0.76 and 3.89 mm {+-} 1.06, respectively. In the cross-sectional shape of incisive canal, 50% were round, 34.2% were ovoid, and 15.8% were lobulated. 87% of incisive canal at the side of nasal fossa have one canal, 10.4% have two canals, and 2.6% have three canals, but these canals were merged into one canal in the middle portion of palate. The mean angles of the long axis of incisive canal and central incisor to the FH plane were 110.3 {+-} 6.96 and 117.45 {+-} 7.41, respectively. The angles of the long axis of incisive canal and central incisor to the FH plane were least correlated (r 0.258). This experiment suggests that a cone beam computed radiography will be helpful in surgery or implantation on the maxillary incisive area.

  19. Cervical Cord-Canal Mismatch: A New Method for Identifying Predisposition to Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Aria; Montejo, Julio; Sun, Xin; Virojanapa, Justin; Kolb, Luis E; Abbed, Khalid M; Cheng, Joseph S

    2017-12-01

    The risk for spinal cord injuries (SCIs) ranging from devastating traumatic injuries, compression because of degenerative pathology, and neurapraxia is increased in patients with congenital spinal stenosis. Classical diagnostic criteria include an absolute anteroposterior diameter of cord, which varies across patients, independent of canal size. Recent large magnetic resonance imaging studies of population cohorts have allowed newer methods to emerge that account for both cord and canal size by measuring a spinal cord occupation ratio (SCOR). A SCOR defined as ≥70% on midsagittal imaging or ≥80% on axial imaging appears to be an effective method of identifying cord-canal mismatch, but requires further validation. Cord-canal size mismatch predisposes patients to SCI because of 1) less space within the canal lowering the amount of degenerative changes needed for cord compression, and 2) less cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the spinal cord decreasing the ability to absorb kinetic forces directed at the spine. Patients with cord-canal mismatch have been reported to be at a substantially higher risk of traumatic SCI, and present with degenerative cervical myelopathy at a younger age than patients without cord-canal mismatch. However, neurologic outcome after SCI has occurred does not appear to be different in patients with or without a cord-canal mismatch. Recognition that canal and cord size are both factors which predispose to SCI supports that cord-canal size mismatch rather than a narrow cervical canal in isolation should be viewed as the underlying mechanism predisposing to SCI. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Sagittal craniofacial growth evaluated on children dry skulls using V2 and V3 canal openings as references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnet, J-Cl; Lombardi, T; Lutz, J-Ch; Meyer, P; Kahn, J-L

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between standard cephalometric landmarks and lines and those using ovale, rotundum, greater palatine and infra-orbital foramina as references. Thirty-four children dry skulls, 19 males and 15 females aged 0-6 years, were examined by computed tomography scanning. The classical cephalometric dimensions of skull base were measured from middle sagittal plane crossing over basion, nasion and sella turcica. Those of hard palate (maxilla and palatine bone) were measured from axial plane intersecting posterior nasal spine and anterior nasal spine. The dimensions between ovale and rotundum foramina, rotundum and infra-orbital foramina, greater palatine and infra-orbital foramina were determined by using constructed tomographic planes enclosing these different foramina. Biostatistical analysis using partial correlations showed that the linear variables with nerve canal openings as references are strongly related to length of both the skull base and of the hard palate. The results highlight the importance of the nerve canal openings of skull base and bone facial components in normal or pathologic craniofacial growth investigations.

  1. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Babaji, Prashant; Jagtap, Kiran; Lau, Himani; Bansal, Nandita; Thajuraj, S.; Sondhi, Priti

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: Successful root canal treatment involves the complete elimination of microorganism from the root canal and the three-dimensional obturation of the canal space. Enterococcus faecalis is the most commonly found bacteria in failed root canal. Chemical irrigation of canals along with biomechanical preparation helps in the elimination of microorganisms. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirach...

  2. The association between root canal filling and treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almohareb, Rahaf; Ahlquist, Michael; Englund, Gunilla Sandborgh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the technical quality of endodontic treatment per- formed by postgraduate students in Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden during the years (2008-2011) and to evaluate the treatment outcome. In addition, possible influencing factors to treatment outcome were analyzed. All maxillary first molars that received endo- dontic treatment between 2008 and 2011 were included in the study. Pre, post and follow up radiographs were collected.The apical status (PAI-score),the quality of the root canal treat- ment (RCT) and the treatment outcome were assessed. Analysis of the treatment outcome in relation to the quality of root canal treatment and other possible influencing variables was performed by Chi2 or Fisher's Exact test, and the statistical significance was set at Plength. In total, the treatment outcome was successful in 59 (81 %) of the cases. The success rate was 88% in cases with high quality root fillings, compared to 71% in cases with less good quality.There was a non- significant trend (P =0.066) of an association between RCT quality and treatment outcome. In conclusion the association between the quality of the root filling and the treatment outcome was not verified with statistical significance, but the results indicate a trend that satisfactory root fillings are associated with a favorable outcome.This study was limited by its retrospective nature and a relatively small sample size.

  3. Morphometric Measurements of Bony Nasolacrimal Canal in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ela, Araz Server; Cigdem, Kalaycik Ertugay; Karagoz, Yesim; Yigit, Ozgur; Longur, Ecem Sevim

    2018-01-29

    Morphology and dimensions of the bony nasolacrimal canal duct (BNLD) as a key factor in the development of primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction. We aimed to obtain detailed morphometric analysis of BNLD in children without nasolacrimal duct pathology by using computed tomography and provide standard measurements by means of age which could be utilized in planning management or in invasive interventions. Picture Archiving Communication Systems database of our hospital's radiology department was searched for this retrospective study. Subjects were under 18 years of age who had undergone a paranasal, maxillofacial, or temporal bone high-resolution computed tomography scan in last 2 years with various indications. Those with fractures including facial bones and/or nasolacrimal canal or history of nasolacrimal duct pathology were excluded from the study. We measured the diameter, angle, and surface area of BNLD. A total number of 136 subjects (86 boys, 50 girls) were included in the study. The average age was 7.3 ± 5.1 years. We documented statistically significantly positive correlation between all measured diameters and ages (P  0.050). Our study demonstrated that development of BNLD continues during childhood, regardless of gender.

  4. Morphometry of the Greater Palatal Canal in Adult Skulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Reinaldo A; Cáceres, Felipe; Vera, Cristóbal

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate in dry skulls the length and angle between the greater palatine foramen and the foramen rotundum in both the frontal and sagittal planes. In 50 human skulls from the department of morphology, the distance and angulation required to reach the foramen rotundum through the greater palatine canal were measured in the frontal and sagittal planes. A stylet was introduced up to the foramen rotundum in each greater palatine canal and fixed. The skulls were then photographed from a front and lateral view (both right and left). Finally, the stylets were photographed on graph paper. These images were analyzed with Photoshop software. In the frontal plane, mean angulations of 5.32 degrees on the right side and 6.15 degrees on the left side were obtained. In the sagittal plane, mean angulations of 61.66 degrees on the right side and 61.81 degrees on the left side were obtained. Finally, the mean length required to reach the foramen rotundum was 31.95  mm on the right side and 32.49  mm on the left side. Some of these results differ from those stated in the foreign literature (10 degrees front, 70 degrees sagittal). These differences should be considered for both clinical practice and teaching in Chile.

  5. Huschke's anterior external auditory canal foramen: art before medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirsig, Wolfgang; Mudry, Albert

    2015-03-01

    During the Renaissance, several anatomic details were described with a degree of exactness, which would stand the test of time. One example is the foramen in the anteroinferior wall of the external auditory canal, eponymously named after the German anatomist, Emil Huschke, who described it in 1844. However, the first clearly medical observation of this foramen was published by the French physician Jean Riolan the Younger in 1648. After a short excursion into some paleopathologic findings of this foramen in skulls of the Early Bronze Age and of pre-Columbian Peruvian populations, this article follows the traces of the early medical descriptions and depictions of the foramen up until the 19th century. They are connected with the names of Duverney (1683), Cassebohm (1734), Lincke (1837), Huschke (1844); Humphry (1858), von Troeltsch (1860), and especially Buerkner (1878). Surprisingly, the earliest exact depiction of the foramen in the auditory canal of a skull was found in the oil painting Saint Jerome in his study by the Flemish artist Marinus Claeszon van Reymerswaele. He depicted the foramen in the period between 1521 and 1541, a hundred years before Riolan the Younger.

  6. Entrevista a Jordi Canal para Historia 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Darío Cuadros Sánchez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Jordi Canal es profesor y director de estudios en la École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS de Paris, uno de los grandes especialistas en historia contemporánea. Cosmopolita y trilingüe (español, catalán y francés, su bibliografía reciente incluye obras de referencia, como autor o editor, «Los éxodos políticos en España, siglos XV-XX» (2007, «Una historia política del carlismo, 1876-1939» (2006. En el marco del XVII Congreso de la Asociación de Colombianista y la presentación de una conferencia sobre historia política en la Maestría de Historia de la Universidad Industrial de Santander, el profesor Jordi Canal visitó la ciudad de Bucaramanga del 3 al 5 a de agosto del presente año y tuvo la amabilidad de brindar sus opiniones a la revista Historia 2.0.

  7. Interferencia co-canal en redes heterogéneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merly Martínez Magín

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se presentan los resultados obtenidos a partir de una simulación básica estática a nivel de sistema usando el método Montecarlo, mediante la cual se analizó la interferencia co-canal y el efecto de diferentes mecanismos de control de interferencia en una red heterogénea, caracterizada principalmente por la interacción de una macroestación base y pequeñas celdas denominadas femto estaciones base en un entorno microcelular urbano. Se muestra cómo los diferentes mecanismos de coordinación de interferencia incrementan el desempeño de la red, mitigan considerablemente la interferencia co-canal (CCI, Co-channel Interference presente en el sistema y permiten el aumento de la relación señal a interferencia (SIR percibida por el usuario, satisfaciendo los objetivos de calidad requeridos por cada uno de los usuarios que establecen una comunicación.

  8. Postoperative Pain after Root Canal Treatment: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gotler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the incidence and severity of postendodontic treatment pain (PEP subsequent to root canal treatment (RCT in vital and necrotic pulps and after retreatment. Methodology. A prospective study. Participants were all patients (=274 who underwent RCT in teeth with vital pulp, necrotic pulp, or vital pulp that had been treated for symptomatic irreversible pulpitis or who received root canal retreatment, by one clinician, during an eight-month period. Exclusion criteria were swelling, purulence, and antibiotic use during initial treatment. A structured questionnaire accessed age, gender, tooth location, and pulpal diagnosis. Within 24 h of treatment, patients were asked to grade their pain at 6 and 18 hours posttreatment, using a 1–5 point scale. Results. RCT of teeth with vital pulp induced a significantly higher incidence and severity of PEP (63.8%; 2.46 ± 1.4, resp. than RCT of teeth with necrotic pulp (38.5%; 1.78 ± 1.2, resp. or of retreated teeth (48.8%; 1.89 ± 1.1, resp.. No statistical relation was found between type of pain (spontaneous or stimulated and pulp condition. Conclusion. RCT of teeth with vital pulp induced a significantly higher incidence and intensity of PEP compared to teeth with necrotic pulp or retreated teeth.

  9. Various Strategies for Pain-Free Root Canal Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parirokh, Masoud; V. Abbott, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Achieving successful anesthesia and performing pain-free root canal treatment are important aims in dentistry. This is not always achievable and therefore, practitioners are constantly seeking newer techniques, equipments, and anesthetic solutions for this very purpose. The aim of this review is to introduce strategies to achieve profound anesthesia particularly in difficult cases. Materials and Methods: A review of the literature was performed by electronic and hand searching methods for anesthetic agents, techniques, and equipment. The highest level of evidence based investigations with rigorous methods and materials were selected for discussion. Results: Numerous studies investigated to pain management during root canal treatment; however, there is still no single technique that will predictably provide profound pulp anesthesia. One of the most challenging issues in endodontic practice is achieving a profound anesthesia for teeth with irreversible pulpitis especially in mandibular posterior region. Conclusion: According to most investigations, achieving a successful anesthesia is not always possible with a single technique and practitioners should be aware of all possible alternatives for profound anesthesia. PMID:24396370

  10. Hydrogeology of the Canal Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, J.P.; Vroblesky, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Geologic and borehole geophysical logs made at 77 sites show that the hydrogeologic framework of the study area consists of a sequence of unconsolidated sediments typical of the Coastal Plain of Maryland. Three aquifers and two confining units were delineated within the study area. From the surface down, they are: (1) the surficial aquifer; (2) the upper confining unit; (3) the Canal Creek aquifer; (4) the lower confining unit; and (5) the lower confined aquifer. The aquifer materials range from fine sand to coarse sand and gravel. Clay lenses were commonly found interfingered with the sand, isolating parts of the aquifers. All the units are continuous throughout the study area except for the upper confining unit, which crops out within the study area but is absent in updip outcrops. The unit also is absent within a Pleistocene paleochannel, where it has been eroded. The surficial and Canal Creek aquifers are hydraulically connected where the upper confining unit is absent, and a substantial amount of groundwater may flow between the two aquifers. Currently, no pumping stresses are known to affect the aquifers within the study area. Under current conditions, downward vertical hydraulic gradients prevail at topographic highs, and upward gradients typically prevail near surface-water bodies. Regionally, the direction of groundwater flow in the confined aquifers is to the east and southeast. Significant water level fluctuations correspond with seasonal variations in rainfall, and minor daily fluctuations reflect tidal cycles. (USGS)

  11. Semicircular Canals Circumvent Brownian Motion Overload of Mechanoreceptor Hair Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mees Muller

    Full Text Available Vertebrate semicircular canals (SCC first appeared in the vertebrates (i.e. ancestral fish over 600 million years ago. In SCC the principal mechanoreceptors are hair cells, which as compared to cochlear hair cells are distinctly longer (70 vs. 7 μm, 10 times more compliant to bending (44 vs. 500 nN/m, and have a 100-fold higher tip displacement threshold (< 10 μm vs. <400 nm. We have developed biomechanical models of vertebrate hair cells where the bundle is approximated as a stiff, cylindrical elastic rod subject to friction and thermal agitation. Our models suggest that the above differences aid SCC hair cells in circumventing the masking effects of Brownian motion noise of about 70 nm, and thereby permit transduction of very low frequency (<10 Hz signals. We observe that very low frequency mechanoreception requires increased stimulus amplitude, and argue that this is adaptive to circumvent Brownian motion overload at the hair bundles. We suggest that the selective advantage of detecting such low frequency stimuli may have favoured the evolution of large guiding structures such as semicircular canals and otoliths to overcome Brownian Motion noise at the level of the mechanoreceptors of the SCC.

  12. Cholera, canals, and contagion: Rediscovering Dr. Beck's report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuite, Ashleigh R; Chan, Christina H; Fisman, David N

    2011-08-01

    Cholera first appeared in North America (in Montreal and Quebec) in 1832 and spread rapidly across the eastern half of the continent. The dispatch of American disease control experts to Lower Canada in anticipation of cholera's spread implies that medical professionals expected spread, possibly from contagion, even though the notion that cholera was contagious was disparaged in medical writings of the time, and would be until John Snow's landmark work in London in the 1850s. Snow's insights derived largely from his observations on spatial and temporal patterns of cholera cases. We discuss a document from the 1832 epidemic, the report of Dr. Lewis Beck to New York's Governor Throop, which anticipates Snow in presenting geospatial data that imply cholera's contagiousness. Beck shows that the movements of immigrants along the newly completed New York state canal system resulted in sequential cholera outbreaks along the canal's path. Although aware of the degree to which this suggested contagion, Beck argues strenuously against the contagiousness of cholera. We explore the social context of early nineteenth-century medicine that probably led Beck to disbelieve his own observations, and to favor a medical model inconsistent with his data. Themes that emerge from our inquiry include belief in disease as a physical manifestation of defective morality, stigmatization of the poor and immigrant groups, and reluctance to overturn prevailing medical models that themselves reflected the economic position of medical practitioners. We show that these themes continue to serve as obstacles to innovation in medical and public health practice today.

  13. Endovascular treatment of posterior condylar canal dural arteriovenous fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maus, Volker; Söderman, Michael; Rodesch, Georges; Kabbasch, Christoph; Mpotsaris, Anastasios

    2017-02-01

    Posterior condylar canal dural arteriovenous fistulas (PCC DAVFs) are rare lesions that may present with pulse-synchronous bruit. In cases with venous reflux there is a risk of haemorrhage or even dementia. Diagnosis and endovascular treatment require a profound knowledge of the vascular anatomy of the craniocervical junction and comprehensive neurovascular imaging. We describe the clinical presentation, angiographic imaging and endovascular treatment of a PCC DAVF in a female patient with pulse-synchronous bruit as the presenting symptom. The fistula drained almost exclusively into the sigmoid sinus and internal jugular vein. There was no intracranial reflux. The PCC DAVF was treated with transvenous coil occlusion of the fistulous pouch in the condylar canal. Symptoms resolved immediately after intervention and the patient recovered quickly without any neurological deficits. MR angiography confirmed occlusion of the DAVF. The dural sinus was patent with normal blood flow. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Various strategies for pain-free root canal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parirokh, Masoud; V Abbott, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Achieving successful anesthesia and performing pain-free root canal treatment are important aims in dentistry. This is not always achievable and therefore, practitioners are constantly seeking newer techniques, equipments, and anesthetic solutions for this very purpose. The aim of this review is to introduce strategies to achieve profound anesthesia particularly in difficult cases. A review of the literature was performed by electronic and hand searching methods for anesthetic agents, techniques, and equipment. The highest level of evidence based investigations with rigorous methods and materials were selected for discussion. Numerous studies investigated to pain management during root canal treatment; however, there is still no single technique that will predictably provide profound pulp anesthesia. One of the most challenging issues in endodontic practice is achieving a profound anesthesia for teeth with irreversible pulpitis especially in mandibular posterior region. According to most investigations, achieving a successful anesthesia is not always possible with a single technique and practitioners should be aware of all possible alternatives for profound anesthesia.

  15. [Candida albicans endocarditis after treatment of complete atrioventricular canal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Alami, S; Handor, N; Moutaki Allah, Y; Bouchrik, M; El Mellouki, W; Boulahya, A; Lmimouni, B

    2013-09-01

    Infective endocarditis is rare in children, it is rarer after a surgical treatment of atrioventricular canal, and it is exceptional that Candida albicans is the etiologic agent. This is a serious infection found in congenital heart disease with or without surgery. It is potentially lethal, despite diagnostic and therapeutic advances. We report a case of infective endocarditis due to C. albicans after the treatment of a congenital systemic atrioventricular canal in a child with trisomy 21. The diagnosis was suspected on clinical manifestations and cardiac auscultation. Confirmation was provided by positive blood cultures and echocardiography. The large size of the vegetation in the patient was in favor of a fungal etiology, blood cultures allowed to identify the fungus. This observation illustrates a poorly understood disease, with very poor prognosis and which is a potential complication of heart surgery. The improved prognosis should be achieved by shortening the time to diagnosis and optimizing the therapeutic support. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Route to neo-inguinal canal: Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jacob Swaroop Anand

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to stress the importance and value of this route to neo-inguinal canal creation for undescended testis management laparoscopically. Materials and Methods: Data from the Department of Paediatric Surgery, Coimbatore Medical College, was taken. Retrospective study was undertaken for the period 2004 to 2008. Here the surgical technique and outcome of the treatment are recorded for children aged 1 year to 12 years. Results: A total of 126 children underwent laparoscopic stage II surgery by this route (medial to the medial umbilical ligament. Right-sided undescended testis (UDT was present in 76 (60% patients. Left-sided UDT was present in 45 (35% patients. Bilateral UDT was present in 5 (5% patients. There were 90 (71% patients aged less than 2 years and 36 (29% patients aged more than 2 years. The eldest patient was 12 years of age. The overall hospital stay was 1 day. There were no complications seen in the follow-up. In all cases, the testis could not be brought down in a single stage. Conclusion: Creation of neo-inguinal canal medial to the medial umbilical ligament and just lateral to the bladder has the advantage of gaining more length on the vessels and vas to bring the testis to scrotum. The laparoscopic management of undescended testis in stage II by this innovative new route is simple, less complicated and well tolerated.

  17. [Influence of different ultrasonic irrigation solutions after root canal preparation with ProTaper by machine on micro-hardness of root canal dentin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiang-li; Zhang, Yan; Zhen, Lei

    2015-08-01

    To develope the influence of different ultrasonic irrigations after root canal preparation with nickel titanium ProTaper on micro-hardness of root canal dentin. Sixty of maxillary anterior teeth with single-canal were collected and randomly divided into 6 groups. Group A was control group, group B was prepared to F3 with nickel titanium ProTaper by machine, group C was ultrasonic irrigated with 3% hydrogen peroxide solution for 1 minute after preparation, group D was ultrasonic irrigated with koutai mouthwash for 1 minute after preparation, group E was ultrasonic irrigated with 17% EDTA solution for 1 minute after preparation, group F was ultrasonic irrigated with distilled water for 1 minute after preparation. The roots were then sectioned horizontally into 3 parts, split longitudinally into halves and examined under a micro Vickers hardness test machine. The data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA and t test with SPSS 17.0 software package. The micro-hardness of group A was (52.66 ± 1.64) HV,(52.08 ± 1.53) HV and (51.47 ± 2.53) HV. There was no significant difference in all parts of the root canal in group A (P>0.05). The micro-hardness of the apical third of root canal was lower than that of the cervical and middle of root canal in the other groups (Phardness of group E was (44.65 ± 1.33) HV and(42.55 ± 1.12) HV, and there were statistical significances between group E and the other groups (Phardness of group E was (37.82 ± 1.60) HV, and group C was (44.14±1.73) HV, both of the comparative differences with other groups were statistically significant (P0.05). Root canal preparation to F3 with nickel titanium ProTaper by machine can make the micro-hardness of the apical third of root canal decrease. Ultrasonic irrigation with 17% EDTA solution for 1 minute can make the micro-hardness of the root canal decrease ultrasonic irrigation with. Ultrasonic irrigation with 3% hydrogen peroxide can make the micro-hardness of the apical third of root canal decrease

  18. The origin of the Dargom canal in the oasis of Samarkand (Uzbekistan). A new scenario from geoarcheological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, V.; Mantellini, S.; Picotti, V.; Gabbianelli, G.; Tosi, M.

    2009-04-01

    sand with different composition respect to the substrate. In several places, the artificial cut in the most elevated (left) bank of the canal was recognized, interrupted by depression of the banks associated with crevasse deposits reaching several tens of meters uphill. In the less elevated bank (right) of the canal, the original artificial levee was never observed. It is worth mentioning an important reworking of the landscape due to the land reform of the Soviet administration in the years '60 of the last century. A trench cut across the left side of the canal, showed a clinostratified body of sand covering the sand deposits of the ancient Dargom. The composition is local and it bears fragments of bricks and bones, to be interpreted as waste material shed from the top to protect the bank. Radiocarbon ages of two bones each separated 60 cm, are 1700 ±30 and 1680 ±120 BP. A DEM was created based on a 1:10.000 scale topo map preceding the land reform, to document, thanks to a high detail of the contour lines (1 m), the micromorphological features associated to the canal. The resulting TIN was processed through the ESRI hydrology modeling functions, and the flow accumulation rate in the study area was calculated with the grid of 1 m. A slightly discontinuous ridge, with only a few meters of elevation from the surroundings, was identified on the right bank of the canal. Several cross sections document that this ridge correspond to the original levee and it is located 100 to 400 m north of the present-day incised bank. Therefore, the original profile of the canal was reconstructed, much larger than expected and interspersed with artificial mounds, previously thought outside the canal, whose function has to be reconsidered. The new geo-archaeological resercheas allowed a new interpretation on the history of Dargom. According to it the canal should be dated back to the Early Middle Age and its morphology can be reconstructed but other consideration can be advanced in

  19. Microorganism penetration in dentinal tubules of instrumented and retreated root canal walls. In vitro SEM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Al-Nazhan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This in vitro study aimed to investigate the ability of Candida albicans (C. albicans and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis to penetrate dentinal tubules of instrumented and retreated root canal surface of split human teeth. Materials and Methods Sixty intact extracted human single-rooted teeth were divided into 4 groups, negative control, positive control without canal instrumentation, instrumented, and retreated. Root canals in the instrumented group were enlarged with endodontic instruments, while root canals in the retreated group were enlarged, filled, and then removed the canal filling materials. The teeth were split longitudinally after canal preparation in 3 groups except the negative control group. The teeth were inoculated with both microorganisms separately and in combination. Teeth specimens were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and the depth of penetration into the dentinal tubules was assessed using the SMILE view software (JEOL Ltd. Results Penetration of C. albicans and E. faecalis into the dentinal tubules was observed in all 3 groups, although penetration was partially restricted by dentin debris of tubules in the instrumented group and remnants of canal filling materials in the retreated group. In all 3 groups, E. faecalis penetrated deeper into the dentinal tubules by way of cell division than C. albicans which built colonies and penetrated by means of hyphae. Conclusions Microorganisms can easily penetrate dentinal tubules of root canals with different appearance based on the microorganism size and status of dentinal tubules.

  20. Influence of smear layer removal on the obturation of root canal ramifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Vianna Freitas Fachin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated whether smear layer removal has any influence on the filling of the root canal system, by examining the obturation of lateral canals, secondary canals and apical deltas. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty maxillary and mandibular canines were randomly divided into two groups, according to their irrigation regimen. Both groups were irrigated with 1% NaOCl during canal shaping, but only the teeth in Group II received a final irrigation with 17% EDTA for smear layer removal. The root canals were obturated with lateral condensation of gutta-percha and the specimens were cleared, allowing for observation under the microscope. RESULTS: In Groups I and II, 42.5% and 37.5% of the teeth, respectively, presented at least one filled canal ramification. Although a larger number of obturated ramifications was found in Group I, there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups (p = 0.4957. CONCLUSIONS: Smear layer removal under the conditions tested in this study did not affect the obturation of root canal ramifications when lateral condensation of gutta-percha was the technique used for root canal filling.

  1. The fit of tapered posts in root canals luted with zinc phosphate cement : A histological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmage, P; Ozcan, M; McMullan-Vogel, C; Nergiz, [No Value; Özcan, Mutlu; Nergiza, Ibrahim

    Objectives. Stress transmission to the root through passive fitting dental posts is partly influenced by the thickness of the cement layer between the post and the prepared root canal surface as well as the fit of the post in the root canal. The objective of this study was to compare the cement gap

  2. The fit of tapered posts in root canals luted with zinc phosphate cement: A histological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmage, P.; Ozcan, M.; McMullan-Vogel, C.; Nergiz, I.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. Stress transmission to the root through passive fitting dental posts is partly influenced by the thickness of the cement layer between the post and the prepared root canal surface as well as the fit of the post in the root canal. The objective of this study was to compare the cement gap

  3. Response of selenium concentrations in groundwater to seasonal canal leakage, lower Gunnison River Basin, Colorado, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linard, J.I.; McMahon, P.B.; Arnold, L.R.; Thomas, J.C.

    2016-05-23

    Selenium is a water-quality concern in the lower Gunnison River Basin because irrigation water interacting with seleniferous soils derived from the Mancos Shale Formation has mobilized selenium and increased its concentrations in surface water. Understanding the occurrence of elevated selenium concentrations in groundwater is necessary because groundwater discharge is an important source of selenium in surface water in the basin. In 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation and the Colorado Water Conservation Board, began a study to understand how changes in groundwater levels attributed to canal leakage affected the concentrations and speciation of dissolved selenium in groundwater. The purpose of this report is to characterize the groundwater adjacent to an unlined leaky canal. Two locations, near the East Canal (W-N1 and W-N2) and farther from the East Canal (W-M1 and W-M2), were selected for nested monitoring well installations. The pressure exerted by changes in canal stage was more readily transferred to the deep groundwater measured in the W-N1 near the canal than the shallow groundwater at the W-N2 well. No definitive relation could be made between canal water-level elevation and water-level elevations in monitoring wells farther from the canal (W-M1 and W-M2). 

  4. Effects of Self-Adjusting File, Mtwo, and ProTaper on the root canal wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hin, E.S.; Wu, M.K.; Wesselink, P.R.; Shemesh, H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this ex vivo study was to observe the incidence of cracks in root dentin after root canal preparation with hand files, self-adjusting file (SAF), ProTaper, and Mtwo. Methods One hundred extracted mandibular premolars with single canals were randomly selected. Two

  5. [Dentascan computed tomography of the mandibular incisive canal. Its radiologic anatomy and the therapeutic implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calgaro, A; Bison, L; Bellis, G B; Pozzi Mucelli, R

    1999-11-01

    To stress the importance of CT depiction of the mandibular incisive canal. This anatomical structure contains a major neurovascular bundle and is thus very important in the planning of mandibular implants in the canine-incisive area. January through December 1998, sixty patients unselected by age and gender were submitted to mandibular CT. Axial slices were acquired with 1-1.5 mm thickness and 1 mm table feed, and the images were then reformatted with a dedicated dental software. Both the conventional and the Helical techniques were used. The incisive canal appears on Dentascan transverse reconstructions as a round low-density area within mandibular trabecular bone, which is surrounded by a higher-density rim representing the canal walls. This anatomical structure originates from the mental foramen and continues mesially to the mental symphysis. The mandibular canal was visualized in 95% of cases bilaterally (57/60); the incisive canal was depicted on the left side in 41.6% of cases (25/60) and on the right side in 51.6% (31/60). The importance of careful assessment of the mandibular canal course before implantology is now widely recognized. The same holds true for the canine-incisive region in the jaw, to detect the incisive canal if present and prevent any complications from its accidental damage. CT with a dedicated software showed the incisive canal in a large number of patients, which calls for precise reporting of its presence, course, and relationships with teeth.

  6. Influence of root canal instrumentation and obturation techniques on intra-operative pain during endodontic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-González, Jenifer; Echevarría-Pérez, Marta; Sánchez-Domínguez, Benito; Tarilonte-Delgado, Maria-Luisa; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; López-Frías, Francisco-Javier; Segura-Egea, Juan-Jose

    2012-09-01

    To analyse the influence of root canal instrumentation and obturation techniques on intra-operative pain experienced by patients during endodontic therapy. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Ponferrada and Sevilla, Spain, including 80 patients (46 men and 34 women), with ages ranged from 10 to 74 years, randomly recruited. Patient gender and age, affected tooth, pulpal diagnosis, periapical status, previous NSAID or antibiotic (AB) treatment, and root canal instrumentation and obturation techniques were recorded. After root canal treatment (RCT), patients completed a 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS) that ranked the level of pain. Results were analysed statistically using the Chi-square and ANOVA tests and logistic regression analysis. The mean pain level during root canal treatment was 2.9±3.0 (median=2) in a VAS between 0 and 10. Forty percent of patients experienced no pain. Gender, age, arch, previous NSAIDs or AB treatment and anaesthetic type did not influence significantly the pain level (p>0.05). Pain during root canal treatment was significantly greater in molar teeth (OR=10.1; 95% C.I.=1.6-63.5; p=0.013). Root canal instrumentation and obturation techniques did not affect significantly patients' pain during root canal treatment (p>0.05). Patients feel more pain when RCT is carried out on molar teeth. The root canal instrumentation and obturation techniques do not affect significantly the patients' pain during RCT.

  7. Uncontrolled removal of dentin during in vitro ultrasonic irrigant activation in curved root canals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Retsas, A.; Koursoumis, A.; Tzimpoulas, N.; Boutsioukis, C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of file type and activation time on the uncontrolled removal of dentin during in vitro ultrasonic irrigant activation in prepared curved root canals. Methods: Seventy-two curved mesial root canals of human mandibular molars were prepared

  8. Effectiveness of different irrigation systems on filling of simulated lateral canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sehnaz Yilmaz

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Sonically or ultrasonically irrigation showed significant differences on the filling of the simulated lateral canals at the middle third of the root canals. Ultrasonic activation of the irrigants represented better results in radiographic and cleared specimen evaluation. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(3.000: 515-520

  9. The influence of a marina canal system on the ecology of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of a marina canal system on the ecology of the Kromme estuary, St Francis Bay. D. Baird, J.F.K. Marais and T. Wooldridge. Department of Zoology, University of Port Elizabeth, Port Elizabeth. The influence of the marina canals on the lower reaches and mouth area of the Kromme estuary was investigated.

  10. A Cadaveric Study of the Morphometry of the Cervical Spinal Canal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphometry of the cervical spinal canal is of clinical importance in traumatic, degenerative and inflammatory conditions. A small canal diameter has been associated with an increase of injury mainly in athletes who participate in contact or collision sports. Before abnormal spinal morphometry can be determined, it is first ...

  11. Challenges in fitting a hearing aid to a severely collapsed ear canal and mixed hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeding, Kristi; Valente, Michael; Chole, Richard

    2012-04-01

    Collapsed ear canals typically occur when an outside force, such as a headset for audiometric testing, is present. However, when a collapsed ear canal occurs without external pressure, this creates a challenge not only for performing audiometric testing but also for coupling a hearing aid to the ear canal. This case report highlights the challenges associated with fitting a hearing aid on a patient with a severe anterior-posterior collapsed ear canal with a mixed hearing loss. A 67-yr-old female originally presented to Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine in 1996 with a long-standing history of bilateral otosclerosis. She had chronic ear infections in the right ear and a severely collapsed ear canal in the left ear and was fit with a bone anchored hearing aid (BAHA®) on the right side in 2003. However, benefit from the BAHA started to decrease due to changes in hearing, and a different hearing solution was needed. It was proposed that a hearing aid be fit to her collapsed left ear canal; however, trying to couple a hearing aid to the collapsed ear canal required unique noncustom earmold solutions. This case study highlights some of the obstacles and potential solutions for coupling a hearing aid to a severely collapsed ear canal. American Academy of Audiology.

  12. 19 CFR 148.3 - Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs treatment after transiting the Panama... § 148.3 Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal. Passengers' baggage and effects and... Panama Canal are subject to Customs examination and treatment in the same manner as arrivals from any...

  13. Influence of smear layer removal on the obturation of root canal ramifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachin, Elaine Vianna Freitas; Scarparo, Roberta Kochenborger; Massoni, Liliane Inês Sachet

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated whether smear layer removal has any influence on the filling of the root canal system, by examining the obturation of lateral canals, secondary canals and apical deltas. Eighty maxillary and mandibular canines were randomly divided into two groups, according to their irrigation regimen. Both groups were irrigated with 1% NaOCl during canal shaping, but only the teeth in Group II received a final irrigation with 17% EDTA for smear layer removal. The root canals were obturated with lateral condensation of gutta-percha and the specimens were cleared, allowing for observation under the microscope. In Groups I and II, 42.5% and 37.5% of the teeth, respectively, presented at least one filled canal ramification. Although a larger number of obturated ramifications was found in Group I, there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups (p = 0.4957). Smear layer removal under the conditions tested in this study did not affect the obturation of root canal ramifications when lateral condensation of gutta-percha was the technique used for root canal filling.

  14. Evaluation of location and dimensions of mandibular lingual canals: a cone beam computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y-M; Ju, Y-R; Pan, W-L; Chan, C-P

    2015-09-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the presence, location, and diameter of the mandibular lingual canals in a Taiwanese population using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), to help improve the safety of mandibular surgical procedures. A total of 101 patients (46 men and 55 women), with a mean age of 55 years, were enrolled. Cross-sectional CBCT images of the mandible were used to define the orifice and diameter of each lingual canal detected. The relevance of all data for both sexes was assessed and analyzed statistically using non-paired t-tests. The canals were categorized as median (MLC) and lateral lingual canals (LLC) based on the position of the mandible. The midline of the symphysis showed the highest frequency of lingual canals (97.0%), and all patients exhibited at least one lingual perforating bone canal in the mandible. The lingual canal diameter ranged from 0.25 to 1.90 mm (mean 0.61 mm) in the midline region and from 0.25 to 1.60mm (mean 0.58 mm) in the lateral region. Significant differences in diameter were observed between the sexes in the MLC and LLC groups (men>women). The results suggest that mandibular lingual vascular canals are common and detected regularly using CBCT. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Root canal morphology of mandibular first premolar in a gujarati population - an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Atul; Bahuguna, Rachana

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge about root canal morphology and its frequent variations can exert considerable influence on the success of endodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to survey the root canal morphology of mandibular first premolar teeth in a Gujarati population by decalcification and clearing technique. One hundred thirty eight extracted mandibular first premolar teeth were collected from a Gujarati population. After decalcifying and clearing, the teeth were examined for tooth length, number of cusps and roots, number and shape of canal orifices and canal types. The average length of mandibular first premolar teeth was 21.2 mm. All the teeth had 2 cusps. One hundred thirty four teeth (97.1%) had one root, and just 4 teeth (2.89%) had two roots. Mesial invagination of root was found in 21 teeth (15.21%). One canal orifice was found in 122 teeth (88.4%) and two canal orifices in 16 teeth (11.59%). Shape of orifices was found to be round in 46 teeth (33.33%), oval in 72 teeth (52.17%) and flattened ribbion in 20 teeth (14.49%). According to Vertucci's classification, Type I canal system was found in 93 teeth (67.39%), Types II,III,IV,V,and VI in 11 teeth (7.97%), 5 teeth (3.62%), 4 teeth (2.89%), 24 teeth (17.39%), and 1 tooth (0.72%) respectively. Mandibular first premolar teeth were mostly found to have one root and Type I canal system.

  16. Effect of magnification on locating the MB2 canal in maxillary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrley, Louis J; Barrows, Michael J; BeGole, Ellen A; Wenckus, Christopher S

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the surgical operating microscope and/or dental loupes could enhance the practitioner's ability to locate the second mesiobuccal canal (MB2) canal of maxillary molars in an in vivo, clinical setting. The participating endodontists documented 312 cases of root canal therapy on maxillary first and second molars. Participants that used the microscope or dental loupes located the MB2 canal with a frequency of 57.4% and 55.3%, respectively. Those using no magnification located the MB2 canal with a frequency of 18.2%. When no magnification was used, significantly fewer MB2 canals were located based by Chi-square analysis at p magnification groups was 71.1%, 62.5%, and 17.2%, respectively. The results of this study show that the use of magnification in combined groups leads to a MB2 detection rate approximately three times that of the nonmagnification group and that the use of no magnification results in the location of significantly fewer MB2 canals. Based on these results, more emphasis should be placed on the importance of using magnification for locating the MB2 canal.

  17. Comparison of shaping ability of RaCe and Hero Shaper instruments in simulated curved canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Cumhur; Inan, Ugur; Yasar, Senay; Bulucu, Bilinc; Tunca, Yasar M

    2008-03-01

    This study compared the shaping ability of Hero Shaper and RaCe instruments in simulated curved canals. Forty simulated canals in resin blocks were divided into 2 experimental groups, each comprising 20 resin blocks, and prepared with Hero Shaper and RaCe using the crown-down technique. Preoperative and postoperative photographs, recorded using a digital camera, were superimposed and aberrations were recorded. Material removal was measured at 10 points beginning 1 mm from the end point of the canal. Mean total widths, outer and inner width measurements, were determined on each central canal path and differences were statistically analyzed using Student t test. The Hero Shaper and RaCe instruments removed almost the same amount of material from the inner side of the simulated canals. On the outer canal wall, the RaCe instruments removed significantly more material from the first 3 mm (P Hero Shaper removed more material from the middle and coronal aspects of the canal and the differences were statistically significant (P Hero Shaper removed more material from the middle and coronal thirds on the outer canal wall. Hero Shaper instruments showed better centering ability and fewer aberrations. No instrument fractures but some deformations were observed for both systems.

  18. On the ecological role of Copepoda in the Suez Canal marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the ecological role of Copepoda in the Suez Canal marine ecosystem. Hamed El-Serehy, Sawsan Aboul-Ezz, Amein Samaan, Nasser Saber. Abstract. Species-specific abundance of copepods was determined at monthly intervals at 10 stations in the Suez Canal water between June 1994 and May 1995. Sampling ...

  19. The spread of injectate during saphenous nerve block at the adductor canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H L; Andersen, S L; Tranum-Jensen, J

    2015-01-01

    by comparative dissections of the same limbs. RESULTS: The spread of the injectates was determined by the fascial limits and the muscles surrounding the adductor canal. The anteromedial limit of the adductor canal (the roof) was found to be a continuous fascia, with a thin proximal part and a thicker distal part...

  20. The impact of the New Panama Canal Locks on Texas ports and the Texas economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This report examines the first year transits through the new Panama Canal locks and its impact on Texas deep water ports. It finds that the canal is operating efficiently and can accommodate 14,000 TEU containerships and bulk vessels up to 125,000 to...