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Sample records for canal linings

  1. 33 CFR 117.159 - Grant Line Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant Line Canal. 117.159 Section 117.159 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.159 Grant Line Canal. The draw of the San Joaquin County highway bridge, mile 5.5...

  2. Micro-Machined Flow Sensors Mimicking Lateral Line Canal Neuromasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Herzog

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish sense water motions with their lateral line. The lateral line is a sensory system that contains up to several thousand mechanoreceptors, called neuromasts. Neuromasts occur freestanding on the skin and in subepidermal canals. We developed arrays of flow sensors based on lateral line canal neuromasts using a biomimetic approach. Each flow sensor was equipped with a PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane lamella integrated into a canal system by means of thick- and thin-film technology. Our artificial lateral line system can estimate bulk flow velocity from the spatio-temporal propagation of flow fluctuations. Based on the modular sensor design, we were able to detect flow rates in an industrial application of tap water flow metering. Our sensory system withstood water pressures of up to six bar. We used finite element modeling to study the fluid flow inside the canal system and how this flow depends on canal dimensions. In a second set of experiments, we separated the flow sensors from the main stream by means of a flexible membrane. Nevertheless, these biomimetic neuromasts were still able to sense flow fluctuations. Fluid separation is a prerequisite for flow measurements in medical and pharmaceutical applications.

  3. Comparative morphology of stingray lateral line canal and electrosensory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Laura K

    2008-11-01

    Elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, and rays) possess a variety of sensory systems including the mechanosensory lateral line and electrosensory systems, which are particularly complex with high levels of interspecific variation in batoids (skates and rays). Rays have dorsoventrally compressed, laterally expanded bodies that prevent them from seeing their mouths and more often than not, their prey. This study uses quantitative image analysis techniques to identify, quantify, and compare structural differences that may have functional consequences in the detection capabilities of three Eastern Pacific stingray species. The benthic round stingray, Urobatis halleri, pelagic stingray, Pteroplatytrygon (Dasyatis) violacea, and benthopelagic bat ray, Myliobatis californica, show significant differences in sensory morphology. Ventral lateral line canals correlate with feeding ecology and differ primarily in the proportion of pored and nonpored canals and the degree of branching complexity. Urobatis halleri shows a high proportion of nonpored canals, while P. violacea has an intermediate proportion of pored and nonpored canals with almost no secondary branching of pored canals. In contrast, M. californica has extensive and highly branched pored ventral lateral line canals that extended laterally toward the wing tips on the anterior edge of the pectoral fins. Electrosensory morphology correlates with feeding habitat and prey mobility; benthic feeders U. halleri and M. californica, have greater electrosensory pore numbers and densities than P. violacea. The percentage of the wing surface covered by these sensory systems appears to be inversely related to swimming style. These methods can be applied to a broader range of species to enable further discussion of the relationship of phylogeny, ecology, and morphology, while the results provide testable predictions of detection capabilities.

  4. Development of the lateral line canal system through a bone remodeling process in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Hironori; Iwasaki, Miki; Kawakami, Koichi

    2014-08-01

    The lateral line system of teleost fish is composed of mechanosensory receptors (neuromasts), comprising superficial receptors and others embedded in canals running under the skin. Canal diameter and size of the canal neuromasts are correlated with increasing body size, thus providing a very simple system to investigate mechanisms underlying the coordination between organ growth and body size. Here, we examine the development of the trunk lateral line canal system in zebrafish. We demonstrated that trunk canals originate from scales through a bone remodeling process, which we suggest is essential for the normal growth of canals and canal neuromasts. Moreover, we found that lateral line cells are required for the formation of canals, suggesting the existence of mutual interactions between the sensory system and surrounding connective tissues.

  5. The relation between parameter curves and lines of curvature on canal surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dogan, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    A canal surface is the envelope of a moving sphere with varying radius, defined by the trajectory C(t) (spine curve) of its center and a radius function r(t). In this paper, we investigate when parameter curves of the canal surface are also lines of curvature. Last of all, for special spine curves we obtain the radius function of canal surfaces.

  6. Hydrodynamic detection by cupulae in a lateral line canal: functional relations between physics and physiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Netten, Sietse M

    2006-01-01

    In the present review, signal-processing capabilities of the canal lateral line organ imposed by its peripheral architecture are quantified in terms of a limited set of measurable physical parameters. It is demonstrated that cupulae in the lateral line canal organ can only partly be described as can

  7. Functional consequences of structural differences in stingray sensory systems. Part I: mechanosensory lateral line canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Laura K; Kajiura, Stephen M; Gordon, Malcolm S

    2009-10-01

    Short range hydrodynamic and electrosensory signals are important during final stages of prey capture in elasmobranchs (sharks, skates and rays), and may be particularly useful for dorso-ventrally flattened batoids with mouths hidden from their eyes. In stingrays, both the lateral line canal and electrosensory systems are highly modified and complex with significant differences on ventral surfaces that relate to feeding ecology. This study tests functional hypotheses based on quantified differences in sensory system morphology of three stingray species, Urobatis halleri, Myliobatis californica and Pteroplatytrygon violacea. Part I investigates the mechanosensory lateral line canal system whereas part II focuses on the electrosensory system. Stingray lateral line canals include both pored and non-pored sections and differ in branching complexity and distribution. A greater proportion of pored canals and high pore numbers were predicted to correspond to increased response to water flow. Behavioral experiments were performed to compare responses of stingrays to weak water jets mimicking signals produced by potential prey at velocities of 10-20 cm s(-1). Bat rays, M. californica, have the most complex and broadly distributed pored canal network and demonstrated both the highest response rate and greater response intensity to water jet signals. Results suggest that U. halleri and P. violacea may rely on additional sensory input, including tactile and visual cues, respectively, to initiate stronger feeding responses. These results suggest that stingray lateral line canal morphology can indicate detection capabilities through responsiveness to weak water jets.

  8. MECHANOPHYSIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SUPRAORBITAL LATERAL-LINE CANAL IN RUFFE (ACERINA-CERNUA L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Netten, S.M.; VANMAARSEVEEN, JTPW

    1994-01-01

    In vivo measurements of the motion of the skin covering the supraorbital lateral line canal of the ruffe are presented. Stimulation of the lateral line with local oscillatory water motion evokes displacement of the skin which exhibits a characteristic node-antinode pattern along the length of the ca

  9. HYDRODYNAMICS OF THE EXCITATION OF THE CUPULA IN THE FISH CANAL LATERAL LINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Netten, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Calculations on the dynamic behavior of the cupula in the fish lateral line canal are presented. The cupula is compared to a rigid half sphere that is sliding over an epithelium to which it is coupled elastically. The calculation of the hydrodynamic excitation of the cupula is based on a solution of

  10. Wake tracking and the detection of vortex rings by the canal lateral line of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franosch, Jan-Moritz P; Hagedorn, Hendrik J A; Goulet, Julie; Engelmann, Jacob; van Hemmen, J Leo

    2009-08-14

    Research on the lateral line of fish has mainly focused on the detection of oscillating objects. Yet many fish are able to track vortex wakes that arise from other fish. It is not yet known what the sensory input from a wake looks like and how fish can extract relevant information from it. We present a mathematical model to determine how vortices stimulate the canal lateral line and verify it by neuronal recordings. We also show how the information about the orientation of a vortex ring is captured by the lateral-line sensors so as to enable fish to follow a vortex street.

  11. Identification of dental root canals and their medial line from micro-CT and cone-beam CT records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benyó Balázs

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shape of the dental root canal is highly patient specific. Automated identification methods of the medial line of dental root canals and the reproduction of their 3D shape can be beneficial for planning endodontic interventions as severely curved root canals or multi-rooted teeth may pose treatment challenges. Accurate shape information of the root canals may also be used by manufacturers of endodontic instruments in order to make more efficient clinical tools. Method Novel image processing procedures dedicated to the automated detection of the medial axis of the root canal from dental micro-CT and cone-beam CT records are developed. For micro-CT, the 3D model of the root canal is built up from several hundred parallel cross sections, using image enhancement, histogram based fuzzy c-means clustering, center point detection in the segmented slice, three dimensional inner surface reconstruction, and potential field driven curve skeleton extraction in three dimensions. Cone-beam CT records are processed with image enhancement filters and fuzzy chain based regional segmentation, followed by the reconstruction of the root canal surface and detecting its skeleton via a mesh contraction algorithm. Results The proposed medial line identification and root canal detection algorithms are validated on clinical data sets. 25 micro-CT and 36 cone-beam-CT records are used in the validation procedure. The overall success rate of the automatic dental root canal identification was about 92% in both procedures. The algorithms proved to be accurate enough for endodontic therapy planning. Conclusions Accurate medial line identification and shape detection algorithms of dental root canal have been developed. Different procedures are defined for micro-CT and cone-beam CT records. The automated execution of the subsequent processing steps allows easy application of the algorithms in the dental care. The output data of the image processing procedures

  12. canal24

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Canal system center lines in the Central Valley of California and adjacent areas captured from 1:24,000-scale USGS topographic maps. Updates and modifications made...

  13. Field application of self-healing concrete with natural fibres as linings for irrigation canals in Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierra Beltran, M.G.; Jonkers, H.M.; Mors, R.M.; Mera-Ortiz, W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the first field application of self-healing concrete with alkaliphilic spore-forming bacteria and reinforced with natural fibres. The application took place in the highlands in Ecuador in July 2014. The concrete was cast as linings for an irrigation canal that transports water f

  14. Temperature dependency of cupular mechanics and hair cell frequency selectivity in the fish canal lateral line organ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga-Post, JEC; van Netten, SM

    2000-01-01

    The mechanical frequency selectivity of the cupula located in the supraorbital lateral line canal and the frequency selectivity of the hair cells driven by the cupula were measured simultaneously in vivo. Laser interferometry was used to measure cupular mechanics and extracellular receptor potential

  15. [Effects of canal-lining project on groundwater and ecological environment in Hetao Irrigation District of Inner Mongolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jun; Yang, Pei-Ling; Ren, Shu-Mei; Li, Yun-Kai; Wang, Yong-Zhong; Yuan, Xiao-Qi; Li, Xian-Yue; Du, Jing

    2011-01-01

    The canal-lining project in Hetao Irrigation District (HID) for water-saving irrigation has been implemented for many years. By using statistical method, ordinary Kriging, and software ArcGIS 9.0, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal variation of groundwater table depth and salinity in HID in September, 2001 and 2009. In the meantime, the vegetation distribution on the both shores of the lining part and non-lining part of Yangjiahe channel was also investigated. After the many years implementation of the project, the water diversion amount in HID in 2009 was reduced to 44.5 x 10(8) m3. The region area of groundwater table with a depth of 2.5-3.0 m was increased from 1.2 x 10(4) hm2 in 2001 to 9.11 x 10(4) hm2 in 2009. The region area of groundwater table with a depth of 2.0-2.5 m in 2009 took 80% of the total area of HID. In the northwestern region of HID, the groundwater salinity had reduced from 5000-10000 mg x L(-1) to 3000-5000 mg x L(-1). In Wulate irrigation region, the areas of salt water belt and half-salt water belt were increasing. After the canal-lining of Yangjiahe channel, the plant species and diversity index on both shores reduced, and some herbaceous plants with shallow roots showed degradation signs. The implementation of the project and the reduction of water diversion for irrigation did not exert negative effects on the maintenance of water surface area of Wuliangsuhai Lake.

  16. Drag force acting on a neuromast in the fish lateral line trunk canal. II. Analytical modelling of parameter dependencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Joseph A C

    2009-07-01

    In Part I of this two-part study, the coupled flows external and internal to the fish lateral line trunk canal were consecutively calculated by solving the Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations numerically in each domain. With the external flow known, the solution for the internal flow was obtained using a parallelepiped to simulate the neuromast cupula present between a pair of consecutive pores, allowing the calculation of the drag force acting on the neuromast cupula. While physically rigorous and accurate, the numerical approach is tedious and inefficient since it does not readily reveal the parameter dependencies of the drag force. In Part II of this work we present an analytically based physical-mathematical model for rapidly calculating the drag force acting on a neuromast cupula. The cupula is well approximated as an immobile sphere located inside a tube-shaped canal segment of circular cross section containing a constant property fluid in a steady-periodic oscillating state of motion. The analytical expression derived for the dimensionless drag force is of the form |F(N)/(|P(L) - P(R)|pi(D/2)(2) = f(d/D, L(t)/D, omega(*)(D), where |F(N)| is the amplitude of the drag force; |P(L)-P(R)| is the amplitude of the pressure difference driving the flow in the interpore tube segment; d/D is the ratio of sphere diameter to tube diameter; L(t)/D is the ratio of interpore tube segment length to tube diameter; and omega(*)(D) = omega(D/2)(2) /v is the oscillating flow kinetic Reynolds number (a dimensionless frequency). Present results show that the dimensionless drag force amplitude increases with decreasing L(t)/D and maximizes in the range 0.65< or =d/D< or =0.85, depending on the values of L(t)/D and omega(*)(D). It is also found that in the biologically relevant range of dimensionless frequencies 1< or = omega(*)(D) < or =20 and segment lengths 4< or =L(t)/D< or =16, the sphere tube (neuromast-canal) system acts as a low-pass filter for values d/D< or =0.75, approximately

  17. Geotechnical Investigation : Farmers High Line Canal realignment at Two Ponds Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — As requested by the Farmers High Line (FHL) Board of Director's, Tetra Tech RMC has prepared aGeo technical Investigation Report for the proposed realignment of the...

  18. Application of dropping head ponding test on calculation of water use efficiency in concrete lined canal%变水位静水法在渠道水利用系数计算中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴春岭; 刘宏权; 杨路华; 李晶

    2016-01-01

    Canal water use efficiency calculation by using ponding test shall be assisted with canal discharge. Ponding test is one of the tests to observe seepage quantity. Furthermore, to calculate canal water use efficiency, it is efficient to test low seepage canals such as concrete lined canal. The observation object in ponding test is a length of canal water statically. The test results could reflect seepage quantity influence factors, such as canal material, section form and depth of canal water. Canal water use efficiency calculation with inflow-outflow test is based on flow difference between upstream section and downstream section, which could reflect seepage process dynamically. According to canal discharge design formulas, four factors were concluded in canal discharge calculation: discharge section area, Chezy coefficient, hydraulic radius (or wetted width and longitudinal slope. Ponding test has two measurements according to the range of water level, one is constant head and the other is dropping head. It was assumed that as canal cross-section is designed, its discharge section area andR(X) could be calculated by depth of canal water, and different depth of canal water will lead to different discharge section area,R(X) and canal water use efficiency undoubtedly. If the canal discharge varies during the period of irrigation, the dropping head ponding test was fit for analyzing the relations betweenh and canal water use efficiency. The water balance theory was used to describe the process of canal water use efficiency calculation, and the relative parameters regulation was analyzed when depth of canal water was increased. Based on those, we set the canal discharge of unit time as the water volume, which could reflect canal discharge characteristic. It was assumed thatW flowed along canal byv, if the length of canal was 1 km, canal water use efficiency calculation was described as six basic steps: 1) Applying ponding test to representative canal, and establishing

  19. Nutrient canal of the fibula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo-Hyuk; Ehara, Shigeru; Tamakawa, Yoshiharu [Departments of Radiology, Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, Morioka (Japan); Horiguchi, Masahura [Department of Anatomy I, Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, Morioka (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the radiological features of the nutrient canal in the fibula.Design and patients. One hundred and seventy-nine dried fibulae were studied regarding the type, number, location, and direction of the nutrient canal. They were classified into a usual type (type I: a radiolucent line confined to the cortex) and an atypical type (type II: a radiolucent line extending beyond the cortex).Results. Among the total of 230 nutrient canals seen on radiography, 197 (86%) were type I and 33 (14%) were type II. On CT scans, the ossified rim of the canal extended into the medullary cavity in type II canals. The most common site was the posteromedial aspect in both type I and type II canals. Type II canals were significantly more common in fibulae with two or three nutrient canals. The frequency of the upward direction was more common in type II canals.Conclusion. Nutrient canals with extension of the ossified rim into the medullary canal are the cause of linear lucency that may simulate a fracture. Their features are slightly different from those of usual canals. (orig.)

  20. Hydrography - HYDROGRAPHY_LOCALRES_FLOWLINE_NHD_IN: Streams, Rivers, Canals, Ditches, Artificial Paths, Coastlines, Connectors, and Pipelines in Watersheds of Indiana (U. S. Geological Survey, 1:2,400, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — HYDROGRAPHY_LOCALRES_FLOWLINE_NHD_IN.SHP is a line shapefile that contains streams, rivers, canals, ditches, artificial paths, coastlines, connectors and pipelines...

  1. Hydrography - HYDROGRAPHY_HIGHRES_FLOWLINE_NHD_USGS: Streams, Rivers, Canals, Ditches, Artificial Paths, Coastlines, Connectors, and Pipelines in Watersheds of Indiana (U. S. Geological Survey, 1:24,000, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — HYDROGRAPHY_HIGHRES_FLOWLINE_NHD_USGS.SHP is a line shapefile that contains streams, rivers, canals, ditches, artificial paths, coastlines, connectors and pipelines...

  2. Automated extraction method for the center line of spinal canal and its application to the spinal curvature quantification in torso X-ray CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Tatsuro; Zhou, Xiangrong; Chen, Huayue; Hara, Takeshi; Miyamoto, Kei; Kobayashi, Tatsunori; Yokoyama, Ryujiro; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2010-03-01

    X-ray CT images have been widely used in clinical routine in recent years. CT images scanned by a modern CT scanner can show the details of various organs and tissues. This means various organs and tissues can be simultaneously interpreted on CT images. However, CT image interpretation requires a lot of time and energy. Therefore, support for interpreting CT images based on image-processing techniques is expected. The interpretation of the spinal curvature is important for clinicians because spinal curvature is associated with various spinal disorders. We propose a quantification scheme of the spinal curvature based on the center line of spinal canal on CT images. The proposed scheme consists of four steps: (1) Automated extraction of the skeletal region based on CT number thresholding. (2) Automated extraction of the center line of spinal canal. (3) Generation of the median plane image of spine, which is reformatted based on the spinal canal. (4) Quantification of the spinal curvature. The proposed scheme was applied to 10 cases, and compared with the Cobb angle that is commonly used by clinicians. We found that a high-correlation (for the 95% confidence interval, lumbar lordosis: 0.81-0.99) between values obtained by the proposed (vector) method and Cobb angle. Also, the proposed method can provide the reproducible result (inter- and intra-observer variability: within 2°). These experimental results suggested a possibility that the proposed method was efficient for quantifying the spinal curvature on CT images.

  3. Canal Lines - USACE IENC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These inland electronic Navigational charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of Navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be...

  4. The ependyma of goat. II. Ependymal lining of the lateral ventricles, mesencephalic canal, and fourth ventricle: scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajtová, V

    1990-01-01

    The ependymal surface of the lateral cerebral ventricle, mesencephalic canal, and IVth ventricle of 13 male and female goats were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy. The lateral cerebral ventricle was covered mostly with thin cilia that might have club-like terminations on nucleus caudatus, the wide "naked" places with bleb-like protrusions occurred in the transition to cornu temporale during anestrous cycle. The ependymal surface of mesencephalic canal of female goats during anestrus was covered with abundant spherical protrusions. No other changes that could be related to the sexual differences were found.

  5. Um estudo sobre os aspectos que contribuem para a adoção do canal on-line para compra de livros, CDs e DVDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Gouvêa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste estudo foi identificar os fatores relevantes na adoção do canal on-line para a realização de compras, tendo como principais referências os modelos Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT, de Venkatesh et al. (2003, de Heijden, Verhagen e Creemers (2003 e de Bramall, Schoefer e McKechnie (2004. Além da revisão da literatura dos assuntos pertinentes, foi realizada uma pesquisa de campo descritiva, de natureza quantitativa com uma amostra de 172 pessoas residentes na cidade de São Paulo, pertencentes às classes socioeconômicas A, B e C (critério Brasil, compradores de livros, CDs ou DVDs no canal off-line. Os dados coletados foram analisados com o uso de técnicas estatísticas nos contextos uni, bi e multivariado. Aplicou-se a técnica de modelagem de equações estruturais (MEE ou Structural Equation Modeling - SEM para serem identificadas relações de dependência entre construtos e a contribuição de cada um deles na estimação das intenções de adoção da compra pela Internet. Entre os principais resultados encontrados, a atitude em relação ao uso da tecnologia, a confiança e a expectativa de desempenho figuraram como os aspectos mais relevantes para uma possível adoção do canal on-line.

  6. INSTRUMENTATION OF CURVED CANALS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nature seldom draws a straight line. Nowhere is thi s more apparent than in the anatomy of teeth roots and root canal systems o f human teeth. Even teeth with straight roots can harbor severely curved canals. Canal shapi ng is a critical aspect of endodontic treatment because it influences the outcome of the subsequent phases of canal irrigation and filling and the success of the treatment itself. In fact, curved canals are the most common endodontic complexity 1 . The need for some manner of root canal preparation pri or to root canal filling has long been recognized as an essential step in endodontic t reatment. Concepts concerning the role and purpose of this canal preparation, however, have differ ed remarkably at different times in the development of endodontics and in the hands of diffe rent practitioners 2

  7. DE CANALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carlos Guevara C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La amplia utilización de redes WiFi en los diversos escenarios sociales está generando una especie de saturación de canales, que a su vez ocasiona interferencia entre estas redes. Esta situación genera solapamiento de canales, lo que hace que las tasas de trasferencia se reduzcan. En este artículo se detalla esta situación, y se estructura y aplica un experimento para encontrarle solución al problema. También se presentan los resultados tabulados y graficados utilizando la herramienta de software libre inSSider.

  8. The Characteristics of the Lines for Boatman's Chant in the Ba Canal%巴渠船工号子的歌词艺术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胥必海

    2012-01-01

    巴渠船工号子是巴渠船工伴随划船、拉纤的劳动而产生和发展的艺术形式,其歌词内容生动的表现了巴渠船工的劳动场景、生活状况和内心情感。巴渠船工号子的歌词一般是表现巴渠各地风情、历史传说、男女之情、船工生活等方面的内容,具有大俗至雅、多种修辞手法并用、行文格式自由、衬词使用频繁和多种文化互为交融的特征。%The boatman's chant in the Ba canal is a kind of art formed through accompanying the boatman's rowing and towing the boat. The lines of the chant express the boatman's vivid working image, living condition, and their emotion. The chants are usually varied in accordance with the speed of the water, direction, and the situation of the course. The chants are of nervous rhythms and aspiring tunes with simple lines, or even chants without lines when the course is dangerous; the chants are of relaxing rhythms and gentle tunes with rich lines. The boatman's chants also express the local cultures, history, love, and the boatman's own life through various rhetorical devices, free forms, and frequent hner terms.

  9. Depolarization canals and interstellar turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, A; Fletcher, Andrew; Shukurov, Anvar

    2006-01-01

    Recent radio polarization observations have revealed a plethora of unexpected features in the polarized Galactic radio background that arise from propagation effects in the random (turbulent) interstellar medium. The canals are especially striking among them, a random network of very dark, narrow regions clearly visible in many directions against a bright polarized Galactic synchrotron background. There are no obvious physical structures in the ISM that may have caused the canals, and so they have been called Faraday ghosts. They evidently carry information about interstellar turbulence but only now is it becoming clear how this information can be extracted. Two theories for the origin of the canals have been proposed; both attribute the canals to Faraday rotation, but one invokes strong gradients in Faraday rotation in the sky plane (specifically, in a foreground Faraday screen) and the other only relies on line-of-sight effects (differential Faraday rotation). In this review we discuss the physical nature o...

  10. ProTaper机用锉行后牙根管再治疗时的护理研究%Nursing Research ProTaper Rotary File Line after Root Canal Re-treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹亚清; 张建珍; 于玲; 吴云暖

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析ProTaper机用锉行后牙根管再治疗期间护理干预的方法与应用价值。方法方便选取2013年1月—2016年1月期间该院收治的80例ProTaper机用锉行后牙根管再治疗患者作为研究对象,按照数字随机表方法进行分组,对照组、观察组中分别纳入40例患者。对照组患者实施常规护理,观察组患者实施术前、术中、术后全方位护理配合。对比观察两组患者在不同护理方法干预下根管治疗后疼痛情况以及并发症发生率的差异。结果观察组、对照组患者经ProTaper机用锉行后牙根管再治疗后均成功疏通根管,根管治疗完成后相关症状均明显缓解或完全消失。观察组患者行ProTaper机用锉行后牙根管再治疗期间并发症总发生率为5.00%(2/40),显著低于对照组27.50%(11/40)(P﹤0.05)。观察组患者行ProTaper机用锉行后牙根管再治疗期间急性反应发生率为5.00%(2/40),显著低于对照组25.00%(10/40)(P﹤0.05)。结论在ProTaper机用锉行后牙根管再治疗期间,加强术前、术中、术后全方位护理配合,能够确保患者根管疏通效果,对降低各类并发症发生率以及急性反应发生率均有确切意义。%Objective Analysis and Application Value ProTaper rotary file row during root canal after retreatment nursing interventions. Methods Convenient selection in the period from January 2013 to January 2016 in our hospital 80 cases of ProTaper rotary file line after root canal re-treatment of patients as research subjects, according to the random numbers table method group and control group, the observation group were It included 40 patients. Routine care for patients in the control group, the observation group for patients with preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative care-round cooperation. Comparative intervention were observed as well as differences in the incidence of complications after root canal treatment of pain in

  11. Nerve canals at the fundus of the internal auditory canal on high-resolution temporal bone CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Yoon Ha; Youn, Eun Kyung; Kim, Seung Chul [Sungkyunkwan Univ., School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    the canal for the saccular branch. Five bony nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were detected by high-frequency on high-resolution temporal bone CT. Familiarity with these structures can prevent confusion with, or misinterpretation as, a fracture line, and further study such as MR imaging may be required when any enlargement or erosion of these nerve canals is present.

  12. Incidence of dentinal defects after root canal filling procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shemesh, H.; Wesselink, P.R.; Wu, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Aim  To compare the incidence of dentinal defects (cracks and craze lines) after root canal preparation, lateral compaction and continuous wave compaction of gutta-percha and AH26 sealer. Methodology  Two hundred mandibular premolar teeth were divided into four groups with similar average canal diam

  13. The Root Canal Biofilm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der L.W.M.; Boutsioukis, C.; Jiang, L.M.; Macedo, R.; Verhaagen, B.; Versluis, M.; Chávez de Paz, E.; Sedgley, C.M.; Kishen, A.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm), and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root cana

  14. Root canal irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van der Sluis; C. Boutsioukis; L.M. Jiang; R. Macedo; B. Verhaagen; M. Versluis

    2015-01-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm), and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root cana

  15. Design of canals

    CERN Document Server

    Swamee, P K

    2015-01-01

    The book presents firsthand material from the authors on design of hydraulic canals. The book discusses elements of design based on principles of hydraulic flow through canals. It covers optimization of design based on usage requirements and economic constraints. The book includes explicit design equations and design procedures along with design examples for varied cases. With its comprehensive coverage of the principles of hydraulic canal design, this book will prove useful to students, researchers, and practicing engineers. End-of-chapter pedagogical elements make it ideal for use in graduate courses on hydraulic structures offered by most civil engineering departments across the world.

  16. Canals, Bypass Canal, Published in 2002, Duchesne County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Canals dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2002. It is described as 'Bypass Canal'. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  17. Multistate nested canalizing functions

    CERN Document Server

    Adeyeye, J O; Laubenbacher, R; Li, Y

    2013-01-01

    The concept of a nested canalizing Boolean function has been studied over the course of the last decade in the context of understanding the regulatory logic of molecular interaction networks, such as gene regulatory networks. Such functions appear preferentially in published models of such networks. Recently, this concept has been generalized to include multi-state functions, and a recursive formula has been derived for their number, as a function of the number of variables. This paper carries out a detailed analysis of the class of nested canalizing functions over an arbitrary finite field. Furthermore, the paper generalizes the concept further, and derives a closed formula for the number of such generalized functions. The paper also derives a closed formula for the number of equivalence classes under permutation of variables. This is motivated by the fact that two nested canalizing functions that differ by a permutation of the variables share many important properties with each other. The paper contributes ...

  18. Love canal questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a 3-month monitoring study of the Love Canal area near Niagara Falls, N.Y., after the federal government pronounced that a potential health risk existed due to chemical waste dumps. In 1982 the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) decided that the area was habitable, subject to implementation of effective safeguards against leakage from the canal and to cleaning up of the contaminants. Now, the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) has announced that, with the information available, it is not possible to demonstrate with certainty that unsafe levels do not exist within the so-called “emergency declaration area” (EDA).

  19. Water Environment Evolution along the China Grand Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, F.; Wu, Y. X.; Yang, B. F.; Li, X. J.

    2014-03-01

    The China Grand Canal is one of the earliest canals in the world, having lasted for nearly 3000 years. Even its section canals have a rich history, such as the North-South Grand Canal that was established during the Sui Dynasty, whereas the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal was excavated during the Yuan Dynasty and the east line of the South-to-North Water Diversion. As one of the longest in the world, the China Grand Canal's total length is over 3500 kilometers. This length includes the navigable, unnavigable, and underground sections. Making the best use of situations and according to local conditions, the Chinese people harmoniously constructed the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal with nature. Tens of millions of workers took nearly 3000 years to complete the great shipping system. Navigable sections still exist for up to 900 kilometers and the volume of freight traffic is approximately 300 million tons. The canal remains the main logistical channel of the North-to-South Coal Transportation, South-to-North Water Diversion, and resources circulation. To date, China is promoting the success of heritage application. Part of these efforts is the declaration of the China Grand Canal as a World Cultural Heritage by 2014. In addition, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer project is planned to be navigable by 2016. The ancient Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal will usher in the new ecological civilization and cultural revival along the canal. This paper presents technical methods of water environment evolution research on the river system, river, and water quality along the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal through the integration of historical literature and modern remote sensing image data. The study carried out water environment investigation and analysis along the Beijing-Hangzhou canal by using ETM, SPOT image data, and GPS measurement data. Spatial and temporal evolution characteristics and regulations of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal regional water environment in the span of 3000

  20. Faraday ghosts depolarization canals in the Galactic radio emission

    CERN Document Server

    Shukurov, A M; Shukurov, Anvar; Berkhuijsen, Elly M.

    2003-01-01

    Narrow, elongated regions of very low polarized intensity -- so-called canals -- have recently been observed by several authors at decimeter wavelengths in various directions in the Milky Way, but their origin remains enigmatic. We show that the canals arise from depolarization by differential Faraday rotation in the interstellar medium and that they represent level lines of Faraday rotation measure RM, a random function of position in the sky. Statistical properties of the separation of canals depend on the autocorrelation function of RM, and so provide a useful tool for studies of interstellar turbulence.

  1. Curved canals: Ancestral files revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Nidhi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an insight into different techniques of cleaning and shaping of curved root canals with hand instruments. Although a plethora of root canal instruments like ProFile, ProTaper, LightSpeed ® etc dominate the current scenario, the inexpensive conventional root canal hand files such as K-files and flexible files can be used to get optimum results when handled meticulously. Special emphasis has been put on the modifications in biomechanical canal preparation in a variety of curved canal cases. This article compiles a series of clinical cases of root canals with curvatures in the middle and apical third and with S-shaped curvatures that were successfully completed by employing only conventional root canal hand instruments.

  2. CT findings of the osteoma of the external auditory canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ha Young; Song, Chang Joon; Yoon, Chung Dae; Park, Mi Hyun; Shin, Byung Seok [Chungnam National University, School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-15

    We wanted to report the CT image findings of the osteoma of the external auditory canal. Temporal bone CT scanning was performed on eight patients (4 males and 4 females aged between 8 and 41 years) with pathologically proven osteoma of the external auditory canal after operation, and the findings of the CT scanning were retrospectively reviewed. Not only did we analyze the size, shape, distribution and location of the osteomas, we also analyzed the relationship between the lesion and the tympanosqumaous or tympanomastoid suture line, and the changes seen on the CT scan images for the patients who were able to undergo follow-up. All the lesions of the osteoma of the external auditory canal were unilateral, solitary, pedunculated bony masses. In five patients, the osteomas occurred on the left side and for the other three patients, the osteomas occurred on the right side. The average size of the osteoma was 0.6 cm with the smallest being 0.5 cm and the largest being 1.2 cm. Each of the lesions was located at the osteochondral junction in the terminal part of the osseous external ear canal. The stalk of the osteoma of the external auditory canal was found to have occurred in the anteroinferior wall in five cases (63%), in the anterosuperior wall (the tympanosqumaous suture line) in two cases (25%), and in the anterior wall in one case. The osteoma of the external auditory canal was a compact form in five cases and it was a cancellous form in three cases. One case of the cancellous form was changed into a compact form 35 months later due to the advanced ossification. Osteoma of the external auditory canal developed in a unilateral and solitary fashion. The characteristic image findings show that it is attached to the external auditory canal by its stalk. Unlike our common knowledge about its occurrence, osteoma mostly occurred in the tympanic wall, and this is regardless of the tympanosquamous or tympanomastoid suture line.

  3. Managing curved canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iram Ansari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilaceration is the result of a developmental anomaly in which there has been an abrupt change in the axial inclination between the crown and the root of a tooth. Dilaceration can be seen in both the permanent and deciduous dentitions, and is more commonly found in posterior teeth and in maxilla. Periapical radiographs are the most appropriate way to diagnose the presence of root dilacerations. The controlled regularly tapered preparation of the curved canals is the ultimate challenge in endodontics. Careful and meticulous technique will yield a safe and sufficient enlargement of the curved canals. This article gives a review of the literature and three interesting case reports of root dilacerations.

  4. Canal Wall Reconstruction Mastoidectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the advantages of canal wall reconstruction (CWR) mastoidectomy, a single-stage technique for cholesteatoma removal and posterior external canal wall reconstruction, over the open and closed procedures in terms of cholesteatoma recurrence. Methods: Between June 2002 and December 2005, 38 patients (40 ears) with cholesteatoma were admited to Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital and received surgical treatments. Of these patients, 25 were male with ages ranging between 11 and 60 years (mean = 31.6 years) and 13 were female with ages ranging between 20 and 65 years (mean = 38.8 years). Canal wall reconstruction (CWR)mastoidectomy was performed in 31 ears and canal wall down (CWD) mastoidectomy in 9 ears. Concha cartilage was used for ear canal wall reconstruction in 22 of the 31 CWR procedures and cortical mastoid bone was used in the remaining 9 cases. Results At 0.5 to 4 years follow up, all but one patients remained free of signs of cholesteatoma recurrence, i.e., no retraction pocket or cholesteatoma matrix. One patient, a smoker, needed revision surgery due to cholesteatoma recurrence 1.5 year after the initial operation. The recurrence rate was therefore 3.2% (1/31). Cholesteatoma recurrence was monitored using postoperative CT scans whenever possible. In the case that needed a revision procedure, a retraction pocket was identified by otoendoscopy in the pars flacida area that eventually evolved into a cholesteatoma. A pocket extending to the epitympanum filled with cholesteatoma matrix was confirmed during the revision operation, A decision to perform a modified mastoidectomy was made as the patient refused to quit smoking. The mean air-bone gap in pure tone threshold was 45 dB before surgery and 25 dB after (p < 0.05). There was no difference between using concha cartilage and cortical mastoid bone for the reconstruction regarding air-bone gap improvement, CT findings and otoendoscopic results. Conclusion CWR mastoidectomy can be used for

  5. Experiment for Development of Simple Escape Countermeasures for Frogs Falling into Concrete Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Keiji; Mori, Atsushi; Koizumi, Noriyuki; Takemura, Takeshi; Park, Myeong Soo

    Three prototype escape countermeasures for frogs that can be easily installed in U-shaped canals with widths of 30-50 cm and depths of 30-50 cm were experimentally produced because frogs cannot escape from agricultural canals with deep concrete walls after falling into the canal. The differences of effectiveness of the 3 prototypes in places for the countermeasures (1 and 2) and flow conditions (dry and water running) were investigated for 2 frog species (Tokyo Daruma Pond Frog and Japanese Brown Frog). The brown frogs escaped from the canals more easily than the pond frogs. The brown frogs escaped regardless of their body size, but the small pond frogs escaped more easily than the large pond frogs. The prototype with slopes beside both canal walls and a net spread across the center line of the canal enabled frogs to escape from the canal more easily than the prototypes with only slopes or nets beside both canal walls. Increasing the number of places for the countermeasures enhanced frog escape. The differences in frog escape between dry canals and canals with water running were not significant. Therefore, the prototypes were confirmed sufficient as escape countermeasures that is inexpensive and can be easily placed in and removed from agricultural canals.

  6. Analysis of sedimentation of canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agunwamba, J.C.,

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The dredged canals in the Niger Delta coastal flood plain are being threatened by siltation. This study is limited to those canals in Rivers State of Nigeria, which are under the influence of tidal waves. A total of eight canals were considered with four each from Ekulama and Cawthorne Channel. Different approaches were used to carry out this study, which includes field reconnaissance survey, hydrographic survey, soil sample analysis and collection of all available data and information. The typical bed materials size (D50 is approximately 0.01mm; which gives a settling velocity of 0.09mm/sec using stroke’s law. Hydrographic survey of the canals from 1992 to 1996 revealed an average siltation rate of 2.35m/yr. A regression equation was also derived which relates the cost of dredging to canal area, rate of siltation and average aggregation. A plot of canal centre profile; entrance, middle and end cross sections showing sediment distribution along the canal profile, shows that majority of the particles that form the sediment enter the canal from the rivers. The sedimentation is caused by the reduction in water current, which has average value of 0.0145m/sec. The bathyorographical check on the canals revealed that the sum of the two exterior angles of the canal with the river at the point of connection has to lie within 1800 + 50 for an effective flow that will minimize settlement of particles. In addition, the canals should be constructed to start and terminate on a moving water body, to avoid dead ends. A regression equation was determined which relates the cost of dredging to canal area, rate of siltation and average aggradations.

  7. Controversy at Love Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paigen, B

    1982-06-01

    A cancer researcher reviews the events surrounding the toxic waste contamination at Love Canal with emphasis on the political nature of the controversy about its health impact. Antagonism between the community and the New York State Department of Health was fueled by several factors: the state's awareness that it gained from delay in investigation, disagreement on health problems to be studied, control over the information gathering process, silencing of opposition opinion, and the violation of norms of scientific behavior. The author calls for the establishment of standards of ethical behavior for scientists in such situations, standards for conflict resolution, and means of appeal for those injured.

  8. Spinal canal stenosis; Spinalkanalstenose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Boutchakova, M. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte/Bremen-Ost, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Bremen (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal by a combination of bone and soft tissues, which can lead to mechanical compression of spinal nerve roots or the dural sac. The lumbal spinal compression of these nerve roots can be symptomatic, resulting in weakness, reflex alterations, gait disturbances, bowel or bladder dysfunction, motor and sensory changes, radicular pain or atypical leg pain and neurogenic claudication. The anatomical presence of spinal canal stenosis is confirmed radiologically with computerized tomography, myelography or magnetic resonance imaging and play a decisive role in optimal patient-oriented therapy decision-making. (orig.) [German] Die Spinalkanalstenose ist eine umschriebene, knoechern-ligamentaer bedingte Einengung des Spinalkanals, die zur Kompression der Nervenwurzeln oder des Duralsacks fuehren kann. Die lumbale Spinalkanalstenose manifestiert sich klinisch als Komplex aus Rueckenschmerzen sowie sensiblen und motorischen neurologischen Ausfaellen, die in der Regel belastungsabhaengig sind (Claudicatio spinalis). Die bildgebende Diagnostik mittels Magnetresonanztomographie, Computertomographie und Myelographie spielt eine entscheidende Rolle bei der optimalen patientenbezogenen Therapieentscheidung. (orig.)

  9. Delineating ground water recharge from leaking irrigation canals using water chemistry and isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, F E; Sibray, S S

    2001-01-01

    Across the Great Plains irrigation canals are used to transport water to cropland. Many of these canals are unlined, and leakage from them has been the focus of an ongoing legal, economic, and philosophical debate as to whether this lost water should be considered waste or be viewed as a beneficial and reasonable use since it contributes to regional ground water recharge. While historically there has been much speculation about the impact of canal leakage on local ground water, actual data are scarce. This study was launched to investigate the impact of leakage from the Interstate Canal, in the western panhandle of Nebraska, on the hydrology and water quality of the local aquifer using water chemistry and environmental isotopes. Numerous monitoring wells were installed in and around a small wetland area adjacent to the canal, and ground water levels were monitored from June 1992 until January 1995. Using the water level data, the seepage loss from the canal was estimated. In addition, the canal, the monitoring wells, and several nearby stock and irrigation wells were sampled for inorganic and environmental isotope analysis to assess water quality changes, and to determine the extent of recharge resulting from canal leakage. The results of water level monitoring within study wells indicates a rise in local ground water levels occurs seasonally as a result of leakage during periods when the canal is filled. This rise redirects local ground water flow and provides water to nearby wetland ecosystems during the summer months. Chemical and isotopic results were used to delineate canal, surface, and ground water and indicate that leaking canal water recharges both the surface alluvial aquifer and upper portions of the underlying Brule Aquifer. The results of this study indicate that lining the Interstate Canal could lower ground water levels adjacent to the canal, and could adversely impact the local aquifer.

  10. Hood Canal Steelhead - Hood Canal Steelhead Supplementation Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hood Canal Steelhead Project is a 17-year before-after-control-impact experiment that tests the effects of supplementation on natural steelhead populations in...

  11. The Love Canal: Beyond science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    When in 1978, the New York State Department of Health issued the report, ‘Love Canal—Public Health Time Bomb,’ the serious effects of chemical waste contamination in the Love Canal area became an issue of national concern. A few ‘studies’ since then have produced results in concert with those of initial reports that described ‘conditions of acute health effects’ as being linked to hazardous wastes incorporated in landfill in the Love Canal site near Niagara Falls, New York. Now that a ‘blue ribbon’ panel of experts from the medical sciences has reviewed the problems of Love Canal, however, a different view has emerged. The ‘Report of the Governors' Panel to Review Scientific Studies and the Development of Public Policy on Problems Resulting from Hazardous Wastes,’ transmitted in October of this year, identifies the following factors about the health effects at Love Canal:

  12. Horizontal Canal Benign Positional Vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtaram Najafi

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV is a syndrome characterized by transient episodes of vertigo in association with rapid changes in head position in Dix-Halpike Maneuver. This kind of vertigo is thought to be caused by migration of otoconial debris into canals other than the posterior canal, such as the anterior or lateral canals. It is also theoretically possible for many aberrant patterns of BPPV to occur from an interaction of debris in several canals, location of debris within the canal, and central adaptation patterns to lesions. The symptoms of BPPV are much more consistent with free-moving densities (canaliths in the posterior SCC rather than fixed densities attached to the cupula. While the head is upright, the particles sit in the PSC at the most gravity-dependent position. The best method to induce and see vertigo and nystagmus in BPPV of the lateral semicircular canal is to rotate head 90°while patient is in the supine position, nystagmus would appear in the unaffected side weaker but longer than the affected side. canal paresis has been described in one third of the patients with BPPV. Adaptation which is one of the remarkable features of BPPV in PSC is rarely seen in LSC. Rotations of 270° or 360° around the yaw axis (the so-called barbecue maneuver toward the unaffected ear are popular methods for the treatment of geotropic HC-BPPV. These maneuvers consist of sequential head turning of 90° toward the healthy side while supine. With these maneuvers, the free-floating otoconial debris migrates in the ampullofugal direction, finally entering the utricle through the nonampullated end of the horizontal canal. This kind of vertigo recovers spontaneously more rapidly and suddenly.

  13. Limitations of navigation through Nubaria canal, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Magdy G

    2014-03-01

    Alexandria port is the main Egyptian port at the Mediterranean Sea. It is connected to the Nile River through Nubaria canal, which is a main irrigation canal. The canal was designed to irrigate eight hundred thousand acres of agricultural lands, along its course which extends 100 km. The canal has three barrages and four locks to control the flow and allow light navigation by some small barges. Recently, it was decided to improve the locks located on the canal. More than 40 million US$ was invested in these projects. This decision was taken to allow larger barges and increase the transported capacity through the canal. On the other hand, navigation through canals and restricted shallow waterways is affected by several parameters related to both the channel and the vessel. Navigation lane width as well as vessel speed and maneuverability are affected by both the channel and vessel dimensions. Moreover, vessel dimensions and speed will affect the canal stability. In Egypt, there are no guide rules for navigation through narrow and shallow canals such Nubaria. This situation threatens the canal stability and safety of navigation through it. This paper discussed the characteristics of Nubaria canal and the guide rules for navigation in shallow restricted water ways. Dimensions limitation for barges navigating through Nubaria canal is presented. New safe operation rules for navigation in Nubaria canal are also presented. Moreover, the implication of navigation through locks on canal discharge is estimated.

  14. Limitations of navigation through Nubaria canal, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy G. Samuel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alexandria port is the main Egyptian port at the Mediterranean Sea. It is connected to the Nile River through Nubaria canal, which is a main irrigation canal. The canal was designed to irrigate eight hundred thousand acres of agricultural lands, along its course which extends 100 km. The canal has three barrages and four locks to control the flow and allow light navigation by some small barges. Recently, it was decided to improve the locks located on the canal. More than 40 million US$ was invested in these projects. This decision was taken to allow larger barges and increase the transported capacity through the canal. On the other hand, navigation through canals and restricted shallow waterways is affected by several parameters related to both the channel and the vessel. Navigation lane width as well as vessel speed and maneuverability are affected by both the channel and vessel dimensions. Moreover, vessel dimensions and speed will affect the canal stability. In Egypt, there are no guide rules for navigation through narrow and shallow canals such Nubaria. This situation threatens the canal stability and safety of navigation through it. This paper discussed the characteristics of Nubaria canal and the guide rules for navigation in shallow restricted water ways. Dimensions limitation for barges navigating through Nubaria canal is presented. New safe operation rules for navigation in Nubaria canal are also presented. Moreover, the implication of navigation through locks on canal discharge is estimated.

  15. El Canal del Atazar I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López de Berges y de los Santos, Emilio

    1967-03-01

    Full Text Available The Atazar Canal helps to supply Madrid with water, from the rivers Lozoya, Jarama and Sorbe. The section which operates at present starts at the Torrelaguna dam and finishes at the El Goloso reservoir. Later a further section will be added, from the Atazar dam, on the Lozoya river, to link up with the control dam at Torrelaguna. The canal capacity is 16 m3/sec, and it is 43.47 km long. It has a slope of 4/10.000. The cross section is similar to that of the Jarama canal, already built. There are interconnections between this canal and the Canal Alto, which previously supplied the high and medium part of Madrid. To overcome the ground unevenness 5 syphons have been built, the most important of which is the Colmenar Goloso syphon, which is 10.88 km in length. Construction commenced on December 10, 1962, and water reached Madrid on June 15th, 1966. The initial budget for this project was 1,500 million pesetas.El canal del Atazar refuerza considerablemente el abastecimiento de aguas a Madrid, procedentes de los ríos Lozoya, Jarama y, en un próximo futuro, del Sorbe. El tramo, actualmente en funcionamiento, empieza en el salto de Torrelaguna y finaliza en los depósitos de El Goloso. Más adelante se completará su trazado mediante un nuevo tramo que partirá del embalse de Atazar, en el Lozoya, para unirse al actual en el depósito regulador de Torrelaguna. Su capacidad es de 16 m3/s; su longitud, 43,471 km, y su pendiente, 4 diezmilésimas. La sección tipo es análoga a la del canal del Jarama, de construcción anterior. Mediante la oportuna obra de transvase se realizan intercambios entre este Canal y el Canal Alto que abastecía anteriormente la parte media y alta de la capital. Para salvar los desniveles del terreno se han construido 5 sifones, siendo el más importante el de Colmenar-Goloso, con una longitud de 10,8S4 km. El comienzo de las obras tuvo lugar el 10 de diciembre de 1962, y el agua llegó a Madrid el 15 de junio de 1966. Su

  16. Canals - CANALS_HISTORIC_STRUCTURES_IN: Historic Canal Structures in Indiana (Bernardin-Lochmueller & Associates, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Data depicts the locations of historic structures associated with the Wabash-Erie, Central, and Whitewater Canals constructed in Indiana in from 1830-1870. Canal...

  17. Corinth Canal, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Isthmus of Corinth has played a very important role in the history of Greece. It is the only land bridge between the country's north (Attica) and south (Peloponnese). It is a 6 km wide tongue of land separating the Gulf of Corinth from the Saronic Sea. Populations, armies and commodities have got to move through it. In the 6th century BCE, the Greeks built the Diolkos, a 10 meter-wide stone roadway to pull ships across the Isthmus on wooden cylinders and wheeled vehicles. In 1882, a canal was started and completed 11 years later. It is 6343 meters long, 25 meters wide, and 8 meters deep. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 25.3 by 37.7 kilometers (15.7 by 23.4 miles) Location: 37.9 degrees North latitude, 23 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image

  18. Fluidmechanics of semicircular canals revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrist, Dominik

    2008-05-01

    In this work we find the exact solution for the flow field in a semicircular canal which is the main sensor for angular motion in the human body. When the head is rotated the inertia of the fluid in the semicircular canal leads to a deflection of sensory hair cells which are part of a gelatinous structure called cupula. A modal expansion of the governing equation shows that the semicircular organ can be understood as a dynamic system governed by duct modes and a single cupular mode. We use this result to derive an explicit expression for the displacement of the cupula as a function of the angular motion of the head. This result shows in a mathematically and physically clean way that the semicircular canal is a transducer for angular velocity.

  19. Retention of Root Canal Posts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, A; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Flury, S;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the cement film thickness of a zinc phosphate or a resin cement on retention of untreated and pretreated root canal posts. Prefabricated zirconia posts (CosmoPost: 1.4 mm) and two types of luting cements (a zinc phosphate cement [DeTrey Zinc......] and a self-etch adhesive resin cement [Panavia F2.0]) were used. After removal of the crowns of 360 extracted premolars, canines, or incisors, the root canals were prepared with a parallel-sided drill system to three different final diameters. Half the posts did not receive any pretreatment. The other half...... received tribochemical silicate coating according to the manufacturer's instructions. Posts were then luted in the prepared root canals (n=30 per group). Following water storage at 37°C for seven days, retention of the posts was determined by the pull-out method. Irrespective of the luting cement...

  20. 33 CFR 401.42 - Passing hand lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... behind the splice of the eye; (3) At Iroquois Lock and Lock 8, Welland Canal, both upbound and downbound... vessels of overall length in excess of 218 m in Locks 4 and 5, Welland Canal, shall secure the hand lien... lines. (a) At locks, hand lines shall be secured to the mooring lines and passed as follows: (1)...

  1. 潜伏期行椎管内阻滞麻醉分娩镇痛对孕妇妊娠结局与新生儿预后的影响%The Effect of Incubation Period Line Block Anesthesia Intra-Spinal Canal Labor Analgesia on Pregnant Women Pregnancy Outcome and Neonatal Prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾利红; 王文凯; 陈艳丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:潜伏期行椎管内阻滞麻醉分娩镇痛对孕妇妊娠结局与新生儿预后的影响。方法:选取2013年1月-2014年3月本院通过麻醉分娩镇痛的孕妇174例,依据随机分配原则分为潜伏组和对照组,两组孕妇均给予常规椎管内阻滞麻醉分娩镇痛治疗,对照组孕妇在宫口开大高于3 cm时给予实施,潜伏组孕妇在宫口扩张1~2 cm时给予实施,在孕妇宫口开始扩张时应用视觉模拟疼痛评分法(VAS)对孕妇进行疼痛评估,统计分析所有孕妇产程时间、疼痛情况、分娩结局和围产儿结局。结果:潜伏组产妇第一、第二产程时间明显短于对照组,宫口扩张60 min内各时点VAS评分明显低于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);潜伏组产妇分娩结局明显优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);潜伏组产妇产后围产儿结局明显优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:潜伏期行椎管内阻滞麻醉分娩镇痛方式可有效缩短产妇产程时间,快速缓解产妇疼痛,有助于实现产程无痛分娩,增强产妇自然分娩的信心,对降低剖宫产率有积极作用。同时改善孕妇妊娠结局和围产儿结局,有利于提高新生儿预后水平,值得临床作进一步推广。%Objective:To discuss the effect of incubation period line block anesthesia intra-spinal canal labor analgesia on pregnant women pregnancy outcome and neonatal prognosis.Method:174 pregnant women with incubation period line block anesthesia intra-spinal canal labor analgesia were selected from January 2013 to March 2014 in our hospital, according to the random distribution, all patients were divided into latent group and the control group. Two groups of pregnant women were given the conventional block anesthesia labor analgesia intra-spinal canal treatment, the control group of pregnant women in the palace mouth up higher than 3 cm given

  2. ANÁLISIS Y ESTUDIO DEL DESEMPEÑO DE LOS ENTRELAZADORES DE BITS DE BLOQUE, DORADO Y DORADO RELATIVO EN UN CANAL DE LÍNEA ELÉCTRICA DE BAJA TENSIÓN ANALYSIS OF THE PERFORMANCE OF THE INTERLEAVERS OF BLOCK, GOLDEN AND RELATIVE GOLDEN IN A OF LOW VOLTAGE POWER LINE CHANNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Fernández R

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizan y se estudian tres tipos de entrelazadores de bit: bloque, dorado y dorado relativo, y se determina su desempeño en un canal de línea eléctrica de baja tensión. Se utiliza el modelo de ruido dado por Middleton, para la simulación del canal de línea eléctrica de baja tensión y el algoritmo que se utiliza para generar ruido gaussiano es el método de Box-Muller. Se compara el desempeño de los entrelazadores de bits de bloque, dorado y dorado relativo, en relación al largo de la palabra versus la razón de señal a ruido y bits erróneos por palabras versus la razón de señal a ruido. La codificación de línea que se utiliza es no retorno a cero. El entrelazador de bit dorado es el que tiene el mejor desempeño, por lo tanto, se puede emplear en la transmisión por línea eléctrica de baja tensión para disminuir los errores de bits consecutivos producido por el ruido impulsivo.This paper analyzes three types of interleavers: block, golden and golden relative to determine their performance in of low voltage power line channel. The model of noise given by Middleton is used for the simulation of the low voltage power line channel and the algorithm used to generate Gaussian noise is based on the Box-Muller method. The performance of interleavers block, golden and golden relative is compared in relationship to the length of the words versus the signal to noise ratio. The error bit by word versus signal to noise ratio is compared also. The codification of line used is no return to zero. It is concluded that the interleavers of golden has the best performance, thus it can be used in data transmission in low-voltage power line, reducing errors consecutive bits produced by impulse noise.

  3. Up-regulation of gelatinases and tissue type plasminogen activator by root canal sealers in human osteoblastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fu-Mei; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2008-03-01

    Histologic investigations have demonstrated that root canal sealers can induce mild to severe inflammatory alternations. However, there is little information on the precise mechanisms about root canal sealer-induced inflammatory reaction. The proteolysis of extracellular matrix by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and plasminogen activators (PAs) seems to be a key initiating event for the progression of the inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of epoxy resin-based root canal sealer AH26 and zinc oxide-eugenol-based root canal sealer Canals and one paste sealer N2 on the expression of MMPs and PAs in human osteoblastic cell line U2OS cells. The levels of gelatinolytic and caseinolytic activities were measured by gelatin and casein zymography. The results showed that AH26, Canals, and N2 were cytotoxic to U2OS cells in a concentration-dependent manner (P inflammation.

  4. Early Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anal Canal Resected by Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzuru Tamaru

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The standard treatment approach for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the anal canal includes abdominoperineal resection and chemoradiotherapy. However, there are currently very few reports of early SCC of the anal canal resected by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD. We report 2 rare cases of SCC of the anal canal resected by ESD. In case 1, a 66-year-old woman underwent a colonoscopy due to blood in her stool, and an elevated lesion, 15 mm in size, was identified from the rectum to the dentate line of the anal canal on internal hemorrhoids. The lesion was diagnosed as an early SCC of the anal canal, and ESD was successfully performed. The histopathological diagnosis was SCC in situ. In case 2, a 71-year-old woman underwent a colonoscopy due to constipation, and an elevated lesion, 25 mm in size, was identified from the dentate line to the anal canal. The lesion was diagnosed as early-stage SCC of the anal canal, and ESD was successfully performed. The histopathological diagnosis was SCC in situ. No complications or recurrence after ESD occurred in either case.

  5. 33 CFR 117.444 - Falgout Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Falgout Canal. 117.444 Section 117.444 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.444 Falgout Canal. The draw of the LA 315 bridge across Falgout Canal, mile 3.1,...

  6. Developmental spinal canal stenosis and somatotype.

    OpenAIRE

    Nightingale, S.

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis that somatotype and cervical spine developmental canal stenosis may be associated has been investigated by anthropometry and measurement of lateral projection cervical spine radiographs. A significant association of canal size with somatotype has been found such that those with developmentally narrow canals are more likely to have relatively shorter long-bones, particularly in the upper arm, and longer trunks.

  7. Canal Water Scarcity Hits Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠潮

    2007-01-01

    Acute shortage of canal water for irrigation in this district has caused resentment among the farmers.The water is being released in the various channels for just one week in a month,which is not enough to meet the irrigation needs of the farmers who are preparing their fields for paddy

  8. The Dehiscent Facial Nerve Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertac Yetiser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidental injury to the facial nerve where the bony canal defects are present may result with facial nerve dysfunction during otological surgery. Therefore, it is critical to know the incidence and the type of facial nerve dehiscences in the presence of normal development of the facial canal. The aim of this study is to review the site and the type of such bony defects in 144 patients operated for facial paralysis, myringoplasty, stapedotomy, middle ear exploration for sudden hearing loss, and so forth, other than chronic suppurative otitis media with or without cholesteatoma, middle ear tumors, and anomaly. Correlation of intraoperative findings with preoperative computerized tomography was also analyzed in 35 patients. Conclusively, one out of every 10 surgical cases may have dehiscence of the facial canal which has to be always borne in mind during surgical manipulation of the middle ear. Computerized tomography has some limitations to evaluate the dehiscent facial canal due to high false negative and positive rates.

  9. [Endodontic microbiology: antimicrobial canal medications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, S; Farber, P A

    1989-06-01

    Medicaments used for reducing or eliminating microorganisms from infected root canals include: irrigating solutions, such as sodium hypochlorite, urea peroxide and hydrogen peroxide, chloramine, iodine-potassium-iodide solution, and chlorhexidine solution. In addition, various intracanal drugs, such as calcium hydroxide and antibiotics, are in use. The characteristics of these drugs are discussed.

  10. 75 FR 56094 - Delta-Mendota Canal Intertie Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ...The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Western Area Power Administration (Western), plans to authorize a new interconnection and design, construct, own, operate, and maintain a new 69-kilovolt (kV) transmission line and fiber optic cable for delivery of project use power as part of the Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Mid-Pacific Region's (Reclamation) Delta-Mendota Canal......

  11. Mandibular Second Premolar with Four Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Ghiasi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A mandibular second premolar with four canals is an interesting example of anatomic variations. This report describes a case of a mandibular second premolar with three roots and four canals (one mesiobuccal, two distobuccal and one lingual. The canals were prepared using K-files and irrigated with NaOCl (5.25% and normal saline as the final irrigant. The canals were filled laterally with gutta percha and AH26 sealer (De Trey, Dentsply, Switzerland. This case shows a rare anatomic configuration and points out the importance of looking for additional canals.

  12. 75 FR 39632 - Regulated Navigation Area; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ..., Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey Canal, Algiers Canal, New Orleans, LA; Correction ACTION: Interim... Navigation Canal, Harvey Canal, Algiers Canal, New Orleans, LA into the Code of Federal Regulations....

  13. Effect of Canal Bank Filtration on Quality of Water Long Hyderabad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMDAD ALI KANDHAR

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the present study was to examine the effect of canal bank filtration on the quality of water and the geological settings along the banks of canals at the shallow depth aquifers. The four Model wells were drilled at different locations of the Line channel, Pinyari and phulali canals in the study area. The samples of soil were collected throughout drilling of the model wells for the analysis of grain size distribution .In addition to this, canal water and model well water samples were collected and analyzed for the water quality characteristics during winter and summer seasons. The analysis of soil and water samples reveals that the ground water is influenced by the grain size distribution, hydraulic conductivity and the location of the model Wells. The model well that has higher percentage of 0.075 mm of grain size distribution(hydraulic conductivity between 10-25 ft/day was more suitable for the filtration of the canal water through its banks, followed by 0.15 mm of grain size distribution (hydraulic conductivity > 25ft/ day. Moreover, the present study also shows that the canal water filtration is suitable in terms of total alkalinity, nitrate-nitrogen, total iron and pH to get the potable water at the location near upstream of the canal, especially in the summer season.

  14. The connective tissue of the adductor canal--a morphological study in fetal and adult specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Flavia; de Vasconcellos Fontes, Ricardo Bragança; da Silva Baptista, Josemberg; Mayer, William Paganini; de Campos Boldrini, Silvia; Liberti, Edson Aparecido

    2009-03-01

    The adductor canal is a conical or pyramid-shaped pathway that contains the femoral vessels, saphenous nerve and a varying amount of fibrous tissue. It is involved in adductor canal syndrome, a claudication syndrome involving young individuals. Our objective was to study modifications induced by aging on the connective tissue and to correlate them to the proposed pathophysiological mechanism. The bilateral adductor canals and femoral vessels of four adult and five fetal specimens were removed en bloc and analyzed. Sections 12 microm thick were obtained and the connective tissue studied with Sirius Red, Verhoeff, Weigert and Azo stains. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photomicrographs of the surfaces of each adductor canal were also analyzed. Findings were homogeneous inside each group. The connective tissue of the canal was continuous with the outer layer of the vessels in both groups. The pattern of concentric, thick collagen type I bundles in fetal specimens was replaced by a diffuse network of compact collagen bundles with several transversal fibers and an impressive content of collagen III fibers. Elastic fibers in adults were not concentrated in the thick bundles but dispersed in line with the transversal fiber system. A dynamic compression mechanism with or without an evident constricting fibrous band has been proposed previously for adductor canal syndrome, possibly involving the connective tissue inside the canal. The vessels may not slide freely during movement. These age-related modifications in normal individuals may represent necessary conditions for this syndrome to develop.

  15. Scalloping at the lumbosacral canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, R.

    1987-07-01

    Scalloping is an indentation of the dorsal side of the vertebral body (anterior wall of the lumbosacral or sacral canal) which typically involves several adjacent lumbal vertebral body segments and the anterior wall of the canalis sacralis. Occurrence without underlying disease is rare; it occurs most frequently with chondrodystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Morquio's syndrome, Hurler's syndrome, acromegaly, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, cysts, tumors and in peridural lipomas.

  16. Nested Canalizing Functions and Their Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kadelka, Claus; Adeyeye, John O; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    The concept of a nested canalizing Boolean function has been studied over the last decade in the context of understanding the regulatory logic of molecular interaction networks, such as gene regulatory networks. Such networks are predominantly governed by nested canalizing functions. Derrida values are frequently used to analyze the robustness of a Boolean network to perturbations. This paper introduces closed formulas for the calculation of Derrida values of networks governed by Boolean nested canalizing functions, which previously required extensive simulations. Recently, the concept of nested canalizing functions has been generalized to include multistate functions, and a recursive formula has been derived for their number, as a function of the number of variables. This paper contains a detailed analysis of the class of nested canalizing functions over an arbitrary finite field. In addition, the concept of nested canalization is further generalized and closed formulas for the number of such generalized fun...

  17. Stability of guest molecules in urea canal complexes by canal polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1995-03-01

    It was found that various organic materials are attracted into urea canal by hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) and long chain compounds. This means that materials which does not form complex by itself are induced in canal by HDDA and long chain compounds. To include with stability perfumes, insecticides, attractants and repellents in urea canal, leaf alcohol was used as a model compound for guest molecules in the canal. The leaf alcohol from the canal released gradually over many days and the release was inhibited for 15 days by long chain compounds and for 30 days by polymerized HDDA after irradiation. After releasing, the leaf alcohol in the canal remained 25 % stable for long chain compounds and 40 % for polymerized HDDA. The dose required for stabilization of leaf alcohol in the urea canal by canal polymerization of HDDA was 30 kGy. (author).

  18. Canals, DMADCanals-Irrigation canals in Millard Co., Published in 2007, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Canals dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'DMADCanals-Irrigation canals in Millard Co.'. Data by this...

  19. MRI Findings in Spinal Canal Stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Barzin

    2010-01-01

    Spinal canal stenosis results from progressive narrowing of the central spinal canal and the lateral recesses. Primary (congenital) lumbar spinal stenosis is associated with achondroplastic dwarfism. The spinal canal may become narrowed by bulging or protrusion of the intervertebral disc annulus, herniation of the nucleus pulposus posteriorly, thickening of the posterior longitudinal ligament, hypertrophy of the facet joints, hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum, epidural fat deposition, spon...

  20. Modelling of Buckingham Canal water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, S A; Khan, F I; Sentilvelan, K; Shabudeen, A

    2002-10-01

    The paper presents a case study of the modelling of the water quality of a canal situated in a petrochemical industrial complex, which receives wastewaters from Madras Refineries Limited (MRL), and Madras Fertilizers Limited (MFL). The canal well known Buckingham Canal which passes through Chennai (Madras), India has been modelled using the software QUAL2E-UNCAS. After testing and validation of the model, simulations have been carried out. The exercise enables forecasting the impacts of different seasons, base flows, and waste water inputs on the water quality of the Buckingham Canal. It also enables development of water management strategies.

  1. Narrow, duplicated internal auditory canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, T. [Servico de Neurorradiologia, Hospital Garcia de Orta, Avenida Torrado da Silva, 2801-951, Almada (Portugal); Shayestehfar, B. [Department of Radiology, UCLA Oliveview School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Lufkin, R. [Department of Radiology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2003-05-01

    A narrow internal auditory canal (IAC) constitutes a relative contraindication to cochlear implantation because it is associated with aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve or its cochlear branch. We report an unusual case of a narrow, duplicated IAC, divided by a bony septum into a superior relatively large portion and an inferior stenotic portion, in which we could identify only the facial nerve. This case adds support to the association between a narrow IAC and aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The normal facial nerve argues against the hypothesis that the narrow IAC is the result of a primary bony defect which inhibits the growth of the vestibulocochlear nerve. (orig.)

  2. Cytotoxicity of 5% Tamarindus indica extract and 3% hydrogen peroxide as root canal irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erawati Wulandari

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preparation of root canal is an important stage in endodontic treatment. During conducting preparation, it is always be followed with root canal irrigation that has aim to clean root canal from necrotic tissue remains, grind down dentin powder, micro organism, wet the root canal to make preparation process of root canal easier, and solute root canal content at area that can not be reached by equipment. Flesh of Tamarindus indica (pulpa tamarindorum is used as traditional medicine and it contains vitamin C (antioxidant, protein, fat, glucose, etc. Previous research shows that 5% tamarindus indica extract can clean smear layer but it is more cytotoxicity to cell line BHK–21 than sterilized aquabides. Purpose: This research is to compare cytotoxicity between 5% Tamarindus indica extract with 3% H2O2 as root canal irrigation material. Method: Four teen culture cell line BHK 21 divides into 2 groups. Group 1 is treated with 3% H2O2 and Group 2 is treated with 5% Tamarindus indica extract, for about 2.5 minutes in every group. Then, living and death cell percentage is measured. Data is analyzed with independent t test with significant level of 0.05%. Result: The research showed that death cell in group 1 was 29.3% and in group 2 was 21.1%. There was a significant different (p < 0.05 between group 1 and group 2. Conclusion: Cytotoxicity of 5% Tamarindus indica extract to the cell line BHK–21 is lower than 3% H2O2.

  3. Perianal and Vulvar Extramammary Paget Disease: A Report of Six Cases and Mapping Biopsy of the Anal Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Sinsuke; Yamada, Daisuke; Miyagawa, Takuya; Murono, Koji; Yasuda, Koji; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Hata, Keisuke; Kawai, Kazushige; Masui, Yuri; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Ishihara, Soichiro; Kadono, Takafumi; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of perianal and vulvar extramammary Paget disease (EMPD), rare intraepithelial malignancies, is often challenging because of its potential to spread into the anal canal. However, there is still no consensus regarding the optimal resection margin within the anal canal. Between 2004 and 2014, six patients (three with perianal EMPD and three with vulvar EMPD) in which the spread of Paget cells into the anal canal was highly suspected were referred to our department. To evaluate the disease extent within the anal canal, preoperative mapping biopsy of the anal canal was performed in five out of six patients. Two patients were positive for Paget cells within the anal canal (one at the dentate line and the other at 0.5 cm above the dentate line), whereas in three patients, Paget cell were present only in the skin of the anal verge. Using 1 cm margin within the anal canal from the positive biopsy sites, we performed anal-preserving wide local excision (WLE), and negative resection margins within the anal canal were confirmed in all five patients. The remaining one patient with perianal EMPD did not undergo mapping biopsy of the anal canal because preoperative colonoscopy revealed that the Paget cells had spread into the lower rectum. Therefore, WLE with abdominoperineal resection was performed. During the median follow-up period of 37.3 months, no local recurrence was observed in all patients. Our small case series suggest the usefulness of mapping biopsy of the anal canal for the treatment of perianal and vulvar EMPD. PMID:27746643

  4. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum.

  5. Bilateral duplication of the internal auditory canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weon, Young Cheol; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Choi, Sung Kyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea); Koo, Ja-Won [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea)

    2007-10-15

    Duplication of the internal auditory canal is an extremely rare temporal bone anomaly that is believed to result from aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. We report bilateral duplication of the internal auditory canal in a 28-month-old boy with developmental delay and sensorineural hearing loss. (orig.)

  6. 33 CFR 117.285 - Grand Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grand Canal. 117.285 Section 117.285 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.285 Grand Canal. (a) The draw of the Lansing Island bridge, mile 0.7, shall open on...

  7. 33 CFR 117.453 - Houma Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Houma Canal. 117.453 Section 117.453 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.453 Houma Canal. The draw of the S3197 bridge, mile 1.7 at Houma, shall open on signal...

  8. 33 CFR 117.438 - Company Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Company Canal. 117.438 Section 117.438 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.438 Company Canal. (a) The draw of the S1 bridge, mile 0.4 at Lockport, shall open...

  9. Neuronal hyperplasia in the anal canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, C; Schrøder, H D

    1990-01-01

    In a consecutive series of minor surgical specimens from the anal canal, neuronal hyperplasia was found in nine of 56 haemorrhoidectomy specimens and in four of 23 fibrous polyps. In an additional series of 14 resections of the anal canal, neuronal hyperplasia was present in six cases, of which...

  10. 33 CFR 117.787 - Gowanus Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gowanus Canal. 117.787 Section 117.787 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.787 Gowanus Canal. The draws of the Ninth Street Bridge, mile 1.4, the Third...

  11. Blending Canal Surfaces Based on PH Curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Dong Xu; Fa-Lai Chen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for blending two canal surfaces is proposed. The blending surface is itself a generalized canal surface, the spine curve of which is a PH (Pythagorean-Hodograph) curve. The blending surface possesses an attractive property - its representation is rational. The method is extensible to blend general surfaces as long as the blending boundaries are well-defined.

  12. 33 CFR 117.445 - Franklin Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Franklin Canal. 117.445 Section 117.445 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.445 Franklin Canal. The draw of the Chatsworth Bridge, mile 4.8 at Franklin, shall...

  13. 33 CFR 117.1045 - Hood Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hood Canal. 117.1045 Section 117.1045 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1045 Hood Canal. The draw of the Washington State pontoon highway bridge near...

  14. DESIGN OF SEDIMENT TRANSPORTING CANAL SECTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prabhata K.SWAMEE; Nimisha SWAMEE

    2004-01-01

    Design equations for minimum area or maximum velocity canal-sections for transport of bulk sediment carried by water have been obtained. Such canals are economically feasible in the terrain where large slopes are available. The design procedure is illustrated by a practical example.

  15. Tissue engineering in endodontics: root canal revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palit Madhu Chanda; Hegde, K Sundeep; Bhat, Sham S; Sargod, Sharan S; Mantha, Somasundar; Chattopadhyay, Sayan

    2014-01-01

    Root canal revascularization attempts to make necrotic tooth alive by the use of certain simple clinical protocols. Earlier apexification was the treatment of choice for treating and preserving immature permanent teeth that have lost pulp vitality. This procedure promoted the formation of apical barrier to seal the root canal of immature teeth and nonvital filling materials contained within root canal space. However with the success of root canal revascularization to regenerate the pulp dentin complex of necrotic immature tooth has made us to rethink if apexification is at the beginning of its end. The objective of this review is to discuss the new concepts of tissue engineering in endodontics and the clinical steps of root canal revascularization.

  16. Clinical management of infected root canal dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, R M

    1996-08-01

    Several hundred different species of bacteria are present in the human intraoral environment. Bacterial penetration of root canal dentin occurs when bacteria invade the root canal system. These bacteria may constitute a reservoir from which root canal reinfection may occur during or after endodontic treatment. The learning objective of this article is to review endodontic microbiology, update readers on the role of bacteria in pulp and periapical disease, and discuss the principles of management of infected root canal dentin. Complete debridement, removal of microorganisms and affected dentin, and chemomechanical cleansing of the root canal are suggested as being the cornerstones of successful endodontic therapy, followed by intracanal medication to remove residual bacteria, when required.

  17. Type III apical transportation of root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv P Mantri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Procedural accidents leading to complications such as canal transportation have been ascribed to inapt cleaning and shaping concepts. Canal transportation is an undesirable deviation from the natural canal path. Herewith a case of apical transportation of root canal resulting in endodontic retreatment failure and its management is presented. A healthy 21-year-old young male presented discomfort and swelling associated with painful endodontically retreated maxillary incisor. Radiograph revealed periradicular radiolucency involving underfilled 11 and overfilled 12. Insufficiently obturated 11 exhibited apical transportation of canal. This type III transportation was treated by periradicular surgery and repair using white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Comfortable asymptomatic patient presented uneventful healing at third and fourth month recall visits. A decrease in the size of radiolucency in radiograph supported the clinical finding. In the present case, MTA is useful in repairing the transportation defect. The result of these procedures is predictable and successful.

  18. MRI Findings in Spinal Canal Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Barzin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Spinal canal stenosis results from progressive narrowing of the central spinal canal and the lateral recesses. Primary (congenital lumbar spinal stenosis is associated with achondroplastic dwarfism. The spinal canal may become narrowed by bulging or protrusion of the intervertebral disc annulus, herniation of the nucleus pulposus posteriorly, thickening of the posterior longitudinal ligament, hypertrophy of the facet joints, hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum, epidural fat deposition, spondylosis of the intervertebral disc margins and uncovertebral joint hypertrophy in the neck. The central canal and the neurorecess may be compromised by tumor infiltration, such as metastatic disease, or by infectious spondylitis."nAP diameter of the normal adult cervical canal has a mean value of 17-18 mm at vertebral levels C3-5. The lower cervical canal measures 12-14 mm. Cervical stenosis is associated with an AP diameter of less than 10 mm. The thoracic spinal canal varies from 12 to 14 mm in diameter in the adult. The diameter of the normal lumbar spinal canal varies from 15 to 27 mm. Lumbar stenosis results from a spinal canal diameter of less than 12 mm in some patients; a diameter of 10 mm is definitely stenotic."nSpinal MRI is the most suitable technique for the diagnosis of spinal stenosis. The examination should be performed using thin sections (3 mm and high resolution, including the axial and sagittal planes using T1-weighted, proton-density, and T2-weighted techniques. The bony and osteophytic components are seen best using a T2-weighted gradient-echo technique."nOn MRI, findings of spinal stenosis have a variable presentation depending on the specific disease. The goal of spinal imaging is to localize the site and level of disease and to help differentiate between conditions in which patients require surgery or conservative treatment."nIn this presentation, different kinds of spinal canal stenosis and their MRI findings would be discussed.

  19. Negotiability of Second Mesiobuccal Canals in Maxillary Molars Using a Reciprocating System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuolo, Mario Luis; Carvalho, Maria Cristina; De-Deus, Gustavo

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this prospective case series report was to assess the frequency in which the Reciproc R25 instrument (VDW, Munich, Germany) is able to scout and reach the full working length (WL) in second mesiobuccal (MB2) canals from maxillary molars. Conventional hand file negotiation was used as the reference technique for comparison. Maxillary molars (270 first molars and 71 second molars) were included in this study. After local anesthesia, the tooth was isolated with a rubber dam, and traditional straight-line access was made. After locating both first mesiobuccal and MB2 canals, patients were randomly assigned to one of the experimental groups (conventional hand filing preparation or R25 Reciproc preparation). All cases in which the hand files (G1) and R25 instrument (G2) were able to reach the fully electronically determined WL were classified as "reaching full WL" (RFWL). All cases in which the hand files (G1) and R25 instrument (G2) were unable to negotiate the full-length canal were classified as "not reaching full WL" (NRFWL). The number of root canals classified as RFWL and NRFWL from both groups were recorded and tabulated on an Excel data sheet (Microsoft, Redmond, WA). The frequency distributions (%) of root canals classified as RFWL and NRFWL were compared with overall-treated canals and for each treatment approach (hand file and R25 instrument) using a Pearson chi-square test. In group 1, the hand file approach reached the full WL in 57.48% of cases, whereas in group 2 the R25 instrument reached the full WL in 85.63% of cases. Three file separations occurred in each group while negotiating the MB2 canal. According to this study, the R25 instrument was 32% more effective when compared with hand files in scouting and negotiating MB2 canals in maxillary first and second molars. There was no difference with regard to file separation when comparing both preparation techniques.

  20. Canals in Milky Way radio polarization maps

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, A; Fletcher, Andrew; Shukurov, Anvar

    2006-01-01

    Narrow depolarized canals are common in maps of the polarized synchrotron emission of the Milky Way. Two physical effects that can produce these canals have been identified: the presence of Faraday rotation measure ($\\RM$) gradients in a foreground screen and the cumulative cancellation of polarization known as differential Faraday rotation. We show that the behaviour of the Stokes parameters $Q$ and $U$ in the vicinity of a canal can be used to identify its origin. In the case of canals produced by a Faraday screen we demonstrate that, if the polarization angle changes by $90\\degr$ across the canal, as is observed in all fields to-date, the gradients in $\\RM$ must be discontinuous. Shocks are an obvious source of such discontinuities and we derive a relation of the expected mean separation of canals to the abundance and Mach number of supernova driven shocks, and compare this with recent observations by \\citet{Haverkorn03}. We also predict the existence of less common canals with polarization angle changes o...

  1. Panama Canal Watershed Experiment- Agua Salud Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Robert F.; Ogden, Fred L.; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Hall, Jefferson S.

    2010-01-01

    The Agua Salud Project utilizes the Panama Canal’s (Canal) central role in world commerce to focus global attention on the ecosystem services provided by tropical forests. The Canal was one of the great engineering projects in the world. Completed in 1914, after almost a decade of concerted effort, its 80 km length greatly shortened the voyage between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. An entire class of ships, the Panamax, has been constructed to maximize the amount of cargo that can be carried in a Canal passage. In today’s parlance, the Canal is a “green” operation, powered largely by water (Table 1). The locks, three pairs on each end with a net lift of 27 meters, are gravity fed. For each ton of cargo that is transferred from ocean to ocean, about 13 tons of water (m3) are used. Lake Gatún forms much of the waterway in the Canal transect. Hydroelectricity is generated at the Gatún dam, whenever there is surplus water, and at Madden Dam (completed in 1936) when water is transferred from Lake Alhajuela to Lake Gatún. The Canal watershed is the source of drinking water for Panama City and Colon City, at either end of the Canal, and numerous towns in between.

  2. The ability of different nickel-titanium rotary instruments to induce dentinal damage during canal preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, C.A.S.; Shemesh, H.; Tanomaru-Filho, M.; Wesselink, P.R.; Wu, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of dentinal defects (fractures and craze lines) after canal preparation with different nickel-titanium rotary files. Two hundred sixty mandibular premolars were selected. Forty teeth were left unprepared (n = 40). The other teeth were prepared e

  3. Anterior canal BPPV and apogeotropic posterior canal BPPV: two rare forms of vertical canalolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Califano, L; Salafia, F; Mazzone, S; Melillo, M G; Califano, M

    2014-06-01

    Posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most frequent form of BPPV. It is characterized by a paroxysmal positioning nystagmus evoked through Dix-Hallpike and Semont positioning tests. Anterior canal BPPV (AC) is more rare than posterior canal BPPV; it presents a prevalent down beating positioning nystagmus, with a torsional component clockwise for the left canal, counterclockwise for the right canal. Due to the possible lack of the torsional component, it is sometimes difficult to identify the affected ear. An apogeotropic variant of posterior BPPV (APC) has recently been described, characterised by a paroxysmal positional nystagmus in the opposite direction to the one evoked in posterior canal BPPV: the linear component is down-beating, the torsional component is clockwise for the right canal, counter-clockwise for the left canal, so that a contra-lateral anterior canal BPPV could be simulated. During a 16 month period, of 934 BPPV patients observed, the authors identified 23 (2.5%) cases of apogeotropic posterior canal BPPV and 11 (1.2%) cases of anterior canal BPPV, diagnosed using the specific oculomotor patterns described in the literature. Anterior canal BPPV was treated with the repositioning manoeuvre proposed by Yacovino, which does not require identification of the affected side, whereas apogeotropic posterior canal BPPV was treated with the Quick Liberatory Rotation manoeuvre for the typical posterior canal BPPV, since in the Dix-Hallpike position otoliths are in the same position if they come either from the ampullary arm or from the non-ampullary arm. The direct resolution of BPPV (one step therapy) was obtained in 12/34 patients, 8/23 patients with APC and 4/11 patients with AC; canalar conversion into typical posterior canal BPPV, later treated through Quick Liberatory Rotation (two-step therapy), was obtained in 19 patients,14/23 with APC and 5/11 with AC. Three patients were lost to follow-up. Considering the effects of

  4. Inner Harbor Navigation Canal Basin Velocity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 4- 12 Inner Harbor Navigation Canal Basin Velocity Analysis Co as ta l a nd H yd ra ul ic s La bo ra to ry...library at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. ERDC/CHL TR-14-12 October 2014 Inner Harbor Navigation Canal Basin Velocity Analysis...system of levees, gates, and drainage structures in the Inner Harbor Navigation Canal (IHNC) basin and the greater New Orleans, Louisiana, area. Two

  5. Boolean nested canalizing functions: a comprehensive analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuan; Murrugarra, David; Aguilar, Boris; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Boolean network models of molecular regulatory networks have been used successfully in computational systems biology. The Boolean functions that appear in published models tend to have special properties, in particular the property of being nested canalizing, a property inspired by the concept of canalization in evolutionary biology. It has been shown that networks comprised of nested canalizing functions have dynamic properties that make them suitable for modeling molecular regulatory networks, namely a small number of (large) attractors, as well as relatively short limit cycles. This paper contains a detailed analysis of this class of functions, based on a novel normal form as polynomial functions over the Boolean field. The concept of layer is introduced that stratifies variables into different classes depending on their level of dominance. Using this layer concept a closed form formula is derived for the number of nested canalizing functions with a given number of variables. Additional metrics analyzed in...

  6. Two root canals in maxillary central incisor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Almeida Gomes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The success of endodontic treatment requires the knowledge of tooth morphology and its variations. Case report: This clinical article reports an unusual root canal configuration that was detected in a maxillary central incisor with two root canals, demonstrated by radiographic and computerized tomography exams. Conclusion: Knowledge of endodontic anatomy as well as the obtainment of both preoperative radiographs and tomography is important to detect abnormal tooth morphology.

  7. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L; Gilbertson, M; Eames, I

    2010-12-01

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid

  8. Morphology of the epithelium of the lower rectum and the anal canal in the adult human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Eiichi; Noguchi, Tsuyoshi; Nagai, Kaoruko; Akashi, Yuichi; Kawahara, Katsunobu; Shimada, Tatsuo

    2012-06-01

    The anal canal is an important body part clinically. However, there is no agreement about the epithelium of the anal canal, the anal transitional zone (ATZ) epithelium in particular. The aim of this study is to clarify the structure of the epithelium of the human lower rectum and anal canal. Intact rectum and anus obtained from patients who underwent surgery for rectal carcinoma were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy (LM and SEM). By LM, three types of epithelium were observed in the anal canal: simple columnar epithelium, stratified squamous epithelium, and stratified columnar epithelium. The lower rectum was composed of simple columnar epithelium. SEM findings showed stratified squamous epithelium that consisted of squamous cells with microridges, changing to simple columnar epithelium consisting of columnar cells with short microvilli at the anorectal line. LM and SEM observations in a one-to-one ratio revealed that the area of stratified columnar epithelium based on LM corresponded to the anal crypt and sinus. In conclusion, the epithelium of the human anal canal was fundamentally composed of simple columnar epithelium and stratified squamous epithelium. We found no evidence of the ATZ.

  9. Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence: a morphologic cause of vertigo similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krombach, G.A.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Haage, P.; Guenther, R.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); DiMartino, E. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Prescher, A. [Department of Anatomy, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Kinzel, S. [Department of Experimental Veterinarian Medicine, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    Heading Abstract.The aim of this study was to assess imaging findings of posterior semicircular dehiscence on computed tomography and to evaluate incidence of posterior and superior semicircular canal dehiscence in patients presenting with vertigo, sensorineuronal hearing loss or in a control group without symptoms related to the inner ear. Computed tomography was performed in 507 patients presenting either with vertigo (n=128; 23 of these patients suffered also from sensorineuronal hearing loss), other symptoms related to the inner ear, such as hearing loss or tinnitus (n=183) or symptoms unrelated to the labyrinth (n=196). All images were reviewed for presence of dehiscence of the bone, overlying the semicircular canals. Twenty-nine patients had superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Of these patients, 83% presented with vertigo, 10% with hearing loss or tinnitus and the remaining 7% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. In 23 patients dehiscence of the posterior semicircular canal was encountered. Of these patients, 86% presented with vertigo, 9% with hearing loss or tinnitus and 5% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. Defects of the bony overly are found at the posterior semicircular canal, in addition to the recently introduced superior canal dehiscence syndrome. Significant prevalence of vertigo in these patients suggests that posterior semicircular canal dehiscence can cause vertigo, similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence. (orig.)

  10. Rapid responses of the cupula in the lateral line of ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curcic-Blake, B; van Netten, SM

    2005-01-01

    Displacements of cupulae in the supraorbital lateral line canal in ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) have been measured using laser interferometry and by applying transient as well as sinusoidal fluid stimuli in the lateral line canal. The cupular displacement in response to impulses of fluid velocity s

  11. An in vitro model to investigate filling of lateral canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, Mauro; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Prati, Carlo; Breschi, Lorenzo

    2005-12-01

    Aims of this work were to examine lateral canals in extracted teeth, to propose a new technique to produce artificial lateral canals, and to compare two obturation techniques. Cleared roots were examined to record measure and shape of lateral canals. Artificial lateral canals were prepared on human demineralized teeth before final clearing. Specimens were divided in two groups: canals of group 1 were filled with Schilder's technique, canals of group 2 were filled with vertical compaction with apical backfilling. Stereomicroscopic analysis of lateral canal filling revealed lower filling rates in apical canals compared to coronal ones and higher filling rates with "vertical compaction with apical backfilling" compared to Schilder's group. The tested procedure appears to be a reliable technique to obtain standardized lateral canals and to compare filling procedures.

  12. A radiographic study of mandibular canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Chul; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral Radiology, Division of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-11-15

    The author invested the gonial angle, the angle of mandibular and mental canal to the lower border of the mandible, and a relationship of the position of the mandibular canal to the root apex of the posterior teeth and the cortical plate of the lower of the mandible. The materials consisted of 458 pantomograms in male and female aged 11-40 and divided into 5 groups at year intervals and subdivided into 3 groups by gonial angle. The results were as follows: 1. The gonial angle decreased with age, but slight increase occurred over 26-30 years. 2. The average angle of the mandibular canal to the lower border of the mandible was 151.6 degree and did not correlate with age. 3. The average angle of the mental canal to the lower border of the mandible was 36.9 degree and didn't correlate with age. 4. The angles of mandibular and mental canal to the lower border of mandible correlated with gonial angle. 5. The distance from the root apex of the posterior teeth to the upper wall mandibular canal was most short at the region of the distal root of the mandibular second and increased with age at the region of the mandibular second molar. 6. The distance from the lower wall of the mandibular canal to the cortical plate of the lower border of the mandibule was most short at the region of the mesial root of the mandibular first molar and didn't correlate with age.

  13. The Kra Canal and Southeast Asian Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Suryati Sulong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a conceptual study that attempts to analyse the possible effects of the development of the Kra Isthmus Canal on ASEAN relations. The Kra Canal would constitute a mega-project, a passageway that would connect the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand at the Isthmus of Kra, Thailand. Although the proposed Kra Canal is projected to provide many economic and trade benefits to Thailand, and to the region as a whole, steps toward its development have yet to be taken. There has been much debate over the costs for trade, the costs for the environment, national and regional security concerns, as well as major concerns related to political and economic relations in the region. Therefore, one of the main purposes of this study is to contribute to the debate on the possible impact of the devel-opment of the Kra Canal on ASEAN’s regional relations. In particular, it proposes that the development of the Kra Canal could threaten regional solidarity as it would physically divide maritime Southeast Asia from main-land Southeast Asia, which would ultimately result in an economic, cultural and political divide of ASEAN itself.

  14. Synchronous rectal adenocarcinoma and anal canal adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Jin; LI Jiyou; YAO Yunfeng; LU Aiping; WANG Hongyi

    2007-01-01

    It is difficult to distinguish a tectal carcinoma with anal metastases from coexistent synchronous anorectal carcinomas.The therapeutic strategy for rectal and anal carcinoma is so different that it should be clearly identified.Here,we report on the case of a 63-year-old man who presented with an upper-third rectal adenocarcinoma.Five months after resection,he developed an adenocarcinoma in the anal canal.The histological slides of both tumors were reviewed and immunohistochemical studies for cytokeratins(CKs)7 and 20 were performed.The index tumor demonstrated CK 7-/CK 20+and the second showed CK7+/CK20+.For this reason,we believe the present case had synchronous adenocarcinomas arising from anal canal and the rectum separately.It is very important to difierentiate the anorectal lesions pathologically because of the impact on the therapeutic options available,especially for the lesion arising in the anal canal.

  15. File list: Unc.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 Unclassified Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canal...s http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  16. File list: Unc.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 Unclassified Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canal...s http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  17. File list: Unc.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 Unclassified Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canal...s http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  18. File list: His.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 Histone Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canal...s http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  19. File list: His.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 Histone Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canal...s http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  20. File list: His.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 Histone Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canal...s http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  1. File list: His.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 Histone Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canal...s http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  2. File list: Unc.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 Unclassified Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canal...s http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  3. Cancer of the external auditory canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyrop, Mette; Grøntved, Aksel

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of surgery for cancer of the external auditory canal and relate this to the Pittsburgh staging system used both on squamous cell carcinoma and non-squamous cell carcinoma. DESIGN: Retrospective case series of all patients who had surgery between 1979 and 2000....... PATIENTS: Ten women and 10 men with previously untreated primary cancer. Median age at diagnosis was 67 years (range, 31-87 years). Survival data included 18 patients with at least 2 years of follow-up or recurrence. INTERVENTION: Local canal resection or partial temporal bone resection. MAIN OUTCOME...

  4. Polyacrylamide Transport in Water Delivery Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Zhu, J.; Young, M.

    2007-12-01

    Linear, anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) is being considered in the western United States as a technology to reduce seepage in unlined water delivery canals. A broad laboratory and field testing program has been undertaken to understand the benefits and potential environmental impacts of PAM use. The ability to predict the fate and transport of PAM in water delivery canals could prove to be a useful planning tool for PAM application. However, one key area of uncertainty of this type of canal treatment is the hydration, reaction, and settling rates of PAM after the dry powder is added to the canal water. In this study, we have developed a model that incorporates a number of known physical and chemical processes that can affect PAM transport, such as convection, dispersion, dissolution, flocculation, and settling, while solving the governing convection-dispersion transport equation. The model uses a mixed analytical and advanced numerical approach, and implements a transient partitioning of PAM mass between the canal water, the substrate soil, and potentially to open water bodies downstream of the application point. All source terms are modeled based on physical and chemical mechanisms as well as laboratory or field determined parameters. To more closely simulate field treatment of some canals, where PAM application moves upstream in time, the model is capable of implementing either a fixed or mobile upper boundary. In the latter treatment, the PAM can be added discretely or continuously in both time and space. A number of test situations have been simulated thus far, including theoretical and hypothetical cases for a wide range of conditions. The model also performed well when predicting PAM concentrations from a full-scale canal treatment experiment. The model provides a useful tool for predicting PAM fate and transport in water delivery canals, and therefore can play an important role in evaluating the efficacy of PAM application for water resources management

  5. Surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canals of maxillary incisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This case report presents surgical endodontic management outcomes of maxillary incisors that were infected via the lateral canals. Two cases are presented in which endodontically-treated maxillary central incisors had sustained lateral canal infections. A surgical endodontic treatment was performed on both teeth. Flap elevation revealed vertical bone destruction along the root surface and infected lateral canals, and microscopy revealed that the lateral canals were the origin of the lesions. After the infected lateral canals were surgically managed, both teeth were asymptomatic and labial fistulas were resolved. There were no clinical or radiographic signs of surgical endodontic management failure at follow-up visits. This case report highlights the clinical significance and surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canal of maxillary incisor. It is important to be aware of root canal anatomy variability in maxillary incisors. Maxillary central incisors infected via the lateral canal can be successfully managed by surgical endodontic treatment. PMID:25671217

  6. Cochlear implant outcomes in patients with superior canal dehiscence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puram, Sidharth V.; Roberts, Daniel S.; Niesten, Marlien E F; Dilger, Amanda E.; Lee, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether adult cochlear implant (CI) users with superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) or asymptomatic superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) have different surgical, vestibular, and audiologic outcomes when compared to CI users with normal temporal bone anatomy. Meth

  7. Stratification and enumeration of Boolean functions by canalizing depth

    CERN Document Server

    He, Qijun

    2015-01-01

    Boolean network models have gained popularity in computational systems biology over the last dozen years. Many of these networks use canalizing Boolean functions, which has led to increased interest in the study of these functions. The canalizing depth of a function describes how many canalizing variables can be recursively picked off, until a non-canalizing function remains. In this paper, we show how every Boolean function has a unique algebraic form involving extended monomial layers and a well-defined core polynomial. This generalizes recent work on the algebraic structure of nested canalizing functions, and it yields a stratification of all Boolean functions by their canalizing depth. As a result, we obtain closed formulas for the number of n-variable Boolean functions with depth k, which simultaneously generalizes enumeration formulas for canalizing, and nested canalizing functions.

  8. Intradermal melanocytic nevus of the external auditory canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Renato V; Brandão, Fabiano H; Aquino, José E P; Carvalho, Maria R M S; Giancoli, Suzana M; Younes, Eduado A P

    2005-01-01

    Intradermal nevi are common benign pigmented skin tumors. Their occurrence within the external auditory canal is uncommon. The clinical and pathologic features of an intradermal nevus arising within the external auditory canal are presented, and the literature reviewed.

  9. Stratification and enumeration of Boolean functions by canalizing depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qijun; Macauley, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Boolean network models have gained popularity in computational systems biology over the last dozen years. Many of these networks use canalizing Boolean functions, which has led to increased interest in the study of these functions. The canalizing depth of a function describes how many canalizing variables can be recursively "picked off", until a non-canalizing function remains. In this paper, we show how every Boolean function has a unique algebraic form involving extended monomial layers and a well-defined core polynomial. This generalizes recent work on the algebraic structure of nested canalizing functions, and it yields a stratification of all Boolean functions by their canalizing depth. As a result, we obtain closed formulas for the number of n-variable Boolean functions with depth k, which simultaneously generalizes enumeration formulas for canalizing, and nested canalizing functions.

  10. Viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function using acoustic reflectometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Peter J; Klarskov, Niels; Telford, Karen J;

    2012-01-01

    Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new reproducible technique that allows a viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis.......Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new reproducible technique that allows a viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis....

  11. 75 FR 32275 - Regulated Navigation Area; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ..., Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey Canal, Algiers Canal, New Orleans, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...), Harvey Canal, and Algiers Canal during severe hurricane conditions. Vessels will not be permitted to stay... communities within the IHNC, Harvey, and Algiers Canals from potential hazards associated with vessels...

  12. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872.3820 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a...

  13. 33 CFR 117.455 - Houma Navigation Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Houma Navigation Canal. 117.455 Section 117.455 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.455 Houma Navigation Canal. The draw of SR 661 (Houma Nav Canal) bridge,...

  14. 21 CFR 872.3810 - Root canal post.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal post. 872.3810 Section 872.3810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3810 Root canal post. (a) Identification. A root canal post is a device made of austenitic alloys...

  15. Root canal cleaning through cavitation and microstreaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaagen, B.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the flow from a needle using Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations and high-speed imaging experiments on sub-millimeter fluidic channels. These have shown that the flow is not effective in delivering the bleach near the bacteria, due to the complex geometry of the root canal.

  16. The crazy project – Canal Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Kundak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It was late April 2011 when “the Crazy Project - Canal Istanbul” was proposed by the Prime Minister of Turkey, during his election campaign.  Although the idea of an artificial canal is not new, since it is initiated without any consensus between the people and institutions in Istanbul, the project immediately set a large number of debates. These vary from the legitimacy of decentralization of governance, to potential impacts of the canal on international politics, economy, environment and urban life.  Regarding past infrastructure projects in Istanbul, such large scale investments have caused extensive acceleration in construction sector in one hand and social and economic shifts on the other.  In this paper, the Canal Istanbul Project is evaluated according to basic motivations and claims of the PM, multi-perspective view through challenges and limitation that the project is likely to face with and speculations on implementation approach. The final discussion on the project is based on benefits/losses of Istanbul once the project will be implemented.

  17. Note on Tendipedidae of the Suez Canal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruseman, G.

    1949-01-01

    Mr. A. C. V. VAN BEMMEL and Dr. A. DIAKONOFF of the Buitenzorg Museum (Java) collected Tendipedidae, which were attracted by artificial lights, when they passed the Suez Canal on 8-XI-1937 and 16-V-1939 respectively. This very interesting collection, containing some new species, was sent to me for d

  18. Infrared tympanic temperature and ear canal morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Several publications indicate that the infrared tympanic temperature (IRTT) underestimates the core temperature of the body when the ear canal is long, curvy and narrow. In order to quantify these observations, a study was performed in 10 subjects. The IRTT was determined and compared to the oesopha

  19. MR determination of neonatal spinal canal depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen, E-mail: owenarthurs@uk2.net [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London WC1N 3JH (United Kingdom); Thayyil, Sudhin, E-mail: s.thayyil@ucl.ac.uk [Academic Neonatology, Institute for Women' s Health, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom); Wade, Angie, E-mail: a.wade@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Chong, W.K., E-mail: Kling.Chong@gosh.nhs.uk [Paediatric Neuroradiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J., E-mail: Neil.Sebire@gosh.nhs.uk [Histopathology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom); Taylor, Andrew M., E-mail: a.taylor76@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Cardiorespiratory Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children and UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Objectives: Lumbar punctures (LPs) are frequently performed in neonates and often result in traumatic haemorrhagic taps. Knowledge of the distance from the skin to the middle of the spinal canal (mid-spinal canal depth - MSCD) may reduce the incidence of traumatic taps, but there is little data in extremely premature or low birth weight neonates. Here, we determined the spinal canal depth at post-mortem in perinatal deaths using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients and methods: Spinal canal depth was measured in 78 post-mortem foetuses and perinatal cases (mean gestation 26 weeks; mean weight 1.04 kg) at the L3/L4 inter-vertebral space at post-mortem MRI. Both anterior (ASCD) and posterior (PSCD) spinal canal depth were measured; MSCD was calculated and modelled against weight and gestational age. Results: ASCD and PSCD (mm) correlated significantly with weight and gestational age (all r > 0.8). A simple linear model MSCD (mm) = 3 Multiplication-Sign Weight (kg) + 5 was the best fit, identifying an SCD value within the correct range for 87.2% (68/78) (95% CI (78.0, 92.9%)) cases. Gestational age did not add significantly to the predictive value of the model. Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between MSCD and body weight at post-mortem MRI in foetuses and perinatal deaths. If this association holds in preterm neonates, use of the formula MSCD (mm) = 3 Multiplication-Sign Weight (kg) + 5 could result in fewer traumatic LPs in this population.

  20. Cervical spinal canal narrowing in idiopathic syringomyelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struck, Aaron F. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Neurology, Boston, MA (United States); Carr, Carrie M. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Shah, Vinil [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hesselink, John R. [University of California San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Haughton, Victor M. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The cervical spine in Chiari I patient with syringomyelia has significantly different anteroposterior diameters than it does in Chiari I patients without syringomyelia. We tested the hypothesis that patients with idiopathic syringomyelia (IS) also have abnormal cervical spinal canal diameters. The finding in both groups may relate to the pathogenesis of syringomyelia. Local institutional review boards approved this retrospective study. Patients with IS were compared to age-matched controls with normal sagittal spine MR. All subjects had T1-weighted spin-echo (500/20) and T2-weighted fast spin-echo (2000/90) sagittal cervical spine images at 1.5 T. Readers blinded to demographic data and study hypothesis measured anteroposterior diameters at each cervical level. The spinal canal diameters were compared with a Mann-Whitney U test. The overall difference was assessed with a Friedman test. Seventeen subjects were read by two reviewers to assess inter-rater reliability. Fifty IS patients with 50 age-matched controls were studied. IS subjects had one or more syrinxes varying from 1 to 19 spinal segments. Spinal canal diameters narrowed from C1 to C3 and then enlarged from C5 to C7 in both groups. Diameters from C2 to C4 were narrower in the IS group (p < 0.005) than in controls. The ratio of the C3 to the C7 diameters was also smaller (p = 0.004) in IS than controls. Collectively, the spinal canal diameters in the IS were significantly different from controls (Friedman test p < 0.0001). Patients with IS have abnormally narrow upper and mid cervical spinal canal diameters and greater positive tapering between C3 and C7. (orig.)

  1. Anatomical evaluation of the root canal diameter and root thickness on the apical third of mesial roots of molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Josué; Tatsch, Gustavo Henrique; Tatsch, Augusto César; Silveira, Luiz Fernando Machado; Ferrer-Luque, Carmen María

    2011-09-01

    The purpose was to determine the diameter of the main root canal and wall thickness in the apical dentin in mesial roots of maxillary and mandibular molars. Forty mesiobuccal and mesial root specimens were sectioned horizontally at 1, 2 and 3 mm from the apex, and measured at each top surface by using optical microscopy to an accuracy of ×20 magnification. The anatomical parameters were established as the following points of reference: AB, two points connected by a line from the outer edge of the mesial wall to the outer edge of the distal one through the center of the root canal to measure the thickness of the root and mesiodistal diameter of the root canal (CD). A second line (EF) was designed to evaluate the diameter of the root canal in the buccolingual direction. All data were summarized, and values were assessed statistically by ANOVA and Bonferroni multiple comparisons. The buccolingual (BL) root canal diameters at 1, 2 and 3 mm in the mandibular and maxillary molars were greater than in the mesiodistal (MD), showing statistically significant differences (p maxillary molars were statistically significant (p maxillary molars was 1.741 mm. The BL diameters in maxillary and mandibular molars were higher than the MD diameter. The thickness (MD) of maxillary and mandibular molars decreased as a function of apical proximity.

  2. Utilizing geophysical methods for asessment and characterization of canal seepage in El Paso's lower valley irrigation delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegon, Amanda Brooke

    El Paso County Water Improvement District No. 1 (EPCWID No.1) delivers the Rio Grande water for agricultural production and urban uses through numerous networked irrigation canals. Of the nearly 86 billion gallons of water released annually for irrigation uses in Texas, billions are lost due to evaporation and seepage in unlined canals with 56 million gallons of the billions are lost in Franklin Canal annually due to improper lining and sediment variation of the canals. To characterize seepage patterns and identify areas of high seepage, Electrical Resistivity, Ground Truthing via soil sample analysis were used along three, half-mile long sectioned canals during irrigation and non-irrigation seasons. The data lines acquired were processed in EARTHIMAGER 2D to create 2D vertical resistivity inversion profiles to locate potential areas of high seepage/high resistivity. The research results will help El Paso County Water Improvement District No. 1 to develop management strategies to conserve water and improve the delivery efficiency systems which leads to economic growth in the Rio Grande Basin.

  3. Dorello's Canal for Laymen: A Lego-Like Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Haim; Banerjee, Anirban Deep; Thakur, Jai Deep; Nanda, Anil

    2012-06-01

    Objective Dorello's canal was first described by Gruber in 1859, and later by Dorello. Vail also described the anatomy of Dorello's canal. In the preceding century, Dorello's canal was clinically important, in understanding sixth nerve palsy and nowadays it is mostly important for skull base surgery. The understanding of the three dimensional anatomy, of this canal is very difficult to understand, and there is no simple explanation for its anatomy and its relationship with adjacent structures. We present a simple, Lego-like, presentation of Dorello's canal, in a stepwise manner. Materials and Methods Dorello's canal was dissected in five formalin-fixed cadaver specimens (10 sides). The craniotomy was performed, while preserving the neural and vascular structures associated with the canal. A 3D model was created, to explain the canal's anatomy. Results Using the petrous pyramid, the sixth nerve, the cavernous sinus, the trigeminal ganglion, the petorclival ligament and the posterior clinoid, the three-dimensional structure of Dorello's canal was defined. This simple representation aids in understanding the three dimensional relationship of Dorello's canal to its neighboring structures. Conclusion Dorello's canal with its three dimensional structure and relationship to its neighboring anatomical structures could be reconstructed using a few anatomical building blocks. This method simplifies the understanding of this complex anatomical structure, and could be used for teaching purposes for aspiring neurosurgeons, and anatomy students.

  4. Comparison of the rheological properties of four root canal sealers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seok Woo Chang; Kwang Shik Bae; Young-Kyu Lee; Qiang Zhu; Won Jun Shon; Woo Cheol Lee; Kee Yeon Kum; Seung Ho Baek; In Bog Lee; Bum-Soon Lim

    2015-01-01

    The flowability of a root canal sealer is clinically important because it improves the penetration of the sealer into the complex root canal system. The purpose of this study was to compare the flowabilities of four root canal sealers, measured using the simple press method (ISO 6876), and their viscosities, measured using a strain-controlled rheometer. A newly developed, calcium phosphate-based root canal sealer (Capseal) and three commercial root canal sealers (AH Plus, Sealapex and Pulp Canal Sealer EWT) were used in this study. The flowabilities of the four root canal sealers were measured using the simple press method (n55) and their viscosities were measured using a strain-controlled rheometer (n55). The correlation between these two values was statistically analysed using Spearman’s correlation test. The flow diameters and the viscosities of the root canal sealers were strongly negatively correlated (r520.8618). The viscosity of Pulp Canal Sealer EWT was the lowest and increased in the following order:AH Plus,Sealapex,Capseal (P,0.05). All of the tested root canal sealers showed characteristic time-and temperature-dependent changes in their rheological properties. The viscosities measured using the strain-controlled rheometer were more precise than the flowabilities measured using the simple press method, suggesting that the rheometer can accurately measure the rheological properties of root canal sealers.

  5. Research on Canal System Operation Based on Controlled Volume Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Ding

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An operating simulation mode based on storage volume control method for multireach canal system in series was established. In allusion to the deficiency of existing controlled volume algorithm, the improved algorithm was proposed, that is the controlled volume algorithm of whole canal pools, the simulation results indicate that the storage volume and water level of each canal pool can be accurately controlled after the improved algorithm was adopted. However, for some typical discharge demand change operating conditions of canal, if the controlled volume algorithm of whole canal pool is still adopted, then it certainly will cause some unnecessary regulation, and consequently increases the disturbed canal reaches. Therefor, the idea of controlled volume operation method of continuous canal pools was proposed, and its algorithm was designed. Through simulation to practical project, the results indicate that the new controlled volume algorithm proposed for typical operating condition can comparatively obviously reduce the number of regulated check gates and disturbed canal pools for some typical discharge demand change operating conditions of canal, thus the control efficiency of canal system was improved. The controlled volume method of operation is specially suitable for large-scale water delivery canal system which possesses complex operation requirements.

  6. Numerical modeling of the 1964 Alaska tsunami in western Passage Canal and Whittier, Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Nicolsky

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A numerical model of the wave dynamics in Passage Canal, Alaska during the Mw 9.2 megathrust earthquake is presented. During the earthquake, several types of waves were identified at the city of Whittier, located at the head of Passage Canal. The first wave is thought to have been a seiche, while the other two waves were probably triggered by submarine landslides. We model the seiche wave, landslide-generated tsunami, and tectonic tsunami in Passage Canal and compute inundation by each type of wave during the 1964 event. Modeled results are compared with eyewitness reports and an observed inundation line. Results of the numerical experiments let us identify where the submarine landslides might have occurred during the 1964 event. We identify regions at the head and along the northern shore of Passage Canal, where landslides triggered a wave that caused most of the damage in Whittier. An explanation of the fact that the 1964 tectonic tsunami in Whittier was unnoticed is presented as well. The simulated inundation by the seiche, landslide-generated tsunami, and tectonic tsunami can help to mitigate tsunami hazards and prepare Whittier for a potential tsunami.

  7. Sagittal MR findings of L5 spondylolysis : changes of spinal canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Cheol; Choi, Woo Suk; Kim, Eui Jong; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Kim, Ihn Sub; Yoon, Yup [Kyunghee Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    To evaluate changes in the spinal canal in cases of L5 spondylolysis, as seen on sagittal MR images. We retrospectively analysed the MR findings of 27 patients suffering from L5 spondylolysis without spondylolisthesis and compared them with 100 control subjects. Spondylolysis had been confirmed by conventional radiography. On midsagittal MR images, sagittal canal ratio (SCR) was defined as midsagittal canal diameter at L5 devided by that at L1. We analysed the frequency of posterior epidural fat deposition(posterior epidural fat between the posterior margin of the dural sac and the anterior cortical margin of the spinous process on the midsagittal line), and compared this with the frequency in 100 control subjects. Mean SCR value in 27 patients with L5 spondylolysis(1.22) was significantly greater than 100 control subjects(0.96, p<0.001). Mean SCR value in 17 patients with L5 spondylolysis and posterior epidural fat deposition(1.27) was significantly higher than in nine control subjects with posterior epidural fat deposition(0.97). Posterior epidural fat deposition was more frequently indentified in patients with L5 spondylolysis(63%) than in control subjects(9%). The possibility of L5 spondylolysis is suggested when on midsaggital MR imaging, the anteroposterior diameter of the L5 spinal canal is seen to be widened and posterior epidural fat deposition is noted.

  8. [Meningioma of the optic canal. Diagnostic aspects apropos of 3 surgically treated cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, A; Scherpereel, B; Rousseaux, P; Bernard, M H; Peruzzi, P; Baudrillard, J C; Delattre, J F

    1988-01-01

    Three cases of meningiomas originated in the optic nerve sheath in its intra-canalicular portion, have been operated on in Reims since we dispose of the TDM; it gave us the opportunity to re-define the way how to explore an area always difficult to investigate; indeed it has been impossible for a long time to clearly isolate meningiomas in the optic canal through the classical neuro-radiologic technics. The anatomic study confirms that the optic canal orientation is fixed, constantly inclined downward and forward with an angle of minus forty degrees with regard to the horizontal line; our work establishes that it is possible to apply it to the CT scan; in this incidence, TDM perfectly allows to visualize the optic canal and the optic nerve, from the anterior clinoid process to the posterior orbital pole. This incidence seems us to be interesting, in addition to classical neuro-ophthalmic planes, for early diagnosis or supervision of tumors of the optic canal.

  9. An electron microscopic study of the development of the ependyma of the central canal of the mouse spinal cord.

    OpenAIRE

    Sturrock, R R

    1981-01-01

    The central canal of the adult mouse spinal cord is lined for most of its extent by ependymal cells which are rich in microfilaments and whose apical surface is covered with matted, broad microvilli. The canal itself is filled with amorphous material containing glycogen granules. Two forms of this material are present, a dark form rich in glycogen, and a light form containing a few glycogen granules. Each type appears to be surrounded by a membrane. The upper cervical region, however, has a l...

  10. Water quality of the Boca Raton canal system and effects of the Hillsboro Canal inflow, southeastern Florida, 1990-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The City of Boca Raton in southeastern Palm Beach County, Florida, is an urban residential area that has sustained a constant population growth with subsequent increase in water use. The Boca Raton network of canals is controlled to provide for drainage of excess water, to maintain proper coastal ground-water levels to prevent saltwater intrusion, and to recharge the surficial aquifer system from which the city withdraws potable water. Most of the water supplied to the Boca Raton canal system and the surficial aquifer system, other than rainfall and runoff, is pumped from the Hillsboro Canal. The Biscayne aquifer, principal hydrogeologic unit of the surficial aquifer system, is highly permeable and there is a close relation between water levels in the canals and the aquifer. The amount of water supplied by seepage from the conservation areas is unknown. Because the Hillsboro Canal flows from Lake Okeechobee and Water Conservation Areas 1 and 2, which are places of more highly mineralized ground water and surface water, the canal is a possible source of contamination. Water samples were collected at 10 canal sites during wet and dry seasons and analyzed for major inorganic ions and related characteristics, nutrients, and trace elements. All concentrations were generally within or less than the drinking-water standards established by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. The high concentrations of sodium and chloride that were detected in samples from the Boca Raton canal system are probably from the more mineralized water of the Hillsboro Canal. Other water-quality data, gathered from various sources from 1982 through 1991, did not indicate any significant changes nor trends. The effects of the Hillsboro Canal on the water quality of the Boca Raton canal system are indicated by increased concentrations of sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, and total organic carbon. Concentrations of the constituents in the canal water generally decrease with distance

  11. Inequality and megaprojects: The Panama Canal expansion

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Cuando el control y gestión del Canal de Panamá pasó al estado panameño a finales de 1999, el gobierno comenzó a preparar un plan para su modernización. Este plan incluía la construcción de nuevas esclusas para que pudieran atravesarlo un mayor número de barcos y que admitiese los nuevos buques Post-Panamax de gran tamaño. El proyecto de Ampliación del Canal se ha seleccionado como ejemplo paradigmático de grandes Obras Públicas (GOP) por su impacto ambiental, económico y social. Este caso de...

  12. Anal cancer; Cancer du canal anal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesneau, M.; Champeaux-Orange, E. [Service de radiotherapie, Centre regional universitaire de cancerologie Henry-S.-Kaplan CHU de Tours, Hopital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France); Champeaux-Orange, E. [Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, Centre hospitalier regional d' Orleans, 45 - Orleans (France); Hennequin, C. [Service de cancerologie-radiotherapie, hopital Saint-Louis, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    Anal canal epidermoid carcinomas represent 1.2% of digestive cancers and 6% of ano-rectal cancers. For localized diseases, the treatment is based on radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy (5-FU and cisplatin or mitomycin), according to tumour and nodal extension. The recommended treatment dose is 45 Gy in the anal canal, the mesorectum, para-rectal lymph nodes, and inguinal lymph nodes. An additional dose of 15 to 20 Gy is delivered in the initial tumour for good responders. Salvage surgery is necessary in case of poor response. The organs at risk to be considered are bladder, femur heads, small intestine and vulva. The objective of this work is to summarize the epidemiological and radio-anatomic and prognostic characteristics of this tumour. The conformal radiotherapy technique is illustrated by a case report. (authors)

  13. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, F T

    2012-01-31

    Squamous cell carcinoma ofthe anal canal represents 1.5% of all malignancies affectingthe gastrointestinal tract. Over the past 20 years dramatic changes have been seen in both the epidemiological distribution of the disease and in the therapeutic modalities utilised to manage it. CLINICAL MANAGEMENT: Historically abdominoperineal resection had been the treatment of choice with local resection reserved for early stage disease. Work by Nigro et al. has revolutionised how we currently manage carcinoma of the anal canal, demonstrating combined modality chemoradiotherapy as an appropriate alternative to surgical resection with the benefit of preserving sphincter function. Surgery is then reserved for recurrent disease with salvage abdominoperineal resection. This article reviews current literature and highlights the changing therapeutic modalities with selected clinical cases

  14. The shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal A forma do canal vertebral lombar humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Zarzur

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on the anatomy of the human vertebral column characterizes the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal as triangular. The purpose of the present study was to determine the precise shape of the lumbar vertebral canal. Ten lumbar vertebral columns of adult male cadavers were dissected. Two transverse sections were performed in the third lumbar vertebra. One section was performed at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava, and the other section was performed at the level of the pedicles. The shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the pedicles tends to be oval or circular, whereas the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava is triangular. Thus, the shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal is not exclusively triangular, as reported in the literature. It is related to the level of the transversal section performed on the lumbar vertebra. This finding should be taken into consideration among factors involved in the spread of solutions introduced into the epidural space.A literatura sobre a anatomia da coluna vertebral descreve como sendo triangular o formato do canal vertebral na região lombar. O objetivo deste estudo é determinar a real forma do canal da coluna vertebral lombar.Dez colunas vertebrais de cadáveres de homens adultos foram dissecadas. Dois cortes transversais foram executados na terceira vértebra lombar. Um corte foi feito no nível das bordas inferiores de dois ligamentos amarelos vizinhos e o outro corte foi transversal, no nível dos pedículos. A forma do canal vertebral variou: no nível dos pedículos ela tende a ser oval ou circular e junto às bordas inferiores dos ligamentos amarelos passa a ser triangular. Portanto, a forma do canal vertebral lombar não é somente triangular; ela depende do nível em que se faz o corte transversal da vértebra. Estes achados devem ser levados em consideração entre os fatores envolvidos na difusão das

  15. Effect of two contemporary root canal sealers on root canal dentin microhardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Successful root canal treatment depends on proper cleaning, disinfecting and shaping of the root canal space. Pulpless teeth have lower dentin microhardness value compared to that of vital teeth. A material which can cause change in dentin composition may affect the microhardness. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of two root canal sealers on dentin microhardness. Material and Methods Forty two single rooted teeth were selected and divided into 3 equal groups; Apexit, iRootSP and control groups (n=14) Each group was then divided into 2 subgroups according to the post evaluation period; 1 week and 2 months (n=7). Root canal procedure was done in the experimental groups and obturation was made using either; Apexit, iRootSP or left unprepared and unobturated in the control group. Roots were sectioned transversely into cervical, middle and apical segments. The three sections of each root were mounted in a plastic chuck with acrylic resin. The coronal dentin surfaces of the root segments werepolished. Microhardness of each section was measured at 500 µm and 1000 µm from the canal lumen. Results Four way-ANOVA revealed that different tested sealer materials, canal third, measuring distance from the pulp and time as independent variables had statistically non significant effect on mean microhardness values (VHN) at p≤0.001. Among iRootSP groups there was a statistically significant difference between iRoot SP at coronal root portion (87.79±17.83) and iRoot SP at apical root portion (76.26±9.33) groups where (p=0.01). IRoot SP at coronal canal third had higher statistically significant mean microhardness value (87.79±17.83) compared to Apexit at coronal third (73.61±13.47) where (p=0.01). Conclusions Root canal sealers do not affect dentin microhardness. Key words:Root canal, dentin, sealers, microhardness, bioceramic. PMID:28149466

  16. Lesions in the external auditory canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyank S Chatra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The external auditory canal is an S- shaped osseo-cartilaginous structure that extends from the auricle to the tympanic membrane. Congenital, inflammatory, neoplastic, and traumatic lesions can affect the EAC. High-resolution CT is well suited for the evaluation of the temporal bone, which has a complex anatomy with multiple small structures. In this study, we describe the various lesions affecting the EAC.

  17. Carotid canal dehiscence in the human skull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor Vazquez, J.F.; Gil Verona, J.A. [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valladolid, Ramon y Cajal, 7, E-47005 Valladolid (Spain); Garcia Porrero, M. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valladolid (Spain)

    1999-06-01

    Abnormalities of the floor of the carotid canal have been studied in 538 skulls. These abnormalities range from a fissure to total absence of the floor. This variation may be caused by abnormalities of the internal carotid artery or deficiencies in ossification of the skull base. CT suggests that these changes should be taken into account by surgeons working on the skull base. (orig.) With 4 figs., 8 refs.

  18. Splendid Culture on the Grand Canal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    JINING Prefecture on thesouthwest plain of ShandongProvince is known as the homeof Confucius and Mencins and theland of etiquette.It is famous as thebirthplace or residence of many out-standing people and has beautifulscenery with blue Weishan Lake tothe south,lofty Mount Tai to thenorth and Liang Mountain by thelake in the west.The Beijing-Hangzhor Grand Canal crosses theprefecture,which has been a com-munications hub between north andsouth China since the Ming

  19. Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, O

    2009-02-01

    The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

  20. Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, O

    2012-02-01

    The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Root canal filling using Resilon: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, D J

    2011-07-01

    Root canal treatment is achieved by chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system followed by filling. The filling material \\'entombs\\' residual bacteria and acts as a barrier which prevents the entrance of oral microorganisms and reinfection of the root canal system through microleakage. However, filling with contemporary root filling materials such as gutta-percha offers limited long-term resistance to microorganisms; as a result other materials such as Resilon have been investigated as alternatives. The aim of this review was to analyse the literature to consider whether Resilon is a suitable root canal filling material. A MEDLINE and Cochrane library search including various keyword searches identified several papers which investigated or discussed Resilon or RealSeal\\/Epiphany. Analysis of the literature demonstrated that the bulk of the literature is in vitro in nature, based largely on leakage-type studies, and demonstrates a wide variety of methodologies with conflicting findings; as a result meaningful conclusions are difficult. Within the limit of these in vitro studies Resilon appears to perform adequately in comparison to gutta-percha, however, as a result of the questionable merit of such studies, it cannot presently be considered an evidence-based alternative to the current gold standard gutta-percha. It is imperative that before Resilon is considered as a replacement material, a better understanding of the physical properties of the resin sealer and the reality of the adhesive \\'monoblock\\' are elucidated. The literature also demonstrates a paucity of quality long-term clinical outcome studies which will need to be addressed before firm conclusions can be reached.

  2. Defining the Location of the Adductor Canal Using Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Wan Yi; Bjørn, Siska; Strid, Jennie Maria Christin;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The precise location of the adductor canal remains controversial among anesthesiologists. In numerous studies of the analgesic effect of the so-called adductor canal block for total knee arthroplasty, the needle insertion point has been the midpoint of the thigh......, determined as the midpoint between the anterior superior iliac spine and base of patella. "Adductor canal block" may be a misnomer for an approach that is actually an injection into the femoral triangle, a "femoral triangle block." This block probably has a different analgesic effect compared...... with an injection into the adductor canal. We sought to determine the exact location of the adductor canal using ultrasound and relate it to the midpoint of the thigh. METHODS: Twenty-two volunteers were examined using ultrasound. The proximal end of the adductor canal was identified where the medial border...

  3. Endodontic management of a maxillary second premolar with an S-shaped root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex and unusual root canal morphology is an often occurring phenomenon. Understanding the unusual root canal morphology contributes to success in endodontic treatment. One such variant root canal morphology is the ′S′ shaped or bayonet shaped root canal. This case report discusses endodontic treatment of a maxillary second premolar with an ′S′ shaped root canal.

  4. Geophysical investigation of a dutch levee and canal using various seismic and GPR techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorlandt, R.P.; Kleine, M.P.E. de; Kruiver, P.P.; Bakker, M.A.J.; Mesdag, C.S.; Hoogendoorn, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    A geophysical survey has been carried out on the Juliana Canal and levee in the south of the Netherlands. For a stretch of about 35 km along this canal various construction works are planned, to deepen and widen the canal. The canal is in a geological setting such that leakage from the canal to the

  5. Biomechanics of Schlemm's canal endothelium and intraocular pressure reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamer, W Daniel; Braakman, Sietse T; Zhou, Enhua H; Ethier, C Ross; Fredberg, Jeffrey J; Overby, Darryl R; Johnson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Ocular hypertension in glaucoma develops due to age-related cellular dysfunction in the conventional outflow tract, resulting in increased resistance to aqueous humor outflow. Two cell types, trabecular meshwork (TM) and Schlemm's canal (SC) endothelia, interact in the juxtacanalicular tissue (JCT) region of the conventional outflow tract to regulate outflow resistance. Unlike endothelial cells lining the systemic vasculature, endothelial cells lining the inner wall of SC support a transcellular pressure gradient in the basal to apical direction, thus acting to push the cells off their basal lamina. The resulting biomechanical strain in SC cells is quite large and is likely to be an important determinant of endothelial barrier function, outflow resistance and intraocular pressure. This review summarizes recent work demonstrating how biomechanical properties of SC cells impact glaucoma. SC cells are highly contractile, and such contraction greatly increases cell stiffness. Elevated cell stiffness in glaucoma may reduce the strain experienced by SC cells, decrease the propensity of SC cells to form pores, and thus impair the egress of aqueous humor from the eye. Furthermore, SC cells are sensitive to the stiffness of their local mechanical microenvironment, altering their own cell stiffness and modulating gene expression in response. Significantly, glaucomatous SC cells appear to be hyper-responsive to substrate stiffness. Thus, evidence suggests that targeting the material properties of SC cells will have therapeutic benefits for lowering intraocular pressure in glaucoma.

  6. Ring canals in the ovarian follicles of Aedes aegypti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, G.; Rai, K.S.

    1976-07-01

    In the ovarian follicles of Aedes aegypti, the oocyte develops from 1 of 8 interconnected cystocytes. The cytoplasmic interconnections, the ring canals, have an electron dense rim in which are embedded an array of parallel filaments. The ring canal in presumptive follicle is generally devoid of organelles, while that in the more advanced secondary follicle encloses ribosomes, vesicles and mitochondria. Ring canals may furnish a means for the transfer of materials including ribosomes and mitochondria from nurse cells to the oocyte.

  7. Endodontic Considerations in Three-canalled Premolars: A Practical Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Giardino, Luciano; Asgary, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    The most difficult clinical considertions in orthograde root canal treatment are generally related to the anatomy of the teeth. Three-canalled maxillary and mandibular premolars (mini-molars) have been reported in several studies. The purpose of this paper was to review various aspects of three-canalled premolars including incidence, clinical and radiographic diagnosis, racial predisposition, access cavity preparation, instrumentation and obturation. PMID:27141223

  8. Three root canals in the maxillary second premolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Almeida-Gomes Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report an endodontic treatment of the maxillary second premolar with three root canals and distinct foramens. The possibility of three root canals in this tooth is quite small; however, it must be taken into account in clinical and radiographic evaluation during endodontic treatment. Many times, their presence is noticed only after canal treatment due to continuing post-operative discomfort.

  9. Improved Visualization of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae—Part II: Alimentary Canal Components and Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawni L. Crippen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae is a pest of stored food products and problematic to every type of poultry production facility. Larvae and adults can ingest and harbor foodborne and poultry pathogens. Determining the efficiency of this insect’s capacity to transmit disease is critical to improving management of A. diaperinus on poultry facilities and providing a safe food supply for human consumption. However, a deficiency exists in the literature reporting measurements of the gut and its defined segments. Previous reports include line drawing depictions, which aid little in the determination of the pathogen reservoir potential of these insects. Advances in technology allowed more accurate visualization and precise measurement of gross anatomical features of the alimentary canal. A photographic depiction to aid the researcher in the visualization of anatomical features and accurate measurements of the alimentary canal for these insects is presented here.

  10. Assessment of trace metal contamination in a historical freshwater canal (Buckingham Canal), Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, M; Nagarajan, R; Velmurugan, P M; Sathiyamoorthy, J; Krishnamurthy, R R; Urban, B

    2012-12-01

    The present study was done to assess the sources and the major processes controlling the trace metal distribution in sediments of Buckingham Canal. Based on the observed geochemical variations, the sediments are grouped as South Buckingham Canal and North Buckingham Canal sediments (SBC and NBC, respectively). SBC sediments show enrichment in Fe, Ti, Mn, Cr, V, Mo, and As concentrations, while NBC sediments show enrichment in Sn, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Hg. The calculated Chemical Index of Alteration and Chemical Index of Weathering values for all the sediments are relatively higher than the North American Shale Composite and Upper Continental Crust but similar to Post-Archaean Average Shale, and suggest a source area with moderate weathering. Overall, SBC sediments are highly enriched in Mo, Zn, Cu, and Hg (geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) class 4-6), whereas NBC sediments are enriched in Sn, Cu, Zn, and Hg (I(geo) class 4-6). Cu, Ni, and Cr show higher than Effects-Range Median values and hence the biological adverse effect of these metals is 20%; Zn, which accounts for 50%, in the NBC sediments, has a more biological adverse effect than other metals found in these sediments. The calculated I(geo), Enrichment Factor, and Contamination Factor values indicate that Mo, Hg, Sn, Cu, and Zn are highly enriched in the Buckingham Canal sediments, suggesting the rapid urban and industrial development of Chennai Metropolitan City have negatively influenced on the surrounding aquatic ecosystem.

  11. Three distal root canals in mandibular first molar with different canal configurations: Report of two cases and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing number of reports of aberrant root canal morphology, the clinician needs to be aware of the variable anatomy. Various case reports have been published with the finding of middle mesial canal in mandibular first molar, however finding of three distal canals in distal roots of mandibular first molar is rare. This article reports endodontic management of two mandibular first molars presented with three distal canals present in a single distal root (Sert and Bayirli type XVIII and distal and distolingual root.

  12. Large small cell carcinoma of anorectal canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramani, Leila; Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad; Hosseini, Seyed Vahid; Hosseinzade, Masood; Izadpanah, Ahmad; Ebrahimian, Saba; Bananzadeh, Alimohammad

    2014-03-01

    Neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1), also known as Von Recklinghausen disease, is an autosomal dominant disorder with incidence of one per 4000. Neurofibromas are benign, heterogeneous, peripheral nerve sheath tumors coming up from the connective tissue of peripheral nerve sheaths, particularly the endoneurium. Visceral involvement in disseminated neurofibromatosis is considered rare. Neurofibroma occurs most frequently in the stomach and jejunum, but colon and anorectal canal may also be involved. Gastrointestinal neurofibromas may lead to bleeding, obstruction, intussusception, protein-losing enteropathy and bowel perforation. We encountered a case of diffusely involving the anorectal area by huge neurofibroma, which resulted in pelvic pain with watery diarrhea and urgency.

  13. Suez Canal Clearance Operation, Task Force 65

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    and remove the four wrecks from the central region of the canal; DREDGE 23, Tug MONGUED, Dredge KASSER and a Concrete Caisson. All salvage operations...feet BUCKET DREDGE NO. 23 72.00 1600 tons 191 feet TUG MONGUED 81.50 1200 tons 165 feet DIPPER DREDGE KASSER 81.50 1200 tons 125 feet CONCRETE CAISSON...MONGUED, DREDGE KASSER , and DREDGE 23 to wet dump in the Great Bitter Lake. Heavy crane THOR arrived in Port Said after transit from Hamburg, Germany

  14. CANALES (2) [Material gráfico

    OpenAIRE

    Fundación para la Etnografía y el Desarrollo de la Artesanía Canaria

    1990-01-01

    ALGUNAS PIEDRAS CAIDAS. SEDIMENTACION. Antiguedad: SIGLO XX CONSTRUCCION DE ARENA, CAL Y PIEDRAS REDONDEADAS. CON RIPIOS POR TODAS PARTES. EN SECTORES HAY PAREDES DE HASTA 4 MTS. DE ALTO PARA SALVAR EL DESNIVEL. UN METRO DE ANCHO DEL CANAL Y 0`5 MTS. LA COBERTURA DEL MISMO. Calificación del suelo: RÚSTICO DE PROTECCIÓN NATURAL Clasificación del suelo: RÚSTICO Declaración BIC:No LA OTRA ACEQUIA QUE CIRCULA POR LA PARTE SUPERIOR ESTA MAS DETERIORADA. VAN A 10 MTS. DE SEPARACIO...

  15. CAVERNOUS HEMANGIOMA OF THE INTERNAL AUDITORY CANAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Hekmatara

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Cavernous hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of the internal auditory canal (IAC of which fourteen cases have been reported so far."nTinnitus and progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL are the chief complaints of the patients. Audiological and radiological planes, CTScan, and magnetic resonance image (MRI studies are helpful in diagnosis. The only choice of treatment is surgery with elective transmastoid trans¬labyrinthine approach. And if tumor is very large, the method of choice will be retrosigmoid approach.

  16. Cancer incidence in the Love Canal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janerich, D T; Burnett, W S; Feck, G; Hoff, M; Nasca, P; Polednak, A P; Greenwald, P; Vianna, N

    1981-06-19

    Data from the New York Cancer Registry show no evidence for higher cancer rates associated with residence near the Love Canal toxic waste burial site in comparison with the entire state outside of New York City. Rates of liver cancer, lymphoma, and leukemia, which were selected for special attention, were not consistently elevated. Among the other cancers studied, a higher rate was noted only for respiratory cancer, but it was not consistent across age groups and appeared to be related to a high rate for the entire city of Niagara Falls. There was no evidence that the lung cancer rate was associated with the toxic wastes buried at the dump site.

  17. Revestimientos especiales para diques y canales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorzi, Silvano

    1964-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the possibilities and advantages of adopting special facings for dykes and canals, and generally for all large hydraulic works, where waterproofing is of paramount importance. Technical advances in recent years have made it possible to prefabricate many facing units used in these types of works; large slabs, made in reinforced and prestressed concrete, are flexible, and watertight. Although there are many possibilities and types of facing treatments, the one described here is outstanding. It consists of narrow slabs, highly flexible, placed transversally with respect to the canal axis. They are attached with cement mortar, and the joints are finally sealed with a special mortar, called «Emboco». In this article a description is also given of a series of projects, where facing treatments have been used, which are now successfully in service. Finally some general and simple advise is given on the best procedure to apply these facing treatments in the most effective and economic manner.En este trabajo se resumen las posibilidades y ventajas que ofrecen los revestimientos especiales de diques y taludes de canales y, en general, en todas las grandes obras hidráulicas, en que la impermeabilización es de mayor importancia al tratar de conservar los caudales iniciales o la retención de aguas embalsadas, según los casos. Los progresos de las técnicas modernas, en particular la prefabricación, han permitido este tipo de revestimientos con losas de gran longitud, extremadamente flexibles e impermeables, de hormigón armado y pretensado. Aunque son muchas las posibilidades y tipos de revestimiento, destaca el que a continuación se expone: consiste en placas o losas estrechas, de gran flexibilidad, colocadas transversalmente al eje del canal sobre tongadas de mortero de cemento, y cuyas juntas se sellan, finalmente, con un mortero especial llamado «Emboco». Complementan la exposición teórica del método una serie de

  18. Root canal treatment of mandibular second premolar tooth with taurodontism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujašković Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Taurodontism is a morphoanatomical change in the shape of a tooth. An enlarged body of a tooth with smaller than usual roots is a characteristic feature. Internal tooth anatomy correlates with this appearance, which means that a taurodontal tooth has a large pulp chamber and apically positioned furcations. This dental anomaly may be associated with different syndromes and congenital discoders. CASE OUTLINE The case report presents the patient of a rare case of taurodontism in the mandibular second premolar with chronic periodontitis. Endodontic treatment was performed after dental history and clinical examination. Special care is required in all segments of endodontic treatment of a taurodontal tooth from the identification orifice, canal exploration, determining working length, cleaning and shaping and obturation of the root canal. Precurved K-file was used for canal exploration and location of the furcation. One mesial and one distal canal with the buccal position were identified in the apical third of the root canal. The working lengths of two canals were determined by radiographic interpretation with two K-files in each canal and verified with the apex locator. During canal instrumentation, the third canal was located in the disto-lingual position. The working length of the third canal was established using the apex locator. CONCLUSION Thorough knowledge of tooth anatomy and its variations can lead to lower percentage of endodontic failure. Each clinical case involving these teeth should be investigated carefully, clinically and radiographically to detect additional root canals. High quality radiographs from different angles and proper instrumentarium improve the quality of endodontic procedure.

  19. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo with Simultaneous Involvement of Multiple Semicircular Canals

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Dae Bo; Song, Chang Eun; Jung, Eun Jung; Ko, Kyung Min; Park, Jin Woo; Song, Mee Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) generally involves a single semicircular canal (single canal BPPV) but it has been reported that more than one semicircular canal on either the same or the opposite side can be involved in 6.8-20% of the cases (multiple canal BPPV). In this study, the clinical characteristics of multiple canal BPPV were analyzed and compared to those of single canal BPPV. Materials and Methods Retrospective analysis was performed on 1054 co...

  20. Canal switch after canalith repositioning procedure for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Giant C; Basura, Gregory J; Wong, Hiu Tung; Heidenreich, Katherine D

    2012-09-01

    Canal switch is a complication following canalith repositioning procedure (CRP) for posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Instead of being returned to the utricle, the loose otoconia migrate into the superior or horizontal semicircular canal. Patients remain symptomatic, and treatment can be ineffective unless the switch is recognized and additional repositioning maneuvers directed toward the appropriate semicircular canal are performed. This report provides the first videographic documentation of canal switch involving conversion of unilateral posterior semicircular canal BPPV to geotropic horizontal canalithiasis.

  1. Visibility of the central canal on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit-Lacour, M.C.; Lasjaunias, P.; Iffenecker, C.; Benoudiba, F.; Hadj Rabia, M.; Doyon, D. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Faculte de Paris Sud (France); Hurth, M. [Department of Neurosurgery, Faculte Paris Sud, Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

    2000-10-01

    The central canal of the spinal cord is present at birth and becomes progressively obliterated. Cadaver studies have shown that it may persiste partially or completely. To our knowledge, this entity has not been described on MRI. We reviewed 794 MRI studies of the spinal cord, and found 12 patients (aged 14 to 65 years) who had an intramedullary cavity. The cavity was at the junction of the ventral {sup 1}/{sub 3} and dorsal {sup 2}/{sub 3} of the spinal cord, except at the level of the lumbar enlargement, where it was central. It was filiform in most cases, although sometimes fusiform (3 to 4 mm in diameter), and had regular contours. The cavity were thoracic in 69 % of cases. The clinical features were totally unrelated to the image, and there were no anatomical factors (Chiari malformation, dysraphism) predisposing to syringomyelia. The images were perfectly compatible with a persistent central canal, which we interpret as a variant of normal anatomy. Therefore it is important to regard these findings as normal, to avoid unnecessary treatment and follow-up. (orig.)

  2. Root canals-from concretion to patency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakar Chaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Teeth with calcification provide an endodontic treatment challenge; traumatized teeth usually develop partial or total pulpal obliteration which is characterized by apparent loss of the pulp space radiographically and a yellow discoloration of the clinical crown. Since only 7-27% of such teeth develop pulp necrosis with radiographic signs of apical periodontitis, it is difficult to decide whether to treat these teeth immediately upon detection of the pulpal obliteration or to wait until signs and symptoms of pulp and/or apical periodontitis occur. This article reviews the etiology, prevalence, classification, mechanism, diagnosis as well as treatment options for teeth with pulp obliteration and the various management approaches and treatment strategies for overcoming potential complications. A search of articles from "PubMed" and "Medline" from 1965 to present was done with the keywords dental trauma, discoloration, pathfinding instruments, pulp canal obliteration, and root canal treatment was conducted. A total of 94 abstracts were collected, of which 70 relevant articles were read and 31 most relevant articles were included in this article.

  3. Assessment of three root canal preparation techniques on root canal geometry using micro-computed tomography: In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikha M Al-Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the effects of three root canal preparation techniques on canal volume and surface area using three-dimensionally reconstructed root canals in extracted human maxillary molars. Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted Human Maxillary Molars having three separate roots and similar root shape were randomly selected from a pool of extracted teeth for this study and stored in normal saline solution until used. A computed tomography scanner (Philips Brilliance CT 64-slice was used to analyze root canals in extracted maxillary molars. Specimens were scanned before and after canals were prepared using stainless steel K-Files, Ni-Ti rotary ProTaper and rotary SafeSiders instruments. Differences in dentin volume removed, the surface area, the proportion of unchanged area and canal transportation were calculated using specially developed software. Results: Instrumentation of canals increased volume and surface area. Statistical analysis found a statistically significant difference among the 3 groups in total change in volume (P = 0.001 and total change in surface area (P = 0.13. Significant differences were found when testing both groups with group III (SafeSiders. Significant differences in change of volume were noted when grouping was made with respect to canal type (in MB and DB (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The current study used computed tomography, an innovative and non destructive technique, to illustrate changes in canal geometry. Overall, there were few statistically significant differences between the three instrumentation techniques used. SafeSiders stainless steel 40/0.02 instruments exhibit a greater cutting efficiency on dentin than K-Files and ProTaper. CT is a new and valuable tool to study root canal geometry and changes after preparation in great details. Further studies with 3D-techniques are required to fully understand the biomechanical aspects of root canal preparation.

  4. The Effect of Canal Contamination with Saliva on Apical Sealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sabaghi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Root canal obturation aims at sealing the root canal system to prevent re-contamination of canal and periapical space. Presence of moisture in canal before obturation may posit a negative effect on the quality of canal sealing. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of canal contamination with saliva on apical microleakage. Methods: In this laboratory study, 58 human uni-root teeth were cleaned and shaped for obturation with gutta percha and sealer AH26. In the case group, specimens were contaminated with human saliva immediately before obturation, whereas the teeth in the control group were kept dry. All canals were filled by lateral condensation technique. Moreover, the teeth were placed in methylene blue dye for 3 days. Dye penetration was measured using a stereomicrosope. As a matter of fact, the study data were analyzed via utilizing t-test. Results: A significant difference was found between the two groups in regard with the apical leakage(P<0.001. The microleakage mean of dye in the dry group was 3/48mm, whereas it was 6/36mm in the saliva contaminated group. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that complete drying of canal can improve apical sealing.

  5. Evaluation of torque within manual preparation with root canal instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Gorski, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Used root canal instruments are often deformed; they can fracture, persist and reinfect teeth. There are no evident studies consulting torque and manual preparation of root canals. Thus, the purpose of this study is the evaluation of torque within manual preparation in connection with its impact on file deformation. With the aid of torque measurement a change in dental education could potentially be achieved.

  6. 33 CFR 117.769 - Black Rock Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black Rock Canal. 117.769 Section 117.769 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.769 Black Rock Canal. The draws of...

  7. 33 CFR 117.181 - Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal. 117.181 Section 117.181 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.181 Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal. The draws of the...

  8. 33 CFR 117.494 - Schooner Bayou Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Schooner Bayou Canal. 117.494 Section 117.494 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.494 Schooner Bayou Canal. The draw of the S82 bridge, mile 4.0 from White Lake...

  9. 33 CFR 117.849 - Muskingum River (Zanesville Canal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Muskingum River (Zanesville Canal). 117.849 Section 117.849 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Ohio § 117.849 Muskingum River (Zanesville Canal). The draw of the Conrail...

  10. 33 CFR 117.1051 - Lake Washington Ship Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Washington Ship Canal. 117.1051 Section 117.1051 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1051 Lake Washington Ship Canal. (a) When fog prevails by day or...

  11. 33 CFR 117.586 - Annisquam River and Blynman Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annisquam River and Blynman Canal. 117.586 Section 117.586 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.586 Annisquam River and Blynman Canal. The draw of the Blynman...

  12. 33 CFR 117.235 - Chesapeake and Delaware Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. 117.235 Section 117.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Delaware § 117.235 Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. The draw of the Conrail bridge, mile...

  13. 33 CFR 117.589 - Cape Cod Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Cod Canal. 117.589 Section 117.589 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.589 Cape Cod Canal. The draw of the Conrail railroad bridge, mile 0.7 at...

  14. 33 CFR 117.495 - Superior Oil Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Superior Oil Canal. 117.495 Section 117.495 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.495 Superior Oil Canal. The draw of the S82 bridge, mile 6.3, in Cameron...

  15. 5 CFR 550.714 - Panama Canal Commission employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Panama Canal Commission employees. 550.714 Section 550.714 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.714 Panama Canal Commission employees. (a) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this subpart,...

  16. 33 CFR 117.239 - Lewes and Rehoboth Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lewes and Rehoboth Canal. 117.239 Section 117.239 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Delaware § 117.239 Lewes and Rehoboth Canal. (a) The draw of the Savannah Road/SR 18...

  17. 33 CFR 117.273 - Canaveral Barge Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Canaveral Barge Canal. 117.273 Section 117.273 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.273 Canaveral Barge Canal. (a) The drawspan of the Christa McAuliffe...

  18. Optimizing the chemical aspect of root canal irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. de Macedo

    2013-01-01

    Root canal treatment is aimed at the removal of inflamed and infected tissue present in the root canal system. It will prevent the entrance of new microorganisms or nutrients in order to maintain or create a healthy environment around the root. There is sufficient evidence that shows that traditiona

  19. Reform in Indian canal irrigation: does technology matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narain, V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of technology - the design of canal irrigation for irrigation management reform. With reference to two different design systems in Indian irrigation - shejpali and warabandi - it shows that the potential for reform varies with the design of canal irrigation. Thre

  20. 33 CFR 117.653 - St. Mary's Falls Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Mary's Falls Canal. 117.653 Section 117.653 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Michigan § 117.653 St. Mary's Falls Canal. The draw...

  1. The Influence of Canalization on the Robustness of Boolean Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kadelka, Claus; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Time- and state-discrete dynamical systems are frequently used to model molecular networks. This paper provides a collection of mathematical and computational tools for the study of robustness in Boolean network models. The focus is on networks governed by $k$-canalizing functions, a recently introduced class of Boolean functions that contains the well-studied class of nested canalizing functions. The activities and sensitivity of a function quantify the impact of input changes on the function output. This paper generalizes the latter concept to $c$-sensitivity and provides formulas for the activities and $c$-sensitivity of general $k$-canalizing functions as well as canalizing functions with more precisely defined structure. A popular measure for the robustness of a network, the Derrida value, can be expressed as a weighted sum of the $c$-sensitivities of the governing canalizing functions, and can also be calculated for a stochastic extension of Boolean networks. These findings provide a computationally eff...

  2. Direct solutions for normal depths in curved irrigation canals

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, X Y

    2013-01-01

    The normal depth is an important hydraulic element for canal design, operation and management. Curved irrigation canals including parabola, U-shaped and catenary canals have excellent hydraulic performance and strong ability of anti-frost heave, while the normal depths in the governing equations of the current common methods have no explicit analytical solution. They are only indirect methods by using trial procedures, numerical methods, and graphical tools. This study presents new direct formulas for normal depth in curved irrigation canals by applying for Marquardt method. The maximum relative error of the proposed formulas is less than 1% within the practice range by comparative analysis, and they are simple and convenient for manual calculations. The results may provide the reliable theoretical basis and useful reference for the design and operation management of irrigation canals.

  3. VARIATION OF MAXILLARY FIRST PREMOLAR WITH THREE ROOT CANALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Kirilova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Successful endodontic treatment requires effective biomechanical preparation of the root canals and three-dimensional obturation of the root canal system. This can be achieved only by knowing and identifying the variations in the root canal system of the endodontically treated teeth. The Aim: The aim of this article is to present cases of endodontic treatment of maxillary first premolar with three root canals – different types. Material and Methods: Five clinical cases of successful endodontic treatment of patients with maxillary first premolar and three root canals are described. Result and Discussion: It is noted that good endodontic practice requires good knowledge of dental anatomy and possible variations, accurate X-ray images, as well as use of magnifying equipment. Conclusion: Knowledge of dental anatomy is fundamental for good endodontic practice.

  4. Canalization and symmetry in Boolean models for genetic regulatory networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichhardt, C J Olson [Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Bassler, Kevin E [Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States)

    2007-04-20

    Canalization of genetic regulatory networks has been argued to be favoured by evolutionary processes due to the stability that it can confer to phenotype expression. We explore whether a significant amount of canalization and partial canalization can arise in purely random networks in the absence of evolutionary pressures. We use a mapping of the Boolean functions in the Kauffman N-K model for genetic regulatory networks onto a k-dimensional Ising hypercube (where k = K) to show that the functions can be divided into different classes strictly due to geometrical constraints. The classes can be counted and their properties determined using results from group theory and isomer chemistry. We demonstrate that partially canalizing functions completely dominate all possible Boolean functions, particularly for higher k. This indicates that partial canalization is extremely common, even in randomly chosen networks, and has implications for how much information can be obtained in experiments on native state genetic regulatory networks.

  5. A maxillary central incisor with four root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Almeida-Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to present a case report of endodontic treatment of a maxillary central incisor with 1 root and 4 root canals. The success of endodontic treatment requires knowledge of dental anatomy and its variations. This clinical article reports an unusual anatomy detected in a maxillary central incisor with 4 root canals with an associated periapical lesion. The incidence of 4 root canals in this tooth is rare. However, it must be taken into consideration, the clinical and radiographic evaluations during the endodontic treatment in order to enhance the diagnostic. Many times, the presence of a supernumerary canal is noticed only after canal treatment due to continuing post-operative discomfort or treatment failure.

  6. Hydrology and environmental aspects of Erie Canal (1817-99)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, Walter Basil

    1976-01-01

    As the first major water project in the United States, the old Erie Canal provides an example of the hydrological and environmental consequences of water development. The available record shows that the project aroused environmental fears that the canal might be impaired by the adverse hydrologic effects of land development induced by the canal. Water requirements proved greater than anticipated, and problems of floods and hydraulic inefficiencies beset navigation throughout its history. The Erie Canal proved the practicality of major hydraulic works to the extent that operations and maintenance could cope with the burdens of deficiencies in design. The weight of prior experience that upland streams, such as the Potomac and Mohawk Rivers, had proved unsatisfactory for dependable navigation, led to a decision to build an independent canal which freed the location from the constraints of river channels and made possible a cross-country water route directly to Lake Erie. The decision on dimensioning the canal prism--chiefly width and depth-involved balance between a fear of building too small and thus not achieving the economic potentials, and a fear of building too expensively. The constraints proved effective, and for the first part of its history the revenues collected were sufficient to repay all costs. So great was the economic advantage of the canal that the rising trend in traffic soon induced an enlargement of the canal cross section, based upon a new but riskier objective-build as large as the projected trend in toll revenues would finance. The increased revenues did not materialize. Water supplies were a primary concern for both the planners and the operators of the canal. Water required for lockage, although the most obvious to the planners, proved to be a relatively minor item compared with the amounts of water that were required to compensate for leakage through the bed and banks of the canal. Leakage amounted to about 8 inches of depth per day. The total

  7. Noncommunicating syringomyelia following occlusion of central canal in rats. Experimental model and histological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhorat, T H; Nobandegani, F; Miller, J I; Rao, C

    1993-02-01

    This report describes a new and reliable technique for producing experimental noncommunicating syringomyelia. In 30 rats, 1.2 to 1.6 microliters of kaolin was microinjected into the dorsal columns and central gray matter of the spinal cord at C-6. The inoculations caused transient neurological deficits in four animals and no deficits in 26 animals. Within 24 hours, kaolin and polymorphonuclear leukocytes entered the central canal and drained rostrally. The clearance of inflammatory products induced a proliferation of ependymal cells and periependymal fibrous astrocytes, which formed synechiae and obstructed the canal at the level of injection and at one or more levels up to C-1. In 22 animals followed for 48 hours or longer, the upper end of the central canal became acutely dilated and formed an ependyma-lined syrinx that enlarged to massive dimensions within 6 weeks. The rostral syrinxes did not communicate with the fourth ventricle and were not associated with hydrocephalus. The histological findings in acute noncommunicating syringomyelia were characterized by progressive stretching and thinning of the ependyma, elongation of intracanalicular septae, and the formation of periependymal edema. After 3 weeks, there was progressive compression of the periependymal tissues associated with stretching of axons, fragmentation of myelin sheaths, and the formation of myelin droplets. These findings and the sequence in which they evolved were identical in most respects to those occurring in acute and subacute noncommunicating hydrocephalus.

  8. STIFFNESS CHANGES OF THE CUPULA ASSOCIATED WITH THE MECHANICS OF HAIR-CELLS IN THE FISH LATERAL-LINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Netten, S.M.; KHANNA, SM

    1994-01-01

    Cupular vibration in the lateral-line canal of fish was measured in response to motion of the fluid in the canal by laser-heterodyne interferometry. The results show that the mechanical output/input ratio of the cupula depends on the stimulus amplitude; the cupula thus behaves nonlinearly. The nonli

  9. 5 CFR 315.601 - Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. 315.601 Section 315.601 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Career or Career-Conditional Appointment...

  10. Reduction of Enterococcus faecalis in curved root canals after various sizes and tapers of canal preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Abbas Moshari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reduction of Enterococcus faecalis in curved root canals after various sizes and tapers of the canal preparation. Materials and Methods: Mandibular first molars (n = 103 with curved mesiobuccal canals were divided into one control (n = 5 and 7 experimental (n = 14 groups, were inoculated with E. faecalis (ATTC 29212 and prepared with the following RaCe files (FKG Dentaire as master apical file: Groups: 25.04, 25.06, 30.04, 30.06, 35.04, 35.06 and 40.06. All the experimental groups were irrigated with 2 mL of 1% sodium hypochlorite during instrumentation and finally rinsed with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA (2 mL followed by 5.25% NaOCl (2 mL and sterile distilled water. Colony counting was performed after incubation. Statistical Analysis Used: Resulting data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey′s post-hoc test, (P < 0.05. Results and Conclusions: All the experimental groups showed significant bacterial reduction (P < 0.001. Although the greater the size/taper or both led to more decreased amount of bacteria, differences between the groups with the identical size and different tapers, and among the groups with the same taper and different sizes were not significant. Based on this study, 25.04 along with using 2 mL of 1% NaOCl during instrumentation, and using 17% EDTA and 5.25% NaOCl as final rinse successively after the termination of preparation, can effectively reduce intra-canal bacteria and preserve root structure.

  11. [Metastasis of a spinal myxopapillary ependymoma to the inner auditory canal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, K; Gjuric, M; Niedobitek, G

    2001-04-01

    Ependymomas are usually benign tumors of the central nervous system that derive from the ependymal cells lining liquor-filled spaces. Myxopapillary ependymomas are a variant occurring almost exclusively in the region of the cauda equina. Histologically, these tumors are benign (WHO grade I). The following case describes the first reported spread of a spinal myxopapillary ependymoma into the internal auditory canal. The symptoms and diagnostic results are similar to other tumors of this location. There are no typical findings in the diagnostic imaging (CT, MRI). The extended middle cranial fossa approach was chosen for surgical treatment. Adjuvant radiotherapy is indicated in cases of incomplete resection or recurrence.

  12. MANAGEMENT OF LUMBAR SPINAL CANAL STENOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhergee G. S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Spinal stenosis is one of the most common conditions in the elderly. It is defined as a narrowing of the spinal canal. The term stenosis is derived from the Greek word for narrow, which is “Stenos”. The first description of this condition is attributed to Antoine portal in 1803. Verbiest is credited with coining the term spinal stenosis and the associated narrowing of the spinal canal as its potential cause. [1-10] Kirkaldy–Willis subsequently described the degenerative cascade in the lumbar spine as the cause for the altered anatomy and pathophysiology in spinal stenosis. [11-15] If compression does not occur, the canal should be described as narrow but not stenotic. Some studies defined lumbar spinal stenosis as a “narrowing of the osteoligamentous vertebral canal and/or the intervertebral foramina causing compression of the thecal sac and/or the caudal nerve roots; at a single vertebral level, narrowing may affect the whole canal or part of it” (Postacchini 1983. This definition distinguished between disc herniation and stenosis. [16] . The most common type of spinal stenosis is caused by degenerative arthritis of the spine. Hypertrophy and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament which usually are confined to the cervical spine, and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH syndrome also may result in an acquired form of spinal stenosis. Congenital forms caused by disorders such as achondroplasia and dysplastic spondylolisthesis are much less common. Congenital spinal stenosis usually is central and is evident or imaging studies. Idiopathic congenital narrowing usually involves the anteroposterior dimension of the canal secondary to short pedicles; the patient otherwise is normal. In contrast, in achondroplasia, the canal is narrowed in the anteroposterior plane owing to shortened pedicles and in lateral dimension because of diminished interpedicular distance. Acquired forms of spinal stenosis usually are

  13. Ependyma of the central canal of the rat spinal cord: a light and transmission electron microscopic study.

    OpenAIRE

    Bruni, J.E.; Reddy, K

    1987-01-01

    Ependymal cells of the rat central canal were examined with a view to identifying features that distinguish them regionally and from their counterparts elsewhere in the ventricular system. The results revealed that the lining consisted for the most part of a pseudostratified layer of uniformly organised cuboidal to columnar ependymal cells present in largest numbers in lumbar and sacral segments and in the conus. Two cell variants were identified on the basis of the presence or absence of a r...

  14. Facial Canal Dehiscence in Patients with Chronic Otitis Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Uluat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To examine facial canal status in patients with chronic otitis media (COM surgery and to detect the relation between facial canals dehiscence (FCD with middle ear pathology in these patients. Material and Method: The surgery data of patients who were subjected to tympanoplasty with or without mastoidectomy and radical mastoidectomy due to COM were analyzed retrospectively from January 2006 to December 2012. In addition to demonstrative data of the patients, status of facial canal and preoperative diagnoses of patients, type of the operation performed, status of middle ear, number of surgeries, existence of cholesteatoma, existence of ossicular chain defect, lateral canal defect and dura defect were assessed and the relation thereof with facial canal dehiscence (FCD was analyzed statistically. Results: Seven hundred ninety six patients were included in the study. FCD was detected in 10.05% of the patients. FCD was most frequently observed in the tympanic segment. It was found out that there was a statistically significant relationship of middle ear pathology, cholesteatoma, revision surgery, lateral semicircular canal and ossicular chain defect with FCD. Discussion: COM diagnosed patients may have defect in facial canal according to their preoperative diagnoses, middle ear pathologies, number of operations and ossicular chain defects. These patients should be applied a more careful surgery and closely followed up in postoperative periods.

  15. Assessing the accuracy of tympanometric evaluation of external auditory canal volume: a scientific study using an ear canal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hussaini, A; Owens, D; Tomkinson, A

    2011-12-01

    Tympanometric evaluation is routinely used as part of the complete otological examination. During tympanometric examination, evaluation of middle ear pressure and ear canal volume is undertaken. Little is reported in relation to the accuracy and precision tympanometry evaluates external ear canal volume. This study examines the capability of the tympanometer to accurately evaluate external auditory canal volume in both simple and partially obstructed ear canal models and assesses its capability to be used in studies examining the effectiveness of cerumolytics. An ear canal model was designed using simple laboratory equipment, including a 5 ml calibrated clinical syringe (Becton Dickinson, Spain). The ear canal model was attached to the sensing probe of a Kamplex tympanometer (Interacoustics, Denmark). Three basic trials were undertaken: evaluation of the tympanometer in simple canal volume measurement, evaluation of the tympanometer in assessing canal volume with partial canal occlusion at different positions within the model, and evaluation of the tympanometer in assessing canal volume with varying degrees of canal occlusion. 1,290 individual test scenarios were completed over the three arms of the study. At volumes of 1.4 cm(3) or below, a perfect relationship was noted between the actual and tympanometric volumes in the simple model (Spearman's ρ = 1) with weakening degrees of agreement with increasing volume of the canal. Bland-Altman plotting confirmed the accuracy of this agreement. In the wax substitute models, tympanometry was observed to have a close relationship (Spearman's ρ > 0.99) with the actual volume present with worsening error above a volume of 1.4 cm(3). Bland-Altman plotting and precision calculations provided evidence of accuracy. Size and position of the wax substitute had no statistical effect on results [Wilcoxon rank-sum test (WRST) p > 0.99], nor did degree of partial obstruction (WRST p > 0.99). The Kamplex tympanometer

  16. Bacterial coronal leakage after obturation with three root canal sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpawat, S; Amornchat, C; Trisuwan, W R

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the bacterial leakage of root canals obturated with three root canal sealers, using Endodontalis faecalis as a microbial tracer to determine the length of time for bacteria to penetrate through the obturated root canal to the root apex. Seventy-five, single-rooted teeth with straight root canals had the crown cut off at the cementoenamel junction. Root canals were instrumented by a step-back technique. The prepared teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups of 19 teeth each and another 2 groups as positive and negative controls (9 teeth each). The experimental groups were dependent on the sealer used: AH-Plus, Apexit, and Ketac-Endo. The root canals were obturated using a lateral condensation technique. After 24 h the teeth were attached to microcentrifuge tubes with 2 mm of the root apex submerged in Brain Heart Infusion broth in glass test tubes. The coronal portions of the root canal filling materials were placed in contact with E. faecalis. The teeth were observed for bacterial leakage daily for 30 and 60 days. With the chi2 test for comparing pairs of groups at the 0.05 level (p 0.06), but Apexit had significantly higher leakage (p 0.05), but Apexit leaked more than AH-Plus. The conclusion drawn from this experiment was that epoxy resin root canal sealer was found to be more adaptable to the root canal wall and filling material than a calcium hydroxide sealer when bacterial coronal leakage was studied.

  17. Horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in a fighter pilot

    OpenAIRE

    Su-Jiang Xie; Jiang-Chang Wang; Li Ding; Xi-Qing Sun

    2011-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common disorder of the peripheral vestibular system, characterized by intense, positional provoked vertigo. BPPV is thought to occur due to canalithiasis of the posterior semicircular canal. Recently, a new entity of BPPV, known as horizontal canal (HC)-BPPV, has been recognized. Although only 3 to 8% of BPPV is due to horizontal canal involvement, HC-BPPV is not rare. We present a case of a naval fighter pilot who had an incident of HC-...

  18. Horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in a fighter pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Jiang Xie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV is the most common disorder of the peripheral vestibular system, characterized by intense, positional provoked vertigo. BPPV is thought to occur due to canalithiasis of the posterior semicircular canal. Recently, a new entity of BPPV, known as horizontal canal (HC-BPPV, has been recognized. Although only 3 to 8% of BPPV is due to horizontal canal involvement, HC-BPPV is not rare. We present a case of a naval fighter pilot who had an incident of HC-BPPV on the ground. The pilot aeromedical evaluation and considerations are discussed.

  19. Horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in a fighter pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Su-Jiang; Wang, Jiang-Chang; Ding, Li; Sun, Xi-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common disorder of the peripheral vestibular system, characterized by intense, positional provoked vertigo. BPPV is thought to occur due to canalithiasis of the posterior semicircular canal. Recently, a new entity of BPPV, known as horizontal canal (HC)-BPPV, has been recognized. Although only 3 to 8% of BPPV is due to horizontal canal involvement, HC-BPPV is not rare. We present a case of a naval fighter pilot who had an incident of HC-BPPV on the ground. The pilot aeromedical evaluation and considerations are discussed.

  20. Route Selection by Tankers(Dirty) at the Suez Canal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Risto Laulajainen

    2007-01-01

    <正>The Suez Canal,attached route alternatives with traffic flows and areas are described and theoretical break-even points derived. Logistically,route selection depends on relative distances,the level of spot rates and canal dues,the sensitivity to change growing with rising rate levels.The connection is diluted by the canal /pipeline owners’ price differentiation and the charterers’ capital costs;interest on cargo and change of its value during transit.Ship-owners are largely neutral to route choice as long as rates and main cost items are directly related to distance.

  1. Constricted Canals: A New Strategy to Overcome This Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Negotiation of constricted canals can be a challenge during endodontic treatment. Over the years, several strategies have been presented in order to overcome the difficulties imposed by this anatomical feature. This paper presents three cases using a different protocol from that recommended by the manufacturer of the Protaper System in order to facilitate the negotiation of constricted canals. These cases suggest that the modified protocol shown is able to perform the shaping process with less resistance, reducing the risk of instrument separation and performing an effective process to reach the apical thirds in constricted canals.

  2. Cytogenetic findings in persons living near the Love Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, C W; Nadel, M R; Zack, M M; Chen, A T; Bender, M A; Preston, R J

    1984-03-16

    Cytogenetic analyses were performed on peripheral blood from 46 present or past residents of the area surrounding Love Canal, a former dump site for chemical wastes in Niagara Falls, NY. Participants included 17 persons in whom cytogenetic analyses had been performed in 1980 and 29 persons who had been living in 1978 in seven homes that directly adjoined the canal and in which environmental tests showed elevated levels of chemicals spreading from the canal. Frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) did not differ significantly from control levels. For all participants, cigarette smoking was associated with an increase in sister chromatid exchange frequency.

  3. Induction of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 gene expression by root canal sealers in human osteoblastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fu-Mei; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2005-09-01

    Histological investigations have demonstrated that root canal sealers can induce mild to severe inflammatory alternations. However, there is little information on the precise mechanisms about root canal sealers-induced inflammatory reaction. Dysregulated cytokine productions at local disease sites have been considered to be major contributors to the development of inflammatory diseases. Interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 released have been reported to play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of root canal sealers N2 (zinc-oxide eugenol based) and AH Plus (epoxy resin based) on the expression of IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA gene in human osteoblastic cell line U2OS cells. The levels of mRNAs were measured by the semi-quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. The exposure of quiescent U2OS cells to N2 and AH Plus resulted in the induction of IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA gene expression (p eugenol based and epoxy resin based root canal sealers-induced periapical inflammation.

  4. File list: InP.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  8. Atypical situations in root canals anatomy of human mandibular premolars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício SCAINI

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the teeth internal anatomy that will receive endodontic treatment is very important for the success of the treatment and prognosis of those teeth. In this study, the morphological variations that may occur in relation to the number of root canals present in the premolar mandibular teeth group were discussed, as well as the most efficient methods to diagnose the existence of these variations, in order to have a clearer diagnosis of the number of root canals to be treated.A case of an endodontic treatment of a mandibular premolar with 4 root canals was reported and some cases of endodontic treatment in mandibular premolars with 1, 2 and 3 root canals were shown.

  9. Functional outcome of surgical management of degenerative lumbar canal stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Nath

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Operative treatment in patients of degenerative lumbar canal stenosis yields excellent results as observed on the basis of JOA scoring system. No patient got recurrence of symptoms of nerve compression.

  10. Optimal volume of local anaesthetic for the adductor canal block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, P.; Jenstrup, M. T.; Lund, J.;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Theoretically, the ideal volume of local anaesthetic for adductor canal block (ACB) would ensure sufficient filling ofthe canal and avoid proximal spread to the femoral triangle. In this dose-finding study, we aimed to investigate the minimaleffective volume for an ACB needed to fill...... the adductor canal distally in at least 95% of patients (ED95). Methods: We performed a blinded trial, enrolling 40 healthy men. All subjects received an ACB with lidocaine 1%. Volumes wereassigned sequentially to the subjects using the continual reassessment method followed by Bayesian analysis to determine...... theED95. Distal filling of the adductor canal was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (primary outcome). Secondary outcomeswere the effect of volume on proximal spread to the femoral triangle (also assessed by magnetic resonance imaging), quadricepsmuscle weakness (decrease by ≥25% from baseline...

  11. Lipoma causing Guyon's canal syndrome: a case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanathu Chellappantilla Sreekumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Compression of the ulnar nerve in Guyon's canal leads to Guyon's canal syndrome. Lipoma is a rare cause of such compressions with only 12 cases reported previously. We report a 55-year-old man who presented with swelling in the left hand with decreased sensation in the ring and little fingers. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed high signals in T1-weighted and T2-weighted images with suppression of the short T1 inversion recovery signal, suggestive of lipoma. On exploration a well-encapsulated, dumbbell-shaped, fatty tumor was seen in the hypothenar space and Guyon's canal. The tumor was enucleated in toto. At 6-month follow-up, the patient had fully regained sensation. A review of the literature is presented for similar cases where a lipoma was the cause of Guyon's canal syndrome.

  12. Canals in the Roof of the Pharynx :Anatomic Study and their Clinical Meaning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1 IntroductionThe palatovaginal canal and the vomerovaginal canal are small canals which connect the roof of the nasopharynx to the posterior wall of the pterygopalatine fossa. The pterygopalatine fossa represents a major pathway for spread of malignant tumors and infections. In most of the classic anatomy texts brief descriptions of the palatovaginal canal and the vomerovaginal canal are provided. There is still a scarcity of studies comparing the radiologic and microdissection findings~([1]). The aim of t...

  13. Bifid mandibular canal: a rare or underestimated entity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Nasseh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the rare anatomical variations that can be of significant importance for the dentist is the bifid mandibular canal. Many complications can occur from this condition such as failure of anesthesia when performing inferior alveolar nerve block, difficulties during the surgical extraction of the third mandibular molar, and during implants placement. Therefore, good knowledge of this condition is essential. In this report, we describe the radiographic finding of a unilateral bifid mandibular canal.

  14. Reformado de presas y canales del Sena inferior

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    Moineau, L.

    1962-03-01

    Full Text Available El programa de reforma y acomodación de las presas y canales existentes en el bajo Sena (Francia acaba de experimentar un nuevo impulso. Este reformado, actualmente en ejecución entre Poissy y N. D. de La Garenne, consiste en la unión de los canales de La Garenne y Port-Villez, de un lado, y de Méricourt y Maulan, de otro.

  15. Rare case of gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the anal canal

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    Madhu Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. GIST of anal canal is very rare representing only 3% of all anorectal mesenchymal tumors. We report an extremely rare case of GIST of the anal canal in 60-years-old man with history of irregular bowel habits with dark colored stool mixed with blood and constipation from 6 month. Diagnosis was made on the basis of histomorphological and immunohistochemical examination.

  16. Could spinal canal compression be a cause of polyneuropathy?

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    Richard Bostelmann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Causality between spinal cord compression and polyneuropathy is difficult to define, especially under the circumstances that polyneuropathy can have many causes. Seven patients with spinal cord compression and electrophysiological signs of polyneuropathy were treated surgically on decompression of their spinal canal stenosis in the time from April 2010 to January 2013. Median follow up time was 9 months (2-23 months. Causes of polyneuropathy were: 1 patient with methotrexate-induced polyneuropathy, 1 endocrine-dysfunction-induced, 2 with diabetic- polyneuropathy, and 3 patients had unknown reasons. The localization of the spinal canal stenosis was also varying: 2 patients suffered of cervical spinal canal stenosis and 5 of lumbar. Decompressive surgery led to pain relieve in all patients initially. Surprisingly, also symptoms of polyneuropathy seemed to regress in all 7 patients for the first 5 months after surgery, and in 5 patients for the time of 9 months after surgery. There are two points we would like to emphasize in this short report. Since 5/7 patients with polyneuropathy and spinal canal stenosis improved clinically after surgery, surgery has a place in the treatment of such a combined pathology. Since it seems to be a possible causality between polyneuropathy of unknown origin and spinal cord stenosis, decompression of the spinal canal could also be a therapeutic step in a specific kind of polyneuropathy. Which patients could possibly have a spinal canal stenosis induced polyneuropathy remains a subject of further studies.

  17. Root canal preparation in endodontics: conventional versus laser methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodis, Harold E.; White, Joel M.; Marshall, Sally J.; Marshall, Grayson W.; Moskowitz, Emrey

    1992-06-01

    Conventional cleaning and shaping of root canal systems employs hand and/or rotary instrumentation to remove the contents of the canal and shape the canal to receive a filling material. With the advent of the Nd:YAG laser system another method of accomplishing proper cleaning and shaping is evaluated. Single rooted teeth were radiographed bucco- lingually and mesio-distally and were divided into 2 groups. The first group was accessed and the root canal systems cleaned and shaped with a step back technique utilizing hand files and gates glidden burs. At completion of the procedure the teeth were again radiographed at the same positions as those prior to the procedure. The teeth were split longitudinally and examined under scanning electron microscopy to assess cleaning. The second group of teeth were accessed, and cleaning and shaping was accomplished using the Nd:YAG laser in combination with hand files and rotary instruments. These teeth were subjected to the same analysis as those in the first group. The before and after radiographs of each group were subjected to image analysis to determine effectiveness of the two methods in shaping the canal systems. We will discuss the ability of Nd:YAG to clean and shape root canal spaces and remove smear layer and organic tissue remnants from those areas.

  18. Verrucous Carcinoma in External Auditory Canal – A Rare Case

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    Md Zillur Rahman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Verrucous carcinoma is a variant of squamous cell carcinoma. It is of low grade malignancy and rarely present with distant metastasis. Oral cavity is the commonest site of this tumour, other sites are larynx, oesophagus and genitalia. Verrucous carcinoma in external auditory canal is extremely rare. This is the presentation of a 45 years old woman who came to the ENT & Head Neck Surgery department of Delta medical college, Dhaka, Bangladesh with discharging left ear and impairment of hearing on the same side for 7 years. Otoscopic examination showed a mass occupying almost whole of the external auditory canal and the overlying skin was thickened, papillary and blackish. Cytology from external auditory canal scrap showed hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis. External auditory canal bone was found eroded at some parts. Excision of the mass was done under microscope. Split thickness skin grafting was done in external auditory canal. The mass was diagnosed as verrucous carcinoma on histopathological examination. Afterwards she was given radiotherapy. Six months follow up showed no recurrence and healthy epithelialization of external auditory canal.

  19. Long-term cytotoxic effects of contemporary root canal sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Joao Nogueira Leal da SILVA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of root canal sealers on the cytotoxicity of 3T3 fibroblasts during a period of 5 weeks. Material and Methods Fibroblasts (3T3, 1×105 cells per well were incubated with elutes of fresh specimens from eight root canal sealers (AH Plus, Epiphany, Endomethasone N, EndoREZ, MTA Fillapex, Pulp Canal Sealer EWT, RoekoSeal and Sealapex and with elutes of the same specimens for 5 succeeding weeks after immersing in simulated body fluid. The cytotoxicity of all root canal sealers was determined using the MTT assay. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results RoekoSeal was the only sealer that did not show any cytotoxic effects (p<0.05. All the other tested sealers exhibited severe toxicity initially (week 0. MTA Fillapex remained moderately cytotoxic after the end of experimental period. Toxicity of the other tested sealers decreased gradually over time. The evaluated root canal sealers presented varying degrees of cytotoxicity, mainly in fresh mode. Conclusions RoekoSeal had no cytotoxic effect both freshly mixed and in the other tested time points. MTA Fillapex was associated with significantly less cell viability when compared to the other tested root canal sealers.

  20. Computed Tomography Evaluation of Canal Transportation and Volumetric Changes in Root Canal Dentin of Curved Canals Using Mtwo, ProTaper and ProTaper Next Rotary System-An In-vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivashankar, Mayuri Biccodu; Jayasheel, Arun; Kenchanagoudra, Mallikarjun Goud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Complete cleaning and shaping of root canal system is of paramount importance to achieve a successful root canal treatment. There are various rotary Ni-Ti systems available in the market to achieve mechanical goal of root canal preparation. But aggressive preparation of root canal with such systems would result in canal transportation and excess root dentin removal that would be one of the major reasons to decide the prognosis of root canal treated tooth. Aim The present study was conducted to compare the root canal preparation in terms of canal transportation and volumetric changes in the root canal dentin among three Ni-Ti file systems, namely Mtwo, ProTaper (PT) and ProTaper NEXT (PTN) file system, using Computed Tomography (CT). Materials and Methods A total of 45 mesiobuccal root canals of extracted first molar teeth with completely formed root apices and angle of curvature ranging between 10°- 35° were selected. These teeth were randomly divided into three experimental groups containing 15 teeth each, based on rotary system used. Group-I: Mtwo files, Group-II: PT files and Group-III: PTN files. Pre-instrumentation CT images were obtained at three cross-sectional planes – 3mm, 7mm and 11mm from apical end of the root. Similarly, post-instrumentation images were obtained. Shortest distance from the edge of the canal to the periphery of the root was analyzed by using Analysis of Variance. Results All three file systems tested in the present study presented similar behaviour with respect to the root canal transportation. Lesser canal transportation was recorded in Mtwo. But no statistically significant difference was seen in terms of canal transportation and volume of dentin removed between all three rotary systems (p>0.05). Conclusion Mtwo, PT and PTN rotary systems have similar behaviour with respect to canal transportation and volume of dentin removed. PMID:28050495

  1. Significance of temporal bone CT scan for exposure of the facial canal and the lateral semicircular canal in cholesteatoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Ki Joon; Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Myung Soon; Kim, Young Ju; Kweon, Joon [Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-09-15

    By reviewing retrospectively the HRCT findings in 130 surgically proven cases of chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma, we estimated the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictability of the HRCT compared to surgical findings. For exposure of the facial canal, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictability was 59.7%, 84.9%, and 85.2% respectively. For exposure of the lateral semicircular canal, the sensitivity was 80.6%, the specificity 99.0%, and the positive predictability 96.2%. Conclusively, the diagnostic accuracy of preoperative temporal bone CT regarding the state of the lateral semicircular canal seems to be highly reliable. Gross invasion of the facial canal can be usually detected. However, relatively low sensitivity suggests that evaluation of the ultra-thin structures of the tympanic segment is often problematic.

  2. Induction of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes expression by formaldehyde-releasing and epoxy resin-based root-canal sealers in human osteoblastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fu-Mei; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Tai, Kuo-Wei; Chou, Ming-Yung; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2002-03-01

    An important requirement for a root-canal sealer is biologic compatibility; most evaluations have focused on general toxicological and local tissue irritating properties. There is only scant information about mutagenicity or carcinogenicity testing for root-canal sealer. It has been shown that c-fos and c-jun are induced rapidly by a variety of chemical and physical stimuli. Numerous works have extensively investigated the induction mechanisms of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes by these agents; however, little is known about the induction of cellular signaling events and specific gene expression after cell exposure to root-canal sealers. Therefore, we used osteoblastic cell line U2-OS to examine the effect of zinc-oxide eugenol-based (N2 and Endomethasome), epoxy resin-based (AH Plus), and calcium hydroxide-based (Sealapex) root-canal sealers on the expression of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes to understand in more detail the molecular mechanisms of root-canal sealer-induced genotoxicity. The cytotoxicity decreased in an order of N2 > Endomethasome > AH Plus > Sealapex. In addition, N2, Endomethasome, and AH Plus rapidly induced c-jun and c-fos mRNA levels in cells. However, Sealapex did not induce c-jun and c-fos mRNA expression at detectable levels all time points. Taken together, persistent induction of c-jun and c-fos protooncogenes by formaldehyde-releasing and epoxy resin-based root-canal sealers may be distributed systemically via apex to cause some unexpected adverse effects on human beings. These data should be taken into consideration when choosing a root-canal sealer.

  3. Cholesteatoma invasion into the internal auditory canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migirov, Lela; Bendet, Erez; Kronenberg, Jona

    2009-05-01

    Cholesteatoma invasion into the internal auditory canal (IAC) is rare and usually results in irreversible, complete hearing loss and facial paralysis on the affected side. This retrospective study examines the clinical characteristics of seven patients with cholesteatoma invading the IAC, analyzes possible routes of the cholesteatoma's extension and describes the surgical approaches used and patient outcome. Extension to the IAC was via the supralabyrinthine route in most patients. A subtotal petrosectomy, a translabyrinthine approach or a middle cranial fossa approach combined with radical mastoidectomy were required for the complete removal of the cholesteatoma. All seven patients presented with some preoperative facial nerve palsy. The facial nerve was decompressed in four patients and facial nerve repair was performed in three others, two by hypoglossal-facial anastomosis and one by a greater auricular nerve interposition grafting. All patients ended up with total deafness in the operate ear. At 1 year following surgery, the facial nerve function was House-Brackmann grade III in six cases and grade II in one. In conclusion, cholesteatoma invading the IAC is a separate entity with characteristic clinical presentations, require a unique surgical approach, and result in significant morbidity, such as total deafness in the operated ear and impaired facial movement.

  4. Radiotherapy of epidermoid anal canal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowsky, W

    1989-01-01

    Forty-eight patients with anal canal cancers were treated with surgery and irradiation or irradiation alone during the period 1970-1982. All cases were treated by external megavoltage equipment. The overall 5-year survival was 50%, and the local recurrence rate 33%. According to the therapy, four major groups were analysed: radical surgery followed by post-operative irradiation (5-year survival 43%, local recurrence rate 38%), incomplete major surgery and post-operative irradiation with very inferior prognosis (none of the patients surviving beyond 52 months). Two groups of patients had sphincter-saving procedures: local surgery followed by irradiation (5-year survival 78%, local recurrence rate 22%) and primary irradiation (5-year survival 57%, local recurrence rate 14%). Lymph node positive patients showed a median survival of 24.5 months against 52 months in N0 cases (5-year survival 21% against 50%). Side-effects of radiotherapy were transient and mild, and no late severe sequelae were seen. The data indicate that post-operative external radiotherapy seems insufficient and unable to decrease the local recurrence rate, especially when surgery is incomplete. Both spincter-saving surgery and radiotherapy, as well as primary irradiation, are effective treatment modalities. These data are analysed and future aspects considering combined radiochemotherapy are discussed.

  5. Retrograde seal in ultrasonically prepared canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutimuntanakul, S; Worayoskowit, W; Mangkornkarn, C

    2000-08-01

    The sealing ability of various retrofilling materials was compared. The root canals of 85 single-rooted teeth were cleansed and obturated with gutta-percha without sealer using lateral condensation. The apical 3 mm of the roots were resected and divided into positive control, negative control, and five experimental groups. The experimental teeth received root-end cavity preparation to 3 mm depth using an ultrasonic retroprep tip. The retrocavities were dried and divided into five groups to receive the following materials: amalgam with varnish, amalgam with Clearfil Liner Bond II, thermoplasticized gutta-percha (TGP) with sealer, Ketac-fil, and Super-EBA. After immersion in India ink for 7 days, the roots were demineralized, cleared, and evaluated for dye leakage under a stereomicroscope. Statistical analysis showed that Super-EBA, Ketac-fil, and TGP with sealer demonstrated less leakage than amalgam with varnish and amalgam with Clearfil Liner Bond II (p fil or TGP sealer (p fil and TGP or between the two groups filled with amalgam (p > 0.05).

  6. Seismic data collection from water gun and industrial background sources in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal area, Illinois, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, William S.; Carpenter, Phillip J.; Adams, Ryan F.

    2015-01-01

    The water gun is a tool adapted from deep marine geophysical surveys that is being evaluated for use as an acoustic fish deterrent to control the movement of invasive marine species. The water gun creates a seismic signal by using a compressed air discharge to move a piston rapidly within the water, resulting in an implosion. This energy pulse may be able to modify fish behavior or destroy marine life, such as the Asian carp, at some distance. The effects of this energy pulse on structures in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC), such as canal walls, shore lines, and lock structures, are not known. The potential effects of the use of a water gun on structures was identified as a concern in the CSSC and was assessed relative to existing background sources during this study. During September 2011, two water guns with piston sizes of 80 and 343 cubic inches, respectively, were tested in the CSSC at varying pressures and distances from a canal wall consisting of dolomite and dolomite setblock. Seismic data were collected during these water gun firings using geophones on land, in boreholes, and at the canal wall interface. Data were collected at varying depths in the canal water using hydrophones. Seismic data were also collected during the occurrences of barge traffic, railroad traffic located near the electric fish barrier in Lemont, and coal-loading operations at a coal power plant near the electric fish barrier. In general, energy produced by barge and railroad sources was less than energy created by the water gun. Energy levels produced by coal-loading operations at least 200 feet from geophones were approximately four times lower than energy levels measured during water gun operations.

  7. Mejoras en el canal de Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandl, Charles McG.

    1963-07-01

    Full Text Available The Panama Canal, together with the Suez Canal, is an engineering accomplishment which is now regarded as a master work marking the initiation of modern civil engineering. Other projects, also of great magnitude, do not seem to maintain the reputation of the above two, because they cannot continue to serve their function with sustained usefulness in the new circumstances of today. The Panama Canal, with its limited dock capacity, and the narrow, so called Serpent, canal, has had to cope with a continuously increasing volume of shipping traffic; a natural consequence of commercial evolution. In order to keep up with these increasing demands, it has been necessary to carry out an almost uninterrupted series of modifications and improvements, affecting both the method of operation and organisation, and the actual nature of the canal. Thanks to these alterations the Panama Canal has continued to maintain, at least nominally, an adequate standard of functional efficiency. At present the canal is being widened over certain sections to enable the easy passage of ships of great displacement. The work is being done very rapidly, and in order to gain time, it has been distributed to various contractors simultaneously.El canal a través del ismo de Panamá es una obra de ingeniería civil que, junto con el de Suez, empiezan ya a clasificarse como obras maestras que señalan el primer jalón del desarrollo de la ingeniería moderna. Otras obras, también importantes, no conservan, sin embargo, la misma reputación que aquéllas, por no seguir un paralelismo con las exigencias en cada época. El canal de Panamá, con sus exclusas, y angosto paso llamado de la. Culebra, ha tenido que afrontar un tráfico creciente de navíos que siguen la evolución del tiempo. Para conseguir este paralelismo, tanto el material de explotación como la organización, dragados y mejoras, han tenido que conocer una sucesión ininterrumpida de modificaciones que han permitido

  8. Assessment of the wetting behavior of three different root canal sealers on root canal dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muralidhar Tummala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the wetting behavior of three different root canal sealers on the root canal dentin surface treated with irrigants and their combination. Materials and Methods: Decoronation and apical third resections of 27 extracted single-rooted human mandibular premolars were done. The roots were then split longitudinally into two halves, and randomly assigned into three treatment groups (n=18. The root dentin surfaces in Group1, Group 2 and Group 3 were treated with 17% ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA, 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and combination of 17% EDTA and 3% NaOCl, respectively. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups of 6 specimens each, depending on the the sealer used, i.e. sub group A. zinc oxide (ZnOE, sub group B. AH plus, subgroup C. Guttaflow sealer, respectively. The contact angle was measured using First Ten Angstroms (FTA 200 dynamic contact angle analyzer. Results: The contact angle values for AH Plus sealer were significantly lower when compared to the other two sealer groups. Conclusion: The wettability of AH Plus sealer on the root surface dentin was found to be better than Gutta-Flow and ZnOE sealer.

  9. Cervical spinal canal narrowing and cervical neurologi-cal injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Ling

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Cervical spinal canal narrowing can lead to injury of the spinal cord and neurological symptoms in-cluding neck pain, headache, weakness and parasthesisas. According to previous and recent clinical researches, we investigated the geometric parameters of normal cervical spinal canal including the sagittal and transverse diameters as well as Torg ratio. The mean sagittal diameter of cervical spinal canal at C 1 to C 7 ranges from 15.33 mm to 20.46 mm, the mean transverse diameter at the same levels ranges from 24.45 mm to 27.00 mm and the mean value of Torg ratio is 0.96. With respect to narrow cervical spinal canal, the following charaterstics are found: firstly, extension of the cervical spine results in statistically significant stenosis as compared with the flexed or neutral positions; secondly, females sustain cervical spinal canal narrowing more easily than males; finally, the consistent narrowest cervical canal level is at C 4 for all ethnicity, but there is a slight variation in the sagittal diameter of cervical spinal stenosis (≤14 mm in Whites, ≤ 12 mm in Japanese, ≤13.7 mm in Chinese. Narrow sagittal cervical canal diameter brings about an increased risk of neurological injuries in traumatic, degenerative and inflam-matory conditions and is related with extension of cervical spine, gender, as well as ethnicity. It is hoped that this re-view will be helpful in diagnosing spinal cord and neuro-logical injuries with the geometric parameters of cervical spine in the future. Key words: Spinal cord injuries; Spinal stenosis; Trauma, nervous system

  10. Cervical spinal canal narrowing and cervical neurological injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ling; CHEN Hai-bin; WANG Yi; ZHANG Li-ying; LIU Jing-cheng; WANG Zheng-guo

    2012-01-01

    Cervical spinal canal narrowing can lead to injury of the spinal cord and neurological symptoms including neck pain,headache,weakness and parasthesisas.According to previous and recent clinical researches,we investigated the geometric parameters of normal cervical spinal canal including the sagittal and transverse diameters as well as Torg ratio.The mean sagittal diameter of cervical spinal canal at C1 to C7 ranges from 15.33 mm to 20.46 mm,the mean transverse diameter at the same levels ranges from 24.45 mm to 27.00 mm and the mean value of Torg ratio is 0.96.With respect to narrow cervical spinal canal,the following charaterstics are found:firstly,extension of the cervical spine results in statistically significant stenosis as compared with the flexed or neutral positions; secondly,females sustain cervical spinal canal narrowing more easily than males;finally,the consistent narrowest cervical canal level is at C4 for all ethnicity,but there is a slight variation in the sagittal diameter of cervical spinal stenosis(≤ 14 mm in Whites,≤12 mm in Japanese,≤ 13.7 mm in Chinese).Narrow sagittal cervical canal diameter brings about an increased risk of neurological injuries in traumatic,degenerative and inflammatory conditions and is related with extension of cervical spine,gender,as well as ethnicity.It is hoped that this review will be helpful in diagnosing spinal cord and neurological injuries with the geometric parameters of cervical spine in the future.

  11. Topographical evaluation of the mandibular canal through panoramic radiograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Macedo Oliveira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The mandibular canal is located inside the body of the mandible and may have anatomical variations. The topographic knowledge of the mandibular canal by the Dental surgeons is fundamental to achieving success in surgical planning, anesthetics and clinical interventions involving the jaw. To study the anatomy of the mandibular canal through panoramic radiographs. A retrospective descriptive study, developed after review and approval by the Ethics and Research Committee with the number of opinion 431095. Were analyzed 252 panoramic radiographs of patients of male and female attended in dental clinics UNINOVAFAPI University Center, Teresina-Pi, Brazil. The radiographs were analyzed with the aid of a light box and each antimere the jaw was observed separately. The classification of Nortjé and Langlais for description of the topography of the mandibular canal were used. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 18.0. There was a prevalence of 38.89% in both antimeres, of mandibular channel the Type II. The type IV was present in 25.4% in the right hemi-arch and 26.6% on the left. Mandibular canal with unilateral bifurcation was observed in 0.77% of the sample and molar straight channel has not been identified. We observed anatomical variations as for the number and path, of the mandibular canal with the highest prevalence of Types II and IV, and the absence of bifurcations. Most was mandibular channels showed no bifurcation. The panoramic radiograph showed up an aid important to identify the mandibular canal and its variations.

  12. Canal mandibular bífido: Presentación de una serie de casos Bifid mandibular canal: Case series report

    OpenAIRE

    C.L. Guzmán Zuluaga; I.C. Guzmán Zuluaga; C.M. Ardila Medina

    2012-01-01

    La ubicación y configuración de las variaciones del canal mandibular son relevantes en diferentes procedimientos clínicos de la mandíbula. En esta serie de casos un radiólogo evaluó el recorrido del canal mandibular identificando la presencia y tipos de canales bífidos. Se observaron cuatro pacientes con canal mandibular bífido tipo retromolar y tres sujetos con canal bífido tipo anterior sin convergencia. En otro paciente se encontraron forámenes dentarios bífidos bilaterales. La Tomografía ...

  13. Origin and evolution of the canal raphe system in diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruck, Elizabeth C; Theriot, Edward C

    2011-11-01

    One lineage of pennate diatoms has a slit through the siliceous cell wall, called a "raphe," that functions in motility. Raphid pennate diatoms number in the perhaps tens of thousands of species, with the diversity of raphe forms potentially matching this number. Three lineages-the Bacillariales, Rhopalodiales, and Surirellales-possess a complex and presumably highly derived raphe that is physically separated from the cell interior, most often by a set of siliceous braces. Because the relationship among these three lineages is unclear, the number of origins of the canal raphe system and the homology of it and its constitutive parts among these lineages, is equally unclear. We reconstructed the phylogeny of raphid pennate diatoms and included, for the first time, members of all three canal raphid diatom lineages, and used the phylogeny to test specific hypotheses about the origin of the canal raphe. The canal raphe appears to have evolved twice, once in the common ancestor of Bacillariales and once in the common ancestor of Rhopalodiales and Surirellales, which form a monophyletic group in our analyses. These results recommend careful follow-up morphogenesis studies of the canal raphe in these two lineages to determine the underlying developmental basis for this remarkable case of parallel evolution.

  14. [Anatomical names of foramina and canales in skeleton].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikano, S; Yamashita, Y

    1998-03-01

    Latin anatomical names of Foramina and Canales in skeleton were analyzed and compared with Japanese anatomical names for better understanding of the structures of the human body and for possible revision in the future. The conclusions were as follows: 1. In general, short tunnels were called Foramina (singular: Foramen), and long tunnels Canales (singular: Canalis). 2. One end of Canalis was sometimes called Foramen. In this case, Canalis and Foramen were usually modified by the same words. 3. Each name of Foramina contained the word which means form, state, absolute size, region of existence, one of the contents or function of Foramina. 4. Each name of Canales contained the word which means region of existence, one of the contents or function of Canales. 5. Some names of Foramina and Canales that were supposed to mean the region of existence meant one of the contents of the structures. 6. As for Latin anatomical names, the relation between words were relatively clear by the proper use of noun, adjective, nominative, and genitive. 7. Since different Chinese characters were sometimes pronounced similarly in Japanese anatomical names, different structures might be confused. 8. It seemed that some Japanese anatomical names needed partial correction.

  15. CT and MR Imagings of Semicircular Canal Aplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Chung Hee; Hong, Hyun Sook; Yi, Beom Ha; Cha, Jang Gyu; Park, Seong Jin; Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kim, Shi Chan [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    To evaluate the clinical, CT and MR imaging findings of semicircular canal (SCC) aplasia and to evaluate if a correlation exists between these findings and the associated anomalies or syndromes. This study retrospectively reviewed the CT and MRI findings of five patients with SCC aplasia. The CT and MR findings were analyzed for SCC, direction of facial nerve canal, cochlea, vestibule, oval or round window, middle ear ossicles, and internal auditory canal (IAC). The subjects included three boys and two girls ranging in age from one to 120 months (mean age; 51 months). Four of the subjects had the CHARGE syndrome, and one had the Goldenhar syndrome. Moreover, four subjects had sensorineural hearing loss and one had combined hearing loss. The course of the facial nerve canal was abnormal in all five cases. Moreover, trapped cochlea and dysplastic modiolus were each observed in one case. Four subjects had atresia of the oval window; whereas ankylosis of the ossicles was present in three subjects. IAC stenosis was present in one patient with the CHARGE syndrome. The aberrant course of the facial nerve canal, atresia of the oval window, and abnormal ossicles were frequently associated in patients with SCC aplasia. In addition, the Goldenhar and CHARGE syndromes were also commonly associated syndromes.

  16. Nanodiamond-Gutta Percha Composite Biomaterials for Root Canal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Keun; Kim, Sue Vin; Limansubroto, Adelheid Nerisa; Yen, Albert; Soundia, Akrivoula; Wang, Cun-Yu; Shi, Wenyuan; Hong, Christine; Tetradis, Sotirios; Kim, Yong; Park, No-Hee; Kang, Mo K; Ho, Dean

    2015-11-24

    Root canal therapy (RCT) represents a standard of treatment that addresses infected pulp tissue in teeth and protects against future infection. RCT involves removing dental pulp comprising blood vessels and nerve tissue, decontaminating residually infected tissue through biomechanical instrumentation, and root canal obturation using a filler material to replace the space that was previously composed of dental pulp. Gutta percha (GP) is typically used as the filler material, as it is malleable, inert, and biocompatible. While filling the root canal space with GP is the standard of care for endodontic therapies, it has exhibited limitations including leakage, root canal reinfection, and poor mechanical properties. To address these challenges, clinicians have explored the use of alternative root filling materials other than GP. Among the classes of materials that are being explored as novel endodontic therapy platforms, nanodiamonds (NDs) may offer unique advantages due to their favorable properties, particularly for dental applications. These include versatile faceted surface chemistry, biocompatibility, and their role in improving mechanical properties, among others. This study developed a ND-embedded GP (NDGP) that was functionalized with amoxicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic commonly used for endodontic infection. Comprehensive materials characterization confirmed improved mechanical properties of NDGP over unmodified GP. In addition, digital radiography and microcomputed tomography imaging demonstrated that obturation of root canals with NDGP could be achieved using clinically relevant techniques. Furthermore, bacterial growth inhibition assays confirmed drug functionality of NDGP functionalized with amoxicillin. This study demonstrates a promising path toward NDGP implementation in future endodontic therapy for improved treatment outcomes.

  17. 33 CFR 207.640 - Sacramento Deep Water Ship Channel Barge Lock and Approach Canals; use, administration, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... movement and position of all water traffic while at or near the locks and in the barge canals. (2... be raced or crowded alongside another in the barge canals. When entering the barge canals and...

  18. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo simultaneously affecting several canals: a 46-patient series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Varela, Andrés; Rossi-Izquierdo, Marcos; Santos-Pérez, Sofía

    2013-03-01

    Although it is uncommon for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) to affect more than one canal simultaneously, it is not exceptional. We attempt to determine whether these patients present differences relative to "single-canal" cases. A prospective study was done in patients with BPPV, divided into three groups: single-canal BPPV, multi-canal BPPV in one ear and multi-canal BPPV in both ears. Diagnosis was by Dix and Hallpike, supine roll and cephalic hyperextension tests. Treatment was according to the affected canals, by Semont, Epley, Lempert and Yacovino manoeuvres. Aetiology, sex, age, response to treatment, recurrence and final status in each of the three groups was evaluated. Five hundred and eighty-three patients were diagnosed with BPPV: 537 single-canal (92 %) and 46 multi-canal (8 %); of the latter, 36 bilateral and 10 unilateral cases. Basic differences between groups were: greater percentage of idiopathic cases in single-canal (p BPPV was more common in unilateral multi-canal (p = 0.006, Chi-square). No differences between groups in response to treatment, recurrence and final status were detected. There are aetiological differences between patients with single-canal BPPV, unilateral multi-canal BPPV and bilateral multi-canal BPPV. Response to therapeutic manoeuvres, however, shows that over 90 % of the patients in all the groups are cured.

  19. 土地整治项目灌溉渠道衬砌方案经济比选研究%Research on Economic Scheme Comparison of Irrigation Canal about Land Consolidation Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳小松

    2016-01-01

    Irrigation channel is an important infrastructure of farmland , leakage of canal bed is the main way of water loss , lining can reduce leakage loss and improve irrigation efficiency.By studying irrigation canal unit cost ahout the same discharge with different section and lining fashion, the results showed:in three sections, the trapezoidal cross section irrigation canal unit cost was lowest, the rectangular cross section irri-gation canal took second place, the U-shaped cross section irrigation canal unit cost was highest.Among five lining fashion, the trapezoidal cross section with slope prefabricated irrigation canal unit cost was lowest , the U-shaped cross section with prefabricated irrigation canal unit cost was highest.%灌溉渠道是农田重要的基础设施,而渠床渗漏是渠系水量损失的主要途径,渠道衬砌可减少渠床渗漏损失,提高灌溉效益。不同的衬砌方案效益各不相同,通过对相同流量、不同断面和不同衬砌方式的渠道进行单价分析,考察较适宜的衬砌方案。结果表明,3种断面中梯形断面渠道单价最低;矩形断面渠道单价次之,U型断面渠道单价最高。5种衬砌方式中,梯形断面边坡预制渠道单价最低,预制U型槽单价最高。

  20. Síndrome de Deiscência de Canal Semicircular Superior Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzane da Cunha Ferreira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A Síndrome de Deiscência de Canal Semicircular Superior (SDCSS, primeiramente descrita em 1998 por Minor et al., caracteriza-se por vertigem associada à presença de nistagmo, relacionados à exposição a estímulos sonoros intensos ou a modificações de pressão dentro da orelha média ou intracraniana. Disacusia, em sua maioria de padrão condutivo à audiometria tonal, também pode estar presente. Nesta revisão da literatura objetivou-se abordar a SDCSS, com seus principais sinais e sintomas, achados diagnósticos e tratamento, assim como enfatizar a importância de sua inclusão dentre as causas de vertigem, visto tratar-se de acometimento ainda pouco conhecido até mesmo entre especialistas. O diagnóstico correto, além de possibilitar seu tratamento, impede que abordagens diagnósticas e terapêuticas inapropriadas sejam realizadas.The Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome (SCDS was first reported by Minor at. Al. (1998, and has been characterized by vertigo and vertical-torsional eye movements related to loud sounds or stimuli that change middle ear or intracranial pressure. Hearing loss, for the most part with conductive patterns on audiometry, may be present in this syndrome. We performed a literature survey in order to to present symptoms, signs, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to the SCDS, also aiming at stressing the great importance of including this syndrome among the tractable cause of vertigo. We should emphasize that this is a recent issue, still unknown by some specialists. The Correct SCDS diagnosis, besides enabling patient treatment, precludes misdiagnosis and inadequate therapeutic approaches.

  1. Commentaires sur la valeur piscicole du Canal de Roubaix (Nord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARRIGNON J.

    1970-10-01

    Full Text Available La population piscicole du Canal de ROUBAIX a été inventoriée par pêche électrique. Trois passages, suivis chacun de l'enlèvement des poissons capturés, ont été opérés dans chacun des trois Secteurs d'inventaire. Le peuplement le plus probable ainsi estimé (par la méthode De Lury,est en rapport avec le degré de pollution du canal. On constate aussi queles poissons se cantonnent le long des berges, sur une largeur de 2 à 3mètres.L'estimation à l'hectare représente donc en réalité le stock d'une zone n'ayant que 25 % de la surface totale du Canal. Les poissons contrôlés sont pour la plupart des poissons de repeuplement.

  2. Bioceramic-Based Root Canal Sealers: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Ab Aziz, Zeti A.

    2016-01-01

    Bioceramic-based root canal sealers are considered to be an advantageous technology in endodontics. The aim of this review was to consider laboratory experiments and clinical studies of these sealers. An extensive search of the endodontic literature was made to identify publications related to bioceramic-based root canal sealers. The outcome of laboratory and clinical studies on the biological and physical properties of bioceramic-based sealers along with comparative studies with other sealers was assessed. Several studies were evaluated covering different properties of bioceramic-based sealers including physical properties, biocompatibility, sealing ability, adhesion, solubility, and antibacterial efficacy. Bioceramic-based sealers were found to be biocompatible and comparable to other commercial sealers. The clinical outcomes associated with the use of bioceramic-based root canal sealers are not established in the literature. PMID:27242904

  3. Classification, mechanism and surgical treatments for spinal canal cysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun Sun

    2016-01-01

    A variety of cystic lesions may develop in spinal canal. These cysts can be divided into intramedullary, intradural, extradural, cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral cysts according to anatomical presentation, as well as arachnoid, meningeal, perineural, juxtafacet, discal, neurenteric cysts, and cyst-like lesions according to different etiologies. Mechanisms of initiation and growth vary for different cysts, such as congenital, trauma, bleeding, inflammatory, instability, hydrostatic pressure, osmosis of water, secretion of cyst wall, and one-way-valve effect, etc. Up to now, many treatment methods are available for these different spinal canal cysts. One operation method can be applied in cysts with different types. On the other hand, several operation methods may be utilized in one type of cyst according to the difference of location or style. However, same principle should be obeyed in surgical treatment despite of difference among spinal canal cysts, given open surgery is melely for symptomatic cyst. The surgical approach should be tailored to the individual patient.

  4. Acoustic impedances of ear canals measured by impedance tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciric, Dejan; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2007-01-01

    During hearing sensitivity tests, the sound field is commonly generated by an earphone placed on a subject ear. One of the factors that can affect the sound transmission in the ear is the acoustic impedance of the ear canal. Its importance is related to the contribution of other elements involved...... in the transmission such as the earphone impedance. In order to determine the acoustic impedances of human ear canals, the standardized method for measurement of complex impedances used for the measurement of the audiometric earphone impedances is applied. It is based on the transfer function between two microphone...... locations in an impedance tube. The end of the tube representing the measurement plane is placed at the ear canal entrance. Thus, the impedance seen from the entrance inward is measured on 25 subjects. Most subjects participated in the previous measurement of the ratio between the pressures at the open...

  5. The problem of fluid-dynamics in semicircular canal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    An analytical solution with high accuracy which holds for any values of ε for fluid-dynamics model equation in a single semicircular canal presented by Buskirk and his co-workers has been obtained.It not only includes all of the results of Buskirk et al.but also covers three possible kinds of dynamical response modes in practice.The theoretical results are in better agreement with those of experimental observations.This investigation has laid a reliable theoretical foundation for quantitatively understanding fluid-dynamics in semicircular canal,especially fluid dynamical response.The distribution of the velocity of the endolymph in semicircular canal is given.A nonstandard method of the inverse Laplace transform is presented.

  6. The problem of fluid-dynamics in semicircular canal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐明瑜; 谭文长

    2000-01-01

    An analytical solution with high accuracy which holds for any values of E for fluid-dynamics model eguation in a single semicircular canal presented by Buskirk and his co-workers has been ob-tained. it not only includes ali of the results of Buskirk et al. but also covers three possible kinds of dy-namical response modes in practice. The theoretical results are in betler agreement with those of ex-perimental observations. This investigation has laid a reliable theoretical foundation for quantitatively understanding fluid-dynamics in semicircular canal, especially fluid dynamical response. The distribu-tion of the velocity of the endolymph in semicircular canal is given. A nonstandard method of the in-verse Laplace transform is presented.

  7. Temporal Bone Fracture Causing Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD is a third window lesion of the inner ear causing symptoms of vertigo, autophony, tinnitus, and hearing loss. A “two-hit” hypothesis has traditionally been proposed, whereby thinly developed bone overlying the superior canal is disrupted by a sudden change in intracranial pressure. Although the symptoms of SCD may be precipitated by head injury, no previous reports have described a temporal bone fracture directly causing SCD. Observations. Two patients sustained temporal bone fractures after closed head trauma, and developed unilateral otologic symptoms consistent with SCD. In each instance, computed tomography imaging revealed fractures extending through the bony roof of the superior semicircular canal. Conclusions and Relevance. Temporal bone fractures, which are largely treated nonoperatively, have not previously been reported to cause SCD. As it is a potentially treatable entity, SCD resulting from temporal bone fracture must be recognized as a possibility and diagnosed promptly if present.

  8. Tullio phenomenon in superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, Gregory J; Cronin, Scott J; Heidenreich, Katherine D

    2014-03-18

    Tullio phenomenon refers to eye movements induced by sound.(1) This unusual examination finding may be seen in superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) syndrome.(2) This disorder is due to absent bone over the superior semicircular canal (figure). Patients complain of dizziness triggered by loud sound, aural fullness, autophony, and pulsatile tinnitus. When Tullio phenomenon exists in SSCD syndrome, the patient develops a mixed vertical-torsional nystagmus in which the slow phase rotates up and away from the affected ear (video on the Neurology® Web site at Neurology.org). This pattern of nystagmus aligns in the plane of the dehiscent semicircular canal and is due to excitation of its afferent nerves.

  9. RADIOLOGICAL STUDY OF HUMAN LUMBAR VERTEBRAL CANAL IN VIDHARBHA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Increase in number of patients suffering from backache all over world needs changing health polices and cost benefit analysis, it is important to look at diseases causing low back pain and for this study of radiological structure of lumbar vertebral canal is undertaken. AIMS : To reveal the radiological feature of Human lumbar vert ebral canal. METHOD AND MATERIAL : 50 - xray of lumbar canal was collected from orthopedic department of government medical college, Nagpur. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS : Data is presented in mean ± standard deviation and categorical variable are presented in percen tage. Comparison with previous study is done. RESULT : M aximum measurement as greater in male than female of same age group. CONCLUSION : T he present study and previous studies are compared and the non - significant result is found.

  10. Problems of drinking water treatment along Ismailia Canal Province, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geriesh, Mohamed H; Balke, Klaus-Dieter; El-Rayes, Ahmed E

    2008-03-01

    The present drinking water purification system in Egypt uses surface water as a raw water supply without a preliminary filtration process. On the other hand, chlorine gas is added as a disinfectant agent in two steps, pre- and post-chlorination. Due to these reasons most of water treatment plants suffer low filtering effectiveness and produce the trihalomethane (THM) species as a chlorination by-product. The Ismailia Canal represents the most distal downstream of the main Nile River. Thus its water contains all the proceeded pollutants discharged into the Nile. In addition, the downstream reaches of the canal act as an agricultural drain during the closing period of the High Dam gates in January and February every year. Moreover, the wide industrial zone along the upstream course of the canal enriches the canal water with high concentrations of heavy metals. The obtained results indicate that the canal gains up to 24.06x10(6) m3 of water from the surrounding shallow aquifer during the closing period of the High Dam gates, while during the rest of the year, the canal acts as an influent stream losing about 99.6x10(6) m3 of its water budget. The reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) and suspended particulate matters (SPMs) should be one of the central goals of any treatment plan to avoid the disinfectants by-products. The combination of sedimentation basins, gravel pre-filtration and slow sand filtration, and underground passage with microbiological oxidation-reduction and adsorption criteria showed good removal of parasites and bacteria and complete elimination of TOC, SPM and heavy metals. Moreover, it reduces the use of disinfectants chemicals and lowers the treatment costs. However, this purification system under the arid climate prevailing in Egypt should be tested and modified prior to application.

  11. Evolution of root canal sealers: An insight story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Tyagi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Attainment of ideal root canal treatment comprises various essential factors such as proper instrumentation, biomechanical preparation, obturation, and ultimately depending upon the case, post-endodontic restoration. Main objective of the treatment is to get absolute rid of microbial entity and prevent any future predilection of re-infection. In order to achieve that, proper seal is required to cut down any chance of proliferation of bacteria and future occurrence of any pathology. Although gutta-percha has been the standard obturating material used in root canal treatment, it does not reinforce endodontically treated roots owing to its inability to achieve an impervious seal along the dentinal walls of the root canal. Gutta-percha does not from a monoblock even with the use of a resin-based sealer such as AH Plus because the sealer does not bind to gutta-percha. As a result, a monoblock is formed (consisting of Resilon core material, Resin sealer, bonding agent/primer, and dentin. Another reason of Resilon being a better obturating material could be that the removal of smear layer by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA after biomechanical preparation may have allowed the root canal filling material and root canal sealers to contact the canal wall and penetrate in the dentinal tubules, which may increase the strength of roots. New silicone-based sealers like Roekoseal automix and the most recent GuttaFlow have some affirmative results regarding solubility and biocompatibility, as compared to other sealers. Methacrylate resin-based sealers and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA-based sealers have opened a new horizon for sealers.

  12. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo of Lateral Semicircular Canal: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly M. Nagy El-Makhzangy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV is the most common cause of vertigo of peripheral origin. The lateral semicircular canal (LSCC follows the posterior semicircular canal (PSCC as the site of pathology in the majority of patients. Therapy, aiming at relocating particles causing aberrant LSCC stimulation has been applied by forced prolonged positioning, barbecue, and particle repositioning maneuvers. Results of the different techniques are variable. This systematic review/meta-analysis aimed to find out which therapy technique yields higher cure rates. MedLine database provided at National Library of Medicine was searched for randomized controlled trials comparing results of different therapeutic techniques for patients with LSCC BPPV. For studies included in qualitative analysis/synthesis, the following were collected independently by the author: number of participants, count of patients with geotropic and apogeotropic LSCC in each treatment group, and resolution of vertigo/nystagmus assessed by symptomatic improvement and negative supine roll test 1–24 hours following intervention considering the type of LSCC BPPV (geotropic/apogeotropic. Level Ia evidence (systematic review of RCTs shows superiority of Gufoni maneuver over sham for both geotropic and apogeotropic LSCC BPPV. Comparisons between different therapeutic maneuvers for LSCC BPPV based on results of published RCTs could not be set.

  13. Capacitively coupled and direct-current resistivity surveys of selected reaches of Cozad, Thirty-Mile, Orchard-Alfalfa, Kearney, and Outlet Canals in Nebraska, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobza, Christopher M.; Burton, Bethany L.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Tompkins, Ryan E.

    2014-01-01

    Canal mile post 15.55 along 5 separate profiles. DC-resistivity results were compared to a schematic cross section of the Outlet Canal north embankment that include the original surfaces and modifications to the compacted-core bank structure. Along the canal road south line, there is a transition from high resistivity at land surface to much lower resistivity near the estimated depth of the northern slope of the original compacted-core bank; however, the surveyed elevation of the water surface in the canal also is at this elevation. Along the canal road north line, there is a transition from high resistivity near land surface to lower resistivity at depth. Although the transition is rapid near the estimated depth of the first-modified bank slope, it also is coincident with the groundwater level measured in piezometer PZ-4. Currently (2013), it is unknown if the indicated changes in resistivity at these elevations was the effect of saturation of the underlying sediments or caused by the compacted-core bank.

  14. Mineral trioxide aggregate root canal filling of traumatized immature tooth

    OpenAIRE

    Maha A Kanfar; Al-Nazhan, Saad A.

    2013-01-01

    An 8-year-old female patient reported to the dental clinic seeking a help to save her traumatized maxillary left central incisor. The tooth had been treated with a temporary filling by a general dentist. The coronal tooth structure was intact, discolored, and a temporary filling was placed on the access opening. She gave a history of trauma about 3 years back. An intraoral periapical radiograph revealed an open apex and dentin bridge in the middle of the root canal. The root canal and the acc...

  15. Atypical situations in root canals anatomy of human mandibular premolars

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrício SCAINI; Fabio Leal BRAGA; Irdival Cristino FIGUEIREDO JÚNIOR; Rafael Brandão FERREIRA; Baratto Filho,Flares; de SOUSA NETO, Manoel Damião

    2005-01-01

    The knowledge of the teeth internal anatomy that will receive endodontic treatment is very important for the success of the treatment and prognosis of those teeth. In this study, the morphological variations that may occur in relation to the number of root canals present in the premolar mandibular teeth group were discussed, as well as the most efficient methods to diagnose the existence of these variations, in order to have a clearer diagnosis of the number of root canals to be treated.A cas...

  16. Aplicaciones de software para gestión de canales

    OpenAIRE

    Mallol Casals, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Comunicació presentada al Congress on Industrial and Agricultural Canals. Lleida, 2014 Los sistemas de información geográfica permiten diseñar y poner a punto herramientas muy útiles para la gestión, puesto que registran y procesan datos gráficos y alfanuméricos del conjunto formado por canal y sus aprovechamientos. Las aplicaciones que se han presentado son ejemplos de los posibles desarrollos, con series históricas de datos y/o con de datos actuales, simular escenarios probables para ...

  17. Bilateral bifid mandibular canal: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamifar Kasra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bifid mandibular canal is a rare anatomical variation that can be of considerable interest to a dentist. This condition can lead to complications when performing mandibular anesthesia or during surgery of the lower third molar, orthognatic or reconstructive mandibular surgery, or placement of dental implants and prosthesis; bleeding and traumatic neuroma are possible complications. Therefore, awareness of this condition is important. We report two cases of bilateral bifid mandibular canal: one in a 22-year-old male and the other in a 24-year-old female.

  18. [Electronic determination of the length of the root canal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehon, P; Van Nieuwenhuysen, J P

    1999-01-01

    The endpoint of an endodontic treatment must be situated at the cemen-to-dentinal junction to preserve the biological potential of the periapical area and to realize a complete disinfection of the principal root canal system. Thus, the determination of working length is a crucial factor in endodontic therapy. The conventional radiographic method cannot provide the accurate location of the apical constriction. For this reason, the electronic apex locators have been developed. Now, the last generation of apex locators has become more sophisticated and the electronic measurements seem to be accurate and reliable with electrolytic solutions in the canal.

  19. Evaluation of pre-fabricated root canal posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hew, Y S; Purton, D G; Love, R M

    2001-03-01

    In this in vitro study, properties of a titanium alloy post recently introduced to the market (IntegraPost), were compared with those of a clinically proven stainless steel post (ParaPost). The IntegraPost has a unique, perforated, spherical head and a microknurled shank surface. The posts were tested for rigidity, for retention within the root canals of extracted teeth and for ability to retain composite resin cores. The two post types exhibited similar properties in core and root canal retention, however, the IntegraPost was significantly less rigid than the ParaPost.

  20. Morphological description of mandibular canal in panoramic radiographs

    OpenAIRE

    Maise Mendonça Amorim

    2006-01-01

    Resumo: O conhecimento da morfologia e topografia do canal mandibular é importante para as intervenções odontológicas realizadas na mandíbula, pois implica na preservação das estruturas nobres que o atravessam. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar morfológica e morfometricamente o trajeto e as relações do canal mandibular em indivíduos de ambos os gêneros, pertencentes a duas faixas etárias distintas, ambas na fase adulta. A amostra foi composta por 300 radiografias panorâmicas, divididas e...

  1. AFSC/ABL: Lynn Canal Overwinter Acoustic Survey, 2004-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The acoustic trawl database for Lynn Canals echo-trawl survey was conducted from 2001 to 2004 throughout southern Lynn Canal in southeast Alaska. Acoustic surveys...

  2. A Clinical Update on the Different Methods to Decrease the Occurrence of Missed Root Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Asgary, Saeed; Shalavi, Sousan; V. Abbott, Paul

    2016-01-01

    One of the main causes of endodontic treatment failure is the clinician’s inability to localize all the root canals. Due to the complex anatomy of the root canal system, missed canals are not uncommon. There are several strategies to decrease the possibility of missed root canals starting with good pre-operative radiographies. In order to overcome the limitations of conventional radiographies, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) can be considered. A correct access cavity preparation is of pivotal importance in localizing the orifices of the root canals. Furthermore, ultrasonics are very important devices to find missed canals. Increasing magnification and illumination enhance the possibility of finding all root canals during root canal treatment. The purpose of the present paper was to review all of the above techniques and devices. PMID:27471533

  3. A Guyon's canal ganglion presenting as occupational overuse syndrome: A case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Jeffrey C Y

    2008-01-01

    Occupational overuse syndrome (OOS) can present as Guyon\\'s canal syndrome in computer keyboard users. We report a case of Guyon\\'s canal syndrome caused by a ganglion in a computer user that was misdiagnosed as OOS.

  4. Evaluation of Mandibular Anterior Nutrient Canals in Periodontal Diseases: A Prospective Case Control Radiographic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Singh

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of nutrient canals was higher in patients with periodontitis. As age advanced, prevalence was more. Increased frequency of nutrient canals of 3 or more than 3 was seen with increased seventy of bone loss.

  5. Morphology of the mandibular canal and the angulation between the mandibular and mental canals in dry skulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pálsson, S R; Kjaer, I

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the correlation between external and internal mandibular morphology in adult or adolescent normal anthropological mandibles. Lateral radiographs of 31 symmetrical mandibles were analysed. The external morphology was defined by the gonial and beta......-angles. In order to analyse internal morphology, a metallic pin was placed in the mental canal on the left side before radiography. The angle between the mental and the mandibular canals was termed the 'mental angle' and that expressing the curvature of the mandibular canal, the 'mandibular angle'. Spearman...... correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationships between the angles. Internal morphology: a statistically significant correlation was found between the mental and mandibular angles (correlation coefficient: -0.60, P=0.0004). When the mental angle was narrow, the mandibular angle tended...

  6. A comparative evaluation of the increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation in curved root canals by three rotary systems: A cone-beam computed tomographic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanthi, Nalam NVD; Rambabu, Tanikonda; Sajjan, Girija S; Varma, K Madhu; Satish, R Kalyan; Padmaja, M

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to measure the increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation after biomechanical preparation at 1, 3, and 5 mm short of the apex with three different rotary systems in both continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary motions. Materials and Methods: Sixty freshly extracted human mandibular molars with mesial root canal curvatures between 20° and 30° were included in the study. Teeth were randomly distributed into three groups (n = 20). Biomechanical preparations were done in all the mesial canals. In Group 1, instrumentation was done with ProTaper universal rotary files, Group 2, with K3XF rotary files, and Group 3, with LSX rotary files. Each group was further subdivided into subgroups A and B (n = 10) where instrumentation was done by continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary techniques, respectively. Increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation was measured using the preoperative and postoperative cone-beam computed tomography scans. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey pairwise multiple comparison tests. Results: Increase in root canal surface area was significantly more (P ProTaper and K3XF groups when compared to LSX group. Canal transportation was significantly more (P ProTaper group when compared to K3XF and LSX groups. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in increase of root canal surface area and canal transportation between continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary techniques for ProTaper Universal, K3XF and LSX groups. Conclusion: LSX rotary system showed minimal increase of root canal surface area and minimal canal transportation when compared to ProTaper and K3XF rotary systems. PMID:27656062

  7. Treatment of Two Canals in All Mandibular Incisor Teeth in the Same Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana B. Kokane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main reason for unfavourable outcome in endodontic treatment of mandibular incisor is the inability to detect the presence of second canal. Pain even after extirpation of complete pulp tissue from root canal of vital teeth is the main indication of hidden canals. The present case report is also on pain because of another neglected canal in all mandibular incisors in the same patient.

  8. Independent and Confluent Middle Mesial Root Canals in Mandibular First Molars: A Report of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanavelu Deepalakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular molars demonstrate considerable variations with respect to number of roots and root canals. The possibility of additional root canals should be considered even in teeth with a low frequency of abnormal root canal anatomy. This paper discusses the endodontic management of the rare anatomical complexity middle mesial canals in mandibular first molar and also serves to remind the clinicians that such anatomical variations should be taken into account during the endodontic treatment of the mandibular molars.

  9. Maxillary first molars with six canals confirmed with the aid of cone-beam computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahra Mohammad Al-Habboubi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The maxillary first molar exhibits unpredictable root canal morphology. Different number of root canals has been reported with the aids of new tools. It is very important to clinically detect all canals for better outcome results. The purpose of the present case is to present a case of the maxillary first molar in a Saudi male patient with an anatomical variation of having six root canals that were confirmed with cone-beam computed tomography.

  10. Four cuspal maxillary second premolar with single root and three root canals: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Bansal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional configuration of maxillary second premolars has been described to have two cusps, one root and one or two root canals. The endodontic literature reports considerable anatomic aberrations in the root canal morphology of maxillary second premolar but the literature available on the variation in cuspal anatomy and its relationship to the root canal anatomy is sparse. The purpose of this clinical report was to describe the root and root canal configuration of a maxillary second premolar with four cusps.

  11. How the cross-sectional discontinuity between ear canal and probe affects the ear canal length estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebian, Makram; Hensel, Johannes; Fedtke, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    Many ear canal probes both deliver and measure sound via narrow tubes. This study investigates the effect of the cross-sectional discontinuity at the interface between ear canal models and the connecting tubes of a commercially available otoacoustic emission probe on the "acoustically" estimated cavity lengths. Rigid cavities having the same length but different diameters were produced, and modeled by the finite element method. Cavities with a diameter larger than 8 mm had acoustic lengths that considerably overestimated the real geometry. A length correction was derived, which, in most applications, compensates for the measurement errors emerging from the discontinuity effects.

  12. 33 CFR 165.1328 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA. 165.1328 Section 165.1328 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.1328 Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA. (a) Location. The following... whenever any U.S. Navy submarine is operating in the Hood Canal and is being escorted by the Coast...

  13. 77 FR 57019 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle... Northern Santa Fe Railway Bridge across the Lake Washington Ship Canal, mile 0.1, at Seattle, WA. This... Canal, mile 0.1 (Ballard-Salmon Bay), be locked in the closed position and not be required to open...

  14. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. 162.175 Section 162.175 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed...

  15. Segmentation of the mandibular canal in cone-beam CT data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, Dirk-Jan

    2011-01-01

    Accurate information about the location of the mandibular canal is essential in case of dental implant surgery. The goal of our research is to find an automatic method which can segment the mandibular canal in Cone-beam CT (CBCT). Mandibular canal segmentation methods in literature using a priori

  16. Role of the confinement of a root canal on jet impingement during endodontic irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaagen, B.; Boutsioukis, C.; Heijnen, G. L.; van der Sluis, L. W. M.; Versluis, M.

    2012-01-01

    During a root canal treatment the root canal is irrigated with an antimicrobial fluid, commonly performed with a needle and a syringe. Irrigation of a root canal with two different types of needles can be modeled as an impinging axisymmetric or non-axisymmetric jet. These jets are investigated exper

  17. Endodontic Treatment of a Mandibular Second Premolar with Three Roots and Three Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonny Paul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex root canal system with atypical variations is a common finding among mandibular premolars. Endodontic treatment in these teeth may not be successful due to the failure to recognise and treat multiple canals. This paper presents endodontic treatment of a mandibular second premolar with three roots and three canals.

  18. Comparison of 2 flushing methods used during passive ultrasonic irrigation of the root canal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Lucas; Wu, Min-Kai; Wesselink, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of irrigation time on the removal of dentin debris from root canals irrigated with passive ultrasonic irrigation comparing 2 flushing methods. Method and Materials: Root canals with a standardized groove in 1 canal wall, which was filled with dentin debris, were ir

  19. IMPACT OF CANAL DESIGN LIMITATIONS ON WATER DELIVERY OPERATIONS AND AUTOMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation canals are often designed for water transmission. The design engineer simply ensures that the canal will pass the maximum design discharge. However, irrigation canals frequently operated far below design capacity. Because demands and the distribution of flow at bifurcations (branch points...

  20. Spatial and seasonal variations of the contamination within water body of the Grand Canal, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.L.; Han, Jingyi; Xu, L.G.; Zhang, Q.

    2010-01-01

    To delineate the character of contaminations in the Grand Canal, China, a three-year study (2004-2006) was conducted to investigate variations the water quality in the canal. Results showed that the variation of water quality within the Grand Canal was of there is remarkable spatial and seasonal het

  1. 33 CFR 207.440 - St. Marys Falls Canal and Locks, Mich.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Marys Falls Canal and Locks.... Marys Falls Canal and Locks, Mich.; use, administration, and navigation. (a) The use, administration... by radiotelephone to the Corps of Engineers Chief Lockmaster at St. Marys Falls Canal dispatch...

  2. Bilateral Mandibular Condylar Fractures with Associated External Auditory Canal Fractures and Otorrhagia

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, David

    2016-01-01

    A rare case of bilateral mandibular condylar fractures associated with bilateral external auditory canal fractures and otorrhagia is reported. The more severe external auditory canal fracture was present on the side of high condylar fracture, and the less severe external auditory canal fracture was ipsilateral to the condylar neck fracture. A mechanism of injury is proposed to account for such findings.

  3. Bilateral Mandibular Condylar Fractures with Associated External Auditory Canal Fractures and Otorrhagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, David

    2007-01-01

    A rare case of bilateral mandibular condylar fractures associated with bilateral external auditory canal fractures and otorrhagia is reported. The more severe external auditory canal fracture was present on the side of high condylar fracture, and the less severe external auditory canal fracture was ipsilateral to the condylar neck fracture. A mechanism of injury is proposed to account for such findings.

  4. File list: Unc.Oth.10.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: His.Oth.50.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  6. File list: DNS.Oth.20.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  7. [The use of ultrasonic files in canal preparation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calas, P; Terrie, B

    1990-01-01

    The continuous high volume of irrigating solution delivered by the ultrasonic system facilitates the root canal debridement. An excellent cleaning of dentin wall is obtained even on surfaces unreached by the mechanical instrumentation. In order to obtain an efficacious preparation, the use of ultrasonic files were combined with instrumentation. This new technique is described in this article.

  8. Quality improvement of photopolimerizable-cement root canal obturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupato Conrado, Luis A.; Frois, Iris M.; Amaro Zangaro, Renato; Munin, Egberto; Kuranaga, Carlos; Dias da Silva, Marcos; do Carmo de Andrade Nono, Maria; Cerquiera Rezende, Mirabel

    2003-06-01

    The sealing cements commonly used for endodontic applications are of the type cured through chemical reactions. During the polymerization process, mechanical contractions are not uncommon, leading to a non-perfect sealing. Photopolymerizable cements usually presents superior performance as compared to those chemically activated. However, difficulties in carrying the light to difficult-to-reach regions like the dental apex preclude those material of being accepted in the dental office routine. This work reports on a novel technique which allow the light curing of photopolymerizable cements in endodontic applications. A special light guide had been developed to allow the curing light to reach and polymerize the sealing cement in the apex region. The technique was tested by using single-root human teeth with normal canal morphology. The Ultradent EndoREZ root canal sealer and a resin-based photopolymerizable filler specially developed for the current application had been used. The cone-shaped light guide was introduced into treated canals filled with the photopolymerizable material, up to the apical region. Light from an argon laser was launched onto the light guide for polymerization. All test samples were immersed in methylene-blue solution for microleakage testing. All samples treated with the self-polymerizable material presented dye penetration to some extent. No sample within the group which had the filling material polymerized by using the light guide presented dye penetration through the canal wall.

  9. The spiral ganglion and Rosenthal's canal in beluga whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensor, Jennifer D; Suydam, Robert; George, John C; Liberman, M C; Lovano, Denise; Rhaganti, Mary Ann; Usip, Sharon; Vinyard, Christopher J; Thewissen, J G M

    2015-12-01

    With the increase of human activity and corresponding increase in anthropogenic sounds in marine waters of the Arctic, it is necessary to understand its effect on the hearing of marine wildlife. We have conducted a baseline study on the spiral ganglion and Rosenthal's canal of the cochlea in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) as an initial assessment of auditory anatomy and health. We present morphometric data on the length of the cochlea, number of whorls, neuron densities along its length, Rosenthal's canal length, and cross-sectional area, and show some histological results. In belugas, Rosenthal's canal is not a cylinder of equal cross-sectional area, but its cross-section is greatest near the apex of the basal whorl. We found systematic variation in the numbers of neurons along the length of the spiral ganglion, indicating that neurons are not dispersed evenly in Rosenthal's canal. These results provide data on functionally important structural parameters of the beluga ear. We observed no signs of acoustic trauma in our sample of beluga whales.

  10. Congenital defect of the partial atrioventricular canal with Klinefelter syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yejing

    2009-01-01

    The case of a 25-year-old man with a partial atrioventricular canal defect (PAVCD) with Klinefelter syndrome is reported here. The patient had Klinefelter syndrome associated with an atrial septal defect and the cleft of the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve.

  11. Exposure and direct stimulation of the semicircular canal cupula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, M; Harada, Y

    1985-01-01

    The ampullary wall of the posterior semicircular canal was isolated from the frog, cut and the cupula exposed in frog Ringer's solution. The cupula was stimulated by depression with a fine glass micropipette. Three points on the cupula were selected for depression: point A, the lowest point on the midline of the cupula surface on the utricular side; point B, the uppermost on the midline of the same surface; and point C, in the middle of the lateral surface of the cupula. Depression at points A and B was toward the canal, whereas depression at point C was toward the centre of the cupula. The amount of depression was controlled by a micromanipulator. At point A, the minimum depression facilitating the posterior canal action potential was 1 micron; at point B, a greater amount of depression was needed to produce the action potential. Even a large amount of depression at point C resulted in only a small action potential, possibly because the direction of the sensory cell polarity is along the long axis of the canal.

  12. 78 FR 58458 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Quogue Canal, Southampton, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ...The Commander, First Coast Guard District, has issued a temporary deviation from the regulations governing the operation of the Quogue Bridge, mile 1.1, across Quogue Canal, at Southampton, New York. This temporary deviation authorizes the Quogue Bridge to keep one of the two movable spans in the closed position in order to facilitate rehabilitation at the...

  13. Adductor Canal Block versus Femoral Nerve Block and Quadriceps Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Pia Therese; Nielsen, Zbigniew Jerzy Koscielniak; Henningsen, Lene Marianne;

    2013-01-01

    : The authors hypothesized that the adductor canal block (ACB), a predominant sensory blockade, reduces quadriceps strength compared with placebo (primary endpoint, area under the curve, 0.5-6 h), but less than the femoral nerve block (FNB; secondary endpoint). Other secondary endpoints were...

  14. 76 FR 21253 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Company Canal, Lockport, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ...The Commander, Eighth Coast Guard District, has issued a temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the LA 1 vertical lift span bridge across Company Canal, mile 0.4, at Lockport, Lafourche Parish, Louisiana. The deviation is necessary to perform electrical rehabilitation work on the bridge. This deviation allows the bridge to remain closed to navigation for twelve......

  15. 75 FR 45477 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Company Canal, Bourg, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ...The Commander, Eighth Coast Guard District, has issued a temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the LA 24 vertical lift span bridge across Company Canal, mile 8.1, at Bourg, Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana. The deviation is necessary to perform electrical rehabilitation work on the bridge. This deviation allows the bridge to remain closed to navigation for twelve......

  16. 78 FR 10524 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Charenton Canal, Baldwin, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ...The Coast Guard has issued a temporary deviation from the operating schedule that governs the Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) Railway Company swing span bridge across Charenton Canal, mile 0.4, at Baldwin, St. Mary Parish, Louisiana. The deviation is necessary to complete scheduled repairs for the continued safe operation of the bridge. This deviation allows the bridge to remain in the......

  17. Shape and Deformation Analysis of the Human Ear Canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune

    This thesis presents work on the analysis of the dynamic behavior of the human ear canal. The work is based on two studies designed during the project, a pilot study with 30 normal hearing subjects and a main study with 42 hearing impaired subjects, all hearing-aid users. The main focus is on the......This thesis presents work on the analysis of the dynamic behavior of the human ear canal. The work is based on two studies designed during the project, a pilot study with 30 normal hearing subjects and a main study with 42 hearing impaired subjects, all hearing-aid users. The main focus...... is on the extraction and analysis of the shape and deformation of the ear canal due to movements of the mandible, leaning over, and turning of the head. Methods for surface registration with focus on non-rigid registration are presented, as well as a wide range of statistical methods used for analyzing the shapes...... and deformation fields. The results show that the ear canal changes shape significantly in all subjects and that the deformation is more complicated than previously described in the literature. It is shown that the deformation at specific locations in the ear is significantly correlated to comfort issues reported...

  18. Radiographic Localization of the Mental Foramen and Mandibular Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Afkhami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Accurately localizing the mental foramen and mandibular canal is important when administering local anesthesia and performing surgery; therefore, knowing the normal range of the possible locations is essential. Our purpose was to assess the location of the mental foramen and mandibular canal in an Iranian population using panoramic radiography.Materials and Methods: Standard panoramic radiographies were performed. The positions of 100 mental foramens were evaluated. The distances from the center of the mental foramen to the superior and inferior borders of the mandible and to the apexes of the first and second premolar were measured. The distance of the mental foramens from the mandibular midline and the diameter of the mandibular canal in the mental foramen connection were also measured.Results: Among 100 mental foramens, 6% were positioned under the first premolar, 24% were between the first and second premolars, 67% were under the second premolar, and the remaining 3% were behind the second premolar. The mean distance from the mental foramen to the mandibular midline was 27.77±3.20 mm. The mean diameter of the mandibular canal in the mental foramen connection was 3.09±0.69mm.Conclusion: The mental foramen was near the second premolar and the inferior border of the mandible. This information can be used to perform safer mental nerve blocks in surgical interventions.

  19. Interactions between root canal irrigants, sealers and dentin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelakantan, P.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to determine the interactions between root filling materials and root dentin and to investigate if root canal irrigating solutions had an impact on these interactions. The following outcomes were assessed in the studies encompassed in this thesis: (i) dislocation res

  20. Semicircular canals circumvent brownian motion overload of mechanoreceptor hair cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, Mees; Heeck, Kier; Elemans, Coen P.H.

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate semicircular canals (SCC) first appeared in the vertebrates (i.e. ancestral fish) over 600 million years ago. In SCC the principal mechanoreceptors are hair cells, which as

    compared to cochlear hair cells are distinctly longer (70 vs. 7 μm), 10 times more compliant to bending (4

  1. Root canal length measurement in teeth with electrolyte compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, K C; Kim, S C; Lee, S J; Kim, Y J; Kim, N G; Kim, D W

    2002-03-01

    Electronic root canal length measurement devices have made it easier and faster to measure the root canal length of a tooth compared with the conventional radiographic method. Of these electronic apex locators, the frequency-dependent type features greater accuracy and convenience in operation. However, its accuracy is still influenced by the presence of blood and/or the various electrolytes used in root canal therapy. This study describes the development of a new frequency-dependent electronic apex locator featuring electrolyte compensation, utilising an impedance ratio and voltage difference technique to minimise the influence of electrolytes on the accuracy of root canal length measurement. The errors for distances from file tips to apical constrictions were determined in vivo with the device operating with electrolyte compensation. The measured lengths were compared with the true lengths of the extracted teeth determined using a microscope. The mean error was +0.14+/-0.27mm, and 95.2% of the measurements were within the clinical tolerance of +/-0.5mm. It was also found that the degree of accuracy was not dependent on the size of the apical foramen (p = 0.74).

  2. Mimamata and Love Canal: A Pollution Tale of Two Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mary Louise

    1993-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan about case studies of the environmental disasters of Minamata, Japan and Love Canal, New York. Compares how the legal cases were handled in two constitutional democracies. Provides six handouts that include maps, role descriptions for simulations, and student readings. (CFR)

  3. Anatomo-radiological study of the Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crovetto, M., E-mail: macdlt@telefonica.net [Otolaryngology Department, Hospital de Basurto, University of the Basque Country, Avenida de Montevideo 18, Bilbao 48013, Vizcaya (Spain); Whyte, J., E-mail: jwhite@unizar.es [Faculty of Medicine, Department of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Zaragoza, C/Domingo Mirall s/n, Zaragoza (Spain); Rodriguez, O.M., E-mail: OLIVIAMARIA.RODRIGUEZSANVICENT@osakidetza.net [Hospital de Cruces, Baracaldo, Vizcaya (Spain); Lecumberri, I., E-mail: INIGO.LECUMBERRICORTES@osakidetza.net [Hospital de Basurto, Avenida Montevideo 18, Bilbao 498013 (Spain); Martinez, C., E-mail: claudiorayosx@yahoo.es [Hospital General de la Defensa, Via Iberica s/n Zaragoza (Spain); Elexpuru, J., E-mail: jelexpuru@mac.com [Hospital de Basurto, Avenida de Montevideo 18, Bilbao 48013, Vizcaya (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to determine the radiological incidence of Superior (SSCD) and Posterior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence (PSCD) and to compare radiologic SSCD to the incidence of this condition on cadaver specimen. We have also analysed the relation between the ossification state of the semicircular canals and the degree of mastoid pneumatization and integrity of Tegmen Tympani. Material and methods: Temporal bones have been investigated by means of CT scan on patients and direct observation on cadaver specimen, respectively. Results: 604 ears and 160 cadaver temporal bones have been investigated by means of CT scan and direct observation, respectively. 3.6% and 0.3% of the studied ears had SSCD and PSCD, respectively, on CT scan. Only 0.6% of the cadaver specimen ears did have anatomical SSCD. Degree of pneumatization of the mastoid bone is related to the mean thickness of bone overlying the Superior and Posterior Semicircular Canal. Radiological absence of Tegmen Tympani is more frequent in ears that also have radiologic SSCD. Conclusion: CT scanning gives higher incidence figures of SSCD than anatomical studies, 3.6% vs. 0.6%. We also found a 0.6% incidence of radiological PSCD in the studied ears. There is a direct relation between the degree of ossification of Superior and Posterior Semicircular Canal and certain temporal bone anatomic features: temporal bone pneumatization and absence/presence of Tegmen Tympani or Antri.

  4. Lightlike Hypersurfaces and Canal Hypersurfaces of Lorentzian Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lightlike hypersurfaces in semi-Euclidean space are of special interest in Relativity Theory. In particular, the singularities of these lightlike hypersurfaces provide good models for the study of different horizon types. And we obtain some geometrical propositions of the canal hypersurfaces of Lorentzian surfaces. We introduce the notions of flatness for these hypersurfaces and study their singularities.

  5. Bacteriologic results from 4,000 root canal cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, K.C.; Amerongen, J. van

    1959-01-01

    The bacteriologic results from more than 4,000 root canal cultures are discussed. Streptococci form 61 per cent of the isolated organisms. Among these, the group of hemolytic, indifferent, and indifferent anaerobic streptococci, mainly belonging to serologic groups F, G, and C, seem the most serious

  6. Comparative skin dose measurement in the treatment of anal canal cancer: conventional versus conformal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devic, Slobodan; Hegyi, Gyorgy; Vuong, Té; Muanza, Thierry; Podgorsak, Ervin B

    2004-06-01

    The subject of this work was to compare the effect of Conventional and Conformal techniques, used for anal canal cancer treatments, on the skin dose deposition. Skin dose was measured on a Rando phantom using XR-T GAFCHROMIC film. A skin surface dose histogram was constructed and a skin dose profile in the sagittal direction of the perineal region was measured, for both techniques. The measured skin dose in the anterior and posterior region of the skin exposed to radiation is from two to ten times higher when using a conventional technique. In the perineal region, an 85% of the prescription isodose line spreads over 25% of the perineum for conformal technique as compared to 65% with conventional techniques. In addition, conformal technique dose profiles confine better the anatomical position of the anal verge than conventional techniques. Results presented in this work confirm clinically observed improvement in the radiation-induced dermatitis when using the conformal technique.

  7. Epidermal cyst of the bony external auditory canal in an adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihshan Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To present a rare case of epidermal cyst of the bony external auditory canal (EAC in an adult. Epidermal cyst of the bony EAC, although very rare, should be kept in the list of differential diagnosis of a skin-lined mass of the EAC. Epidermal cyst is very rare in the EAC. Only two cases of epidermoid cyst arising from the bony EAC are reported previously in English, but both were in pediatric age group. Epidermal cyst in EAC in adult patients may be confused with masses that are commonly seen, and these include osteomas, exostosis, ear polyps, carcinomas, etc. Epidermal cyst should be included in the differential diagnosis of a patient with an ear mass.

  8. In vitro comparison of passive and continuous ultrasonic irrigation in curved root canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelo-Baz, Pablo; Varela-Patiño, Purificación; Cantatore, Giuseppe; Domínguez-Perez, Ana; Ruíz-Piñón, Manuel; Martín-Biedma, Benjamín

    2016-01-01

    Background The efficacy of endodontic irrigation procedures can be compromised by the complexity of the root canal system. Delivering irrigants to the apical third of curved canals presents a particular challenge to endodontists. This study compared the effects of two ultrasonic irrigation techniques on the penetration of sodium hypochlorite into the main canal and simulated lateral canals of curved roots in extracted teeth. Material and Methods Two sets of simulated lateral canals were created at 2, 4, and 6 mm from the working length in 60 single-rooted teeth (6 canals/tooth, n = 360 canals). The teeth were randomly divided into three experimental irrigation groups: group 1 (n = 20), positive pressure irrigation (PPI); group 2 (n = 20), passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI); and group 3 (n = 20), continuous ultrasonic irrigation (CUI). To assess the irrigation solution penetration, 20% Chinese ink (Sanford Rotring GmbH, Hamburg, Germany) was added to a 5% sodium hypochlorite solution and delivered into the curved root canals. The penetration of contrast solution into the simulated lateral canals was scored by counting the number of lateral canals (0-2) penetrated to at least 50% of the total length. Results The CUI group showed significantly higher (P irrigant penetration into the lateral canals and into the apical third of the main canals. The PPI group showed significantly lower sodium hypochlorite penetration (P irrigant penetration was observed in the PUI group than the PPI group. Conclusions Using CUI as the final rinse significantly increased the penetration of irrigant solution into the simulated lateral canals and apical third of curved roots. Key words:Continuous ultrasonic irrigation, curved root canals, passive ultrasonic irrigation, positive pressure irrigation, root canal irrigation.

  9. Classifications of mandibular canal branching:A review of literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mauricio Augusto Aquino Castro; Manuel Oscar Lagravere-Vich; Tania Mara Pimenta Amaral; Mauro Henrique Guimaraes Abreu; Ricardo Alves Mesquita

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To gather existing radiographic classifications of mandibular canals branching, considering the criteria on which these were based.METHODS: The search for studies on mandibular canals based on imaging exams included literature reviews, epidemiological studies of prevalence, descriptive studies, or case reports. An electronic search in the MEDLINE(Ovid SP), Pub Med, EMBASE(Ovid SP), Web of Science(Thompson Reuters), and Scopus(Elsevier) databases was performed, as well as a manual evaluation of the references of the selected articles. Combinations of key words were placed in each database. No restrictions were imposed regarding the year of publication or language. References collected in duplicate were removed by the authors. A table was drawn up, containing the included studies and respective interest data.RESULTS: Six classifications of mandibular canals branching were selected for the present literature review. Four were based on two-dimensional radiographic exams, and two were performed based on threedimensional tomographic exams. Three-dimensional classifications were determined based on the analysis found in the least number of exams, comparatively to two-dimensional studies. The prevalence of mandibular canal branching varied from 0% to 38.75% in the works based on two-dimensional exams, while those found inthree-dimensional exams ranged from 15.6% to 65%. The studies were mostly referred to branches that began in the mandibular ramus. Just one classification considered the branches that began in the mandibular body region.CONCLUSION: Three-dimensional exams appear to be the best method to view mandibular canal branching. Further studies are warranted to determine its true prevalence and questions concerning to associations.

  10. Endodontic Management of a Maxillary First Molar with Seven Root Canals Using Spiral Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Hemant Kumar; Saini, Gaurav Kumar; Chhabra, Harpreet Singh; Panwar, Pratyaksha Singh

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this case report is to present a rare root canal configuration of maxillary molar with seven root canals; three mesiobuccal, two palatal and two distobuccal canals diagnosed during treatment procedure confirmed by spiral computed tomography. A thorough knowledge of root canal morphology, proper clinical and radiographic examination, and use of dental operating microscopes are necessary for successful clinical outcomes. This article highlights the variations in the morphology of maxillary first molar and use of the latest techniques in successful diagnosis and negotiation of the additional canals. PMID:28293666

  11. CANAL CONFIGURATION IN THE ROOTS OF MAXILLARY SECON D PREMOLAR: A CLINICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Modified access cavity preparation and X ray- interpre tation were used clinically to find out the additional canals in the root of maxil lary second premolars. In 85% of the case two canals were located and treated, of these 30% had t wo separate apical foramen and 50.66% had two canal, joined at the apical third in 5% of the cases, two roots with two different canals were located and in 15% of the cases, one canal was loca ted KEY WORDS: Access Preparation, Apical Foramen.

  12. Dams on historic canal navigation networks; Les barrages sur le reseau des canaux historiques de navigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houde, L. [Parks Canada, Gatineau, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presented an overview of historic dams and other water retention structures within the Parks Canada network. It described the engineering achievement that went into the construction of these structures and how they have evolved over time. For the past century, the construction of canals has played a major role in Canada's economic development. The networks of canals have been used for transportation, commerce and military purposes and have acquired heritage and recreational value. Several canals, along with their locks and dams, have been recognized as having historical importance, such as the Chambly Canal in Quebec, and the Rideau Canal in Ottawa, Ontario. 14 refs.

  13. Bilateral presence of two root canals in maxillary central incisors: A rare case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kavitha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Success in root canal treatment is achieved after thorough cleaning and shaping followed by complete obturation of the canal system. Therefore, endodontic therapy requires specific and complete knowledge of the internal and external dental anatomy, and its variations in presentation. The internal anatomy of the maxillary central incisor is well-known and usually presents one root canal system. This case report describes an endodontic treatment of traumatized both maxillary central incisors with two canal systems. Knowledge of dental anatomy is fundamental for proper endodontic practice. When root canal treatment is performed, the clinician should be aware that both external and internal anatomy may be abnormal.

  14. Bilateral presence of two root canals in maxillary central incisors: A rare case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, M; Gokul, Kannan; Ramaprabha, B; Lakshmi, Amudha

    2014-04-01

    Success in root canal treatment is achieved after thorough cleaning and shaping followed by complete obturation of the canal system. Therefore, endodontic therapy requires specific and complete knowledge of the internal and external dental anatomy, and its variations in presentation. The internal anatomy of the maxillary central incisor is well-known and usually presents one root canal system. This case report describes an endodontic treatment of traumatized both maxillary central incisors with two canal systems. Knowledge of dental anatomy is fundamental for proper endodontic practice. When root canal treatment is performed, the clinician should be aware that both external and internal anatomy may be abnormal.

  15. Endodontic Management of a Maxillary First Molar with Seven Root Canals Using Spiral Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Yadav

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this case report is to present a rare root canal configuration of maxillary molar with seven root canals; three mesiobuccal, two palatal and two distobuccal canals diagnosed during treatment procedure confirmed by spiral computed tomography. A thorough knowledge of root canal morphology, proper clinical and radiographic examination, and use of dental operating microscopes are necessary for successful clinical outcomes. This article highlights the variations in the morphology of maxillary first molar and use of the latest techniques in successful diagnosis and negotiation of the additional canals.

  16. Comparison of lumbar spinal canal measurements on MRI and CT; Comparaison des mesures du canal lombaire en IRM et TDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malghem, J.; Willems, X.; Vande Berg, B.; Cosnard, G.; Lecouvet, F. [Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Dept. d' Imagerie Medicale, Bruxelles (Belgium); Robert, A. [Ecole de Sante Publique, Faculte de Medecine, Unite d' Epidemiologie, Biostatistique et Methodes Operationnelles en Sante, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2009-04-15

    Purpose. To compare AP diameter measurements of spinal canal and thecal sac on MM and CT. Materials and methods. The AP diameter of the spinal canal at L4 and thecal sac at L4-5 were measured on both MRI and CT performed on patients at less than one month interval. Measurements were obtained from axial CT images of the abdomen on CT and sagittal T1W (n=98 ) and T2W (n=78) MR images of the spine. The examinations were reviewed at more than 24 hours interval. Radiologists were blinded. Inter-observer agreement evaluation was performed prior to this study. Measurements were compared using a t test for paired variables. Results. For the spinal canal, mean measurements were 0.4 {+-} 1.5 mm inferior on CT compared to MRI. For the thecal sac, mean measurements were 0.1 {+-} 1.4 mm inferior on CT compared to MRI. Conclusion. Measurements on CT and MRI for lumbar spinal canal and thecal sac are fairly comparable, with mean measurement differences inferior to the degree of precision of the measurement technique itself. (authors)

  17. Síndrome do canal de Guyon causada por cisto sinovial Guyon's canal syndrome due to a synovial cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Silva Ruas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos um caso de síndrome do canal de Guyon por um cisto sinovial no punho esquerdo de uma paciente do sexo feminino, de 48 anos. A paciente apresentava dor e parestesia na topografia do nervo ulnar, diminuição da força muscular e deformidade na mão esquerda. A eletroneuromiografia evidenciava compressão do nervo ulnar no nível do punho. Realizada a ressecção do cisto e descompressão do nervo no canal de Guyon. Após a cirurgia a paciente apresentou melhora da dor e da parestesia, além de aumento do trofismo muscular e correção da deformidade.The authors present a case of Guyon's canal syndrome due to a synovial cyst within the left wrist of a 48-year-old female patient. The patient reported pain and paresthesia in the topography of the ulnar nerve, loss of muscular strength and left hand deformity. Electromyography showed a compression of the ulnar nerve at the wrist level. Surgical decompression at the Guyon canal with resection of the cyst was performed. After surgery, the patient presented with improvement of pain and paresthesia, as well as an increase in muscular trophism and correction of the deformity.

  18. The width of the incisive canal and labial alveolar bone of the incisive canal: an assessment on CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Yang Gyun; Jang, Hyun Seon; Kim, Byung Ock; Kim, Jin Soo [Chosun Univ. College of Dentistry, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    To assess the width of the labial alveolar bone of the incisive canal and the width of the incisive canal on spiral computed tomographic images of the anterior portion of the maxilla. Study materials included 38 CT scans taken for preoperative planning of implant placement. Axial cross-sectioned image entirely showing the incisive canal at an orifice to the oral cavity, middle portion, and an orifice to the nasal cavity and the diameter of the incisive canal at the middle portion were determined by two specialist using Digora for Windows 2.1. The statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS 12.0.1. When the maxillary central incisors remained, the mean labial alveolar bone width were 6.81{+-}1.41 mm, 6.46{+-}1.33 mm, and 7.91{+-}1.33 mm. When the maxillary central incisors were missed the mean width were 5.42{+-}2.20 mm, 6.23{+-}2.29 mm, and 7.89{+-}2.13 mm. The labial alveolar bone width at middle portion and an orifice to the nasal cavity were of no statistical significant difference according to presence of the maxillary central incisors (P>0.05). The width between oral cavity and nasal cavity, middle portion and to masal cavity revealed statistically significant difference (P<0.05)

  19. Clinical Exploration on 90 Cases with Soft Birth Canal Laceration%软产道裂伤90例临床探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩荣荣

    2014-01-01

    Objective:The specific causes and treatment methods of post-partum hemorrhage caused by soft birth canal laceration were analyzed. Method:A total of 90 cases with post-partum hemorrhage caused by soft birth canal laceration in our hospital from January 2011 to January 2013 were chosen as study objects,and the causes and treatment methods of patients were m retrospectively analyzed.Result:The incidence rate of soft birth canal laceration in patients whose first stage of labor was shorter than 1 hour or the second stage of labor was shorter than 0.5 hour was the highest.The incidence rate of soft birth canal laceration in patients whose first stage of labor was from 8 to 16 h or whose second stage of labor was from 1 to 2 h was the middle one.The incidence rate of soft birth canal laceration was lowest in patients whose stage of labor was not higher than the warning line and dispose line.Conclusion:Soft birth canal laceration is correlated with the stage of labor,fetal size and other factors,and mastering the reasons of soft birth canal laceration has a significance for doing a good job in preventing post-partum hemorrhage work.%目的:分析因软产道裂伤导致的产后出血的具体原因及处理方法。方法:将2011年1月-2013年1月笔者所在医院产科收治的因软产道裂伤引起的90例产后出血病患作为研究对象,回顾性分析病患出现软产道裂伤的原因及处理方法。结果:第一产程<1 h者及第二产程<0.5 h者产道裂伤发生率最高;第一产程8~16 h及第二产程1~2 h者产道裂伤发生率次之,而未超过产程警戒线及处理线者产道裂伤发生率最低。结论:软产道裂伤和产程、胎儿大小等因素有关,全面掌握软产道裂伤的原因,对做好预防产后出血工作具有重要意义。

  20. First Branchial Cleft Fistula Associated with External Auditory Canal Stenosis and Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahin abdollahi fakhim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: First branchial cleft anomalies manifest with duplication of the external auditory canal.   Case Report: This report features a rare case of microtia and congenital middle ear and canal cholesteatoma with first branchial fistula. External auditory canal stenosis was complicated by middle ear and external canal cholesteatoma, but branchial fistula, opening in the zygomatic root and a sinus in the helical root, may explain this feature. A canal wall down mastoidectomy with canaloplasty and wide meatoplasty was performed. The branchial cleft was excised through parotidectomy and facial nerve dissection.   Conclusion:  It should be considered that canal stenosis in such cases can induce cholesteatoma formation in the auditory canal and middle ear.

  1. Assessment of bifid and trified mandicular canals using cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashsyren, Oyuntugs [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Mongolian National University Medical Science, Ulaanbaatar (United States); Choi, Jin Woo; Han, Won Jeong; Kim Eun Kyung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dankook University College of Dentistry, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    To investigate the prevalence of bifid and trifid mandibular canals using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, and to measure their length, diameter, and angle. CBCT images of 500 patients, involving 755 hemi-mandibles, were used for this study. The presence and type of bifid mandibular canal was evaluated according to a modified classification of Naitoh et al. Prevalence rates were determined according to age group, gender, and type. Further, their diameter, length, and angles were measured using PACSPLUS Viewer and ImageJ 1.46r. Statistical analysis with chi-squared and analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests was performed. Bifid and trifid mandibular canals were found in 22.6% of the 500 patients and 16.2% of the 755 sides. There was no significant difference between genders and among age groups. The retromolar canal type accounted for 71.3% of the identified canals; the dental canal type, 18.8%; the forward canal type, 4.1%; and the trifid canal type, 5.8%. Interestingly, seven cases of the trifid canal type, which has been rarely reported, were observed. The mean diameter of the bifid and trifid mandibular canals was 2.2 mm and that of the main mandibular canal was 4.3 mm. Their mean length was 16.9 mm; the mean superior angle was 149.2 degrees, and the mean inferior angle was 37.7 degrees. Bifid and trifid mandibular canals in the Korean population were observed at a relatively high rate through a CBCT evaluation, and the most common type was the retromolar canal. CBCT is suggested for a detailed evaluation of bifid and trifid mandibular canals before mandibular surgery.

  2. A comparison of methods used in root canal sealability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matloff, I.R.; Jensen, J.R.; Singer, L.; Tabibi, A.

    1982-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare several methods that have been used to assess marginal leakage of root canal fillings. Sixty-three extracted, single-rooted teeth were instrumented and filled in a standardized manner. Teeth were randomly divided into groups of twenty and exposed to solutions containing methylene blue dye, calcium-45, carbon-14-labeled urea, and iodine-125-labeled albumin for 48 hours to compare the degree of leakage indicated by each technique. Methylene blue dye was found to penetrate farther up the canal than any of the isotope tracers. Carbon-14-labeled urea penetrated farther than the calcium-45- or iodine-125-labeled albumin. The mean volume of solution penetrating the teeth was exceedingly small (0.0011 ml) and probably unimportant physiologically.

  3. The Effect of Canal Contamination with Saliva on Apical Sealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sabaghi

    2014-08-01

    Methods: In this laboratory study, 58 human uni-root teeth were cleaned and shaped for obturation with gutta percha and sealer AH26. In the case group, specimens were contaminated with human saliva immediately before obturation, whereas the teeth in the control group were kept dry. All canals were filled by lateral condensation technique. Moreover, the teeth were placed in methylene blue dye for 3 days. Dye penetration was measured using a stereomicrosope. As a matter of fact, the study data were analyzed via utilizing t-test. Results: A significant difference was found between the two groups in regard with the apical leakage(P<0.001. The microleakage mean of dye in the dry group was 3/48mm, whereas it was 6/36mm in the saliva contaminated group. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that complete drying of canal can improve apical sealing.

  4. The treatment of horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babac S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to assess the outcome of treatment of horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and to analyze the influence of the different prognostic factors on treatment failure. Fifty-nine patients with horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo were included in the study. They were divided into two groups according to the treatment protocol, randomly. The first group, after treatment with the barbecue maneuver or inverted Gufoni, depending on the nystagmus form, was instructed to sleep on the side with weaker nystagmus, and the second group did not. In the first group, 88.9% of patients were cured and 91.3% in the second one. There was no significant difference between the two groups. Migraine and the apogeotropic form of nystagmus had a significant effect on treatment outcome, while other variables had no effect.

  5. Cisto aracnóideo extradural do canal espinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Pires Ferreira

    1972-09-01

    Full Text Available É relatado o caso de um paciente que apresentava paraparesia sensitivo-motora evolutiva, datando de um ano. As radiográficas da coluna vertebral e mielografia permitiram o diagnóstico de cisto de aracnóide extradural do canal espinal de localização torácica, que foi confirmado pelo ato cirúrgico. Os autores revisam a literatura assinalando 76 casos já publicados. São comentadas a incidência do processo patológico nos diversos grupos etários, sua localização ao longo do canal raqueano, a evolução do quadro clínico, a etiología e a fisiopatologia do crescimento do cisto, o diagnóstico, a terapêutica e o prognóstico.

  6. Ulnar nerve entrapment in Guyon's canal due to a lipoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, O; Calisaneller, T; Gerilmez, A; Gulsen, S; Altinors, N

    2010-09-01

    Guyon's canal syndrome is an ulnar nerve entrapment at the wrist or palm that can cause motor, sensory or combined motor and sensory loss due to various factors . In this report, we presented a 66-year-old man admitted to our clinic with a history of intermittent pain in the left palm and numbness in 4th and 5th finger for two years. His neurological examination revealed a sensory impairment in the right fifth finger. Also, physical examination displayed a subcutaneous mobile soft tissue in ulnar side of the wrist. Electromyographic examination confirmed the diagnosis of type-1 Guyon's canal syndrome. Under axillary blockage, a lipoma compressing the ulnar nerve was excised totally and ulnar nerve was decompressed. The symptoms were improved after the surgery and patient was symptom free on 3rd postoperative week.

  7. Molecular mechanisms of canalization: Hsp90 and beyond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neeraj Salathia; Christine Queitsch

    2007-04-01

    The Hsp90 chaperone machine facilitates the maturation of a diverse set of ‘client’ proteins. Many of these Hsp90 clients are essential nodes in signal transduction pathways and regulatory circuits, accounting for the important role Hsp90 plays in organismal development and responses to the environment. Recent findings suggest a broader impact of the chaperone on phenotype: fully functional Hsp90 canalizes wild-type phenotypes by suppressing underlying genetic and epigenetic variation. This variation can be expressed upon challenging the Hsp90 machinery by environmental stress, genetic or pharmaceutical targeting of Hsp90. The existence of Hsp90-buffered genetic and epigenetic variation together with plausible release mechanisms has wide-ranging implication for phenotype and possibly evolutionary processes. Here, we discuss the role of Hsp90 in canalization and organismal plasticity, and highlight important questions for future experimental inquiry.

  8. Hair-Cell Versus Afferent Adaptation in the Semicircular Canals

    OpenAIRE

    Rabbitt, R. D.; Boyle, R.; Holstein, G. R.; Highstein, S. M.

    2004-01-01

    The time course and extent of adaptation in semicircular canal hair cells was compared to adaptation in primary afferent neurons for physiological stimuli in vivo to study the origins of the neural code transmitted to the brain. The oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau, was used as the experimental model. Afferent firing-rate adaptation followed a double-exponential time course in response to step cupula displacements. The dominant adaptation time constant varied considerably among afferent fibers an...

  9. MRI study on spinal canal content in Western Maharashtrian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanapurkar SV, Kulkarni DO, Bahetee BH, Vahane MI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the spinal canal content has been studied since the invention of myelography. However, most studies have measured the diameters of the spinal cord only, not the size of the subarachnoid space. The present study complements the current data on the morphology of the spinal contents, and in particular, the spinal subarachnoid space, by analyzing MRI images. Objective: To study morphology of the dural sac, spinal cord & subarachnoid space using MRI. To define the inner geometrical dimensions of spinal canal content that confine the maneuver of an endoscope inserted in cervical spine. 3. To have comprehensive knowledge of the anatomy of cervical spinal canal. Method: Based on MRI images of the spine from 60 normal patients of age between 25-60 years, the dimensions of spinal cord, dural sac & subarachnoid space were measured at mid-vertebral & intervertebral level from C1-C7 vertebrae. The parameters measured were transverse, sagittal diameter of spinal cord & dural sac. The subarachnoid space was measured as anterior, posterior, right, left distance between spinal cord and dura mater. Results: It was found that at each selected transverse level, the subarachnoid space tends to be symmetrical on the right and left sides of the cord, and measures 3.38 mm on an average. However, the anterior and posterior segment, measured on the mid-sagittal plane are generally asymmetric & varies greatly in size ranging 1mm to 6mm with mean 2.57 of anterior & 2.59 of posterior. These measurements match those found in previous studies. The coefficient of variance for the dimensions of the subarachnoid space is as high as 36.16%, while that for the dimensions of the spinal cord (transverse & sagittal are11.08%&13.28%respectively. Conclusion: The findings presented here, expand our knowledge of morphology of spinal canal and show that a thecaloscope must be smaller than 3.38 mm in diameter.

  10. Histopathology of subcutaneous tissue reaction to endodontic root canal sealers

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate tissue response of two root canal sealers: Endomethasone (cink oxide eugenol-based sealers) and Ketac Endo Aplicap (glass ionomer based sealers). The sealers were freshly mixed and injected into subcutaneous connective tissue of the dorsal surface of experimental animals (Wistar Furth rats). The inflammatory reaction caused by the sealers was evaluated 7, 30 and 60 days after implantation using descriptive hisopathologic...

  11. [Membrane model of the cupula of the vestibular semicircular canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrachuk, A V; Shipov, A A; Sirenko, S P

    1987-01-01

    A mathematical model of the time-course variations of the cupula of the semicircular canals of the vestibular apparatus is presented. The model is found to be in good agreement with experimental data which suggests that the cupular matter has viscosity-elasticity properties. Their role in the functioning of the vestibular apparatus is discussed in qualitative terms. The applicability of the membrane model to the description of the time-course variations of the cupula is considered.

  12. Comparative study of sealing ability of three root canal sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khedmat S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Complete obturation of the prepared root canal is an essential step in endodontic treatment. Combination of gutta-percha and a sealer is widely used in clinical practice for root canal obturation, thus microleakage studies on sealing properties of these materials constitute an important part of endodontic researches. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microleakage of three root canal sealers: Apexit, AH26 and Dorifill by electrochemical method.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 55 extracted human maxillary and mandibular cuspids were used. The coronal part of teeth were removed and the root canals were prepared using the step-back technique. The specimens were randomly divided into 3 groups of 17 samples each. Teeth in each group were filled with one of the sealers and gutta-percha by lateral condensation technique. 4 specimens served as positive and negative controls. An electrochemical method was used for evaluation of apical leakage with the electrical source potential of 10 V. Measurements of current flow through the test system were recorded every 72 hours. Data were analyzed by Kruskall Wallis and Mann Whitney tests. P<0.05 was considered as the level of significance.Results: All specimens of the three groups showed low initial leakage that increased during the test period. The mean leakage in Apexit group was higher than AH26 and Dorifill groups. The lowest mean leakage was related to Dorifill group. Although no statistically significant difference was observed between this sealer and AH26.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the best apical seal was obtained using Dorifill and AH26 sealers. The poorest result was observed in Apexit.

  13. Semicircular Canals Circumvent Brownian Motion Overload of Mechanoreceptor Hair Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Mees; Heeck, Kier

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate semicircular canals (SCC) first appeared in the vertebrates (i.e. ancestral fish) over 600 million years ago. In SCC the principal mechanoreceptors are hair cells, which as compared to cochlear hair cells are distinctly longer (70 vs. 7 μm), 10 times more compliant to bending (44 vs. 500 nN/m), and have a 100-fold higher tip displacement threshold (mechanoreceptors of the SCC. PMID:27448330

  14. Integrated Watershed Pollution Control at Wujingang Canal, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Z.; Yang, X.; Luo, X.

    2012-04-01

    With a drainage area of 400 square kilometers, Wujingang Canal is located at the economically developed Yangtz Delta of eastern China. As a major tributary, the canal contributes a significant amount of pollutant load to the Lake Tai. Over the past many years, water quality of the canal and its tributaries could not meet the lowest Category V of Chinese surface water quality standard, indicating that its water is not suitable for the purposes of irrigation or scenic views. Major pollution sources in the watershed include industries, residential households, agriculture, fishery, and animal feedlot operations. A comprehensive plan with a budget of 2 billion RMB for the Wujingang watershed pollution control was developed in 2008 and has been implemented progressively ever since. Major components of the plan include: (1) advanced treatment of wastewater from industries and municipal sewage plants for further removal of nitrogen and phosphorous; (2) industrial wastewater reuse; (3) contiguous treatment of sewage from rural residential households with cost-effective technologies such as tower ecofilter system; (4) recycling of rural wastes to generate high-value added products using technologies such as multi-phase anaerobic co-digestion; and (5) making full use of the local landscape and configuring physical, chemical, and biological pollutant treatment structures to build the "clean river network" for treatment of mildly polluted agricultural discharge and surface runoff. Through the implementation of the above measures, water quality of the Wujingang Canal and its tributaries is expected to improve to meet Category IV of Chinese surface water quality standard by 2012, and Category III standard by 2020. Keywords watershed pollution control, non-point source pollution, rural sewage, rural waste, Lake Tai

  15. Facies del subfondo del canal Beagle, Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bujalesky

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available El canal Beagle conecta los océanos Pacífico y Atlántico en el extremo meridional de Sudamérica y se ubica en el ambiente subantártico. Conforma una cuenca de unos 300 m de profundidad máxima y está separada del océano Atlántico por un umbral de 30 m de profundidad. El canal es un valle tectónico que fue completamente cubierto por el hielo glacial durante la última glaciación. Posteriormente, el canal fue ocupado por un lago glacial desde los 12.000 a los 8.000 años A.P., cuando fue invadido por el mar que alcanzó un nivel máximo entre los 6.000 y 5.000 años A.P. Con el objetivo de analizar las facies sedimentarias superficiales y del subfondo del canal se realizó un relevamiento geofísico con sonar de barrido lateral y un perfilador de 3,5 kHz. Sobre un basamento constituido por rocas metamórficas del Mesozoico, se identificaron depósitos de till y secuencias granodecrecientes que representan distintos estadios del retroceso glaciar, evidenciando hacia la sección superior facies lacustres y por encima depósitos de la transgresión marina del Holoceno. Además, se han identificado paleocauces y secuencias fluviales cubiertas por sedimentos marinos transgresivos.

  16. Deadbands and the Dynamic Response and Performance of Large Water Transfer Canal System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Zhiliang; WANG Changde; TAN Guangming; GUAN Guanghua

    2009-01-01

    An operating simulation mode for multireach canal system in series under gate regulating is established. The discharge feedforward plus water lever feedback PID controller was adopted. And the performance indicators are introduced to evaluate the control effects of canal operation. Influence on dynamic response process and dynamic performance as well as the control actions of canal system are studied according to the variation of the gate deadband and water level deadband. The results showed that the larger the gate deadband, the worse, the control effect of canal system over water level, and so done the stable process of gate discharge, yet the stable process of gate opening was getting better, while the upstream gate regulation of each canal pool was less at the time when canal stabilizes;the closer to downstream end of canal, the lager steady-state error of this canal pool was, and the lager influence of gate deadband on the steady-state error as well as response time of this canal pool was;the canal system can not acquire superiority in both the control performance and control actions when only the water level deadband was established.

  17. Intraoperative ultrasonography of the vertebral canal in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Bonelli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intraoperative ultrasound (IOS can provide details on various conditions of the spinal cord and vertebral canal. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using IOS in dogs undergoing spinal surgery and to describe the main findings. The vertebral canal of 21 dogs was examined with intraoperative ultrasonography: 13 underwent spinal surgery for removal of herniated intervertebral disc material, three for stabilization of vertebral fracture/luxation, two for removal of vertebral neoplasia, and three for cauda equina decompression. Particular attention was given to signs of cord compression. Intraoperative ultrasonography was feasible and useful in dogs undergoing surgery for spinal cord or cauda equina decompression and fracture stabilization. It was not paramount for locating the compression when this had been done via computed tomography (CT, but it showed alterations in spinal cord parenchyma not observed on CT and also confirmed adequate decompression of the spinal cord. The main advantages of intraoperative ultrasonography were estimation of vascularization and extent of spinal cord lesion. Most importantly, it allowed real time evaluation of the spinal cord and vertebral canal, which permits the modification of the surgical procedure.

  18. Phage therapy against Enterococcus faecalis in dental root canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Leron; Shlezinger, Mor; Beyth, Shaul; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Coppenhagen-Glazer, Shunit; Beyth, Nurit; Hazan, Ronen

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem faced by all major sectors of health care, including dentistry. Recurrent infections related to multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in hospitals are untreatable and question the effectiveness of notable drugs. Two major reasons for these recurrent infections are acquired antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm formation. None of the traditionally known effective techniques have been able to efficiently resolve these issues. Hence, development of a highly effective antibacterial practice has become inevitable. One example of a hard-to-eradicate pathogen in dentistry is Enterococcus faecalis, which is one of the most common threats observed in recurrent root canal treatment failures, of which the most problematic to treat are its biofilm-forming VRE strains. An effective response against such infections could be the use of bacteriophages (phages). Phage therapy was found to be highly effective against biofilm and multidrug-resistant bacteria and has other advantages like ease of isolation and possibilities for genetic manipulations. The potential of phage therapy in dentistry, in particular against E. faecalis biofilms in root canals, is almost unexplored. Here we review the efforts to develop phage therapy against biofilms. We also focus on the phages isolated against E. faecalis and discuss the possibility of using phages against E. faecalis biofilm in root canals. PMID:27640530

  19. Clinical evaluation of posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titus S Ibekwe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV is a mechanical peripheral vestibular disorder which may involve any of the three semicircular canals but principally the posterior. In as much as the literature has described theories to explain the mechanism of BPPV and also contains scholarly works that elucidate BPPV; its management remains an enigma to most clinicians. To this end, this work was aimed at outlining an evidence-based best practice for most common form of BPPV. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted between 1948 and June 2011 in PubMed, Embase, Ovid, and Cochrane database through the online Library of the University of Cape Town. Seventy-nine worthy articles that addressed the study were selected on consensus of the two authors. Conclusion: There is consensus for the use of canalith repositioning procedures as the best form of treatment for posterior canal canalolithiasis. However, successful treatment is dependent on accurate identification of the implicated canal and the form of lithiasis. Furthermore, clinicians should note that there is no place for pharmacological treatment of BPPV; unless it is to facilitate repositioning.

  20. Geminated Maxillary Lateral Incisor with Two Root Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Nayara; Souza-Flamini, Luis Eduardo; Mendonça, Isabela Lima; Silva, Ricardo Gariba

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a case of gemination in a maxillary lateral incisor with two root canals and crown-root dilaceration. A 16-year-old male patient was referred for endodontic treatment of the maxillary left lateral incisor and evaluation of esthetic and functional complaints in the anterior region. The patient reported trauma to the anterior primary teeth. There was no spontaneous pain, but the tooth responded positively to the vertical percussion test and negatively to the pulp vitality test. Clinical examination showed esthetic and functional alterations and normal periodontal tissues. CBCT imaging confirmed the suspicion of gemination and crown-root dilaceration and also revealed the presence of two root canals and periapical bone rarefaction. The root canals were instrumented with Reciproc R40 and 1% NaOCl irrigation and were filled by lateral condensation of gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. The tooth was definitely restored with composite resin to recover esthetics. Continued follow-up over 6 months has shown absence of pain or clinical alterations as well as radiographic image suggestive of apical repair. PMID:28119787

  1. Dynamic displacement of normal and detached semicircular canal cupula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbitt, Richard D; Breneman, Kathryn D; King, Curtis; Yamauchi, Angela M; Boyle, Richard; Highstein, Stephen M

    2009-12-01

    The dynamic displacement of the semicircular canal cupula and modulation of afferent nerve discharge were measured simultaneously in response to physiological stimuli in vivo. The adaptation time constant(s) of normal cupulae in response to step stimuli averaged 36 s, corresponding to a mechanical lower corner frequency for sinusoidal stimuli of 0.0044 Hz. For stimuli equivalent to 40-200 deg/s of angular head velocity, the displacement gain of the central region of the cupula averaged 53 nm per deg/s. Afferents adapted more rapidly than the cupula, demonstrating the presence of a relaxation process that contributes significantly to the neural representation of angular head motions by the discharge patterns of canal afferent neurons. We also investigated changes in time constants of the cupula and afferents following detachment of the cupula at its apex-mechanical detachment that occurs in response to excessive transcupular endolymph pressure. Detached cupulae exhibited sharply reduced adaptation time constants (300 ms-3 s, n = 3) and can be explained by endolymph flowing rapidly over the apex of the cupula. Partially detached cupulae reattached and normal afferent discharge patterns were recovered 5-7 h following detachment. This regeneration process may have relevance to the recovery of semicircular canal function following head trauma.

  2. Phage therapy against Enterococcus faecalis in dental root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leron Khalifa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem faced by all major sectors of health care, including dentistry. Recurrent infections related to multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE in hospitals are untreatable and question the effectiveness of notable drugs. Two major reasons for these recurrent infections are acquired antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm formation. None of the traditionally known effective techniques have been able to efficiently resolve these issues. Hence, development of a highly effective antibacterial practice has become inevitable. One example of a hard-to-eradicate pathogen in dentistry is Enterococcus faecalis, which is one of the most common threats observed in recurrent root canal treatment failures, of which the most problematic to treat are its biofilm-forming VRE strains. An effective response against such infections could be the use of bacteriophages (phages. Phage therapy was found to be highly effective against biofilm and multidrug-resistant bacteria and has other advantages like ease of isolation and possibilities for genetic manipulations. The potential of phage therapy in dentistry, in particular against E. faecalis biofilms in root canals, is almost unexplored. Here we review the efforts to develop phage therapy against biofilms. We also focus on the phages isolated against E. faecalis and discuss the possibility of using phages against E. faecalis biofilm in root canals.

  3. Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence Syndrome – Diagnosis and Surgical Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma Diaz, Marite; Cisneros Lesser, Juan Carlos; Vega Alarcón, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome was described by Minor et al in 1998. It is a troublesome syndrome that results in vertigo and oscillopsia induced by loud sounds or changes in the pressure of the external auditory canal or middle ear. Patients may present with autophony, hyperacusis, pulsatile tinnitus and hearing loss. When symptoms are mild, they are usually managed conservatively, but surgical intervention may be needed for patients with debilitating symptoms. Objective The aim of this manuscript is to review the different surgical techniques used to repair the superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Data Sources PubMed and Ovid-SP databases. Data Synthesis The different approaches are described and discussed, as well as their limitations. We also review the advantages and disadvantages of the plugging, capping and resurfacing techniques to repair the dehiscence. Conclusions Each of the surgical approaches has advantages and disadvantages. The middle fossa approach gives a better view of the dehiscence, but comes with a higher morbidity than the transmastoid approach. Endoscopic assistance may be advantageous during the middle cranial fossa approach for better visualization. The plugging and capping techniques are associated with higher success rates than resurfacing, with no added risk of hearing loss. PMID:28382131

  4. Ocean ambient sound south of Bermuda and Panama Canal traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Širović, Ana; Hildebrand, John A; McDonald, Mark A

    2016-05-01

    Comparisons of current and historic ocean ambient noise levels are rare, especially in the North Atlantic. Recent (2013-2014) monthly patterns in ocean ambient sound south of Bermuda were compared to those recorded at the same location in 1966. Additionally, trends in ocean traffic, in particular, Panama Canal traffic, over this time were also investigated. One year of ocean ambient noise measurements were collected in 1966 using cabled, omnidirectional hydrophones at the U.S. Navy Tudor Hill Laboratory in Bermuda, and repeat measurements were collected at the same location from June 2013-May 2014 using a High-frequency Acoustic Recording Package. Average monthly pressure spectrum levels at 44 Hz increased 2.8 ± 0.8 dB from 1966 to 2013, indicating an average increase of 0.6 dB/decade. This low level of increase may be due to topographic shielding at this site, limiting it to only southern exposure, and the limit in the number of ship transits through the Panama Canal, which did not change substantially during this time. The impending expansion of the Canal, which will enable the transit of larger ships at twice the current rate, is likely to lead to a substantial increase in ocean ambient sound at this location in the near future.

  5. The clinical success of different root canal treatments in primary molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Güler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Objectives: To examine the success rate of root canal treatment in primary molars with the use two different root canal instrumentation ways, irrigation solutions and root canal sealers.

    Materials and Methods: Root canal treatment was applied to 120 second primary molars of 69 children between 5-8 years old. The teeth were divided in 8 groups randomly according to instrumentation ways [conventional stainless-steel hand files / Nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti rotary files], irrigation solutions [0.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and 0.9% saline solution combination / 0.4% chlorhehexidine (CHX] and root canal sealers [Zinc oxide eugenol cement (ZOE and Apexit Plus (AP]. All teeth were restored with stainless steel crowns. The teeth were followed 12 months both clinically and radiographically. All data was analyzed statistically by χ2 and Wilcoxon test.

    Results: Statistical significance were found according to “age” and “root canal sealers” factors on success rate of root canal treatment (p<0.05. No statistical significance were found according to gender, jaw, tooth type, root canal instrumentation ways and irrigation solutions  on success rate of root canal treatment (p>0.05. The clinically and radiographically success rate of ZOE and AP were 98.3% and 68.3%, respectively.

    Conclusions: Root canal treatment is a successful treatment in primary molars. Ni-Ti rotary files and CHX can be a good alternative for root canal treatment in primary molars. The most effective factor to obtain clinical success of root canal treatment is properties of using root canal sealer.

  6. An Osteologic Study of Cranial Opening of Optic Canal in Gujarat Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Praveen R

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Optic canal is a bony canal situated in between the roots of lesser wings of sphenoid, lateral to body of sphenoid. It transmits optic nerve and ophthalmic artery, surrounded by meninges. Various authors have studied variations in skull foramina and correlated clinically, as variants in the body structures have been found to be associated with many inherited or acquired diseases. Aim The present study aimed to examine morphologic and morphometric variations in cranial openings of optic canals. Materials and Methods The study was undertaken in total 150 dry adult human skulls. The variations in size, shape, presence or absence and duplication or multiplication if any, in optic canal were observed bilaterally. Unusual features such as recess, fissure and notch were also observed bilaterally. Student’s t-test was applied to compare size of cranial openings of optic canal on both sides. Similarly, morphologic features related with the canal were studied by calculating frequency and proportions of various parameters. Results Optic canal was present in all 150 skulls studied bilaterally. The mean maximum dimension of the canal at cranial opening was 5.03±0.72 mm on right side and 5.02±0.76 mm on left side. The shape of the canal was ovoid at cranial opening in all the skulls studied. Duplication of optic canal was present in one skull on left side. Recess was found in 105(35%) sides of total skulls observed. Fissure was found in 20(6.67%) sides and notch was observed in 30(10%) sides of total skulls. Conclusion The optic canal showed variability in various parameters. Knowledge regarding variations in size, shape and unusual features on cranial opening of optic canal can be helpful to clinicians while approaching optic canal for various invasive procedures such as optic nerve decompression. PMID:28050353

  7. Forced extrusion for removal of impacted third molars close to the mandibular canal Extrusión forzada para extraer los terceros molares impactados cerca del canal mandibular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Flanagan DDS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Impacted mandibular third molars can be located in close proximity to the mandibular canal. This creates a risk for the nerve or artery injury. These are contained in the canal. However, the impacted third molar can be moved coronally by orthodontic means, after removal of overlying bone, and safely extracted. The orthodontic intervention slowly moves the tooth apex away from the mandibular canal and reduces the potential for a neural injury. This method may be useful for older patients with root apices that approximate or are actually located in the mandibular canal. This technique needs further study. There is a theoretical potential for neural or arterial injury from physical contact of the tooth apex as it moves by or through the mandibular canal.Los terceros molares inferiores impactados pueden localizarse muy cerca del canal mandibular. Esto constituye un riesgo de lesión del nervio o la arteria, que se localizan dentro del canal. No obstante, el tercer molar impactado puede desplazarse en dirección coronal con ortodoncia, tras ostectomía del hueso suprayacente, y extraerse sin riesgos. La intervención ortodóncica desplaza lentamente el ápice del diente fuera del canal mandibular y reduce la posibilidad de lesión neural. Este método puede ser útil para pacientes de edad avanzada con ápices dentales que se aproximan o en realidad se localizan en el canal mandibular. La técnica necesita un estudio adicional. Hay la posibilidad teórica de lesión neural o arterial a partir del contacto físico del ápice del diente a medida que se desplaza a través del canal mandibular.

  8. Allegheny County Hydrology Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Hydrology Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled water drainage features and structures including rivers, streams, drainage canals, locks, dams,...

  9. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many....... The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings...... in close proximity to the park bridge and new projects being added to fit the context. The outcome is a conglomeration of non-contemporary urban activities along the High Line, where mechanical workshops, small wholesale stores. etc. mix with new exclusive residential buildings, eminent cafés...

  10. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    in close proximity to the park bridge and new projects being added to fit the context. The outcome is a conglomeration of non-contemporary urban activities along the High Line, where mechanical workshops, small wholesale stores. etc. mix with new exclusive residential buildings, eminent cafés......At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many...... factories and warehouses on Gansevoort Street. Today the High Line is a beautiful park covered with new tiles, viewing platforms and smaller recreational areas. The park bridge has simple, uniform, urban fittings and features a variety of flowering plants, grasses, shrubs and trees from around the world...

  11. Maxillary first molar with 7 root canals diagnosed using cone-beam computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Evaldo; Braitt, Antônio Henrique; Galvão, Bruno Ferraz

    2017-01-01

    Root canal anatomy is complex, and the recognition of anatomic variations could be a challenge for clinicians. This case report describes the importance of cone beam computed tomographyic (CBCT) imaging during endodontic treatment. A 23 year old woman was referred by her general dental practitioner with the chief complaint of spontaneous pain in her right posterior maxilla. From the clinical and radiographic findings, a diagnosis of symptomatic irreversible pulpitis was made and endodontic treatment was suggested to the patient. The patient underwent CBCT examination, and CBCT scan slices revealed seven canals: three mesiobuccal (MB1, MB2, and MB3), two distobuccal (DB1 and DB2), and two palatal (P1 and P2). Canals were successfully treated with reciprocating files and filled using single-cone filling technique. Precise knowledge of root canal morphology and its variation is important during root canal treatment. CBCT examination is an excellent tool for identifying and managing these complex root canal systems.

  12. A quantitative analysis of rotary, ultrasonic and manual techniques to treat proximally flattened root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Soares Grecca

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The efficiency of rotary, manual and ultrasonic root canal instrumentation techniques was investigated in proximally flattened root canals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty human mandibular left and right central incisors, lateral incisors and premolars were used. The pulp tissue was removed and the root canals were filled with red die. Teeth were instrumented using three techniques: (i K3 and ProTaper rotary systems; (ii ultrasonic crown-down technique; and (iii progressive manual technique. Roots were bisected longitudinally in a buccolingual direction. The instrumented canal walls were digitally captured and the images obtained were analyzed using the Sigma Scan software. Canal walls were evaluated for total canal wall area versus non-instrumented area on which dye remained. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was found between the instrumentation techniques studied (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study showed that no instrumentation technique was 100% efficient to remove the dye.

  13. Canal mandibular bífido: Presentación de una serie de casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L. Guzmán Zuluaga

    Full Text Available La ubicación y configuración de las variaciones del canal mandibular son relevantes en diferentes procedimientos clínicos de la mandíbula. En esta serie de casos un radiólogo evaluó el recorrido del canal mandibular identificando la presencia y tipos de canales bífidos. Se observaron cuatro pacientes con canal mandibular bífido tipo retromolar y tres sujetos con canal bífido tipo anterior sin convergencia. En otro paciente se encontraron forámenes dentarios bífidos bilaterales. La Tomografía Computarizada de Haz de Cono, permite la identificación oportuna de condiciones preexistentes como variaciones en la morfología natural de los canales mandibulares, previniendo efectiva y precozmente las consecuencias neurológicas que se derivan de una lesión del nervio dentario inferior.

  14. Endodontic management of a mandibular first molar with six root canal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal anatomy of pulp is complex. The first mandibular molars typically have two roots, one mesial with two root canals and another distal root, which contains one or two canals. A 20-year-old female patient reported with intermittent pain and incomplete root canal treatment in left lower back region since 1-week. Refined access cavity revealed initially two canals in mesial and two canals in the distal root. With operating microscope and cone beam computerized tomography, two additional canals (L-mesio-buccal and B-mesio-lingual were identified in mesial root. One-year follow-up showed patient was asymptomatic and complete healing of periapical radiolucency.

  15. NMR imaging of the vertebral column and the spinal canal. 2. rev. and enl. ed.; MRT der Wirbelsaeule und des Spinalkanals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsting, Michael [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie; Uhlenbrock, Detlev [St.-Josefs-Hospital, Dortmund (Germany). MVZ Radiologie, Nuklearmedizin und Strahlentherapie; Wanke, Isabel [Privatklinikengruppe Hirslanden, Zurich (Switzerland); Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie

    2009-07-01

    The book on the MRT (magnetic resonance tomography) of the vertebral cord and spinal canal covers the following topics: physics fundamentals and application; malformation of the spinal canal; degenerative vertebral column diseases; vertebral column and spinal canal carcinomas; inflammatory diseases of the vertebral column and the spinal canal; applicability of MRT in case of acute spinal cord traumata; vascular diseases of the spinal canal.

  16. Dental implants in bilateral bifid canal and compromised interocclusal space using cone beam computerized tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nizar; Arunachalam, Lalitha Tanjore; Jacob, Caroline Annette; Kumar, Suresh Anand

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of various anatomic landmarks is pivotal for important success. Bifid canals pose a challenge and can lead to difficulties while performing implant surgery in the mandible. Bifid canals can be diagnosed with panoramic radiography and more accurately with cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT). This case report details the placement of the implant in a patient with bilateral bifid canal and compromised interocclusal space, which was successfully treated using CBCT. PMID:27433073

  17. The role of perilymph in the response of the semicircular canals to angular acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anliker, M.; Van Buskirk, W.

    1971-01-01

    A new model for the response of the semicircular canals to angular motion is postulated. This model is based on evidence that the bony canal is not compartmentalized and assumes that the ampulla wall is highly flexible. It is shown that the perilymph induces a cupula displacement far greater than that produced by the endolymph alone. The predicted dynamic behavior of the canals on the basis of this model is found to be consistent with experimental observations.

  18. Partial absence of the posterior semicircular canal in Alagille syndrome: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Bernadette; Egelhoff, John; Benton, Corning [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati (United States); Goold, Amy [Tripler Army Medical Center, Family Practice, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2006-09-15

    We report a case of bilateral partial absence of the posterior semicircular canals (with normal lateral semicircular canals) imaged with CT in a patient with Alagille syndrome. Similar histologic findings have been reported in the pathology literature. This association has been previously reported only for Waardenburg syndrome in the imaging literature. We review the imaging findings and embryology of the semicircular canals, and suggest that this abnormality is specific to patients with Alagille or Waardenburg syndrome. (orig.)

  19. Geophysical Surveys for Detecting Anomalous Conditions, Algiers Canal Levees, New Orleans, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    ER D C/ G SL T R- 14 -3 3 Geophysical Surveys for Detecting Anomalous Conditions, Algiers Canal Levees, New Orleans, Louisiana G eo te...Geophysical Surveys for Detecting Anomalous Conditions, Algiers Canal Levees, New Orleans, Louisiana José L. Llopis and Joseph B. Dunbar Geotechnical...the west side of Algiers Canal approximately 5 miles south of downtown New Orleans, LA. The levees are located adjacent to industrial and metal

  20. Smodirignium dermatitis: the intercellular secretory canals of the aerial axis and their relationship to this toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Ellis

    1974-12-01

    Full Text Available Smodingium argutum E. Mey. ex Sond., closely related to the American poison-ivy,  Toxicodendron radicans (L. Kuntze, is the only known indigenous member of the Anacardiaceae in South Africa causing dermatitis. The sap of the intercellular secretory canals of the stem, petiole and leaf of both plants, is responsible for this toxicity. These secretary canals are described, illustrated and compared for both species, and their formation and the function of the canals and sap, are briefly discussed.

  1. Radiographic evaluation of the course and visibility of the mandibular canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    This study was performed to investigate the course of the mandibular canal on panoramic radiography and the visibility of this canal on both panoramic radiography and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The study consisted of panoramic radiographs and CBCT images from 262 patients. The course of the mandibular canal, as seen in panoramic radiographs, was classified into four types: linear, elliptical, spoon-shaped, and turning curves. The visibility of this canal from the first to the third molar region was evaluated by visually determining whether the mandibular canal was clearly visible, probably visible, or invisible. The visibility of the canal on panoramic radiographs was compared with that on CBCT images. Elliptical curves were most frequently observed along the course of the mandibular canal. The percentage of clearly visible mandibular canals was the highest among the spoon-shaped curves and the lowest among the linear curves. On panoramic radiographs, invisible mandibular canals were found in 22.7% of the examined sites in the first molar region, 11.8% in the second molar region, and 1.3% in the third molar region. On CBCT cross-sectional images, the mandibular canal was invisible in 8.2% of the examined sites in the first molar region, 5.7% in the second molar region, and 0.2% in the third molar region. The visibility of this canal was lower in the first molar region than in the third molar region. The mandibular canal presented better visibility on CBCT images than on panoramic radiographs.

  2. Root canal treatment of bilateral three-rooted maxillary first premolars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana Gandhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In endodontics, several anatomic variations occur in teeth, both externally and in the internal root morphology, which play a very significant role in the diagnosis and treatment outcome. A thorough knowledge of the root canal anatomy, careful interpretation of the angled radiographs, proper endodontic access cavity preparation, and exploration of the root canal are the prerequisites for endodontic success. In a maxillary first premolar, it is rare to find extra roots and canals, and the aim of the present article is to report a case about the successful diagnosis and clinical management of bilateral three-rooted maxillary first premolars, with three independent root canals.

  3. Single C-shaped canal in mandibular first molar: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinidhi Surya Raghavendra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The variability of root canal system morphology presents a continuous challenge to endodontic diagnosis and therapeutics. There have been reports of teeth with multiple roots and canals as also those with lesser number of root and root canals. Variations of root canal systems need not always be in the form of extra canals. Clinicians should be aware that there is a possibility of existence of fewer numbers of roots and root canals than normal, which presents varied canal anatomy and poses a challenge to the clinician′s expertise. This case report deals with the management of an unusual case of C-shaped canal in mandibular molar with two buccally fused roots. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT was employed to confirm the extension of the unusual anatomy. The Self Adjusting File (SAF system was used to ensure complete cleaning of the canal system. One-year follow-up of the case showed good healing. The clinician should expect to encounter unusual features when performing endodontic treatment. Use of diagnostic aids like CBCT, improved magnification with dental operating microscope, and the use of novel file systems like SAF ensure success.

  4. Specific immunoglobulin measurements related to exposure and resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection in Sudanese canal cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satti, M.Z.; Lind, Peter; Vennervald, B.J.;

    1996-01-01

    The present work comprises a longitudinal study of Schistosoma mansoni infection in occupationally hyper-exposed canal cleaners in the Sudan and the influence of chemotherapy on humoral immune parameters. The study groups included chronically infected canal cleaners (n = 19), newly recruited canal...... was used to detect specific IgE and IgG subclasses in response to whole worm antigen (WWH) and soluble egg antigen (SEA) before and 3 months after praziquantel treatment in the groups of canal cleaners and before and 1 year after treatment in normally exposed adults. When intensity of infection...

  5. Dentascan CT of mandibular incisive canal. Radiological anatomy and therapeutic implications; Tomografia computerizzata con Dentascan del canale incisivo mandibolare. Anatomia radiologica e implicazioni terapeutiche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calgaro, A.; Bison, L.; Bellis, G.B.; Pozzi Mucelli, R. [Trieste Univ., Trieste (Italy). Ist. di radiologia

    1999-11-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to stress the importance of CT depiction of the mandibular incisive canal. This anatomical structure contains a major neurovascular bundle and is thus very important in the planning of mandibular implants in the canine-incisive area. The importance of careful assessment of the mandibular canal course before implantology is now widely recognized. The same holds true for the canine-incisive region in the jaw, to detect the incisive canal if present and prevent any complications from its accidental damage. CT with a dedicated software showed the incisive canal in a large number of patients, which calls for precise reporting of its presence, course, and relationships with teeth. [Italian] Scopo di questo lavoro e' sottolineare l'importanza di rilevare e segnalare la visibilita' con Tomografia Computerizzata del canale incisivo mandibolare, struttura anatomica al cui interno decorre un fascio vasculo nervoso e percio' di rilevante importanza in previsione di intervento implantologico nella regione mesiale della mandibola. In previsione di seduta implantologica appare fondamentale l'attenta valutazione non solo del decorso del canale mandibolare ma anche della regione canino-incisiva della mandibola per la possibile esistenza del canale incisivo al fine di evitare eventuali complicanze derivanti dal suo accidentale danneggiamento. Il riscontro di tale struttura con TC con programma dedicato e apparso tutt'altro che trascurabile e percio' risulta di primaria importanza segnalarne presenza, decorso ed eventuali rapporti con gli elementi dentari.

  6. Comparative scanning electron microscopy evaluation of Canal Brushing technique, sonic activation, and master apical file for the removal of triple antibiotic paste from root canal (in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Ashoksingh Thakur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare and evaluate the effectiveness of Canal Brushing technique, sonic activation, and master apical file (MAF for the removal of triple antibiotic paste (TAP from root canal using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Materials and Methods: Twenty-two single rooted teeth were instrumented with ProTaper up to the size number F2 and dressed with TAP. TAP was removed with Canal Brush technique (Group I, n: 6, sonic (EndoActivator (Group II, n: 6, and MAF (Group III, n: 6. Four teeth served as positive (n: 2 and negative (n: 2 controls. The roots were split in the buccolingual direction and prepared for SEM examination (×1000 at coronal, middle, and apical third. Three examiners evaluated the wall cleanliness. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal–Wallis test and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results: Difference in cleanliness between three groups is statistically significant in cervical region only. Pairwise comparison in cervical region Canal Brush and sonic activation showed more removal of TAP than MAF. Conclusions: Canal Brush and sonic activation system showed better result than MAF in the cervical and middle third of canal. In the apical third, none of the techniques showed a better result. None of the techniques showed complete removal of TAP from the canal.

  7. Analysis of efficiency of water utilization in canal-system in Hetao irrigation district based on Horton fractal%基于Horton分形的河套灌区渠系水利用效率分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈忠义; 杨晓; 黄永江; 杜斌; 杨俊林

    2015-01-01

    -irrigation district in 2012 was collected. Canal-system framework was described by Horton law. The fractal dimension of canal system was calculated based on branch ratio and length ratio of canals. Relationships between fractal dimensions, irrigation amount, efficiencies of water utilization, and irrigation area were evaluated. Then, the proportion of water-saving was calculated. The results showed that the logarithms of canal numbers and length had good linear relationships with canal levels (R2>0.9), indicating the estimation of fractal dimensions was highly reliable. Fractal dimensions in sub-irrigation districts of Hetao Irrigation District were 1.14 for Wulanbuhe, 1.86 for Jiefangzha, 2.21 for Yongji, 1.80 for Yichang, 1.99 for Wulate and 1.88 for Hetao. The fractal dimensions were similar for all sub-irrigation districts because the branch and length ratios were similar. In general, branch ratio of canal-systems was too high in Hetao Irrigation District and should be reduced. The relationship among efficiency of water utilization in canal-system, fractal dimension, planting area and irrigation amount was in quadratic function. Based on these relationships, a multivariate quadratic function was fitted with small residues and relative errors smaller than 0.8%. The potential of canal-systems to increase water use efficiencies was 19.01% for Wulanbuhe, 28.80% for Jiefangzha, 32.70% for Yongji, 27.07% for Yichang, and 30.70% for Wulate. It also estimated that the canal-system water-saving development speed averaged 27.19% in Hetao Irrigation District, which was smaller than 28.06% achieved by lining method when lining rate is assumed to be 100% reported by previous studies. However, both lining method and structure optimization method were reliable methods for canal-system plan in irrigation district. Therefore, it is viable to apply Horton Law to canal-system in large irrigation districts. The results here provide valuble information for planning and water-saving reconstruction of

  8. Retreatment of a Maxillary Lateral Incisor With Two Separate Root Canals Confirmed With Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Seda; Helvacioglu-Yigit, Dilek; Sinanoglu, Alper; Ozel, Emre

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a rare case of a maxillary lateral incisor exhibiting two separate root canals confirmed by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). A 65-year-old female patient with an esthetic complaint regarding her maxillary left lateral incisor was referred to our clinic. During a radiographical examination, an endodontically treated root canal and an extra root canal with an apical lesion were observed. The retreatment was performed. CBCT findings confirmed the root canal mophology of the maxillary left lateral with two distinct canals. We conclude that the CBCT imaging is an adjunctive tool for better assessment of complex root canal systems. PMID:26015823

  9. Ependyma of the central canal of the rat spinal cord: a light and transmission electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, J E; Reddy, K

    1987-06-01

    Ependymal cells of the rat central canal were examined with a view to identifying features that distinguish them regionally and from their counterparts elsewhere in the ventricular system. The results revealed that the lining consisted for the most part of a pseudostratified layer of uniformly organised cuboidal to columnar ependymal cells present in largest numbers in lumbar and sacral segments and in the conus. Two cell variants were identified on the basis of the presence or absence of a radially directed cytoplasmic process originating from the base of the cell. The tanycytic form of ependymal cell was encountered along the entire length of the central canal but with increased frequency in caudalmost segments. Ependymal cells were largely similar in ultrastructural appearance along the length of the cord. Although they were also similar in appearance and orientation to their counterparts in the ventricles they did exhibit some unique features. The most notable were the prominent junctional complexes and associated filaments present along the lateral border of the cells near their apex and the abundance of intermediate filaments in tanycytes. The central canal of the filum differed most markedly from other segments of the cord and resembled in structure the primitive ependymal tube of the caudal cord in lower vertebrates. Ependymal cells of the cord were not sufficiently dissimilar morphologically from their counterparts in the ventricles to account for differences in proliferative capacity in response to localised injury. A factor that merits further study is the difference in numbers of tanycyte ependymal cells in the two locations for they may be the reactive elements that proliferate in response to injury.

  10. A Holistic Conserving Approach on Heritage of the Grand Canal,China:Cultural Values Assessment of the Canal Under Historical Context of Jiangnan Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the development process of the Jiangnan Civilization under the specific condition of the Yangtze River Delta,where numerous rivers and waterways have worked together as a natural and cultural matrix of the canal for thousands of years.To preserve it as a heritage,it is crucial to recognize that the local civilization has very much benefited from the flourishing natural and artificial network of waterways that is an indivisible part of the Grand Canal.This significant characteristic makes the canal as a heritage different from the present concept of "cultural route."

  11. Discrimination potential of root canal treated tooth in forensic dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, K; Yousif, S; Satti, A

    2016-07-01

    Forensic Odontology is a vital component of forensic science and one branch involves the application of dental science to the identification of unknown human remains. The aim of this study is to investigate the discriminatory potential for identification of the radiographic morphology of obturated single root canals. Thirty periapical radiographs of patients having endodontic treatment of single rooted canals were selected randomly from the data bank of the digital X- ray system present in the restorative department, University of Science and Technology, Sudan. The post-operative radiographs were considered as an ant-mortem data "Set 1". Ten radiographs from the thirty were reprinted, labelled from (A-J) and considered as a post-mortem data "Set 2". This post-mortem group of 10 radiographs "Set 2" would be compared with the ante-mortem group of 30 radiographs comprising "Set 1". These two sets of radiographs would be examined by 40 dentally trained personnel. The thirty radiographs comprising "Set 1" and the 10 radiographs comprising "Set 2" were provided to each of the examiners who were asked to match the individual post-mortem radiographs ("Set 2") with the ante-mortem radiographs ("Set1"). The result demonstrated that 34 examiners achieved a success rate of 100%, 4 examiners achieved a success rate of 97.5% (1 mismatch) and 2 examiners achieved a success rate of 95% (2 mismatches). The radiographic images of obturated single-rooted teeth in this study were shown to have highly- specific morphological features. It is proposed that, in cases where the ante and post-mortem radiographs of a single-rooted obturated canal show similar morphology, this commonality of morphology can be used as a tool in the identification process.

  12. Modeling of Unsteady Flow through the Canals by Semiexact Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Ehsani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of free-surface and pressurized water flows in channels has many interesting application, one of the most important being the modeling of the phenomena in the area of natural water systems (rivers, estuaries as well as in that of man-made systems (canals, pipes. For the development of major river engineering projects, such as flood prevention and flood control, there is an essential need to have an instrument that be able to model and predict the consequences of any possible phenomenon on the environment and in particular the new hydraulic characteristics of the system. The basic equations expressing hydraulic principles were formulated in the 19th century by Barre de Saint Venant and Valentin Joseph Boussinesq. The original hydraulic model of the Saint Venant equations is written in the form of a system of two partial differential equations and it is derived under the assumption that the flow is one-dimensional, the cross-sectional velocity is uniform, the streamline curvature is small and the pressure distribution is hydrostatic. The St. Venant equations must be solved with continuity equation at the same time. Until now no analytical solution for Saint Venant equations is presented. In this paper the Saint Venant equations and continuity equation are solved with homotopy perturbation method (HPM and comparison by explicit forward finite difference method (FDM. For decreasing the present error between HPM and FDM, the st.venant equations and continuity equation are solved by HAM. The homotopy analysis method (HAM contains the auxiliary parameter ħ that allows us to adjust and control the convergence region of solution series. The study has highlighted the efficiency and capability of HAM in solving Saint Venant equations and modeling of unsteady flow through the rectangular canal that is the goal of this paper and other kinds of canals.

  13. Ulnar neuropathy at Guyon's canal: electrophysiological and surgical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathanasiou, E S; Loizides, A; Panayiotou, P; Papacostas, S S; Kleopa, K A

    2005-03-01

    Published correlations between electrophysiological and surgical findings are relatively rare in cases of ulnar nerve compression at the wrist, compared to the more common compression of the ulnar nerve at the elbow. We describe a patient who presented with clinical and electrodiagnostic findings of a pure motor ulnar neuropathy involving the territory of the deep branch. Surgical exploration revealed that a ganglion cyst caused compression of the deep ulnar motor branch at Guyon's canal. This case illustrates the usefulness of electrodiagnostic studies in the localization of nerve entrapment prior to surgery.

  14. Craniofacial surgery and optic canal decompression in adult fibrous dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahapatra A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A 29-year-old female had a 3-year history of bony swelling over the right frontal area. For 3 months she noticed proptosis of her right eye. Investigations revealed fibrous dysplasia involving the right half of the frontal bone and the right greater and lesser wings of the sphenoid bone. Visual evoked potentials (VEP showed delayed latencies on the involved side. A craniofacial surgery with optic canal decompression was performed. Follow-up after 2 years revealed normalization of VEP.

  15. Optimizing the semicircular canal: could we balance any better?

    CERN Document Server

    Squires, T M

    2004-01-01

    The fluid-filled semicircular canals (SCCs) of the vestibular system are used by all vertebrates to sense angular rotation. Despite masses spanning seven decades, all mammalian SCCs are nearly the same size. We propose that the SCC represents a sensory organ that evolution has `optimally designed'. Four geometric parameters are used to characterize the SCC, and `building materials' of given physical properties are assumed. Identifying physical and physiological constraints on SCC operation, we find that the most sensitive SCC has dimensions consistent with available data.

  16. Incidence of low birth weight among Love Canal residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, N J; Polan, A K

    1984-12-01

    The incidence of low birth weight among white live-born infants from 1940 through 1978 was studied in various sections of the Love Canal. A statistically significant excess was found in the historic swale area from 1940 through 1953, the period when various chemicals were dumped in this disposal site. Potential confounding factors such as medical-therapeutic histories, smoking, education, maternal age, birth order, length of gestation, and urban-rural difference did not appear to account for this observation. Low birth weight rates were comparable to those of upstate New York from 1954 through 1978, the period when there was no deposition of chemical wastes.

  17. Evolution of canals system linking the Vistula, Dnieper and Neman basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brykala, Dariusz; Badziai, Vitali

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to reconstruct landscape changes in the Polesie Region - one of the largest European swampy areas (Belarus), as a result of the creation and operation of a network of canals. From the 16th century efforts were undertaken to connect the Polish areas located in the drainage basins of the Black Sea and Baltic Sea with canals. Already in 1631 the Polish Sejm (parliament) approved the project to build a canal linking the River Berezina (Dnieper basin) with the River Neris (Neman basin). However, the complicated political and economic situation of the country did not allow doing this. Only in the second half of the 18th c. hetman Ogiński financed the construction of a canal linking the Dnieper and Neman basins. The canal connecting the River Szczara (Neman basin) with the River Jasiołda (Pripyat basin) was named after its creator - the Ogiński Canal. At the same time the construction of the Królewski (Royal) Canal linking the River Muchavets (Vistula basin) and the River Pina (Pripyat basin) was under way. The construction of the canal was completed in 1783. The winding channels of the Pina and Muchavets were straightened, and the numerous canals feeding the waterway system drained vast area of marshes and wetlands of the Polesia Region. The last element that connects the catchments of the Vistula and Neman is the Augustów Canal built in the years 1825-1839 (linking the catchments of the Biebrza and Neman). Numerous changes in political boundaries in the watershed area between the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea drainage basins caused the destruction of the hydraulic structures. All the analysed canals were completely destroyed during the two world wars. In the last 200 years the amount and type of locks and weirs has changed. For example, there were no weirs on the Royal Canal in the late 18th c., in the middle of the 19th c. there were 22 such structures, while now that number has gone down to 10. All canals were created for economic reasons

  18. Canals, Hydrography (Canals). Part of 2005 Planimetry-Topography layers., Published in 2005, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Washington County GIS Office.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Canals dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2005. It is described as 'Hydrography...

  19. Semicircular Canals Circumvent Brownian Motion Overload of Mechanoreceptor Hair Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mees Muller

    Full Text Available Vertebrate semicircular canals (SCC first appeared in the vertebrates (i.e. ancestral fish over 600 million years ago. In SCC the principal mechanoreceptors are hair cells, which as compared to cochlear hair cells are distinctly longer (70 vs. 7 μm, 10 times more compliant to bending (44 vs. 500 nN/m, and have a 100-fold higher tip displacement threshold (< 10 μm vs. <400 nm. We have developed biomechanical models of vertebrate hair cells where the bundle is approximated as a stiff, cylindrical elastic rod subject to friction and thermal agitation. Our models suggest that the above differences aid SCC hair cells in circumventing the masking effects of Brownian motion noise of about 70 nm, and thereby permit transduction of very low frequency (<10 Hz signals. We observe that very low frequency mechanoreception requires increased stimulus amplitude, and argue that this is adaptive to circumvent Brownian motion overload at the hair bundles. We suggest that the selective advantage of detecting such low frequency stimuli may have favoured the evolution of large guiding structures such as semicircular canals and otoliths to overcome Brownian Motion noise at the level of the mechanoreceptors of the SCC.

  20. Hydrogeology of the Canal Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, J.P.; Vroblesky, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Geologic and borehole geophysical logs made at 77 sites show that the hydrogeologic framework of the study area consists of a sequence of unconsolidated sediments typical of the Coastal Plain of Maryland. Three aquifers and two confining units were delineated within the study area. From the surface down, they are: (1) the surficial aquifer; (2) the upper confining unit; (3) the Canal Creek aquifer; (4) the lower confining unit; and (5) the lower confined aquifer. The aquifer materials range from fine sand to coarse sand and gravel. Clay lenses were commonly found interfingered with the sand, isolating parts of the aquifers. All the units are continuous throughout the study area except for the upper confining unit, which crops out within the study area but is absent in updip outcrops. The unit also is absent within a Pleistocene paleochannel, where it has been eroded. The surficial and Canal Creek aquifers are hydraulically connected where the upper confining unit is absent, and a substantial amount of groundwater may flow between the two aquifers. Currently, no pumping stresses are known to affect the aquifers within the study area. Under current conditions, downward vertical hydraulic gradients prevail at topographic highs, and upward gradients typically prevail near surface-water bodies. Regionally, the direction of groundwater flow in the confined aquifers is to the east and southeast. Significant water level fluctuations correspond with seasonal variations in rainfall, and minor daily fluctuations reflect tidal cycles. (USGS)

  1. Entrevista a Jordi Canal para Historia 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Darío Cuadros Sánchez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Jordi Canal es profesor y director de estudios en la École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS de Paris, uno de los grandes especialistas en historia contemporánea. Cosmopolita y trilingüe (español, catalán y francés, su bibliografía reciente incluye obras de referencia, como autor o editor, «Los éxodos políticos en España, siglos XV-XX» (2007, «Una historia política del carlismo, 1876-1939» (2006. En el marco del XVII Congreso de la Asociación de Colombianista y la presentación de una conferencia sobre historia política en la Maestría de Historia de la Universidad Industrial de Santander, el profesor Jordi Canal visitó la ciudad de Bucaramanga del 3 al 5 a de agosto del presente año y tuvo la amabilidad de brindar sus opiniones a la revista Historia 2.0.

  2. Gyroscopic stimulation of the semicircular canals during sensory deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, B. D.; Brady, J. F.; Stumm, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    A static object revolving at a constant velocity is stationary with respect to that environment. When the object is rotated outside the plane of spin, a gyroscopic or cross-coupled acceleration is produced orthogonal to the two planes of rotation. In this situation, a man feels himself moving in a direction other than that which his visual or proprioceptive sensors perceive. The conflict in spatial orientation is the cross-coupled acceleration imposed on the semicircular canals. This perceptual conflict and the thresholds involved were studied by partial isolation of the physiological stimuli through sensory deprivation. Subjects weighted to neutral buoyancy were submerged in 94 F water in the dark. The subjects were then rotated while being revolved about a displaced axis. Thresholds for detection of angular acceleration were higher than those reported in the literature for detection of acceleration of a single plane. This discrepancy may be attributable to the length of time the stimuli are imposed to each of the canals and the cupular response periods.

  3. Building and Testing a Statistical Shape Model of the Human Ear Canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Larsen, Rasmus; Laugesen, Søren;

    2002-01-01

    Today the design of custom in-the-ear hearing aids is based on personal experience and skills and not on a systematic description of the variation of the shape of the ear canal. In this paper it is described how a dense surface point distribution model of the human ear canal is built based on a t...

  4. Uncontrolled removal of dentin during in vitro ultrasonic irrigant activation in curved root canals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Retsas, A.; Koursoumis, A.; Tzimpoulas, N.; Boutsioukis, C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of file type and activation time on the uncontrolled removal of dentin during in vitro ultrasonic irrigant activation in prepared curved root canals. Methods: Seventy-two curved mesial root canals of human mandibular molars were prepared

  5. Effect of needle insertion depth and root canal curvature on irrigant extrusion ex vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Psimma, Z.; Boutsioukis, C.; Kastrinakis, E.; Vasiliadis, L.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of needle type and insertion depth, apical preparation size, and root canal curvature on irrigant extrusion by using a recently introduced method. Methods Sixteen human teeth with a straight root canal (group A) and 16 with a moderatel

  6. An unusual presentation of all the mandibular anterior teeth with two root canals - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiku A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of two root canals in all mandibular anterior teeth is presented. The patient initially reported for the treatment of mandibular right central and lateral incisors. However, radiographic evaluation revealed variant root canal and apical foramen patterns.

  7. Comparative Study the Physical Properties of Flow, Solubility and Disintegration of Some Root Canal Sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Fátima Zacarro SCELZA

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate comparatively the physical properties of solubility, disintegration and flow of some root canal sealers: SEALAPEX™, PULP CANAL SEALER™, TUBLISEAL™, AH PLUS™, AH 26™, TOP SEAL™, SEALER PLUS™, SEALER 26™ and ENDOFILL™. Method: Methodology used was according ISO 6786 which test the physicochemical properties using five proof specimens for each test. Results: In terms of solubility, the root canal sealers analyzed have been classified in the following decreasing order: ENDOFILL™, SEALAPEX™, PULP CANAL SEALER™, AH 26™, TUBLISEAL™, SEALER PLUS™, AH PLUS™, TOP SEAL™ and SEALER 26™, where a statistically significant difference was found at a 1% level. Between TOP SEAL™ and SEALER™ 26 root canal sealers there was no statistically significant difference. None of the sealers above have shown disintegration. Regarding flow, the root canal sealers in the study have been classified in the following decreasing order: TUBLISEAL™ root canal sealer, followed by ENDOFILL™, SEALAPEX™, PULP CANAL SEALER™, AH PLUS™, TOP SEAL™, AH 26™, SEALER 26™ and SEALER PLUS™, where a statistically significant difference was found at a 1% level. Conclusion: The solubility, only the SEALAPEX™ and ENDOFILL™ have shown a limit above determined by ISO 6786.

  8. An evaluation of the influence of passive ultrasonic irrigation on the seal of root canal fillings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, L. W. M.; Shemesh, H.; Wu, M. K.; Wesselink, P. R.

    2007-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the influence of passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) on the seal of root canal fillings. Methodology A total of 40 mandibular premolars were distributed equally into two groups and the root canals were cleaned and shaped; they were then filled with gutta-percha and AH26 (sealer) usin

  9. The adult macaque spinal cord central canal zone contains proliferative cells and closely resembles the human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro-Cervello, Clara; Cebrian-Silla, Arantxa; Soriano-Navarro, Mario; Garcia-Tarraga, Patricia; Matías-Guiu, Jorge; Gomez-Pinedo, Ulises; Molina Aguilar, Pilar; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Luquin, Maria-Rosario; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel

    2014-06-01

    The persistence of proliferative cells, which could correspond to progenitor populations or potential cells of origin for tumors, has been extensively studied in the adult mammalian forebrain, including human and nonhuman primates. Proliferating cells have been found along the entire ventricular system, including around the central canal, of rodents, but little is known about the primate spinal cord. Here we describe the central canal cellular composition of the Old World primate Macaca fascicularis via scanning and transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry and identify central canal proliferating cells with Ki67 and newly generated cells with bromodeoxyuridine incorporation 3 months after the injection. The central canal is composed of uniciliated, biciliated, and multiciliated ependymal cells, astrocytes, and neurons. Multiciliated ependymal cells show morphological characteristics similar to multiciliated ependymal cells from the lateral ventricles, and uniciliated and biciliated ependymal cells display cilia with large, star-shaped basal bodies, similar to the Ecc cells described for the rodent central canal. Here we show that ependymal cells with one or two cilia, but not multiciliated ependymal cells, proliferate and give rise to new ependymal cells that presumably remain in the macaque central canal. We found that the infant and adult human spinal cord contains ependymal cell types that resemble those present in the macaque. Interestingly, a wide hypocellular layer formed by bundles of intermediate filaments surrounded the central canal both in the monkey and in the human, being more prominent in the stenosed adult human central canal.

  10. 19 CFR 148.3 - Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal. 148.3 Section 148.3 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... § 148.3 Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal. Passengers' baggage and effects...

  11. Role of sediment in the design and management of irrigation canals : Sunsari Morang Irrigation Scheme, Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, K.

    2010-01-01

    Sediment transport in irrigation canals The sediment transport aspect is a major factor in irrigation development as it determines to a large extent the sustainability of an irrigation scheme, particularly in case of unlined canals in alluvial soils. Investigations in this respect started since Ken

  12. Response of selenium concentrations in groundwater to seasonal canal leakage, lower Gunnison River Basin, Colorado, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linard, J.I.; McMahon, P.B.; Arnold, L.R.; Thomas, J.C.

    2016-05-23

    Selenium is a water-quality concern in the lower Gunnison River Basin because irrigation water interacting with seleniferous soils derived from the Mancos Shale Formation has mobilized selenium and increased its concentrations in surface water. Understanding the occurrence of elevated selenium concentrations in groundwater is necessary because groundwater discharge is an important source of selenium in surface water in the basin. In 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation and the Colorado Water Conservation Board, began a study to understand how changes in groundwater levels attributed to canal leakage affected the concentrations and speciation of dissolved selenium in groundwater. The purpose of this report is to characterize the groundwater adjacent to an unlined leaky canal. Two locations, near the East Canal (W-N1 and W-N2) and farther from the East Canal (W-M1 and W-M2), were selected for nested monitoring well installations. The pressure exerted by changes in canal stage was more readily transferred to the deep groundwater measured in the W-N1 near the canal than the shallow groundwater at the W-N2 well. No definitive relation could be made between canal water-level elevation and water-level elevations in monitoring wells farther from the canal (W-M1 and W-M2). 

  13. Laser-activated irrigation within root canals: cleaning efficacy and flow visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, S.D.; Verhaagen, B.; Versluis, M.; Wu, M.K.; Wesselink, P.R.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Aim  To test ex vivo the efficiency of laser-activated irrigation in removing dentine debris from the apical part of the root canal and to visualize in vitro the fluid dynamics during the activation of the irrigant by laser, using high-speed imaging at a relevant timescale. Methodology  Root canals

  14. Laser-activated irrigation within root canals : cleaning efficacy and flow visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, S. D.; Verhaagen, B.; Versluis, M.; Wu, M. -K.; Wesselink, P. R.; van der Sluis, L. W. M.

    2009-01-01

    P>Aim To test ex vivo the efficiency of laser-activated irrigation in removing dentine debris from the apical part of the root canal and to visualize in vitro the fluid dynamics during the activation of the irrigant by laser, using high-speed imaging at a relevant timescale. Methodology Root canals

  15. 33 CFR 334.1220 - Hood Canal, Bangor; naval restricted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hood Canal, Bangor; naval restricted areas. 334.1220 Section 334.1220 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1220 Hood Canal, Bangor; naval restricted areas. (a) Hood...

  16. 77 FR 15749 - Twin Lakes Canal Company; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Twin Lakes Canal Company; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On March 8, 2012, Twin Lakes Canal Company filed...

  17. 33 CFR 110.70 - Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, easterly of Courthouse Point, Md.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, easterly of Courthouse Point, Md. 110.70 Section 110.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.70 Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, easterly of...

  18. 33 CFR 401.49 - Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. 401.49 Section 401.49 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.49 Dropping anchor or tying to canal...

  19. 78 FR 69847 - North Side Canal Company; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission North Side Canal Company; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On November 5, 2013, North Side Canal Company, filed a notice...

  20. 75 FR 80526 - Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park Advisory Commission; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ...Notice is hereby given that a meeting of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park Advisory Commission will be held at 9:30 a.m., on Friday, January 7, 2011, at C & O Canal National Historical Park, 1850 Dual Highway, Suite 100, Hagerstown, Maryland...

  1. 33 CFR 207.470 - Sturgeon Bay and Lake Michigan Ship Canal, Wis.; use and navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and Lake Michigan Ship Canal, Wis.; use and navigation. 207.470 Section 207.470 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.470 Sturgeon Bay and Lake Michigan Ship Canal, Wis.; use...

  2. 78 FR 62351 - North Side Canal Company; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission North Side Canal Company; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On October 3, 2013, North Side Canal Company, filed a notice...

  3. 33 CFR 117.661 - Duluth Ship Canal (Duluth-Superior Harbor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duluth Ship Canal (Duluth-Superior Harbor). 117.661 Section 117.661 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Minnesota § 117.661 Duluth Ship Canal (Duluth-Superior Harbor). The draw...

  4. 33 CFR 117.458 - Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans. 117.458 Section 117.458 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.458 Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, New Orleans. (a)...

  5. Yard flooding by irrigation canals increased the risk of West Nile disease in El Paso, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Victor M.; Jaime, Javier; Ford, Paula B.; Gonzalez, Fernando J.; Carrillo, Irma; Gallegos, Jorge E.; Watts, Douglas M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of use of water from irrigation canals to flood residential yards on the risk of West Nile disease in El Paso, Texas. Methods West Nile disease confirmed cases in 2009–2010 were compared with a random sample of 50 residents of the county according to access to and use of water from irrigation canals by subjects or their neighbors, as well as geo-referenced closest distance between their home address and the nearest irrigation canal. A windshield survey of 600 meters around the study subjects’ home address recorded the presence of irrigation canals. The distance from the residence of 182 confirmed cases of West Nile disease reported in 2003–2010 to canals was compared to that of the centroids of 182 blocks selected at random. Results Cases were more likely than controls to report their neighbors flooded their yards with water from canals. Irrigation canals were more often observed in neighborhoods of cases than of controls. Using the set of addresses of 182 confirmed cases and 182 hypothetic controls the authors found a statistically significant inverse relation with risk of West Nile disease. Conclusions Flooding of yards with water from canals increased the risk of West Nile disease. PMID:21943648

  6. The spread of injectate during saphenous nerve block at the adductor canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H L; Andersen, S L; Tranum-Jensen, J

    2015-01-01

    by comparative dissections of the same limbs. RESULTS: The spread of the injectates was determined by the fascial limits and the muscles surrounding the adductor canal. The anteromedial limit of the adductor canal (the roof) was found to be a continuous fascia, with a thin proximal part and a thicker distal part...

  7. A non-iterative cascaded predictive control approach for control of irrigation canals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negenborn, R.R.; Sahin, A.; Lukszo, Z.; De Schutter, B.; Morari, M.

    2009-01-01

    Irrigation canals transport water from water sources (such as large rivers and lakes) to water users (such as farmers). Irrigation canals are typically very large in nature, covering vast geographical areas, and involving a significant number of control actuators, such as pumps, gates, and locks. Th

  8. Passive ultrasonic irrigation of the root canal : a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, L. W. M.; Versluis, M.; Wu, M. K.; Wesselink, P. R.

    2007-01-01

    Ultrasonic irrigation of the root canal can be performed with or without simultaneous ultrasonic instrumentation. When canal shaping is not undertaken the term passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) can be used to describe the technique. In this paper the relevant literature on PUI is reviewed from a M

  9. Dynamic intratubular biomineralization following root canal obturation with pozzolan‐based mineral trioxide aggregate sealer cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yeon‐Jee; Baek, Seung‐Ho; Kum, Kee‐Yeon; Shon, Won‐Jun; Woo, Kyung‐Mi

    2015-01-01

    Summary The application of mineral trioxide aggregates (MTA) cement during the root canal obturation is gaining concern due to its bioactive characteristic to form an apatite in dentinal tubules. In this regard, this study was to assess the biomineralization of dentinal tubules following root canal obturation by using pozzolan‐based (Pz‐) MTA sealer cement (EndoSeal MTA, Maruchi). Sixty curved roots (mesiobuccal, distobuccal) from human maxillary molars were instrumented and prepared for root canal obturation. The canals were obturated with gutta‐percha (GP) and Pz‐MTA sealer by using continuous wave of condensation technique. Canals obturated solely with ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental) or Pz‐MTA sealer were used for comparison. In order to evaluate the biomineralization ability under different conditions, the PBS pretreatment before the root canal obturation was performed in each additional samples. At dentin‐material interfaces, the extension of intratubular biomineralization was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy. When the root canal was obturated with GP and Pz‐MTA sealer, enhanced biomineralization of the dentinal tubules beyond the penetrated sealer tag was confirmed under the SEM observation (p cement can be used as a promising bioactive root canal sealer to enhance biomineralization of dentinal tubules under controlled environment. SCANNING 38:50–56, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Scanning Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26179659

  10. Dynamic intratubular biomineralization following root canal obturation with pozzolan-based mineral trioxide aggregate sealer cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yeon-Jee; Baek, Seung-Ho; Kum, Kee-Yeon; Shon, Won-Jun; Woo, Kyung-Mi; Lee, WooCheol

    2016-01-01

    The application of mineral trioxide aggregates (MTA) cement during the root canal obturation is gaining concern due to its bioactive characteristic to form an apatite in dentinal tubules. In this regard, this study was to assess the biomineralization of dentinal tubules following root canal obturation by using pozzolan-based (Pz-) MTA sealer cement (EndoSeal MTA, Maruchi). Sixty curved roots (mesiobuccal, distobuccal) from human maxillary molars were instrumented and prepared for root canal obturation. The canals were obturated with gutta-percha (GP) and Pz-MTA sealer by using continuous wave of condensation technique. Canals obturated solely with ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental) or Pz-MTA sealer were used for comparison. In order to evaluate the biomineralization ability under different conditions, the PBS pretreatment before the root canal obturation was performed in each additional samples. At dentin-material interfaces, the extension of intratubular biomineralization was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy. When the root canal was obturated with GP and Pz-MTA sealer, enhanced biomineralization of the dentinal tubules beyond the penetrated sealer tag was confirmed under the SEM observation (p cement can be used as a promising bioactive root canal sealer to enhance biomineralization of dentinal tubules under controlled environment.

  11. Root canal anatomy of mandibular first premolars in an Emirati subpopulation: A laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Sheela Balu; Gopinath, Vellore Kannan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the root canal anatomy of mandibular first premolar teeth in an Emirati subpopulation using a decalcification and clearing method. Materials and Methods: One hundred permanent mandibular first premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes from an Emirati subpopulation from the United Arab Emirates were used for this study. They were subjected to decalcification and clearing. The tooth length, the canal orifice shape, mesial invagination, canal pattern, the location of apex, presence of lateral canals, and intercanal communications were determined. Results: The most common canal pattern was the Vertucci Type I (65%) followed by Type V (14%) and Type IV (13%). The most common type of canal orifice seen was the oval shape (36%) followed by the round shape (25%). Mesial invaginations were seen in 44% of the teeth. The mean tooth length was 19.9 mm, and apical deltas were seen in 24% of teeth. Conclusion: The Vertucci Type I canal pattern was the most prevalent in the mandibular first premolars while the occurrence of multiple canals was noted in 35% of this population. PMID:26929684

  12. Testing for Gender Related Size and Shape Differences of the Human Ear canal using Statistical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Larsen, Rasmus; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær;

    2002-01-01

    This work deals with the analysis of the shape of the human ear canal. It is described how a dense surface point distribution model of the human ear canal is built based on a training set of laser scanned ear impressions and a sparse set of anatomical landmarks placed by an expert. The dense...

  13. Research on Controlled Volume Operation Method of Large-scale Water Transfer Canal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Zhiliang; WANG Changde; XU Duo; XIAO Hua

    2011-01-01

    The controlled volume method of operation is especially suitable for large-scale water delivery canal system with complex operation requirements. An operating simulation model based on the storage volume control method for multi-reach canal system in series was established. In allusion to the deficiency of existing controlled volume algorithm, the improved controlled volume algorithm of the whole canal pools was proposed, and the simulation results indicated that the storage volume and water level of each canal pool could be accurately controlled after the improved algorithm had been adopted. However, for some typical discharge demand operating conditions, if the previously mentioned algorithm was adopted, then it certainly would cause some unnecessary gate adjustments, and consequently the disturbed canal pools would be increased. Therefore, the idea of controlled volume operation method of continuous canal pools was proposed, and corresponding algorithm was designed. Through simulating practical project, the results indicated that the new controlled volume algorithm proposed for typical operating conditions could comparatively and obviously reduce the number of regulated check gates and disturb canal pools for some typical discharge demand operating conditions, thus the control efficiency of canal system could be improved.

  14. Effects of Self-Adjusting File, Mtwo, and ProTaper on the root canal wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hin, E.S.; Wu, M.K.; Wesselink, P.R.; Shemesh, H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this ex vivo study was to observe the incidence of cracks in root dentin after root canal preparation with hand files, self-adjusting file (SAF), ProTaper, and Mtwo. Methods One hundred extracted mandibular premolars with single canals were randomly selected. Two angulate

  15. The origin of the Dargom canal in the oasis of Samarkand (Uzbekistan). A new scenario from geoarcheological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, V.; Mantellini, S.; Picotti, V.; Gabbianelli, G.; Tosi, M.

    2009-04-01

    sand with different composition respect to the substrate. In several places, the artificial cut in the most elevated (left) bank of the canal was recognized, interrupted by depression of the banks associated with crevasse deposits reaching several tens of meters uphill. In the less elevated bank (right) of the canal, the original artificial levee was never observed. It is worth mentioning an important reworking of the landscape due to the land reform of the Soviet administration in the years '60 of the last century. A trench cut across the left side of the canal, showed a clinostratified body of sand covering the sand deposits of the ancient Dargom. The composition is local and it bears fragments of bricks and bones, to be interpreted as waste material shed from the top to protect the bank. Radiocarbon ages of two bones each separated 60 cm, are 1700 ±30 and 1680 ±120 BP. A DEM was created based on a 1:10.000 scale topo map preceding the land reform, to document, thanks to a high detail of the contour lines (1 m), the micromorphological features associated to the canal. The resulting TIN was processed through the ESRI hydrology modeling functions, and the flow accumulation rate in the study area was calculated with the grid of 1 m. A slightly discontinuous ridge, with only a few meters of elevation from the surroundings, was identified on the right bank of the canal. Several cross sections document that this ridge correspond to the original levee and it is located 100 to 400 m north of the present-day incised bank. Therefore, the original profile of the canal was reconstructed, much larger than expected and interspersed with artificial mounds, previously thought outside the canal, whose function has to be reconsidered. The new geo-archaeological resercheas allowed a new interpretation on the history of Dargom. According to it the canal should be dated back to the Early Middle Age and its morphology can be reconstructed but other consideration can be advanced in

  16. 成人翼腭管CBCT测量研究%Examination the Pterygopalatine Canal of Adult with CBCT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于天平; 侯敏

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究成人翼腭管的解剖形态,为经翼腭管行上颌神经阻滞麻醉提供指导.方法:利用锥体束CT(CBCT)观测200个正常国人翼腭管的解剖形态.结果:矢状面上翼腭管的走行有四类:1)斜线形,向前下方走行,此类型最为多见,所占比例为89.25%;2)突向前方的弧形,此类型所占比例为5.25%,占第二位;3)折线形,占3.25%.4)突向后方的弧形,此类型最为少见,占2.25%.翼腭管的形态有3类:1)上窄下宽的喇叭口状,此形态最为多见,占88%;2)上下径较一致管状,此形态较为少见,比例占10%;3)不规则形,约占2%.翼腭管的长度平均为(15.76±2.32) mm,翼腭管与颌平面的夹角平均为(55.77±3.37)°.结论:通过CBCT可明确观测翼腭管的形态,对临床有定位指导作用.%Objective:To provide guidance for maxillary nerve block anesthesia through pterygopalatine canal.Methods:We examined the anatomy of the pterygopalatine canal using data obtained from CBCT scans of 200 normal Chinese.Results:In the sagittal plane,four pathways were observed:1) Diagonal form,the pterygopalatine canal travels in an anterior-inferior direction,the most common pathway,it occurred in 89.25 % ;2) Arc,Convex to the front,this pathway occurred in 5.25 %;3)Fold line shape,this pathway occurred in 3.25 %;4)Arc,Convex to the behind,this pathway occurred in 2.25%.There are three shapes of the pterygopalatine canal:1) bellbottom shape,the most common shapes,the top diameter are less than the below,(88%) ;2) tubular,the top diameter are same to the below,(10%) ;3)irregular shape,(2%).The average length of the pterygopalatine canal was (15.76±2.32)mm.The mean angle between the pterygopalatine and the occlusion plane were (55.77±3.37)°.Conclusion:Using CBCT,we are able to observe the exact shape of the pterygopalatine canal.It will play an important role to guide the clinical operation in the future.

  17. Semicircular canal dehiscence: comparison of T2-weighted turbo spin-echo MRI and CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krombach, G.A.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Haage, P.; Guenther, R.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); DiMartino, E. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Prescher, A. [Department of Anatomy, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Kinzel, S. [Department of Experimental Veterinary Medicine, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    We assessed the value of MRI for delineation of dehiscence of the superior or posterior semicircular canal, as compared with CT, the current standard study for this entity. We reviewed heavily T2-weighted fast spin-echo images and high-resolution CT of the temporal bones of 185 patients independently semicircular canal dehiscence and its extent. In 30 patients (19 men, 11 women) we identified dehiscence of the bone over the superior and/or posterior semicircular canal on MRI. In 27 of these cases CT also showed circumscribed bone defects. In one patient dehiscence of the superior semicircular canal was initially overlooked on MRI, but seen on CT. MRI imaging thus had a sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 98%. Knowledge of the appearances of this entity on MRI may contribute to early diagnosis in patients with vertigo due to semicircular canal dehiscence. (orig.)

  18. Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Evaluation and Diagnosis of Mandibular First Molar with 6 Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiraz Pasha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Root canal treatment of tooth with aberrant root canal morphology is very challenging. So thorough knowledge of both the external and internal anatomy of teeth is an important aspect of root canal treatment. With the advancement in technology it is imperative to use modern diagnostic tools such as magnification devices, CBCT, microscopes, and RVG to confirm the presence of these aberrant configurations. However, in everyday endodontic practice, clinicians have to treat teeth with atypical configurations for root canal treatment to be successful. This case report presents the management of a mandibular first molar with six root canals, four in mesial and two in distal root, and also emphasizes the use and importance of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT as a diagnostic tool in endodontics.

  19. Xanthogranuloma of the External Auditory Canal Mimicking a Benign Tumor: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Yoshihama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exostosis, osteoma, and adenoma are the most commonly encountered benign lesions in the external auditory canal. Herein, we report a case of the mass arising from the external auditory canal in a 24-year-old Japanese man. CT revealed the soft tissue mass without bony erosion, and MRI revealed that the mass showed a homogenous, iso signal intensity on a both T1- and T2-weighted image, suggesting that the mass is a benign tumor such as adenoma. Pathological examination showed that the specimen demonstrated xanthogranuloma in the external auditory canal. Although xanthogranuloma of the external auditory canal is extremely rare, otolaryngologists should recognize this condition during the inspection of the external auditory canal.

  20. A comparison between radiovisiography and clearing technique in the study of the root canal types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daming Wu; Younong Wu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the radiovisiography (RVG) with the clearing technique using Kappa value in the study of the root canal types. Methods: One hundred recently extracted human maxillary first premolars were used. Standard periapical RVG images were taken from a buccolingual and mesiodistal direction. The specimens were then accessed, injected with ink, demineralized,dehydrated, and finally were cleared. The RVG images and the transparent teeth were examined by a trained endodontist, and the date of root canal types following Wu's classification was collected. Results: The reliability of RVG was high for studies on simple root canals,but was poor for the studies on the multiple root canals. The Kappa value between the two techniques was 0.3793, indicating the agreement was poor. Conclusion: It is concluded that the limited value of RVG alone when studying certain aspect of the root canal system. The resolution of the RVG system should be enhanced.

  1. Maxillary first molar with seven root canals diagnosed with cone-beam computed tomography scanning

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    Anil Munavalli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonsurgical endodontic therapy of a right maxillary first molar with three roots and seven root canals. This unusual morphology was diagnosed using a dental operating microscope (DOM and confirmed with the help of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT images. CBCT axial images showed that both the palatal and distobuccal root have a Vertucci type II canal pattern, whereas the mesiobuccal root showed a Sert and Bayirli type XVIII canal configuration. The use of a DOM and CBCT imaging in endodontically challenging cases can facilitate a better understanding of the complex root canal anatomy, which ultimately enables the clinician to explore the root canal system and clean, shape, and obturate it more efficiently.

  2. Cone beam CT findings of retromolar canals: Report of cases and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Sun [Dept. of Dental Hygiene, Eulji University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chang Seo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    A retromolar canal is an anatomical variation in the mandible. As it includes the neurovascular bundle, local anesthetic insufficiency can occur, and an injury of the retromolar canal during dental surgery in the mandible may result in excessive bleeding, paresthesia, and traumatic neuroma. Using imaging analysis software, we evaluated the cone-beam computed tomography (CT) images of two Korean patients who presented with retromolar canals. Retromolar canals were detectable on the sagittal and cross-sectional images of cone-beam CT, but not on the panoramic radiographs of the patients. Therefore, the clinician should pay particular attention to the identification of retromolar canals by preoperative radiographic examination, and additional cone beam CT scanning would be recommended.

  3. [Microbiological colonisation of bovine teat canal--significance and influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduch, Jan-Hendrik; Krömker, Volker

    2011-01-01

    The teat canal of lactating dairy cattle is of particular importance for the defence of facultative pathogenic and pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., staphylococci) invading the bovine udder. Furthermore the canal is usually colonized with microorganisms, too. In addition to microorganisms inhibiting mastitis pathogens the teat canal is colonized by staphylococci. The microbial colonization can be influenced by the environment of the animals, the care and disinfection of the teat skin and indirectly by the effects of forces being associated with machine milking. Because of vacuum fluctuations occurring under the teat tip microorganisms, which colonize the teat canal, can invade the bovine mammary gland and cause infections there. This paper gives a review of the microbial colonization of the bovine teat duct and of influencing factors on the microbial populations as well as of the significance of the teat canal colonization for the development of mastitis.

  4. A Grand Session with the World in Name of Canals——Retrospect on China Yangzhou World Canal Cities Expo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu; Pei

    2013-01-01

    <正>The Grand Canal of China,an important record of the Chinese civilization,has been making significant contributions to the country’s economic development,national unity,social progress,and cultural exchange between the north and the south.As the only city that was born and grew along with a canal in China,Yangzhou gains its prosperity through this canal and in return enhances the beauty of the canal.People in Yangzhou call the

  5. Apical transportation of manual NiTi instruments and a hybrid technique in severely curved simulated canals

    OpenAIRE

    Aurenaila Nascimento Gonçalves; Matheus Franco da Frota; Emilio Carlos Sponchiado Júnior; Fredson Marcio Acris de Carvalho; Lucas da Fonseca Roberti Garcia; André Augusto Franco Marques

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the apical transportation induced by two instrumentation techniques in severely curved simulated canals. Materials and Methods: Forty simulated canals were divided into two groups (n = 20), according to the following instrumentation techniques: ProTaper Universal Manual System and a hybrid technique. The simulated canals in the ProTaper group were prepared following the technique recommended by the manufacturer: SX files in the cervical third of the root canal and S1, S2,...

  6. Ultrastructural investigation of root canal dentine surface after application of active ultrasonic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Aleksandar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The basic work principle of all ultrasonic techniques is the piezoelectric effect of producing high frequency ultrasounds of small length, which are transmitted over the endodontic extensions or canal instruments into the root canal. When in contact with the tissue, ultrasonic vibrations are converted into mechanical oscillations. Ultrasonic waves and the obtained oscillations along with the synergic effect of irrigation bring about the elimination of smear layer from the root canal walls. OBJECTIVE The aim of the study was to ultrastucturally examine the effect of smear layer removal from the walls of canals by the application of the active ultrasonic method without irrigation, that is by the application of ultrasound and irrigation using distilled water and 2.5% NaOCl. METHOD The investigation comprised 35 single-canal, extracted human teeth. After removal of the root canal content, experimental samples were divided into three groups. According to the procedure required, the first group was treated by ultrasound without irrigation; the second one by ultrasound with irrigation using distilled water; and the third group was treated by ultrasound and irrigation using 2.5% NaOCl solution. The control samples were treated by machine rotating instruments (Pro-File and were rinsed by distilled water. RESULTS The obtained results showed that the ultrasonic treatment of the root canal without irrigation did not remove the smear layer. The dentine canals are masked, and big dentine particles are scattered on the intertubular dentine. The ultrasonic treatment by using irrigation with distilled water provides cleaner dentine walls and open dentine tubules but with smaller particles on the intertubular dentine. The ultrasound treatment by using irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl solution provides a clean intertubular dentine surface without a smear layer and clearly open dentine tubules. CONCLUSION Instrumentation of the root canal by application of

  7. Relationship between lower third molar and mandibular canal; Preoperative evaluation using CT scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itou, Masaki; Miyagishima, Toshio; Onizuka, Hiroyuki (Fujieda City Shida General Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan)); Takagi, Norio

    1994-01-01

    The mandibular canal is often closely related to the lower third molars. During the surgical removal of the third molar, the inferior alveolar nerve in the canal is sometimes damaged leading to impaired sensation in the lower lip. This is one of the most unpleasant postoperative complications. The buccolingual relationship between the lower third molar and the mandibular canal cannot be diagnosed by ortho-pantomography although preoperative evaluation must be carried out radiologically. In present study, the relationship was determined by using CT scan. Forty-seven lower third molars of 35 patients were evaluated preoperatively by CT scan. The mandibular canal of all cases overlapped with the third molar on ortho-pantomography. CT scan was taken in two ways. The first was the Tragion-Menton plane which was nearly parallel to the canal at the apex of the third molar. The second was the plane of the axis of the third molar. Axial CT scan was taken when the third molar erupted horizontally, and coronal CT scan was done when the molar erupted vertically. CT scan examination exactly revealed the position of the mandibular canal in relation to the root of the third molar. The canal was located buccally to the roots in 55 percent of cases, apicobuccally in 6 percent, apically in 23 percent, apicolingually in 6 percent, lingually in 2 percent, and between roots in 6 percent. The results of the present study were consistent with previous reports. In 12 cases, the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle was visible during operation. It was visible in only 2 of 22 cases when the canal was located buccally. It was visible, on the other hand, in all cases in which the canal was located apicolingually, lingually, and between roots. It also tended to be visible when the canal overlapped more strongly with the third molar on preoperative ortho-pantomography. (author).

  8. Influence of flexion angle of files on the decentralization of oval canals during instrumentation

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    Maria Antonieta Veloso Carvalho de OLIVEIRA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the flexion angle of files on the decentralization of root canals during instrumentation. Fifteen lower incisors were instrumented with Protaper Universal files and radiographed in two directions (mesiodistal and buccolingual before and after instrumentation with a #15 K-file in position for evaluating the flexion angle of files. The specimens were also scanned before and after instrumentation using micro-computed tomography to obtain the canal area and the distance from the center position of the file to the canal walls. Sections located 1.0 mm (end of the canal, 3.0 mm (apical third, 9.0 mm (middle third, and 15.0 mm (cervical third from the apex were verified. After instrumentation, the flexion angles of files decreased by an average of 0.76º in the buccolingual direction and 1.92º in the mesiodistal direction (p < 0.001; the canal area increased by an average of 0.58, 0.37, 0.23 and 0.13 mm2 from the cervical to the end of the root canal (p < 0.001. Non-instrumented areas were observed on the buccal and lingual walls, and effective action of files was determined on the mesial and distal walls. The sections from the end of the canal showed canal deviation toward the lingual wall, whereas the other sections showed deviation toward the buccal wall. The flexion angles of files influence the final shape of the root canal, resulting in file decentralization along the pathway of the canal.

  9. The cochlear nerve canal and internal auditory canal in children with normal cochlea but cochlear nerve deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Fei; Li, Jianhong; Xian, Junfang; Wang, Zhenchang [Dept. of Radiology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical Univ., Beijing (China)], e-mail: cjr.wzhch@vip.163.com; Mo, Lingyan [Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical Univ., Beijing (China)

    2013-04-15

    Background: There is an increasing frequency of requests for cochlear implantation (CI) in deaf children and more detailed image information is necessary for selecting appropriate candidates. Cochlear nerve deficiency (CND) is a contraindication to CI. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to evaluate the integrity of the cochlear nerve. The abnormalities of the cochlear nerve canal (CNC) and internal auditory canal (IAC) have been reported to be associated with CND. Purpose: To correlate CNC manifestation, size, and IAC diameter on high-resolution CT (HRCT) with CND diagnosed by MRI in children. Material and Methods: HRCT images from 35 sensorineurally deaf children who had normal cochlea but bilateral or unilateral CND diagnosed by MRI were studied retrospectively. The CNC and IAC manifestation and size were assessed and correlated with CND. Results: CND was diagnosed by MRI in 54/70 ears (77.1%). Thirty-two ears had an absent cochlear nerve (59.3%), while 22 ears had a small cochlear nerve (40.7%). The CNC diameter was <1.5 mm in 36 ears (66.7%). The CNC diameter ranged between 1.5 and 2.0 mm in seven ears (13.0%) and was >2.0 mm in 11 ears (20.4%). The IAC diameter was <3.0 mm in 25 ears (46.3%) and >3.0 mm in 29 ears (53.7%). Conclusion: The hypoplastic CNC might be more highly indicative of CND than that of a narrow IAC.

  10. File list: NoD.Oth.50.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: InP.Oth.50.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: NoD.Oth.10.AllAg.Schlemms_canal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. Effect of the Irrigation Canal Network on Surface and Groundwater Interactions in the Lower Valley of the Cachapoal River, Chile Efecto de la Red de Canales de Riego en las Interacciones de Agua Superficial y Subterránea en la Parte Baja del Valle Del Río Cachapoal, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Arumí

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural production of high value crops in Chile's Central Valley is highly dependent on surface and groundwater resources. They are connected and together form an integrated hydrological system, the individual components of which have to be studied. This research is addressed to answering two questions: 1 to what extent do irrigation and canal seepage contribute to groundwater recharge and 2 what is the influence of the interactions between the Cachapoal River and ground water. The study was carried out from 2003 to 2007 in Peumo Valley (34.3° S, 71.3° W. In winter, the irrigation canal network intercepts and diverts surface runoff, which flows to flat areas and recharges groundwater. In summer, infiltration from the canals recharges the aquifer directly and partially compensates for water uptake from plants and evaporation. The effects of both interactions keep groundwater at a relatively constant level over the whole year. The water balance of the valley is strongly affected by agricultural practices, groundwater recharge mainly originating from irrigation loss (22% and canal seepage (52%. It is important to know how management decisions, such as change in irrigation practices or canal lining, can affect the hydrological system and agricultural production within the valley.La producción agrícola de exportación en la Zona Central de Chile es altamente dependiente de los recursos hídricos superficiales y subterráneos, los que a su vez están conectados formando un solo sistema hidrológico a través de procesos que no están bien estudiados. Esta investigación apunta a responder dos preguntas de trabajo: 1 Entender el efecto de las filtraciones de los canales de riego en la recarga de los sistemas de aguas subterráneas; y 2 Identificar los patrones de interacción entre las aguas subterráneas y superficiales en el valle de Peumo. Este estudio se ejecutó entre los años 2003 y 2007 en el valle de Peumo, localizado en a Tercera

  19. Focused risk assessment: Mound Plant, Miami-Erie Canal Operable Unit 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, D.R.; Dunning, D.F.

    1994-09-29

    In 1969, an underground waste line at Mound Plant ruptured and released plutonium-238 in a dilute nitric acid solution to the surrounding soils. Most of the acid was neutralized by the native soils. The plutonium, which in a neutral solution is tightly sorbed onto clay particles, remained within the spill area. During remediation, a severe storm eroded some of the contaminated soil. Fine grained plutonium-contaminated clay particles were carried away through the natural drainage courses to the remnants of the Miami-Erie Canal adjacent to Mound Plant, and then into the Great Miami River. This focused risk assessment considers exposure pathways relevant to site conditions, including incidental ingestion of contaminated soils, ingestion of drinking water and fish, and inhalation of resuspended soils and sediments. For each potential exposure pathway, a simplified conceptual model and exposure scenarios have been used to develop conservative estimates of potential radiation dose equivalents and health risks. The conservatism of the dose and risk estimates provides a substantive margin of safety in assuring that the public health is protected.

  20. production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.