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Sample records for canal beagle tierra

  1. Facies del subfondo del canal Beagle, Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bujalesky

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available El canal Beagle conecta los océanos Pacífico y Atlántico en el extremo meridional de Sudamérica y se ubica en el ambiente subantártico. Conforma una cuenca de unos 300 m de profundidad máxima y está separada del océano Atlántico por un umbral de 30 m de profundidad. El canal es un valle tectónico que fue completamente cubierto por el hielo glacial durante la última glaciación. Posteriormente, el canal fue ocupado por un lago glacial desde los 12.000 a los 8.000 años A.P., cuando fue invadido por el mar que alcanzó un nivel máximo entre los 6.000 y 5.000 años A.P. Con el objetivo de analizar las facies sedimentarias superficiales y del subfondo del canal se realizó un relevamiento geofísico con sonar de barrido lateral y un perfilador de 3,5 kHz. Sobre un basamento constituido por rocas metamórficas del Mesozoico, se identificaron depósitos de till y secuencias granodecrecientes que representan distintos estadios del retroceso glaciar, evidenciando hacia la sección superior facies lacustres y por encima depósitos de la transgresión marina del Holoceno. Además, se han identificado paleocauces y secuencias fluviales cubiertas por sedimentos marinos transgresivos.

  2. Facies del subfondo del canal Beagle, Tierra del Fuego Sub-bottom facies of the Beagle Channel, Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bujalesky

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available El canal Beagle conecta los océanos Pacífico y Atlántico en el extremo meridional de Sudamérica y se ubica en el ambiente subantártico. Conforma una cuenca de unos 300 m de profundidad máxima y está separada del océano Atlántico por un umbral de 30 m de profundidad. El canal es un valle tectónico que fue completamente cubierto por el hielo glacial durante la última glaciación. Posteriormente, el canal fue ocupado por un lago glacial desde los 12.000 a los 8.000 años A.P., cuando fue invadido por el mar que alcanzó un nivel máximo entre los 6.000 y 5.000 años A.P. Con el objetivo de analizar las facies sedimentarias superficiales y del subfondo del canal se realizó un relevamiento geofísico con sonar de barrido lateral y un perfilador de 3,5 kHz. Sobre un basamento constituido por rocas metamórficas del Mesozoico, se identificaron depósitos de till y secuencias granodecrecientes que representan distintos estadios del retroceso glaciar, evidenciando hacia la sección superior facies lacustres y por encima depósitos de la transgresión marina del Holoceno. Además, se han identificado paleocauces y secuencias fluviales cubiertas por sedimentos marinos transgresivos.The Beagle Channel connects the Pacific and Atlantic oceans in the southernmost part of South America, and has a subantarctic environment. It is a deep basin (300 m depth separated from the Atlantic Ocean by a shallow sill (30 m depth. The Beagle Channel is a tectonic valley that was completely covered by ice during the Last Glaciation. Later, it was occupied by a glacial lake from 12,000 to 8,000 years B.P. and then flooded by the sea, reaching a maximum sea level between 6,000 and 5,000 years B.P. A geophysical survey (side scan sonar and 3.5 kHz profiler was carried out in the channel to analyze the sea-bed and sub-bottom sedimentary facies. Metamorphic Mesozoic basement rocks are overlain by glacial deposits (till and fining upwards sequences. These sequences

  3. Paleoambientes litorales durante el inicio de la trasgresión marina holocena en bahía Lapataia, canal Beagle, parque nacional Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rabassa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Los sitios Aserradero Lapataia 1 y 2 presentan depósitos limo-arcillosos portadores de valvas de moluscos: Mulinia edulis, Mytilus chilensis, Aulacomya atra y Yoldia sp. Además predominan los quistes de dinoflagelados, revestimientos de foraminíferos bentónicos y huevos de copépodos. Valvas de Mulinia edulis fueron datadas radiocarbónicamente en 8.094 ± 43 (AA74047 y 8.167 ± 43 (AA74048 a A.P. En Arroyo Baliza depósitos limo-arcillosos son portadores de Venus antiqua, Aulacomya atra, Mytilus chilensis, entre otros. La microflora está dominada por dinoquistes protoperidinioideos, acritarcos y restos de copépodos. Se sugiere ambientes marino-marginales, con baja a moderada salinidad, y altas concentraciones de nutrientes en las aguas superficiales. La datación radiocarbónica sobre Venus antiqua en Arroyo Baliza indica 2.844 ± 34 a A.P. (AA74046. Aserradero Lapataia confirma las edades más antiguas conocidas para la fase estuárica de la transgresión holocena en el canal Beagle. Arroyo Baliza aporta nueva evidencia de la fase regresiva en este canal durante el Holoceno tardío.

  4. Reconstrucción de la vegetación posglacial y su relación con el ascenso relativo del nivel del mar en el extremo este del canal Beagle, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Borromei, Ana María; Ponce, Juan Federico; Coronato, Andrea; Candel,María Soledad; Olivera,Daniela; Okuda,Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    A partir del análisis polínico de una turbera de Donatia-Astelia ubicada en Punta Moat (Moat-2; 54°58' 50"S, 66°44'10"W; 40 m s.n.m.), este del canal Beagle, y de modelos digitales de terreno vinculados a la curva de ascenso del mar posglacial, se reconstruye la evolución de la línea de costa y la vegetación desde el Último Máximo Glacial (UMG, ca. 25 ka cal AP) hasta el Holoceno medio (5.000 años cal AP). La evolución de las comunidades vegetales en el extremo este del canal Beagle coincide ...

  5. Paleoambientes litorales durante el inicio de la trasgresión marina holocena en bahía Lapataia, canal Beagle, parque nacional Tierra del Fuego Littoral paleoenvironments during the beginning of the Holocene marine transgression in Lapataia Bay, Beagle Channel, National Park of Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rabassa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Los sitios Aserradero Lapataia 1 y 2 presentan depósitos limo-arcillosos portadores de valvas de moluscos: Mulinia edulis, Mytilus chilensis, Aulacomya atra y Yoldia sp. Además predominan los quistes de dinoflagelados, revestimientos de foraminíferos bentónicos y huevos de copépodos. Valvas de Mulinia edulis fueron datadas radiocarbónicamente en 8.094 ± 43 (AA74047 y 8.167 ± 43 (AA74048 a A.P. En Arroyo Baliza depósitos limo-arcillosos son portadores de Venus antiqua, Aulacomya atra, Mytilus chilensis, entre otros. La microflora está dominada por dinoquistes protoperidinioideos, acritarcos y restos de copépodos. Se sugiere ambientes marino-marginales, con baja a moderada salinidad, y altas concentraciones de nutrientes en las aguas superficiales. La datación radiocarbónica sobre Venus antiqua en Arroyo Baliza indica 2.844 ± 34 a A.P. (AA74046. Aserradero Lapataia confirma las edades más antiguas conocidas para la fase estuárica de la transgresión holocena en el canal Beagle. Arroyo Baliza aporta nueva evidencia de la fase regresiva en este canal durante el Holoceno tardío.The Aserradero Lapataia 1 and 2 sites present clayey silty sediments including mollusk shell; Mulinia edulis, Mytilus chilensis, Aulacomya atra and Yoldia sp. Besides, dinoflagelate cysts, covers of benthonic foraminifera and copepod eggs are dominant. The microflora is represented by sporomorphs and fresh to salty water microplancton. Radiocarbon dates on Mulinia edulis shells yielded ages of 8094 ± 43 (AA74047 and 8167 ± 43 (AA74048 yr B.P. At Arroyo Baliza, clayey silts were found including Venus antiqua, Aulacomya atra, Mytilus chilensis, among others, accompanied by acritarchs and remnants of copepods. This association suggests marginal marine environments, with low to moderate salinity, and high nutrient concentration in the surface waters. Radiocarbon dating on Venus antiqua shells yielded 2844 ± 34 yr B.P. (AA74046. Marine deposits of the Aserradero

  6. Heavy metal concentrations in litteral sediments from the Beagle Channel, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, O; Ferrer, L; Marcovecchio, J

    1996-07-01

    For the first time the concentration of trace metals (Fe, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd and total Hg) of sediments from the coastal zone of the Beagle Channel (Tierra del Fuego, in Southern Argentina) were measured. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was utilized in order to determine the metal contents. The level of metals as observed in the sediments was recognized as the natural background, even though the use of normalization of lead, copper, and zinc to iron allowed the identification of the main sources of metal pollution for this environment. In order to develop future environmental monitoring programmes for the area of Ushuaia city and the Beagle Channel, the present results need to be considered.

  7. Baseline trace metals in gastropod mollusks from the Beagle Channel, Tierra del Fuego (Patagonia, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Stripeikis, Jorge; Finoia, Maria Grazia; Tudino, Mabel Beatriz

    2012-05-01

    With the aim to evaluate the mollusk Nacella (P)magellanica as biomonitor of elemental pollution in seawater of the Beagle Channel, more than one hundred individuals of the gastropod were sampled, separated in viscera and muscle, and then examined with respect to the accumulation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Collection was performed in seven strategic locations along 170 km of the coastal area of the Beagle Channel (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina) in two campaigns during 2005 and 2007. Samples of surrounding seawater in the different sites were obtained and tested for the same metals as well. The accumulation capacity of Nacella (P)magellanica and thus its aptitude as biomonitor, was evaluated through the calculus of the preconcentration factors of the metals assayed. A discussion involving the comparison with other mollusks previously tested will be given. Several statistical approaches able to analyze data with environmental purposes were applied. Non parametric univariate tests such as Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney were carried out to assess the changes of the metal concentrations with time (2005 and 2007) in each location. Multivariate methods (linear discriminant analysis on PCA factors) were also applied to obtain a more reliable site classification. Johnson's probabilistic method was carried out for comparison between different geographical areas. The possibility of employing these results as heavy metals' background levels of seawater from the Beagle Channel will be debated.

  8. Geomorphological evolution of a paraglacial coastal system: Moat Sector, Beagle Channel, Tierra de Fuego, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Chao, R.; Pérez-Alberti, A.; Martínez-Cortizas, A.; Valcárcel-Díaz, M.; Costa-Casais, M.

    2009-04-01

    The morphodynamics of paraglacial coastal systems is controlled by a number of factors, including rock basement structure, sediment disposal, changes in the relative sea-level and wave regime. Of great importance is the thickness and the particle size composition of the glacial deposits because they are not only the main source of material, but also a major element in the coast plan form and in the processes of sediment redistribution. The Moat sector in the Beagle Channel (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina), is a shallow embayment opened in a previously glaciated landscape, in which the Beagle glacier left several drumlins and moraines. After deglaciation the rising sea-level led to the erosion of the till sediments at least until 2550 yr BP, exposing the rock substrate in which up to three narrow shore platforms were modelled. The erosion of the till produced cliffs up to 18 m high, capped with Holocene sediments. After 2550 yr BP a fall in the relative sea-level enhanced wave dissipation on the rocky areas and forced the diffraction of the incoming waves. The limits of the sedimentary cell were then set and a shadow zone developed in the east section of the beach, where the cliff became stabilized meanwhile erosion persisted on the west section. The coarser till of the west cliff was then the main source of sediments, and the retreat of the cliff left a boulder pavement that created a secondary limit of the cell. The clasts were redistributed by a dominant west to east transport that still dominates today. The 14C dates obtained in the sedimentary deposit developed on top of the cliff suggest that, when the bluff retreat stopped at the east end, a phase of stabilization began and the talus was covered by a layer of organic-rich sediments. Later, an environmental change to drier conditions, occurred after 1310-1180 cal. yr BP, led to the desiccation and degradation of the organic-sediments of the talus, which started to be eroded exposing the till again

  9. Heavy metal concentrations and biomarkers of oxidative stress in native mussels (Mytilus edulis chilensis) from Beagle Channel coast (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Claudia A; Giarratano, Erica; Amin, Oscar A; Comoglio, Laura I

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of oxidative stress biomarkers of pollution in native mussels Mytilus edulis chilensis from the Beagle Channel. Spatial and seasonal variations of catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and lipid peroxidation in gills and digestive gland were analyzed in relation to environmental parameters, heavy metals in sediment and in tissue. Four sites with anthropogenic impact and a control site were selected and monitored during the four seasons of 2007. We found significant differences among sites in concentrations of dissolved nutrients and heavy metals in sediments, with the highest values recorded at sites with anthropogenic pressure. Different patterns were observed between concentrations of metals in tissues and in sediments suggesting differences in bioavailability. There were also significant differences in biomarker responses among sites, despite the strong seasonal variability. Our results showed relatively moderate levels of pollution in the study area as a result of urban influences.

  10. Penis Allotransplantation in Beagle Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongbin; Hu, Weilie; Zhang, Lichao; Guo, Fei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Bangqi; Zhang, Changzheng

    2016-01-01

    This is an original research of penis allotransplantation. The paper presents an experiment allogenic penis transplantation model in Beagles, with a focus on recovery of blood supply and changes in tissue architecture. Twenty adult Beagles were allocated to 10 pairs for penile transplantation. After operation, the skin and glans were observed. If adverse symptoms occurred, the transplanted penis was resected and pathologically examined. Frequency of urination, urinary stream, and patency level were recorded 7 days after transplantation. Cystourethrography was performed on Day 10. The transplanted penises were resected on Day 14 for pathological examination. The research showed that transplanted penises survived after allotransplantation, and the dogs regained urination ability. Penis autotransplantation in Beagles is feasible. This preliminary study shows a potential for application of this new procedure for penis transplantation in humans.

  11. Penis Allotransplantation in Beagle Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbin Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an original research of penis allotransplantation. The paper presents an experiment allogenic penis transplantation model in Beagles, with a focus on recovery of blood supply and changes in tissue architecture. Twenty adult Beagles were allocated to 10 pairs for penile transplantation. After operation, the skin and glans were observed. If adverse symptoms occurred, the transplanted penis was resected and pathologically examined. Frequency of urination, urinary stream, and patency level were recorded 7 days after transplantation. Cystourethrography was performed on Day 10. The transplanted penises were resected on Day 14 for pathological examination. The research showed that transplanted penises survived after allotransplantation, and the dogs regained urination ability. Penis autotransplantation in Beagles is feasible. This preliminary study shows a potential for application of this new procedure for penis transplantation in humans.

  12. Mars Express releases Beagle 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    At 9:31 CET, the crucial sequence started to separate the Beagle 2 lander from Mars Express. As data from Mars Express confirm, the pyrotechnic device was fired to slowly release a loaded spring, which gently pushed Beagle 2 away from the mother spacecraft. An image from the onboard visual monitoring camera (VMC) showing the lander drifting away is expected to be available later today. Since the Beagle 2 lander has no propulsion system of its own, it had to be put on the correct course for its descent before it was released. For this reason, on 16 December the trajectory of the whole Mars Express spacecraft had to be adjusted to ensure that Beagle 2 would be on course to enter the atmosphere of Mars. This manoeuvre, called "retargeting'' was critical: if the entry angle is too steep, the lander could overheat and burn up in the atmosphere; if the angle is too shallow, the lander might skim like a pebble on the surface of a lake and miss its target. This fine targeting and today's release were crucial manoeuvres for which ESA's Ground Control Team at ESOC (European Space Operations Centre) had trained over the past several months. The next major milestone for Mars Express will be the manoeuvre to enter into orbit around Mars. This will happen at 3:52 CET on Christmas morning, when Beagle 2 is expected to land on the surface of Mars. "Good teamwork by everybody - ESA, industry and the Beagle 2 team - has got one more critical step accomplished. Mars, here comes Europe!" said David Southwood, ESA Director of Science.

  13. The Legacy of Beagle 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillinger, Judith; Bridges, John; Sims, Mark; Clemmet, Jim; Wright, Ian

    2015-04-01

    The Beagle 2 lander spun off from the ESA Mars Express spacecraft on 19 December 2003 and headed off towards Isidis Planitia on Mars. The scheduled landing of the 60 kg lander was 6 days later on Christmas morning, 25 December. It is universally known that no signal was received from the lander and its fate remained unknown. What is not questioned is the impact that the mission, and not least its charismatic leaders headed by the late Professor Colin Pillinger, had on the general public of the UK, Europe and worldwide. More than a decade after Beagle 2 was last seen, we review the legacy of the mission on the public perception of the value of space exploration, economically, commercially and cultural, and look forward to an expanding programme. The spin off from Beagle 2 science and technology into terrestrial applications will be addressed as will the ongoing career destinations of many of the original team; both supporting the significance that the mission had on determining the future pathway of space science and exploration in Europe and beyond. The ongoing search for evidence that Beagle 2 did in fact land as planned on Mars will be addressed and images from Mars orbiting spacecraft assessed.

  14. BeagleBone media center

    CERN Document Server

    Lewin, David

    2015-01-01

    Whether you are a hobbyist or a professional, this book will get you fully equipped to resolve the most commonly occurring media-related challenges. If you want to expand your horizons beyond lighting an LED and push the limits of your board, this is just the book for you. Working knowledge of BeagleBone is assumed.

  15. Lunar Beagle and Lunar Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Waugh, Lester J.

    2010-12-01

    The study of the elements and molecules of astrobiological interest on the Moon can be made with the Gas Analysis Package (GAP) and associated instruments developed for the Beagle 2 Mars Express Payload. The permanently shadowed polar regions of the Moon may offer a unique location for the "cold-trapping" of the light elements (i.e. H, C, N, O, etc.) and their simple compounds. Studies of the returned lunar samples have shown that lunar materials have undergone irradiation with the solar wind and adsorb volatiles from possible cometary and micrometeoroid impacts. The Beagle 2's analytical instrument package including the sample processing facility and the GAP mass spectrometer can provide vital isotopic information that can distinguish whether the lunar volatiles are indigenous to the moon, solar wind derived, cometary in origin or from meteoroids impacting on the Moon. As future Lunar Landers are being considered, the suite of instruments developed for the Mars Beagle 2 lander can be consider as the baseline for any lunar volatile or resource instrument package.

  16. La Memoria De Nuestra Tierra: Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, Judy

    2005-01-01

    La Memoria de Nuestra Tierra combines a meticulously hand-painted landscape with historic photographs in a seamless blend imprinted on the holographic-like surface of a metallic coated substrate. The mural for the Denver International Airport, entitled La Memoria de Nuestra Tierra is a breakthrough in digital murals, printed digitally on a…

  17. UK and ESA announce Beagle 2 inquiry

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    An investigation will be held to identify the potential reasons surrounding the inability to communicate with the British-led Beagle 2 lander once it parted from the mother ship on Christmas day (1 page).

  18. canal24

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Canal system center lines in the Central Valley of California and adjacent areas captured from 1:24,000-scale USGS topographic maps. Updates and modifications made...

  19. Construcciones a base de tierra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez Alonso, Marina

    1984-11-01

    oriented towards dissipating possible prejudices which exist with regard to earthen constructions.Trabajo realizado y basado en las nuevas posibilidades de las construcciones con tierra, una vez considerado su interés en épocas anteriores y las nuevas posibilidades que ofrece ante la crítica impuesta por la crisis de la energía. Se hacen consideraciones sobre las necesidades de vivienda previstas hasta el año 2000 y otros parámetros que vuelven a ser importantes al confrontarlos económicamente con los materiales industrializados, sistemas de construcción, soluciones orientadas a los países en vías de desarrollo, etc. Continúa el trabajo con las primeras vías de experimentación práctica desarrolladas por el equipo de trabajo de viviendas de bajo coste orientadas a la búsqueda y promoción de recursos locales y abundantes como el material tierra, vías de experimentación que comienzan con el conocimiento por el equipo de técnicas y materiales durante el curso realizado en Ciadueña (Soria. Se describen aspectos técnicos del material tierra desarrollados paralelamente a la experiencia práctica inicial y orientada a la elección idónea de los componentes, una vez confrontada la información bibliográfica relacionada con el tema. Entre las consideraciones técnicas se llega a una exposición más exhaustiva sobre: 1 Las técnicas existentes: ladrillos de adobe, tierra apisonada (tapial, etc. 2 Porcentajes idóneos de los componentes para la elección de los materiales preferibles en cada una de las técnicas anteriores. 3 Consideraciones de los aspectos físicos y mecánicos de la maquinaria existente y en experimentación, así como de las posibilidades respecto a su puesta en obra, costes comparativos, etc. 4 Estudio de las posibilidades para mejorar las características del material tierra mediante diferentes técnicas de estabilización (compactación y correcciones granulométricas, estabilizantes fisicoquímicos, betunes, productos

  20. Análisis comparativo osteológico y dentario de dos cazadores tardíos de fauna marina de Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozameh, Livia Febes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available De una fosa excavada en un conchero, al este de la ciudad de Ushuaia, sobre el Canal Beagle, fueron exhumados, de un entierro primario, restos de un esqueleto humano casi completo. El resto se halló asociado a un raspador de vidrio, elemento por el que se lo asignaría a momentos tardíos. Estos restos corresponden a un adulto masculino de avanzada edad a la muerte. En excavaciones realizadas en Bahía Valentín, Península Mitre, extremo sudoriental de la Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, fue encontrado, entre otros restos, un esqueleto completo de un individuo masculino, adulto maduro al momento de la muerte. Entre los hallazgos obtenidos en el área fueron recuperados, entre otros, restos industriales europeos, posiblemente productos de naufragios. Esta evidencia avalaría su ubicación temporal en momentos posteriores a la llegada de los europeos. El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido realizar un análisis comparativo de rastros fisiológicos y patológicos del esqueleto y del aparato masticatorio, en ambos ejemplares. Este análisis revela marcadas diferencias entre ambos restos, que refieren tanto a su distribución esqueletal como asimismo a la intensidad de la injuria. Contar con dos esqueletos de características afines posibilitó el estudio comparativo. El análisis de los resultados señala diferencias del estado de salud y enfermedad en uno y otro cazador. Esas diferencias se manifiestan tanto en el esqueleto post-craneano como, muy especialmente, en el aparato masticatorio.

  1. Bloque de tierra comprimida como material constructivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Javier Gutiérrez Junco

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La construcción con tierra es poco usada en la actualidad debido a la falta de difusión e investigación, y a que es relacionada con la pobreza; por ende, se desaprovechan muchas de sus ventajas, como la abundancia demateria prima, la localización, la disponibilidad, el reciclaje, la producción sin consumo de energía (calorífica, el bajo costo y la resistencia –con un adecuado estudio del material tierra, de la estructuración y del suelo de fundación–; otras de sus ventajas son el aislamiento térmico y acústico. Con el paso del tiempo se han mejorado las técnicas constructivas con tierra, realizando estabilizaciones e implementando el uso de maquinaria y herramienta mecánica para elaborar bloques de tierra comprimida, y así facilitar el trabajo y obtener mayor rendimiento. Este artículo presenta la tierra como material constructivo, las técnicas o sistemas constructivos, los bloques de tierra comprimida (BTC y algunos ensayos realizados a estos bloques.

  2. Bloque de tierra comprimida como material constructivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Tatiana Arteaga Medina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available La construcción con tierra es poco usada en la actualidad debido a la falta de difusión e investigación, y a que es relacionada con la pobreza; por ende, se desaprovechan muchas de sus ventajas, como la abundancia demateria prima, la localización, la disponibilidad, el reciclaje, la producción sin consumo de energía (calorífica, el bajo costo y la resistencia –con un adecuado estudio del material tierra, de la estructuración y del suelo de fundación–; otras de sus ventajas son el aislamiento térmico y acústico. Con el paso del tiempo se han mejorado las técnicas constructivas con tierra, realizando estabilizaciones e implementando el uso de maquinaria y herramienta mecánica para elaborar bloques de tierra comprimida, y así facilitar el trabajo y obtener mayor rendimiento. Este artículo presenta la tierra como material constructivo, las técnicas o sistemas constructivos, los bloques de tierra comprimida (BTC y algunos ensayos realizados a estos bloques.

  3. Beagle-2 landing site atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, G.; Chicarro, A.; Rodionova, J.; Shevchenko, V.; Ilukhina, J.; Kozlova, K.

    2003-04-01

    The Beagle-2 lander of the Mars Express mission will come to rest on the surface of Isidis Planitia in late December 2003 to carry out a range of geochemistry and exobiology experi-ments. We are compiling an atlas of the presently available data products pertinent to the landing site at 11.6N 90.75E, which is intended for distribution both as a printed and an electronic resource. The atlas will include Viking and MOC-WA image mosaics, and a catalogue of high-resolution im-ages from MOC and THEMIS with location maps. There will be various MOLA topography-based products: colour-scaled, contoured, and shaded maps, slope, and detrended relief. Simulated camera panoramas from various potential landing locations may assist in determining the spacecraft’s position. Other maps, both raw, and in composites with image mosa-ics, will cover TES thermal inertia and spectroscopy, and Odyssey gamma and neutron spectroscopy. Maps at the scale of the Isidis context will additionally cover geology, tem-perature cycles, and atmospheric circulation. Sample are shown below.

  4. DE CANALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carlos Guevara C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La amplia utilización de redes WiFi en los diversos escenarios sociales está generando una especie de saturación de canales, que a su vez ocasiona interferencia entre estas redes. Esta situación genera solapamiento de canales, lo que hace que las tasas de trasferencia se reduzcan. En este artículo se detalla esta situación, y se estructura y aplica un experimento para encontrarle solución al problema. También se presentan los resultados tabulados y graficados utilizando la herramienta de software libre inSSider.

  5. Beagle 2: Mission to Mars - Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Morgan, G. H.; Yau, D.; Stewart, J. L. C.; Leese, M. R.; Praine, I. J.; Sheridan, S.

    2004-01-01

    Beagle 2 is a 72 kg probe (with a 32 kg lander) developed in the United Kingdom for inclusion on the European Space Agency's 2003 Mars Express. Beagle 2 was launched on June 2, 2003 with Mars Express on a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Beagle 2 landed on Mars on December 25th, 2003 in Isidis Planitia (approx. 10.7 N and 268.6 W), a large sedimentary basin that overlies the boundary between ancient highlands and northern plains. Isidis Planitia, the third largest impact basin on Mars, which is possibly filled with sediment deposited at the bottom of long-standing lakes or seas, offers an ideal environment for preserving traces of life. The team is awaiting signals from the Beagle 2 lander at the time when this abstract was written. Current status of the mission will be reported. Beagle 2 was developed to search for organic material and other volatiles on and below the surface of Mars in addition to the study of the inorganic chemistry and mineralogy. Several fundamental properties can be used to determine the existence of an active or past biology on any planet, Earth or Mars. Beagle 2's targets for investigation included: (a) The presence of water, or the existence of minerals deposited from water to show that water was present, even if only transiently; (b) The detection of carbonaceous debris, the remains of organisms that might have lived in water or were washed to a final resting place by the action of water; (c) The structure of organic matter, to demonstrate that it might have been synthesized for a biological purpose; (d) The recognition of isotopic fractionation between carbonaceous phases (organic vs inorganic carbon phases), a condition which on Earth suggests that life emerged nearly 4 billion years ago.

  6. Primaria. Secuencias Sol Tierra Luna. 1

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Torregrosa, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Se trata de una secuencia problematizada de actividades sobre la trayectoria del Sol, para alumnos de 6 a 8 años. Forma parte de una serie de secuencias sobre "La Tierra en el Universo" para la etapa primaria. Su finalidad es ser probada en las aulas para recibir retroalimentación para su mejora.

  7. BeagleBone for secret agents

    CERN Document Server

    Datko, Josh

    2014-01-01

    If you have some experience with the BeagleBone or similar embedded systems and want to learn more about security and privacy, this book is for you. Alternatively, if you have a security and privacy background and want to learn more about embedded development, this book is for you. You should have some familiarity with Linux systems and with the C and Python programming languages.

  8. Beagle 2: Seeking the Signatures of Life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Wright, Ian P.; Morse, Andy; Stewart, Jenny; Morgan, G.; Praine, Ian; Leigh, Dennis; Sims, Mark R.; Pullan, Derek

    2003-01-01

    Beagle 2 is a 60 kg probe (with a 30 kg lander) developed in the United Kingdom for inclusion on the European Space Agency s 2003 Mars Express. Beagle 2 will deliver to the Martian surface a payload which consists of a high percentage of science instruments to landed spacecraft mass. Beagle 2 will be launched in June 2003 with Mars Express on a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Beagle 2 will land on Mars in December 2003 in Isidis Planitia (approx. 11.5 deg.N and 275 deg.W), a large sedimentary basin that overlies the boundary between ancient highlands and northern plains. Isidis Planitia, the third largest basin on Mars, which is possibly filled with sediment deposited at the bottom of long-standing lakes or seas, offers an ideal environment for preserving traces of life. Beagle 2 is completed and undergoing integration with the Mars Express orbiter prior to launch.

  9. Gente, tierra y agua en la Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Buitrago Garavito, Ana Isabel; Jiménez, Eliana; Tobón, Marco Alejandro; Gendrau Acho, Sheila; Ciro Rodríguez, Estefanía; Ciro Rodríguez, Alejandra; Trujillo Osorio, Catalina; Currea Dereser , Alejandra; Torres Zambrano, Nestor Ned; Serrato Hurtado, Clemencia; Duque, Santiago R.; Moreno Hurtado, Flavio; Peñuela, Maria Cristina; Lloyd, Jon; Patiño, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Con el ánimo de contribuir a la comprensión social, histórica y económica de la gente que habita la región amazónica y al entendimiento del funcionamiento de sus ecosistemas surge el libro Gente, tierra y agua en la Amazonia. lmani mundo III. Este libro es el tercero de la serie Imani mundo, la cual expone trabajos de investigación en la región amazónica tanto en aspectos sociales como en aspectos ecológicos, realizados por el instituto Amazónico de Investigaciones IMANI de la Universidad Nac...

  10. Comprobaciones resistentes de elementos constructivos de tierra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada, Enrique

    1986-11-01

    Full Text Available This work has the purpose to compare, by means of different tests on adobe bricks and masonry, the obtained resistant properties and those of other similar works carried out in countries having a wide tradition and knowledge about earth as construction material. Elements (adobe bricks and blocks have been tested to compression and bending, and masonry made of those elements to compression and diagonal compression.El presente trabajo pretende comparar, por medio de distintos ensayos sobre elementos y fábricas de mampostería de tierra, las propiedades resistentes obtenidas con las de otros trabajos similares realizados en países con dilatada tradición y conocimiento de la tierra como material de construcción. Se han ensayado elementos (adobes y bloques a compresión y flexotracción y fábricas formadas por conjuntos de los mismos a compresión y a compresión diagonal.

  11. Tierra Caliente, Michoacán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. I. Villa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas de producción ganaderos de la región de Tierra Caliente están vinculados al manejo agrosilvopastoril, aprovechando una amplia gama de recursos forrajeros naturales, siendo las familias quienes conducen la administración y aprovechamiento de dichos recursos. Se buscó definir las características, recursos forrajeros aprovechables e insumos alimenticios, estimando su calidad nutricional, con el fin de encontrar estrategias de alimentación de ganado que reduzcan al mínimo el uso de insumos externos al interior de las unidades productivas. Se trabajó en comunidades del municipio de Tuzantla, en la región de Tierra Caliente del estado de Michoacán. El método incluye la recolección de información por medio de encuestas aplicadas a productores campesinos, durante el ciclo productivo 2007. Se analizaron de 200 a 300 g de 41 muestras de alimentos con el método de Wendee, para analizar su composición química. Se encontró que para la región de Tierra Caliente existe un sistema de producción bovina de mediana escala, semi-estabulado y trashumante que, en promedio, tiene 250 a 260 ha y 86 cabezas de ganado destinado a la producción de carne y pie de cría, y que producen 9.2 l/vaca/día; con esta leche se elabora queso a razón de 1kg de queso por cada 10 litros de leche. Se identificó, también, el uso de seis ingredientes fundamentales que componen dos dietas básicas, cuya composición química detectada fue de 10.2- 13.9% (PC, 7.9-11.8% (FC, 62.8-67.9% (ELN, 1.4-5% (EE y 1.9-8.8% (cenizas. Por tanto, se concluye que los ganaderos cubren los requerimientos nutricionales con base en el alto uso de concentrados, dejando los forrajes para satisfacer las necesidades de consumo de su ganado. Por esto, se requiere establecer un sistema de balanceo de raciones que permita optimizar los recursos

  12. Modelling and interpreting spectral energy distributions of galaxies with BEAGLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallard, Jacopo; Charlot, Stéphane

    2016-10-01

    We present a new-generation tool to model and interpret spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies, which incorporates in a consistent way the production of radiation and its transfer through the interstellar and intergalactic media. This flexible tool, named BEAGLE (for BayEsian Analysis of GaLaxy sEds), allows one to build mock galaxy catalogues as well as to interpret any combination of photometric and spectroscopic galaxy observations in terms of physical parameters. The current version of the tool includes versatile modelling of the emission from stars and photoionized gas, attenuation by dust and accounting for different instrumental effects, such as spectroscopic flux calibration and line spread function. We show a first application of the BEAGLE tool to the interpretation of broad-band SEDs of a published sample of ˜ 10^4 galaxies at redshifts 0.1 ≲ z ≲ 8. We find that the constraints derived on photometric redshifts using this multipurpose tool are comparable to those obtained using public, dedicated photometric-redshift codes and quantify this result in a rigorous statistical way. We also show how the post-processing of BEAGLE output data with the PYTHON extension PYP-BEAGLE allows the characterization of systematic deviations between models and observations, in particular through posterior predictive checks. The modular design of the BEAGLE tool allows easy extensions to incorporate, for example, the absorption by neutral galactic and circumgalactic gas, and the emission from an active galactic nucleus, dust and shock-ionized gas. Information about public releases of the BEAGLE tool will be maintained on http://www.jacopochevallard.org/beagle.

  13. Inferencias paleodietarias mediante isótopos estables en restos óseos humanos provenientes de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schinder, Gala

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Las actuales lineas de acción vinculadas al uso de isótopos estables en la Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego están orientándose a acotar factores de variación (especialmente la variación espacial y temporal y al cruce con otras lineas de evidencias como los estilos de vida. A partir de la ocupación europea en el Siglo XVIII se modificó el estilo de vida de las poblaciones históricas de la región. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivos explorar la variabilidad en cuanto al tipo de recursos consurnidos por hombres y mujeres a partir de la información isotópica obtenida de huesos de individuos provenientes de diferentes sectores geográficos (Norte, Sudeste y Beagle y la determinación de la composición de la dieta en términos de contenido proteico. Los datos isotópicos se complementaron con información etnográfica. El análisis Kruskal-Wallis sugiere que existen diferencias significativas entre los diferentes sectores geográficos, pero no se registraron diferencias significativas entre hombres y mujeres. Asimismo, los isótopos indican que los individuos del Sudeste consumían preferentemente dietas más ricas en proteínas que sus vecinos del norte de la Isla. En los últimos años, ha crecido el interé por los estudios orientados al análisis de la división sexual del trabajo en sociedades cazadoras recolectoras. Este trabajo constituye un primer aporte para evaluar la variabilidad en cuanto a las diferencias en la obtención de recursos entre sexos y el tipo de dieta en individuos históricos de Tierra del Fuego.

  14. The Root Canal Biofilm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der L.W.M.; Boutsioukis, C.; Jiang, L.M.; Macedo, R.; Verhaagen, B.; Versluis, M.; Chávez de Paz, E.; Sedgley, C.M.; Kishen, A.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm), and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root cana

  15. Root canal irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van der Sluis; C. Boutsioukis; L.M. Jiang; R. Macedo; B. Verhaagen; M. Versluis

    2015-01-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm), and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root cana

  16. Evaluation of nanoparticle delivered cisplatin in beagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldhaeusser, Brittany; Platt, Simon R.; Marrache, Sean; Kolishetti, Nagesh; Pathak, Rakesh K.; Montgomery, David J.; Reno, Lisa R.; Howerth, Elizabeth; Dhar, Shanta

    2015-08-01

    Intracranial neoplasia is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in both human and veterinary patients, and is difficult to treat with traditional therapeutic methods. Cisplatin is a platinum (Pt)-containing chemotherapeutic agent approved by the Food and Drug Administration; however, substantial limitations exist for its application in canine brain tumor treatment due to the difficulty in crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB), development of resistance, and toxicity. A modified Pt(iv)-prodrug of cisplatin, Platin-M, was recently shown to be deliverable to the brain via a biocompatible mitochondria-targeted lipophilic polymeric nanoparticle (NP) that carries the drug across the BBB and to the mitochondria. NP mediated controlled release of Platin-M and subsequent reduction of this prodrug to cisplatin allowed cross-links to be formed with the mitochondrial DNA, which have no nucleotide excision repair system, forcing the overactive cancer cells to undergo apoptosis. Here, we report in vitro effects of targeted Platin-M NPs (T-Platin-M-NPs) in canine glioma and glioblastoma cell lines with results indicating that this targeted NP formulation is more effective than cisplatin. In both the cell lines, T-Platin-M-NP was significantly more efficacious compared to carboplatin, another Pt-based chemotherapy, which is used in the settings of recurrent high-grade glioblastoma. Mitochondrial stress analysis indicated that T-Platin-M-NP is more effective in disrupting the mitochondrial bioenergetics in both the cell types. A 14-day distribution study in healthy adult beagles using a single intravenous injection at 0.5 mg kg-1 (with respect to Platin-M) of T-Platin-M-NPs showed high levels of Pt accumulation in the brain, with negligible amounts in the other analyzed organs. Safety studies in the beagles monitoring physical, hematological, and serum chemistry evaluations were within the normal limits on days 1, 7, and 14 after injection of either 0.5 mg kg-1 or 2 mg kg

  17. Incidencia de agenesia dental en perros Beagle. Resultados preliminares(Dental agenesis incidence in Beagle dogs. Preliminary results)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Sosa; Cabrera García, A; Domínguez López, HA; Soca Pérez, M; Purón Guzméli, CA; Macías Hernández, I; Gil Díaz, F; Aliaga Aleaga, Y; Guerrero Contreras, M; Acosta Berbes, A

    2011-01-01

    ResumenEn el presente trabajo se examinaron 49 perros Beagle procedentes del CENPALAB que fueron mantenidos bajo el mismo régimen de convivencia, alimentación y manejo en el Bioterio de la Facultad de Medicina “Victoria de Girón” tributarios todos a estudios de implantes dentales.AbstractForty-nine Beagle dogs coming from CENPALAB were maintained under the same coexistence, feeding and handling regime in the Bioterio of Medicine High School “Victoria de Girón” tributary to studies of dental i...

  18. Incidencia de agenesia dental en perros Beagle. Resultados preliminares(Dental agenesis incidence in Beagle dogs. Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Sosa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn el presente trabajo se examinaron 49 perros Beagle procedentes del CENPALAB que fueron mantenidos bajo el mismo régimen de convivencia, alimentación y manejo en el Bioterio de la Facultad de Medicina “Victoria de Girón” tributarios todos a estudios de implantes dentales.AbstractForty-nine Beagle dogs coming from CENPALAB were maintained under the same coexistence, feeding and handling regime in the Bioterio of Medicine High School “Victoria de Girón” tributary to studies of dental implant all them.

  19. Design of canals

    CERN Document Server

    Swamee, P K

    2015-01-01

    The book presents firsthand material from the authors on design of hydraulic canals. The book discusses elements of design based on principles of hydraulic flow through canals. It covers optimization of design based on usage requirements and economic constraints. The book includes explicit design equations and design procedures along with design examples for varied cases. With its comprehensive coverage of the principles of hydraulic canal design, this book will prove useful to students, researchers, and practicing engineers. End-of-chapter pedagogical elements make it ideal for use in graduate courses on hydraulic structures offered by most civil engineering departments across the world.

  20. Bone regeneration of hydroxyapatite/alumina bilayered scaffold with 3 mm passage-like medullary canal in canine tibia model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Min; Son, Jun Sik; Kang, Seong Soo; Kim, Gonhyung; Choi, Seok Hwa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone regeneration of hydroxyapatite (HA)/alumina bilayered scaffold with a 3 mm passage-like medullary canal in a beagle tibia model. A porous HA/alumina scaffold was fabricated using a polymeric template-coating technique. HA/alumina scaffold dimensions were 10 mm in outer diameter, 20 mm in length, and with either a 3 mm passage or no passage. A 20 mm segmental defect was induced using an oscillating saw through the diaphysis of the beagle tibia. The defects of six beagles were filled with HA/alumina bilayered scaffolds with a 3 mm passage or without. The segmental defect was fixated using one bone plate and six screws. Bone regeneration within the HA/alumina scaffolds was observed at eight weeks after implantation. The evaluation of bone regeneration within the scaffolds after implantation in a beagle tibia was performed using radiography, computerized tomography (CT), micro-CT, and fluorescence microscopy. New bone successfully formed in the tibia defects treated with 3 mm passage HA/alumina scaffolds compared to without-passage HA/alumina scaffolds. It was concluded that the HA/alumina bilayered scaffold with 3 mm passage-like medullary canal was instrumental in inducing host-scaffold engraftment of the defect as well as distributing the newly formed bone throughout the scaffold at 8 weeks after implantation.

  1. Bone Regeneration of Hydroxyapatite/Alumina Bilayered Scaffold with 3 mm Passage-Like Medullary Canal in Canine Tibia Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Min Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone regeneration of hydroxyapatite (HA/alumina bilayered scaffold with a 3 mm passage-like medullary canal in a beagle tibia model. A porous HA/alumina scaffold was fabricated using a polymeric template-coating technique. HA/alumina scaffold dimensions were 10 mm in outer diameter, 20 mm in length, and with either a 3 mm passage or no passage. A 20 mm segmental defect was induced using an oscillating saw through the diaphysis of the beagle tibia. The defects of six beagles were filled with HA/alumina bilayered scaffolds with a 3 mm passage or without. The segmental defect was fixated using one bone plate and six screws. Bone regeneration within the HA/alumina scaffolds was observed at eight weeks after implantation. The evaluation of bone regeneration within the scaffolds after implantation in a beagle tibia was performed using radiography, computerized tomography (CT, micro-CT, and fluorescence microscopy. New bone successfully formed in the tibia defects treated with 3 mm passage HA/alumina scaffolds compared to without-passage HA/alumina scaffolds. It was concluded that the HA/alumina bilayered scaffold with 3 mm passage-like medullary canal was instrumental in inducing host-scaffold engraftment of the defect as well as distributing the newly formed bone throughout the scaffold at 8 weeks after implantation.

  2. MUJERES Y TENENCIA DE LA TIERRA EN SALVATIERRA, GUANAJUATO

    OpenAIRE

    Rocío Rosas Vargas; Emma Zapata Martelo

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo se realizó en Salvatierra, Guanajuato, responde a la pregunta de ¿qué es lo que cambió y qué lo es que permaneció en la propiedad de la tierra por parte de las mujeres, en el municipio de Salvatierra, Guanajuato?, el objetivo fue estudiar la participación histórica, social y económica de las mujeres en la tenencia de la tierra, desde las haciendas hasta la creación de las Unidades Agrícolas Industriales de la Mujer (UAIM) en el sistema ejidal. Para lograr responder a esta cuest...

  3. VARIABILIDAD DEL ECOTIPO DE ALFALFA 'TIERRA DE CAMPOS'

    OpenAIRE

    Fombellida Villafruela, A.

    2011-01-01

    La alfalfa es el cultivo forrajero más extendido en la comarca de Tierra de Campos. Se cultiva habitualmente en secano, con aprovechamiento mediante siega para heno y mediante pastoreo de los rebrotes, destinándose parte de superficie a la producción de semilla para uso propio. Esta forma de manejo, en este ambiente, a lo largo de los años, ha originado un tipo de alfalfa conocido con el nombre de 'Tierra de Campos'. La introducción en la comarca de alfalfas flamencas para su multiplicación, ...

  4. Introducing Students to Darwin via the Voyage of HMS "Beagle"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swab, Janice C.

    2010-01-01

    I use the diary that Darwin wrote during the voyage of HMS Beagle and recent images of a few of the places he visited to illustrate some comparisons between Darwin's world and ours. For today's students, increasingly committed to environmental issues, this may be an especially promising way to introduce Darwin.

  5. Mars orbiter redirected in bid to find Beagle

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Mission controllers in Darmstadt, Germany, have successfully redirected Europe's Mars Express orbiter into a polar orbit, putting it on course for a last-ditch attempt to contact Beagle 2, the lander that has been missing since Christmas day when it should have touched down on the red planet" (1/2 page).

  6. Focal hyalinization during experimental tooth movement in beagle dogs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böhl, M. von; Maltha, J.C.; Hoff, J.W. Von den; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim was to study morphological differences between the periodontal structures of beagle dogs showing different rates of tooth movement under identical experimental conditions. An orthodontic appliance was placed on the mandibular second premolar and the first molar to exert a continuous and cons

  7. Canals, Bypass Canal, Published in 2002, Duchesne County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Canals dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2002. It is described as 'Bypass Canal'. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  8. Multistate nested canalizing functions

    CERN Document Server

    Adeyeye, J O; Laubenbacher, R; Li, Y

    2013-01-01

    The concept of a nested canalizing Boolean function has been studied over the course of the last decade in the context of understanding the regulatory logic of molecular interaction networks, such as gene regulatory networks. Such functions appear preferentially in published models of such networks. Recently, this concept has been generalized to include multi-state functions, and a recursive formula has been derived for their number, as a function of the number of variables. This paper carries out a detailed analysis of the class of nested canalizing functions over an arbitrary finite field. Furthermore, the paper generalizes the concept further, and derives a closed formula for the number of such generalized functions. The paper also derives a closed formula for the number of equivalence classes under permutation of variables. This is motivated by the fact that two nested canalizing functions that differ by a permutation of the variables share many important properties with each other. The paper contributes ...

  9. Love canal questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a 3-month monitoring study of the Love Canal area near Niagara Falls, N.Y., after the federal government pronounced that a potential health risk existed due to chemical waste dumps. In 1982 the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) decided that the area was habitable, subject to implementation of effective safeguards against leakage from the canal and to cleaning up of the contaminants. Now, the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) has announced that, with the information available, it is not possible to demonstrate with certainty that unsafe levels do not exist within the so-called “emergency declaration area” (EDA).

  10. Building networks and servers using BeagleBone

    CERN Document Server

    Pretty, Bill

    2015-01-01

    If you are a developer with BeagleBone experience and want to learn how to use it to set up a network and file server, then this book is ideal for you. To make the most of this book, you should be comfortable with the Linux operating system and know how to install software from the Internet, but you do not have to be a network guru.

  11. Identification and in vitro derivation of spermatogonia in beagle testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Hoon Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In vitro culture of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs is important for exploration of SSCs self-renewal, differentiation, and manipulation. There are several reports on rodent SSC cultures; however, data on SSC cultures in domestic animals are limited. To provide basic scientific information on canine SSC cultures, we report canine testes development, and the development of spermatogonia-derived colonies (SDCs for in vitro cultures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Testes from 2-, 3-, and 12-month-old beagles were used for histology, immunohistochemistry, in vitro culture, immunocytochemistry, and PCR. Protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5-positive spermatogonia, both single and paired, were found to be abundant in the testes of 2-month-old beagles. stempro-34 and Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium with 5% fetal bovine serum provided as useful substrates for culture of SDCs, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF played a key role in colony formation. Colonies were positive for alkaline phosphatase and anti-PGP9.5 staining. The early spermatogonia and stem cell markers such as octamer binding protein 4 (Oct4, Nanog homeobox (Nanog, promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF, PGP9.5, and GDNF family receptor alpha-1 (GFRα-1 were expressed in the colonies at higher levels than in the testis tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Testes of the 2-month-old beagles had abundant single and paired spermatogonia, which can be used for derivation of SDCs, and FGF was important for colony formation.

  12. Atlas of experimentally-induced neoplasia in beagle dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, G.E.; Watson, C.R.

    1996-10-01

    Beagle dogs have been utilized extensively in biomedical research. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) has sponsored life-span dose-effect radiation studies in beagles at various laboratories. Because results from studies in the various laboratories were to be compared, all the investigators strove to use similar nomenclature and criteria to describe biological effects. For this reason, pathologists from these laboratories met on five occasions between 1976 and 1977 to discuss nomenclature and histologic criteria for diagnoses. At these meeting, criteria were discussed for histopathologic description of lesions in bone, liver, lung, hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues, mammary gland, pituitary, testis, and thyroid. To provide further assurance of cooperation among the DOE laboratories involved, DOE organized several Task Groups in 1985, composed of staff members from the laboratories. The Task Group on Biological Effects was asked to standardize nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for pathology; this beagle pathology atlas is the result of that request. The atlas describes target organs of particular interest: lungs for radionuclides delivered by inhalation; bones for bone-seeking radionuclides; and hematopoietic and other soft tissues for external irradiation.

  13. Nutrient canal of the fibula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo-Hyuk; Ehara, Shigeru; Tamakawa, Yoshiharu [Departments of Radiology, Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, Morioka (Japan); Horiguchi, Masahura [Department of Anatomy I, Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, Morioka (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the radiological features of the nutrient canal in the fibula.Design and patients. One hundred and seventy-nine dried fibulae were studied regarding the type, number, location, and direction of the nutrient canal. They were classified into a usual type (type I: a radiolucent line confined to the cortex) and an atypical type (type II: a radiolucent line extending beyond the cortex).Results. Among the total of 230 nutrient canals seen on radiography, 197 (86%) were type I and 33 (14%) were type II. On CT scans, the ossified rim of the canal extended into the medullary cavity in type II canals. The most common site was the posteromedial aspect in both type I and type II canals. Type II canals were significantly more common in fibulae with two or three nutrient canals. The frequency of the upward direction was more common in type II canals.Conclusion. Nutrient canals with extension of the ossified rim into the medullary canal are the cause of linear lucency that may simulate a fracture. Their features are slightly different from those of usual canals. (orig.)

  14. Estado, mercado de tierra urbana e inundaciones en ciudades argentinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clichevsky Nora

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre las relaciones que se establecen entre los mercados de tierra urbana y las inundaciones en ciudades argentinas, en el marco más amplio de la vulnerabilidad urbana. Se pretende despejar incógnitas acerca del papel jugado por el Estado como regulador del mercado en áreas urbanas con vulnerabilidad natural a la inundación y como constructor de defensas contra las inundaciones y acerca de los impactos que han tenido las inundaciones y las obras de defensa contra ellas sobre el mercado de tierra y, por lo tanto, sobre el acceso al suelo urbano por parte de los distintos sectores de la población.

  15. Biological and behavioral determinants of fertility in Tierra del Fuego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, J; García-Moro, C E; Hernández, M

    2005-05-01

    The reproductive history of 182 women in postreproductive life or near menopause from the Chilean part of Tierra del Fuego was traced back by means of familial interviews. These postmenopausal women represent the population since almost the beginning of the settlement, and their reproductive years were spent on the island. Path analysis was applied to analyze fertility determinants of these women and to propose a complex model of interconnections among factors. The reproductive history of these women is characterized by a long fertile span, a short childbearing period, and low fertility. Age at menarche is relatively late, and the age of the women at first birth is mainly determined by their late age at marriage. The use of contraception is related to both spacing and stopping behaviors. The late age of women at marriage, the rhythm of conception, and practices of contraception are proposed as the main determinants of fertility in Tierra del Fuego.

  16. PEDRO TAFUR, UN HIDALGO CASTELLANO EN TIERRA SANTA Y EGIPTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Luis Molina Molina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El hidalgo castellano Pedro Tafur (1410-1487, deseoso de conocer mundo y vivir aventuras, realizó un largo viaje entre el otoño de 1436 y la primavera de 1439. En este trabajo, analizamos un episodio que se corresponde con la peregrinación a Tierra Santa y Egipto (mayo-octubre de 1437, en el que visita lugares relacionados con la vida de Jesucristo y otros relatos bíblicos.

  17. Saber tradicional, ética de la tierra y sustentabilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyd, Thomas

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This is the crucial moment to take on sustainable forms of life, and hence it is now of primary importance to adopt a land ethic that takes into account not only the use value but also the intrinsic value of the beings that make up our natural environment. In this essay I begin by focusing on the obstacles that the development of a land ethic has to face, obstacles that are due to limitations in knowledge and to mistaken assumptions. As a way to resolve these practical difficulties I first point out the existence of our natural inclinations toward the land and life. Furthermore, I propose that the traditional knowledge of those peoples that have lived for extended periods with their environments can serve us as models for the development of a culture of appreciation for the earth and its inhabitants.

    Éste ese! momento crucial para emprender formas de vida sustentables, por lo que resulta esencial adoptar una ética de la tierra que reconozca el valor intrínseco además del valor útil de los seres que pueblan nuestro medio ambiente natural. En este ensayo empiezo enfocando los obstáculos a que se enfrenta el desarrollo de una ética de la tierra, obstáculos que resultan ser el producto de conocimientos limitados y suposiciones equivocadas. En resolución de esas problemáticas prácticas apunto, primero, la existencia de inclinaciones naturales hacia la tierra y la vida. Además propongo que en el saber tradicional de los pueblos que han convivido mucho tiempo con sus espacios tenemos modelos de formas del conocer que nos pueden servir de modelo para llegar a desarrollar una cultura de aprecio de la tierra y de sus habitantes.

  18. Curved canals: Ancestral files revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Nidhi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an insight into different techniques of cleaning and shaping of curved root canals with hand instruments. Although a plethora of root canal instruments like ProFile, ProTaper, LightSpeed ® etc dominate the current scenario, the inexpensive conventional root canal hand files such as K-files and flexible files can be used to get optimum results when handled meticulously. Special emphasis has been put on the modifications in biomechanical canal preparation in a variety of curved canal cases. This article compiles a series of clinical cases of root canals with curvatures in the middle and apical third and with S-shaped curvatures that were successfully completed by employing only conventional root canal hand instruments.

  19. How do you Answer the Life on Mars Question? Use Multiple Small Landers like Beagle 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Hurst, S. J.; Richter, L.; Sims, M. R.

    2012-06-01

    Beagle 2 lander is a flight qualified scientific payload and it offers a unique suite of instruments which can offer answers to the life on Mars question. Using multiple Beagle 2 landers on Mars offers a low-cost and outstanding scientific option.

  20. Managing curved canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iram Ansari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilaceration is the result of a developmental anomaly in which there has been an abrupt change in the axial inclination between the crown and the root of a tooth. Dilaceration can be seen in both the permanent and deciduous dentitions, and is more commonly found in posterior teeth and in maxilla. Periapical radiographs are the most appropriate way to diagnose the presence of root dilacerations. The controlled regularly tapered preparation of the curved canals is the ultimate challenge in endodontics. Careful and meticulous technique will yield a safe and sufficient enlargement of the curved canals. This article gives a review of the literature and three interesting case reports of root dilacerations.

  1. Exploraciones Micológicas en Tierra del Fuego Mycological explorations in Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma J. Gamundí

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Se narran las expediciones marítimas y terrestres en Tierra del Fuego durante los siglos XIX y XX, desde el punto de vista de la exploración micológica cuyos resultados han sido vertidos en publicaciones, destacando las expediciones argentinas. Contiene mapas con las principales expediciones argentinas. Se hace una evaluación de la diversidad fúngica de acuerdo con los datos previamente analizados, comparando los registros de colección en ambos períodos que indican una duplicación del número total de taxones de 647 especies descriptas en el siglo XIX hasta 1269 en el siglo XX. Simultáneamente se observa una disminución del 50,4 % al 19.7 % en el número de especies nuevas publicadas. Se agrega una lista de coleccionistas y otra del estado de conservación ex situ de especies seleccionadas. Se hace un breve comentario sobre la conservación de hábitats colonizados por hongos que están perturbados por la explotación no sustentable de los recursos naturales.A narration of the leading maritime and terrestrial expeditions in Fuegia during the XIX and XX centuries is approached from the point of view of the mycological exploration and published results on the mycobiota, emphazising the Argentine expeditions. Maps with the itinerary of main Argentine expeditions is given. An evaluation of the fungal diversity according to the previous review is presented, comparing the fungal records during both periods that shows duplication of the total number of taxa from 647 species described in XIX century to 1269 in the XX century. Simultaneously there is a decrease from 50.4 % to 19.7 % in the number of new species published. A list of collectors and a table with the state of ex-situ conservation of selected species is presented. A brief comment is given on conservation of habitats supporting fungal population that are disturbed by unsustainable exploitation of natural resources.

  2. Occurrence of mitral valve insufficiency in clinically healthy Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vörös, Károly; Szilvási, Viktória; Manczur, Ferenc; Máthé, Ákos; Reiczigel, Jenő; Nolte, Ingo; Hungerbühler, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Chronic degenerative valve disease (CDVD) is the most common cardiac disease in dogs, usually resulting in mitral valve insufficiency (MVI). The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence of MVI in clinically healthy Beagle populations. A total of 79 adult healthy Beagles (41 females and 38 males; age: 5.6 ± 2.7 years, range 1.4 to 11.7 years) were examined. The diagnosis of MVI was based on the detection of a systolic murmur heard above the mitral valve, and was confirmed by colour flow Doppler (CFD) echocardiography. Systolic mitral valve murmurs were detected in 20/79 dogs (25.3%), of them 11 males and 9 females with no statistically significant gender difference (P = 0.6059). The strength of the murmur on the semi-quantitative 0/6 scale yielded intensity grade 1/6 in 10 dogs, grade 2/6 in 4 dogs, and grade 3/6 in 6 dogs. Mild to moderate MVI was detected by CFD in all these 20 dogs with systolic murmurs. Of them, 17 dogs had mild and 3 demonstrated moderate MVI, showing 10-30% and 30-50% regurgitant jets compared to the size of the left atrium, respectively. The age of dogs with MVI was 7.1 ± 2.3 years, which was significantly different from that of dogs without MVI (5.1 ± 2.7 years, P = 0.0029). No significant differences in body weight (P = 0.1724) were found between dogs with MVI (13.8 ± 2.8 kg) and those without MVI (12.8 ± 3.0 kg). Mitral valve disease causing MVI is relatively common in Beagle dogs, just like in other small breed dogs reported in the literature.

  3. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability study of neoline in Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao-hong; Zhao, Meng-jie; Yuan, An; Li, Yan; Xiong, Liang; Peng, Cheng; Li, Yun-xia

    2015-07-01

    This paper is aim to investigate the pharmacokinetics and absolute bioavailability of neoline in Beagle dogs, and provide a theoretical basis for further study. Ethyl acetate was used for liquid-liquid extracting after 10% ammonia alkalizing. The method of UPLC-Q-TOF-MS was established for the determination of neoline plasma concentrations. Beagle dogs were orally or intravenously administered with neoline for pharmacokinetic and absolute bioavailability study. Good linear relationship of neoline was found over the range of 0.1-4 mg x L(-1) (R2 = 0.9982) and 2-100 microg x L(-1) (R2 = 0.9945). Intra-and inter-day precision, expressed as the relativestandard (RSD) were less than 5.0%. Accuracy, expressed as the relative error (RE) was within 90.0%-115%. The recovery of neoline in dog plasma was more than 80%. After 6 mg x kg(-1) for ig and 1 mg x kg(-1) for iv administration of neoline, the main pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed with Winnonlin software. t(1/2) were (313.88 +/- 63.18), (236.33 +/- 229.84) min, and AUC(0-infinity) were (58,027.40 +/- 14,132.69), (473,578.02 +/- 82,333.08) min x microg x L(-1) for ig and iv administration respectively. The absolute bioavail ability was (73.15 +/- 10.29) %. The method of UPLC-Q-TOF-MS described in the report was sensitive, reliable and specific, and suitable for pharmacokinetic study of neoline in Beagle dog. The high absolute bioavailability of neoline in dog suggested good absorption of neline which was worth of further investigation.

  4. Canal Wall Reconstruction Mastoidectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the advantages of canal wall reconstruction (CWR) mastoidectomy, a single-stage technique for cholesteatoma removal and posterior external canal wall reconstruction, over the open and closed procedures in terms of cholesteatoma recurrence. Methods: Between June 2002 and December 2005, 38 patients (40 ears) with cholesteatoma were admited to Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital and received surgical treatments. Of these patients, 25 were male with ages ranging between 11 and 60 years (mean = 31.6 years) and 13 were female with ages ranging between 20 and 65 years (mean = 38.8 years). Canal wall reconstruction (CWR)mastoidectomy was performed in 31 ears and canal wall down (CWD) mastoidectomy in 9 ears. Concha cartilage was used for ear canal wall reconstruction in 22 of the 31 CWR procedures and cortical mastoid bone was used in the remaining 9 cases. Results At 0.5 to 4 years follow up, all but one patients remained free of signs of cholesteatoma recurrence, i.e., no retraction pocket or cholesteatoma matrix. One patient, a smoker, needed revision surgery due to cholesteatoma recurrence 1.5 year after the initial operation. The recurrence rate was therefore 3.2% (1/31). Cholesteatoma recurrence was monitored using postoperative CT scans whenever possible. In the case that needed a revision procedure, a retraction pocket was identified by otoendoscopy in the pars flacida area that eventually evolved into a cholesteatoma. A pocket extending to the epitympanum filled with cholesteatoma matrix was confirmed during the revision operation, A decision to perform a modified mastoidectomy was made as the patient refused to quit smoking. The mean air-bone gap in pure tone threshold was 45 dB before surgery and 25 dB after (p < 0.05). There was no difference between using concha cartilage and cortical mastoid bone for the reconstruction regarding air-bone gap improvement, CT findings and otoendoscopic results. Conclusion CWR mastoidectomy can be used for

  5. Beagle Rupes and Rembrandt scarp: a comparison on Mercury surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, S.; Massironi, M.; Rothery, D. A.; Cremonese, G.

    2011-10-01

    Areas of crustal convergence and shortening on Earth, Mars and Venus are often characterized by structural domains where thrust faults are associated with strike-slip systems [1]. In the case of Mercury most structures maintain a wide elongated frontal scarp and only few of them show kinematic indicators of lateral slip. The comparison between two Mercurian linked fault systems like Beagle Rupes [2] [3] and Rembrandt scarp [4] could aid understanding of whether diverse hermean strike-slip structures are influenced by geological context such as surface heterogeneity and crustal layering or have different deformational history.

  6. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of R-phencynonate in Beagle dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-lai; CUI Meng-cun; WANG Xiao-ying; QIAO Jian-zhong; ZHANG Zhen-qing; RUAN Jin-xiu; ZhONG Bo-hua; LIU Ke-liang

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) properties and bioavailability of R-pbencynonate (L-8021) in Beagle dogs. Methods Fifteen healthy Beagle dogs were randomly divided into three groups, each group was orally given single dose of 0.1 mg·kg-1, 0.4 mg·kg-1 and 1.2 mg·kg-1 R-pbencynonate respectively. After one week cleaning, the middle dose group was injected 0.4 mg·kg-1 dose. Blood samples (about 2 mL) were collected in heparinized tubes before dosing and at 0. 033, 0. 083, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1,2, 4, 6, 8, 12 h after administration, and were then immediately centrifuged at 2000 g for 15 min. The pharmacokineties (PK) properties and bioavailability of the drugs was evaluated using the liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method. Results After p. o. administration of 0.1, 0.4 and 1.2 mg·kg-1 R-phencynonate, tmax ranged within 0.65-1.2 h;t1/2 ranged within 2.84-3.36 h; CLz/F ranged within 5.00-9.32 L·h-1·kg-1; Cmax ranged within 1.87-70.34 ng·mL-1; AUC(0.t) ranged within 9.80-250.12 μg·L-1. h; After i. v. administration of 0.4 mg·kg-1, t1/2 was 2.52 h; AUG(0-t) was 238.11 μg·L-1·h. Conclnsions L-8021 was dose-dependent within the range of 0.1-1.2 mg·kg-1 in Beagle dogs and the blood drug concentration-time curves were all best fitted to first order absorption two-compartment open model after via po administration of three different dosages. Following oral administration to Beagle dogs, the absolute bioavailability of L-8021 was 17.82 %, which was very low and resulted from poor absorption.

  7. Analysis of sedimentation of canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agunwamba, J.C.,

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The dredged canals in the Niger Delta coastal flood plain are being threatened by siltation. This study is limited to those canals in Rivers State of Nigeria, which are under the influence of tidal waves. A total of eight canals were considered with four each from Ekulama and Cawthorne Channel. Different approaches were used to carry out this study, which includes field reconnaissance survey, hydrographic survey, soil sample analysis and collection of all available data and information. The typical bed materials size (D50 is approximately 0.01mm; which gives a settling velocity of 0.09mm/sec using stroke’s law. Hydrographic survey of the canals from 1992 to 1996 revealed an average siltation rate of 2.35m/yr. A regression equation was also derived which relates the cost of dredging to canal area, rate of siltation and average aggregation. A plot of canal centre profile; entrance, middle and end cross sections showing sediment distribution along the canal profile, shows that majority of the particles that form the sediment enter the canal from the rivers. The sedimentation is caused by the reduction in water current, which has average value of 0.0145m/sec. The bathyorographical check on the canals revealed that the sum of the two exterior angles of the canal with the river at the point of connection has to lie within 1800 + 50 for an effective flow that will minimize settlement of particles. In addition, the canals should be constructed to start and terminate on a moving water body, to avoid dead ends. A regression equation was determined which relates the cost of dredging to canal area, rate of siltation and average aggradations.

  8. Construcción con tierra en el siglo XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestraten, S.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Earthen construction during the 21rst century first decade has resurfaced worldwide as a sustainable, low environmental impact and great expressive material. The research and the number of projects has been increased related to the growth of the associations, institutions, universities and events surrounding this sector. These projects have managed to modernize the traditional techniques of building with earth in order to adapt them to today’s projecting needs, and have been widely recognized for its quality. The aim of this article is to provide a global view on earth construction internationally, providing technical data of its utilization in contemporary architectural projects.

    La construcción con tierra durante la primera década del siglo XXI ha resurgido en todo el mundo como un material con propiedades sostenibles, de bajo impacto ambiental y de gran capacidad expresiva. Se ha experimentado un crecimiento a nivel de proyectos e investigaciones sobre el material relacionado con el aumento de número de asociaciones, instituciones, universidades y eventos alrededor de este sector. Los proyectos actuales han sabido modernizar las técnicas tradicionales de construcción con tierra para adaptarlas a las necesidades proyectuales y constructivas, siendo ampliamente reconocidos por su calidad. El objetivo de este artículo es ofrecer una visión actual sobre la construcción con tierra a nivel internacional, aportando datos técnicos de su utilización en proyectos arquitectónicos contemporáneos.

  9. Non-seasonality of births in Tierra del Fuego (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, J; García-Moro, C; Hernández, M

    2000-01-01

    Tierra del Fuego is situated at the southern tip of the American continent, which conditions its environmental and climatic characteristics. The colonizing population arrived, at the end of the 19th century, from other Chilean regions (particularly from Chiloé) and diverse European countries, especially Britain and Croatia, but also Germany, Spain and Italy. In the present study, the existence of a seasonal pattern in 5430 births registered in the Chilean population of Tierra del Fuego from 1890 to 1995 was analysed. The analysis showed no seasonal distribution of births in the periods 1890-1920 and from 1946 to the present day, a phenomenon rarely reported in the literature. The absence of seasonality in birth distribution could be related to the great diversity in the origins of the population's families, the constant renovation of this and the declining importance of the administrative capital of the province of Tierra del Fuego, Porvenir, in favour of Punta Arenas, capital of the Magellanic region. In the period of maximum development of the capital of the province, a seasonal pattern was detected with a peak in April and a trough in October, which corresponds with a maximum of conceptions in July and, in general, during the early southern winter and a decline in births from late spring to mid-summer, with a trough in January. This birth distribution is interpreted as a subordination of activity and social life to the annual sheep cycle. In addition to temporal trends, the influence on the observed patterns of environmental parameters, father's occupation, seasonality of marriage and the origin of the parents were analysed.

  10. LUCHA POR LA TIERRA EN EL NORTE DE URUGUAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Oyhantçabal Benelli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la trayectoria de la lucha por la tierra en Bella Unión, una región característica en Uruguay por la producción de caña de azúcar, a través de los movimientos de clase de sus principales protagonistas: los cortadores de caña sindicalizados en la Unión de Trabajadores Azucareros de Artigas (UTAA. El recorrido histórico hace énfasis en dos períodos históricos diferentes: 1961-1973 y 2005-presente. El primero va desde la fundación del sindicato hasta el golpe militar. Se da en un contexto de auge de la lucha de masas en Uruguay en el cual los trabajadores rurales se organizan en la UTAA levantando, entre otras, la bandera de la Reforma Agraria. El segundo período está marcado por la llegada al gobierno nacional del Frente Amplio, una coalición social-demócrata que reactiva la producción de caña de azúcar en Bella Unión. Este cambio supone una oportunidad para las luchas sociales que la UTAA aprovecha con ocupaciones de tierra favoreciendo un proceso de colonización para los trabajadores rurales. Sin embargo el acceso a la tierra genera nuevas contradicciones, y por tanto nuevos desafíos, por los cambios en la forma de subsunción del trabajo al capital.

  11. La dinámica de la Tierra

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    La Tierra es un planeta dinámico, subdividido internamente en “capas” que interactúan dependiendo de la energía interna. Entre los procesos naturales que se manifiestan sobre la superficie están la actividad sísmica y volcánica que ha llamado siempre la atención de sus habitantes. ¿Por qué y cómo ocurren estos fenómenos? Conocer los procesos geológicos que dan lugar a estos cambios constantes nos dará la respuesta.

  12. Chiapas: los cambios en la tenencia de la tierra

    OpenAIRE

    María Tarrío García; Luciano Concheiro Bórquez

    2006-01-01

    En este artículo se analiza la lucha por la tierra y la estructura agraria en Chiapas con énfasis en los cambios impuestos por el neoliberalismo y la globalización. En particular, se estudia el impacto del Plan Puebla-Panamá en la estructura de la propiedad agraria. Se advierte que dicho proyecto puede significar un alto riesgo tanto para la reproducción social campesina como para la biodiversidad de la región.

  13. Modelling and interpreting spectral energy distributions of galaxies with BEAGLE

    CERN Document Server

    Chevallard, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    We present a new-generation tool to model and interpret spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies, which incorporates in a consistent way the production of radiation and its transfer through the interstellar and intergalactic media. This flexible tool, named BEAGLE (for BayEsian Analysis of GaLaxy sEds), allows one to build mock galaxy catalogues as well as to interpret in terms of physical parameters any combination of photometric and spectroscopic galaxy observations. The current version of the tool includes the versatile modeling of the emission from stars and photoionized gas, attenuation by dust and the accounting for different instrumental effects. We show a first application of the BEAGLE tool to the interpretation of broadband SEDs of a published sample of ${\\sim}10^4$ galaxies at redshifts $0.1 \\lesssim z\\lesssim8$. We find that the constraints derived on photometric redshifts using this multi-purpose tool are comparable to those obtained using public, dedicated photometric-redshift codes and ...

  14. Beagle 2: The Next Exobiology Mission to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Wright, Ian P.; Morse, Andy; Stewart, Jenny; Morgan, G.; Praine, Ian; Leigh, Dennis; Sims, Mark R.

    2001-01-01

    Beagle 2 is a 60 kg probe (with a 30 kg lander) developed in the United Kingdom for inclusion on the European Space Agency's 2003 Mars Express. Beagle 2 will deliver to the Martian surface a payload which consists of a high percentage of science instruments to landed spacecraft mass. Beagle 2 will be launched in June, 2003 with Mars Express on a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Beagle 2 will land on Mars on December 26, 2003 in the Isidis Planitia basin (approximately 10 degrees N and 275 degrees W), a large sedimentary basin that overlies the boundary between ancient highlands and northern plains. Isidis Planitia, the third largest basin on Mars, which is possibly filled with sediment deposited at the bottom of long-standing lakes or seas, offers an ideal environment for preserving traces of life. Beagle 2 was developed to search for organic material and other volatiles on and below the surface of Mars in addition to the study of the inorganic chemistry and mineralogy. Beagle 2 will utilize a mechanical mole and grinder to obtain samples from below the surface, under rocks and inside rocks. A pair of stereo cameras will image the landing site along with a microscope for examination of surface and rock samples. Analyses will include both rock and soil samples at various wavelengths, X-ray spectrometer and Mossbauer spectrometer as well as a search for organics and other light element species (e.g. carbonates and water) and measurement of their isotopic compositions. Beagle 2 has as its focus the goal of establishing whether evidence for life existed in the past on Mars at the Isidis Planitia site or at least establishing if the conditions were ever suitable. Carbonates and organic components were first recognized as existing on Mars when they were found in the Martian meteorite Nakhla. Romanek et al showed the carbonates in ALH84001 were formed at low temperatures. McKay et al noted possible evidence of early life on Mars within the

  15. A new Wind Sensor for the Beagle 2 Mars Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. F.; Calcutt, S. B.; Jones, T. V.

    2001-12-01

    A hot-film anemometer has been developed for Beagle2, a British Mars lander to be launched in 2003. The sensor will measure wind speed (up to 30 m/s) and horizontal component of wind direction. The position of the wind sensor position at the end of Beagle2's motorised arm allows several new possibilities for wind measurement on Mars that were unavailable in previous missions. The height of the wind sensor can be adjusted to any height between ~20 cm and ~110 cm above the lander body, or can be moved laterally at a given height to study the effects of lander interference. Alternatively, the wind sensor may be positioned with its axis horizontal, thus allowing measurements of vertical wind speed. The wind sensor was calibrated in a new wind tunnel facility, in which Martian surface wind conditions are simulated. Wind speeds of 0.5 - 60 m/s can be created in a CO2 or air atmosphere at pressures of 5 - 10 mbar and temperatures of 200 - 300 K. The facility can also be used in its current configuration to simulate stratospheric winds on Earth. >http://www.atm.ox.ac.uk/user/wilson/matacf.html

  16. Tetracycline treatment of periodontal disease in the beagle dog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffcoat, M.K.; Williams, R.C.; Kaplan, M.L.; Goldhaber, P.

    1982-01-01

    Bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical uptake (BSRU) was used to examine alveolar bone metabolism in a longitudinal study of tetracycline efficacy in beagle dogs. BSRU was measured in untreated control dogs and in beagles receiving either 250 mg or 500 mg oral tetracycline-HCl daily for 16 months. The rate of bone loss was determined for radiographs taken semiannually for a 6-month pretreatment period and for a 24-month treatment period. Measurements of BSRU obtained at month 16 of treatment were correlated with rates of bone loss determined radiographically in an attempt to determine whether BSRU was indicative of the subsequent rate of bone loss. A reduced rate of alveolar bone loss was found in the 500 mg tetracycline group at month 16 of the study relative to the untreated controls which was consistent with the decreased bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical uptake observed in this group. A significantly increased BSRU (p<.0001) was found in the 250 mg tetracycline group at month 16 of study relative to the untreated and 500 mg tetracycline groups. A rapid increase in the rate of bone loss in the 250 mg tetracycline group which was not detectable prior to 16 months of treatment became evident radiographically by 24 months. Thus, increased BSRU in the 250 mg tetracycline group appeared to detect the loss of the effect of tetracycline (escape phenomenon). 13 references, 4 figures.

  17. Controversy at Love Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paigen, B

    1982-06-01

    A cancer researcher reviews the events surrounding the toxic waste contamination at Love Canal with emphasis on the political nature of the controversy about its health impact. Antagonism between the community and the New York State Department of Health was fueled by several factors: the state's awareness that it gained from delay in investigation, disagreement on health problems to be studied, control over the information gathering process, silencing of opposition opinion, and the violation of norms of scientific behavior. The author calls for the establishment of standards of ethical behavior for scientists in such situations, standards for conflict resolution, and means of appeal for those injured.

  18. The Beagle 2 Effect - public response to the UK Mars lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillinger, J. M.; Pillinger, C. T.

    As a prerequisite for understanding science, the target audience must first be aware of an issue and then continue to maintain interest. We discuss the impact of the Beagle 2 mission to Mars on raising awareness amongst the general public as the first step to increasing understanding of the scientific and technological challenges and solutions such a mission addresses. The massive amount of public interest created is now being ttributed to the so-called "Beagle 2 Effect". We consider the reasons why the public, particularly, but not exclusively, in the UK took Beagle 2 to heart. Initially our strategy, as part of the PR plan for Beagle 2, was to collate media coverage for various stages and discrete campaigns in particular to use press cuttings to determine the level of recognition of Beagle 2 as a brand. At the start of the project this information was to support sponsorship bids, latterly the intrinsic value of media, and hence public, awareness was recognised by the major partners in the project. Much of the subsequent public awareness resulted from the comprehensive coverage in all branches of the media. A second opportunity to evaluate the response to the mission was presented to us as it became increasingly clear that Beagle 2 was able to engage an audience much wider than that typically interested in space, or science in general. We highlighted how far mention of Beagle 2 has spread. Additionally numerous unsolicited letters have been received from the public and these have been collated to indicate the factors which appear to have contributed to the widespread interest in Beagle 2. It is not clear whether the "Beagle 2 Effect" can, or will, be transferred to subsequent space missions.

  19. Spinal canal stenosis; Spinalkanalstenose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Boutchakova, M. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte/Bremen-Ost, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Bremen (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal by a combination of bone and soft tissues, which can lead to mechanical compression of spinal nerve roots or the dural sac. The lumbal spinal compression of these nerve roots can be symptomatic, resulting in weakness, reflex alterations, gait disturbances, bowel or bladder dysfunction, motor and sensory changes, radicular pain or atypical leg pain and neurogenic claudication. The anatomical presence of spinal canal stenosis is confirmed radiologically with computerized tomography, myelography or magnetic resonance imaging and play a decisive role in optimal patient-oriented therapy decision-making. (orig.) [German] Die Spinalkanalstenose ist eine umschriebene, knoechern-ligamentaer bedingte Einengung des Spinalkanals, die zur Kompression der Nervenwurzeln oder des Duralsacks fuehren kann. Die lumbale Spinalkanalstenose manifestiert sich klinisch als Komplex aus Rueckenschmerzen sowie sensiblen und motorischen neurologischen Ausfaellen, die in der Regel belastungsabhaengig sind (Claudicatio spinalis). Die bildgebende Diagnostik mittels Magnetresonanztomographie, Computertomographie und Myelographie spielt eine entscheidende Rolle bei der optimalen patientenbezogenen Therapieentscheidung. (orig.)

  20. Procesos de separación de las tierras raras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alguacil, F. J.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The rare earth elements are unique in its behaviour, its similar properties make very difficult its separation by conventional procedures, this linked to the necessity to obtain high grade final products, as demanded by modern industry, had led to the develop of new technologies that allow the final goal of the utilization of these rare elements: the separation and obtention of products which cope the demands of its uses are needed for. The present work revised some of the applications of these technologies in the separation and purification of rare earths.

    Los elementos pertenecientes al grupo de las tierras raras presentan un comportamiento peculiar, consistente en que sus propiedades parecidas hacen que su separación con los procedimientos convencionales no sea fácil. Este hecho, unido a las condiciones de alta pureza que su uso práctico demanda, han llevado al desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías que permiten la separación y obtención de estos elementos en condiciones de pureza elevada. En el presente trabajo se revisan algunos de los resultados obtenidos con la aplicación de estas tecnologías en la separación y purificación de las tierras raras.

  1. [Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of batroxobin in Beagle dog].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zi-Hua; Zhu, Xiao-Xia; Gan, Hui; Gu, Ruo-Lan; Wu, Zhuo-Na; Meng, Zhi-Yun; Dou, Gui-Fang

    2013-08-01

    Healthy Beagle dogs were administrated with batroxobin by intravenous infusion at high, medium and low doses. The study of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics was intended to clarify the relevance of them and provided strong evidence for clinical use of batroxobin. The blood samples were collected after injection based on the time schedule and samples were tested by ELISA method to get the concentration of batroxobin. At the same time, changes of prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen (Fib) and D-dimmer were tested. The results showed that the concentration of D-D increased significantly after administration compared with that of before administration. The main pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows: t1/2 were (2.27 +/- 0.42) h, (10.65 +/- 2.19) h and (11.01 +/- 3.51) h; C(max) were (11.9 +/- 1.72) ng x mL(-1), (154.53 +/- 12.38) ng x mL(-1) and (172.14 +/- 47.33) ng x mL(-1); AUC(last) were (29.38 +/- 3.69) ng xh x mL(-1), (148.43 +/- 72.85) ng x h x mL(-1) and (599.22 +/- 359.61) ng x h x mL(-1). The elimination of batroxobin was found to be in accord with linear kinetics characteristics. The results of pharmacodynamics showed that D-dimmer level increased significantly after the administration of batroxobin, which was similar with the changes of batroxobin plasma concentration. Simultaneously, Fib concentrations in Beagle dog blood decreased significantly after the iv administration of batroxobin, while recovered to base level after 48 hours. PT, TT and APTT significantly became longer after administration, which returned to normal level after 48 hours. Especially, the D-dimmer levels and the batroxobin concentration in plasma after intravenous infusion of the drug were synchronized in Beagle dogs. Changes between PD/PK results had obvious correlation, and the D-dimmer levels in plasma can be one of the important monitoring indicators of batroxobin in thrombolytic medication.

  2. Lunar Beagle: An Experimental Package for Measuring Polar Ice and Volatiles Beneath the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K.; Pillinger, C. T.; McKay, D. S.; Wright, I. P.; Sims, M. R.; Richter, L.; Waugh, L.; Lunar Beagle Consortium

    2008-07-01

    Lunar Beagle payload has the capabilities of determining the presence of polar ice and volatiles in the permanently shadowed regions of the moon. The instrument suite can provide critical information to assist "living off the land".

  3. Observaciones conductuales en el viaje de Darwin abordo del Beagle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segura Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Si bien la obra de Darwin ha sido analizada en detalle por historiadores de la ciencia, el papel de la conducta en el desarrollo de la teoría de la evolución no ha sido suficientemente abordado en este tipo de estudios. En este estudio se extraen, describen y analizan las observaciones de comportamiento realizadas por Darwin en El viaje del Beagle. Se presenta el contexto del viajey se describe la ruta, objetivos y características del mismo. Se lleva a cabo una clasificación de los diferentes tipos de observación y los diferentes tipos de comportamiento de múltiplesespecies presentadas por Darwin

  4. Electron imaging of calcium oxalate crystals in beagle dogs’ urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa I. Mohamaden

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcium oxalate crystalluria appears to be a common problem in most of small animal clinics. This current study aimed at inducing a condition of oxalate crystalluria in beagles and record the primary changes in canine blood and urine on response to oxalates injection. 15 dogs were divided into two groups; those in the treatment group were injected intravenously with 0.5 M potassium oxalate and the dogs of control group were injected with physiological saline for five successive days. Urine test revealed a significant decrease in urinary creatinine and urinary urea nitrogen levels. The ultrastructural examination of urine sediment showed typical and atypical phases of calcium oxalate crystals and the X-ray defractionation of these crystals showed high content of calcium in addition to other minerals. Therefore potassium oxalate injection may provide an example of calcium oxalate crystalluria which may answer some question around the pathogenesis of this problem in dogs.

  5. Photometric Observations of Main-belt Asteroids 656 Beagle and 2649 Oongaq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonka, Adrian Bruno; Popescu, Marcel; Nedelcu, Dan Alin

    2016-01-01

    We present photometric observations for two main-belt asteroids, 656 Beagle and 2649 Oongaq, carried out at Astronomical Institute of Romanian Academy between 2014 September and 2015 March. For 656 Beagle, we found a synodic rotation period of 7.034 ± 0.003 h and for 2649 Oongaq a synodic rotation period of 7.789 ± 0.006 h. Both are in good agreement with recent results.

  6. Mercados de tierras en el "nuevo sur" bonaerense: Arenales y Ayacucho, 1824-1904

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Araceli D'Agostino

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se propone caracterizar la formación y el funcionamiento de un mercado de tierras en dos partidos del 'nuevo sur' bonaerense, en el transcurso del siglo XIX. El proceso de apropiación de estas tierras implicó la negociación de las mismas en diferentes instancias y a través de diversas modalidades, lo cual fue configurando un mercado de la tierra, aún antes de la consolidación de la propiedad plena sobre el suelo

  7. Hood Canal Steelhead - Hood Canal Steelhead Supplementation Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hood Canal Steelhead Project is a 17-year before-after-control-impact experiment that tests the effects of supplementation on natural steelhead populations in...

  8. Phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragut, Francisco; Navia, Denise

    2015-07-28

    Predatory phytoseiid mites have been intensively studied and surveyed in the last decades because of their economic importance as biocontrol agents of agricultural pests. However, many regions of the world remain unexplored and the diversity of the family worldwide is still fragmentary. Up to date no phytoseiid species have been collected in the southernmost part of the Earth down to latitude 45º S. In this study Phytoseiidae were sampled from native vegetation in southern Argentina and Chile in the regions of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego Island. Thirteen species were collected, five of which were previously described and eight, Chileseius australis n. sp., Neoseiulus mapuche n. sp., Typhlodromips valdivianus n. sp., T. fissuratus n. sp., Amblyseius grandiporus n. sp., A. caliginosus n. sp., Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) anomalos n. sp. and Metaseiulus parabrevicollis n. sp. are proposed as new to science and are described and diagnosed.

  9. LUCHA POR LA TIERRA EN EL NORTE DE URUGUAY

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Oyhantçabal Benelli; Matías Carámbula Pareja

    2011-01-01

    Este artículo analiza la trayectoria de la lucha por la tierra en Bella Unión, una región característica en Uruguay por la producción de caña de azúcar, a través de los movimientos de clase de sus principales protagonistas: los cortadores de caña sindicalizados en la Unión de Trabajadores Azucareros de Artigas (UTAA). El recorrido histórico hace énfasis en dos períodos históricos diferentes: 1961-1973 y 2005-presente. El primero va desde la fundación del sindicato hasta el golpe militar. Se d...

  10. [Epidemiology of dog bite lesions in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, Fabián; Padinger, Patricia; Elissondo, María C; Pérez, Héctor

    2008-01-01

    The coexistence between man and dog has resulted in mutual benefits during thousands of years, nevertheless some problems have recently arisen where bite injuries have an important role. The aim of this work was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of dog bite lesions which occurred during a year in Tierra del Fuego. A descriptive observational, transversal study of patients who were admitted with dog bite injuries to clinic and pediatric emergency services of hospitals and health centers was carried out between 3/1/05 and 3/1/06. A total of 382 records were made. The children group represents 49.5%. The group between 5 and 9 year-old was the most affected (44.4%; IC95% 37.2-51.8). In the adult group, that between 15 and 24 year-old was the most affected (29.5%; IC95% 23.2-36.5). More lesions were registered in men (57.6%) than in women (42.4%) (chi2 = 8.6, p = 0.003). During spring and summer months, 56.5% of the lesions were registered. A 72.8% of the incidents occurred on the public highway. Dogs of big size were responsible of 49.7% (IC95% 44.6-54.9) of the injuries. The 89.8% of the incidents were caused by another person's dog. Of the lesions, 55.8% (IC95% 50.6-60.8) were registered in lower extremities and 11% (IC95% 8.1-14.7) in head and neck. These data show that dog bite lesions affect the health and impact in the quality of life of the population of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

  11. Depolarization canals and interstellar turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, A; Fletcher, Andrew; Shukurov, Anvar

    2006-01-01

    Recent radio polarization observations have revealed a plethora of unexpected features in the polarized Galactic radio background that arise from propagation effects in the random (turbulent) interstellar medium. The canals are especially striking among them, a random network of very dark, narrow regions clearly visible in many directions against a bright polarized Galactic synchrotron background. There are no obvious physical structures in the ISM that may have caused the canals, and so they have been called Faraday ghosts. They evidently carry information about interstellar turbulence but only now is it becoming clear how this information can be extracted. Two theories for the origin of the canals have been proposed; both attribute the canals to Faraday rotation, but one invokes strong gradients in Faraday rotation in the sky plane (specifically, in a foreground Faraday screen) and the other only relies on line-of-sight effects (differential Faraday rotation). In this review we discuss the physical nature o...

  12. The Love Canal: Beyond science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    When in 1978, the New York State Department of Health issued the report, ‘Love Canal—Public Health Time Bomb,’ the serious effects of chemical waste contamination in the Love Canal area became an issue of national concern. A few ‘studies’ since then have produced results in concert with those of initial reports that described ‘conditions of acute health effects’ as being linked to hazardous wastes incorporated in landfill in the Love Canal site near Niagara Falls, New York. Now that a ‘blue ribbon’ panel of experts from the medical sciences has reviewed the problems of Love Canal, however, a different view has emerged. The ‘Report of the Governors' Panel to Review Scientific Studies and the Development of Public Policy on Problems Resulting from Hazardous Wastes,’ transmitted in October of this year, identifies the following factors about the health effects at Love Canal:

  13. Horizontal Canal Benign Positional Vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtaram Najafi

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV is a syndrome characterized by transient episodes of vertigo in association with rapid changes in head position in Dix-Halpike Maneuver. This kind of vertigo is thought to be caused by migration of otoconial debris into canals other than the posterior canal, such as the anterior or lateral canals. It is also theoretically possible for many aberrant patterns of BPPV to occur from an interaction of debris in several canals, location of debris within the canal, and central adaptation patterns to lesions. The symptoms of BPPV are much more consistent with free-moving densities (canaliths in the posterior SCC rather than fixed densities attached to the cupula. While the head is upright, the particles sit in the PSC at the most gravity-dependent position. The best method to induce and see vertigo and nystagmus in BPPV of the lateral semicircular canal is to rotate head 90°while patient is in the supine position, nystagmus would appear in the unaffected side weaker but longer than the affected side. canal paresis has been described in one third of the patients with BPPV. Adaptation which is one of the remarkable features of BPPV in PSC is rarely seen in LSC. Rotations of 270° or 360° around the yaw axis (the so-called barbecue maneuver toward the unaffected ear are popular methods for the treatment of geotropic HC-BPPV. These maneuvers consist of sequential head turning of 90° toward the healthy side while supine. With these maneuvers, the free-floating otoconial debris migrates in the ampullofugal direction, finally entering the utricle through the nonampullated end of the horizontal canal. This kind of vertigo recovers spontaneously more rapidly and suddenly.

  14. Tierra y familia en la España meridional, siglos XIII-XIX.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Goicovic Donoso

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Las siete contribuciones recopiladas por Francisco García Gon-zález en el texto Tierra y familia en la España meridional, siglos XIII-XIX, nos sitúan frente a la historia social a partir de dos inflexiones epistemológicas íntimamente relacionadas en la historia: tierra y familia. Efectivamente, la diada tierra-familia, durante el Antiguo Régimen europeo, se convirtió en un factor explicativo de buena parte de los procesos de articulación de la sociedad. Así, la relación de los sujetos con la propiedad y usufructo de la tierra, y las formas de articulación familiar desplegadas por los mismos, tienden a imbricarse recurrentemente en complejos procesos de reproducción social.

  15. Taenia saginata Goeze, 1872 (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda: Taeniidae from an indigenous native from Tierra del Fuego, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo I. Faúndez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available First record of Taenia saginata from an indigenous from Tierra del Fuego (Chilean Patagonia is reported, from museum material of the year 1902. The importance of the record is discussed. Illustrations of the specimen are given.

  16. Los sismos y la restauración del patrimonio en tierra en Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Hurtado Valdez, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    El uso de la tierra para construir ha sido una realidad permanente en toda la historia de Perú. Desde épocas prehispánica, pasando por la etapa del Virreinato y luego en la República, junto a los diversos sistemas de construcción con tierra se sucedieron muchas técnicas de restauración, desde las llamadas tradicionales hasta nuevas experimentales.

  17. Periodismo ambiental en Canal Sur Televisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Miguel Montaño Montaño

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor estudia el origen histórico del periodismo ambiental, la evolución en España y Andalucía y su aparición en Canal Sur TV Realiza un análisis sobre la información medioambiental, especialidad del periodismo que en la década de los noventa despierta nuevamente gran interés entre el público. La televisión autonómica ha dedicado, desde su creación numerosos programas sobre el medio ambiente. Actualmente sus Servicios Informativos tienen la sección Medio Ambiente. De la importancia que se concede a este tipo de información es un buen ejemplo el programa «Tierra y Mar», que incorpora progresivamente noticias medioambientales, referidas a la educación ambiental, el mantenimiento y recuperación de la biodiversidad y la presentación de modelos de conducta respetuosos.

  18. Hypertonic Saline Dextran Ameliorates Organ Damage in Beagle Hemorrhagic Shock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-xiang Zhao

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of hypertonic saline with 6% Dextran-70 (HSD resuscitation on organ damage and the resuscitation efficiency of the combination of HSD and lactated ringers (LR in a model of hemorrhage shock in dogs.Beagles were bled to hold their mean arterial pressure (MAP at 50 ± 5 mmHg for 1 h. After hemorrhage, beagles were divided into three groups (n = 7 to receive pre-hospital resuscitation for 1 h (R1: HSD (4 ml/kg, LR (40 ml/kg, and HSD+LR (a combination of 4 ml/kg HSD and 40 ml/kg LR. Next, LR was transfused into all groups as in-hospital resuscitation (R2. After two hours of observation (R3, autologous blood was transfused. Hemodynamic responses and systemic oxygenation were measured at predetermined phases. Three days after resuscitation, the animals were sacrificed and tissues including kidney, lung, liver and intestinal were obtained for pathological analysis.Although the initial resuscitation with HSD was shown to be faster than LR with regard to an ascending MAP, the HSD group showed a similar hemodynamic performance compared to the LR group throughout the experiment. Compared with the LR group, the systemic oxygenation performance in the HSD group was similar but showed a lower venous-to-arterial CO2 gradient (Pv-aCO2 at R3 (p < 0.05. Additionally, the histology score of the kidneys, lungs and liver were significantly lower in the HSD group than in the LR group (p < 0.05. The HSD+LR group showed a superior hemodynamic response but higher extravascular lung water (EVLW and lower arterial oxygen tension (PaO2 than the other groups (p < 0.05. The HSD+LR group showed a marginally improved systemic oxygenation performance and lower histology score than other groups.Resuscitation after hemorrhagic shock with a bolus of HSD showed a similar hemodynamic response compared with LR at ten times the volume of HSD, but HSD showed superior efficacy in organ protection. Our findings suggest that

  19. Limitations of navigation through Nubaria canal, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Magdy G

    2014-03-01

    Alexandria port is the main Egyptian port at the Mediterranean Sea. It is connected to the Nile River through Nubaria canal, which is a main irrigation canal. The canal was designed to irrigate eight hundred thousand acres of agricultural lands, along its course which extends 100 km. The canal has three barrages and four locks to control the flow and allow light navigation by some small barges. Recently, it was decided to improve the locks located on the canal. More than 40 million US$ was invested in these projects. This decision was taken to allow larger barges and increase the transported capacity through the canal. On the other hand, navigation through canals and restricted shallow waterways is affected by several parameters related to both the channel and the vessel. Navigation lane width as well as vessel speed and maneuverability are affected by both the channel and vessel dimensions. Moreover, vessel dimensions and speed will affect the canal stability. In Egypt, there are no guide rules for navigation through narrow and shallow canals such Nubaria. This situation threatens the canal stability and safety of navigation through it. This paper discussed the characteristics of Nubaria canal and the guide rules for navigation in shallow restricted water ways. Dimensions limitation for barges navigating through Nubaria canal is presented. New safe operation rules for navigation in Nubaria canal are also presented. Moreover, the implication of navigation through locks on canal discharge is estimated.

  20. Limitations of navigation through Nubaria canal, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy G. Samuel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alexandria port is the main Egyptian port at the Mediterranean Sea. It is connected to the Nile River through Nubaria canal, which is a main irrigation canal. The canal was designed to irrigate eight hundred thousand acres of agricultural lands, along its course which extends 100 km. The canal has three barrages and four locks to control the flow and allow light navigation by some small barges. Recently, it was decided to improve the locks located on the canal. More than 40 million US$ was invested in these projects. This decision was taken to allow larger barges and increase the transported capacity through the canal. On the other hand, navigation through canals and restricted shallow waterways is affected by several parameters related to both the channel and the vessel. Navigation lane width as well as vessel speed and maneuverability are affected by both the channel and vessel dimensions. Moreover, vessel dimensions and speed will affect the canal stability. In Egypt, there are no guide rules for navigation through narrow and shallow canals such Nubaria. This situation threatens the canal stability and safety of navigation through it. This paper discussed the characteristics of Nubaria canal and the guide rules for navigation in shallow restricted water ways. Dimensions limitation for barges navigating through Nubaria canal is presented. New safe operation rules for navigation in Nubaria canal are also presented. Moreover, the implication of navigation through locks on canal discharge is estimated.

  1. El Canal del Atazar I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López de Berges y de los Santos, Emilio

    1967-03-01

    Full Text Available The Atazar Canal helps to supply Madrid with water, from the rivers Lozoya, Jarama and Sorbe. The section which operates at present starts at the Torrelaguna dam and finishes at the El Goloso reservoir. Later a further section will be added, from the Atazar dam, on the Lozoya river, to link up with the control dam at Torrelaguna. The canal capacity is 16 m3/sec, and it is 43.47 km long. It has a slope of 4/10.000. The cross section is similar to that of the Jarama canal, already built. There are interconnections between this canal and the Canal Alto, which previously supplied the high and medium part of Madrid. To overcome the ground unevenness 5 syphons have been built, the most important of which is the Colmenar Goloso syphon, which is 10.88 km in length. Construction commenced on December 10, 1962, and water reached Madrid on June 15th, 1966. The initial budget for this project was 1,500 million pesetas.El canal del Atazar refuerza considerablemente el abastecimiento de aguas a Madrid, procedentes de los ríos Lozoya, Jarama y, en un próximo futuro, del Sorbe. El tramo, actualmente en funcionamiento, empieza en el salto de Torrelaguna y finaliza en los depósitos de El Goloso. Más adelante se completará su trazado mediante un nuevo tramo que partirá del embalse de Atazar, en el Lozoya, para unirse al actual en el depósito regulador de Torrelaguna. Su capacidad es de 16 m3/s; su longitud, 43,471 km, y su pendiente, 4 diezmilésimas. La sección tipo es análoga a la del canal del Jarama, de construcción anterior. Mediante la oportuna obra de transvase se realizan intercambios entre este Canal y el Canal Alto que abastecía anteriormente la parte media y alta de la capital. Para salvar los desniveles del terreno se han construido 5 sifones, siendo el más importante el de Colmenar-Goloso, con una longitud de 10,8S4 km. El comienzo de las obras tuvo lugar el 10 de diciembre de 1962, y el agua llegó a Madrid el 15 de junio de 1966. Su

  2. Beagle 2 and NASA's Mars 2003 Orbiter: A Unique Exobiology Opportunity with an Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Thatcher, John; Westall, Frances

    2000-01-01

    With the exploration strategy for Mars undergoing reexamination, the opportunity exists for the incorporation of the 60 kg Beagle 2 lander, developed in the United Kingdom for inclusion on ESA's 2003 Mars Express mission, with NASA's Mars 2003 orbiter derived from the Mars Global Orbiter. The combination of Beagle 2 with a Mars orbiter would result in a unique mission which could obtain information on Mars' life, climate and resources both from orbit as well as on the surface of the planet. Beagle 2 has been developed in the LJK for ESA as a low-cost opportunity to study the exobiology of Mars and the spacecraft is in its final stages of manufacture. Only limited modifications to the Beagle 2 package would be required for inclusion on NASA's Mars 2003 orbiter. With the ESA Mars Express mission launch in 2003 and a potential NASA Mars orbiter in 2003, both Beagle 2 landers on Mars would offer a low-cost, decreased risk and increased science return opportunity for the exploration of Mars at two distinct geologically interesting sites.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of BMEDA after Intravenous Administration in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsien Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacokinetics of N,N-bis(2-mercapatoethly-N',N'-diethylenediamine (BMEDA, a molecule that can form a chelate with rhenium-188 (188Re to produce the 188Re-BMEDA-liposomes, was studied. In this work, beagles received a single injection of BMEDA, at doses of 1, 2, or 5 mg/kg; the concentration of BMEDA in the beagles’ plasma was then analyzed and determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Based on the pharmacokinetic parameters of BMEDA, we found that male and female animals shared similar patterns indicating that the pharmacokinetics of BMEDA is independent of gender differences. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of BMEDA was seen to be non-linear because the increase of mean AUC0–t and AUC0–∞ values tend to be greater than dose proportional while the mean Vss and CL values of BMEDA appeared to be dose dependent. The information on the pharmacokinetics of BMEDA generated from this study will serve as a basis to design appropriate pharmacology and toxicology studies for future human use.

  4. [Endoscopic and histopathological studies of experimental esophageal cancer in beagles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, K; Sunagawa, M; Nakajima, A; Ochi, K; Habu, H; Hoshi, K

    1985-02-01

    In order to obtain a reliable experimental model simulating human esophageal cancer, endoscopic and histopathological studies were undertaken in the esophageal cancer produced in the beagle dog. Thirty-seven dogs had been given a solution of N-Ethyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (ENNG) at a concentration of 150 micrograms/ml for 3-9 months. Follow-up studies included serial endoscopy and biopsy, and almost all animals were eventually sacrificed for histological examination. The results were as follows: Squamous cell carcinoma was observed in 5 out of 22 female dogs, while none in male dogs at all. For the induction of squamous cell carcinoma in the esophagus, administration in the condition of 150 micrograms/ml (75mg/day) for 6-9 months was most suitable. Almost all of esophageal lesions were protruding and well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with invasion of the submucosa. The stages of hyperplasia, dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma in the esophagus were chronologically followed. Carcinoma had been observed in the stomach about 4 months prior to the appearance of esophageal carcinoma. This experimental model was proved to be useful for studies on histogenesis of human esophageal cancer both light and electron microscopically.

  5. Canals - CANALS_HISTORIC_STRUCTURES_IN: Historic Canal Structures in Indiana (Bernardin-Lochmueller & Associates, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Data depicts the locations of historic structures associated with the Wabash-Erie, Central, and Whitewater Canals constructed in Indiana in from 1830-1870. Canal...

  6. Quantification of brown dog tick repellents, 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde, and release from tick-resistant beagles, Canis lupus familiaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have recently shown that repellency of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato by the tick resistant dog breed Beagle is mediated by volatile organic compounds 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde present in Beagle dog odour. Ectoparasite location on animal hosts is affected by variation in odour com...

  7. Corinth Canal, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Isthmus of Corinth has played a very important role in the history of Greece. It is the only land bridge between the country's north (Attica) and south (Peloponnese). It is a 6 km wide tongue of land separating the Gulf of Corinth from the Saronic Sea. Populations, armies and commodities have got to move through it. In the 6th century BCE, the Greeks built the Diolkos, a 10 meter-wide stone roadway to pull ships across the Isthmus on wooden cylinders and wheeled vehicles. In 1882, a canal was started and completed 11 years later. It is 6343 meters long, 25 meters wide, and 8 meters deep. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 25.3 by 37.7 kilometers (15.7 by 23.4 miles) Location: 37.9 degrees North latitude, 23 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image

  8. Fluidmechanics of semicircular canals revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrist, Dominik

    2008-05-01

    In this work we find the exact solution for the flow field in a semicircular canal which is the main sensor for angular motion in the human body. When the head is rotated the inertia of the fluid in the semicircular canal leads to a deflection of sensory hair cells which are part of a gelatinous structure called cupula. A modal expansion of the governing equation shows that the semicircular organ can be understood as a dynamic system governed by duct modes and a single cupular mode. We use this result to derive an explicit expression for the displacement of the cupula as a function of the angular motion of the head. This result shows in a mathematically and physically clean way that the semicircular canal is a transducer for angular velocity.

  9. Retention of Root Canal Posts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, A; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Flury, S;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the cement film thickness of a zinc phosphate or a resin cement on retention of untreated and pretreated root canal posts. Prefabricated zirconia posts (CosmoPost: 1.4 mm) and two types of luting cements (a zinc phosphate cement [DeTrey Zinc......] and a self-etch adhesive resin cement [Panavia F2.0]) were used. After removal of the crowns of 360 extracted premolars, canines, or incisors, the root canals were prepared with a parallel-sided drill system to three different final diameters. Half the posts did not receive any pretreatment. The other half...... received tribochemical silicate coating according to the manufacturer's instructions. Posts were then luted in the prepared root canals (n=30 per group). Following water storage at 37°C for seven days, retention of the posts was determined by the pull-out method. Irrespective of the luting cement...

  10. Electroretinography recordings using a light emitting diode active corneal electrode in healthy beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Yoshiki; Maehara, Seiya; Itoh, Norihiko; Yamashita, Kazuto; Izumisawa, Yasuharu

    2013-01-01

    Electroretinography (ERG) is a well-established diagnostic procedure for objectively evaluating retinal function. In this study, ERG in beagle dogs, which are a popular experimental animal, was performed to determine the normal range of ERG variables and assess differences between the left and right eyes. ERG findings including rod, combined rod-cone, single-flash cone, and 30-Hz flicker responses were recorded with an LED-electrode in 43 sedated beagle dogs. The subjects were divided into young (beagle dogs differed by age due to age-related retinal changes. Thus, we propose that normal ERG ranges should be determined according to age in each clinic and laboratory using its own equipment because each institution usually has different systems or protocols for ERG testing.

  11. INSTRUMENTATION OF CURVED CANALS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nature seldom draws a straight line. Nowhere is thi s more apparent than in the anatomy of teeth roots and root canal systems o f human teeth. Even teeth with straight roots can harbor severely curved canals. Canal shapi ng is a critical aspect of endodontic treatment because it influences the outcome of the subsequent phases of canal irrigation and filling and the success of the treatment itself. In fact, curved canals are the most common endodontic complexity 1 . The need for some manner of root canal preparation pri or to root canal filling has long been recognized as an essential step in endodontic t reatment. Concepts concerning the role and purpose of this canal preparation, however, have differ ed remarkably at different times in the development of endodontics and in the hands of diffe rent practitioners 2

  12. Influence of parity and litter size on gestation length in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Makoto; Watanabe, Norio; Ishii, Kenyo; Kinoshita, Yoh-ichi; Aihara, Takehiro; Takeiri, Shuji; Otoi, Takeshige

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of parity and litter size on gestation length in beagle bitches. The mean duration of the initial elevation (>2 ng/mL) in progesterone concentrations after the onset of proestrus was shorter (P gestation length in the nulliparous bitches was noted to be similar to that in the multiparous bitches (64.3 d versus 64.2 d). No significant correlation between gestation length and litter size was observed in any of the bitches. Our results indicate that the gestation length in beagle bitches is not affected by parity or litter size.

  13. 33 CFR 117.444 - Falgout Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Falgout Canal. 117.444 Section 117.444 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.444 Falgout Canal. The draw of the LA 315 bridge across Falgout Canal, mile 3.1,...

  14. Developmental spinal canal stenosis and somatotype.

    OpenAIRE

    Nightingale, S.

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis that somatotype and cervical spine developmental canal stenosis may be associated has been investigated by anthropometry and measurement of lateral projection cervical spine radiographs. A significant association of canal size with somatotype has been found such that those with developmentally narrow canals are more likely to have relatively shorter long-bones, particularly in the upper arm, and longer trunks.

  15. Birth of Beagle dogs by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein, Mohammad Shamim; Jeong, Yeon Woo; Park, Sun Woo; Kim, Joung Joo; Lee, Eugine; Ko, Kyeong Hee; Hyuk, Park; Hoon, Song Seung; Kim, Yeun Wook; Hyun, Sang Hwan; Shin, Taeyoung; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2009-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate two enucleation methods for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and to standardize the optimum number of embryos for transfer to each recipient for canines. Oocytes retrieved from outbreed dogs were reconstructed with adult somatic cells from a male Beagle dog. A total of 134 or 267 oocytes were enucleated either by aspiration or squeezing method, fused with two DC pulses of 1.75 kV/cm for 15 micros electrical stimulation, chemically activated after 1h of fusion using 10 microM calcium ionophore for 4 min and cultured 4h in 1.9 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine. Finally, 103 or 214 embryos for aspiration or squeezing method were transferred to 6 or 11 naturally synchronized recipients, respectively. A total of 53, 317 and 342 embryos were transferred to 7, 17 and 12 recipients for the group of 4-10, 11-25 and 26-40 embryos, respectively. There was no difference between fusion rate (76.87% vs. 80.15%), full term pregnancy rate (16.66% vs. 27.27%) and percent of live puppies born (0.97% vs. 1.87%) for aspiration and squeezing method (P>0.05). Production efficiency of cloned dogs was significantly affected by the number of embryos transferred to each recipient. No pregnancy was established for the group of 4-10 embryos (n=7) and 26-40 embryos (n=12) while pregnancy was detected in 23.53% recipients received a group of 11-25 embryos (n=17). Among them, five (1.76%) live puppies were born (P<0.05). These data show an increase in the overall efficiency of SCNT in canine species.

  16. Canal Water Scarcity Hits Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠潮

    2007-01-01

    Acute shortage of canal water for irrigation in this district has caused resentment among the farmers.The water is being released in the various channels for just one week in a month,which is not enough to meet the irrigation needs of the farmers who are preparing their fields for paddy

  17. The Dehiscent Facial Nerve Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertac Yetiser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidental injury to the facial nerve where the bony canal defects are present may result with facial nerve dysfunction during otological surgery. Therefore, it is critical to know the incidence and the type of facial nerve dehiscences in the presence of normal development of the facial canal. The aim of this study is to review the site and the type of such bony defects in 144 patients operated for facial paralysis, myringoplasty, stapedotomy, middle ear exploration for sudden hearing loss, and so forth, other than chronic suppurative otitis media with or without cholesteatoma, middle ear tumors, and anomaly. Correlation of intraoperative findings with preoperative computerized tomography was also analyzed in 35 patients. Conclusively, one out of every 10 surgical cases may have dehiscence of the facial canal which has to be always borne in mind during surgical manipulation of the middle ear. Computerized tomography has some limitations to evaluate the dehiscent facial canal due to high false negative and positive rates.

  18. [Endodontic microbiology: antimicrobial canal medications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, S; Farber, P A

    1989-06-01

    Medicaments used for reducing or eliminating microorganisms from infected root canals include: irrigating solutions, such as sodium hypochlorite, urea peroxide and hydrogen peroxide, chloramine, iodine-potassium-iodide solution, and chlorhexidine solution. In addition, various intracanal drugs, such as calcium hydroxide and antibiotics, are in use. The characteristics of these drugs are discussed.

  19. Mandibular Second Premolar with Four Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Ghiasi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A mandibular second premolar with four canals is an interesting example of anatomic variations. This report describes a case of a mandibular second premolar with three roots and four canals (one mesiobuccal, two distobuccal and one lingual. The canals were prepared using K-files and irrigated with NaOCl (5.25% and normal saline as the final irrigant. The canals were filled laterally with gutta percha and AH26 sealer (De Trey, Dentsply, Switzerland. This case shows a rare anatomic configuration and points out the importance of looking for additional canals.

  20. Trichomycetes living in the guts of aquatic insects of Misiones and Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Lastra, Claudia C; Scorsetti, Ana C; Marti, Gerardo A; Coscarón, Sixto

    2005-01-01

    Fourteen species of Trichomycetes living in the guts of aquatic insects are reported from two provinces of Argentina, Misiones and Tierra del Fuego. Twelve of the species belong to the Harpellales and two are Amoebidiales. Five harpellid species are reported from Misiones in the extreme northeast of the country (Genistellospora homothallica, Harpella tica, Smittium culisetae, Smittium sp., Stachylina sp.) and seven are from Tierra del Fuego, the southern tip of South America (H. meridianalis, Glotzia sp., S. culicis, S. cellaspora, S. imitatum, Stachylina minima, Penella simulii). Insect hosts all were immature stages of Culicidae, Simuliidae, Chironomidae, Ceratopogonidae (Insecta: Diptera), and Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera. The lower diversity of Trichomycetes found at Misiones, which has a subtropical climate and rainforest vegetation, was due possibly to the warmer temperatures of the water (15-24 C), compared to the colder streams of Tierra del Fuego (9-15 C), with forests and steppes as typical vegetation.

  1. Geología y ciencias de la tierra: etimología y un poco de historia

    OpenAIRE

    Anguita, Francisco

    1996-01-01

    La Geología, o tratado de la Tierra, y las Ciencias de la Tierra, o conjunto de conocimientos sobre la Tierra, no constituyen campos de conocimiento coincidentes. Es evidente que la Geología es una Ciencia de la Tierra; pero el dato esencial es que la Geología clásica se construyó sobre una tradición geográfica, mientras que las Ciencias de la Tierra están basadas en una síntesis de la tradición naturalista con metodologías propias de las Ciencias Físicas, como la modelización y la cuantifica...

  2. Epidemiological surveillance of ovine hydatidosis in Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia Argentina, 1997-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, Fabián; Gonzalo, Roberto; Pérez, Héctor; Aparici, Inés; Soto, Ximena; Guerrero, Juvenal; Cerrone, Gloria; Elissondo, Celina

    2006-06-15

    Cystic echinococcosis is the most prevalent zoonosis in Tierra del Fuego province, Argentina, with important economic, productive and public health consequences. The present work was performed to determine the ovine prevalence in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, as well as to evaluate the quality of diagnostic systems in slaughterhouses. Moreover, genetic analyses to characterize the strain of Echinococcus granulosus involved in the region were done. The first actions to perform a diagnosis of the epidemiological situation of hydatidosis in Tierra del Fuego were done between 1976 and 1977. A canine prevalence of 80% and an ovine prevalence of 55% results were obtained. Since 1979 the control program of Hydatidosis of Tierra del Fuego was implemented. It was based on semiannual canine anthelmintic treatment with praziquantel at dose of 5mg/kg, and complemented with sanitary education and canine and ovine epidemiological surveillance. During May 1997-January 1999: 5,916 sheep coming from 20 farms of the programmatic area were evaluated. In the lamb category, hydatid cysts were not found. In the adults category, 62 infected animals were found (3.2%). The ovine prevalence was 1.1% and there was 100% of coincidence between diagnosis in the slaughterhouse, re-inspection in the laboratory and histopathological study. The marked decrease in the prevalence observed for sheep infection evidenced a destabilization of the biological cycle of the parasite. This could be explained by the application of a control program with uninterrupted systematic actions. Polymerase chain reaction-ribosomal ITS-1 DNA (rDNA) restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis and partial sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene were used to characterize E. granulosus isolates collected from different regions of Tierra del Fuego to determine which genotypes occurred in this region. The results revealed the presence of the G1 genotype (sheep-dog strain

  3. 75 FR 39632 - Regulated Navigation Area; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ..., Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey Canal, Algiers Canal, New Orleans, LA; Correction ACTION: Interim... Navigation Canal, Harvey Canal, Algiers Canal, New Orleans, LA into the Code of Federal Regulations....

  4. Conceptos sobre Adecuación de Tierras Agrícolas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustamante Muñoz Hellodoro

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se pretende de una manera muy resumida mostrar algunos conceptos y principios generales sobre la adecuación de tierras agrícolas Adecuación en términos simples significa acción o efecto de proporcionar o acomodar una cosa a otra; por extensión y a manera de ensayo de definición, adecuación de tierras agrícolas consiste en crear o proporcionar las condiciones necesarias para la eficiente explotación del campo.

  5. Instrumentos para el desarrollo de dueños de pequeñas tierras forestales

    OpenAIRE

    José Rente Nascimento; José Luis B. Mota Villanueva

    2004-01-01

    Una de las formas de enfrentar los problemas derivados de la fragmentación de las tierras de vocación forestal (TVF) es la adopción de estrategias de intervención que lleven a la integración de las pequeñas propiedades en unidades productivas mayores o que permitan la utilización de tecnologías propias para propiedades mayores. Este es uno de los resultados del estudio "Instrumentos para el desarrollo de pequeñas tierras de vocación forestal". Dicha investigación utilizó una metodología de re...

  6. El mercado de la tierra en la Francia preindustrial (siglo XVII-inicios del siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GÉRARD BÉAUR

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El tema del mercado de la tierra permite captar los flujos y reflujos de la propiedad campesina. También ayuda a que los historiadores comprendan,entre otras cosas, las estrategias instrumentadas por las familias con la finalidad de administrar su patrimonio y participar del mercado de la tierra. Además, este tema permite comprender las lógicas individuales, familiares y colectivas, captar las jerarquías, las alianzas y los conflictos dentro del espacio social.

  7. Estrategias de enseñanza del Sistema Sol-Tierra

    OpenAIRE

    Bach i Plaza, Joan; Couso, Digna; Franch Batlle, Joan

    2006-01-01

    En este artículo se presentan las actividades diseñadas para promover un cambio conceptual con relación a las ideas previas de los alumnos de primer curso de magisterio en el aprendizaje del sistema Sol- Tierra. Se considera que algunas de las estrategias de enseñanza que se proponen podrían adaptarse a otros niveles educativos, tanto en la educación primaria como en la enseñanza secundaria obligatoria, con el objetivo de que se aprenda significativamente el modelo Sol-Tierra vigente e incor...

  8. The Voyage of the Beagle: Field Work Lessons from Charles Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Louis M.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes Charles Darwin's letters to his family during his voyage on H.M.S. Beagle. Relates the information to the development of Darwin's professional identity and the degree to which the concepts, field methods, and research methods revealed in Darwin's personal correspondence are useful to students of educational administration. (MD)

  9. Web-Beagle: a web server for the alignment of RNA secondary structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Eugenio; Pietrosanto, Marco; Ferrè, Fabrizio; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela

    2015-07-01

    Web-Beagle (http://beagle.bio.uniroma2.it) is a web server for the pairwise global or local alignment of RNA secondary structures. The server exploits a new encoding for RNA secondary structure and a substitution matrix of RNA structural elements to perform RNA structural alignments. The web server allows the user to compute up to 10 000 alignments in a single run, taking as input sets of RNA sequences and structures or primary sequences alone. In the latter case, the server computes the secondary structure prediction for the RNAs on-the-fly using RNAfold (free energy minimization). The user can also compare a set of input RNAs to one of five pre-compiled RNA datasets including lncRNAs and 3' UTRs. All types of comparison produce in output the pairwise alignments along with structural similarity and statistical significance measures for each resulting alignment. A graphical color-coded representation of the alignments allows the user to easily identify structural similarities between RNAs. Web-Beagle can be used for finding structurally related regions in two or more RNAs, for the identification of homologous regions or for functional annotation. Benchmark tests show that Web-Beagle has lower computational complexity, running time and better performances than other available methods.

  10. Enantioselective HPLC determination of oxiracetam enantiomers and application to a pharmacokinetic study in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuyang; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Qing; Yang, Yue; Li, Junxiu; Lu, Yang; Zheng, Yi; He, Jiake; Zhao, Di; Chen, Xijing

    2015-07-01

    An enantioselective high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the determination of oxiracetam enantiomers, a cognition and memory enhancer, in beagle dog plasma. The plasma samples were prepared by methanol extraction from 200μL plasma, and then the baseline resolution was achieved on a Chiralpak ID column (250mm×4.6mm, 5μm) with mobile phase of hexane-ethanol-trifluoroacetic acid (78:22:0.1, v/v/v) at flow rate of 1.0mL/min. The column elute was monitored using ultraviolet detection at 214nm. The method was linear over concentration range 0.50-100μg/mL for both enantiomers. The relative standard deviation values for intra- and inter-day precision were 0.78-13.61 and 0.74-8.92% for (R)- and (S)-oxiracetam, respectively. The relative error values of accuracy ranged from -4.74 to 10.48% for (R)-oxiracetam and from -0.19 to 11.48% for (S)-oxiracetam. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of individual enantiomer and racemic oxiracetam in beagle dogs after oral administration. The disposition of the two enantiomers was not stereoselective and chiral inversion was not observed in beagle dogs. The pharmacokinetic profiles of (S)-oxiracetam were similar with racemic oxiracetam in beagle dogs.

  11. Elimination Half-Lives of Acute Phase Proteins in Rats and Beagle Dogs During Acute Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuribayashi, Takashi; Seita, Tetsuro; Momotani, Eiichi; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Hagimori, Kohei; Yamamoto, Shizuo

    2015-08-01

    The half-lives of typical acute phase proteins in rats and beagle dogs during acute inflammation were investigated. Acute inflammation was induced by injection of turpentine oil in rats and administration of indomethacin in beagle dogs. Serum concentrations of α2-macroglobulin (α2M) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and α1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) was measured by single radial immunodiffusion. Half-life was calculated as 0.693/elimination rate constant (K). The mean half-lives in the terminal elimination phase of α2M and AAG were 68.1 and 164.8 h, respectively. The half-life of AAG was significantly longer than that of α2M. Mean half-lives in the terminal elimination phase of CRP and AAG were 161.9 and 304.4 h, respectively. The half-life of AAG was significantly longer than that of CRP in beagle dogs. No significant differences in the half-life of AAG were observed between rats and beagle dogs. Furthermore, serum concentrations in the terminal elimination phase could be simulated with the K data acquired in this study.

  12. Assessment of thirteen-week subchronic oral toxicity of cyadox in Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Zhou, Wen; Ihsan, Awais; Chen, Dongmei; Cheng, Guyue; Hao, Haihong; Liu, Zhenli; Wang, Yulian; Yuan, Zonghui

    2015-11-01

    Cyadox (2-formylquinoxaline-N(1),N(4)-dioxide cyanocetylhydrazone) is a new antimicrobial agent and growth-promoter to be used in food-producing animals. Although its toxicity has been clearly documented in rodents, no study is available in non-rodent animals. Therefore, we studied the subchronic effects of cyadox in Beagle dogs to provide additional information with which to establish safety criteria for human exposure. For this purpose, 36 Beagle dogs, 18 males and 18 females, were divided into four groups and fed diets containing 0, 100, 450 and 2500 mg/kg of cyadox, respectively, for 13 weeks. It was found that there were no significant changes among the examined parameters, except for an increase in the level of serum potassium (K(+)) in 2500 mg/kg cyadox group in males at week 13 of the study. However, the K(+) level returned to normal during the recovery period. In conclusion, cyadox showed slight effects in Beagle dogs in the subchronic oral toxicity study. The no-observed-adverse-effect level of cyadox was considered to be 450 mg/kg diet, which equates to approximately 15.3-15.4 mg/kg b.w./day. The study provided subchronic effects of cyadox in Beagle dogs, suggesting that cyadox might present mild toxicity in non-rodents.

  13. Neosporosis in Beagle dogs clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, isolation and genetic characterization of Neospora caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinical neosporosis was diagnosed in a litter of five pups born to a Beagle bitch from Virginia, USA. Four of the pups developed limb weakness starting at 4 weeks of age. The dogs were suspected to have neosporosis based on clinical signs and empirically treated with Clindamycin (75 mg, oral, twice...

  14. Beagle Rupes -- Evidence for a Basal Decollement of Regional Extent in Mercury's Lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothery, D. A.; Massironi, M.

    2009-03-01

    Beagle Rupes is a thrust bounded by transpressive lateral ramps. To remain in the elastic lithosphere, the dip of the fault must become shallower at depth. This is evidence for thin-skinned tectonics, with out-of-sequence thrusts, on Mercury.

  15. Polyactive as a bone-filler in a beagle dog model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, G.J.; Dooren, van A.; Gallard, M.L.; Dalmeijer, R.; Putter, de C.; Koole, R.; Blitterswijk, van C.A.

    1996-01-01

    Calcification is a crucial step in the bone-bonding mechanism of PEO/PBT hydrogel copolymers (Polyactive®), a new generation of bone-fillers. A beagle dog study was conducted to determine whether the preoperative presence of a calcium phosphate layer (precalcification) on a PEO/PBT 80/20 copolymer w

  16. Meteorites, Mars and Beagle 2--from novel analysis in the laboratory to pioneering experiments in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, I P

    2003-11-01

    On 25 December 2003, the British-built Beagle 2 probe will land on the surface of Mars to carry out one of the most potentially important pieces of analytical science ever conceived: to search for evidence of extra terrestrial life. Dr Ian Wright of the Open University talks us through the difficulties of performing measurements in such a harsh environment.

  17. Absorption and pharmacokinetics of green tea catechins in beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Bilbao, Maria de Lourdes; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina; Roura, Elena; Jáuregui, Olga; Escribano, Elvira; Torre, Celina; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M

    2008-09-01

    The present study evaluates for the first time in dogs, the kinetics of green tea catechins and their metabolic forms in plasma and urine. Ten beagles were administered 173 mg (12.35 mg/kg body weight) of catechins as a green tea extract, in capsules. Blood samples were collected during 24 h after intake and urine samples were collected during the following periods of time: 0-2, 2-6, 6-8 and 8-24 h. Two catechins with a galloyl moiety and three conjugated metabolites were detected in plasma. Most of the detected forms in plasma reached their maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) at around 1 h. Median Cmax for ( - )-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), ( - )-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), ( - )-epigallocatechin glucuronide (EGC-glucuronide), ( - )-epicatechin glucuronide (EC-glucuronide), ( - )-epicatechin sulphate (EC-sulphate) were 0.3 (range 0.1-1.9), 0.1 (range 0-0.4), 0.8 (range 0.2-3.9), 0.2 (range 0.1-1.7) and 1 (range 0.3-3.4) micromol/l, respectively. The areas under the plasma concentration v. time curves (AUC0 --> 24) were 427 (range 102-1185) micromol/l x min for EGC-glucuronide, 112 (range 53-919) micromol/l x min for EC-sulphate, 71 (range 26-306) micromol/l x min for EGCG, 40 (range 12-258) micromol/l x min for EC-glucuronide and 14 (range 0.1-124) micromol/l x min for ECG. The values of mean residence time (MRT0 --> 24) were 5 (range 2-16), 2 (range 1-11), 10 (range 2-13), 3 (range 2-16) and 2.4 (range 1-18) h for EGCG, ECG, EGC-glucuronide, EC-glucuronide and EC-sulphate, respectively. In urine, catechins were present as conjugated forms, suggesting bile excretion of EGCG and ECG. Green tea catechins are absorbed following an oral administration and EGC-glucuronide is the metabolic form that remains in the organism for a longer period of time, suggesting that this compound could suffer an enterohepatic cycle.

  18. Lung, liver and bone cancer mortality after plutonium exposure in beagle dogs and nuclear workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dulaney A; Mohr, Lawrence C; Frey, G Donald; Lackland, Daniel; Hoel, David G

    2010-01-01

    The Mayak Production Association (MPA) worker registry has shown evidence of plutonium-induced health effects. Workers were potentially exposed to plutonium nitrate [(239)Pu(NO(3))(4)] and plutonium dioxide ((239)PuO(2)). Studies of plutonium-induced health effects in animal models can complement human studies by providing more specific data than is possible in human observational studies. Lung, liver, and bone cancer mortality rate ratios in the MPA worker cohort were compared to those seen in beagle dogs, and models of the excess relative risk of lung, liver, and bone cancer mortality from the MPA worker cohort were applied to data from life-span studies of beagle dogs. The lung cancer mortality rate ratios in beagle dogs are similar to those seen in the MPA worker cohort. At cumulative doses less than 3 Gy, the liver cancer mortality rate ratios in the MPA worker cohort are statistically similar to those in beagle dogs. Bone cancer mortality only occurred in MPA workers with doses over 10 Gy. In dogs given (239)Pu, the adjusted excess relative risk of lung cancer mortality per Gy was 1.32 (95% CI 0.56-3.22). The liver cancer mortality adjusted excess relative risk per Gy was 55.3 (95% CI 23.0-133.1). The adjusted excess relative risk of bone cancer mortality per Gy(2) was 1,482 (95% CI 566.0-5686). Models of lung cancer mortality based on MPA worker data with additional covariates adequately described the beagle dog data, while the liver and bone cancer models were less successful.

  19. Recloned dogs derived from adipose stem cells of a transgenic cloned beagle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; Kim, Min Jung; Hong, So Gun; Ra, Jeong Chan; Jo, Jung Youn; Kang, Sung Keun; Jang, Goo; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2011-04-15

    A number of studies have postulated that efficiency in mammalian cloning is inversely correlated with donor cell differentiation status and may be increased by using undifferentiated cells as nuclear donors. Here, we attempted the recloning of dogs by nuclear transfer of canine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (cAd-MSCs) from a transgenic cloned beagle to determine if cAd-MSCs can be a suitable donor cell type. In order to isolate cAd-MSCs, adipose tissues were collected from a transgenic cloned beagle produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) of canine fetal fibroblasts modified genetically with a red fluorescent protein (RFP) gene. The cAd-MSCs expressed the RFP gene and cell-surface marker characteristics of MSCs including CD29, CD44 and thy1.1. Furthermore, cAd-MSCs underwent osteogenic, adipogenic, myogenic, neurogenic and chondrogenic differentiation when exposed to specific differentiation-inducing conditions. In order to investigate the developmental potential of cAd-MSCs, we carried out SCNT. Fused-couplets (82/109, 75.2%) were chemically activated and transferred into the uterine tube of five naturally estrus-synchronized surrogates. One of them (20%) maintained pregnancy and subsequently gave birth to two healthy cloned pups. The present study demonstrated for the first time the successful production of cloned beagles by nuclear transfer of cAd-MSCs. Another important outcome of the present study is the successful recloning of RFP-expressing transgenic cloned beagle pups by nuclear transfer of cells derived from a transgenic cloned beagle. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that adipose stem cells can be a good nuclear donor source for dog cloning.

  20. Scalloping at the lumbosacral canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, R.

    1987-07-01

    Scalloping is an indentation of the dorsal side of the vertebral body (anterior wall of the lumbosacral or sacral canal) which typically involves several adjacent lumbal vertebral body segments and the anterior wall of the canalis sacralis. Occurrence without underlying disease is rare; it occurs most frequently with chondrodystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Morquio's syndrome, Hurler's syndrome, acromegaly, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, cysts, tumors and in peridural lipomas.

  1. «Huarpes no tan huarpes» y «hombres modernos»: interpelaciones étnicas y disputas por las últimas tierras irrigadas en Mendoza (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Saldi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A través de un estudio etnográfico en la periferia del oasis de riego más importante del centro-oeste argentino, se analiza la intervención de persistentes representaciones étnico-raciales y ambientales en la delimitación de áreas irrigadas y de grupos sociales que ostentan la tenencia del agua y la tierra. Los grupos situados a uno y otro lado de los últimos canales de riego son interpelados desde paradigmas modernistas que vinculan a la tenencia del agua, la propiedad privada y la producción vitivinícola con la herencia europea y la idea de progreso, mientras que lo no irrigado, la tenencia comunitaria de la tierra y el pastoreo trashumante se asocia a la descendencia indígena huarpe y a la idea de atraso o involución. Debido a la presencia de dos espacios y grupos socio-culturales supuestamente autónomos, opuestos y separados por los últimos canales de riego es que se los conceptualiza como frontera hídrica. Esta, a pesar de ser considerada como natural y fija, es por el contrario artificial y dinámica, producto de luchas sociales y simbólicas por el agua y por la obtención de legitimidad como grupo socio-cultural capaz de obtenerla y controlarla. Asimismo se resaltan la presencia no solo de actores liminales, ni huarpes ni de origen europeo, sino también de alianzas que pueden llevar a la reconfiguración de espacios irrigados y de grupos socioculturales capaces de dar batalla en las disputas por los recursos naturales.

  2. Mires and mire types of Peninsula Mitre, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootjans, A.; Iturraspe, R.; Fritz, C.; Moen, A.; Joosten, H.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, a field visit by members of the International Mire Conservation Group (IMCG) to the Atlantic coast of Peninsula Mitre (the easternmost part of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina) gathered information on mire diversity in this remote wild area with largely pristine mires. Our expedit

  3. Campesinos contra campesinos: conflictos agrarios y lucha por la tierra en Comoapan, Veracruz (1925-1942

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Jiménez Marce

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo es mostrar las gestiones que los campesinos de Comoapan, Veracruz, una congregación dependiente en ese momento de San Andrés Tuxtla, hicieron ante las autoridades agrarias para tratar de que les dotara de las fértiles tierras que se dedicaban al cultivo del tabaco, situación que generó un enfrentamiento contra la familia Carrión, misma que era una de las principales productoras de la hoja en la región de los Tuxtlas. Para conservar sus tierras, los Carrión apoyaron la formación de una agrupación campesina, conformada por sus peones y campesinos que no tenían derecho a obtener tierra ejidal, y que se convirtió en antagonista de la que pedía las tierras. Se busca entender los complejos procesos que se vivieron en Comoapan y las interrelaciones que se establecieron entre ejidatarios y no ejidatarios, a fin de mostrar que el reparto agrario no constituyó un proceso carente de problemáticas.

  4. Un congreso de fisica estudia la composicion de las capas de la tierra

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    "El Congreso de Internacional de Neutrinos, que ayer comenzo en el Jardin Botanico de Valencia, aborda, entre otros aspectos, la composicion y el perfil tomografico de las distintas capas de estratos del interior de la Tierra, segun informo a Efe el profesor Jose Furtado Valle" (1/2 page).

  5. Los Takanas: el acceso a la tierra y los recursos naturales (1950-2003.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulema Lehm Ardaya

    2010-01-01

    uso comercial de diferentes especies naturales. El artículo discute la adaptación de los takanas a los desafíos y tendencias del uso de los recursos naturales en sistemas de acceso comunitario a la tierra.

  6. Nested Canalizing Functions and Their Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kadelka, Claus; Adeyeye, John O; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    The concept of a nested canalizing Boolean function has been studied over the last decade in the context of understanding the regulatory logic of molecular interaction networks, such as gene regulatory networks. Such networks are predominantly governed by nested canalizing functions. Derrida values are frequently used to analyze the robustness of a Boolean network to perturbations. This paper introduces closed formulas for the calculation of Derrida values of networks governed by Boolean nested canalizing functions, which previously required extensive simulations. Recently, the concept of nested canalizing functions has been generalized to include multistate functions, and a recursive formula has been derived for their number, as a function of the number of variables. This paper contains a detailed analysis of the class of nested canalizing functions over an arbitrary finite field. In addition, the concept of nested canalization is further generalized and closed formulas for the number of such generalized fun...

  7. Stability of guest molecules in urea canal complexes by canal polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1995-03-01

    It was found that various organic materials are attracted into urea canal by hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) and long chain compounds. This means that materials which does not form complex by itself are induced in canal by HDDA and long chain compounds. To include with stability perfumes, insecticides, attractants and repellents in urea canal, leaf alcohol was used as a model compound for guest molecules in the canal. The leaf alcohol from the canal released gradually over many days and the release was inhibited for 15 days by long chain compounds and for 30 days by polymerized HDDA after irradiation. After releasing, the leaf alcohol in the canal remained 25 % stable for long chain compounds and 40 % for polymerized HDDA. The dose required for stabilization of leaf alcohol in the urea canal by canal polymerization of HDDA was 30 kGy. (author).

  8. Canals, DMADCanals-Irrigation canals in Millard Co., Published in 2007, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Canals dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'DMADCanals-Irrigation canals in Millard Co.'. Data by this...

  9. MRI Findings in Spinal Canal Stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Barzin

    2010-01-01

    Spinal canal stenosis results from progressive narrowing of the central spinal canal and the lateral recesses. Primary (congenital) lumbar spinal stenosis is associated with achondroplastic dwarfism. The spinal canal may become narrowed by bulging or protrusion of the intervertebral disc annulus, herniation of the nucleus pulposus posteriorly, thickening of the posterior longitudinal ligament, hypertrophy of the facet joints, hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum, epidural fat deposition, spon...

  10. Modelling of Buckingham Canal water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, S A; Khan, F I; Sentilvelan, K; Shabudeen, A

    2002-10-01

    The paper presents a case study of the modelling of the water quality of a canal situated in a petrochemical industrial complex, which receives wastewaters from Madras Refineries Limited (MRL), and Madras Fertilizers Limited (MFL). The canal well known Buckingham Canal which passes through Chennai (Madras), India has been modelled using the software QUAL2E-UNCAS. After testing and validation of the model, simulations have been carried out. The exercise enables forecasting the impacts of different seasons, base flows, and waste water inputs on the water quality of the Buckingham Canal. It also enables development of water management strategies.

  11. Capitalismo, crisis y naturaleza: Un análisis del acaparamiento de tierras dentro y desde el Sur Global

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Sol

    2016-01-01

    El acaparamiento de tierras (land grabbing) refiere al proceso de adquisiciones a gran escala de tierras agrícolas en otros estados, desatado en el contexto de la convergencia de crisis internacionales —alimentaria, energética, financiera y climática— de 2008. Este artículo analiza las razones que convirtieron al acaparamiento de tierras en un fenómeno global, irreductible a la lógica Norte-Sur. Adicionalmente, indaga sus implicaciones sobre la posición internacional y definici...

  12. Effects of Sweet Bee Venom on cardiovascular system in the conscious telemetered Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Chung-San

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:This study was performed to analyse the effects of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV on cardiovascular system in the conscious telemetered Beagle Dogs. Methods:All experiments were conducted at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical studies authorized institution, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP. Male Beagle dogs of 13-19 months old were chosen for the pilot study and surgical implantation was performed for conscious telemetered Beagle dogs. And after confirming condition of Beagle dogs was stable, Sweet BV was administered 4 times(first: 0.0 ㎎/㎏, 2nd: 0.01 ㎎/㎏, 3rd: 0.1 ㎎/㎏, and forth: 0.5 ㎎/㎏, one time/week in thigh muscle of Beagle dogs. And blood pressure, heart rate, electrocardiography and clinical responses were measured. Equal amount of normal saline to the Sweet BV experiment groups was administered to the control group. 1. In the analysis of body weight and taking amount, Beagle dogs did not show significant changes. 2. In the clinical observation, responses of pain and edema were showed depend on dosage of Sweet BV. 3. In the analysis of blood pressure, treatment with Sweet BV did not show significant changes in the dosage of 0.01 ㎎/㎏, but in the dosage of 0.1 ㎎/㎏ and 0.5 ㎎/㎏, treatment with Sweet BV increased blood pressure significantly. 4. In the analysis of heart rate, treatment of Sweet BV did not show significant changes in all dosage and period. 5. In the analysis of electrocardiography, treatment of Sweet BV was not showed significant changes in all dosage and period. Conclusion:Above findings suggest that Sweet BV is relatively safe treatment in the cardiovascular system. But in the using of over dosage, Sweet BV may the cause of increasing blood pressure. Further studies on the subject should be conducted to yield more concrete evidences.

  13. Spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of experimental Wistar rats and beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataraju, G J; Ranvir, Ramchandra K; Kothule, Viren R; Kadam, Shekhar B; Ravichandra, B V; Bhatnagar, Upendra; Jain, Mukul R

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was undertaken at Zydus Research Centre to understand the incidences of spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of Wistar rats and beagle dogs. The data from a total of 841 Wistar rats (418 males and 423 females) and 144 beagle dogs (72 males and 72 females) was used from placebo/vehicle treated control group of different non-clinical toxicity studies. The lesions in various endocrine glands were classified according to the species and age of the animals at termination of study. Among the endocrine glands, the highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were observed in adrenal glands followed in descending order by pituitary, thyroid, endocrine pancreas and parathyroid glands in Wistar rats. In beagle dogs, highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were seen in adrenals followed by thyroid, endocrine pancreas, pituitary and parathyroid gland. In adrenal glands of Wistar rats, the incidences of cortical cell vacuolation, hemorrhages and hemangiectasis/peliosis were increased with age. Incidence of peliosis at ∼110 weeks of age was higher in female rats. Among the proliferative lesions in rats, higher incidences of cortical cell hyperplasia was observed followed by medullary hyperplasia, complex pheochromocytoma, cortical cell adenoma and cortical adenocarcinoma. In beagle dogs, the incidences of hemangiectasis and cortical cell vacuolation in adrenal glands were higher in 18-21 months aged dogs in both the sexes as compared to 10-12 months of age. In pituitary gland, the incidences of cystic changes were higher in older rats and dogs and the incidences were more in beagles as compared to rats. In thyroid glands, C-cell (parafollicular cells) hyperplasia/complex was observed more frequently in both the species. Few incidences of cystic changes were observed in parathyroid of 18-21 months aged beagle dogs. In endocrine pancreas, few incidences of islet-cell vacuolation, atrophy and hyperplasia were observed in both the species. The

  14. Quantification of brown dog tick repellents, 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde, and release from tick-resistant beagles, Canis lupus familiaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Filho, Jaires Gomes; Sarria, André Lucio Franceschini; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Caulfield, John C; Powers, Stephen J; Pickett, John A; de León, Adalberto A Pérez; Birkett, Michael A; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira

    2016-06-01

    We have recently shown that repellency of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato by the tick resistant dog breed, the beagle, is mediated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde present in beagle odour. Ectoparasite location of animal hosts is affected by variation in these odour components and their ratios. The aim of this study was to quantify the release rate, and the ratio, of 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde from beagles. The odour of three beagles was collected, for four days, over one week (day 0, day 1, day 4 and day 7). The compounds were identified using coupled high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and authentic standards of compounds were used to generate external calibration curves for quantification. Both compounds were found in all dogs on all days. The amount of benzaldehyde was always higher than that of 2-hexanone and so their ratio varied from unity, on average (over time) being 3.128±0.365, 1.902±0.390, 1.670±0.671ngmL(-1) for beagle 1, 2 and 3, respectively. There was no significant (pbenzaldehyde in beagle odour samples covering a 7-day period. This knowledge enables development of repellents to protect dogs from R. sanguineus s. l. infestation.

  15. Narrow, duplicated internal auditory canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, T. [Servico de Neurorradiologia, Hospital Garcia de Orta, Avenida Torrado da Silva, 2801-951, Almada (Portugal); Shayestehfar, B. [Department of Radiology, UCLA Oliveview School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Lufkin, R. [Department of Radiology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2003-05-01

    A narrow internal auditory canal (IAC) constitutes a relative contraindication to cochlear implantation because it is associated with aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve or its cochlear branch. We report an unusual case of a narrow, duplicated IAC, divided by a bony septum into a superior relatively large portion and an inferior stenotic portion, in which we could identify only the facial nerve. This case adds support to the association between a narrow IAC and aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The normal facial nerve argues against the hypothesis that the narrow IAC is the result of a primary bony defect which inhibits the growth of the vestibulocochlear nerve. (orig.)

  16. The Scientific Management for High Quality Beagle Dogs Research Resources%高质量Beagle犬研究资源的科学管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟平; 刘运忠; 罗甜义

    2003-01-01

    Guangdong Beagle Resource Research and Development Center (abbreviated as GBRDC ) was Founded by Guangzhou Pharmaceutical Industry Research Institute in 1983, it is named as GBRDC by Guangdong Province Sci. &Tech. Commission. It is then first Beagle Dag Research Resources according to Laboratory Animal Science standard to maintain the Beagle Dogs research resource in China. Currently, it is playing a leading role in Beagle Dog research resource in China. During the 20 past years, GBRDC' s Management, Technology, Research are all focused on the regula-tory testing and animal welfare.

  17. Spectroscopic investigation of asteroids belonging to the Themis and Beagle families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasier, S.; Perna, D.; Barucci, M. A.; Merlin, F.; Dotto, E.

    2012-09-01

    24 Themis is the largest body of the Themis family. Within this big family a cluster of very young asteroids (age Beagle sub-family, has been identified. Recently water ice and organics were detected on 24 Themis indicating that the Themis family may be an important reservoir of ice. Moreover, the main belt comets 133P, 238P, and 176P may be related with the Themis family because of orbital proximities and spectral properties analogies. The aim of this work is to spectroscopically investigate some asteroids belonging to the Themis family and to the young Beagle sub-family in order to look for absorption bands related to water ice, hydrated silicates and organics.

  18. The Themis-Beagle families: clues into space weathering processes on primitive asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasier, S.; Perna, D.; Lantz, C.; Barucci, M. A.

    2015-10-01

    The Themis family is a natural laboratory to study the asteroids-comets continuum and space weathering effects. Recently water ice and organics were detected on 24 Themis indicating that the Themis family may be an important reservoir of ice. Moreover, some main belt comets may be related with the Themis family because of orbital proximities and spectral properties analogies. Within the old Themis family members, a young sub-family, Beagle, formed less than 10 Myr ago, has been identified. Thus the Themis family is very important to shed light on the asteroid-comet continuum, to constrain the abundances of water ices in the outer part of the main belt, and to probe space weathering effects on old Themis and young Beagle families' members.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of Ginkgolide B after Oral Administration of Three Different Ginkgolide B Formulations in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgolide B (GB, an important active constituent of Ginkgo biloba extract, has been used in clinical applications for the treatment of dementia, cerebral insufficiency or related cognitive decline. To investigate the main pharmacokinetic characteristics of three different GB formulations in beagle dogs, a simple, specific and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was established and validated. The separation of the analytes was achieved on an Agilent Eclipse Plus C18 column (1.8 μm, 2.1 × 50 mm with a mobile phase consisting of water and acetonitrile. The flow rate was set at 0.4 mL/min. Quantitation was performed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM in negative ion mode, with the transitions at m/z (Q1/Q3 423.1/367.1 for GB and m/z 269.3/170.0 for IS. The linear calibration curve of GB was obtained over the concentration range of 2–200 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions were <15% and the accuracies were within ±12.7%. The validated method was applied to compare the pharmacokinetic characteristics of GB in healthy beagle dogs after oral administration of three formulations (HME08, GB capsule prepared by hot-melt extrusion technology; LL06, GB pellet prepared by liquid layer technology; conventional GB tablet. The Cmax values of GB from different formulations in beagle dog plasma were 309.2, 192.4 and 66.6 µg/L, and the AUC values were 606.7, 419.1 and 236.2 µg/L·h, respectively. The data suggested that the exposure level of GB from HME08 and LL06 in beagle dog plasma was greatly improved compared with conventional tablets. This study should be helpful for the design and development of oral GB preparations.

  20. Neutron metrology in the HFR. Neutron and gamma metrology in two beagles and one cylindrical phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voorbraak, W.P.; Freudenreich, W.E.; Stecher-Rasmussen, F.; Verhagen, H.W.

    1991-10-01

    Neutron fluence rate and gamma dose data are presented for the first series of experiments at the filtered HFR beam HB11 at full reactor power. Measurements were performed on two beagle dogs and one cylindrical phantom. The main results for thermal and epithermal fluence rates, physical neutron dose and gamma dose are presented in the tables 1 and 2. (author). 10 refs.; 9 figs.; 8 tabs.

  1. Serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes in laboratory beagle dogs detected by polyacrylamide-gel disk electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatayama, Kazuhisa; Nishihara, Yoshito; Kimura, Sayaka; Goto, Ken; Nakamura, Daichi; Wakita, Atsushi; Urasoko, Yoshinaka

    2011-10-01

    Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity is frequently measured in toxicity studies. Itoh et al. (2002) reported that a commercially available polyacrylamide-gel (PAG) disk electrophoresis kit used in humans (AlkPhor System, Jokoh Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) for identifying serum ALP isoenzymes was useful for veterinary clinicopathological diagnosis in mongrel dogs. In the present study, based on the report of Itoh et al. (2002), we tried to expand the application range of this kit to laboratory beagle dogs which are commonly used in toxicity studies. In order to identify the origin of each ALP isoenzyme, tissue ALP extracts from the liver, bone and small intestine and serum samples were treated with neuraminidase, anti-small intestinal ALP antibody, ALP inhibitor levamisole and/or wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). The main serum ALP isoenzymes in 5-month-old intact beagle dogs were bone-derived (bone and atypical ALP: corresponding to human variant bone ALP) and they tended to decrease with age. However, liver-derived ALP isoenzyme greatly increased in the serum of cholestasis model dogs. The cholestasis model dogs also had a large molecular ALP detected in the resolving gel. This ALP could be originated from intestinal ALP or corticosteroid-induced ALP (CALP), because the activity remained even after levamisole inhibition. CALP was observed in intact laboratory beagle dogs with individual differences. These results suggest that the present method is a useful tool for detecting serum ALP isoenzymes in laboratory beagle dogs and concomitant levamisole inhibition with another gel is applicable for the evaluation of organ toxicity.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of Ginkgolide B after Oral Administration of Three Different Ginkgolide B Formulations in Beagle Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Geng, Ting; Wang, Qi; Si, Haihong; Sun, Xiaoping; Guo, Qingming; Li, Yanjing; Huang, Wenzhe; Ding, Gang; Xiao, Wei

    2015-11-06

    Ginkgolide B (GB), an important active constituent of Ginkgo biloba extract, has been used in clinical applications for the treatment of dementia, cerebral insufficiency or related cognitive decline. To investigate the main pharmacokinetic characteristics of three different GB formulations in beagle dogs, a simple, specific and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was established and validated. The separation of the analytes was achieved on an Agilent Eclipse Plus C18 column (1.8 μm, 2.1×50 mm) with a mobile phase consisting of water and acetonitrile. The flow rate was set at 0.4 mL/min. Quantitation was performed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in negative ion mode, with the transitions at m/z (Q1/Q3) 423.1/367.1 for GB and m/z 269.3/170.0 for IS. The linear calibration curve of GB was obtained over the concentration range of 2-200 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions were beagle dogs after oral administration of three formulations (HME08, GB capsule prepared by hot-melt extrusion technology; LL06, GB pellet prepared by liquid layer technology; conventional GB tablet). The Cmax values of GB from different formulations in beagle dog plasma were 309.2, 192.4 and 66.6 µg/L, and the AUC values were 606.7, 419.1 and 236.2 µg/L·h, respectively. The data suggested that the exposure level of GB from HME08 and LL06 in beagle dog plasma was greatly improved compared with conventional tablets. This study should be helpful for the design and development of oral GB preparations.

  3. The Beagle Rupes area - evidence for a basal decollement of regional extent in Mercury's lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothery, David; Massironi, Matteo

    2010-05-01

    The Beagle Rupes lobate scarp was particularly clearly imaged during the outbound leg of MESSENGER's first flyby, thanks to its location at low latitude and proximity to the terminator. Previous interpretations of mercurian lobate scarps regard them as surface expressions of thrusts whose fault planes dip uniformly and die out at depth, and that lack lateral ramps or any extensive detachment horizon. However, we interpret Beagle Rupes as a component of a linked fault system, consisting of a frontal scarp terminated by transpressive lateral ramps. The terrain bounded by these features is the hanging-wall block of a thrust sheet and must be underlain by a basal decollement (a detachment horizon) constituting the fault zone at depth. Displacement at the Beagle Rupes frontal scarp is no more than about 3 km. However, the decollement must extend a minimum of 150 km eastwards from the frontal scarp, and at least 400 km if displacement is transferred to features interpreted as out-of sequence thrusts and offset lateral ramps that appear to continue the linked fault system to the east. The depth of the basal decollement could be controlled by crustal stratigraphy or by rheological change within, or at the base of, the lithosphere. One such candidate horizon could be the brittle-ductile transition in quartz-bearing lower crust as predicted by some models of Mercury's early differentiation history (Brown and Elkins-Tanton, 2009). Further analysis of the terrain north and south of Beagle Rupes reveals ridges (10s of km wide and 100s of km long) that we interpret as pop-up structures probably associated with blind thrusts and very likely providing additional evidence of a decollement of regional extent. Brown, S. M., Elkins-Tanton, L. T., 2009, Compositions of Mercury's earliest crust from magma ocean models. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 286, 446-455.

  4. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum.

  5. Bilateral duplication of the internal auditory canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weon, Young Cheol; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Choi, Sung Kyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea); Koo, Ja-Won [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea)

    2007-10-15

    Duplication of the internal auditory canal is an extremely rare temporal bone anomaly that is believed to result from aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. We report bilateral duplication of the internal auditory canal in a 28-month-old boy with developmental delay and sensorineural hearing loss. (orig.)

  6. 33 CFR 117.285 - Grand Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grand Canal. 117.285 Section 117.285 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.285 Grand Canal. (a) The draw of the Lansing Island bridge, mile 0.7, shall open on...

  7. 33 CFR 117.453 - Houma Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Houma Canal. 117.453 Section 117.453 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.453 Houma Canal. The draw of the S3197 bridge, mile 1.7 at Houma, shall open on signal...

  8. 33 CFR 117.438 - Company Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Company Canal. 117.438 Section 117.438 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.438 Company Canal. (a) The draw of the S1 bridge, mile 0.4 at Lockport, shall open...

  9. Neuronal hyperplasia in the anal canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, C; Schrøder, H D

    1990-01-01

    In a consecutive series of minor surgical specimens from the anal canal, neuronal hyperplasia was found in nine of 56 haemorrhoidectomy specimens and in four of 23 fibrous polyps. In an additional series of 14 resections of the anal canal, neuronal hyperplasia was present in six cases, of which...

  10. 33 CFR 117.787 - Gowanus Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gowanus Canal. 117.787 Section 117.787 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.787 Gowanus Canal. The draws of the Ninth Street Bridge, mile 1.4, the Third...

  11. Blending Canal Surfaces Based on PH Curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Dong Xu; Fa-Lai Chen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for blending two canal surfaces is proposed. The blending surface is itself a generalized canal surface, the spine curve of which is a PH (Pythagorean-Hodograph) curve. The blending surface possesses an attractive property - its representation is rational. The method is extensible to blend general surfaces as long as the blending boundaries are well-defined.

  12. 33 CFR 117.445 - Franklin Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Franklin Canal. 117.445 Section 117.445 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.445 Franklin Canal. The draw of the Chatsworth Bridge, mile 4.8 at Franklin, shall...

  13. 33 CFR 117.1045 - Hood Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hood Canal. 117.1045 Section 117.1045 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1045 Hood Canal. The draw of the Washington State pontoon highway bridge near...

  14. DESIGN OF SEDIMENT TRANSPORTING CANAL SECTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prabhata K.SWAMEE; Nimisha SWAMEE

    2004-01-01

    Design equations for minimum area or maximum velocity canal-sections for transport of bulk sediment carried by water have been obtained. Such canals are economically feasible in the terrain where large slopes are available. The design procedure is illustrated by a practical example.

  15. Charles Darwin's beagle voyage, fossil vertebrate succession, and "the gradual birth & death of species".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Paul D

    2010-01-01

    The prevailing view among historians of science holds that Charles Darwin became a convinced transmutationist only in the early spring of 1837, after his Beagle collections had been examined by expert British naturalists. With respect to the fossil vertebrate evidence, some historians believe that Darwin was incapable of seeing or understanding the transmutationist implications of his specimens without the help of Richard Owen. There is ample evidence, however, that he clearly recognized the similarities between several of the fossil vertebrates he collected and some of the extant fauna of South America before he returned to Britain. These comparisons, recorded in his correspondence, his diary and his notebooks during the voyage, were instances of a phenomenon that he later called the "law of the succession of types." Moreover, on the Beagle, he was following a geological research agenda outlined in the second volume of Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology, which implies that paleontological data alone could provide an insight into the laws which govern the appearance of new species. Since Darwin claims in On the Origin of Species that fossil vertebrate succession was one of the key lines of evidence that led him to question the fixity of species, it seems certain that he was seriously contemplating transmutation during the Beagle voyage. If so, historians of science need to reconsider both the role of Britain's expert naturalists and the importance of the fossil vertebrate evidence in the development of Darwin's ideas on transmutation.

  16. Pharmacokinetic comparisons of S-oxiracetam and R-oxiracetam in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wusan; Ji, Hui; Li, Tingting; Jia, Yuanwei; Xie, Haitang

    2016-06-01

    A pharmacokinetic comparison and conformational stability study of S-oxiracetam (S-ORT) and R-oxiracetam (R-ORT) in beagle dogs was used to investigate the possible mechanism of different effects of two oxiracetam enantiomers through a random crossover design. After drug administration to beagle dogs, blood samples were collected at different time points for pharmacokinetic analysis using the UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method. Parts of plasma samples were used for conformation transformation studies using a normal phase high performance liquid chromatographic (NP HPLC) method. The study showed that oxiracetam enantiomers maintained their original conformation when administered orally to beagle dogs. Concentrations of S-ORT were significantly higher than R-ORT 1.5 and 2 h after administration; the AUC0-∞ of S-ORT after oral administration tended to be higher than that of R-ORT, which showed that the different effects between S-ORT and R-ORT may be partly associated with their distinctive absorption at least.

  17. Development of the Endocrine Pancreas in the Beagle Dog: From Fetal to Adult Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricout-Neveu, Emilie; Pechberty, Severine; Reynaud, Karine; Maenhoudt, Cindy; José Lecomte, Marie; Ravassard, Philippe; Czernichow, Paul

    2017-03-14

    Our objectives were to describe, in Beagle dogs, the ontogenesis of beta (insulin-producing) and alpha (glucagon-producing) cells from fetal to early postnatal life and adulthood. In addition, to have some insight into interspecies comparison, Beagle dog pancreases were compared to pancreases from a Labrador and Chow Chow. At midgestation, the epithelium was dense, beta cells scarce, and alpha cells numerous and concentrated in the center of the pancreatic bud. From 36 to 45 days post conception (pc), beta cell numbers increased and the epithelium expanded and branched out. At 55 days pc, large beta cell aggregates were seen. At weaning, the islets were similar to those in adults, with limited alpha cells intermingled with numerous beta cells. Quantification of the Alpha to Beta cells ratio has shown a gradual increase of beta cells proportion throughout development. Similar findings were obtained in the 2 other breeds. In conclusion, in the fetal Beagle dog beta cells emerge from the pancreatic bud at midgestation, but the endocrine structure is mature only in early postnatal life. The ontogenesis of the endocrine pancreas demonstrated in dogs resembles that reported in rats and mice. In contrast, human beta cells appear earlier, at the beginning of the second trimester of gestation. Our study provides a detailed morphological description of pancreatic development in dogs but supplies no information on alpha- or beta-cell function during fetal life. The morphological data reported here provide a foundation for building physiological studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Pharmacokinetic comparisons of S-oxiracetam and R-oxiracetam in beagle dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wusan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A pharmacokinetic comparison and conformational stability study of S-oxiracetam (S-ORT and R-oxiracetam (R-ORT in beagle dogs was used to investigate the possible mechanism of different effects of two oxiracetam enantiomers through a random crossover design. After drug administration to beagle dogs, blood samples were collected at different time points for pharmacokinetic analysis using the UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method. Parts of plasma samples were used for conformation transformation studies using a normal phase high performance liquid chromatographic (NP HPLC method. The study showed that oxiracetam enantiomers maintained their original conformation when administered orally to beagle dogs. Concentrations of S-ORT were significantly higher than R-ORT 1.5 and 2 h after administration; the AUC0-∞ of S-ORT after oral administration tended to be higher than that of R-ORT, which showed that the different effects between S-ORT and R-ORT may be partly associated with their distinctive absorption at least.

  19. SNPs of melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) associated with body weight in Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ruixia; Zhang, Yibo; Du, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), which is associated with inherited human obesity, is involoved in food intake and body weight of mammals. To study the relationships between MC4R gene polymorphism and body weight in Beagle dogs, we detected and compared the nucleotide sequence of the whole coding region and 3'- and 5'- flanking regions of the dog MC4R gene (1214 bp). In 120 Beagle dogs, two SNPs (A420C, C895T) were identified and their relation with body weight was analyzed with RFLP-PCR method. The results showed that the SNP at A420C was significantly associated with canine body weight trait when it changed amino acid 101 of the MC4R protein from asparagine to threonine, while canine body weight variations were significant in female dogs when MC4R nonsense mutation at C895T. It suggested that the two SNPs might affect the MC4R gene's function which was relative to body weight in Beagle dogs. Therefore, MC4R was a candidate gene for selecting different size dogs with the MC4R SNPs (A420C, C895T) being potentially valuable as a genetic marker.

  20. Pharmacokinetics study of extended release formulations of buspirone hydrochloride in Beagle dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Meng-cun; LI Jing-lai; CHEN Yan; WANG Xiao-ying; QIAO Jian-zhong; ZHANG Zhen-qing; RUAN Jin-xiu

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) properties of extended release formulations of buspirone hydrochloride in Beagle dogs. Methods A randomized, two period, two treatment, two sequence crossover bioequivalenee study was designed; six healthy Beagle dogs were randomly divided into two groups, each group was orally given buspirone tablets or buspirone extended capsule containing 15 mg buspirone hydrochloride. Blood samples (about 1 mL) were collected in heparinized tubes before dosing and at 0.33, 0.67, 1,2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 18, 24 h after administration, and were then immediately centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 15 min. The pharmacokinetics (PK) properties of the drugs were evaluated using the liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method. Results The mean tmax was 4.7, 0.8 h and Cmax values was 1.8, 6.9 μg·L-1, respectively for the sustained-release test (capsule) and reference formulation (tablet). When compared to the tablets, the residence time of the sustained capsules was dramatically prolonged and Cmax Was reduced (P<0.01). The initial release speed was slow and stable. The bioavailability was similar to the common tablets. Conclusions The sustained capsule had showed good pharmacokinetics property of sustained-release in the Beagle dogs.

  1. Age-related changes in the prostate and testes of the Beagle dog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowseth, L.A.; Gerlach, R.F.; Gillett, N.A.; Muggenburg, B.A. (Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1990-01-01

    Age-related changes in the histologic morphology of the Beagle dog prostate have been used as a model for similar changes that occur in human beings. Previous studies of the aging changes in Beagle dogs have been limited to animals less than 10 years of age. In this study, the prostate, testes, and serum testosterone levels were evaluated in healthy Beagle dogs that were grouped by age to provide five groups of dogs that ranged from 3 to 14 years of age. Tissue sections from the prostate and testes were examined qualitatively and quantitatively by light microscopy. All animals 6 years of age and older had histologic characteristics of complex benign prostatic hyperplasia. A mean statistically significant increase in prostatic weight with increased age was noted. Morphometric analysis of the prostatic tissue suggested that similar to the change observed in human males, the increase in size was primarily due to an increase in the absolute volume of interstitial tissues. The epithelial component did not contribute to the increase noted, with the exception that the percentage of glandular lumen did increase with age, indicating progressive cystic dilatation of the glands. Stereologic analysis of the testes showed a decrease in the relative percentage of germ cells with increasing age. No distinct age-related trend was detected in serum testosterone concentrations. These findings indicate that the progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia occurs throughout the entire life span of the dog; an association with changes in the testes was not identified.

  2. Tissue engineering in endodontics: root canal revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palit Madhu Chanda; Hegde, K Sundeep; Bhat, Sham S; Sargod, Sharan S; Mantha, Somasundar; Chattopadhyay, Sayan

    2014-01-01

    Root canal revascularization attempts to make necrotic tooth alive by the use of certain simple clinical protocols. Earlier apexification was the treatment of choice for treating and preserving immature permanent teeth that have lost pulp vitality. This procedure promoted the formation of apical barrier to seal the root canal of immature teeth and nonvital filling materials contained within root canal space. However with the success of root canal revascularization to regenerate the pulp dentin complex of necrotic immature tooth has made us to rethink if apexification is at the beginning of its end. The objective of this review is to discuss the new concepts of tissue engineering in endodontics and the clinical steps of root canal revascularization.

  3. Clinical management of infected root canal dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, R M

    1996-08-01

    Several hundred different species of bacteria are present in the human intraoral environment. Bacterial penetration of root canal dentin occurs when bacteria invade the root canal system. These bacteria may constitute a reservoir from which root canal reinfection may occur during or after endodontic treatment. The learning objective of this article is to review endodontic microbiology, update readers on the role of bacteria in pulp and periapical disease, and discuss the principles of management of infected root canal dentin. Complete debridement, removal of microorganisms and affected dentin, and chemomechanical cleansing of the root canal are suggested as being the cornerstones of successful endodontic therapy, followed by intracanal medication to remove residual bacteria, when required.

  4. Type III apical transportation of root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv P Mantri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Procedural accidents leading to complications such as canal transportation have been ascribed to inapt cleaning and shaping concepts. Canal transportation is an undesirable deviation from the natural canal path. Herewith a case of apical transportation of root canal resulting in endodontic retreatment failure and its management is presented. A healthy 21-year-old young male presented discomfort and swelling associated with painful endodontically retreated maxillary incisor. Radiograph revealed periradicular radiolucency involving underfilled 11 and overfilled 12. Insufficiently obturated 11 exhibited apical transportation of canal. This type III transportation was treated by periradicular surgery and repair using white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Comfortable asymptomatic patient presented uneventful healing at third and fourth month recall visits. A decrease in the size of radiolucency in radiograph supported the clinical finding. In the present case, MTA is useful in repairing the transportation defect. The result of these procedures is predictable and successful.

  5. Visión de la Concentración de la Tierra en América Latina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Kay (Cristóbal)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractEn este breve artículo presento de manera muy general y esquemática algunos aspectos sobre la concentración de la tierra en América Latina. No pretendo hacer un análisis detallado y completo sobre la problemática de la tierra en la región. Pero espero poder resaltar algunos factores que

  6. Epidemiología de las lesiones por mordedura de perro en Tierra del Fuego, Argentina Epidemiology of dog bite lesions in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Fabián Zanini; Patricia Padinger; María C. Elissondo; Héctor Pérez

    2008-01-01

    La convivencia del hombre y el perro ha resultado en beneficios mutuos durante miles de años, si bien en el último tiempo han surgido una serie de inconvenientes donde las lesiones por mordeduras ocupan un lugar destacado. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue describir las características epidemiológicas de las lesiones por mordedura de perro ocurridas a lo largo de un año en Tierra del Fuego. Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo, transversal, de los pacientes que ingresaron con le...

  7. MRI Findings in Spinal Canal Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Barzin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Spinal canal stenosis results from progressive narrowing of the central spinal canal and the lateral recesses. Primary (congenital lumbar spinal stenosis is associated with achondroplastic dwarfism. The spinal canal may become narrowed by bulging or protrusion of the intervertebral disc annulus, herniation of the nucleus pulposus posteriorly, thickening of the posterior longitudinal ligament, hypertrophy of the facet joints, hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum, epidural fat deposition, spondylosis of the intervertebral disc margins and uncovertebral joint hypertrophy in the neck. The central canal and the neurorecess may be compromised by tumor infiltration, such as metastatic disease, or by infectious spondylitis."nAP diameter of the normal adult cervical canal has a mean value of 17-18 mm at vertebral levels C3-5. The lower cervical canal measures 12-14 mm. Cervical stenosis is associated with an AP diameter of less than 10 mm. The thoracic spinal canal varies from 12 to 14 mm in diameter in the adult. The diameter of the normal lumbar spinal canal varies from 15 to 27 mm. Lumbar stenosis results from a spinal canal diameter of less than 12 mm in some patients; a diameter of 10 mm is definitely stenotic."nSpinal MRI is the most suitable technique for the diagnosis of spinal stenosis. The examination should be performed using thin sections (3 mm and high resolution, including the axial and sagittal planes using T1-weighted, proton-density, and T2-weighted techniques. The bony and osteophytic components are seen best using a T2-weighted gradient-echo technique."nOn MRI, findings of spinal stenosis have a variable presentation depending on the specific disease. The goal of spinal imaging is to localize the site and level of disease and to help differentiate between conditions in which patients require surgery or conservative treatment."nIn this presentation, different kinds of spinal canal stenosis and their MRI findings would be discussed.

  8. An experimental approach for archeological soil micromorphology: building a model for site taphonomy in coastal shell middens of the Beagle Channel (Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbo, Andrea; Suarez Villagran, Ximena; Madella, Marco; Vila, Asumpcio; Estevez, Jordi

    2010-05-01

    There are still many archaeological contexts where soil micromorphology has been little applied. Examples of such are anthropic shell deposits, common in coastal settings worldwide. These archaeological sites have complex stratigraphies composed mainly of shell from diverse species of local mollusks and gastropods. They have the peculiarity of being highly porous sediments with a coarse fraction that is dominated by gravel-sized bioclastic remains (shell, fish bones) and a fine fraction composed of organic material (charcoal, organic matter). The use of soil micromorphology in shell deposits was started by the Spanish-Argentinean research team working in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) since 1986. This project focused on excavation of hunter-gatherer sites from the contact period. One of the main objectives was to develop a detailed excavation method for shell middens that maximized the amount of recorded data during archaeological excavation. In this perspective, microstratigraphy was conceived as a fundamental complement for the study of site formation processes, as it would provide with high definition data for identification of shell accumulation episodes, trampling on site, abandonment periods, taphonomic alterations etc. A reference collection of known environmental and anthropic control features, such as hearths, trampling areas, wood ashes from local species, among others, was built to help in the microscopic characterization of archaeological samples. In this work, we analyze this experimental collection and compare it with samples from the Tunel VII archaeological site, located in the northern coast of the Beagle Channel and dated from the 18th-19th centuries. The set of modern samples included: trampling area from an animal pathway; beach deposit; forest litter; soil under the forest; hearths lit in diverse contexts (on the prairie, the beach and from the archaeologist camp site); and experimental burnt valves of Mytilus edulis, the main malacological

  9. Do crustal deformations observed by GPS in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina reflect glacial-isostatic adjustment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mendoza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Vertical site velocities determined by geodetic GPS observations in the Lago Fagnano area, Tierra del Fuego main island, are interpreted with respect to their potential relation with the glacial-isostatic crustal response to ice mass changes. The spatial pattern of the uplift rates, in combination with the horizontal crustal deformation pattern, point towards a fault-tectonic rather than glacial-isostatic origin of the determined vertical crustal deformations. This implies rather small GIA effects pointing towards relatively small Holocene ice-mass changes in Tierra del Fuego. However, these findings are considered to be preliminary. They should be confirmed by additional observations covering an extended area with GPS sites.

  10. Politica y legislación de tierra en Colombia en los siglos XIX y XX

    OpenAIRE

    Vélez Alvarez, Luis Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Se presenta en este documento una descripción de la política y la legislación de tierras en Colombia durante los siglos XIX y XX. El problema de la adjudicación de baldíos es el aspecto más notable de la legislación en el siglo XIX. También son importantes el tema de los resguardos y el de la desamortización. Como se verá, la forma en que se enfrentó el conflicto sobre baldíos entre los ocupantes productivos y los terratenientes y detentores de los bonos de tierra incidirá de forma determinan...

  11. Arquitectura de tierra -histórica y moderna- en Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galdieri, Eugenio

    1986-02-01

    Full Text Available This work about the history of mud constructions in Italy -both of brick and formwork- gives an exposition of geographical zones where those are located, the kind of uses so as their possible historic origins, among which the author points the strong connections with Spanish adobe constructions, both in Cagliars (Aragonese influence and in Oristano (Castilian influence.El trabajo de carácter histórico sobre las construcciones con tierra en Italia, tanto de adobe como de tapial presenta una panorámica de las zonas geográficas en las que se encuentran enclavadas, así como el tipo de usos y posibles orígenes históricos, entre los que el autor señala los fuertes vínculos con las construcciones de tierra españolas, tanto en Cagliaria (influencia aragonesa como en Oristano (influencia castellana.

  12. La tierra en armas de Dávalos-Serrano (o las armas del teatro)

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Beatriz Sosa

    2003-01-01

    La tierra en armas (1926) constituye un texto enigmático por diversas cuestiones, a pesar de su celebridad es la obra teatral más famosa de la literatura salteña- y de su aparente transparencia al representar hechos históricos relativos a la gesta de Güemes. El primer enigma es el problema de la autoría, ya que La tierra en armas surge de la escritura en colaboración de Juan Carlos Dávalos y Ramón Serrano, pero en el momento de publicación del texto (1935) aparecerá en la portada sólo el nomb...

  13. Design of earth network in electric substations; Diseno de redes de tierra en subestaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raull-Martin, J. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a summarized version of the different types of construction of grounding systems, as web as their materials and formulas, which are necessary and useful for the design and building of a grounding network for medium to high voltage facilities. A description is also made of how to determine the electrical resistivity of subsoil layers with different physical characteristics. Several illustrative examples are also solved in the paper. [Spanish] El proposito de este articulo es presentar de manera resumida los diferentes tipos de construccion de los sistemas de tierra, asi como sus materiales y formulas, los cuales son necesarios y utiles para el diseno y edificacion de una red de tierra para instalaciones de mediana y alta tension. Se describe tambien la obtencion de las diferentes resistividades que presentan los terrenos con diversas caracteristicas fisicas. Asi mismo, se solucionan ejercicios ilustrativos a lo largo del articulo.

  14. Efecto de la impermeabilidad del Mucílago de Nopal en bloques de tierra comprimidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Guadalupe Aranda Jiménez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La arquitectura de tierra1 es conocida desde hace siglos, sin embargo, actualmente es poco utilizada comparado con los sistemas constructivos comunes. Los bloques de tierra comprimido (BTC son elementos constructivos con un potencial elevado para ser utilizado en las construcciones de vivienda en México, principalmente por su similitud con los bloques tradicionales, siendo conveniente mejorar sus características a partir de un estabilizante. Se realizó el estudio de BTC estabilizados con cemento y una sustancia proveniente de las pencas maduras de nopal. Se encontró que al añadir mucílago de nopal se observa un incremento significativo de la resistencia a la compresión húmeda y seca, lo cual estar relacionado con una disminución de la porosidad; se ofrecen algunas relaciones del efecto del mucílago en el sólido analizado.

  15. Real Cédula de tierras de 1780 (2 de Agosto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Historia Social y de la Cultura Anuario Colombiano de

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tomado del archivo Histórico Nacional (Bogotá. Tierras de Antioquia, T.X,folios 1 r.-21 v. En la transcripción del documento se introdujeron algunas modificaciones en la ortografía y en la puntuación con el fin de hacer  ágil la utilización del texto.

  16. Tierra y violencia en la Sierra Sur de Oaxaca, México

    OpenAIRE

    Josué Mario Villavicencio Rojas

    2013-01-01

    En los Estados de Oaxaca, Chiapas, Veracruz y Guerrero se presentan en mayor frecuencia comunidades rurales con elevados indicadores de pobreza, analfabetismo, y ausencia de los servicios más elementales. De tal situación se aprovechan algunos partidos políticos, organizaciones civiles, abogados, sacerdotes y caciques regionales para promover tensiones sociales que devienen en divisiones entre los pueblos colindantes, debido a la posesión de la tierra, uso del agua y de los recursos naturales...

  17. Canals in Milky Way radio polarization maps

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, A; Fletcher, Andrew; Shukurov, Anvar

    2006-01-01

    Narrow depolarized canals are common in maps of the polarized synchrotron emission of the Milky Way. Two physical effects that can produce these canals have been identified: the presence of Faraday rotation measure ($\\RM$) gradients in a foreground screen and the cumulative cancellation of polarization known as differential Faraday rotation. We show that the behaviour of the Stokes parameters $Q$ and $U$ in the vicinity of a canal can be used to identify its origin. In the case of canals produced by a Faraday screen we demonstrate that, if the polarization angle changes by $90\\degr$ across the canal, as is observed in all fields to-date, the gradients in $\\RM$ must be discontinuous. Shocks are an obvious source of such discontinuities and we derive a relation of the expected mean separation of canals to the abundance and Mach number of supernova driven shocks, and compare this with recent observations by \\citet{Haverkorn03}. We also predict the existence of less common canals with polarization angle changes o...

  18. Panama Canal Watershed Experiment- Agua Salud Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Robert F.; Ogden, Fred L.; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Hall, Jefferson S.

    2010-01-01

    The Agua Salud Project utilizes the Panama Canal’s (Canal) central role in world commerce to focus global attention on the ecosystem services provided by tropical forests. The Canal was one of the great engineering projects in the world. Completed in 1914, after almost a decade of concerted effort, its 80 km length greatly shortened the voyage between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. An entire class of ships, the Panamax, has been constructed to maximize the amount of cargo that can be carried in a Canal passage. In today’s parlance, the Canal is a “green” operation, powered largely by water (Table 1). The locks, three pairs on each end with a net lift of 27 meters, are gravity fed. For each ton of cargo that is transferred from ocean to ocean, about 13 tons of water (m3) are used. Lake Gatún forms much of the waterway in the Canal transect. Hydroelectricity is generated at the Gatún dam, whenever there is surplus water, and at Madden Dam (completed in 1936) when water is transferred from Lake Alhajuela to Lake Gatún. The Canal watershed is the source of drinking water for Panama City and Colon City, at either end of the Canal, and numerous towns in between.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA diversity of feral pigs from Karukinka Natural Park, Tierra del Fuego Island, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravena, P; Skewes, O; Gouin, N

    2015-04-28

    Control or eradication of exotic species is one of the greatest challenges facing biodiversity and ecosystem conservation. Domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) were released and became feral in the southern region of Chilean Tierra del Fuego Island in the 1900s. Currently, they inhabit part of Karukinka Natural Park, an area of global conservation concern. To gain insight into the control of this invasive species, we analyzed genetic variation in the mitochondrial DNA control region to determine the origin and population subdivision of feral pigs in Tierra del Fuego. Sequences from a sample of 42 feral pigs, 10 domestic pigs from local farms, and references from other countries and commercial breeds revealed 2 highly differentiated populations, 1 in the western and the other in the eastern area of the park, each harboring a different haplotype, suggesting no connectivity between populations. Comparison of these haplotypes with reference sequences from other countries and commercial breeds indicated that feral pigs from Chilean Tierra del Fuego are of European origin, very likely from 2 separate introduction events. The haplotype found in the western feral population was also identified in domestic pigs from a farm. This raises concerns regarding the possible connectivity between stocks from local farms and the wild population. Based on these results, we recommend the development of strategies for controlling the population of this invasive species in Karukinka Natural Park.

  20. Gastrointestinal helminths of Commerson's dolphins Cephalorhynchus commersonii from central Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berón-Vera, B; Pedraza, S N; Raga, J A; Gil de Pertierra, A; Crespo, E A; Alonso, M K; Goodall RNP

    2001-12-05

    The stomachs and intestines of 9 Commerson's dolphins incidentally caught in trawl nets in central Patagonia and 23 stranded on beaches in Tierra del Fuego were surveyed for helminth parasites. A total of 267 individuals belonging to 4 species of parasites (1 nematode, 3 digeneans) were found in the dolphins from the first area: Anisakis sp. (larvae type 1 = A. simplex), Braunina cordiformis, Hadwenius sp. and Pholeter gastrophilus. In the Tierra del Fuego dolphins, 142 specimens belonging to 3 species (2 nematodes, 1 digenean, 1 cestode) were found: A. simplex, Hadwenius sp. and Strobilocephalus triangularis. Only 2 of the helminth species were shared in the 2 study areas, A. simplex and Hadwenius sp., and both were more common in central Patagonia. Among the species, A. simplex was most prevalent and abundant in both study areas. In Tierra del Fuego, adults of A. simplex appeared in only 1 host. Hadwenius sp., P. gastrophilus and S. triangularis are new host records for Commerson's dolphin. Species diversity and species richness were low in both study areas. Helminth communities were more diverse in central Patagonia (t = 1.97, df = 258, p Fuego. The results may suggest some differences in habitat use, diet and sex between Commerson's dolphin populations in the 2 study areas.

  1. Tierras, mujeres y niñez. Familia y conflicto armado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Zorio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende realizar un análisis socio-jurídico sobre la situación de las mujeres, los niños, niñas y adolescentes y su derecho a la tierra, específicamente, en la aplicación de la Ley de Víctimas y Restitución de Tierras. Se pretende demostrar que a pesar de existir un conjunto de normativas amplias y garantistas en favor de estas poblaciones, las instituciones del Estado encargadas de los temas de tierras no logran recoger en sus procedimientos de política pública la realidad sociológica de las familias desplazadas, y por consiguiente, las mujeres, los niños, niñas y adolescentes quedan excluidos de los mecanismos de acceso al goce efectivo de sus derechos. Todo esto, porque en el Estado habita una noción de familia anacrónica y poco coincidente con la realidad campesina, modelo que supone a la familia como un grupo jerárquico en el que el hombre es el líder y las mujeres y sus hijos e hijas, una especie de auxiliares.

  2. Enfermedades infecciosas probablemente dispersadas por los europeos durante el contacto indirecto en Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fugassa, Martín H.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Para la colonización de Norteamérica, ciertos autores sugieren que enfermedades infecciosas actuaron de modo discreto durante un período inicial llamado de Contacto Indirecto. Ello implicaría que los registros históricos con que contamos describan sociedades transformadas. Para Tierra del Fuego, Borrero establece la incertidumbre sobre el tamaño de las poblaciones previas a los primeros relatos de Gusinde y otros. Pretendemos brindar un marco probabilístico sobre las enfermedades infecciosas dispersadas en Tierra del Fuego durante el Contacto Indirecto. Se realizó una evaluación del riesgo de epidemias dentro de las poblaciones nativas (1520-1834. Se consideró el riesgo de contaminación por microorganismos patógenos, según los diversos medios de transporte. Sobre la base de toda la información antes mencionada y de las condiciones ambientales de Tierra del Fuego, construimos un listado de enfermedades infecciosas que probablemente fueron introducidas o aumentadas en frecuencia, dentro del archipiélago durante el período analizado. Este trabajo es parte de un proyecto orientado a analizar la dispersión de las enfermedades en Patagonia Austral

  3. La adecuación de tierras en el departamento de Antioquia.

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    Arango T. Julio César

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Los programas estatales de adecuación de tierras en Colombia comenzaron a partir de la década del 50, durante la cual se emprendió la construcción de infraestructuras básicas para el riego, el drenaje y el control de inundaciones. Las inversiones efectuadas por distintas entidades que en el país han tenido que ver con el Sector de la Adecuación de Tierras han sido cuantiosas y con ellas, se beneficiaron durante muchos años, los agricultores situados en distintas zonas planas de los departamentos del Tolima, Boyacá, Magdalena, Valle del Cauca entre otros. Antioquia durante este mismo tiempo, no se favoreció de esos recursos, por la carencia de políticas estatales en el Sector de la Adecuación de Tierras, solamente a partir de 1983, con el montaje por parte del HIMAT del Programa Nacional de Pequeña Irrigación, comienzan a solucionarse los problemas de manejo del agua para el riego de los cultivos en distintas veredas de Antioquia. Hoy se dispone de 29 distritos de riego en pequeña escala, los cuales corresponden a una superficie total de 3.759 ha, en las cuales, se benefician 1.510 familias campesinas.

  4. Análisis tafonómico en La Arcillosa 2 (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina Taphonomic analysis of La Arcillosa 2 site, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando C. Santiago

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta el análisis tafonómico de los restos arqueofaunísticos y bioarqueológicos recuperados en el sitio La Arcillosa 2 (Tierra del Fuego. El mismo es un sitio multicomponente con fechados radiocarbónicos del Holoceno medio. Se discuten las características de estos dos conjuntos de huesos en particular y se comparan los resultados con datos tafonómicos generados en otros sitios arqueológicos de la isla. La evaluación del efecto de los factores de formación del registro es fundamental para una correcta interpretación de las actividades llevadas a cabo por los cazadores-recolectores en el sitio.In this paper, the tafonomic analysis of the archaeofaunal and bioarchaeological remains recovered from the La Arcillosa 2 site, Tierra del Fuego, is reported. This is a multicomponent site, radiocarbon dated to the middle Holocene. The characteristics of these two bone assemblages are discussed and compared with taphonomic data generated at other archaeological sites on the island. An evaluation of the effect of the record's formation processes is fundamental for an accurate interpretation of the activities carried out by the hunter-gatherers at the site.

  5. Spectral variability on primitive asteroids of the Themis and Beagle families: space weathering effects or parent body heterogeneity?

    CERN Document Server

    Fornasier, S; Perna, D; Campins, H; Barucci, M A; Nesvorny, D

    2016-01-01

    Themis is an old and statistically robust asteroid family populating the outer main belt, and resulting from a catastrophic collision that took place 2.5$\\pm$1.0 Gyr ago. Within the old Themis family a young sub-family, Beagle, formed less than 10 Myr ago, has been identified. We present the results of a spectroscopic survey in the visible and near infrared range of 22 Themis and 8 Beagle families members. The Themis members investigated exhibit a wide range of spectral behaviors, while the younger Beagle family members look spectrally bluer with a smaller spectral slope variability. The best meteorite spectral analogues found for both Themis and Beagle families members are carbonaceous chondrites having experienced different degrees of aqueous alteration, prevalently CM2 but also CV3 and CI, and some of them are chondrite samples being unusual or heated. We extended the spectral analysis including the data available in the literature on Themis and Beagle families members, and we looked for correlations betwe...

  6. SU-C-303-03: Dosimetric Model of the Beagle Needed for Pre-Clinical Testing of Radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, M; Sands, M; Bolch, W [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Large animal models, most popularly beagles, have been crucial surrogates to humans in determining radiation safety levels of radiopharmaceuticals. This study aims to develop a detailed beagle phantom to accurately approximate organ absorbed doses for therapy nuclear medicine preclinical studies. Methods: A 3D NURBS model was created subordinate to a whole body CT of an adult beagle. Bones were harvested and CT imaged to offer macroscopic skeletal detail. Samples of trabecular spongiosa were cored and imaged to offer microscopic skeletal detail for bone trabeculae and marrow volume fractions. Results: Organ masses in the model are typical of an adult beagle. Trends in volume fractions for skeletal dosimetry are fundamentally similar to those found in existing models of other canine species. Conclusion: This work warrants its use in further investigations of radiation transport calculation for electron and photon dosimetry. This model accurately represents the anatomy of a beagle, and can be directly translated into a useable geometry for a voxel-based Monte Carlo radiation transport program such as MCNP6. Work supported by a grant from the Hyundai Hope on Wheels Foundation for Pediatric Cancer Research.

  7. Anterior canal BPPV and apogeotropic posterior canal BPPV: two rare forms of vertical canalolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Califano, L; Salafia, F; Mazzone, S; Melillo, M G; Califano, M

    2014-06-01

    Posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most frequent form of BPPV. It is characterized by a paroxysmal positioning nystagmus evoked through Dix-Hallpike and Semont positioning tests. Anterior canal BPPV (AC) is more rare than posterior canal BPPV; it presents a prevalent down beating positioning nystagmus, with a torsional component clockwise for the left canal, counterclockwise for the right canal. Due to the possible lack of the torsional component, it is sometimes difficult to identify the affected ear. An apogeotropic variant of posterior BPPV (APC) has recently been described, characterised by a paroxysmal positional nystagmus in the opposite direction to the one evoked in posterior canal BPPV: the linear component is down-beating, the torsional component is clockwise for the right canal, counter-clockwise for the left canal, so that a contra-lateral anterior canal BPPV could be simulated. During a 16 month period, of 934 BPPV patients observed, the authors identified 23 (2.5%) cases of apogeotropic posterior canal BPPV and 11 (1.2%) cases of anterior canal BPPV, diagnosed using the specific oculomotor patterns described in the literature. Anterior canal BPPV was treated with the repositioning manoeuvre proposed by Yacovino, which does not require identification of the affected side, whereas apogeotropic posterior canal BPPV was treated with the Quick Liberatory Rotation manoeuvre for the typical posterior canal BPPV, since in the Dix-Hallpike position otoliths are in the same position if they come either from the ampullary arm or from the non-ampullary arm. The direct resolution of BPPV (one step therapy) was obtained in 12/34 patients, 8/23 patients with APC and 4/11 patients with AC; canalar conversion into typical posterior canal BPPV, later treated through Quick Liberatory Rotation (two-step therapy), was obtained in 19 patients,14/23 with APC and 5/11 with AC. Three patients were lost to follow-up. Considering the effects of

  8. Inner Harbor Navigation Canal Basin Velocity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 4- 12 Inner Harbor Navigation Canal Basin Velocity Analysis Co as ta l a nd H yd ra ul ic s La bo ra to ry...library at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. ERDC/CHL TR-14-12 October 2014 Inner Harbor Navigation Canal Basin Velocity Analysis...system of levees, gates, and drainage structures in the Inner Harbor Navigation Canal (IHNC) basin and the greater New Orleans, Louisiana, area. Two

  9. Características y Problemas de Tenencia de la Tierra en el Sector Agropecuario Colombiano

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    Tobón Restrepo Arturo

    1964-12-01

    Full Text Available El término “Tenencia” es bastante amplio, pues relaciona la posesión física de un bien sin importar la legitimidad en el dominio de él. En cuanto a la posesión nuestro Código Civil (3 estipula: "La posesión es la tenencia de una cosa determinada con ánimo de señor o dueño, sea que el dueño o el que se la da por tal tenga la cosa por sí misma, o por otra persona que la tenga en lugar y a nombre de él". Para nuestro fin concretemos únicamente en el aspecto de la tierra. El presente estudio se encauza hacia la economía agrícola y la administración rural, más que al aspecto jurídico de la tenencia de la tierra Es bien sabido que en el sistema económico cada factor de producción encierra numerosas especificaciones, además el uso de uno de ellos .implica la combinación en el uso de los demás. Es por ello que al hablar de solución a un problema no se debe decir que se llegue a salvar los obstáculos que impiden el desarrollo económico en el panorama nacional ya que la tenencia de la tierra es un rubro dentro de los muchos con que cuenta el factor tierra. Es claro, que no podría separarse por completo el concepto de tenencia de la tierra de las demás circunstancias de carácter económico en todos sus aspectos; pero las consideraciones que se harán en el transcurso del presente trabajo serán tomadas con cierta tendencia individualista hacia el tema en mención.

  10. Boolean nested canalizing functions: a comprehensive analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuan; Murrugarra, David; Aguilar, Boris; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Boolean network models of molecular regulatory networks have been used successfully in computational systems biology. The Boolean functions that appear in published models tend to have special properties, in particular the property of being nested canalizing, a property inspired by the concept of canalization in evolutionary biology. It has been shown that networks comprised of nested canalizing functions have dynamic properties that make them suitable for modeling molecular regulatory networks, namely a small number of (large) attractors, as well as relatively short limit cycles. This paper contains a detailed analysis of this class of functions, based on a novel normal form as polynomial functions over the Boolean field. The concept of layer is introduced that stratifies variables into different classes depending on their level of dominance. Using this layer concept a closed form formula is derived for the number of nested canalizing functions with a given number of variables. Additional metrics analyzed in...

  11. Two root canals in maxillary central incisor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Almeida Gomes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The success of endodontic treatment requires the knowledge of tooth morphology and its variations. Case report: This clinical article reports an unusual root canal configuration that was detected in a maxillary central incisor with two root canals, demonstrated by radiographic and computerized tomography exams. Conclusion: Knowledge of endodontic anatomy as well as the obtainment of both preoperative radiographs and tomography is important to detect abnormal tooth morphology.

  12. Minipig and beagle animal model genomes aid species selection in pharmaceutical discovery and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vamathevan, Jessica J., E-mail: jessica.j.vamathevan@gsk.com [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Hall, Matthew D.; Hasan, Samiul; Woollard, Peter M. [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Xu, Meng; Yang, Yulan; Li, Xin; Wang, Xiaoli [BGI-Shenzen, Shenzhen (China); Kenny, Steve [Safety Assessment, PTS, GlaxoSmithKline, Ware (United Kingdom); Brown, James R. [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA (United States); Huxley-Jones, Julie [UK Platform Technology Sciences (PTS) Operations and Planning, PTS, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Lyon, Jon; Haselden, John [Safety Assessment, PTS, GlaxoSmithKline, Ware (United Kingdom); Min, Jiumeng [BGI-Shenzen, Shenzhen (China); Sanseau, Philippe [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-15

    Improving drug attrition remains a challenge in pharmaceutical discovery and development. A major cause of early attrition is the demonstration of safety signals which can negate any therapeutic index previously established. Safety attrition needs to be put in context of clinical translation (i.e. human relevance) and is negatively impacted by differences between animal models and human. In order to minimize such an impact, an earlier assessment of pharmacological target homology across animal model species will enhance understanding of the context of animal safety signals and aid species selection during later regulatory toxicology studies. Here we sequenced the genomes of the Sus scrofa Göttingen minipig and the Canis familiaris beagle, two widely used animal species in regulatory safety studies. Comparative analyses of these new genomes with other key model organisms, namely mouse, rat, cynomolgus macaque, rhesus macaque, two related breeds (S. scrofa Duroc and C. familiaris boxer) and human reveal considerable variation in gene content. Key genes in toxicology and metabolism studies, such as the UGT2 family, CYP2D6, and SLCO1A2, displayed unique duplication patterns. Comparisons of 317 known human drug targets revealed surprising variation such as species-specific positive selection, duplication and higher occurrences of pseudogenized targets in beagle (41 genes) relative to minipig (19 genes). These data will facilitate the more effective use of animals in biomedical research. - Highlights: • Genomes of the minipig and beagle dog, two species used in pharmaceutical studies. • First systematic comparative genome analysis of human and six experimental animals. • Key drug toxicology genes display unique duplication patterns across species. • Comparison of 317 drug targets show species-specific evolutionary patterns.

  13. BEAGLE: an application programming interface and high-performance computing library for statistical phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Daniel L; Darling, Aaron; Zwickl, Derrick J; Beerli, Peter; Holder, Mark T; Lewis, Paul O; Huelsenbeck, John P; Ronquist, Fredrik; Swofford, David L; Cummings, Michael P; Rambaut, Andrew; Suchard, Marc A

    2012-01-01

    Phylogenetic inference is fundamental to our understanding of most aspects of the origin and evolution of life, and in recent years, there has been a concentration of interest in statistical approaches such as Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood estimation. Yet, for large data sets and realistic or interesting models of evolution, these approaches remain computationally demanding. High-throughput sequencing can yield data for thousands of taxa, but scaling to such problems using serial computing often necessitates the use of nonstatistical or approximate approaches. The recent emergence of graphics processing units (GPUs) provides an opportunity to leverage their excellent floating-point computational performance to accelerate statistical phylogenetic inference. A specialized library for phylogenetic calculation would allow existing software packages to make more effective use of available computer hardware, including GPUs. Adoption of a common library would also make it easier for other emerging computing architectures, such as field programmable gate arrays, to be used in the future. We present BEAGLE, an application programming interface (API) and library for high-performance statistical phylogenetic inference. The API provides a uniform interface for performing phylogenetic likelihood calculations on a variety of compute hardware platforms. The library includes a set of efficient implementations and can currently exploit hardware including GPUs using NVIDIA CUDA, central processing units (CPUs) with Streaming SIMD Extensions and related processor supplementary instruction sets, and multicore CPUs via OpenMP. To demonstrate the advantages of a common API, we have incorporated the library into several popular phylogenetic software packages. The BEAGLE library is free open source software licensed under the Lesser GPL and available from http://beagle-lib.googlecode.com. An example client program is available as public domain software.

  14. Localization of Helicobacter spp. in the fundic mucosa of laboratory Beagle dogs: an ultrastructural study

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    Lanzoni Anna

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In dogs Helicobacter spp. are found in all gastric regions usually localized in the surface mucus, gastric glands and parietal cells. The aim of this study was to detail the distribution of Helicobacter spp. in the fundic mucosa of asymptomatic Beagle dogs and their intracellular localization within parietal cells, in order to evaluate species-specific pathogenetic effects on gastric cells. The presence of Helicobacter spp. was investigated by immunohistochemistry, TEM, and PCR in the fundic mucosa of six Beagle dogs. Helicobacter spp. were found in all dogs examined, and H. bizzozeronii and H. felis were identified by PCR and confirmed by TEM. In the lumen of the fundic glands, co-localization was common. H. bizzozeronii was present in larger numbers than H. felis in both intraluminal and intraparietal localization. The amounts of H. bizzozeronii were similar in superficial and basal portions of the glands. H. felis was predominantly localized in the superficial portions of gastric glands but almost absent from the base. Within parietal cells, most Helicobacter organisms were intracanalicular, but intact and degenerate Helicobacter organisms were also visualized free in the cytoplasm or in secondary lysosomes. No specific degenerative lesions were found in infected parietal cells. Helicobacter organisms were also observed within macrophages in the lamina propria. In conclusion, there is a differential distribution of H. bizzozeronii and H. felis in the fundic mucosa of Beagle dogs, and their intracellular localization in parietal cells and macrophages suggests novel pathogenic scenarios for the development of immune response and maintenance of chronic gastritis in dogs.

  15. Renal function and morphology in aged Beagle dogs before and after hydrocortisone administration.

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    Pascale M Y Smets

    Full Text Available Objectives of this study were to evaluate glomerular filtration rate (GFR, renal structural changes and proteinuria in aged Beagle dogs before and after hydrocortisone (HC administration. Eleven Beagle dogs ≥10 years old were treated with either hydrocortisone (HC group, n = 6 or placebo (control group, n = 5. Urinary markers, GFR and kidney biopsies were evaluated before (T0, during (T16 wks and after discontinuing HC administration (T24 wks. Results indicate that HC administration causes a significant increase in GFR. At all time points except T16 wks, proteinuria was higher in the control group than in the HC group, and there was no significant difference in urinary markers between groups. At T16 wks, proteinuria, urinary albumin-to-creatinine (c ratio, immunoglobulin G/c and retinol-binding protein/c were higher compared to baseline in the HC group. At T0, rare to mild renal lesions were detected in all HC dogs and rare to moderate changes in all control dogs. Glomerulosclerosis progressed in both groups until T24 wks. Tubular atrophy was detected in three HC dogs at T16 wks and T24 wks, but also in five control dogs throughout the study. At every time point, five HC dogs and all control dogs had rare to moderate interstitial inflammation. Rare to mild interstitial fibrosis was found in up to three HC dogs at T16 wks and T24 wks, and severe fibrosis in one HC dog at T24 wks. Up to four control dogs had rare to mild fibrosis at all time points. These findings indicate that clinically healthy, aged Beagle dogs may have considerable renal lesions and proteinuria, which could have implications for experimental or toxicological studies. Additional research is needed to elucidate glucocorticoid effects on renal structure, but functional changes such as hyperfiltration and proteinuria warrant attention to kidney function of canine patients with Cushing's syndrome or receiving exogenous glucocorticoids.

  16. Basic data on the hematology, serum biochemistry, urology, and organ weights of beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, So-Young; Hwang, Jae-Sik; Kim, Ill-Hwa; Hwang, Dae-Yeon; Kang, Hyun-Gu

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to provide basic data on physiological and hematological characteristics, and organ weights of beagle dogs. A total of 237 beagle dogs were used to determine differences in physiological and hematological parameters, and organ weights depending on sex and age. The respiratory rate of both sexes tended to increase as they grew older and the female heart rate was slightly higher than that of males. Male and female body weights increased rapidly to 33 weeks old followed by a gradual increase to 41-weeks-old. The relative weight of the brain was negatively correlated with body weight, whereas the weight of reproductive organs was positively correlated with body weight. The platelet count of female dogs was slightly higher than that of males. The red blood cell, hemoglobin, and hematocrit of both sexes increased non-significantly with age. In the leukocyte differential count, the neutrophils, and eosinophils of both sexes tended to increase as they grew older, whereas basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes decreased. In the serum biochemical profiles, alkaline phosphatase was slightly higher in males than females, while the total cholesterol of female dogs at 9-months-old was higher than that of males at the same age. Other biochemical components, including alanine aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, triglyceride, and total protein increased non-significantly with age in both sexes. To conclude, we observe no significant physiological or hematological differences with sex or age, although decreasing and increasing trends were detected with some parameters. These data provide valuable reference indices of the normal physiological and hematological characteristics of beagle dogs, which should prove useful in toxicological and pharmacological studies.

  17. Study of single dose toxic test of Sweet Bee Venom in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Chul, Yoon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was performed to analyse single dose toxicity of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV extracted from the bee venom in Beagle dogs. Methods : All experiments were conducted under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical study authorized institution. Male and female Beagle dogs of 5-6 months old were chosen for the pilot study of single dose toxicity of Sweet BV which was administered at the level of 9.0 ㎎/㎏ body weight which is 1300 times higher than the clinical application dosage as the high dosage, followed by 3.0 and 1.0 ㎎/㎏ as midium and low dosage, respectively. Equal amount of excipient(normal saline to the Sweet BV experiment groups was administered as the control group. Results : 1. No mortality was witnessed in all of the experiment groups. 2. Hyperemia and movement disorder were observed around the area of administration in all the experiment groups, and higher occurrence in the higher dosage treatment. 3. For weight measurement, Neither male nor female groups showed significant changes. 4. To verify abnormalities of organs and tissues, thigh muscle which treated with Sweet BV, brain, liver, lung, kidney, and spinal cords were removed and histologocal observation using H-E staining was conducted. In the histologocal observation of thigh muscle, cell infiltration, inflammation, degeneration, necrosis of muscle fiber, and fibrosis were found in both thigh tissue. And the changes depend on the dose of Sweet BV. But the other organs did not showed in any abnormality. 5. The maximum dose of Sweet BV in Beagle dogs were over 9 ㎎/㎏ in this study. Conclusions : The above findings of this study suggest that Sweet BV is a relatively safe treatment medium. Further studies on the toxicity of Sweet BV should be conducted to yield more concrete evidences.

  18. Lymphocytic adrenal medullitis and lymphocytic thyroiditis in a laboratory beagle dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Takuya; Tomonari, Yuki; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Yamada, Naoaki; Tsuchitani, Minoru

    2017-02-04

    Lymphocytic adrenal medullitis characterized by inflammation and atrophy in the medulla of the bilateral adrenal glands was observed in an 18-month-old male laboratory beagle dog. It might be that the present lymphocytic adrenal medullitis is an autoimmune-mediated disease as the histological characteristics are consistent with an autoimmune pathogenesis. However, the actual cause remains unclear as the existence of serum autoantibodies against the adrenal medulla could not be confirmed. Although this dog also contracted lymphocytic thyroiditis along with serum thyroglobulin autoantibodies, indicating that the thyroiditis occurred with an autoimmune basis; the relation between the adrenal medullitis and thyroiditis is unknown.

  19. Flora bucal en perros de la raza Beagle con enfermedad periodontal inducida

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera García, Alexei; Guerra Barroso Mabel; Soto Cantero Luis; Soca Pérez, Maylin; Rodríguez Sosa, Víctor Manuel; Dominguez López, Heberto Arides; Purón Guzmeli, Carlos Alberto; Macías Hernández, Ileana; Aliaga Aleaga, Yilenis; Acosta Berbes, Anais; Guerrero Contreras, Miladys; Gil Díaz, Felipe Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    ResumenLa enfermedad periodontal afecta a los perros durante toda su vida y se debe a la acumulación de placa dental bacteriana en las coronas dentales a lo largo de la encía, lo que conlleva a una reacción inflamatoria de la misma, conocida como gingivitis. Con el fin determinar la flora bucal en perros con enfermedad periodontal inducida se estudiaron 10 canes de la raza Beagle que previamente fueron sometidos a una intervención quirúrgica para inducir la enfermedad.SummaryPeriodontal disea...

  20. Primeros ensayos petrofísicos sobre la roca dimensional de Tierra del Fuego First petrophysical trials over dimension stones of Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Daniel Acevedo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se muestran aquí los primeros ensayos de laboratorio sobre las rocas dimensionales de Tierra del Fuego, región que tenía una potencialidad no evaluada respecto al uso posible de este recurso nativo. Nunca habían sido empleadas hasta ahora rocas duras (ígneas ni pizarras en la construcción residencial, el revestimiento de fachadas ó pisos. Dos pequeñas canteras de rocas plutónicas han sido abiertas recientemente: una de ellas en el cerro Jeu-Jepén, aprovechada para la construcción de la escollera marina del puerto de Río Grande y la ruta nacional, y la otra en la península de Ushuaia, iniciada con el propósito de remover un morro para localizar el aeropuerto y usada últimamente como revestimiento de viviendas. Sobre un grupo de muestras fueguinas se realizaron para este trabajo ensayos físicos de densidad aparente, absorción de agua y porosidad abierta, como asimismo ensayos mecánicos de resistencia a la compresión y a la tensión, y también algunos ensayos Dorry para medir su resistencia a la abrasión. En la Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego los tipos más apropiados como rocas ornamentales han resultado ser las distintas variedades de rocas granitoides, con relativamente altas resistencias a la compresión y a la tensión. Las rocas del cerro Jeu-Jepén analizadas reúnen entonces las mejores condiciones para su aprovechamiento inmediato: buenos resultados petrofísicos, posibilidad de obtención de bloques de tamaño adecuado, descubrimiento de la cantera y fácil acceso.These are the first trials in laboratory over dimension stones of Tierra del Fuego. The Fuegian territory had a not evaluated potential respect of the possible use of this native resource. Neither hard rocks nor metamorphic rocks (slates have been applied ever for residential construction, facades and flooring in Fuegian buildings until now. Only in recent years, two little quarries of plutonic rocks have been opened. One of them in the Jeu-Jepen hill

  1. Epidemiología de las lesiones por mordedura de perro en Tierra del Fuego, Argentina Epidemiology of dog bite lesions in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Zanini

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available La convivencia del hombre y el perro ha resultado en beneficios mutuos durante miles de años, si bien en el último tiempo han surgido una serie de inconvenientes donde las lesiones por mordeduras ocupan un lugar destacado. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue describir las características epidemiológicas de las lesiones por mordedura de perro ocurridas a lo largo de un año en Tierra del Fuego. Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo, transversal, de los pacientes que ingresaron con lesiones por mordedura de perro al Servicio de Guardia Clínica y Pediátrica de los Hospitales y Centros de Salud desde el 1/3/05 hasta el 1/3/06. Se confeccionaron 382 planillas. El 49.5% fueron niños resultando más afectado el grupo de 5-9 años (44.4%; IC95% 37.2-51.8. En adultos correspondió al grupo de 15-24 años (29.5%; IC95% 23.2-36.5. Se registraron más lesiones en varones (57.6% que en mujeres (42.4% (x² = 8.6, p= 0.003. En los meses primavera y verano se registró el 56.5% de las lesiones, en la vía pública el 72.8% de ellas. Los perros de tamaño grande causaron el 49.7% (IC95% 44.6-54.9 de las lesiones. El 89.8% de los ataques fueron causados por perros ajenos. El 55.8% (IC95% 50.6-60.8 se registró en miembros inferiores y el 11% (IC95% 8.1-14.7 en cabeza y cuello. Los datos obtenidos demuestran que en Tierra del Fuego las lesiones por mordedura de perro afectan en forma permanente la salud e impactan en la calidad de vida de la población.The coexistence between man and dog has resulted in mutual benefits during thousands of years, nevertheless some problems have recently arisen where bite injuries have an important role. The aim of this work was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of dog bite lesions which occurred during a year in Tierra del Fuego. A descriptive observational, transversal study of patients who were admitted with dog bite injuries to clinic and pediatric emergency services of hospitals and health

  2. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L; Gilbertson, M; Eames, I

    2010-12-01

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid

  3. Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence: a morphologic cause of vertigo similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krombach, G.A.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Haage, P.; Guenther, R.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); DiMartino, E. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Prescher, A. [Department of Anatomy, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Kinzel, S. [Department of Experimental Veterinarian Medicine, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    Heading Abstract.The aim of this study was to assess imaging findings of posterior semicircular dehiscence on computed tomography and to evaluate incidence of posterior and superior semicircular canal dehiscence in patients presenting with vertigo, sensorineuronal hearing loss or in a control group without symptoms related to the inner ear. Computed tomography was performed in 507 patients presenting either with vertigo (n=128; 23 of these patients suffered also from sensorineuronal hearing loss), other symptoms related to the inner ear, such as hearing loss or tinnitus (n=183) or symptoms unrelated to the labyrinth (n=196). All images were reviewed for presence of dehiscence of the bone, overlying the semicircular canals. Twenty-nine patients had superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Of these patients, 83% presented with vertigo, 10% with hearing loss or tinnitus and the remaining 7% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. In 23 patients dehiscence of the posterior semicircular canal was encountered. Of these patients, 86% presented with vertigo, 9% with hearing loss or tinnitus and 5% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. Defects of the bony overly are found at the posterior semicircular canal, in addition to the recently introduced superior canal dehiscence syndrome. Significant prevalence of vertigo in these patients suggests that posterior semicircular canal dehiscence can cause vertigo, similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence. (orig.)

  4. El cambio climático global en la Patagonia desde el viaje de Charles Darwin hasta nuestros días The global climatic change in Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego since voyage of Charles Darwin until present times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rabassa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El viaje del Beagle que trajo a Charles Darwin a América del Sur entre 1832 y 1835 AD y en particular, al territorio argentino, se desarrolló bajo condiciones climáticas muy desfavorables: frías, secas y ventosas, correspondientes a las condiciones predominantes en la última fase de la pequeña edad del hielo, un episodio frío global que caracterizó a los siglos XVII, XVIII y XIX. Esta fase es conocida como mínimo de Dalton, en referencia a la disminución relativa de la frecuencia de las manchas solares, lo cual redunda en una disminución de la radiación solar y como consecuencia, en menores temperaturas medias globales en ese período. Darwin fue perfectamente consciente de dichas condiciones climáticas, que se manifestaban fuertemente en Europa, en particular en los Alpes, y así lo transmite en sus escritos. Desde el viaje de Darwin a la Patagonia, las condiciones climáticas y ambientales cambiaron sustancialmente, especialmente luego de 1850 AD y, finalmente, después de mediados de la década de 1970 AD. Algunas de las más importantes consecuencias del cambio climático global son el aumento de la temperatura media anual o la temperatura estacional, la elevación o disminución de las precipitaciones al nivel regional, el continuo ascenso global del nivel del mar y un incremento significativo de la frecuencia de eventos meteorológicos extremos. El impacto de esos cambios ha sido observado en los glaciares de Patagonia y Tierra del Fuego, por lo menos desde 1978 AD, y particularmente en la última década del siglo XX. Los impactos más notables son la rápida recesión de las márgenes del hielo en los glaciares, el adelgazamiento de la cobertura glacial, la elevación de la línea de nieve regional y la reducción de las áreas andinas bajo condiciones de suelos permanentemente congelados (permafrost, como han demostrado estudios científicos recientes. A la tasa presente de recesión del hielo glacial, la mayoría, si no

  5. An in vitro model to investigate filling of lateral canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, Mauro; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Prati, Carlo; Breschi, Lorenzo

    2005-12-01

    Aims of this work were to examine lateral canals in extracted teeth, to propose a new technique to produce artificial lateral canals, and to compare two obturation techniques. Cleared roots were examined to record measure and shape of lateral canals. Artificial lateral canals were prepared on human demineralized teeth before final clearing. Specimens were divided in two groups: canals of group 1 were filled with Schilder's technique, canals of group 2 were filled with vertical compaction with apical backfilling. Stereomicroscopic analysis of lateral canal filling revealed lower filling rates in apical canals compared to coronal ones and higher filling rates with "vertical compaction with apical backfilling" compared to Schilder's group. The tested procedure appears to be a reliable technique to obtain standardized lateral canals and to compare filling procedures.

  6. A radiographic study of mandibular canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Chul; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral Radiology, Division of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-11-15

    The author invested the gonial angle, the angle of mandibular and mental canal to the lower border of the mandible, and a relationship of the position of the mandibular canal to the root apex of the posterior teeth and the cortical plate of the lower of the mandible. The materials consisted of 458 pantomograms in male and female aged 11-40 and divided into 5 groups at year intervals and subdivided into 3 groups by gonial angle. The results were as follows: 1. The gonial angle decreased with age, but slight increase occurred over 26-30 years. 2. The average angle of the mandibular canal to the lower border of the mandible was 151.6 degree and did not correlate with age. 3. The average angle of the mental canal to the lower border of the mandible was 36.9 degree and didn't correlate with age. 4. The angles of mandibular and mental canal to the lower border of mandible correlated with gonial angle. 5. The distance from the root apex of the posterior teeth to the upper wall mandibular canal was most short at the region of the distal root of the mandibular second and increased with age at the region of the mandibular second molar. 6. The distance from the lower wall of the mandibular canal to the cortical plate of the lower border of the mandibule was most short at the region of the mesial root of the mandibular first molar and didn't correlate with age.

  7. Mapa de usos potenciales de la tierra de Galicia. Una perspectiva arqueológica

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    Currás Refojos, Brais X.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A digital version of the map of potential land use of Galicia is here presented, adapted to a reclassification of three types of potential land use, established using historical criteria. An analytical procedure is developed to select the land-types and the system used for their digitalisation. In the final part the map is used to critically revise the possibilities of using this record for territorial characterisation in archaeological research.La cartografía de usos potenciales de la tierra es una herramienta de gran utilidad en el estudio de las formas de poblamiento y su relación con la explotación de los recursos agrícolas desde el enfoque de la arqueología del paisaje. La digitalización de esta información permite su aplicación sistemática en el análisis del territorio mediante SIG. En este trabajo se presenta el Mapa de usos potenciales de la tierra de Galicia, reclasificado en tres tipos establecidos en función de criterios históricos. Se muestra el procedimiento analítico desarrollado para la selección y clasificación de los tipos de tierra y su sistema de digitalización. Se examina la validez de esta fuente para la investigación arqueológica de las formas agrícolas en la antigu.edad desde el punto de vista del análisis del territorio y se ofrece una visión crítica sobre sus ventajas y limitaciones.

  8. [Tierra del Fuego: the scientific-political construction of exclusion and counter-image of the ideal city dweller].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacach, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Due to its late incorporation into the national State, the social, economic and political setting of the Argentine province Tierra del Fuego differed from that of the rest of the national territory. In the construction of dependent otherness, objectifications and representations were imposed by state-related and non-state-related institutions, among other agencies. In this context, the Salesian mission of La Candelaria and Ushuaia's Jail for recidivists stand out as spaces in which biopolitics was concretised. The native population and criminals in Tierra del Fuego were those to be subjugated. The thesis of the extinction of the Indian and the simultaneous exaltation of the criminal as the subject of progress identified the scientific and political mechanisms by which the exclusion of certain social groups (Tierra del Fuego's indigenous population) and the inclusion of others (criminals) were regulated.

  9. Loss of helminth species diversity in the large hairy armadillo Chaetophractus villosus on the Tierra del Fuego Island, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezquiaga, M C; Abba, A M; Navone, G T

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work is to compare the taxonomic diversity of parasite species of the large hairy armadillo Chaetophractus villosus in its native range and in another recently introduced population (Tierra del Fuego island), and to evaluate whether the isolation of the latter determines a decrease in its parasitic diversity. Forty specimens from Buenos Aires and Tierra del Fuego Provinces were collected and examined for helminths. Eleven parasite species were found in the native population, and only one species was present in Tierra del Fuego (Trichohelix tuberculata). This may be explained because isolation and climatic conditions prevent encounters between potential host species and infective forms of parasites. Further sampling will be needed throughout the entire Patagonia steppe to confirm how the characteristic parasitic fauna of C. villosus behaves across the armadillo's southern distribution.

  10. Anomalous ocean load tide signal observed in lake-level variations in Tierra del Fuego

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, A.; Hormaechea, J. L.; Dietrich, R.; Perdomo, R.; Fritsche, M.; Del Cogliano, D.; Liebsch, G.; Mendoza, L.

    2009-03-01

    We demonstrate the application of a 100 km long lake as a sensor for studying the tidal effects on Tierra del Fuego main island. The lake-level variations observed in Lago Fagnano reflect both the direct response to the tidal potential and the indirect effect of the ocean tidal loading. Modeling both contributions explains the observed tidal signal in the lake to about 70%. Underestimated model load tide amplitudes are found to be probably responsible for the remaining difference. We interpret this discrepancy as a hint for regional elastic lithosphere properties differing substantially from those represented by currently available global models.

  11. La estrategia del tapial en la arquitectura religiosa de Tierra de Campos

    OpenAIRE

    Arias Madero, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Producción Científica La ausencia de piedra y ladrillo de calidad en la Tierra de Campos castellana ha erigido al tapial como uno de los sistemas constructivos por excelencia en la construcción religiosa de los siglos pasados. Los maestros de obras de aquellos templos desarrollaron un modo sorprendente de combinación de las zonas de tapia, mas humildes, con pequeñas partes, estructuralmente mas penalizadas, resueltas en materiales mas versátiles y resistentes, optimizando los recursos econ...

  12. El Reverendo Padre Bonaventura Ubach, peregrino en Tierra Santa: el monje y su obra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdés Pereiro, Carmen

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia aquí la figura de un religioso benedictino del Monasterio de Montserrat, el padre Bonaventura Ubach, que dedicó gran parte de su vida al estudio de la Biblia. Para conocer mejor el libro sagrado realizó numerosos viajes por Tierra Santa y Mesopotamia durante los primeros decenios del siglo XX. La documentación recogida durante sus viajes le permitiría realizar dos de sus más importantes obras: la ilustración de la Biblia de Montserrat y la creación del Museo Bíblico.…

  13. Las normativas de construcción con tierra en el mundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cid, J.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, earth has been used as a construction material. Nevertheless, the normative in this matter is very scattered, and in the most developed countries, carrying out a construction with this material implies a variety of technical and legal problems. This article analyzes, in an international level, the normative panorama about constructions with earth, analyzing fifty five standards and regulations of countries all around the five continents; these represent the state of art that normalizes the earth as a construction material. It is a study indexed on the actual procedures and regulations developed by the national organisms of normalization or correspondent authorities. The standards and the organisms that produce them appear, analyzing the structure and the content of each one. We have studied and analyzed the most relevant aspects, such as stabilization, soil selections, the requisites of the products and the existent test, comparing the diverse normative. The knowledge from this study could be very useful for the development of future standards and as a reference for architects and engineers that work with earth.

    La tierra ha sido utilizada como material de construcción desde hace siglos. No obstante, la normativa al respecto está muy dispersa, y en la mayoría de países desarrollados surgen numerosos problemas técnicos y legales para llevar a cabo una construcción con este material. Este artículo estudia el panorama normativo para las construcciones con tierra cruda a nivel internacional, analizando cincuenta y cinco normas y reglamentos de países repartidos por los cinco continentes, que representan el estado del arte de la normalización de la tierra cruda como material de construcción. Es un estudio referenciado sobre las normas y reglamentos vigentes desarrollados por los organismos nacionales de normalización o autoridades correspondientes. Se presentan las normativas y los organismos que las emiten

  14. Arquitectura de tierra -histórica y moderna- en Italia

    OpenAIRE

    Galdieri, Eugenio

    1986-01-01

    This work about the history of mud constructions in Italy -both of brick and formwork- gives an exposition of geographical zones where those are located, the kind of uses so as their possible historic origins, among which the author points the strong connections with Spanish adobe constructions, both in Cagliars (Aragonese influence) and in Oristano (Castilian influence).El trabajo de carácter histórico sobre las construcciones con tierra en Italia, tanto de adobe como de tapial presenta una ...

  15. Paisajes sociales, monumentalidad y territorio en las tierras bajas de Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Gianotti, Camila

    2015-01-01

    En esta tesis se abordan los procesos de construcción social del Paisaje entre ca. 4500 A.P. y la conquista europea en las sociedades constructoras de cerritos de las tierras bajas uruguayas desde la perspectiva de la Arqueología del Paisaje. Para ello nos planteamos como objetivo general analizar las formas y estrategias (sociales, económicas y simbólicas) mediante las cuáles estas sociedades prehistóricas transformaron el medio generando cambios sustanciales que permiten reconocer, a través...

  16. Beagle Rupes - Evidence for a basal decollement of regional extent in Mercury’s lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothery, D. A.; Massironi, M.

    2010-09-01

    Thanks to its location at low latitude and close to the terminator in the outbound view of Mercury obtained during MESSENGER's first fly-by, the Beagle Rupes lobate scarp on Mercury has been particularly clearly imaged. This enables us to interpret it as a component of a linked fault system, consisting of a frontal scarp terminated by transpressive lateral ramps. The terrain bounded by these surface manifestations of faulting is the hanging-wall block of a thrust sheet and must be underlain by a basal decollement (a detachment horizon) constituting the fault zone at depth. The decollement must extend a minimum of 150 km eastwards from the frontal scarp, and at least 400 km if displacement is transferred to features interpreted as out-of-sequence thrusts and offset lateral ramps that appear to continue the linked fault system to the east. The depth of the basal decollement could be controlled by crustal stratigraphy or by rheological change within, or at the base of, the lithosphere. Previous interpretations of mercurian lobate scarps regard their thrusts as uniformly dipping and dying out at depth, lacking lateral ramps and any extensive detachment horizon. Anticipated improvements in image resolution and lighting geometry should make it possible to document what percentage of lobate scarps share the Beagle Rupes style of tectonics.

  17. Framing Space: UK Newspaper Reporting of the Beagle 2 and Cassini-Huygens Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jergovic, B.; Miller, S.

    2008-05-01

    Relatively little scholarly work has been done on looking at the portrayal of astronomy and space science in the media. This short article examines the UK press coverage of two space missions: the Beagle 2 mission to Mars and the Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and its moon Titan. In both cases, the leading scientists exerted a strong influence on what journalists reported, to the extent that some journalists appeared to be almost "embedded" in the mission. For the most part the coverage is positive in tone and the loss of the Beagle 2 spacecraft does not reflect badly on the (later) Cassini-Huygens coverage. Most journalists only covered the actual mission events and, in the case of Huygens, did not follow up to cover the peer-reviewed scientific articles that appeared later. Off-the-cuff comments made by scientists at the time of the missions were widely reported. There appears to be an appreciation by journalists and (by inference) their readership that this was science in the making, and that allowances should be made if these comments later turned out to be inaccurate.

  18. Mucoactive effects of naringin in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury mice and beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Wu, Hao; Nie, Yi-chu; Li, Pei-bo; Shen, Jian-gang; Su, Wei-wei

    2014-07-01

    Our previous study has demonstrated that naringin attenuates EGF-induced MUC5AC hypersecretion in A549 cells by suppressing the cooperative activities of MAPKs/AP-1 and IKKs/IκB/NF-κB signaling pathways. However, the volume of airway mucus is determined by two factors including the number of mucous cells and capacity of mucus secretion. The aim of the present study is to explore the mucoactive effects of naringin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mice and beagle dogs. The results demonstrated that naringin of 12.4 mg/kg treatment significantly decreased LPS-induced enhancement of sputum volume and pulmonary inflammation, remarkably increased the subglottic sputum volume and solids content in sputum of lower trachea, while partially, but not fully, significantly increased the elasticity and viscosity of sputum in lower trachea of beagle dogs. Moreover, the MUC5AC content in BALF and goblet-cells in large airways of LPS-induced ALI mice were significantly attenuated by dexamethasone (5 mg/kg), ambroxol (25 mg/kg), and naringin (15, 60 mg/kg). However, the goblet-cells hyperplasia in small airways induced by LPS was only significantly inhibited by dexamethasone and naringin (60 mg/kg). In conclusion, naringin exhibits mucoactive effects through multiple targets which including reduction of goblet cells hyperplasia and mucus hypersecretion, as well as promotion of sputum excretion.

  19. Evaluation of Immunosuppressive Activity of Demethylzeylasteral in a Beagle Dog Kidney Transplantation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Huimin; Zhu, Yu; Xu, Wenping; Liu, Yujun; Zhang, Jianping; Lin, Zongming

    2015-12-01

    Several monomers isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f. (Celastraceae) have attracted worldwide interest. In this study, we established a simple and reliable kidney transplantation model in beagle dog to evaluate the immunosuppressive activity of demethylzeylasteral (T-96), an immunosuppressive monomer isolated from the root xylem of T. wilfordii. Recipient and donor male beagle dogs were obtained from two different breeders to ensure MHC mismatching. All dogs were randomly divided into six groups following kidney transplantation, and different doses of T-96 or cyclosporine A (CsA) were administered to each group during 14 days of observation. The results showed that T-96 alone at a dosage of 10 or 20 mg/kg/day prolonged graft survival up to 10.83 ± 1.47 or 11.17 ± 1.47 days. A combination of T-96 and CsA significantly prolonged the survival time to 13.33 ± 1.75 days. The results demonstrated that T-96 can inhibit acute rejection in kidney transplantation, and the inhibitory effect of T-96 was enhanced when combined with CsA, which suggests the possible use in organ transplantation to prevent immune rejection.

  20. Energy density of sub-Antarctic fishes from the Beagle Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, D A; Lattuca, M E; Boy, C C; Pérez, A F; Ceballos, S G; Vanella, F A; Morriconi, E R; Malanga, G F; Aureliano, D R; Rimbau, S; Calvo, J

    2009-03-01

    The energy density (ED) of nine species of sub-Antarctic fishes was estimated by calorimetry. The fish, seven notothenioids, one atherinopsid and one galaxiid, represents some of the more abundant species in the ichthyofauna of the Beagle Channel. Principal-components analysis (PCA) of the ED of the different organs/tissues indicated that PC(1) and PC(2) accounted for 87% of the variability. Separation along PC(1) corresponded to differences in muscle and liver energy densities whereas separation along PC(2) corresponded to differences in the ED of the gonads. Differences between species were significant except for P. sima. Inclusion of the gonadosomatic index (GSI) as an explanatory variable enabled us to establish the existence of energy transfer from muscle and liver to the gonads in ripe P. tessellata females. Total ED values varied between 4.21 and 6.26 kJ g(-1), the pelagic Odontesthes sp. being the species with the highest ED. A significant relationship between ED and muscle dry weight (DW(M)) was found for all the species except P. tessellata. These data are the first direct estimates of ED of fishes from the Beagle Channel.

  1. Evaluation of pharmacokinetics underlies the collaborated usage of lamivudine and oxymatrine in beagle dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenbao Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Combinational therapy of lamivudine and oxymatrine has been employed in the battle against hepatitis B virus in clinical setting. However, the pharmacokinetic behavior of the drug or active metabolism in intravenous/oral co-administration regime is poorly investigated. Herein, we evaluated the pharmacokinetic characteristic through a tailor-designed 3 way crossover-Latin square experiment in adult male beagle dogs. Six dogs were randomly treated by intravenous administration of lamivudine (2.5 mg/kg, oxymatrine (15 mg/kg and combinational dosage, named as intravenous regime. Meanwhile the other six dogs were orally administrated with lamivudine (2.5 mg/kg, oxymatrine (15 mg/kg and combinational dosage, named as oral regime. The pharmacokinetic feature in simultaneous oral treatment appeared to have no significant difference when compared with individual administration, even including matrine, the active metabolite of oxymatrine. In intravenous regime, the main pharmacokinetic parameters of simultaneous administration were nearly consistent with intravenous regime remedy. The collaborated application of lamivudine and oxymatrine contributed to non-distinctive pharmacokinetic fluctuations of beagle dogs in intravenous/oral regime, compared with individual employment, which established a vital base for the clinical co-administration against hepatitis B. Furthermore, the present study demonstrated that the determination of pharmacokinetics between combinational and individual therapy might assist in the development of drug compatibility in clinical therapy.

  2. Effect of low intensity pulsed ultrasound on repairing the periodontal bone of Beagle canines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Qi Gu; Yong-Mei Li; Jing Guo; Li-Hua Zhang; Dong Li; Xiao-Dong Gai

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the repairing effect of low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on the Beagle canines periodontal bone defect. Methods: A total of 12 Beagle dogs with periodontal bone defect model were randomly divided into control group, LIPUS group, guided tissue regeneration (GTR) group and LIPUS+GTR group, with three in each. After completion of the models, no other proceeding was performed in control group; LIPUS group adopt direct exposure to radiation line LIPUS processing 1 week after modeling; GTR group adopted treatment with GTR, following the CTR standard operation reference; LIPUS+GTR group was treated with LIPUS joint GTR. Temperature change before treatment and histopathological change of periodontal tissue after repair was observed. Results: There was no significant difference in temperature changes of periodontal tissue between groups (P>0.05). The amount and maturity of LIPUS+GTR group were superior to other groups; new cementum, dental periodontal bones of GTR group were superior to the control group but less than LIPUS group; new collagen and maturity of the control group is not high relatively. Conclusions: LIPUS can accelerate the calcium salt deposition and new bone maturation, thus it can serve as promoting periodontal tissue repair, and shortening the periodontal tissue repair time.

  3. The Kra Canal and Southeast Asian Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Suryati Sulong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a conceptual study that attempts to analyse the possible effects of the development of the Kra Isthmus Canal on ASEAN relations. The Kra Canal would constitute a mega-project, a passageway that would connect the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand at the Isthmus of Kra, Thailand. Although the proposed Kra Canal is projected to provide many economic and trade benefits to Thailand, and to the region as a whole, steps toward its development have yet to be taken. There has been much debate over the costs for trade, the costs for the environment, national and regional security concerns, as well as major concerns related to political and economic relations in the region. Therefore, one of the main purposes of this study is to contribute to the debate on the possible impact of the devel-opment of the Kra Canal on ASEAN’s regional relations. In particular, it proposes that the development of the Kra Canal could threaten regional solidarity as it would physically divide maritime Southeast Asia from main-land Southeast Asia, which would ultimately result in an economic, cultural and political divide of ASEAN itself.

  4. Capacidad de uso de la tierra en la cuenca de la Corriente del Lobo, Itatinga, São Paulo, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Sérgio; de Barros Zacarias Xavier; B. Carrega Ellen Fittipaldi; Gehring Cardoso Lincoln; Barbosa Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo fue definir las clases de capacidad de uso de 2.403,25 ha de la cuenca de la Corriente del Lobo - Itatinga (SP) (22° 03' 56" - 22° 59' 12" de latitud S y 48° 38' 47" - 48° 41' 25" de longitud O). La capacidad de uso de la tierra se obtuvo mediante el SIG-IDRISI 32 del cruzamiento de las cartas clinográfica y de suelos y de la Tabla de juzgamiento de clases de capacidad de uso de la tierra y del levantamiento utilitario del medio físico. Las áreas de las clases y subcla...

  5. Tierras, montes y aguas: Apuntes sobre energía, medio ambiente y justicia en las Américas

    OpenAIRE

    Soluri, John

    2012-01-01

    Resumen El título de este ensayo adopta las palabras del Plan de Ayala (1911) por medio del cual las fuerzas de Emiliano Zapata declararon su concepto de justicia durante la Revolución Mexicana. Desde la revolución hasta la actualidad, distintos historiadores se han dedicado al estudio de conflictos sobre la tierra en América Latina, pero han prestado mucho menos atención a la problemática de las aguas y montes.1 No cabe duda que la tierra ha sido al centro de muchos conflictos históricos y ...

  6. Pharmacokinetics study of calf thymus DNA in rats and beagle dogs with (3)H-labeling and tracing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuoye; Talbi, Amer; Wang, Xin; Song, Hanlin; Chen, Xijing

    2014-01-01

    This study developed a radioisotope detection and tracing method to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) in rats and beagle dogs. The radioactivity labeling result was detected through gel electrophoresis analysis, and pharmacokinetic analytical methods for (3)H-ctDNA in rat and beagle dog plasma were developed, respectively. Full method validation indicated that the established radioisotope method was sensitive, specific, rapid and reliable, and the results were all in accordance with the analysis requirement in biological samples. After intravenous administration of the planned doses of (3)H-ctDNA to the rats and beagle dogs, plasma concentrations from the various dose groups declined rapidly. In addition, the radioactive concentration of (3)H-ctDNA in the plasma from single and multiple dosings decreased in a similar trend. Through comparative analysis of the pharmacokinetic parameters, we inferred that the elimination of ctDNA accorded with the linear pharmacokinetic characteristic. The results demonstrated that ctDNA was rapidly eliminated in rat and beagle dog plasma and would not accumulate, indicating the safe use of ctDNA as an immunoadsorptive material without bringing out potential risk.

  7. Synthesis of a highly water-soluble acacetin prodrug for treating experimental atrial fibrillation in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Wang, Ya-Jing; Yang, Lei; Zhou, Mei; Jin, Man-Wen; Xiao, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Yan; Sun, Hai-Ying; Li, Gui-Rong

    2016-05-10

    We previously reported that duodenal administration of the natural flavone acacetin can effectively prevent the induction of experimental atrial fibrillation (AF) in canines; however, it may not be used intravenously to terminate AF due to its poor water-solubility. The present study was to design a water-soluble prodrug of acacetin and investigate its anti-AF effect in beagle dogs. Acacetin prodrug was synthesized by a three-step procedure. Aqueous solubility, bioconversion and anti-AF efficacy of acacetin prodrug were determined with different methodologies. Our results demonstrated that the synthesized phosphate sodium salt of acacetin prodrug had a remarkable increase of aqueous solubility in H2O and clinically acceptable solution (5% glucose or 0.9% NaCl). The acacetin prodrug was effectively converted into acacetin in ex vivo rat plasma and liver microsome, and in vivo beagle dogs. Intravenous infusion of acacetin prodrug (3, 6 and 12 mg/kg) terminated experimental AF without increasing ECG QTc interval in beagle dogs. The intravenous LD50 of acacetin prodrug was 721 mg/kg in mice. Our preclinical study indicates that the synthesized acacetin prodrug is highly water-soluble and safe; it effectively terminates experimental AF in beagle dogs and therefore may be a promising drug candidate for clinical trial to treat patients with acute AF.

  8. A frameshift mutation in the cubilin gene (CUBN) in Beagles with Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (selective cobalamin malabsorption).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drögemüller, Michaela; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Howard, Judith; Bruggmann, Rémy; Drögemüller, Cord; Ruetten, Maja; Leeb, Tosso; Kook, Peter H

    2014-02-01

    Mammals are unable to synthesize cobalamin or vitamin B12 and rely on the uptake of dietary cobalamin. The cubam receptor expressed on the intestinal endothelium is required for the uptake of cobalamin from the gut. Cubam is composed of two protein subunits, amnionless and cubilin, which are encoded by the AMN and CUBN genes respectively. Loss-of-function mutations in either the AMN or the CUBN gene lead to hereditary selective cobalamin malabsorption or Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (IGS). We investigated Beagles with IGS and resequenced the whole genome of one affected Beagle at 15× coverage. The analysis of the AMN and CUBN candidate genes revealed a homozygous deletion of a single cytosine in exon 8 of the CUBN gene (c.786delC). This deletion leads to a frameshift and early premature stop codon (p.Asp262Glufs*47) and is, thus, predicted to represent a complete loss-of-function allele. We tested three IGS-affected and 89 control Beagles and found perfect association between the IGS phenotype and the CUBN:c.786delC variant. Given the known role of cubilin in cobalamin transport, which has been firmly established in humans and dogs, our data strongly suggest that the CUBN:c.786delC variant is causing IGS in the investigated Beagles.

  9. Spectral variability on primitive asteroids of the Themis and Beagle families: Space weathering effects or parent body heterogeneity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasier, S.; Lantz, C.; Perna, D.; Campins, H.; Barucci, M. A.; Nesvorny, D.

    2016-05-01

    Themis is an old and statistically robust asteroid family populating the outer main belt, and resulting from a catastrophic collision that took place 2.5 ± 1.0 Gyr ago. Within the old Themis family a young sub-family, Beagle, formed less than 10 Myr ago, has been identified. We present the results of a spectroscopic survey in the visible and near infrared range of 22 Themis and 8 Beagle families members. The Themis members investigated exhibit a wide range of spectral behaviors, including asteroids with blue/neutral and moderately red spectra, while the younger Beagle family members look spectrally bluer than the Themis ones and they have a much smaller spectral slope variability. Four Themis members, including (24) Themis, have absorption bands centered at 0.68-0.73 μm indicating the presence of aqueously altered minerals. The best meteorite spectral analogues found for both Themis and Beagle families members are carbonaceous chondrites having experienced different degrees of aqueous alteration, prevalently CM2 but also CV3 and CI, and some of them are chondrite samples being unusual or heated. The presence of aqueous altered materials on the asteroids surfaces and the meteorite matches indicate that the parent body of the Themis family experienced mild thermal metamorphism in the past. We extended the spectral analysis including the data available in the literature on Themis and Beagle families members, and we looked for correlations between spectral behavior and physical parameters using the albedo and size values derived from the WISE data. The analysis of this larger sample confirms the spectral diversity within the Themis family and that Beagle members tend to be bluer and to have an higher albedo. The differences between the two families may be partially explained by space weathering processes, which act on these primitive surfaces in a similar way than on S-type asteroids, i.e. producing reddening and darkening. However we see several Themis members

  10. Synchronous rectal adenocarcinoma and anal canal adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Jin; LI Jiyou; YAO Yunfeng; LU Aiping; WANG Hongyi

    2007-01-01

    It is difficult to distinguish a tectal carcinoma with anal metastases from coexistent synchronous anorectal carcinomas.The therapeutic strategy for rectal and anal carcinoma is so different that it should be clearly identified.Here,we report on the case of a 63-year-old man who presented with an upper-third rectal adenocarcinoma.Five months after resection,he developed an adenocarcinoma in the anal canal.The histological slides of both tumors were reviewed and immunohistochemical studies for cytokeratins(CKs)7 and 20 were performed.The index tumor demonstrated CK 7-/CK 20+and the second showed CK7+/CK20+.For this reason,we believe the present case had synchronous adenocarcinomas arising from anal canal and the rectum separately.It is very important to difierentiate the anorectal lesions pathologically because of the impact on the therapeutic options available,especially for the lesion arising in the anal canal.

  11. File list: Unc.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: Unc.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. Los dilemas de la restitución de tierras en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Uprimny-Yepes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El texto sostiene que si bien existen algunos encuentros estratégicos en el tema de tierras en distintos sectores de la sociedad, los cuales confluyen en el tema específico de la restitución, también existen diametrales desacuerdos sobre el tema. Por un lado, están quienes abogan por una “restitución fina”, y respaldan entonces una política de restitución que se concentre en corregir la ilegalidad del despojo y aclarar los títulos y los derechos individuales sobre los bienes, lo cual serviría para dinamizar el mercado de tierras y dar vía libre a una política de desarrollo rural que modernice la producción agraria, con base, esencialmente, en la gran propiedad empresarial. Al otro lado del espectro se ubican los defensores de lo que podemos llamar una “restitución gruesa”, quienes promueven la adopción de una política de restitución que satisfaga los objetivos no sólo de justicia correctiva, sino además de reconocimiento y redistribución a favor del campesinado y las comunidades étnicas.

  20. Epidemiological surveillance of cystic echinococcosis in rural population of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, 1997-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, Fabián; Suárez, Carlos; Pérez, Héctor; Elissondo, María C

    2009-03-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is the most prevalent zoonosis in Tierra del Fuego. In 1997, ulrasonography (US) was selected as the method of choice for the development of population surveys for epidemiological surveillance and early diagnosis in rural population. The aim of this work was to present the results of the epidemiological surveillance of CE by means of US in rural population of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina between 1997 and 2006. The ultrasonographic diagnostic was realized once a year. The population was stratified in children (4 to 17 years) and adults. From each individual, name, age, sex, actual residence and origin were registered. The images compatible with cysts were graded according to location, number and characteristics. A total of 1400 rural inhabitants were examined for CE. From the total of studied individuals, 27 (1.9%) exhibited images compatible with cysts on the abdominal ultrasound scan. Thirteen of these persons were finally diagnosed as having CE. The overall prevalence of CE was 0.9%. This value is in accordance with the decrease in the prevalence observed in the definitive host and the intermediate hosts (sheep and cattle). The absence of cases in children during the studied period, evidence no transmission of the disease to humans in the recent past.

  1. Isolation of Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix strains from iron bacteria communities in Tierra del Fuego wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Bertram; Sánchez, Leandro A; Fretschner, Till; Kreps, Gastón; Ferrero, Marcela A; Siñeriz, Faustino; Szewzyk, Ulrich

    2014-11-01

    Sheath-forming iron- and manganese-depositing bacteria belonging to the Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix group (SLG) are widespread in natural and artificial water systems. Known requirements for their growth include the presence of organic substrates and molecular oxygen. High concentrations of reduced iron or manganese, although not necessary for most species, make their growth a noticeable phenomenon. Such microbial communities have been studied mostly in the Northern Hemisphere. Here, we present descriptions of diverse ochre-depositing microbial communities in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, using a combined approach of microscopical examination, clone library construction and cultivation focused on SLG bacteria. To date, only few SLG type strains are available. The present work increases the number and diversity of cultivated SLG bacteria by obtaining isolates from biofilms and sediment samples of wetlands in Tierra del Fuego. Thirty isolates were selected based on morphological features such as sheath formation and iron/manganese deposition. Five operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were deduced. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed that one OTU is identical to the Leptothrix mobilis Feox-1(T) -sequence while the four remaining OTUs show similarity values related to previously described type strains. Similarity values ranged from 96.5% to 98.8%, indicating possible new species and subspecies.

  2. PALEOCLIMAS Y PALEOESCENARIOS EN LA PATAGONIA AUSTRAL Y EN TIERRA DEL FUEGO DURANTE EL CUATERNARIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Coronato

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan evidencias geomorfológicas y palinológicas indicadoras de paleoescenarios existentes en los últimos dos millones de años en el extremo sur de Patagonia y Tierra del Fuego. Estos procesos indican la ocurrencia de cambios climáticos no forzados por intervención humana en la atmósfera. Los períodos fríos habrían sido progresivamente menos intensos desde la Gran Glaciación Patagónica, ocurrida hace 1 millón de años. Durante el Holoceno y los tiempos históricos, las glaciaciones se restringieron a las zonas superiores a los 900 m s.n.m. y el deterioro climático no habría afectado significativamente al ecosistema bosque ubicado a menos de 400 m s.n.m. Un importante período cálido ocurrido en tiempos históricos fue registrado en las zonas de altura en Patagonia Norte y en las cercanías al nivel del mar en Tierra del Fuego

  3. Cancer of the external auditory canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyrop, Mette; Grøntved, Aksel

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of surgery for cancer of the external auditory canal and relate this to the Pittsburgh staging system used both on squamous cell carcinoma and non-squamous cell carcinoma. DESIGN: Retrospective case series of all patients who had surgery between 1979 and 2000....... PATIENTS: Ten women and 10 men with previously untreated primary cancer. Median age at diagnosis was 67 years (range, 31-87 years). Survival data included 18 patients with at least 2 years of follow-up or recurrence. INTERVENTION: Local canal resection or partial temporal bone resection. MAIN OUTCOME...

  4. Polyacrylamide Transport in Water Delivery Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Zhu, J.; Young, M.

    2007-12-01

    Linear, anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) is being considered in the western United States as a technology to reduce seepage in unlined water delivery canals. A broad laboratory and field testing program has been undertaken to understand the benefits and potential environmental impacts of PAM use. The ability to predict the fate and transport of PAM in water delivery canals could prove to be a useful planning tool for PAM application. However, one key area of uncertainty of this type of canal treatment is the hydration, reaction, and settling rates of PAM after the dry powder is added to the canal water. In this study, we have developed a model that incorporates a number of known physical and chemical processes that can affect PAM transport, such as convection, dispersion, dissolution, flocculation, and settling, while solving the governing convection-dispersion transport equation. The model uses a mixed analytical and advanced numerical approach, and implements a transient partitioning of PAM mass between the canal water, the substrate soil, and potentially to open water bodies downstream of the application point. All source terms are modeled based on physical and chemical mechanisms as well as laboratory or field determined parameters. To more closely simulate field treatment of some canals, where PAM application moves upstream in time, the model is capable of implementing either a fixed or mobile upper boundary. In the latter treatment, the PAM can be added discretely or continuously in both time and space. A number of test situations have been simulated thus far, including theoretical and hypothetical cases for a wide range of conditions. The model also performed well when predicting PAM concentrations from a full-scale canal treatment experiment. The model provides a useful tool for predicting PAM fate and transport in water delivery canals, and therefore can play an important role in evaluating the efficacy of PAM application for water resources management

  5. Surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canals of maxillary incisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This case report presents surgical endodontic management outcomes of maxillary incisors that were infected via the lateral canals. Two cases are presented in which endodontically-treated maxillary central incisors had sustained lateral canal infections. A surgical endodontic treatment was performed on both teeth. Flap elevation revealed vertical bone destruction along the root surface and infected lateral canals, and microscopy revealed that the lateral canals were the origin of the lesions. After the infected lateral canals were surgically managed, both teeth were asymptomatic and labial fistulas were resolved. There were no clinical or radiographic signs of surgical endodontic management failure at follow-up visits. This case report highlights the clinical significance and surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canal of maxillary incisor. It is important to be aware of root canal anatomy variability in maxillary incisors. Maxillary central incisors infected via the lateral canal can be successfully managed by surgical endodontic treatment. PMID:25671217

  6. Cochlear implant outcomes in patients with superior canal dehiscence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puram, Sidharth V.; Roberts, Daniel S.; Niesten, Marlien E F; Dilger, Amanda E.; Lee, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether adult cochlear implant (CI) users with superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) or asymptomatic superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) have different surgical, vestibular, and audiologic outcomes when compared to CI users with normal temporal bone anatomy. Meth

  7. Stratification and enumeration of Boolean functions by canalizing depth

    CERN Document Server

    He, Qijun

    2015-01-01

    Boolean network models have gained popularity in computational systems biology over the last dozen years. Many of these networks use canalizing Boolean functions, which has led to increased interest in the study of these functions. The canalizing depth of a function describes how many canalizing variables can be recursively picked off, until a non-canalizing function remains. In this paper, we show how every Boolean function has a unique algebraic form involving extended monomial layers and a well-defined core polynomial. This generalizes recent work on the algebraic structure of nested canalizing functions, and it yields a stratification of all Boolean functions by their canalizing depth. As a result, we obtain closed formulas for the number of n-variable Boolean functions with depth k, which simultaneously generalizes enumeration formulas for canalizing, and nested canalizing functions.

  8. Intradermal melanocytic nevus of the external auditory canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Renato V; Brandão, Fabiano H; Aquino, José E P; Carvalho, Maria R M S; Giancoli, Suzana M; Younes, Eduado A P

    2005-01-01

    Intradermal nevi are common benign pigmented skin tumors. Their occurrence within the external auditory canal is uncommon. The clinical and pathologic features of an intradermal nevus arising within the external auditory canal are presented, and the literature reviewed.

  9. Stratification and enumeration of Boolean functions by canalizing depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qijun; Macauley, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Boolean network models have gained popularity in computational systems biology over the last dozen years. Many of these networks use canalizing Boolean functions, which has led to increased interest in the study of these functions. The canalizing depth of a function describes how many canalizing variables can be recursively "picked off", until a non-canalizing function remains. In this paper, we show how every Boolean function has a unique algebraic form involving extended monomial layers and a well-defined core polynomial. This generalizes recent work on the algebraic structure of nested canalizing functions, and it yields a stratification of all Boolean functions by their canalizing depth. As a result, we obtain closed formulas for the number of n-variable Boolean functions with depth k, which simultaneously generalizes enumeration formulas for canalizing, and nested canalizing functions.

  10. Viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function using acoustic reflectometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Peter J; Klarskov, Niels; Telford, Karen J;

    2012-01-01

    Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new reproducible technique that allows a viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis.......Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new reproducible technique that allows a viscoelastic assessment of anal canal function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis....

  11. Repeated injection of PEGylated solid lipid nanoparticles induces accelerated blood clearance in mice and beagles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Y

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Yongxue Zhao, Long Wang, Mina Yan, Yanling Ma, Guangxi Zang, Zhennan She, Yihui DengCollege of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Surface modification of nanocarriers with amphiphilic polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG, known as PEGylation, is regarded as a major breakthrough in the application of nanocarriers. However, PEGylated nanocarriers (including liposomes and polymeric nanoparticles induce what is referred to as the “accelerated blood clearance (ABC phenomenon” upon repeated injection and consequently they lose their sustained circulation characteristics. Despite this, the present authors are not aware of any reports of accelerated clearance due to repeated injection for PEGylated solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs, another promising nanocarrier. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of PEGylated SLNs upon repeated administration in mice; moreover, the impact of circulation time on the induction of the ABC phenomenon was studied in beagles for the first time. The ABC index, selected as the ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to the last measured concentration of a second injection to that of the first injection, was used to evaluate the extent of this phenomenon. Results showed that the PEGylated SLNs exhibited accelerated clearance from systemic circulation upon repeated injection, both in mice and in beagles, and the ratio for the different time intervals, which showed that the ABC index exhibited significant difference within 30 minutes following the second injection, was good enough to evaluate the magnitude of ABC. This ABC index indicated that the 10 mol% PEG SLNs with a suitable prolonged circulation time induced the most marked ABC phenomenon in this research. This study demonstrated that, like PEGylated nanocarriers such as liposomes and polymeric nanoparticles, PEGylated SLNs induced the ABC phenomenon upon repeated injection

  12. [Plasma ibuprofen enantiomers and their pharmacokinetics in Beagle dogs determined by HPLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-yan; Kong, Ai-ying; Yang, Bo; Yan, Liang-ping; Di, Xin

    2015-12-01

    A chiral high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of ibuprofen enantiomers in dog plasma. It was used to study the pharmacokinetics in the Beagle dog after intravenous administration of racemic-ibuprofen, S-ibuprofen and R-ibuprofen. Ketoprofen was chosen as the internal standard. After a simple precipitation using methanol as the precipitating solvent, both analytes and IS were separated on a Kromasil 100-5CHI-TBB chiral column (250 mm x4.6 mm, 5 μm) with isocratic elution using acetonitrile - 20 mmol x L(-1) phosphate buffer (pH 3.0, containing 5% methanol) (6 : 4) as the mobile phase. The detection wavelength was 220 nm. Liner calibration curves for both of the ibuprofen enantiomers were over the concentration range from 0.5 to 50 μg x mL(-1) with a lower limit of quantification of 0.5 μg x mL(-1), the accuracies were all in standard ranges. The intra- and inter- assay precisions were all below 7%. The recovery rate was 93.1% to 100.4%. The experiments proved that the method was simple, rapid and sensitive. It can be used in the quantitative determination of ibuprofen enantiomers in dog plasma. The method was used to determine the concentration of ibuprofen enantiomers in Beagle dog plasma after a single intravenous administration of racemic-ibuprofen, S-ibuprofen and R-ibuprofen (9 mg x kg(-1)) and the pharmacokinetics parameters were calculated based on the concentration-time curves. The C(max) of S-ibuprofen in Beagle dog plasma after a single intravenous administration of racemic-ibuprofen, S-ibuprofen and R-ibuprofen were 30.8 ± 4.7, 46.1 ± 5.9 and 20.0 ± 2.6 μg x mL(-1), respectively. In terms of the exposure of active ingredient, it revealed a significant difference between the administration of S-ibuprofen and the other two groups. The systematical R- to S- chiral inversion was discussed. Comparing the pharmacokinetic parameters at different doses, chiral inversion were 70.1% ± 36.6% and 76

  13. Study of four week repeated dose toxic test of Sweet Bee Venom in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Seuk Park

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to analyse four week repeated dose toxicity of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV extracted from the bee venom in Beagle dogs. Methods: All experiments were conducted under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical study authorized institution. Male and female Beagle dogs of 5-6 months old were chosen for the pilot study of four week repeated dose toxicity of Sweet BV which was administered at the level of 0.56㎎/㎏ body weight which is eighty times higher than the clinical application dosage as the high dosage, followed by 0.28 and 0.14㎎/㎏ as midium and low dosage, respectively. Equal amount of excipient(normal saline to the Sweet BV experiment groups was administered as the control group every day for four weeks. Results: 1. No mortality was witnessed in all of the experiment groups. 2. All experiment groups were appealed pain sense in the treating time compared to the control group, and hyperemia and movement disorder were observed around the area of administration in all experiment groups, and higher occurrence in the higher dosage treatment. 3. For weight measurement, Neither male nor female groups showed significant changes. 4. In the urine analysis, CBC and biochemistry didn't show any significant changes in the experiment groups compared with control group. 5. For weight measurement of organs, experiment groups didn't show any significant changes compared with control group. 6. To verify abnormalities of organs and tissues, thigh muscle which treated with Sweet BV, cerebrum, liver, lung, kidney, and spinal cords were removed and conducted histologocal observation with H-E staining. In the histologocal observation of thigh muscle, cell infiltration, inflammatory, degeneration, necrosis of muscle fiber, and fibrosis were found in both thigh tissue. And the changes were depend on the dose of Sweet BV. But another organs were not detected in any abnormalities. 7

  14. 75 FR 32275 - Regulated Navigation Area; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ..., Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey Canal, Algiers Canal, New Orleans, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...), Harvey Canal, and Algiers Canal during severe hurricane conditions. Vessels will not be permitted to stay... communities within the IHNC, Harvey, and Algiers Canals from potential hazards associated with vessels...

  15. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872.3820 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a...

  16. 33 CFR 117.455 - Houma Navigation Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Houma Navigation Canal. 117.455 Section 117.455 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.455 Houma Navigation Canal. The draw of SR 661 (Houma Nav Canal) bridge,...

  17. 21 CFR 872.3810 - Root canal post.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal post. 872.3810 Section 872.3810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3810 Root canal post. (a) Identification. A root canal post is a device made of austenitic alloys...

  18. Familia nuclear y jefatura del hogar: acceso a la mujer a la tierra en las reformas agrarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena León

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available En este texto se analizan las consecuencias que la neutralidad de género ha dejado para la política pública, en el caso específico de las reformas agrarias y acceso de la mujer a la tierra en América Latina.

  19. Modelo matemático para la descripción de la transferencia de calor para tierra vertida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Jonathan Suárez-Domínguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La arquitectura de tierra implica procesos constructivos sustentables ya que utiliza materiales vernáculos duraderos cuyos residuos son de bajo impacto al ambiente. La tierra vertida es una técnica a partir de la cual pueden tenerse muros resistentes dentro de la edificación de viviendas pero cuyas propiedades han sido poco evaluadas y representadas a partir de modelos. La transferencia de calor es una de las características más importantes cuando se edifica en zonas calurosas pues implica ciertos niveles de confort para los usuarios. El presente trabajo propone un modelo para determinar la difusividad térmica de tierra vertida con uso potencial para otras determinaciones a diversas temperaturas, algunas implicaciones también son presentadas. Se encontró que el coeficiente de difusividad térmica de muestras de tierra vertida fue de   4.319  10 8 m 2 s 1 , mientras que su calor específico es de 1.1030 kJkg-1K 1 .

  20. Acaparamiento de tierras y acumulación global capitalista: aspectos clave en América Latina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Landivar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available El número especial de la Canadian  Journal  of Develop-ment Studies aporta con nuevos elementos para entender el fenómeno del acaparamiento de tierras. Basado en estudios empíricos de expertos de siete países de AméricaLatina.

  1. Nerve canals at the fundus of the internal auditory canal on high-resolution temporal bone CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Yoon Ha; Youn, Eun Kyung; Kim, Seung Chul [Sungkyunkwan Univ., School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    To identify and evaluate the normal anatomy of nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal which can be visualized on high-resolution temporal bone CT. We retrospectively reviewed high-resolution (1 mm thickness and interval contiguous scan) temporal bone CT images of 253 ears in 150 patients who had not suffered trauma or undergone surgery. Those with a history of uncomplicated inflammatory disease were included, but those with symptoms of vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, or facial nerve palsy were excluded. Three radiologists determined the detectability and location of canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial, superior vestibular and cochlear nerve, and the saccular branch and posterior ampullary nerve of the inferior vestibular nerve. Five bony canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were identified as nerve canals. Four canals were identified on axial CT images in 100% of cases; the so-called singular canal was identified in only 68%. On coronal CT images, canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial and superior vestibular nerve were seen in 100% of cases, but those for the cochlear nerve, the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve, and the singular canal were seen in 90.1%, 87.4% and 78% of cases, respectiveIy. In all detectable cases, the canal for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve was revealed as one which traversed anterolateralIy, from the anterosuperior portion of the fundus of the internal auditory canal. The canal for the cochlear nerve was located just below that for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve, while that canal for the superior vestibular nerve was seen at the posterior aspect of these two canals. The canal for the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve was located just below the canal for the superior vestibular nerve, and that for the posterior ampullary nerve, the so-called singular canal, ran laterally or posteolateralIy from the posteroinferior aspect of

  2. Beagle 2 the Moon: An Experimental Package to Measure Polar Ice and Volatiles in Permanently Shadowed Areas or Beneath the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K.; McKay, D. S.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Sims, M. R.; Richter, L.

    2008-03-01

    The Gas Analysis Package and associated instruments from Beagle 2 is the ideal payload to measure the abundances and isotopic compositions of ice and volatiles found in the polar regions of the Moon. The hardware has already been flight qualified.

  3. Root canal cleaning through cavitation and microstreaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaagen, B.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the flow from a needle using Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations and high-speed imaging experiments on sub-millimeter fluidic channels. These have shown that the flow is not effective in delivering the bleach near the bacteria, due to the complex geometry of the root canal.

  4. The crazy project – Canal Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Kundak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It was late April 2011 when “the Crazy Project - Canal Istanbul” was proposed by the Prime Minister of Turkey, during his election campaign.  Although the idea of an artificial canal is not new, since it is initiated without any consensus between the people and institutions in Istanbul, the project immediately set a large number of debates. These vary from the legitimacy of decentralization of governance, to potential impacts of the canal on international politics, economy, environment and urban life.  Regarding past infrastructure projects in Istanbul, such large scale investments have caused extensive acceleration in construction sector in one hand and social and economic shifts on the other.  In this paper, the Canal Istanbul Project is evaluated according to basic motivations and claims of the PM, multi-perspective view through challenges and limitation that the project is likely to face with and speculations on implementation approach. The final discussion on the project is based on benefits/losses of Istanbul once the project will be implemented.

  5. Note on Tendipedidae of the Suez Canal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruseman, G.

    1949-01-01

    Mr. A. C. V. VAN BEMMEL and Dr. A. DIAKONOFF of the Buitenzorg Museum (Java) collected Tendipedidae, which were attracted by artificial lights, when they passed the Suez Canal on 8-XI-1937 and 16-V-1939 respectively. This very interesting collection, containing some new species, was sent to me for d

  6. Infrared tympanic temperature and ear canal morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Several publications indicate that the infrared tympanic temperature (IRTT) underestimates the core temperature of the body when the ear canal is long, curvy and narrow. In order to quantify these observations, a study was performed in 10 subjects. The IRTT was determined and compared to the oesopha

  7. Biological effects of cesium-137 injected in beagle dogs of different ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikula, K.J.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C. [and others

    1995-12-01

    The toxicity of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) in the Beagle dog was investigated at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as part of a program to evaluate the biological effects of internally deposited radionuclides. The toxicity and health effects of {sup 137}Cs are important to understand because {sup 137}Cs is produced in large amounts in light-water nuclear reactors. Large quantities of cesium radioisotopes have entered the human food chain as a result of atmospheric nuclear weapons test, and additional cesium radioisotopes were released during the Chernobyl accident. Although the final analyses are not complete, three findings are significant: older dogs dies significantly earlier than juvenile and young adult dogs; greater occurrence of sarcomas in the cesium-137 injected dogs; the major nonneoplastic effect in dogs surviving beyond 52 d appears to be testicular atrophy.

  8. Lifetime tumor risk coefficients for beagle dogs that inhaled cerium-144 chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Reported here is one of the life-span radionuclide toxicology studies being conducted at ITRI in Beagle dogs. These studies are examining the life-span health risks of inhaled {Beta}-, {gamma}- and {alpha}-emitting radionuclides to expand available knowledge on these risks especially for the many cases for which human data are not available. The outcomes of these studies are providing important information on dosimetry and dose-response relationships for these inhaled radionuclides and the relative importance of a broad range of dose- and effect-modifying factors. A number of these studies are currently coming to completion. Much of the ITRI effort is being directed to final reviews of the dosimetric, clinical, and pathologic results and writing summary manuscripts. Radiation doses and effects in tissues adjacent to bone, specifically those of epithelial or marrow origin, should be considered when determining risks from internally deposited, bone-seeking radionuclides such as {sup 144}Ce.

  9. Seasonal and pollution-induced variations in biomarkers of transplanted mussels within the Beagle Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratano, Erica; Gil, Mónica N; Malanga, Gabriela

    2011-06-01

    The occurrence of biomarker variations linked to environmental factors makes it difficult to distinguish the effect of pollution. In an attempt to evaluate spatial and seasonal effects of environmental parameters on biomarker responses, mussels Mytilus edulis chilensis coming from an aquaculture farm were transplanted to several points within Ushuaia Bay (Beagle Channel) for 6 weeks in summer and winter. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and levels of lipid peroxidation were measured in gills and digestive gland. Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd and Pb concentrations were also assessed. Results indicated a significant effect of seasons on biological responses as well as in metal bioaccumulation showing the influence of natural factors such as dissolved oxygen, temperature and food availability. The interdependence of those environmental factors is important for the homeostasis of thermoconformers, especially regarding their oxidative metabolism and should also be taken into consideration to distinguish natural from pollution-induced variations.

  10. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of Shenfu Injection in beagle dogs after intravenous drip administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuqiao; Tian, Dali; Huang, Yuyou; Li, Ling; Mao, Juan; Tian, Juan; Ding, Jinsong

    2016-11-01

    Shenfu Injection (SFI) is a well-defined Chinese herbal formulation that is obtained from red ginseng and processed aconite root. The main active constituents in SFI are ginsenosides and aconitum alkaloids. In this work, ginsenosides (ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Rb1 and ginsenoside Rc) and aconitum alkaloids (benzoylmesaconine and fuziline) were used as the index components to explore the pharmacokinetic behavior of SFI. A selective and sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the quantification of ginsenosides and aconitum alkaloids in dog plasma and was used to characterize the pharmacokinetics of the five index components after intravenous drip of three different dosages of SFI in beagle dogs. The pharmacokinetic properties of the index components were linear over the dose range of 2-8 mL/kg.

  11. Mechanical characteristics of the pulmonary artery in beagle dogs with hepatopulmonary syndrome and portopulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guozhen; He, Junfeng; Yu, Yueli; Liu, Yang; Yuan, Yanfen; Guo, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    The continuous changes in pulmonary hemodynamic properties in hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) and portopulmonary hypertension (PoPH) have not been fully characterized in large animal models of HPS and PoPH. Beagle dog models of HPS and PoPH were induced by chronic common bile duct ligation and Sephadex microspheres, respectively. The model was validated by catheter examination and pathological analyses, and the hemodynamic characteristics of the models were observed. The results revealed that the cross-sectional area of the blood vessel was significantly increased in HPS models, but it was significantly decreased in the PoPH models. Furthermore, the resistance of pulmonary circulation was elevated in models of HPS, but it was decreased in models of PoPH. The present findings renew the traditional view that pulmonary hypertension is due to the enhanced peripheral resistance.

  12. Spontaneous necrotizing sialometaplasia of the submandibular salivary gland in a Beagle dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, Sydney; Petterino, Claudio; Bradley, Alys

    2015-07-01

    A single mass was found on the left submandibular salivary gland at necropsy of a 15-month-old male commercially bred laboratory Beagle dog from a control dose group from a repeat toxicity study. Microscopically, the mass was composed of a well-demarcated area of coagulative necrosis surrounded and separated from the normal salivary gland tissue by a thick fibrovascular capsule. Necrosis was admixed with areas of hemorrhage, fibrin, edema, fibrinoid necrosis of the vascular tunica media, and thrombosis of small and large vessels. Within the necrotic tissue, there was marked ductal hyperplasia, and squamous metaplasia of duct and acinar epithelium. The mass was diagnosed as necrotizing sialometaplasia of the submandibular gland. Hyperplastic ductal elements and squamous metaplasia can be mistaken microscopically with squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, pathologists should be aware of this lesion as to avoid errors in the diagnosis of this benign pathologic condition.

  13. A case of spontaneous myocardial necrosis and cerebral ischemic lesions in a laboratory beagle dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Kohei; Kohara, Yukari; Ito, Yuko; Yoshikawa, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Makoto; Kitaura, Keisuke; Matsumoto, Satoshi

    2015-10-01

    A beagle dog treated with saline as a control animal in a preclinical study was euthanized due to sudden systemic deterioration. On histopathological examination, contraction band necrosis of myocardial cells was observed widely in the left ventricular wall, including the papillary muscle and apex, and observed slightly in the ventricular septum and left atrium. In the brain, necrosis was observed in neurons and glia of the cerebral cortex, hippocampal pyramidal cells, glial cells of the rostral commissure and Purkinje cells of the cerebellar vermis. It is highly probable that the marked systemic deterioration was caused by cardiac dysfunction due to the spontaneous contraction band necrosis of the myocardial cells, although the pathogenesis of the myocardial lesions remains unclear. Given the distribution of neuronal necrosis in the brain, it is likely that these lesions resulted from the ischemia responsible for acute cardiac failure.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of a florfenicol-tylosin combination after intravenous and intramuscular administration to beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Young; Gebru, Elias; Lee, Joong-Su; Kim, Jong-Choon; Park, Seung-Chun

    2011-04-01

    A pharmacokinetic study of a commercial florfenicol-tylosin (2:1) combination product was conducted in six beagle dogs after intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration at doses of 10 mg/kg (florfenicol) and 5 mg/kg (tylosin). Serum drug concentrations were determined by a validated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using UV detection. A rapid and nearly complete absorption of both drugs with a mean IM bioavailability of 103.9% (florfenicol) and 92.6% (tylosin), prolonged elimination half-life, and high tissue penetration with steady state volume of distribution of 2.63 l/kg (florfenicol) and 1.98 l/kg (tylosin) were observed. Additional studies, including pharmacodynamic and toxicological evaluation are required before recommendations can be made regarding the clinical application of the product in dogs.

  15. Flora bucal en perros de la raza Beagle con enfermedad periodontal inducida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera García, Alexei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa enfermedad periodontal afecta a los perros durante toda su vida y se debe a la acumulación de placa dental bacteriana en las coronas dentales a lo largo de la encía, lo que conlleva a una reacción inflamatoria de la misma, conocida como gingivitis. Con el fin determinar la flora bucal en perros con enfermedad periodontal inducida se estudiaron 10 canes de la raza Beagle que previamente fueron sometidos a una intervención quirúrgica para inducir la enfermedad.SummaryPeriodontal diseases affect the dogs all its life and this is due to the accumulation of bacterial dental plaque along the gums as results this provokes a well known inflammatory reaction defined as gingivitis. The purpose of this paper was to determine the bucal flora in dogs with periodontal disease induced.

  16. Urethral tissue regeneration using collagen scaffold modified with collagen binding VEGF in a beagle model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Weisheng; Tang, He; Wu, Jianjian; Hou, Xianglin; Chen, Bing; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Yannan; Shi, Chunying; Zhou, Feng; Yu, Wei; Huang, Shengquan; Ye, Gang; Dai, Jianwu

    2015-11-01

    Extensive urethral defects have a serious impact on quality of life, and treatment is challenging. A shortage of material for reconstruction is a key limitation. Improving the properties of biomaterials and making them suitable for urethral reconstruction will be helpful. Previously, we constructed a fusion protein, collagen-binding VEGF (CBD-VEGF), which can bind to collagen scaffold, stimulate cell proliferation, and promote angiogenesis and tissue regeneration. We proposed that CBD-VEGF could improve the performance of collagen in reconstruction of extensive urethral defects. Our results showed that collagen scaffolds modified with CBD-VEGF could promote urethral tissue regeneration and improve the function of the neo-urethra in a beagle extensive urethral defect model. Thus, modifying biomaterials with bioactive factors provides an alternative strategy for the production of suitable biomaterials for urethral reconstruction.

  17. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of Shenfu Injection in beagle dogs after intravenous drip administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiao Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Shenfu Injection (SFI is a well-defined Chinese herbal formulation that is obtained from red ginseng and processed aconite root. The main active constituents in SFI are ginsenosides and aconitum alkaloids. In this work, ginsenosides (ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Rb1 and ginsenoside Rc and aconitum alkaloids (benzoylmesaconine and fuziline were used as the index components to explore the pharmacokinetic behavior of SFI. A selective and sensitive HPLC–MS/MS method was developed for the quantification of ginsenosides and aconitum alkaloids in dog plasma and was used to characterize the pharmacokinetics of the five index components after intravenous drip of three different dosages of SFI in beagle dogs. The pharmacokinetic properties of the index components were linear over the dose range of 2–8 mL/kg.

  18. Effects of a tetracycline blended polylactic and polyglycolic acid membrane on the healing of one-wall intrabony defects in beagle dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Il-Young [Department of Periodontology, Research Institute for Periodontal Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752l (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Ui-Won [Department of Periodontology, Research Institute for Periodontal Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752l (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang-Sung [Department of Periodontology, Research Institute for Periodontal Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752l (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong-Keun [Department and Research Institute of Dental Biomaterials and Bioengineering, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyoo-Sung [Department of Periodontology, Research Institute for Periodontal Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752l (Korea, Republic of); Chai, Jung-Kiu [Department of Periodontology, Research Institute for Periodontal Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752l (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chong-Kwan [Department of Periodontology, Research Institute for Periodontal Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752l (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seong-Ho [Department of Periodontology, Research Institute for Periodontal Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752l (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the regenerative effects of a tetracycline blended polylactic and polyglycolic acid (TC-PLGA) and non-blended polylactic and polyglycolic acid (PLGA) barrier membrane on one-wall intrabony defects in beagle dogs. It can be concluded that when used for guided tissue regeneration TC-PLGA membranes show a beneficial effect on one-wall intrabony defects in beagle dogs.

  19. Diversity of antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi in experimentally infected beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Elisabeth; Grosenbaugh, Deborah A; Barbour, Alan G

    2014-06-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a common infection of domestic dogs in areas where there is enzootic transmission of the agent Borrelia burgdorferi. While immunoassays based on individual subunits have mostly supplanted the use of whole-cell preparations for canine serology, only a limited number of informative antigens have been identified. To more broadly characterize the antibody responses to B. burgdorferi infection and to assess the diversity of those responses in individual dogs, we examined sera from 32 adult colony-bred beagle dogs that had been experimentally infected with B. burgdorferi through tick bites and compared those sera in a protein microarray with sera from uninfected dogs in their antibody reactivities to various recombinant chromosome- and plasmid-encoded B. burgdorferi proteins, including 24 serotype-defining OspC proteins of North America. The profiles of immunogenic proteins for the dogs were largely similar to those for humans and natural-reservoir rodents; these proteins included the decorin-binding protein DbpB, BBA36, BBA57, BBA64, the fibronectin-binding protein BBK32, VlsE, FlaB and other flagellar structural proteins, Erp proteins, Bdr proteins, and all of the OspC proteins. In addition, the canine sera bound to the presumptive lipoproteins BBB14 and BB0844, which infrequently elicited antibodies in humans or rodents. Although the beagle, like most other domestic dog breeds, has a small effective population size and features extensive linkage disequilibrium, the group of animals studied here demonstrated diversity in antibody responses in measures of antibody levels and specificities for conserved proteins, such as DbpB, and polymorphic proteins, such as OspC.

  20. Study on Plasma Concentration and Bioavailability of Wogonin in Beagle's Dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-chun; CHEN Fei-hu; DONG Hai-jun; GAO Shu

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop an LC-MS/MS method for determining the concentration of wogonin in dog plasma and investigate the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability by different administrations of wogonin in Beagle's dogs. Methods LC-MS/MS was employed in determining the concentration of wogonin with the selected ion monitoring model after liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate of dog plasma samples. The lower limit of quantification was 0.105 μg/L. Target ions were at m/z 285.0→270.0 for wogonin and 373.3→305.3 for finasteride. In a randomized, self-control, and cross-over study, six male Beagle's dogs were treated with different administration methods in three test periods. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with DAS software (Ver. 2.0). Results The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.105-107.36 μg/L for wogonin in dog plasma samples. The main pharmacokinetic parameters of ig administration (native drug of 15 mg/kg and solution preparation of 5 mg/kg) and iv route were as follows: Cmax (2.5 ± 1.1), (7.9 ± 3.3), and (6838.7 ± 1322.1) μg/L, tmax (0.7 ± 0.3) and (0.3 ± 0.2) h for the both former, AUC0-1 (7.1 ± 2.0), (21.0 ± 3.2), and (629.7 ±111.8) μg·h/L. The absolute bioavailability of native and solution of wogonin were (0.59 ± 0.35)% and (3.65 ± 2.00)%, respectively. Conclusion The validated method is convenient, sensitive, and specific, and the improvement of wogonin solubility could remarkably increase the absolute bioavailability.

  1. Pharmacokinetic studies of meloxicam following oral and transdermal administration in Beagle dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue YUAN; Xiao-yan CHEN; San-ming LI; Xiu-yan WEI; Hui-min YAO; Da-fang ZHONG

    2009-01-01

    Aim:The potential for topical delivery of meloxicam was investigated by examining its pharmacokinetic profiles in plasma and synovial fluid following oral and transdermal administration in Beagle dogs.Methods:The experiment was a two-period,crossover design using 6 Beagle dogs.Meloxicam tablets were administered orally at a dose of 0.31 mg/kg,and meloxicam gel was administered transdermally at a dose of 1.25 mg/kg.Drug concentrations in plasma and synovial fluid were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS).The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using the Topfit 2.0 program.Results:The pharmacokinetic results showed that AUCo-t (23.9±8.26 μg·h-mL-1) in plasma after oral administration was significantly higher than after transdermal delivery (1.00±0.43 μg·h-mL-1).In contrast,the ratio of the average concentration in synovial fluid to that in plasma following transdermal administration was higher than that for an oral delivery.The synovial fluid concentration in the treated leg was much higher than that in the untreated leg,whereas the synovial fluid concentration in the untreated leg was similar to the plasma concentration.Conclusion:The high concentration ratio of synovial fluid to plasma indicates direct penetration of meloxicam following topical administration to the target tissue.This finding is further supported by the differences observed in meloxicam concentrations in synovial fluid in the treated and untreated joints at the same time point.Our results suggest that transdermal delivery of meloxicam is a promising method for decreasing its adverse systemic effects.

  2. An artificial pancreas provided a novel model of blood glucose level variability in beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munekage, Masaya; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Takezaki, Yuka; Tamura, Takahiko; Namikawa, Tsutomu; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Although the effects on prognosis of blood glucose level variability have gained increasing attention, it is unclear whether blood glucose level variability itself or the manifestation of pathological conditions that worsen prognosis. Then, previous reports have not been published on variability models of perioperative blood glucose levels. The aim of this study is to establish a novel variability model of blood glucose concentration using an artificial pancreas. We maintained six healthy, male beagles. After anesthesia induction, a 20-G venous catheter was inserted in the right femoral vein and an artificial pancreas (STG-22, Nikkiso Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was connected for continuous blood glucose monitoring and glucose management. After achieving muscle relaxation, total pancreatectomy was performed. After 1 h of stabilization, automatic blood glucose control was initiated using the artificial pancreas. Blood glucose level varied for 8 h, alternating between the target blood glucose values of 170 and 70 mg/dL. Eight hours later, the experiment was concluded. Total pancreatectomy was performed for 62 ± 13 min. Blood glucose swings were achieved 9.8 ± 2.3 times. The average blood glucose level was 128.1 ± 5.1 mg/dL with an SD of 44.6 ± 3.9 mg/dL. The potassium levels after stabilization and at the end of the experiment were 3.5 ± 0.3 and 3.1 ± 0.5 mmol/L, respectively. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that an artificial pancreas contributed to the establishment of a novel variability model of blood glucose levels in beagles.

  3. Osteoporotic-like effects of cadmium on bone mineral density and content in aged ovariectomized beagles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacco-Gibson, N.; Abrams, J.; Chaudhry, S.; Hurst, D.; Peterson, D.; Bhattacharyya, M.

    1992-12-31

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in conjunction with cadmium (Cd) exposure on bone. Aged female beagles with {sup 45}Ca-labeled skeletons ovariectomized and exposed to Cd. Successive vertebral scans by dual photon absorptiometry monitored changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in each dog with time. Results showed that ovariectomy or Cd exposure alone caused significant decreases in BMD; ovariectomy with Cd exposure caused the greatest decrease. Ovariectomy alone did not decrease BMD in the distal end or mid-shaft of the tibia while BMD of the distal tibia decreased significantly due to Cd exposure alone. Combination treatment resulted in significant decreases in BMD of both tibial regions. At necropsy, tibiae, humeri, lumbar vertebrae and ribs were obtained for biochemical analysis. No group-to-group differences in bone weights (wet, dry, ash), in ash/dry ratios, or in long bone and vertebral Ca/dry or Ca/ash ratios were observed. Significantly higher total {sup 45}Ca content and {sup 45}Ca/dry and {sup 45}Ca/ash ratios were observed in long bones and vertebrae of OV- and OV+ groups. In contrast, intact ribs showed significantly decreased Ca/dry and Ca/ash ratios compared to the SO-group. Quartered ribs demonstrated regional responses to specific treatment; decreases in total Ca content were greatest in the mid-rib region ({minus}36 to {minus}46%). Results suggest that in the aged female beagle, bone mineral loss associated with estrogen depletion is not only related to bone type (trabecular versus cortical) but also to bone Ca pools. Our results also suggest that a regional heterogeneity of bone plays a role in responsiveness to ovariectomy and Cd exposure. These aspects suggest that Cd is an exogenous factor affecting bone mineral loss independently of estrogen depletion. However, estrogen depletion primes bone for responsiveness to Cd-induced bone mineral loss.

  4. Reconstruction of beagle hemi-mandibular defects with allogenic mandibular scaffolds and autologous mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChangKui Liu

    Full Text Available Massive bone allografts are frequently used in orthopedic reconstructive surgery, but carry a high failure rate of approximately 25%. We tested whether treatment of graft with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs can increase the integration of massive allografts (hemi-mandible in a large animal model.Thirty beagle dogs received surgical left-sided hemi-mandibular defects, and then divided into two equal groups. Bony defects of the control group were reconstructed using allografts only. Those of the experimental group were reconstructed using allogenic mandibular scaffold-loaded autologous MSCs. Beagles from each group were killed at 4 (n = 4, 12 (n = 4, 24 (n = 4 or 48 weeks (n = 3 postoperatively. CT and micro-CT scans, histological analyses and the bone mineral density (BMD of transplants were used to evaluate defect reconstruction outcomes.Gross and CT examinations showed that the autologous bone grafts had healed in both groups. At 48 weeks, the allogenic mandibular scaffolds of the experimental group had been completely replaced by new bone, which has a smaller surface area to that of the original allogenic scaffold, whereas the scaffold in control dogs remained the same size as the original allogenic scaffold throughout. At 12 weeks, the BMD of the experimental group was significantly higher than the control group (p<0.05, and all micro-architectural parameters were significantly different between groups (p<0.05. Histological analyses showed almost all transplanted allogeneic bone was replaced by new bone, principally fibrous ossification, in the experimental group, which differed from the control group where little new bone formed.Our study demonstrated the feasibility of MSC-loaded allogenic mandibular scaffolds for the reconstruction of hemi-mandibular defects. Further studies are needed to test whether these results can be surpassed by the use of allogenic mandibular scaffolds loaded with a combination of MSCs and osteoinductive growth

  5. Relationship of dose rate and total dose to responses of continuously irradiated beagles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, T E; Norris, W P; Tolle, D V; Seed, T M; Poole, C M; Lombard, L S; Doyle, D E

    1978-01-01

    Young-adult beagles were exposed continuously (22 hours/day) to /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. rays in a specially constructed facility. The exposure rates were either 5, 10, 17, or 35 R/day, and the exposures were terminated at either 600, 1400, 2000, or 4000 R. A total of 354 dogs were irradiated; 221 are still alive as long-term survivors, some after more than 2000 days. The data on survival of these dogs, coupled with data from similar preliminary experiments, allow an estimate of the LD/sub 50/ for ..gamma..-ray exposures given at a number of exposure rates. They also allow comparison of the relative importance of dose rate and total dose, and the interaction of these two variables, in the early and late effects after protracted irradiation. The LD/sub 50/ for the beagle increases from 258 rad delivered at 15 R/minute to approximately 3000 rad at 10 R/day. Over this entire range, the LD/sub 50/ is dependent upon hematopoietic damage. At 5 R/day and less, no meaningful LD/sub 50/ can be determined; there is nearly normal continued hematopoietic function, survival is prolonged, and the dogs manifest varied individual responses in other organ systems. Although the experiment is not complete, interim data allow several important conclusions. Terminated exposures, while not as effective as radiation continued until death, can produce myelogenous leukemia at the same exposure rate, 10 R/day. More importantly, at the same total accumulated dose, lower exposure rates are more damaging than higher rates on the basis of the rate and degree of hematological recovery that occurs after termination of irradiation. Thus, the rate of hematologic depression, the nadir of the depression, and the rate of recovery are dependent upon exposure rate; the latter is inversely related and the former two are directly related to exposure rate.

  6. Atmospheric background trace elements deposition in Tierra del Fuego region (Patagonia, Argentina), using transplanted Usnea barbata lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Finoia, Maria Grazia; Bocca, Beatrice; Mele, Giustino; Alimonti, Alessandro; Pino, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Lichen, Usnea barbata, transplants taken from Tierra del Fuego (south Patagonia, Argentina) were tested as potential biomonitors of atmospheric airborne deposition in an apparently pristine environment. In 2005, lichens were sampled in a reference site (n = 31) and transplanted in the northern Region of Tierra del Fuego. After, respectively, 1 month and 1 year of exposure, we collected them. The aim of the study was to determine the bioaccumulation of 26 elements in order to evaluate the background levels in the selected area. Samples were analyzed by the sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Discriminant analysis on principal component analysis factors was applied in order to explore the relationship among the different elements as far as time and spatial variation in transplants regards. The analysis was tested by Monte Carlo test based on 999 replicates. The most important contamination source resulted to be the atmospheric soil particle deposition. Furthermore, the results were compared with those obtained from the lichens collected in central and southern Tierra del Fuego. This study confirms the ability of U. barbata to reflect the background levels of the 26 elements in that environment. Compared with other background sites in the world, we did confirm that Tierra del Fuego lichens have a low content of the studied elements. Tierra del Fuego turned out not to be a pristine environment as supposed, but it can be considered as a reference basal ecosystem for useful comparisons among different geographical areas. These findings can be very relevant and useful for environmental conservation programs.

  7. MR determination of neonatal spinal canal depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen, E-mail: owenarthurs@uk2.net [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London WC1N 3JH (United Kingdom); Thayyil, Sudhin, E-mail: s.thayyil@ucl.ac.uk [Academic Neonatology, Institute for Women' s Health, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom); Wade, Angie, E-mail: a.wade@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Chong, W.K., E-mail: Kling.Chong@gosh.nhs.uk [Paediatric Neuroradiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J., E-mail: Neil.Sebire@gosh.nhs.uk [Histopathology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom); Taylor, Andrew M., E-mail: a.taylor76@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Cardiorespiratory Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children and UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Objectives: Lumbar punctures (LPs) are frequently performed in neonates and often result in traumatic haemorrhagic taps. Knowledge of the distance from the skin to the middle of the spinal canal (mid-spinal canal depth - MSCD) may reduce the incidence of traumatic taps, but there is little data in extremely premature or low birth weight neonates. Here, we determined the spinal canal depth at post-mortem in perinatal deaths using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients and methods: Spinal canal depth was measured in 78 post-mortem foetuses and perinatal cases (mean gestation 26 weeks; mean weight 1.04 kg) at the L3/L4 inter-vertebral space at post-mortem MRI. Both anterior (ASCD) and posterior (PSCD) spinal canal depth were measured; MSCD was calculated and modelled against weight and gestational age. Results: ASCD and PSCD (mm) correlated significantly with weight and gestational age (all r > 0.8). A simple linear model MSCD (mm) = 3 Multiplication-Sign Weight (kg) + 5 was the best fit, identifying an SCD value within the correct range for 87.2% (68/78) (95% CI (78.0, 92.9%)) cases. Gestational age did not add significantly to the predictive value of the model. Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between MSCD and body weight at post-mortem MRI in foetuses and perinatal deaths. If this association holds in preterm neonates, use of the formula MSCD (mm) = 3 Multiplication-Sign Weight (kg) + 5 could result in fewer traumatic LPs in this population.

  8. Cervical spinal canal narrowing in idiopathic syringomyelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struck, Aaron F. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Neurology, Boston, MA (United States); Carr, Carrie M. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Shah, Vinil [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hesselink, John R. [University of California San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Haughton, Victor M. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The cervical spine in Chiari I patient with syringomyelia has significantly different anteroposterior diameters than it does in Chiari I patients without syringomyelia. We tested the hypothesis that patients with idiopathic syringomyelia (IS) also have abnormal cervical spinal canal diameters. The finding in both groups may relate to the pathogenesis of syringomyelia. Local institutional review boards approved this retrospective study. Patients with IS were compared to age-matched controls with normal sagittal spine MR. All subjects had T1-weighted spin-echo (500/20) and T2-weighted fast spin-echo (2000/90) sagittal cervical spine images at 1.5 T. Readers blinded to demographic data and study hypothesis measured anteroposterior diameters at each cervical level. The spinal canal diameters were compared with a Mann-Whitney U test. The overall difference was assessed with a Friedman test. Seventeen subjects were read by two reviewers to assess inter-rater reliability. Fifty IS patients with 50 age-matched controls were studied. IS subjects had one or more syrinxes varying from 1 to 19 spinal segments. Spinal canal diameters narrowed from C1 to C3 and then enlarged from C5 to C7 in both groups. Diameters from C2 to C4 were narrower in the IS group (p < 0.005) than in controls. The ratio of the C3 to the C7 diameters was also smaller (p = 0.004) in IS than controls. Collectively, the spinal canal diameters in the IS were significantly different from controls (Friedman test p < 0.0001). Patients with IS have abnormally narrow upper and mid cervical spinal canal diameters and greater positive tapering between C3 and C7. (orig.)

  9. Comer tierra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Achury Valenzuela

    1967-07-01

    Full Text Available Los hombres de ciencia, singularmente los médicos, que han tratado de la geofagia, no han logrado ponerse de acuerdo en la determinación de sus causas proximas o remotas. Opinan unos que se trata sencillamente de un recurso terapéutico, en órden a la curación de ciertas dolencias, al cual apelaban, por ejemplo, algunos habitantes de ciertas provincias de Francia para tratar la forunculósis, los ántrax y el cólera asiático, y también los indios del Perú para curar las hemorroides, la gota coral, la diarrea y cierta clase de llagas rebeldes, como luego se verá más a espacio.

  10. Cuerpo - tierra

    OpenAIRE

    López escobar, Gloria Andrea; Alvaréz García, Gloria Elena

    2015-01-01

    Tesis. (Magister en Educación) Universidad Católica de Manizales. Facultad de Educación, 2015 Esta obra busca abrir caminos de reflexión, ante la forma como la madre ha estado respondiendo al maltrato generado y del cómo entre todos podemos recobrar nuestros sentidos, trayendo la mirada de amor, que hoy se encuentra segada por la tecnología y la ambición; volviendo al oído el grito de angustia de la naturaleza cuando los barcos derraman petróleo, y matan miles de especies, los gritos de do...

  11. La tierra en armas de Dávalos-Serrano (o las armas del teatro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Beatriz Sosa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La tierra en armas (1926 constituye un texto enigmático por diversas cuestiones, a pesar de su celebridad –es la obra teatral más famosa de la literatura salteña- y de su aparente transparencia al representar hechos históricos relativos a la gesta de Güemes. El primer enigma es el problema de la autoría, ya que La tierra en armas surge de la escritura en colaboración de Juan Carlos Dávalos y Ramón Serrano, pero en el momento de publicación del texto (1935 aparecerá en la portada sólo el nombre de Dávalos. El gesto editorial de borrar el nombre del segundo autor en esa primera publicación es decisivo para el futuro teatral de Serrano, quien desaparece posteriormente de la escena salteña. La segunda cuestión deriva de la categoría de teatro histórico a la cual pertenece La tierra en armas La ficcionalización de un personaje histórico implica plantear las complejas relaciones que se establecen entre discurso dramático y discurso histórico. Luego de trazar someramente la trayectoria épica de Güemes, se realiza una descripción de la acción dramática y de los fundamentales procedimientos discursivos, como el encadenamiento entre la intriga principal (histórica y la secundaria (sentimental, la mise en abyme de la leyenda de la flor del Ilolay y la visualización escénica del texto. La tercera cuestión incluye el contexto de producción, circulación y recepción del teatro de la época, así como el nivel ideológico, sin los cuales sería imposible postular una interpretación del texto de Dávalos y Serrano como estrategia individual y colectiva de afianzamiento de la identidad.

  12. The Themis-Beagle families: Investigation of space-weathering processes on primitive surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasier, S.; Perna, D.; Lantz, C.; Barucci, M.

    2014-07-01

    features associated to hydrated silicates, and, recently, water-ice and organics features have been detected on the surface of (24) Themis (Campins et al. 2010, Rivkin & Emery 2010). Hydrated silicates are produced by the aqueous-alteration process, which require low temperature (Beagle, formed less than 10 Myr ago, has been identified. This sub-family has 65 members up to 2 km of diameter (Nesvorny et al. 2008). So, the Themis family is very important to shed light on the asteroid-comet continuum, to constrain the abundances of water ices in the outer part of the main belt, and to probe space-weathering effects on old Themis and young Beagle families' members. To investigate all these aspects, we carried out a spectroscopic survey in the visible and near-infrared range at the 3.6-m Italian telescope TNG (La Palma, Spain) during 6 nights in February and December 2012. We got new spectra of 8 Beagle and 22 Themis members using the DOLORES (with the LR-R and LR-B grisms) and the NICS (with the Amici prism) instruments. To look for possible coma around the targets, we also performed deep imaging in the R filter. Data are currently under analysis, and the results will be presented at the ACM meeting. None of the investigated spectra show water-ice absorption features at 1.5 and 2 microns, while few Themis members have visible absorption bands associated with hydrated silicates. The best meteoritic analogues to both Themis and Beagle members are the carbonaceous chondrites, especially CM2. The spectra of Beagle and Themis asteroids show significant differences: 'old' Themis members exhibit a wide range of spectra, including asteroids with blue/neutral and moderately red spectra (relative to the Sun), while the young Beagle members investigated are bluer and brighter than the Themis ones. These preliminary results seem to indicate that the SW effects on primitive asteroids are similar to those observed on silicate asteroids, that is, they produce reddening of the spectra and

  13. Effects of competitive and noncompetitive 5α-reductase inhibitors on serum and intra-prostatic androgens in beagle dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xiao-feng; YANG Yong; WANG Wei; QIU Zhi; ZHANG Peng; WANG Biao

    2013-01-01

    Background 5α-Reductase inhibitors (5α-RI) act by inhibiting the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT),thereby preventing DHT induced benign prostatic hyperplasia.The existing 5α-RIs can be classified into two types:competitive and noncompetitive.Currently,limited evidence is available concerning the effect differences between the two types of 5α-RI on androgens.The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of competitive and noncompetitive 5α-RIs on serum and intra-prostatic androgens in beagle dogs.Methods Twenty beagles with spontaneous benign prostatic hyperplasia were randomly allocated into two groups:epristeride group (n=10) in which beagles were treated with epristeride at 1 mg/kg once a day for 3 months,and finasteride group (n=10) in which beagles were treated with finasteride at 1 mg/kg once a day for 3 months.The levels of intra-prostatic testosterone and DHT were measured before treatment and on day one after three months medication.Serum levels of testosterone and DHT were measured at the same time points.Changes in androgen levels before and after treatment were analyzed,and comparisons were made within each treatment group and between treatment groups.Results After 3-month treatment,serum and intra-prostatic DHT levels all decreased significantly in both the epristeride and finasteride groups.The change of DHT in serum was significantly higher in the finasteride group (-14% and-43% in epristeride and finasteride groups respectively,with P<0.001); however there was no significant difference in the changes of intra-prostatic DHT between the two groups (-47% and-51% in epristeride and finasteride groups,respectively,P=0.304).The decreases in DHT levels were accompanied by reciprocal increases in serum and intra-prostatic testosterone levels.Changes of testosterone were significantly higher in finasteride group both in serum (20% and 42%in epristeride and finasteride groups,respectively,P<0.001) and in

  14. Dorello's Canal for Laymen: A Lego-Like Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Haim; Banerjee, Anirban Deep; Thakur, Jai Deep; Nanda, Anil

    2012-06-01

    Objective Dorello's canal was first described by Gruber in 1859, and later by Dorello. Vail also described the anatomy of Dorello's canal. In the preceding century, Dorello's canal was clinically important, in understanding sixth nerve palsy and nowadays it is mostly important for skull base surgery. The understanding of the three dimensional anatomy, of this canal is very difficult to understand, and there is no simple explanation for its anatomy and its relationship with adjacent structures. We present a simple, Lego-like, presentation of Dorello's canal, in a stepwise manner. Materials and Methods Dorello's canal was dissected in five formalin-fixed cadaver specimens (10 sides). The craniotomy was performed, while preserving the neural and vascular structures associated with the canal. A 3D model was created, to explain the canal's anatomy. Results Using the petrous pyramid, the sixth nerve, the cavernous sinus, the trigeminal ganglion, the petorclival ligament and the posterior clinoid, the three-dimensional structure of Dorello's canal was defined. This simple representation aids in understanding the three dimensional relationship of Dorello's canal to its neighboring structures. Conclusion Dorello's canal with its three dimensional structure and relationship to its neighboring anatomical structures could be reconstructed using a few anatomical building blocks. This method simplifies the understanding of this complex anatomical structure, and could be used for teaching purposes for aspiring neurosurgeons, and anatomy students.

  15. Comparison of the rheological properties of four root canal sealers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seok Woo Chang; Kwang Shik Bae; Young-Kyu Lee; Qiang Zhu; Won Jun Shon; Woo Cheol Lee; Kee Yeon Kum; Seung Ho Baek; In Bog Lee; Bum-Soon Lim

    2015-01-01

    The flowability of a root canal sealer is clinically important because it improves the penetration of the sealer into the complex root canal system. The purpose of this study was to compare the flowabilities of four root canal sealers, measured using the simple press method (ISO 6876), and their viscosities, measured using a strain-controlled rheometer. A newly developed, calcium phosphate-based root canal sealer (Capseal) and three commercial root canal sealers (AH Plus, Sealapex and Pulp Canal Sealer EWT) were used in this study. The flowabilities of the four root canal sealers were measured using the simple press method (n55) and their viscosities were measured using a strain-controlled rheometer (n55). The correlation between these two values was statistically analysed using Spearman’s correlation test. The flow diameters and the viscosities of the root canal sealers were strongly negatively correlated (r520.8618). The viscosity of Pulp Canal Sealer EWT was the lowest and increased in the following order:AH Plus,Sealapex,Capseal (P,0.05). All of the tested root canal sealers showed characteristic time-and temperature-dependent changes in their rheological properties. The viscosities measured using the strain-controlled rheometer were more precise than the flowabilities measured using the simple press method, suggesting that the rheometer can accurately measure the rheological properties of root canal sealers.

  16. Research on Canal System Operation Based on Controlled Volume Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Ding

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An operating simulation mode based on storage volume control method for multireach canal system in series was established. In allusion to the deficiency of existing controlled volume algorithm, the improved algorithm was proposed, that is the controlled volume algorithm of whole canal pools, the simulation results indicate that the storage volume and water level of each canal pool can be accurately controlled after the improved algorithm was adopted. However, for some typical discharge demand change operating conditions of canal, if the controlled volume algorithm of whole canal pool is still adopted, then it certainly will cause some unnecessary regulation, and consequently increases the disturbed canal reaches. Therefor, the idea of controlled volume operation method of continuous canal pools was proposed, and its algorithm was designed. Through simulation to practical project, the results indicate that the new controlled volume algorithm proposed for typical operating condition can comparatively obviously reduce the number of regulated check gates and disturbed canal pools for some typical discharge demand change operating conditions of canal, thus the control efficiency of canal system was improved. The controlled volume method of operation is specially suitable for large-scale water delivery canal system which possesses complex operation requirements.

  17. Tissue response to potential root-end filling materials in infected root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, B S; Ford, T R; Kariyawasam, S P

    1997-03-01

    The tissue responses to two potential root-end filling materials, a light-cured glass ionomer cement (Vitrebond) and a reinforced zinc oxide-eugenol cement (Kalzinol) were compared with that to amalgam. In 27 premolar teeth of beagle dogs (54 roots), a collection of endodontic pathogenic bacteria was first inoculated into the root canals to induce periapical lesions. On each root, an apicectomy was performed and root-end cavities prepared to receive fillings of each material. The teeth and surrounding jaw were removed after 8 weeks (24 roots) and 4 weeks (30 roots); and they were prepared for histological examination. The tissue response to amalgam fillings after 4 and 8 weeks was marked by moderate or severe inflammation on all roots, and extended > 0.5 mm in 10 out of 18 roots. In contrast, after 8 weeks, the majority of roots filled with Kalzinol showed little or moderate inflammation while the tissue response to Vitrebond was the best of the three materials, and was also less extensive. After 4 weeks, the overall best tissue response was with Kalzinol, followed closely by Vitrebond. The differences between materials for both time periods with either none or few inflammatory cells when compared with that with either moderate or severe inflammation were statistically significant (P inflammation or inflammation extending inflammation extending > 0.2 mm ( 0.5 mm) were statistically significant (P < 0.01). Both Vitrebond and Kalzinol have potential as root-end filling materials as the tissue response was considerably more favourable than that to amalgam.

  18. Short-term tissue response to potential root-end filling materials in infected root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, B S; Pitt Ford, T R; Kariyawasam, S P

    1997-07-01

    The short-term tissue responses to two potential root-end filling materials, a light-cured glass ionomer cement (Vitrebond) and a reinforced zinc oxide-eugenol cement (Kalzinol), were compared with that to amalgam using a previously devised experimental model. In 24 premolar teeth of beagle dogs (47 roots), a collection of endodontic pathogenic bacteria was first inoculated into the root canals to induce periradicular lesions. On each root, an apicoectomy was performed and root-end cavities prepared to receive fillings of each material. The teeth and surrounding jaw were removed after 2 weeks (23 roots) and 1 week (24 roots); they were then prepared for histological examination. The tissue response to amalgam fillings after 2 weeks and 1 week was marked by moderate or severe inflammation on all roots, and extended to 0.5 mm in 15 out of 16 roots. In contrast, after 2 weeks, the majority of roots filled with Kalzinol showed little or moderate inflammation, while the tissue response to Vitrebond was the best of the three materials, and was also the least extensive. After 1 week, the overall best tissue response was with Vitrebond, followed by Kalzinol. The differences between materials for both time periods with either none or few inflammatory cells when compared with that with either moderate or severe inflammation were not statistically significant (P inflammation or inflammation extending inflammation extending > 0.2 mm ( 0.5 mm) were statistically significant (P inflammation adjacent to the root-end filling, even though there were intersample variations, there was little overall difference in the temporal and qualitative healing response to Vitrebond and Kalzinol. Both Vitrebond and Kalzinol have potential as root-end filling materials, as the tissue response was considerably more favourable than that to amalgam even in the short-term.

  19. Parábola existencial de la primera Residencia en la Tierra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gómez

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available Como sucede con muchos artistas, es el amor el que hace de Neruda un gran poeta. Su iniciación en la literatura universal data, sin duda, de los "Veinte poemas de amor y una canción desesperada" pero es a partír de "Residencia en la tierra" que logra afianzarse, en profundidad, como uno de los grandes poetas de la lengua castellana y uno de los más extraordinarios líricos de la historia de la literatura. En "Veinte poemas... ", el amor lo hace compenetrarse, estremecido, con la Naturaleza, lo desnuda de convenciones y prejuicios, lo embriaga de gozos dolorosos y le descubre todo el vasto mundo popular del drama sentim ental, depurado y abierto a la profundidad cósmica.

  20. Three new species and one new record of Tullbergiidae (Collembola: Onychiuroidea) from Tierra del Fuego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbea, Javier I

    2016-03-20

    Three new species, Tullbergia rapoporti sp. nov., Dinaphorura nerudai sp. nov. and Dinaphorura najtae sp. nov., and one new record, Tullbergia meridionalis Cassagnau & Rapoport, 1962 are described based on specimens from Tierra del Fuego. Tullbergia rapoporti sp. nov. is similar to T. crozetensis, but can be distinguished from it by the presence of an empodial appendage and the chaetotaxy of Abd VI. Dinaphorura nerudai sp. nov. is diagnosed by the dorsal pso formula, the seven spiniform processes on Abd VI, an elongate PAO, the absence of vesicle on Ant IV and the dorsal chaetotaxy. Dinaphorura najtae sp. nov. is characterised by the dorsal pso formula, the seven spiniform processes on Abd VI, a triangular PAO, the absence of vesicle on Ant IV and the dorsal chaetotaxy.

  1. Saprolegnia oliviae sp. nov. isolated from an Argentine river (Tierra del Fuego Province, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steciow, Mónica Mirta

    2003-02-28

    Saprolegnia oliviae sp. nov. is described from litter (floating dead twigs, leaves and roots) in the Olivia River, Ushuaia Department, Tierra del Fuego Province (Argentina). The new species is illustrated and compared with other species of the genus. Distinguishing characteristics of S. oliviae are the production of smooth oogonia (with some lateral or terminal projections) and the absence of antheridial branches on the majority of the oogonia, but when present, they are mostly diclinous, at times oogonia are supplied with androgynous and monoclinous antheridial branches. The oogonial stalks are predominantly short and straight or long and bent, curved or many times coiled; oospores are distinctive subcentric, (1-) 15-50 (-70) per oogonium. Morphological details of the new species and its comparison with other described species are discussed here.

  2. Lack of founding Amerindian mitochondrial DNA lineages in extinct aborigines from Tierra del Fuego-Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalueza, C; Pérez-Pérez, A; Prats, E; Cornudella, L; Turbón, D

    1997-01-01

    Ancient DNA from bones and teeth of 60 individuals from four extinct human populations from Tierra del Fuego-Patagonia (Selknam, Yamana, Kaweskar and Aonikenk) has been extracted and the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) amplified by using the polymerase chain reaction. High-resolution analysis of endonuclease restriction site variation in the mtDNA and sequencing of its hypervariable non-coding control region, revealed complete absence of two of the four primary mitochondrial haplotype groups present in contemporary Amerinds, namely A and B. In contrast, haplogroups C and D were found in all but one sample with frequencies of approximately 38% and 60%. These results, together with the decreasing incidence of group A in more southerly latitudes in the American continent and the absence of cluster B above 55 degrees North in America and Asia, argue that the first settlers entering America 21000-14000 years ago already lacked both mtDNA lineages.

  3. Substations grounding systems design; Diseno de sistemas de conexion a tierra en subestaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez Sanchez, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    The grounding systems have been the object of a great number of analytical and experimental studies in the past 15 years, that have given rise to research reports on the several aspects involved in this technique. In this work are briefly reviewed various aspects that is necessary to take into account for its design, analysis and put in operation. [Espanol] Los sistemas de conexion a tierra han sido objeto de gran cantidad de estudios analiticos y experimentales en los pasados quince anos, que han dado origen a informes de investigacion sobre los diversos aspectos que involucra esta tecnica. En este trabajo se revisan brevemente diversos aspectos que es necesario considerar para su diseno, analisis y puesta en operacion.

  4. TIERRAS: A package to simulate high energy cosmic ray showers underground, underwater and under-ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tueros, Matías; Sciutto, Sergio

    2010-02-01

    In this paper we present TIERRAS, a Monte Carlo simulation program based on the well-known AIRES air shower simulations system that enables the propagation of particle cascades underground, providing a tool to study particles arriving underground from a primary cosmic ray on the atmosphere or to initiate cascades directly underground and propagate them, exiting into the atmosphere if necessary. We show several cross-checks of its results against CORSIKA, FLUKA, GEANT and ZHS simulations and we make some considerations regarding its possible use and limitations. The first results of full underground shower simulations are presented, as an example of the package capabilities. Program summaryProgram title: TIERRAS for AIRES Catalogue identifier: AEFO_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFO_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 36 489 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3 261 669 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 and C Computer: PC, Alpha, IBM, HP, Silicon Graphics and Sun workstations Operating system: Linux, DEC Unix, AIX, SunOS, Unix System V RAM: 22 Mb bytes Classification: 1.1 External routines: TIERRAS requires AIRES 2.8.4 to be installed on the system. AIRES 2.8.4 can be downloaded from http://www.fisica.unlp.edu.ar/auger/aires/eg_AiresDownload.html. Nature of problem: Simulation of high and ultra high energy underground particle showers. Solution method: Modification of the AIRES 2.8.4 code to accommodate underground conditions. Restrictions: In AIRES some processes that are not statistically significant on the atmosphere are not simulated. In particular, it does not include muon photonuclear processes. This imposes a limitation on the application of this package to a depth of

  5. NARRATOLOGÍA EN LA NOVELA HÍBRIDA NO SERÁ LA TIERRA DE JORGE VOLPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ángel G.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente texto efectúa un estudio narratológico de la novela de Jorge Volpi No será la Tierra. Se analiza la estructura contradictoria del libro, la multiplicidad de tramas, el narrador polifónico, el tiempo posapocalíptico, el espacio antiutópico y desencantado y los personajes, coprotagonistas del siglo XX. Todas estas características antes mencionadas contribuyen, en el ámbito de la desterritorialización, a desalojar posturas que tienden a anquilosarse en conceptos fijos y sin movimiento, por lo que los distintos rasgos narratológicos en las novelas híbridas --aquellas que están compuestas por una yuxtaposición de subgéneros-- siempre estarán emparentados con las nociones de heterogeneidad, diversidad y pluralidad, en el marco de la caída de los grandes relatos del siglo XX.

  6. Atmospheric electric discharges and grounding systems; Descargas atmosfericas y sistemas de conexion a tierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, Elena [ed.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this article the work made by the Institute of Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), in the area of atmospheric electric discharges and grounding connections at Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) is presented. The work consisted of the revision of the procedures for the design of transmission lines and substations of CFE from which high indexes of interruptions are reported, from this, a program was defined that allowed to improve the existing designs in CFE. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta el trabajo realizado por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), en el area de descargas atmosfericas y conexiones a tierra en Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). El trabajo consistio en la revision de los procedimientos de diseno de las areas de transmision y subestaciones de la CFE para los que se reportan altos indices de salidas, a partir de esto se definio un programa que permitio mejorar los disenos existentes en la CFE.

  7. La tierra entre derecho y cultura indígena en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Rosti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the relationships between the indigenous peoples and the Argentinian State since the XIX century until 1994, when it was introduced in the Constitution the provision acknowledging to the indigenous peoples “la posesión y propiedad comunitarias de las tierras que tradicionalmente ocupan”, “la entrega de otras aptas y suficientes para el desarrollo humano” and granting them “la parcipación en la gestión referida a sus recursos naturales y a los demás intereses que los afecten” (art. 75, inc. 17. The paper describes then the issue concerning the claim for indigenous land – raised by the new constitutional provision – and focuses on some significant cases and the more recent jurisprudence on that issue.

  8. El antiguo cementerio de la mision de Río Grande, Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Laborde, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En el marco del proceso de contacto interétnico ocurrido hacia fines del siglo XIX y principios del XX en Tierra del Fuego, lo acontecido específicamente en la misión salesiana La Candelaria (Rio Grande cobra relevancia por la variedad de registros y fuentes que dicho escenario ofrece. La aproximación historiográfica permitió generar información acerca de la presencia de tuberculosis como causa principal de muerte entre los aborígenes que vivieron en la misión y sobre la dieta, la actividad física y las condiciones en las que vivieron aquellos. Paralelamente tres campañas de excavación realizadas hasta el momento permitieron exhumar restos óseos humanos de once individuos integrantes de la comunidad Selk'nam del cementerio de la misión. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar los primeros resultados sobre el relevamiento de patologías nutricionales-metabólicas e infecciosas surgidos de los trabajos de campo realizados por todo el equipo de investigación en dicho cementerio. Los resultados hallados muestran hasta el momento una alta frecuencia de indicadores de stress metabólico-nutricional, mayor a la observada en general en restos de aborígenes de Tierra del Fuego en otros contextos arqueológicos. Además, se observaron lesiones infecciosas inespecíficas que también están presentes en frecuencias altas en casos de tuberculosis

  9. Primeros ensayos petrofísicos sobre la roca dimensional de Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Daniel Acevedo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se muestran aquí los primeros ensayos de laboratorio sobre las rocas dimensionales de Tierra del Fuego, región que tenía una potencialidad no evaluada respecto al uso posible de este recurso nativo. Nunca habían sido empleadas hasta ahora rocas duras (ígneas ni pizarras en la construcción residencial, el revestimiento de fachadas ó pisos. Dos pequeñas canteras de rocas plutónicas han sido abiertas recientemente: una de ellas en el cerro Jeu-Jepén, aprovechada para la construcción de la escollera marina del puerto de Río Grande y la ruta nacional, y la otra en la península de Ushuaia, iniciada con el propósito de remover un morro para localizar el aeropuerto y usada últimamente como revestimiento de viviendas. Sobre un grupo de muestras fueguinas se realizaron para este trabajo ensayos físicos de densidad aparente, absorción de agua y porosidad abierta, como asimismo ensayos mecánicos de resistencia a la compresión y a la tensión, y también algunos ensayos Dorry para medir su resistencia a la abrasión. En la Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego los tipos más apropiados como rocas ornamentales han resultado ser las distintas variedades de rocas granitoides, con relativamente altas resistencias a la compresión y a la tensión. Las rocas del cerro Jeu-Jepén analizadas reúnen entonces las mejores condiciones para su aprovechamiento inmediato: buenos resultados petrofísicos, posibilidad de obtención de bloques de tamaño adecuado, descubrimiento de la cantera y fácil acceso.

  10. Bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations during primary succession in recently Deglaciated areas of Tierra del Fuego (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arróniz-Crespo, María; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; De Los Ríos, Asunción; Green, T G Allan; Ochoa-Hueso, Raúl; Casermeiro, Miguel Ángel; de la Cruz, María Teresa; Pintado, Ana; Palacios, David; Rozzi, Ricardo; Tysklind, Niklas; Sancho, Leopoldo G

    2014-01-01

    Bryophyte establishment represents a positive feedback process that enhances soil development in newly exposed terrain. Further, biological nitrogen (N) fixation by cyanobacteria in association with mosses can be an important supply of N to terrestrial ecosystems, however the role of these associations during post-glacial primary succession is not yet fully understood. Here, we analyzed chronosequences in front of two receding glaciers with contrasting climatic conditions (wetter vs drier) at Cordillera Darwin (Tierra del Fuego) and found that most mosses had the capacity to support an epiphytic flora of cyanobacteria and exhibited high rates of N2 fixation. Pioneer moss-cyanobacteria associations showed the highest N2 fixation rates (4.60 and 4.96 µg N g-1 bryo. d-1) very early after glacier retreat (4 and 7 years) which may help accelerate soil development under wetter conditions. In drier climate, N2 fixation on bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations was also high (0.94 and 1.42 µg N g-1 bryo. d-1) but peaked at intermediate-aged sites (26 and 66 years). N2 fixation capacity on bryophytes was primarily driven by epiphytic cyanobacteria abundance rather than community composition. Most liverworts showed low colonization and N2 fixation rates, and mosses did not exhibit consistent differences across life forms and habitat (saxicolous vs terricolous). We also found a clear relationship between cyanobacteria genera and the stages of ecological succession, but no relationship was found with host species identity. Glacier forelands in Tierra del Fuego show fast rates of soil transformation which imply large quantities of N inputs. Our results highlight the potential contribution of bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations to N accumulation during post-glacial primary succession and further describe the factors that drive N2-fixation rates in post-glacial areas with very low N deposition.

  11. Bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations during primary succession in recently Deglaciated areas of Tierra del Fuego (Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Arróniz-Crespo

    Full Text Available Bryophyte establishment represents a positive feedback process that enhances soil development in newly exposed terrain. Further, biological nitrogen (N fixation by cyanobacteria in association with mosses can be an important supply of N to terrestrial ecosystems, however the role of these associations during post-glacial primary succession is not yet fully understood. Here, we analyzed chronosequences in front of two receding glaciers with contrasting climatic conditions (wetter vs drier at Cordillera Darwin (Tierra del Fuego and found that most mosses had the capacity to support an epiphytic flora of cyanobacteria and exhibited high rates of N2 fixation. Pioneer moss-cyanobacteria associations showed the highest N2 fixation rates (4.60 and 4.96 µg N g-1 bryo. d-1 very early after glacier retreat (4 and 7 years which may help accelerate soil development under wetter conditions. In drier climate, N2 fixation on bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations was also high (0.94 and 1.42 µg N g-1 bryo. d-1 but peaked at intermediate-aged sites (26 and 66 years. N2 fixation capacity on bryophytes was primarily driven by epiphytic cyanobacteria abundance rather than community composition. Most liverworts showed low colonization and N2 fixation rates, and mosses did not exhibit consistent differences across life forms and habitat (saxicolous vs terricolous. We also found a clear relationship between cyanobacteria genera and the stages of ecological succession, but no relationship was found with host species identity. Glacier forelands in Tierra del Fuego show fast rates of soil transformation which imply large quantities of N inputs. Our results highlight the potential contribution of bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations to N accumulation during post-glacial primary succession and further describe the factors that drive N2-fixation rates in post-glacial areas with very low N deposition.

  12. Histological response of soda-lime glass-ceramic bactericidal rods implanted in the jaws of beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, José S; Martínez, Arturo; López-Píriz, Roberto; Guitián, Francisco; Díaz, Luis A; Esteban-Tejeda, Leticia; Cabal, Belén; Sket, Federico; Fernández-García, Elisa; Tomsia, Antoni P; Torrecillas, Ramón

    2016-08-12

    Bacterial and fungal infections remain a major clinical challenge. Implant infections very often require complicated revision procedures that are troublesome to patients and costly to the healthcare system. Innovative approaches to tackle infections are urgently needed. We investigated the histological response of novel free P2O5 glass-ceramic rods implanted in the jaws of beagle dogs. Due to the particular percolated morphology of this glass-ceramic, the dissolution of the rods in the animal body environment and the immature bone formation during the fourth months of implantation maintained the integrity of the glass-ceramic rod. No clinical signs of inflammation took place in any of the beagle dogs during the four months of implantation. This new glass-ceramic biomaterial with inherent bactericidal and fungicidal properties can be considered as an appealing candidate for bone tissue engineering.

  13. Impacto de la reforma agraria neoliberal en una región campesina de México. Resultados en el objetivo de potenciar el mercado de tierras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pedro Juárez Sánchez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los gobernantes de los países latinoamericanos y especialmente México, están promoviendo la reestructuración de la propiedad de la tierra, para ello reformaron y crearon instituciones para fomentar el mercado de la tierra. Este tipo de medidas mencionan los gobernantes que contribuirán a reducir la pobreza de los campesinos y alentara nuevas formas de generación de ingresos. En este trabajo se analiza la tendencia y expectativas del mercado de tierras en terrenos de secano dedicadas a la producción de maíz a 8 años de haberse emprendido las acciones más fuertes para crear el mercado de tierras.

  14. Studies on separation and pharmacokinetics of m-nisoldipine enantiomers in beagle dog plasma by LC/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Yuan, Lin; Li, Xiuqing; Zhi, Xuran; Sheng, Ning; Zhang, Lantong

    2013-11-01

    A rapid, sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC/MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the separation and determination of m-nisoldipine enantiomers in beagle dog plasma. Samples were pretreated by a single-step protein precipitation with acetonitrile. After m-nisoldipine racemic administration to beagle dogs, samples of m-nisoldipine enantiomers in beagle dog plasma were separated and determined on a ULTRON ES-OVM column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) at 20°C with a mobile phase consisted of methanol-acetonitrile-ammonium acetate (pH 7.0; 2mM) (15:15:70, v/v/v) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Chromatograms were monitored at 237 nm, and the API 4000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) scan mode using ElectroSpray ionization (ESI) source. The good linearity (rs=0.9958 and rr=0.9983) were found in the range 0.25-20 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) obtained was 0.25 ng/mL (n=6). All the validation data, such as accuracy, precision, intra-day and inter-day repeatability, were within the required limits. The method was successfully applied to separation and pharmacokinetics of m-nisoldipine enantiomers in beagle dog plasma. The result of statistics analysis shows that there are no significant differences between R-(-)-m-nisoldipine and S-(+)-m-nisoldipine (p>0.05). The study provides necessary evidences for the research and new drug development of m-nisoldipine enantiomers.

  15. The fossil mammals collected byCharles Darwin in South America during his travels on board the HMS Beagle

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Duringthe first two years of his voyage aboard HMS Beagle, Charles Darwin collected aconsiderable number of fossil mammals from various localities in Argentina andUruguay. Among these remains are those of large mammals that Darwin informallyassigned to Megatherium and Mastodon, the only large taxa thenknown for South America, and of small and mediumsized mammals that Darwinrecognized as representing at least two rodents and a horse. The study ofDarwin's collection was entrusted to Richard Owe...

  16. Effect of meloxicam and meloxicam with misoprostol on serum prostaglandins and gastrointestinal permeability in healthy beagle dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Roškar Tina; Nemec Svete Alenka; Jerin A.; Butinar J.; Kobal Silvestra

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of meloxicam and meloxicam with misoprostol on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) serum concentration, as well as on gastrointestinal permeability. NSAIDs, such as meloxicam, have gastrointestinal side effects, which are due to prostaglandins depletion and topical damage. Seven adult beagle dogs were included in the study. Three different 20 days long treatments were carried out (pl...

  17. Water quality of the Boca Raton canal system and effects of the Hillsboro Canal inflow, southeastern Florida, 1990-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The City of Boca Raton in southeastern Palm Beach County, Florida, is an urban residential area that has sustained a constant population growth with subsequent increase in water use. The Boca Raton network of canals is controlled to provide for drainage of excess water, to maintain proper coastal ground-water levels to prevent saltwater intrusion, and to recharge the surficial aquifer system from which the city withdraws potable water. Most of the water supplied to the Boca Raton canal system and the surficial aquifer system, other than rainfall and runoff, is pumped from the Hillsboro Canal. The Biscayne aquifer, principal hydrogeologic unit of the surficial aquifer system, is highly permeable and there is a close relation between water levels in the canals and the aquifer. The amount of water supplied by seepage from the conservation areas is unknown. Because the Hillsboro Canal flows from Lake Okeechobee and Water Conservation Areas 1 and 2, which are places of more highly mineralized ground water and surface water, the canal is a possible source of contamination. Water samples were collected at 10 canal sites during wet and dry seasons and analyzed for major inorganic ions and related characteristics, nutrients, and trace elements. All concentrations were generally within or less than the drinking-water standards established by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. The high concentrations of sodium and chloride that were detected in samples from the Boca Raton canal system are probably from the more mineralized water of the Hillsboro Canal. Other water-quality data, gathered from various sources from 1982 through 1991, did not indicate any significant changes nor trends. The effects of the Hillsboro Canal on the water quality of the Boca Raton canal system are indicated by increased concentrations of sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, and total organic carbon. Concentrations of the constituents in the canal water generally decrease with distance

  18. Inequality and megaprojects: The Panama Canal expansion

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Cuando el control y gestión del Canal de Panamá pasó al estado panameño a finales de 1999, el gobierno comenzó a preparar un plan para su modernización. Este plan incluía la construcción de nuevas esclusas para que pudieran atravesarlo un mayor número de barcos y que admitiese los nuevos buques Post-Panamax de gran tamaño. El proyecto de Ampliación del Canal se ha seleccionado como ejemplo paradigmático de grandes Obras Públicas (GOP) por su impacto ambiental, económico y social. Este caso de...

  19. Anal cancer; Cancer du canal anal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesneau, M.; Champeaux-Orange, E. [Service de radiotherapie, Centre regional universitaire de cancerologie Henry-S.-Kaplan CHU de Tours, Hopital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France); Champeaux-Orange, E. [Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, Centre hospitalier regional d' Orleans, 45 - Orleans (France); Hennequin, C. [Service de cancerologie-radiotherapie, hopital Saint-Louis, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    Anal canal epidermoid carcinomas represent 1.2% of digestive cancers and 6% of ano-rectal cancers. For localized diseases, the treatment is based on radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy (5-FU and cisplatin or mitomycin), according to tumour and nodal extension. The recommended treatment dose is 45 Gy in the anal canal, the mesorectum, para-rectal lymph nodes, and inguinal lymph nodes. An additional dose of 15 to 20 Gy is delivered in the initial tumour for good responders. Salvage surgery is necessary in case of poor response. The organs at risk to be considered are bladder, femur heads, small intestine and vulva. The objective of this work is to summarize the epidemiological and radio-anatomic and prognostic characteristics of this tumour. The conformal radiotherapy technique is illustrated by a case report. (authors)

  20. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, F T

    2012-01-31

    Squamous cell carcinoma ofthe anal canal represents 1.5% of all malignancies affectingthe gastrointestinal tract. Over the past 20 years dramatic changes have been seen in both the epidemiological distribution of the disease and in the therapeutic modalities utilised to manage it. CLINICAL MANAGEMENT: Historically abdominoperineal resection had been the treatment of choice with local resection reserved for early stage disease. Work by Nigro et al. has revolutionised how we currently manage carcinoma of the anal canal, demonstrating combined modality chemoradiotherapy as an appropriate alternative to surgical resection with the benefit of preserving sphincter function. Surgery is then reserved for recurrent disease with salvage abdominoperineal resection. This article reviews current literature and highlights the changing therapeutic modalities with selected clinical cases

  1. The shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal A forma do canal vertebral lombar humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Zarzur

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on the anatomy of the human vertebral column characterizes the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal as triangular. The purpose of the present study was to determine the precise shape of the lumbar vertebral canal. Ten lumbar vertebral columns of adult male cadavers were dissected. Two transverse sections were performed in the third lumbar vertebra. One section was performed at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava, and the other section was performed at the level of the pedicles. The shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the pedicles tends to be oval or circular, whereas the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava is triangular. Thus, the shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal is not exclusively triangular, as reported in the literature. It is related to the level of the transversal section performed on the lumbar vertebra. This finding should be taken into consideration among factors involved in the spread of solutions introduced into the epidural space.A literatura sobre a anatomia da coluna vertebral descreve como sendo triangular o formato do canal vertebral na região lombar. O objetivo deste estudo é determinar a real forma do canal da coluna vertebral lombar.Dez colunas vertebrais de cadáveres de homens adultos foram dissecadas. Dois cortes transversais foram executados na terceira vértebra lombar. Um corte foi feito no nível das bordas inferiores de dois ligamentos amarelos vizinhos e o outro corte foi transversal, no nível dos pedículos. A forma do canal vertebral variou: no nível dos pedículos ela tende a ser oval ou circular e junto às bordas inferiores dos ligamentos amarelos passa a ser triangular. Portanto, a forma do canal vertebral lombar não é somente triangular; ela depende do nível em que se faz o corte transversal da vértebra. Estes achados devem ser levados em consideração entre os fatores envolvidos na difusão das

  2. Effect of two contemporary root canal sealers on root canal dentin microhardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Successful root canal treatment depends on proper cleaning, disinfecting and shaping of the root canal space. Pulpless teeth have lower dentin microhardness value compared to that of vital teeth. A material which can cause change in dentin composition may affect the microhardness. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of two root canal sealers on dentin microhardness. Material and Methods Forty two single rooted teeth were selected and divided into 3 equal groups; Apexit, iRootSP and control groups (n=14) Each group was then divided into 2 subgroups according to the post evaluation period; 1 week and 2 months (n=7). Root canal procedure was done in the experimental groups and obturation was made using either; Apexit, iRootSP or left unprepared and unobturated in the control group. Roots were sectioned transversely into cervical, middle and apical segments. The three sections of each root were mounted in a plastic chuck with acrylic resin. The coronal dentin surfaces of the root segments werepolished. Microhardness of each section was measured at 500 µm and 1000 µm from the canal lumen. Results Four way-ANOVA revealed that different tested sealer materials, canal third, measuring distance from the pulp and time as independent variables had statistically non significant effect on mean microhardness values (VHN) at p≤0.001. Among iRootSP groups there was a statistically significant difference between iRoot SP at coronal root portion (87.79±17.83) and iRoot SP at apical root portion (76.26±9.33) groups where (p=0.01). IRoot SP at coronal canal third had higher statistically significant mean microhardness value (87.79±17.83) compared to Apexit at coronal third (73.61±13.47) where (p=0.01). Conclusions Root canal sealers do not affect dentin microhardness. Key words:Root canal, dentin, sealers, microhardness, bioceramic. PMID:28149466

  3. Knowing for controlling: ecological effects of invasive vertebrates in Tierra del Fuego Conocer para controlar: efectos ecológicos de vertebrados invasores en Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA A SILVA

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Tierra del Fuego (TDF archipelago is recognized as part o the last places on Earth that may still be considered wild. However, this condition may be threatened by the large number of invasive species present on the archipelago. These species can have significant effects on the ecology of the invaded ecosystems, at the genetic as well as at population, community and ecosystem levels. The aim of this study is to, by a bibliographic review, systematize existing information on the ecological impacts these species would be having on the TDF archipelago and detect information gaps in order to orient future research and effective management programs on these species. We restricted our review to vertebrate, non-marine invaders. We determined which species have invaded TDF, described their impacts on the archipelago and evaluated their potential impacts; this last issue was determined by reviewing some of the impacts these species have had in other geographic areas. Our findings indicate that at least nine vertebrate species (Salmo trutta, Salvelinus fontinalis, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Castor canadensis, Ondatra zibethicus, Oryctolagus cuniculus, Pseudalopex griseus, Mustela vison and Sus seroja have wild populations established away from human settlements in TDF. There is some scientific evidence on ecological impacts on the area for only five of these invaders, with the American beaver (Castor canadensis being the species monopolizing the greatest number of studies. These results contrast with the recognition, both in TDF and worldwide, of the potential of most of these species to cause significant ecological impacts, which makes it unlikely that the lack of verified impacts on TDF reflects an absence of significant effects of these invaders on the archipelago. We suggest that future research should focus on determining population density and distribution of these and other (i.e., feral species invasive vertebrates, as well as their impacts mainly on

  4. Implantation study of a tissue-engineered self-expanding aortic stent graft (bio stent graft) in a beagle model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawajiri, Hidetake; Mizuno, Takeshi; Moriwaki, Takeshi; Iwai, Ryosuke; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Yamanami, Masashi; Kanda, Keiichi; Yaku, Hitoshi; Nakayama, Yasuhide

    2015-03-01

    The use of stent grafts for endovascular aortic repair has become an important treatment option for aortic aneurysms requiring surgery. This treatment has achieved excellent outcomes; however, problems like type 1 endoleaks and stent graft migration remain. Bio stent grafts (BSGs), which are self-expanding stents covered with connective tissue, were previously developed using "in-body tissue architecture" technology. We assessed their early adaptation to the aorta after transcatheter implantation in a beagle model. BSGs were prepared by subcutaneous embedding of acryl rods mounted with self-expanding nitinol stents in three beagles for 4 weeks (n = 3/dog). The BSGs were implanted as allografts into infrarenal abdominal aortas via the femoral artery of three other beagles. After 1 month of implantation, aortography revealed no stenosis or aneurysmal changes. The luminal surface of the BSGs was completely covered with neointimal tissue, including endothelialization, without any thrombus formation. The cover tissue could fuse the luminal surface of the native aorta with tight conjunctions even at both ends of the stents, resulting in complete impregnation of the strut into the reconstructed vascular wall, which is expected to prevent endoleaks and migration in clinical applications.

  5. Artificial periodontal defects and frequency of tooth brushing in beagle dogs (II). Clinical findings after a period of healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corba, N H; Jansen, J; Pilot, T

    1986-03-01

    This investigation was designed to determine the influence of different frequencies of tooth brushing on artificial periodontal defects in the beagle dog after a period of healing. In 12 beagle dogs, periodontal defects were created using elastic bands placed in the sulci below the gingival margin after having cut the dento-gingival fibres to the level of the alveolar bone crest. This active phase of creating defects lasted for 6 weeks. After removal of the elastic bands, the created defects were left undisturbed during the remainder of the pre-experimental period (12 weeks). 6 premolars in the lower jaw were used (2P2, 3P3, 4P4). After the pre-experimental period, the 12 dogs were distributed into 3 groups of 4 dogs each. Each group was brushed with a certain frequency, i.e., 7 times, 3 times or once a week. Registrations of plaque index, gingival index and probing depth using a constant force probe were carried out on approximal surfaces. The experiment lasted for 24 weeks. A brushing effect was calculated for each dog to include information on all within-dog and between-dog variations. It was shown in relation to artificially-induced periodontal defects in beagle dogs that after a period of healing, brushing 7 times a week is superior to brushing 3 times a week in establishing and maintaining gingival health.

  6. Artificial periodontal defects and frequency of tooth brushing in beagle dogs (I). Clinical findings after creation of the defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corba, N H; Jansen, J; Fidler, V

    1986-02-01

    This investigation was designed to determine the influence of different frequencies of tooth brushing on artificial periodontal defects in the beagle dog shortly after creation. In 12 beagle dogs, periodontal defects were created using elastic bands placed in the sulci below the gingival margin after having cut the dento-gingival fibres to the level of the alveolar bone. This active phase of creating defects lasted for 6 weeks. 6 premolars in the lower jaw were used (2P2, 3P3, 4P4). After removal of the elastic bands, the 12 dogs were distributed into 3 groups of 4 dogs each. Each group was brushed with a certain frequency, i.e., 7 times, 3 times or once a week. Plaque index, gingival index and probing depth, using a constant force probe, were assessed interproximally. The experiment lasted for 24 weeks. For hypothesis testing, a brushing effect was calculated for each dog. Furthermore, an analysis was performed based on the absolute scores at week 24. From the statistical analysis, it was concluded that in artificially-induced periodontal defects in beagle dogs immediately after creation, brushing 7 times a week is superior to brushing 3 times a week to establish and maintain gingival health.

  7. Lesions in the external auditory canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyank S Chatra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The external auditory canal is an S- shaped osseo-cartilaginous structure that extends from the auricle to the tympanic membrane. Congenital, inflammatory, neoplastic, and traumatic lesions can affect the EAC. High-resolution CT is well suited for the evaluation of the temporal bone, which has a complex anatomy with multiple small structures. In this study, we describe the various lesions affecting the EAC.

  8. Carotid canal dehiscence in the human skull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor Vazquez, J.F.; Gil Verona, J.A. [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valladolid, Ramon y Cajal, 7, E-47005 Valladolid (Spain); Garcia Porrero, M. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valladolid (Spain)

    1999-06-01

    Abnormalities of the floor of the carotid canal have been studied in 538 skulls. These abnormalities range from a fissure to total absence of the floor. This variation may be caused by abnormalities of the internal carotid artery or deficiencies in ossification of the skull base. CT suggests that these changes should be taken into account by surgeons working on the skull base. (orig.) With 4 figs., 8 refs.

  9. Splendid Culture on the Grand Canal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    JINING Prefecture on thesouthwest plain of ShandongProvince is known as the homeof Confucius and Mencins and theland of etiquette.It is famous as thebirthplace or residence of many out-standing people and has beautifulscenery with blue Weishan Lake tothe south,lofty Mount Tai to thenorth and Liang Mountain by thelake in the west.The Beijing-Hangzhor Grand Canal crosses theprefecture,which has been a com-munications hub between north andsouth China since the Ming

  10. Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, O

    2009-02-01

    The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, O

    2012-02-01

    The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

  12. Root canal filling using Resilon: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, D J

    2011-07-01

    Root canal treatment is achieved by chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system followed by filling. The filling material \\'entombs\\' residual bacteria and acts as a barrier which prevents the entrance of oral microorganisms and reinfection of the root canal system through microleakage. However, filling with contemporary root filling materials such as gutta-percha offers limited long-term resistance to microorganisms; as a result other materials such as Resilon have been investigated as alternatives. The aim of this review was to analyse the literature to consider whether Resilon is a suitable root canal filling material. A MEDLINE and Cochrane library search including various keyword searches identified several papers which investigated or discussed Resilon or RealSeal\\/Epiphany. Analysis of the literature demonstrated that the bulk of the literature is in vitro in nature, based largely on leakage-type studies, and demonstrates a wide variety of methodologies with conflicting findings; as a result meaningful conclusions are difficult. Within the limit of these in vitro studies Resilon appears to perform adequately in comparison to gutta-percha, however, as a result of the questionable merit of such studies, it cannot presently be considered an evidence-based alternative to the current gold standard gutta-percha. It is imperative that before Resilon is considered as a replacement material, a better understanding of the physical properties of the resin sealer and the reality of the adhesive \\'monoblock\\' are elucidated. The literature also demonstrates a paucity of quality long-term clinical outcome studies which will need to be addressed before firm conclusions can be reached.

  13. ¿Falsas promesas? El impacto de la titulación de la tierra en el acceso al crédito y al mercado de tierras. Un estudio de caso en Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke J. Broegaar

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas de tenencia de la tierra dan forma al desarrollo económico, a la formulación de políticas y a las estructuras de poder dentro de la sociedad. Tienen, asimismo, una fuerte influencia en la distribución de la riqueza dentro de una sociedad. No obstante, a pesar de décadas de reforma agraria en toda América Latina, las más grandes y mejores extensiones de tierra siguen concentradas en manos de grandes terratenientes. El resultado es que las brechas sociales y económicas entre los ricos y los pobres siguen creciendo y la población rural pobre enfrenta condiciones de vida cada vez más precarias (El-Ghonemy 1990, 1999.

  14. Violencia de género hacia mujeres del Frente de Pueblos en Defensa de la Tierra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Estela Carrillo Franco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se aborda la represión que sufrieron por parte del Estado las mujeres integrantes del Frente de Pueblos en Defensa de la Tierra (FPDT, cuando se movilizaron para defender sus tierras. Mediante reconstrucción y análisis de las memorias que ellas guardan del suceso, se propone reflexionar cómo el Estado utiliza la violencia de género como estrategia para frenar la participación de las mujeres. Se parte de información testimonial y observación participante en espacios organizativos del FPDT para explicar cómo la intervención en este movimiento las ha llevado a sufrir violencia de género y tortura sexualizada. Asimismo, se expone cómo pudieron superar la experiencia que implicó la persecución política hacia el movimiento.

  15. Lichen Usnea barbata as biomonitor of airborne elements deposition in the Province of Tierra del Fuego (southern Patagonia, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Pino, Anna; Botrè, Francesco; Bocca, Beatrice; Alimonti, Alessandro

    2009-05-01

    Lichen Usnea barbata was tested as a possible biomonitor of atmospheric deposition in a supposedly pristine environment Tierra del Fuego (Argentina). Lichen samples were collected in 2005 and again in 2006 in 71 sites covering almost the entire region. The aim of the study was to evaluate the bioaccumulation of 26 elements in order to define the background levels in the region. The quantification was carried out by the sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. No relevant temporal accumulation patterns between 2005 and 2006 sampling campaigns were observed. Then, the results were submitted to multivariate statistical analysis (cluster and principal component analyses). Cluster analysis produced a dendrogram where the 71 sites were divided into four clusters at (Dlink/Dmax)100Fuego is not a relatively pristine environment as occasionally supposed. However, when comparing our results with other countries, Tierra del Fuego lichens have a very low content of the measured elements.

  16. Epidemiological studies on intestinal helminth parasites of the patagonian grey fox (Pseudalopex griseus) in Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, Fabián; Laferrara, Miguel; Bitsch, Matías; Pérez, Héctor; Elissondo, Maria Celina

    2006-03-31

    The present work was performed to study the intestinal helminths of the patagonian grey fox (Pseudalopex griseus) and to obtain information about its possible role in the sylvatic life cycle of Echinococcu granulosus in Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia Argentina. Eighty-one foxes were captured and subject to post-mortem analysis. Thirty-one foxes (38.3%) harboured helminths. A total of six helminth species were recovered. Only one adult of E. granulosus was found in the studied samples. The current study is the first report of the intestinal helminths of the patagonian grey fox in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina and showed that this specie is probably not an important reservoir host for E. granulosus.

  17. Defining the Location of the Adductor Canal Using Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Wan Yi; Bjørn, Siska; Strid, Jennie Maria Christin;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The precise location of the adductor canal remains controversial among anesthesiologists. In numerous studies of the analgesic effect of the so-called adductor canal block for total knee arthroplasty, the needle insertion point has been the midpoint of the thigh......, determined as the midpoint between the anterior superior iliac spine and base of patella. "Adductor canal block" may be a misnomer for an approach that is actually an injection into the femoral triangle, a "femoral triangle block." This block probably has a different analgesic effect compared...... with an injection into the adductor canal. We sought to determine the exact location of the adductor canal using ultrasound and relate it to the midpoint of the thigh. METHODS: Twenty-two volunteers were examined using ultrasound. The proximal end of the adductor canal was identified where the medial border...

  18. Endodontic management of a maxillary second premolar with an S-shaped root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex and unusual root canal morphology is an often occurring phenomenon. Understanding the unusual root canal morphology contributes to success in endodontic treatment. One such variant root canal morphology is the ′S′ shaped or bayonet shaped root canal. This case report discusses endodontic treatment of a maxillary second premolar with an ′S′ shaped root canal.

  19. Geophysical investigation of a dutch levee and canal using various seismic and GPR techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorlandt, R.P.; Kleine, M.P.E. de; Kruiver, P.P.; Bakker, M.A.J.; Mesdag, C.S.; Hoogendoorn, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    A geophysical survey has been carried out on the Juliana Canal and levee in the south of the Netherlands. For a stretch of about 35 km along this canal various construction works are planned, to deepen and widen the canal. The canal is in a geological setting such that leakage from the canal to the

  20. A new genus and new species of felt scales (Homoptera: Coccinea: Eriococcidae from Tierra del Fuego (Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya A. Gavrilov-Zimin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Telmatococcus igniumterrae gen. nov. et sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on the material collected from a sphagnum bog in the extreme southern part of South America (Tierra del Fuego. The new monotypic genus differs from all known genera of Eriococcidae in having short cylindrical truncated setae of the anal apparatus and pouches with numerous quinquelocular pores near the anal apparatus. The habitat of the new taxon is characterized.

  1. Transcriptome comparison in the pituitary-adrenal axis between Beagle and Chinese Field dogs after chronic stress exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Fang, Meixia; Xu, Haiping; Xing, Huijie; Nie, Qinghua

    2015-10-01

    Chronic stress can induce a series of maladjustments, and the response to stress is partly regulated by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic mechanisms of this axis regulating stress responsiveness. The pituitary and adrenal cortex of Beagle and Chinese Field Dog (CFD) from a stress exposure group [including Beagle pituitary 1 (BP1), CFD pituitary 1 (CFDP1), Beagle adrenal cortex 1 (BAC1), CFD adrenal cortex 1 (CFDAC1)] and a control group [including Beagle pituitary 2 (BP2), CFD pituitary 2 (CFDP2), Beagle adrenal cortex 2 (BAC2), CFD adrenal cortex 2 (CFDAC2)], selected to perform RNA-seq transcriptome comparisons, showed that 40, 346, 376, 69, 70, 38, 57 and 71 differentially expressed genes were detected in BP1 vs. BP2, CFDP1 vs. CFDP2, BP1 vs. CFDP1, BP2 vs. CFDP2, BAC1 vs. BAC2, CFDAC1 vs. CFDAC2, BAC1 vs. CFDAC1 and BAC2 vs. CFDAC2 respectively. NPB was a gene common to BAC1 vs. BAC2 and CFDAC1 vs. CFDAC2, indicating it was a potential gene affecting response to chronic stress, regardless of the extent of chronic stress induced. PLP1 was a gene common to BP1 vs. CFDP1 and BP2 vs. CFDP2, suggesting its important roles in affecting the stress-tolerance difference between the two breeds, regardless of whether there was stress exposure or not. Pathway analysis found 12, 4, 11 and 1 enriched pathway in the comparisons of BP1 vs. CFDP1, BP2 vs. CFDP2, CFDP1 vs. CFDP2 and BAC1 vs. BAC2 respectively. Glutamatergic synapse, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, GABAergic synapse, calcium signaling pathway and dopaminergic synapse were the most significantly enriched pathways in both CFDP1 vs. CFDP2 and BP1 vs. CFDP1. GO, KEGG pathway and gene network analysis demonstrated that GRIA3, GRIN2A, GRIN2B and NPY were important in regulating the stress response in CFD. Nevertheless, ADORA1, CAMK2A, GRM1, GRM7 and NR4A1 might be critical genes contributing to the stress

  2. Ring canals in the ovarian follicles of Aedes aegypti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, G.; Rai, K.S.

    1976-07-01

    In the ovarian follicles of Aedes aegypti, the oocyte develops from 1 of 8 interconnected cystocytes. The cytoplasmic interconnections, the ring canals, have an electron dense rim in which are embedded an array of parallel filaments. The ring canal in presumptive follicle is generally devoid of organelles, while that in the more advanced secondary follicle encloses ribosomes, vesicles and mitochondria. Ring canals may furnish a means for the transfer of materials including ribosomes and mitochondria from nurse cells to the oocyte.

  3. Endodontic Considerations in Three-canalled Premolars: A Practical Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Giardino, Luciano; Asgary, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    The most difficult clinical considertions in orthograde root canal treatment are generally related to the anatomy of the teeth. Three-canalled maxillary and mandibular premolars (mini-molars) have been reported in several studies. The purpose of this paper was to review various aspects of three-canalled premolars including incidence, clinical and radiographic diagnosis, racial predisposition, access cavity preparation, instrumentation and obturation. PMID:27141223

  4. Three root canals in the maxillary second premolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Almeida-Gomes Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report an endodontic treatment of the maxillary second premolar with three root canals and distinct foramens. The possibility of three root canals in this tooth is quite small; however, it must be taken into account in clinical and radiographic evaluation during endodontic treatment. Many times, their presence is noticed only after canal treatment due to continuing post-operative discomfort.

  5. Seguimiento al comportamiento del mercado de tierras rurales a través de un GIS, Santander Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lozano-Botache

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de los marcos legales y políticas públicas, en algunos países, los derechos de propiedad sobre la tierra siguen siendo usurpados o impedidos con métodos violentos. Este trabajo de investigación, desde el marco de referencia de la Administración de Tierras, el Neoinstitucionalismo y las herramientas computacionales –conocidas genéricamente como Sistemas de Información Geográfica (GIS, por sus siglas en inglés– presenta un modelo de observación regional de precios que, por la secuencia de datos y su proceso informático, puede mantenerse a través del tiempo como referente en procesos agrarios de restitución de tierras a víctimas del despojo, así como en la ejecución de proyectos de desarrollo social o económico.

  6. Capacidad de uso de la tierra en la cuenca de la Corriente del Lobo, Itatinga, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos Sérgio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue definir las clases de capacidad de uso de 2.403,25 ha de la cuenca de la Corriente del Lobo - Itatinga (SP (22° 03' 56" - 22° 59' 12" de latitud S y 48° 38' 47" - 48° 41' 25" de longitud O. La capacidad de uso de la tierra se obtuvo mediante el SIG-IDRISI 32 del cruzamiento de las cartas clinográfica y de suelos y de la Tabla de juzgamiento de clases de capacidad de uso de la tierra y del levantamiento utilitario del medio físico. Las áreas de las clases y subclases de capacidad de uso presentaron los siguientes valores: IIIa - 68.60 ha (2.85%, IIIe,s - 1919.15 ha (79.86%; IIIe - 210.60 ha (8.76%; IVe - 3.38 ha (0.14%; IVe,s - 157.42 ha (6.55% y VIe,s - 44.10 ha (1.84%. Las tierras de la cuenca se distribuyeron en tres clases (III, IV y VI y seis subclases, pero la mayor extensión (79.9% pertenece a la subclase IIIe,s. Los módulos del IDRISI permitieron discriminar, mapear y cuantificar rápidamente la capacidad de uso de las áreas de las clases y subclases de la cuenca.

  7. PERSPECTIVAS DEL PROCESO DE TITULACIÓN DE TIERRAS EN LA COMUNIDAD CAMPESINA SAN JUAN DE MIRAFLORES, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Ricardo Ríos Ramirez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar las perspectivas hacia la titulación de tierras en la Comunidad Campesina San Juan de Miraflores (CCSJM.El estudio fue de tipo descriptivo, con un diseño no experimental transversal. Se aplicó un cuestionario estructurado para evaluar perspectivas a una muestra de 353 comuneros seleccionados de manera aleatoria, estratificada y proporcional, previa validación de expertos y con una confiabilidad alfa de Cronbach α =  0.944.En la CCSJM, las parcelas no tienen las características necesarias para que la agricultura o ganadería se desarrollen, asimismo la actividad campesina no es la principal actividad económica. Asimismo, los comuneros de la CCSJM muestran una perspectiva favorable hacia la titulación de tierras.Por lo tanto, consideramos imperante el proceso de titulación de tierras y la promoción de opciones laborales distintas a las que usualmente realiza un campesino.

  8. Negociando la tierra: empresas extranjeras, minería a gran escala y derechos humanos en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Velasco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La adquisición masiva de tierras por parte de empresas extranjeras en países africanos, asiáticos y latinoamericanos refleja una nueva fase del capitalismo global (Sassen, 2013. Colombia no ha escapado a esta lógica mundial del capitalismo, pues en la última década la influencia de las empresas extranjeras en el mercado de tierras ha sido notoria. En esa lógica, este artículo compara, desde un enfoque de Derechos Humanos, las prácticas de adquisición de tierras de tres compañías extranjeras que han explotado carbón a cielo abierto en La Guajira y Cesar. Los resultados indican que la formalidad de la propiedad agraria y las restricciones institucionales de las empresas —asociadas al gobierno corporativo, la participación en bolsa de valores y el veto de compradores internacionales—influyen significativamente en el respeto a los derechos humanos.

  9. Las tierras públicas en el sudeste bonaerense: los partidos de Arenales y Ayacucho, 1850-1880

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Araceli D'Agostino

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo da cuenta del traspaso de tierras públicas a manos privadas en dos partidos del "nuevo sur" bonaerense, Arenales y Ayacucho, entre 1850 y 1880. En él se toma el contexto de revisión de la legislación rosista sobre tierras y de la aplicación de las leyes de arrendamientos públicos y ventas posteriores. Cuál fue el impacto de estas leyes en estos territorios; quiénes fueron sus beneficiarios; cómo afectaron la trama de derechos en torno al acceso a la tierra, son algunos de los interrogantes que se intentan responder.This paper is about the passing of lands from public to private hands in two counties ("partidos", Arenales and Ayacucho, of the "new South" of the Buenos Aires Province between 1850 and 1880. In this work, the context of the revision of the legislation of J. M. Rosas about the lands and the enforcement of public hiring of those lands and their later sales is taken into account. Which was the impact of those laws on the lands? ¿Who were the beneficiaries? ¿How did they affect the set of rights around the access to the land?, are among the questions that the paper intends to give answers to.

  10. ANÁLISIS PRELIMINAR DEL TRATAMIENTO FISICOQUÍMICO Y BIOLÓGICO DEL ACEITE DIELÉCTRICO PRESENTE EN TIERRA FULLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDISON ALEXANDER AGUDELO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio evalúa dos tecnologías: una físico-química y otra biológica, que buscan eliminar la contaminación por el aceite dieléctrico presente en la tierra Fuller, Buscando con ello gestionar de forma ambientalmente adecuada este residuo peligroso. Para la Tecnología físico-química, se usó hexano como solvente y se alcanzó de manera preliminar remociones del aceite dieléctrico del orden del 87% en la tierra Fuller tratada, con una relación tierra Fuller: solvente de 1:8 p/v, una velocidad de agitación de 100 rpm y un tiempo de contacto de 30 minutos. La calidad del aceite dieléctrico recuperado no es apta para su uso en equipos eléctricos, por su baja rigidez dieléctrica, baja densidad y color desfavorable. La tierra Fuller recuperada alcanzó una densidad aparente de 0.623 gr/ml, una densidad real de 2.231 gr/ml y una porosidad de 72.075 %, lo que indica al menos preliminarmente que dicha tierra está muycercana en sus características físicas a la tierra fuller limpia. Para la tecnología biológica se trató la tierra contaminada en un reactor biológico de tierra activada, evaluando la velocidad de agitación y el tiempo de degradación necesario para alcanzar niveles de contaminación adecuados que permitan disponer el residuo en un relleno sanitario convencional sin riesgo para la salud de los ecosistemas y el ser humano, esta fase aún se encuentra en experimentación y los resultados dependen del análisis cromatográfi co del aceite dieléctrico que permanece en la tierra Fuller tratada, en el cual se hará el seguimiento de 10 especies que son clave dentro de este producto, debido a su cantidad y/o toxicidad , falta comprobar la calidad química de la tierra fuller y del aceite dieléctrico recuperados en el tratamiento físico-químico, y validar el proceso biológico para degradar el aceite dieléctrico.

  11. Rock Magnetic Properties of Laguna Carmen (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina): Implications for Paleomagnetic Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogorza, C. G.; Orgeira, M. J.; Ponce, F.; Fernández, M.; Laprida, C.; Coronato, A.

    2013-05-01

    We report preliminary results obtained from a multi-proxy analysis including paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic studies of two sediment cores of Laguna Carmen (53°40'60" S 68°19'0" W, ~83m asl) in the semiarid steppe in northern Tierra del Fuego island, Southernmost Patagonia, Argentina. Two short cores (115 cm) were sampled using a Livingstone piston corer during the 2011 southern fall. Sediments are massive green clays (115 to 70 cm depth) with irregularly spaced thin sandy strata and lens. Massive yellow clay with thin sandy strata continues up to 30 cm depth; from here up to 10 cm yellow massive clays domain. The topmost 10 cm are mixed yellow and green clays with fine sand. Measurements of intensity and directions of Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM), magnetic susceptibility, isothermal remanent magnetization, saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM), back field and anhysteretic remanent magnetization at 100 mT (ARM100mT) were performed and several associated parameters calculated (ARM100mT/k and SIRM/ ARM100mT). Also, as a first estimate of relative magnetic grain-size variations, the median destructive field of the NRM (MDFNRM), was determined. Additionally, we present results of magnetic parameters measured with vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The stability of the NRM was analyzed by alternating field demagnetization. The magnetic properties have shown variable values, showing changes in both grain size and concentration of magnetic minerals. It was found that the main carrier of remanence is magnetite with the presence of hematite in very low percentages. This is the first paleomagnetic study performed in lakes located in the northern, semiarid fuegian steppe, where humid-dry cycles have been interpreted all along the Holocene from an aeolian paleosoil sequence (Orgeira et el, 2012). Comparison between paleomagnetic records of Laguna Carmen and results obtained in earlier studies carried out at Laguna Potrok Aike (Gogorza et al., 2012

  12. Apuntes para una historia de la insurgencia en la Tierra Caliente de Guerrero, 1810-1821

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Guzmán Urióstegui

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante el periodo de lucha por la independencia de México, de 1810 a 1821, una de las zonas geográficas más destacadas por su apoyo a la insurgencia fue la del Sur, cuyo territorio forma actualmente el estado de Guerrero. Primero con José María Morelos y Pavón y luego con Vicente Guerrero, la complicada geografía suriana y su no menos malsano clima puso en entredicho todos los intentos de las autoridades virreinales por reestablecer ahí la paz. Es cierto que los realistas lograron algunos éxitos, pero nunca pudieron vencer los afanes de libertad de los pobladores del lugar, especialmente de los de Tierra Caliente, mismos que si bien de 1811 a 1813 actuaron de manera en cierta forma aislada, pues Morelos no los tomaba muy en cuenta ya que prefería a los costeños, después fueron su sostén principal. Este papel lo refrendarían de igual manera de 1816 a 1821 con Guerrero, obligando a Agustín de Iturbide a negociar la paz.During Mexico's struggle for independence, from 1810 to 1821, one of the geographical zones that provided most support for the insurgents was the south, whose territory currently forms part of the state of Guerrero. First with José María Morelos y Pavón and then with Vicente Guerrero, the complicated geography of the south and its no less unhealthy climate jeopardized all the viceregal authorities' attempts to re-establish peace there. Although the royalists had some success, they were never able to overcome the locals' desire for freedom, especially those in Tierra Caliente. Although they acted in a somewhat isolated fashion from 1811 to 1813, since Morelos ignored them, preferring those on the coast, they subsequently provided his greatest support. They did the same with Guerrero from 1816 to 1821, forcing Agustín de Iturbide to negotiate peace.

  13. Basalto alcalino portador de xenolitos ultramáficos en Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D. Acevedo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available En el extremo sur de Tierra del Fuego han sido descubiertas rocas basáltico alcalinas con enclaves ultramáficos. Los pequeños cuerpos de basalto alcalino hasta aquí conocidos son escasos y las rocas circundantes están constituidas por pizarras pertenecientes a depósitos mesozoicos. La petrografía, textura y composición de los basaltos y xenolitos fue investigada con microscopio petrográfico y microsonda electrónica. Xenocristales de anfíbol y feldespato alcalino, olivina, espinelos, flogopita y minerales de Fe-Ti (10% y una diversidad de xenolitos (15%, principalmente lherzolíticos, piroxeníticos y wehrlíticos, pero también provenientes de rocas metamórficas, se encuentran inmersos en el basalto, cuya pasta está formada por tablillas y agujas de plagioclasa, piroxeno, minerales opacos, apatita y vidrio, con texturas intersertal, hialopilítica y pilotáxica. Hay amígdalas rellenas por analcita, ceolitas, sodalita y calcita. La clasificación normativa de esta roca, basada en su contenido nefelínico, es la de un basalto alcalino. La clasificación química, considerando la relación Zr/TiO2 frente a Nb/Y indica también un basalto alcalino y en el diagrama TAS los puntos caen en los campos de las foiditas (ricas en Na o nefelinitas y basanitas. Los diagramas de tierras raras muestran un alto grado de fraccionamiento (La/Yb~30. La datación isotópica de K-Ar sobre macrocristales da edades de 146±5 Ma (anfíbol y 127±4 Ma (feldespato alcalino y sobre roca total, 8,3±0,3 Ma. Sin embargo, las muestras fértiles denotan rasgos geoquímicos típicos de materiales de profundidad, lo que indicaría, basado en su posición tectónica actual, que el basalto es más antiguo que la edad isotópica obtenida.

  14. Design and Implementation of a Controller for a BeagleBone Quadcopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejnik, Peter

    Unmanned aerial vehicles are quickly becoming a significant and permanent feature in today's world of aviation. Amongst the various types of UAVs, a popular type is the quadcopter. Also referred to as a quadrotor, this rotor craft's defining feature is that it has four propellers. While its use is common in the hobbyist community, this aircraft's use within industry is blooming. Presented are the efforts to design and implement a controller for a BeagleBone based quadcopter. As part of this effort, characteristics of the quadcopter were experimentally determined. These characteristics consist of physical properties of the quadcopter, such as the moments of inertia, the motor performance characteristics, and variance within its sensors. A model was then created and implemented within a MATLAB environment to simulate the flight of the quadcopter. With a simulated environment created, a controller was designed to control the flight of the quadcopter and a Kalman Filter was implemented to filter a sensor input. These designs were then verified in the simulated environment.

  15. Ovariectomy-induced changes in aged beagles: Histomorphometry and mineral content of the rib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, A.K.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Hurst, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Miller, S. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Radiobiology Div.; Sacco-Gibson, N. [Proctor and Gamble Pharmaceuticals, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The effects of ovariectomy on the aged beagle skeleton were studied by histomorphometric analysis of the cortical bone in sequential rib biopsies. Biopsies were taken from each ovariectomized (OV) or sham-operated (SO) dog at the time of surgery and at 1, 4, and 8.5 months after surgery. Tetracycline, calcein, and xylenol orange, respectively, were administered by a fluorochrome labeling procedure (2d-10d-2d) just prior to each postoperative biopsy to provide markers of bone formation. Analysis of sequential biopsies provided a means to follow the response to ovariectomy over time and compare each animal against its own baseline. Examination of sequential biopsies indicated that cortical porosity increased by the fourth month after ovariectomy and remained high at 8.5 months. Ovariectomy did not influence histomorphometric indices at one month after surgery, but substantial differences were observed at later times. Ovariectomy stimulated a transient increase in bone formation and was increased six-fold over that of SO dogs at four months. Ribs were also analyzed for mineral content at necropsy. The rib was heterogeneous along its length for calcium content and concentration. In the midrib where biopsies for histomorphometric analysis were taken, ovariectomy induced a decrease in mass and mineral content; total calcium was decreased by approximately 31%. These data demonstrate that the rib cortical bone is a responsive site for the effects of ovariectomy in female dogs.

  16. Invivo absorption behaviour of theophylline from starch-methyl methacrylate matrix tablets in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Campos, F; Ferrero, C; Colom, H; Jiménez-Castellanos, M R

    2015-01-30

    This study evaluates in vivo the drug absorption profiles from potato starch-methyl methacrylate matrices(*) using theophylline as a model drug. Healthy beagle dogs under fasting conditions were used for in vivo studies and plasma samples were analyzed by a fluorescence polarization immunoassay analysis (FPIA method). Non-compartmental and compartmental (population approach) analysis was performed to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters. The principle of superposition was applied to predict multiple dose plasma concentrations from experimental single dose data. An in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) was also assessed. The sustained absorption kinetics of theophylline from these formulations was demonstrated by comparison with two commercially available oral sustained-release theophylline products (Theo-Dur(®) and Theolair(®)). A one-compartment model with first order kinetics without lag-time best describes the absorption/disposition of theophylline from the formulations. Results revealed a theophylline absorption rate in the order FD-HSMMA≥Theo-Dur(®)≥OD-CSMMA>Theolair(®)≥FD-CSMMA. On the basis of simulated plasma theophylline levels, a twice daily dosage (every 12h) with the FD-CSMMA tablets should be recommended. A Level C IVIVC was found between the in vitrot50% and the in vivo AUC/D, although further optimization of the in vitro dissolution test would be needed to adequately correlate with in vivo data.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of propafenone hydrochloride sustained-release capsules in male beagle dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development and validation of a liquid chromatography–mass spectrometric assay for propafenone and its application to a pharmacokinetic study of propafenone administered as a new propafenone hydrochloride sustained-release capsule (SR-test, as an instant-release tablet (IR-reference and as the market leader sustained-release capsule (Rythmol, SR-reference in male beagle dogs (n=8. In Study A comparing SR-test with IR-reference in a crossover design Tmax and t1/2 of propafenone for SR-test were significantly higher than those for IR-reference while Cmax and AUC were lower demonstrating the sustained release properties of the new formulation. In Study B comparing SR-test with SR-reference the observed Cmax and AUC of propafenone for SR-test (124.5±140.0 ng/mL and 612.0±699.2 ng·h/mL, respectively were higher than for SR-reference (78.52±72.92 ng/mL and 423.6±431.6 ng·h/mL, respectively although the differences were not significant. Overall, the new formulation has as good if not better sustained release characteristics to the market leader formulation.

  18. Seasonal phytoplankton dynamics in extreme southern South America (Beagle Channel, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almandoz, Gastón O.; Hernando, Marcelo P.; Ferreyra, Gustavo A.; Schloss, Irene R.; Ferrario, Martha E.

    2011-08-01

    The phytoplankton biomass and composition dynamics in relation with environmental factors were explored during an annual cycle (July 2006-2007) for the first time in the Beagle Channel. Samples were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy and carbon biomass was estimated using measured cell biovolumes. The annual cycle was characterized by a sharp contrast between low density and biomass during the autumn-winter period and a significant increase during spring and summer. The maximum biomass peak was observed during early spring (141 μg C l - 1 and 8.7 μg Chl a l - 1 ) and was associated with a bloom of the diatom genus Chaetoceros. In spite of a strong nutrient depletion that lead to the subsequent bloom decline, a second peak of biomass was observed after 2 weeks, mainly represented by the diatoms T. mendiolana and T. anguste-lineata. Towards the end of spring and during summer diatom density decreased and assemblages were enriched by unidentified tiny phytoflagellates and dinoflagellates. A total of 138 taxa were identified during the study period. From these, 10 are known as potentially toxic species: Alexandrium catenella, A. ostenfeldii, A. tamarense, Dinophysis acuminata, D. rotundata, Prorocentrum cordatum, Pseudo-nitzschia australis, P. calliantha, P. fraudulenta and P. cf. seriata. Their presence is noteworthy since the area sustains a growing aquiculture production.

  19. Sub-chronic safety evaluation of the ethanol extract of Aralia elata leaves in Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengjin; He, Xiaoli; Niu, Wenying; Feng, Yuenan; Bian, Jingqi; Kuang, Haixue; Xiao, Hongbin

    2016-08-01

    Aralia elata Seem. (A. elata) is a traditional Chinese medicine to treat some diseases. This investigation aims to evaluate the pharmaceutical safety of the ethanol extract of A. elata leaves, namely ethanol leaves extract (ELE), in Beagle dogs. In sub-chronic oral toxicity study, dogs were treated with the ELE at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for 12 weeks and followed by 4 weeks recovery period. During experimental period, clinical signs, mortality, body temperature, food consumption and body weight were recorded. Analysis of electrocardiogram, urinalysis, ophthalmoscopy, hematology, serum biochemistry, organ weights and histopathology were performed. The results showed that both food consumption and body weight significantly decreased in high-dose group. Treatment-related side effects and mortality were observed in high-dose female dogs. Some parameters showed significant alterations in electrocardiogram, urinalysis, serum biochemistry and relative organ weights. These alterations were not related to dose or consistent across gender, which were ascribed to incidental and biological variability. The findings in this study indicated that the no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of the ELE was 100 mg/kg in dogs and provided a vital reference for selecting a safe application dosage for human consumption.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of propafenone hydrochloride sustained-release capsules in male beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Liping; Qian, Yafang; Cheng, Minlu; Gu, Pan; He, Yanna; Xu, Xiaowen; Ding, Li

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric assay for propafenone and its application to a pharmacokinetic study of propafenone administered as a new propafenone hydrochloride sustained-release capsule (SR-test), as an instant-release tablet (IR-reference) and as the market leader sustained-release capsule (Rythmol, SR-reference) in male beagle dogs (n=8). In Study A comparing SR-test with IR-reference in a crossover design T max and t 1/2 of propafenone for SR-test were significantly higher than those for IR-reference while C max and AUC were lower demonstrating the sustained release properties of the new formulation. In Study B comparing SR-test with SR-reference the observed C max and AUC of propafenone for SR-test (124.5±140.0 ng/mL and 612.0±699.2 ng·h/mL, respectively) were higher than for SR-reference (78.52±72.92 ng/mL and 423.6±431.6 ng·h/mL, respectively) although the differences were not significant. Overall, the new formulation has as good if not better sustained release characteristics to the market leader formulation.

  1. Myenteric plexus is differentially affected by infection with distinct Trypanosoma cruzi strains in Beagle dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nívia Carolina Nogueira-Paiva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chagasic megaoesophagus and megacolon are characterised by motor abnormalities related to enteric nervous system lesions and their development seems to be related to geographic distribution of distinct Trypanosoma cruzi subpopulations. Beagle dogs were infected with Y or Berenice-78 (Be-78 T. cruzi strains and necropsied during the acute or chronic phase of experimental disease for post mortem histopathological evaluation of the oesophagus and colon. Both strains infected the oesophagus and colon and caused an inflammatory response during the acute phase. In the chronic phase, inflammatory process was observed exclusively in the Be-78 infected animals, possibly due to a parasitism persistent only in this group. Myenteric denervation occurred during the acute phase of infection for both strains, but persisted chronically only in Be-78 infected animals. Glial cell involvement occurred earlier in animals infected with the Y strain, while animals infected with the Be-78 strain showed reduced glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive area of enteric glial cells in the chronic phase. These results suggest that although both strains cause lesions in the digestive tract, the Y strain is associated with early control of the lesion, while the Be-78 strain results in progressive gut lesions in this model.

  2. Biodegradable effect of PLGA membrane in alveolar bone regeneration on beagle dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Nan; Ti, Vivian Lao; Xu, Yuanzhi

    2014-11-01

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) is a principle adopted from guided tissue regeneration (GTR). Wherein, GBR is used for the healing of peri-implant bony dehiscences, for the immediate placement of implants into extraction sockets and for the augmentation of atrophic alveolar ridges. This procedure is done by the placement of a resorbable or non-resorbable membrane that will exclude undesirable types of tissue growth between the extraction socket and the soft tissue to allow only bone cells to regenerate in the surgically treated lesion. Here, we investigated the biodegradable effect of polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) membrane in the alveolar bone on Beagle dogs. Results show that both collagen and PLGA membrane had been fully resorbed, biodegraded, at four weeks post-operative reentry into the alveolar bone. Histological results under light microscopy revealed formation of new bone trabeculae in the extraction sites on both collagen and PLGA membrane. In conclusion, PLGA membrane could be a potential biomaterials for use on GBR and GTR. Nevertheless, further studies will be necessary to elucidate the efficiency and cost effectiveness of PLGA as GBR membrane in clinical.

  3. Regional effects of ovariectomy and cadmium on bone mineral in ribs from aged female beagles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, D.R. (Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (USA). Dept. of Zoology)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of estrogen depletion and cadmium (Cd) on bone calcium and to determine if these effects were localized in specific regions of ribs. Fourteen female beagles with {sup 45}Ca labeled skeletons were divided into four groups: sham controls (SO{minus}); ovariectomized (OV{minus}); shams exposed to Cd (SO+); ovariecomized exposed to Cd (OV+). Total Cd exposure period was 7 months, including 1 month by capsules and 6 months by drinking H{sub 2}O. Ribs were taken at necropsy from 12 of the 14 dogs, and each rib was quartered. Wet, dry, and ash weights, as well as total Ca and {sup 45}Ca content, were determined for each quarter. Analysis of ribs from control animals demonstrated that a given rib is heterogeneous in composition. One end appears to be less mineralized and more metabolically active than other regions. The OV{minus} and OV+ mid-rib regions had significantly lower dry and ash weights than SO{minus}. Total Ca contents of these same regions were also decreased in the OV{minus} and OV+. The only significant change in Ca/dry and Ca/ash was observed when comparing OV+ to SO{minus}. Analysis of treatment suggests that there are regional effects following ovariectomy increased the loss of bone mineral occurring as a result of ovariectomy. 30 refs., 1 fig.

  4. [Histopathology of meibomian gland abnormalities in experimental PenCB intoxicated beagle treated with squalane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, T; Ohnishi, Y

    1989-05-01

    In order to examine the effect of squalane to excrete PCB from the intoxicated animals, histopathological studies of Meibomian gland abnormalities were carried out in experimental PenCB (3,4,5,3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl) intoxicated beagles treated with squalane. All experimental animals except a control group showed characteristic changes of Meibomian glands: dilation of the duct and squamous metaplasia of the alveolar cells. According to the degree of these findings, five stages were divided in the processes of Medibomian gland changes. The PenCB intoxicated dogs initially showed mild pathological changes of the glands and later moderate to severe degrees of findings. In the PenCB intoxicated animals treated with squalane, severe degree of Meibomian gland findings were found in the early stage and mild to moderate abnormalities in the late stage. The concentration of PenCB in blood varied in each animal, and the animals with advanced Medibomian gland abnormalities tended to have high level of PenCB concentration in blood. In conclusion, the effect of squalane to excrete PCB from the intoxicated animals were not determined in this study.

  5. Impact of release characteristics of sinomenine hydrochloride dosage forms on its pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Sun; Jie-Ming Shi; Tian-Hong Zhang; Kun Gao; Jing-Jing Mao; Bing Li; Ying-Hua Sun; Zhong-Gui He

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of release behavior of sustained-release dosage forms of sinomenine hydrochloride dosage forms, including commercial 12-h sustained-release tablets and 24-h sustained-release pellets prepared in our laboratory, was examined. The two dosage forms were orally administrated to beagle dogs, and then the in vivo formulation was achieved by mixing slow- and rapid-of the sustained-release pellets were scarcely influenced by the pH of the dissolution medium. Release from the 12-h sustained-release tablets was markedly quicker than that from the 24-h sustained-release pellets, the cumulative release up to 12-h was 99.9% vs68.7%. From release pellets had longer tmax and lower Cmax compared to the 12-h sustained-release tablets, the tmax being 2.67±0.52 h vs9.83±0.98 h and the Cmax being 1 334.45±368.76 ng/mL vs 893.12±292.55 ng/mL, respectively. However, the AUC0-tn preparations were statistically bioequivalent. Furthermore,percentage absorption in vivo and the cumulative percentage release in vitro.CONCLUSION: The in vitro release properties of the dosage forms strongly affect their pharmacokinetic behavior in vivo. Therefore, managing the in vitro release behavior of dosage forms is a promising strategy for obtaining the optimal in vivo pharmacokinetic characteristics and safe therapeutic drug concentration-time curves.

  6. Assessment of trace metal contamination in a historical freshwater canal (Buckingham Canal), Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, M; Nagarajan, R; Velmurugan, P M; Sathiyamoorthy, J; Krishnamurthy, R R; Urban, B

    2012-12-01

    The present study was done to assess the sources and the major processes controlling the trace metal distribution in sediments of Buckingham Canal. Based on the observed geochemical variations, the sediments are grouped as South Buckingham Canal and North Buckingham Canal sediments (SBC and NBC, respectively). SBC sediments show enrichment in Fe, Ti, Mn, Cr, V, Mo, and As concentrations, while NBC sediments show enrichment in Sn, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Hg. The calculated Chemical Index of Alteration and Chemical Index of Weathering values for all the sediments are relatively higher than the North American Shale Composite and Upper Continental Crust but similar to Post-Archaean Average Shale, and suggest a source area with moderate weathering. Overall, SBC sediments are highly enriched in Mo, Zn, Cu, and Hg (geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) class 4-6), whereas NBC sediments are enriched in Sn, Cu, Zn, and Hg (I(geo) class 4-6). Cu, Ni, and Cr show higher than Effects-Range Median values and hence the biological adverse effect of these metals is 20%; Zn, which accounts for 50%, in the NBC sediments, has a more biological adverse effect than other metals found in these sediments. The calculated I(geo), Enrichment Factor, and Contamination Factor values indicate that Mo, Hg, Sn, Cu, and Zn are highly enriched in the Buckingham Canal sediments, suggesting the rapid urban and industrial development of Chennai Metropolitan City have negatively influenced on the surrounding aquatic ecosystem.

  7. Three distal root canals in mandibular first molar with different canal configurations: Report of two cases and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing number of reports of aberrant root canal morphology, the clinician needs to be aware of the variable anatomy. Various case reports have been published with the finding of middle mesial canal in mandibular first molar, however finding of three distal canals in distal roots of mandibular first molar is rare. This article reports endodontic management of two mandibular first molars presented with three distal canals present in a single distal root (Sert and Bayirli type XVIII and distal and distolingual root.

  8. Large small cell carcinoma of anorectal canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramani, Leila; Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad; Hosseini, Seyed Vahid; Hosseinzade, Masood; Izadpanah, Ahmad; Ebrahimian, Saba; Bananzadeh, Alimohammad

    2014-03-01

    Neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1), also known as Von Recklinghausen disease, is an autosomal dominant disorder with incidence of one per 4000. Neurofibromas are benign, heterogeneous, peripheral nerve sheath tumors coming up from the connective tissue of peripheral nerve sheaths, particularly the endoneurium. Visceral involvement in disseminated neurofibromatosis is considered rare. Neurofibroma occurs most frequently in the stomach and jejunum, but colon and anorectal canal may also be involved. Gastrointestinal neurofibromas may lead to bleeding, obstruction, intussusception, protein-losing enteropathy and bowel perforation. We encountered a case of diffusely involving the anorectal area by huge neurofibroma, which resulted in pelvic pain with watery diarrhea and urgency.

  9. Suez Canal Clearance Operation, Task Force 65

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    and remove the four wrecks from the central region of the canal; DREDGE 23, Tug MONGUED, Dredge KASSER and a Concrete Caisson. All salvage operations...feet BUCKET DREDGE NO. 23 72.00 1600 tons 191 feet TUG MONGUED 81.50 1200 tons 165 feet DIPPER DREDGE KASSER 81.50 1200 tons 125 feet CONCRETE CAISSON...MONGUED, DREDGE KASSER , and DREDGE 23 to wet dump in the Great Bitter Lake. Heavy crane THOR arrived in Port Said after transit from Hamburg, Germany

  10. CANALES (2) [Material gráfico

    OpenAIRE

    Fundación para la Etnografía y el Desarrollo de la Artesanía Canaria

    1990-01-01

    ALGUNAS PIEDRAS CAIDAS. SEDIMENTACION. Antiguedad: SIGLO XX CONSTRUCCION DE ARENA, CAL Y PIEDRAS REDONDEADAS. CON RIPIOS POR TODAS PARTES. EN SECTORES HAY PAREDES DE HASTA 4 MTS. DE ALTO PARA SALVAR EL DESNIVEL. UN METRO DE ANCHO DEL CANAL Y 0`5 MTS. LA COBERTURA DEL MISMO. Calificación del suelo: RÚSTICO DE PROTECCIÓN NATURAL Clasificación del suelo: RÚSTICO Declaración BIC:No LA OTRA ACEQUIA QUE CIRCULA POR LA PARTE SUPERIOR ESTA MAS DETERIORADA. VAN A 10 MTS. DE SEPARACIO...

  11. CAVERNOUS HEMANGIOMA OF THE INTERNAL AUDITORY CANAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Hekmatara

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Cavernous hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of the internal auditory canal (IAC of which fourteen cases have been reported so far."nTinnitus and progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL are the chief complaints of the patients. Audiological and radiological planes, CTScan, and magnetic resonance image (MRI studies are helpful in diagnosis. The only choice of treatment is surgery with elective transmastoid trans¬labyrinthine approach. And if tumor is very large, the method of choice will be retrosigmoid approach.

  12. Cancer incidence in the Love Canal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janerich, D T; Burnett, W S; Feck, G; Hoff, M; Nasca, P; Polednak, A P; Greenwald, P; Vianna, N

    1981-06-19

    Data from the New York Cancer Registry show no evidence for higher cancer rates associated with residence near the Love Canal toxic waste burial site in comparison with the entire state outside of New York City. Rates of liver cancer, lymphoma, and leukemia, which were selected for special attention, were not consistently elevated. Among the other cancers studied, a higher rate was noted only for respiratory cancer, but it was not consistent across age groups and appeared to be related to a high rate for the entire city of Niagara Falls. There was no evidence that the lung cancer rate was associated with the toxic wastes buried at the dump site.

  13. Revestimientos especiales para diques y canales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorzi, Silvano

    1964-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the possibilities and advantages of adopting special facings for dykes and canals, and generally for all large hydraulic works, where waterproofing is of paramount importance. Technical advances in recent years have made it possible to prefabricate many facing units used in these types of works; large slabs, made in reinforced and prestressed concrete, are flexible, and watertight. Although there are many possibilities and types of facing treatments, the one described here is outstanding. It consists of narrow slabs, highly flexible, placed transversally with respect to the canal axis. They are attached with cement mortar, and the joints are finally sealed with a special mortar, called «Emboco». In this article a description is also given of a series of projects, where facing treatments have been used, which are now successfully in service. Finally some general and simple advise is given on the best procedure to apply these facing treatments in the most effective and economic manner.En este trabajo se resumen las posibilidades y ventajas que ofrecen los revestimientos especiales de diques y taludes de canales y, en general, en todas las grandes obras hidráulicas, en que la impermeabilización es de mayor importancia al tratar de conservar los caudales iniciales o la retención de aguas embalsadas, según los casos. Los progresos de las técnicas modernas, en particular la prefabricación, han permitido este tipo de revestimientos con losas de gran longitud, extremadamente flexibles e impermeables, de hormigón armado y pretensado. Aunque son muchas las posibilidades y tipos de revestimiento, destaca el que a continuación se expone: consiste en placas o losas estrechas, de gran flexibilidad, colocadas transversalmente al eje del canal sobre tongadas de mortero de cemento, y cuyas juntas se sellan, finalmente, con un mortero especial llamado «Emboco». Complementan la exposición teórica del método una serie de

  14. Tierras de la microcuenca potrerillo (Cauca, Colombia: Clasificación local en relación con propiedades edáficas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerón Rengifo Carmen Patricia

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio se realizó con el objetivo de relacionar la clasificación local de tierras con propiedades físicas, químicas y biológicas del suelo. Se hicieron entrevistas a 36 agricultores de la microcuenca, Potrerillo, Cauca, Colombia, para considerar criterios culturales de clasificación local; se tomaron muestras de suelo en 8 tierras, de 0 a 5 y 0 a 20 cm, con 5 repeticiones. Se determinó color, textura, N y P disponible, C total, fracción liviana de materia orgánica (LL, PH, Ca, K, Mg y Al. Los datos se trabajaron estadísticamente a partir de análisis de varianza, prueba Duncan y análisis de clasificación de datos. La información sugiere que los agricultores diferencias las tierras a partir de la ubicación, características físicas del suelo y de categorías culturales llamadas tierra buena, mala, brava y cansada. Las tierras consideradas buenas se relacionan con colores pardos oscuros, contenidos más altos de N, C y fracción LL, mayor densidad de miriápodos en tierras con vegetación arbórea y mayor biomasa de lombrices en barbecho de la parte baja de la colina. Entre las tierras de menor calidad, disminuye N, C fracción LL y Al y aumenta el pH; en aquellas que no son utilizadas son frecuentes los colores amarillos o rojos, decrecen los valores de N, C, LL, Ph y se incrementa el Al.

  15. Water Environment Evolution along the China Grand Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, F.; Wu, Y. X.; Yang, B. F.; Li, X. J.

    2014-03-01

    The China Grand Canal is one of the earliest canals in the world, having lasted for nearly 3000 years. Even its section canals have a rich history, such as the North-South Grand Canal that was established during the Sui Dynasty, whereas the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal was excavated during the Yuan Dynasty and the east line of the South-to-North Water Diversion. As one of the longest in the world, the China Grand Canal's total length is over 3500 kilometers. This length includes the navigable, unnavigable, and underground sections. Making the best use of situations and according to local conditions, the Chinese people harmoniously constructed the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal with nature. Tens of millions of workers took nearly 3000 years to complete the great shipping system. Navigable sections still exist for up to 900 kilometers and the volume of freight traffic is approximately 300 million tons. The canal remains the main logistical channel of the North-to-South Coal Transportation, South-to-North Water Diversion, and resources circulation. To date, China is promoting the success of heritage application. Part of these efforts is the declaration of the China Grand Canal as a World Cultural Heritage by 2014. In addition, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer project is planned to be navigable by 2016. The ancient Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal will usher in the new ecological civilization and cultural revival along the canal. This paper presents technical methods of water environment evolution research on the river system, river, and water quality along the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal through the integration of historical literature and modern remote sensing image data. The study carried out water environment investigation and analysis along the Beijing-Hangzhou canal by using ETM, SPOT image data, and GPS measurement data. Spatial and temporal evolution characteristics and regulations of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal regional water environment in the span of 3000

  16. Root canal treatment of mandibular second premolar tooth with taurodontism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujašković Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Taurodontism is a morphoanatomical change in the shape of a tooth. An enlarged body of a tooth with smaller than usual roots is a characteristic feature. Internal tooth anatomy correlates with this appearance, which means that a taurodontal tooth has a large pulp chamber and apically positioned furcations. This dental anomaly may be associated with different syndromes and congenital discoders. CASE OUTLINE The case report presents the patient of a rare case of taurodontism in the mandibular second premolar with chronic periodontitis. Endodontic treatment was performed after dental history and clinical examination. Special care is required in all segments of endodontic treatment of a taurodontal tooth from the identification orifice, canal exploration, determining working length, cleaning and shaping and obturation of the root canal. Precurved K-file was used for canal exploration and location of the furcation. One mesial and one distal canal with the buccal position were identified in the apical third of the root canal. The working lengths of two canals were determined by radiographic interpretation with two K-files in each canal and verified with the apex locator. During canal instrumentation, the third canal was located in the disto-lingual position. The working length of the third canal was established using the apex locator. CONCLUSION Thorough knowledge of tooth anatomy and its variations can lead to lower percentage of endodontic failure. Each clinical case involving these teeth should be investigated carefully, clinically and radiographically to detect additional root canals. High quality radiographs from different angles and proper instrumentarium improve the quality of endodontic procedure.

  17. Lake-level variations of Lago Fagnano, Tierra del Fuego: observations, modelling and interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano MENDOZA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The lake-level variations of Lago Fagnano, the largest lake in Tierra del Fuego, southernmost South America, on time scales from a few minutes to three years are investigated using a geodetic approach and applying the tools of time series analysis. Based on pressure tide gauge records at three locations in the lake precise lake-level time series are derived. The analysis of the observed variations in space, time and frequency domain leads to the separation of the principal force-response mechanisms. We show that the lake-level variations in Lago Fagnano can be described essentially as a combination of lake-level shift and tilt and of surface seiches. Regarding the lake-level response to air-pressure forcing, a significant departure from the inverse barometer model is found. Surface seiches dynamics are particularly intensive in Lago Fagnano pointing towards exceptionally low dissipative friction. An undisturbed series of seiches lasting eleven days is presented; and at least eleven longitudinal modes are identified. Based on the characterisation of the main contributions in space and time as well as their relation to the driving forces, a model for the transfer of the lake-level variations at a reference point to an arbitrary location in the lake with an accuracy of 1 cm is developed.

  18. New species of dictyostelids from Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadell, Eduardo M; Cavender, James C; Romeralo, Maria; Edwards, Sally M; Stephenson, Steven L; Baldauf, Sandra L

    2011-01-01

    In late Jan and early Feb 2005 samples for isolation of dictyostelid cellular slime molds (dictyostelids) were collected in five different provinces and from six national parks (all located 39-55°S) in Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Southern beech (Nothofagus) forests represented the primary vegetation type investigated, but some samples were obtained from Patagonian steppe, alpine meadows, Valdivian temperate rainforests and coniferous forests dominated by Araucaria, Austrocedrus and Fitzroya. Among the dictyostelids isolated from the samples we collected were seven species new to science. These species (Dictyostelium austroandinum, D. chordatum, D. fasciculoideum, D. gargantuum, D. leptosomopsis, D. valdivianum and Polysphondylium patagonicum) are described herein on the basis of both morphology and molecular (SSU rDNA) data. One of the new species, D. gargantuum, is one of the largest representatives of the group reported to date. Another unusual species, D. chordatum, produces long interwoven sorocarps that do not appear to respond to a spacing gas similar to the condition first noted in D. implicatum.

  19. Block modeling of crustal deformation in Tierra del Fuego from GNSS velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, L.; Richter, A.; Fritsche, M.; Hormaechea, J. L.; Perdomo, R.; Dietrich, R.

    2015-05-01

    The Tierra del Fuego (TDF) main island is divided by a major transform boundary between the South America and Scotia tectonic plates. Using a block model, we infer slip rates, locking depths and inclinations of active faults in TDF from inversion of site velocities derived from Global Navigation Satellite System observations. We use interseismic velocities from 48 sites, obtained from field measurements spanning 20 years. Euler vectors consistent with a simple seismic cycle are estimated for each block. In addition, we introduce far-field information into the modeling by applying constraints on Euler vectors of major tectonic plates. The difference between model and observed surface deformation near the Magallanes Fagnano Fault System (MFS) is reduced by considering finite dip in the forward model. For this tectonic boundary global plate circuits models predict relative movements between 7 and 9 mm yr- 1, while our regional model indicates that a strike-slip rate of 5.9 ± 0.2 mm yr- 1 is accommodated across the MFS. Our results indicate faults dipping 66- 4+ 6° southward, locked to a depth of 11- 5+ 5 km, which are consistent with geological models for the MFS. However, normal slip also dominates the fault perpendicular motion throughout the eastern MFS, with a maximum rate along the Fagnano Lake.

  20. Paleoseismic observations of an onshore transform boundary: The Magallanes-Fagnano fault, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, C.H.; Smalley, R.; Schwartz, D.P.; Stenner, Heidi D.; Ellis, M.; Ahumada, E.A.; Velasco, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    We present preliminary information on the geomorphologic features and paleoseismic record associated with the ruptures of two Ms 7.8 earthquakes that struck Tierra del Fuego and the southernmost continental margin of South America on December 17, 1949. The fault scarp was surveyed in several places cast of Lago Fagnano and a trench across a secondary fault trace of the Magallanes-Fagnano fault was excavated at the Ri??o San Pablo. The observed deformation in a 9 kyr-old peat bog sequence suggests evidence for two, and possibly three pre-1949 paleoearthquakes is preserved in the stratigraphy. The scarp reaches heights up to 11 m in late Pleistocene-Holocence(?) deposits, but the vertical component of the 1949 events was always less than ???1 m. This observation also argues for the occurrence of previous events during the Quaternary. Along die part of the fault we investigated east of Lago Fagnano, the horizontal component of the 1949 rupture does not exceed 4 m and is likely lower than 0.4 m, which is consistent with the kinematics of a local releasing bend, or at the end of a strike-slip rupture zone. ?? 2006 Revista de la Asociacio??n Geolo??gica Argentina.

  1. Iridium, platinum and rhodium baseline concentration in lichens from Tierra del Fuego (South Patagonia, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Anna; Alimonti, Alessandro; Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Bocca, Beatrice

    2010-10-06

    Lichen samples of Usnea barbata were used as possible biomonitors of the atmospheric background level of iridium (Ir), platinum (Pt) and rhodium (Rh) in the remote region of Tierra del Fuego (South Patagonia, Argentina). Lichens were collected in 2006 at 53 sites covering 7 different areas of the region (24 transplanted lichens of the northern region and 29 native lichen samples of the central-southern region). A microwave acidic digestion procedure was used to mineralize the samples and a sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method was developed to quantify the elements. The study of the influence of interferences on analyte signals and a quality control procedure were carried out. The analytical protocol was further applied to evaluate Ir, Pt and Rh bioaccumulation in lichens. The detection limits obtained were 0.010 ng g⁻¹, 0.013 ng g⁻¹ and 0.030 ng g⁻¹ for Ir, Pt and Rh, respectively. Recoveries at different fortification levels were between 96.3% and 106% and precision was 3.3% on average. The metals concentration (as dry weight) spanned the following ranges: Ir, Fuego. Values detected are more likely influenced by the long-range atmospheric transport of these pollutants and, in comparison with densely populated areas in the world, they can represent the baseline for low impacted areas.

  2. Large residuals on geoidal heights determined on the Fagnano Lake, Tierra del Fuego-Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, M. E.; Del Cogliano, D.; Perdomo, R.

    2013-05-01

    A new geoid model was developed in Tierra del Fuego and it was evaluated in the area of Fagnano Lake. The model was developed by means of the Equivalent Source Technique combining gravity data, levelling information measured on the province and observations of a GPS buoy on the Fagnano Lake. Those GPS buoy measurements provide information of the mean lake level surface (Del Cogliano et al., 2007). A cross validation process was realized in order to evaluate the model on the lake. What allowed determining a 6 cm geoid in the area of Fagnano Lake. Also, an evaluation of the EGM2008 (Pavlis et al., 2008) was made on the lake. Its behaviour was compared to that observed on the levelling lines. Differences of several decimetres were found when EGM2008 undulations were compared to observed geoid undulations in the lake area. In the regions where EGM2008 has included real gravimetric observations, differences between model and observations were only of a few centimetres. Such model has the particularity that includes fill-in gravity in that region. The above mentioned evaluation derived in an analysis of the effect that not representative gravity information could have on the estimation of geoid undulations in high mountainous regions. We found that this effect could be significant if there is no real information in the computing area (Gomez et al, 2012).

  3. Paleoseismic observations of an onshore transform boundary: the Magallanes-Fagnano fault, Tierra del Fuego Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H. Costa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We present preliminary information on the geomorphologic features and paleoseismic record associated with the ruptures of two Ms 7.8 earthquakes that struck Tierra del Fuego and the southernmost continental margin of South America on December 17, 1949. The fault scarp was surveyed in several places east of Lago Fagnano and a trench across a secondary fault trace of the Magallanes-Fagnano fault `was excavated at the Río San Pablo. The observed deformation in a 9 kyr-old peat bog sequence suggests evidence for two, and possibly three pre- 1949 paleoearthquakes is preserved in the stratigraphy. The scarp reaches heights up to 11 m in late Pleistocene-Holocene(? deposits, but the vertical component of the 1949 events was always less than ~1 m. This observation also argues for the occurrence of previous events during the Quaternary. Along the part of the fault we investigated east of Lago Fagnano, the horizontal component of the 1949 rupture does not exceed 4 m and is likely lower than 0.4 m, which is consistent with the kinematics of a local releasing bend, or at the end of a strike-slip rupture zone.

  4. Tierras, encomiendas y élites. El caso de Jujuy en el siglo XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreiro, Juan Pablo

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    Este artículo describe y analiza los rasgos característicos y principales del grupo de encomenderos que componían el sector nuclear de la élite jujeña a principios del siglo XVII. Para esto se utilizaron fuentes de diversa índole procedentes del Archivo de Tribunales de Jujuy, entre ellas sobresalen testamentos, dotes, obligaciones de pago y poderes; documentación que por su contenido permite analizar la forma en la que esta élite se constituyó, así como los mecanismos utilizados para acceder y/o conservar un puesto privilegiado en la naciente sociedad jujeña. Desde esta perspectiva se presta particular atención a la dinámica establecida por las redes familiares que sustentan esas posiciones a través de la propiedad o posesión de tierras trabajadas por indios de encomienda, y a su participación activa en el Cabildo local.

  5. DESHIDROGENACIÓN OXIDATIVA DE PROPANO POR FOSFATOS DE TIERRAS RARAS SOPORTADOS SOBRE PILC-AL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina De Los Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la actividad catalítica en la deshidrogenación oxidativa de propano de diferentes fosfatos de tierra rara LnPO 4 (donde Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm y de los mismos soportados sobre una arcilla pilareada con aluminio de alta superficie específica. Los sólidos fueron caracterizados por ATG, DR X, adsorción de nitrógeno y análisis inmediato post reacción para determinar la eventual formación de carbón superficial. Los ensayos catalíticos usando como mezcla de reacción C 3 H 8 /O 2 /Ar = 10/10/80 se hicieron a temperaturas entre 400ºC y 600ºC. Todos los catalizadores fuer on activos. Los principales productos de reacción fueron: H 2 , CO, CO 2 , CH 4 , C 2 H 4 y C 3 H 6 , no detectándose compuestos orgánicos oxigenados. Aunque todos los sistemas investigados fueron activos, los catalizadores soportados sobre PILC-Al presentaron una actividad mayor que los másicos, siendo el mayor efecto para el samario en que el rendimiento a 600oC aumenta del 4% al 10%. Este efecto fue atribuido al incremento en el área superficial específica.

  6. Morphodynamics of a gravel-dominated macrotidal estuary: Rio Grande, Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico I. Isla

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Rio Grande city (Tierra del Fuego is located on two attached beach systems, one of Upper Pleistocene (Sangamonian and the other of Holocene age. Both gravel spits grew from north to south modifying the inlet of the Rio Grande estuary. The present estuary is constrained by the modern and recurved spit Popper Spit. The main characteristic of this macrotidal estuary is that both margins and the bottom are mainly composed of rounded gravel. Expansion of the city is limited by oceanic and estuarine coasts, and is taking place towards salt marshes taking up more than 30 hectares in the last 20 years. The alteration of the tidal prism induced by marsh reclamation and the construction of a bridge may be affecting the inlet dynamics. The area of salt marsh and gravel banks were calculated by means of supervised classifications derived from a Landsat TM image. The inlet morphology changes in response to cycles dominated by longshore drift, wave refraction and ebb-tidal delta configuration. Oceanic beaches are characterised by large disc-shape boulders at the storm berm, spherical pebbles and sand runs at the foreshore, and fine sand on the low-tide terrace. Although tidal effects are very significant in the dynamics of the estuary, wind can prevail during some days or during slack water.

  7. Justificación curricular de la asignatura Arquitectura de tierra. Caso: Tamaulipas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Luisa Roux Oropeza

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available La globalización y los organismos internacionales hanrevolucionado el funcionamiento de las instituciones de educación superior. Las exigencias actualesimplican, entre otras,la gestión deestudios curriculares bajo paradigmas emergentes que justifiquen programas y planes encaminados a la solución de las problemáticas sociales globales. Tomando como referencia lo anterior, se presentan los resultados del análisis curricular que fundamentó la inclusión de la asignatura Arquitectura de Tierra, en la Facultad de Arquitectura Diseño y Urbanismo en Tamaulipas, México. AbstractGlobalization and international agencies have revolutionized the functioning of institutions of higher education; the requirements to them, involving among others, managing curriculum studies on emerging paradigms that justify programs and planswith responsibility for solving global social problems. With reference to the above, the results of the curriculum analysis that informed the inclusion of the subject Earthen Architecture in the Faculty of Architecture and Urban Design in Tamaulipas, Mexico.

  8. MICROFUNGAL COMPOSITION IN AN ASTELIA-DONATIA CUSHION PEATLAND IN TIERRA DEL FUEGO, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia I. Paredes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En el Hemisferio Sur las turberas almacenan grandes cantidades de carbono en el suelo. A pesar de su importancia en el ciclo global del carbono, se sabe poco acerca de los procesos de descomposición y su diversidad fúngica. El presente estudio se realizó para describir la composición de hongos filamen - tosos en dos profundidades de una turbera compacta donde las especies vegetales predominantes son Astelia (Asteliaceae y Donatia (Donatiaceae en Moat, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. De 48 muestras procesadas, se obtuvieron 338 aislamientos. Mediante el uso de diferentes metodologías de cultivo, a través de observación microscópica y por métodos moleculares identificamos 38 especies fúngicas y 18 géneros de Ascomycetes y Zygomycetes. Los aislamientos de Ascomycetes fueron los más abundantes, con dominancia de Penicillium y Trichoderma . Se describe la composición fúngica y se comparó la diversidad y equitatividad de las especies a dos profundidades de muestreo. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre la composición de especies, la diversidad y equitatividad. La turbera estudiada es un ecosistema que presenta alta diversidad de especies fúngicas filamentosas, algunas de ellas descritas en otras turberas en todo el mundo.

  9. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo with Simultaneous Involvement of Multiple Semicircular Canals

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Dae Bo; Song, Chang Eun; Jung, Eun Jung; Ko, Kyung Min; Park, Jin Woo; Song, Mee Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) generally involves a single semicircular canal (single canal BPPV) but it has been reported that more than one semicircular canal on either the same or the opposite side can be involved in 6.8-20% of the cases (multiple canal BPPV). In this study, the clinical characteristics of multiple canal BPPV were analyzed and compared to those of single canal BPPV. Materials and Methods Retrospective analysis was performed on 1054 co...

  10. Canal switch after canalith repositioning procedure for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Giant C; Basura, Gregory J; Wong, Hiu Tung; Heidenreich, Katherine D

    2012-09-01

    Canal switch is a complication following canalith repositioning procedure (CRP) for posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Instead of being returned to the utricle, the loose otoconia migrate into the superior or horizontal semicircular canal. Patients remain symptomatic, and treatment can be ineffective unless the switch is recognized and additional repositioning maneuvers directed toward the appropriate semicircular canal are performed. This report provides the first videographic documentation of canal switch involving conversion of unilateral posterior semicircular canal BPPV to geotropic horizontal canalithiasis.

  11. Visibility of the central canal on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit-Lacour, M.C.; Lasjaunias, P.; Iffenecker, C.; Benoudiba, F.; Hadj Rabia, M.; Doyon, D. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Faculte de Paris Sud (France); Hurth, M. [Department of Neurosurgery, Faculte Paris Sud, Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

    2000-10-01

    The central canal of the spinal cord is present at birth and becomes progressively obliterated. Cadaver studies have shown that it may persiste partially or completely. To our knowledge, this entity has not been described on MRI. We reviewed 794 MRI studies of the spinal cord, and found 12 patients (aged 14 to 65 years) who had an intramedullary cavity. The cavity was at the junction of the ventral {sup 1}/{sub 3} and dorsal {sup 2}/{sub 3} of the spinal cord, except at the level of the lumbar enlargement, where it was central. It was filiform in most cases, although sometimes fusiform (3 to 4 mm in diameter), and had regular contours. The cavity were thoracic in 69 % of cases. The clinical features were totally unrelated to the image, and there were no anatomical factors (Chiari malformation, dysraphism) predisposing to syringomyelia. The images were perfectly compatible with a persistent central canal, which we interpret as a variant of normal anatomy. Therefore it is important to regard these findings as normal, to avoid unnecessary treatment and follow-up. (orig.)

  12. Root canals-from concretion to patency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakar Chaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Teeth with calcification provide an endodontic treatment challenge; traumatized teeth usually develop partial or total pulpal obliteration which is characterized by apparent loss of the pulp space radiographically and a yellow discoloration of the clinical crown. Since only 7-27% of such teeth develop pulp necrosis with radiographic signs of apical periodontitis, it is difficult to decide whether to treat these teeth immediately upon detection of the pulpal obliteration or to wait until signs and symptoms of pulp and/or apical periodontitis occur. This article reviews the etiology, prevalence, classification, mechanism, diagnosis as well as treatment options for teeth with pulp obliteration and the various management approaches and treatment strategies for overcoming potential complications. A search of articles from "PubMed" and "Medline" from 1965 to present was done with the keywords dental trauma, discoloration, pathfinding instruments, pulp canal obliteration, and root canal treatment was conducted. A total of 94 abstracts were collected, of which 70 relevant articles were read and 31 most relevant articles were included in this article.

  13. Assessment of three root canal preparation techniques on root canal geometry using micro-computed tomography: In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikha M Al-Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the effects of three root canal preparation techniques on canal volume and surface area using three-dimensionally reconstructed root canals in extracted human maxillary molars. Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted Human Maxillary Molars having three separate roots and similar root shape were randomly selected from a pool of extracted teeth for this study and stored in normal saline solution until used. A computed tomography scanner (Philips Brilliance CT 64-slice was used to analyze root canals in extracted maxillary molars. Specimens were scanned before and after canals were prepared using stainless steel K-Files, Ni-Ti rotary ProTaper and rotary SafeSiders instruments. Differences in dentin volume removed, the surface area, the proportion of unchanged area and canal transportation were calculated using specially developed software. Results: Instrumentation of canals increased volume and surface area. Statistical analysis found a statistically significant difference among the 3 groups in total change in volume (P = 0.001 and total change in surface area (P = 0.13. Significant differences were found when testing both groups with group III (SafeSiders. Significant differences in change of volume were noted when grouping was made with respect to canal type (in MB and DB (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The current study used computed tomography, an innovative and non destructive technique, to illustrate changes in canal geometry. Overall, there were few statistically significant differences between the three instrumentation techniques used. SafeSiders stainless steel 40/0.02 instruments exhibit a greater cutting efficiency on dentin than K-Files and ProTaper. CT is a new and valuable tool to study root canal geometry and changes after preparation in great details. Further studies with 3D-techniques are required to fully understand the biomechanical aspects of root canal preparation.

  14. The Effect of Canal Contamination with Saliva on Apical Sealing

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    S Sabaghi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Root canal obturation aims at sealing the root canal system to prevent re-contamination of canal and periapical space. Presence of moisture in canal before obturation may posit a negative effect on the quality of canal sealing. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of canal contamination with saliva on apical microleakage. Methods: In this laboratory study, 58 human uni-root teeth were cleaned and shaped for obturation with gutta percha and sealer AH26. In the case group, specimens were contaminated with human saliva immediately before obturation, whereas the teeth in the control group were kept dry. All canals were filled by lateral condensation technique. Moreover, the teeth were placed in methylene blue dye for 3 days. Dye penetration was measured using a stereomicrosope. As a matter of fact, the study data were analyzed via utilizing t-test. Results: A significant difference was found between the two groups in regard with the apical leakage(P<0.001. The microleakage mean of dye in the dry group was 3/48mm, whereas it was 6/36mm in the saliva contaminated group. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that complete drying of canal can improve apical sealing.

  15. Evaluation of torque within manual preparation with root canal instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Gorski, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Used root canal instruments are often deformed; they can fracture, persist and reinfect teeth. There are no evident studies consulting torque and manual preparation of root canals. Thus, the purpose of this study is the evaluation of torque within manual preparation in connection with its impact on file deformation. With the aid of torque measurement a change in dental education could potentially be achieved.

  16. 33 CFR 117.769 - Black Rock Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black Rock Canal. 117.769 Section 117.769 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.769 Black Rock Canal. The draws of...

  17. 33 CFR 117.159 - Grant Line Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant Line Canal. 117.159 Section 117.159 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.159 Grant Line Canal. The draw of the San Joaquin County highway bridge, mile 5.5...

  18. 33 CFR 117.181 - Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal. 117.181 Section 117.181 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.181 Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal. The draws of the...

  19. 33 CFR 117.494 - Schooner Bayou Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Schooner Bayou Canal. 117.494 Section 117.494 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.494 Schooner Bayou Canal. The draw of the S82 bridge, mile 4.0 from White Lake...

  20. 33 CFR 117.849 - Muskingum River (Zanesville Canal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Muskingum River (Zanesville Canal). 117.849 Section 117.849 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Ohio § 117.849 Muskingum River (Zanesville Canal). The draw of the Conrail...

  1. 33 CFR 117.1051 - Lake Washington Ship Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Washington Ship Canal. 117.1051 Section 117.1051 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1051 Lake Washington Ship Canal. (a) When fog prevails by day or...

  2. 33 CFR 117.586 - Annisquam River and Blynman Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annisquam River and Blynman Canal. 117.586 Section 117.586 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.586 Annisquam River and Blynman Canal. The draw of the Blynman...

  3. 33 CFR 117.235 - Chesapeake and Delaware Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. 117.235 Section 117.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Delaware § 117.235 Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. The draw of the Conrail bridge, mile...

  4. 33 CFR 117.589 - Cape Cod Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Cod Canal. 117.589 Section 117.589 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.589 Cape Cod Canal. The draw of the Conrail railroad bridge, mile 0.7 at...

  5. 33 CFR 117.495 - Superior Oil Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Superior Oil Canal. 117.495 Section 117.495 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.495 Superior Oil Canal. The draw of the S82 bridge, mile 6.3, in Cameron...

  6. 5 CFR 550.714 - Panama Canal Commission employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Panama Canal Commission employees. 550.714 Section 550.714 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.714 Panama Canal Commission employees. (a) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this subpart,...

  7. 33 CFR 117.239 - Lewes and Rehoboth Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lewes and Rehoboth Canal. 117.239 Section 117.239 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Delaware § 117.239 Lewes and Rehoboth Canal. (a) The draw of the Savannah Road/SR 18...

  8. 33 CFR 117.273 - Canaveral Barge Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Canaveral Barge Canal. 117.273 Section 117.273 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.273 Canaveral Barge Canal. (a) The drawspan of the Christa McAuliffe...

  9. Optimizing the chemical aspect of root canal irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. de Macedo

    2013-01-01

    Root canal treatment is aimed at the removal of inflamed and infected tissue present in the root canal system. It will prevent the entrance of new microorganisms or nutrients in order to maintain or create a healthy environment around the root. There is sufficient evidence that shows that traditiona

  10. Reform in Indian canal irrigation: does technology matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narain, V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of technology - the design of canal irrigation for irrigation management reform. With reference to two different design systems in Indian irrigation - shejpali and warabandi - it shows that the potential for reform varies with the design of canal irrigation. Thre

  11. 33 CFR 117.653 - St. Mary's Falls Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Mary's Falls Canal. 117.653 Section 117.653 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Michigan § 117.653 St. Mary's Falls Canal. The draw...

  12. Incidence of dentinal defects after root canal filling procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shemesh, H.; Wesselink, P.R.; Wu, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Aim  To compare the incidence of dentinal defects (cracks and craze lines) after root canal preparation, lateral compaction and continuous wave compaction of gutta-percha and AH26 sealer. Methodology  Two hundred mandibular premolar teeth were divided into four groups with similar average canal diam

  13. Carcinogenesis and Inflammatory Effects of Plutonium-Nitrate Retention in an Exposed Nuclear Worker and Beagle Dogs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Xihai [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Robinson, Robert J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brooks, Antone L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lovaglio, Jamie A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Patton, Kristin M. [Battelle Toxicology Northwest, Richland, WA (United States); McComish, Stacey [United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries, Washington State University, College of Pharmacy, Richland, WA (United States); Tolmachev, Sergei Y. [United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries, Washington State University, College of Pharmacy, Richland, WA (United States); Morgan, William F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The genetic and inflammatory response pathways elicited following plutonium exposure in archival lung tissue of an occupationally exposed human and experimentally exposed beagle dogs were investigated. These pathways include: tissue injury, apoptosis and gene expression modifications related to carcinogenesis and inflammation. In order to determine which pathways are involved, multiple lung samples from a plutonium exposed worker (Case 0269), a human control (Case 0385), and plutonium exposed beagle dogs were examined using histological staining and immunohistochemistry. Examinations were performed to identify target tissues at risk of radiation-induced fibrosis, inflammation, and carcinogenesis. Case 0269 showed interstitial fibrosis in peripheral and subpleural regions of the lung, but no pulmonary tumors. In contrast, the dogs with similar and higher doses showed pulmonary tumors primarily in brochiolo-alveolar, peripheral and subpleural alveolar regions. The TUNEL assay showed slight elevation of apoptosis in tracheal mucosa, tumor cells, and nuclear debris was present in the inflammatory regions of alveoli and lymph nodes of both the human and the dogs. The expression of apoptosis and a number of chemokine/cytokine genes was slightly but not significantly elevated in protein or gene levels compared to that of the control samples. In the beagles, mucous production was increased in the airway epithelial goblet cells and glands of trachea, and a number of chemokine/cytokine genes showed positive immunoreactivity. This analysis of archival tissue from an accidentally exposed worker and in a large animal model provides valuable information on the effects of long-term retention of plutonium in the respiratory tract and the histological evaluation study may impact mechanistic studies of radiation carcinogenesis.

  14. The Influence of Canalization on the Robustness of Boolean Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kadelka, Claus; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Time- and state-discrete dynamical systems are frequently used to model molecular networks. This paper provides a collection of mathematical and computational tools for the study of robustness in Boolean network models. The focus is on networks governed by $k$-canalizing functions, a recently introduced class of Boolean functions that contains the well-studied class of nested canalizing functions. The activities and sensitivity of a function quantify the impact of input changes on the function output. This paper generalizes the latter concept to $c$-sensitivity and provides formulas for the activities and $c$-sensitivity of general $k$-canalizing functions as well as canalizing functions with more precisely defined structure. A popular measure for the robustness of a network, the Derrida value, can be expressed as a weighted sum of the $c$-sensitivities of the governing canalizing functions, and can also be calculated for a stochastic extension of Boolean networks. These findings provide a computationally eff...

  15. Direct solutions for normal depths in curved irrigation canals

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, X Y

    2013-01-01

    The normal depth is an important hydraulic element for canal design, operation and management. Curved irrigation canals including parabola, U-shaped and catenary canals have excellent hydraulic performance and strong ability of anti-frost heave, while the normal depths in the governing equations of the current common methods have no explicit analytical solution. They are only indirect methods by using trial procedures, numerical methods, and graphical tools. This study presents new direct formulas for normal depth in curved irrigation canals by applying for Marquardt method. The maximum relative error of the proposed formulas is less than 1% within the practice range by comparative analysis, and they are simple and convenient for manual calculations. The results may provide the reliable theoretical basis and useful reference for the design and operation management of irrigation canals.

  16. VARIATION OF MAXILLARY FIRST PREMOLAR WITH THREE ROOT CANALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Kirilova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Successful endodontic treatment requires effective biomechanical preparation of the root canals and three-dimensional obturation of the root canal system. This can be achieved only by knowing and identifying the variations in the root canal system of the endodontically treated teeth. The Aim: The aim of this article is to present cases of endodontic treatment of maxillary first premolar with three root canals – different types. Material and Methods: Five clinical cases of successful endodontic treatment of patients with maxillary first premolar and three root canals are described. Result and Discussion: It is noted that good endodontic practice requires good knowledge of dental anatomy and possible variations, accurate X-ray images, as well as use of magnifying equipment. Conclusion: Knowledge of dental anatomy is fundamental for good endodontic practice.

  17. Canalization and symmetry in Boolean models for genetic regulatory networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichhardt, C J Olson [Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Bassler, Kevin E [Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States)

    2007-04-20

    Canalization of genetic regulatory networks has been argued to be favoured by evolutionary processes due to the stability that it can confer to phenotype expression. We explore whether a significant amount of canalization and partial canalization can arise in purely random networks in the absence of evolutionary pressures. We use a mapping of the Boolean functions in the Kauffman N-K model for genetic regulatory networks onto a k-dimensional Ising hypercube (where k = K) to show that the functions can be divided into different classes strictly due to geometrical constraints. The classes can be counted and their properties determined using results from group theory and isomer chemistry. We demonstrate that partially canalizing functions completely dominate all possible Boolean functions, particularly for higher k. This indicates that partial canalization is extremely common, even in randomly chosen networks, and has implications for how much information can be obtained in experiments on native state genetic regulatory networks.

  18. A maxillary central incisor with four root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Almeida-Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to present a case report of endodontic treatment of a maxillary central incisor with 1 root and 4 root canals. The success of endodontic treatment requires knowledge of dental anatomy and its variations. This clinical article reports an unusual anatomy detected in a maxillary central incisor with 4 root canals with an associated periapical lesion. The incidence of 4 root canals in this tooth is rare. However, it must be taken into consideration, the clinical and radiographic evaluations during the endodontic treatment in order to enhance the diagnostic. Many times, the presence of a supernumerary canal is noticed only after canal treatment due to continuing post-operative discomfort or treatment failure.

  19. Hydrology and environmental aspects of Erie Canal (1817-99)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, Walter Basil

    1976-01-01

    As the first major water project in the United States, the old Erie Canal provides an example of the hydrological and environmental consequences of water development. The available record shows that the project aroused environmental fears that the canal might be impaired by the adverse hydrologic effects of land development induced by the canal. Water requirements proved greater than anticipated, and problems of floods and hydraulic inefficiencies beset navigation throughout its history. The Erie Canal proved the practicality of major hydraulic works to the extent that operations and maintenance could cope with the burdens of deficiencies in design. The weight of prior experience that upland streams, such as the Potomac and Mohawk Rivers, had proved unsatisfactory for dependable navigation, led to a decision to build an independent canal which freed the location from the constraints of river channels and made possible a cross-country water route directly to Lake Erie. The decision on dimensioning the canal prism--chiefly width and depth-involved balance between a fear of building too small and thus not achieving the economic potentials, and a fear of building too expensively. The constraints proved effective, and for the first part of its history the revenues collected were sufficient to repay all costs. So great was the economic advantage of the canal that the rising trend in traffic soon induced an enlargement of the canal cross section, based upon a new but riskier objective-build as large as the projected trend in toll revenues would finance. The increased revenues did not materialize. Water supplies were a primary concern for both the planners and the operators of the canal. Water required for lockage, although the most obvious to the planners, proved to be a relatively minor item compared with the amounts of water that were required to compensate for leakage through the bed and banks of the canal. Leakage amounted to about 8 inches of depth per day. The total

  20. A comparison of the pharmacokinetics of three different preparations of total flavones of Hippophae rhamnoides in beagle dogs after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jingze; Dang, Yang; Meng, Houjun; Wang, Huizhen; Ma, Ping; Li, Guowen; Wu, Tao; Xie, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Pharmacokinetic properties of isorhamnetin, quercetin, and kaempferol in three different total flavones of Hippophae rhamnoides (TFH) preparations were compared after oral administration to beagle dogs by a UPLC-MS method. The pharmacokinetic results showed that C max of isorhamnetin and quercetin in TFH solid dispersion (TFH-SD) and TFH self-emulsifying (TFH-SE) preparations was significantly enhanced than that in TFH preparations (p beagle dogs can be significantly increased in TFH-SD and TFH-SE preparations compared to TFH preparations, which was helpful to explore the new forms for oral administration TFH and explain their in vivo processes.

  1. Evaluación de Tierras, Conservación y Reordenamiento Territorial del Agroecosistema Cañero de la provincia Holguín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Martín Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Para el trabajo se utilizó la información de la Evaluación Física de las Tierras, realizada por los Complejos Agroindustriales de la provincia y la EPICA de Holguín; además del Programa Nacional de Mejoramiento y Conservación de Suelo que se lleva a cabo en todas las áreas del MINAZ. Teniendo como objetivo diversificar y mejorar los suelos, para preservar el recurso tierra de la degradación a que esta sometido; y darle el verdadero uso que esta requiere. Se pudo conocer la Evaluación de la Aptitud Física de las Tierras dedicadas al cultivo de la caña de azúcar, la Reconversión fue posible, dedicándose a la caña de azúcar las tierras más aptas. Se le dio el verdadero uso de las tierras marginales: ganadería, forestales, cultivos varios, frutales, etc.

  2. "My appointment received the sanction of the Admiralty": why Charles Darwin really was the naturalist on HMS Beagle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyhe, John

    2013-09-01

    For decades historians of science and science writers in general have maintained that Charles Darwin was not the 'naturalist' or 'official naturalist' during the 1831-1836 surveying voyage of HMS Beagle but instead Captain Robert FitzRoy's 'companion', 'gentleman companion' or 'dining companion'. That is, Darwin was primarily the captain's social companion and only secondarily and unofficially naturalist. Instead, it is usually maintained, the ship's surgeon Robert McCormick was the official naturalist because this was the default or official practice at the time. Although these views have been repeated in countless accounts of Darwin's life, this essay aims to show that they are incorrect.

  3. Improvement in cardiac function after sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase gene transfer in a beagle heart failure model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MI Ya-fei; LI Xiao-ying; TANG Li-jiang; LU Xiao-chun; FU Zhi-qing; YE Wei-hua

    2009-01-01

    Background Heart failure (HF) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, but current treatment modalities cannot reverse the underlying pathological state of the heart. Gene-based therapies are emerging as promising therapeutic modalities in HF patients. Our previous studies have shown that recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) gene transfer of Sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA2a) can be effective in treating rats with chronic heart failure (CHF). The aim of this study was to examine the effects of SERCA2a gene transfer in a large HF animal model.Methods HF was induced in beagles by rapid right ventricular pacing (230 beats/min) for 30 days. A reduced rate ventricular pacing (180 beats/min) was continued for another 30 days. The beagles were assigned to four groups: (a) control group (n=4); (b) HF group (n=4); (c) enhanced green fluorescent protein group (n=4); and (d) SERCA2.a group (n=4). rAAVl-EGFP (lx1012 μg) and rAAVl-SERCA2a (lx1012 μg) were delivered intramyocardially. SERCA2.a expression was assessed by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry.Results Following 30 days of SERCA2a gene transfer in HF beagles its protein expression was significantly higher than in the HF group than in the control group (P <0.05). Heart function improved along with the increase in SERCA2a expression. Left ventricular systolic function significantly improved, including the ejection fraction, left ventricular systolic pressure, maximal rate of rise of left ventricular pressure (+dp/dtmax), and the maximal rate of decline of left ventricular pressure (-dp/dtmax) (P <0.05). Left ventricular end-diastole pressure significantly decreased (P <0.05). The expression of SERCA2a in the myocardial tissue was higher in the SERCA2a group than in the HF group (P<0.05). Conclusions Intramyocardial injection of rAAVl-SERCA2a can improve the cardiac function in beagles induced with HE We expect further studies on SERCA2a's long-term safety, efficacy, dosage

  4. Dog-appeasing pheromone collars reduce sound-induced fear and anxiety in beagle dogs: a placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the effects of a dog-appeasing pheromone (DAP) collar in reducing sound-induced fear and anxiety in a laboratory model of thunderstorm simulation. Twenty-four beagle dogs naïve to the current test were divided into two treatment groups (DAP and placebo) balanced on their fear score in response to a thunderstorm recording. Each group was then exposed to two additional thunderstorm simulation tests on consecutive days. Dogs were video-assessed by a train...

  5. EL SITIO HESHKAIA 35: NUEVOS DATOS SOBRE LA ARQUEOLOGÍA DE MOAT (TIERRA DEL FUEGO, ARGENTINA / Heshkaia 35 site: new data on the archaeology of Moat (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilio Francisco Zangrando

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available arqueológicos recuperados en el sitio Heshkaia 35 (costa sur de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Este sitio se ubica en un ámbito costero en la sección media de la cuenca del río Moat y registra ocupaciones durante el Holoceno Tardío (ca. 800-500 AP. La diversidad tecnológica y el registro zooarqueológico señalan el desarrollo de actividades múltiples. Los artefactos líticos dominan el conjunto tecnológico. Los desechos líticos indican un fuerte énfasis hacia los estadios finales de talla, puesto de manifiesto en la baja presencia de artefactos con corteza y la elevada frecuencia de lascas de formatización y de reactivación de filos. El conjunto zooarqueológico se compone mayormente de restos óseos de guanacos. Los moluscos también habrían cumplido un rol significativo en la dieta. Restos óseos de mamíferos marinos, zorros, aves y peces están representados por frecuencias bajas. La composición artefactual y arqueofaunística estaría indicando que el aprovisionamiento de recursos se habría articulado principalmente desde el ámbito costero y no necesariamente en el mar. Se discuten las implicaciones de esta evidencia para las pautas conductuales de cazadores-recolectores en la costa sur de Tierra del Fuego. Palabras Clave: Arqueología de costas, Cazadores-recolectores, Tierra del Fuego, Holoceno Tardío   Abstract This paper presents and discusses the archaeological evidence from Heshkaia 35 site (southern coast of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. This site is located in a coastal setting in the middle section of the Moat River Basin and records occupations during the Late Holocene (ca. 800-500 BP. Technological diversity and the zooarchaeological record point to the development of multiple activities. Lithic artifacts dominate the technological assemblage. Lithic debitage indicates a strong emphasis towards final stages of reduction, shown by the lower occurrence of artifacts with cortex and the high frequency resharpening

  6. Use of the carbon dioxide laser in guided tissue regeneration wound healing in the beagle dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmann, Jeffrey A.; Parlar, Ates; Abdel-Ghaffar, Khaled A.; El-Khouli, Amr M.; Israel, Michael

    1996-04-01

    The concept of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) allowing cells from the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone to repopulate the treated root surface has shown the ability to obtain periodontal new attachment. Healing studies have also shown that conventional GTR therapy still does not exclude all the epithelium. This epithelial proliferation apically interferes with the establishment of the new connective tissue attachment to the root surface. The objective of this research study was to examine whether controlled de-epithelialization with the carbon dioxide laser during the healing phase after periodontal surgery, would retard the apical migration of the epithelium and thereby enhance the results obtained through guided tissue regeneration. Eight beagle dogs were used, the experimental side received de-epithelialization with the CO2 laser in conjunction with flap reflection and surgically created buccal osseous defects. Selected defects on each side were treated with ePTFE periodontal membranes. The laser de-epithelialization was repeated every 10 days until removal of the membranes. The control side received the same surgical treatment without laser application. This experimental design allowed histologic study of the new attachment obtained in defects treated with flap debridement with or without laser de-epithelialization and with or without ePTFE membranes. A statistical analysis was performed on the histometric data from 48 teeth in the 8 dogs after 4 months of healing. The results showed significant amounts of new attachment obtained from all four treatment modalities with no statistically significant differences for any one treatment. However, the trend towards enhanced regeneration with the combined treatment of laser and membrane vs. membrane alone or debridement alone was evident. The histologic analysis revealed a significant amount of newly formed `fat cementum' seen only on the laser treated teeth. This feature was the most remarkable finding of the

  7. Characterization and Bioavailability of Wogonin by Different Administration Routes in Beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Na; Li, Jian-Chun; Zhu, Jin-Xiu; Wang, Xiu; Zhang, Jin

    2016-10-16

    BACKGROUND With the gradually accumulating research on pharmacological activity of wogonin, the in vitro analysis research on wogonin has become more and more popular, but there are very few reports about in vivo detection, and there are no solid dispersions (SDs) of Wogonin. The aim of this study was to explore the formation of solid dispersions (SDs) of wogonin. The reasons for the low bioavailability were studied through different routes of administration. MATERIAL AND METHODS SDs was formulated using the solvent evaporation method via polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP). The characterization of the drug and its carrier was detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The serum concentrations of Wogonin were detected using the LC-MS/MS method. Six beagles were fed 3 different formulations of wogonin in 3 cycles. RESULTS The SDs of wogonin had a higher solubility than the physical mixtures. Based on XRD and DSC, wogonin was transformed from a crystalline morphology to an amorphous structure. The main pharmacokinetic parameters of i.g. administration (crude material and SD) and i.v. route were as follows: Cmax (2.5±1.1), (7.9±3.3), and (6838.7±1322.1) μg/L, tmax (0.7±0.3) and (0.3±0.2) h for the former, AUC0-t (7.1±2.0), (21.0±3.2) and (629.7±111.8) μg·h/L. The absolute bioavailability of native wogonin and wogonin arginine solution were (0.59±0.35)% and (3.65± 2.60)%. Further research showed that the low bioavailability of wogonin might be associated with low solubility and rapid combination with glucuronic acid in vivo. CONCLUSIONS The significantly increased solubility of SDs and the further preparation of arginine solution could significantly increase the bioavailability of wogonin.

  8. Guided bone regeneration for immediate non-submerged implant placement using bioabsorbable materials in Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunel, G; Benqué, E; Elharar, F; Sansac, C; Duffort, J F; Barthet, P; Baysse, E; Miller, N

    1998-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the combined application of different bioabsorbable materials for healing of residual peri-implant defects after placement of non-submerged implants into fresh extraction sockets. Second and third mandibular premolars were extracted from 10 Beagle dogs, the coronal part of the distal sockets were surgically enlarged and this was followed by immediate placement of specially designed hollow-screw non-submerged dental implants. For each animal, the coronal peri-implant defects were further treated with one of the 4 following procedures: 1) no treatment, control site; 2) grafting with porous hydroxyapatite (HA); 3) collagen membrane tightly secured around the implant and over the defect and 4) grafting with HA covered with a collagen membrane. After 16 weeks of healing, specimens were removed from the mandibule and prepared for a histomorphometric evaluation. The bone-to-implant contact length (BIC) was measured and compared amongst the different treatment modalities. In the defect area, the irregular bone regeneration was similar between all the treatment procedures (P > 0.10). In the sites covered with a collagen membrane alone, the total BIC (47%) was greater than in control sites (28.7%, P < 0.05) or sites grafted with HA (22.2%, P < 0.02). Total BIC in sites treated with the HA-membrane combination (43%) was only significantly different from sites treated with HA (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the use of bioabsorbable materials results in a limited increase of osseointegration when used in conjunction with immediate placement of non-submerged implants, although the principle of the one stage surgical approach can be maintained.

  9. Increased type 1 chemokine expression in experimental Chagas disease correlates with cardiac pathology in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Paulo M M; Veloso, Vanja M; Talvani, André; Diniz, Livia F; Caldas, Ivo S; Do-Valle-Matta, Maria A; Santiago-Silva, Juliana; Chiari, Egler; Galvão, Lucia M C; Silva, João S; Bahia, Maria T

    2010-11-15

    Chemokines and chemokine receptors interaction have presented important role in leukocyte migration to specific immune reaction sites. Recently, it has been reported that chemokine receptors CXC (CXCR3) and CC (CCR5) were preferentially expressed on Th1 cells while CCR3 and CCR4 were preferentially expressed on Th2 cells. This study evaluated the mRNA expression of type 1 and type 2 chemokine and chemokine receptors in the cardiac tissue of Beagle dogs infected with distinct genetic groups of Trypanosoma cruzi (Y, Berenice-78 and ABC strains) during acute and chronic phases. To analyze the correlation between chemokine and chemokine receptors expression and the development of heart pathology, the chronic infected animals were divided into groups, according to the parasite strain and based on the degree of heart damage: cardiac and indeterminate form of Chagas disease. Our results indicated that cardiac type1/2 chemokines and their receptors were partially dependent on the genetic diversity of parasites as well as the polarization of clinical forms. Also, dogs presenting cardiac form showed lower heart tissue mRNA expression of CCL24 (type 2) and higher expression of CCL5, CCL4 and CXCR3 (type 1) when compared with those with indeterminate form of disease. Together, these data reinforce a close-relation between T. cruzi genetic population and the host specific type 1 immune response and, for the first time, we show the distribution of type 1/2 chemokines associated with the development of cardiac pathology using dogs, a well similar model to study human Chagas disease.

  10. 5 CFR 315.601 - Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. 315.601 Section 315.601 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Career or Career-Conditional Appointment...

  11. Políticas publicas y pueblos indígenas: El caso de las tierras mapuche en neuquen (Argentina) y la araucania (Chile) -estudios de casos "conflicto público de tierras y recursos naturales"

    OpenAIRE

    SEGUEL, A.

    2004-01-01

    Metadata only record El análisis a las políticas públicas de tierras, no se puede limitar exclusivamente a las acciones u omisiones dentro de su legislatura "indígenista" que desarrollan órganos de los Estados hacia los Mapuche y sus comunidades. Dentro del ámbito de la política pública de los Estados existen una serie de elementos internos y externos que están ligados a diversos aspectos de la globalización económica, cuyos impactos repercuten principalmente en los territorios de sectores...

  12. “Caminando sobre la tierra, de nuevo desconocida, toda cambiada” “Caminando sobre la tierra, de nuevo desconocida, toda cambiada”. The invention of landscape painting in New Spain's cartography, sixteenth and seventeenth centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Russo

    2007-01-01

    La producción de mapas por parte de los cartógrafos indígenas, mestizos y españoles en los siglos XVI y XVII, es un laboratorio de increíble riqueza para estudiar los efectos pictóricos que la transformación territorial-administrativa empezada por la conquista tuvo al pasar por la esfera de la creación. En las imágenes, hoy en el Archivo General de la Nación, los pintores locales tuvieron que inventar una nueva forma de visualizar las tierras, los espacios y los paisajes. De esta mina inagota...

  13. Paleoseismic observations of an onshore transform boundary: the Magallanes-Fagnano fault, Tierra del Fuego Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H. Costa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We present preliminary information on the geomorphologic features and paleoseismic record associated with the ruptures of two Ms 7.8 earthquakes that struck Tierra del Fuego and the southernmost continental margin of South America on December 17, 1949. The fault scarp was surveyed in several places east of Lago Fagnano and a trench across a secondary fault trace of the Magallanes-Fagnano fault `was excavated at the Río San Pablo. The observed deformation in a 9 kyr-old peat bog sequence suggests evidence for two, and possibly three pre- 1949 paleoearthquakes is preserved in the stratigraphy. The scarp reaches heights up to 11 m in late Pleistocene-Holocene(? deposits, but the vertical component of the 1949 events was always less than ~1 m. This observation also argues for the occurrence of previous events during the Quaternary. Along the part of the fault we investigated east of Lago Fagnano, the horizontal component of the 1949 rupture does not exceed 4 m and is likely lower than 0.4 m, which is consistent with the kinematics of a local releasing bend, or at the end of a strike-slip rupture zone.Se presenta información sobre las evidencias geomorfológicas y paleosísmicas observadas al este del lago Fagnano, relacionadas con dos terremotos de Ms 7,8, que ocurrieron en Tierra del Fuego el 17 de diciembre de 1949. Se efectuaron relevamientos en las escarpas observadas en los alrededores de Tolhuin y Estancia La Correntina-Río San Pablo. En este último sitio, se excavó una trinchera en un trazo secundario de la falla Magallanes-Fagnano con el propósito de analizar el registro paleosísmico de esta estructura. Con el apoyo de dataciones radiocarbónicas se reconoció la estratigrafía correspondiente a los últimos 9 ka, interpretándose por lo menos dos eventos sísmicos con rupturas superficiales previos al sismo de 1949 en este trazo de la falla. Se reconocieron escarpas asociadas de hasta 11 m de altura en depósitos atribuibles al

  14. Estabilidad antisísmica de taludes en presas de tierra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliani, H.

    1966-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, economic reasons and the high development of technological knowledge lead to the construction of structures with low factors of safety. This makes it necessary to have accurate knowledge of the real bebaviour of the materials. This problem is of special importance when the seismic factor intervenes. In recent years it has become common practice to analyse the stability of soil embankments located in seismic zones, using the seismic factor in conjunction with the surface sliding method. Taking into account that existing methods of analysis lead to varying factors of safety, and that safety factor one is the lowest acceptable when there is a seismic effect, it will be obvious that more accurate methods are now essential. This paper includes: a A description of the most recent methods at present in use. Special attention has been given to more accurate methods, which take account of intergranular forces action on the lateral faces of the various wedges into which the sliding mass is divided. b An analytical solution suggested by the author. c Solutions involving the seismic effect, applicable to all above mentioned methods. d Brief comments on the various methods. e Numerical application to a typical embankment.En la actualidad, los factores económicos y el gran desarrollo de la técnica conduce a la realización de estructuras con escasos coeficientes de seguridad, lo cual exige tener muy en cuenta el comportamiento real de las mismas. Este problema reviste particular importancia cuando interviene el efecto sísmico. En los últimos años se ha hecho práctica común analizar la estabilidad de taludes de presa de tierra, en zonas sísmicas, por el método del «coeficiente sísmico en combinación con el método de la superficie de deslizamiento». Teniendo en cuenta el hecho de que los métodos existentes a esta categoría general dan coeficientes de seguridad diferentes y que el coeficiente 1 es el mínimo aceptable cuando existe

  15. La ganadería lanar en Madrid y su tierra durante la Edad Media

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    Tomás Puñal Fernández

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de la ganadería en general y ovina en particular ofrece un campo muy generoso de investigación porque permite conocer muchas de las estructuras socioeconómicas regionales y locales de un país o territorio. En el caso de Madrid dicho estudio es importante por cuanto en el conjunto de las labores agropecuarias del concejo, las ganaderas fueron las que mejor marcaron su desarrollo económico. La tierra madrileña es tierra de ganado, sobre todo lanar, y ello fue el punto de referencia de diversas actividades económicas que iban desde el abastecimiento de carne para la alimentación hasta la obtención de materia prima, lana y pieles, para las industrias textil y del cuero. Para tener una visión más amplia e interdisciplinar el presente estudio se ha hecho desde una doble perspectiva económica y social. Desde la ganadería estante y local a la trashumante, con especial mención a la Mesta y toda su problemática, así como los aspectos cuantitativos derivados del número de ovejas y el tamaño y tipo de los rebaños y sus aspectos fiscales concomitantes. En relación a ello toda la infraestructura de pastos y cañadas. Los aspectos sociales se refieren a los propietarios de ovejas como una oligarquía rural de labradores enriquecidos, así como a los trabajadores del ganado, es decir los pastores, sus contratos, salarios y condiciones de vida. En conjunto el panorama que se ofrece es muy significativo y permite acercarnos un poco más a la realidad socioeconómica del Madrid medieval.The study of the livestock in general and sheep in particular, offers a huge field to research as it allows to know many of the local and regional socioeconomíc structures of a city or country. In the case of Madrid, that study is important because the sheep livestock is, among the rest of the agricultural activities, the main one for its contribution to the economic development. Madrid is a livestock área, mainly for sheep, as the point of

  16. Reduction of Enterococcus faecalis in curved root canals after various sizes and tapers of canal preparation

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    Amir Abbas Moshari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reduction of Enterococcus faecalis in curved root canals after various sizes and tapers of the canal preparation. Materials and Methods: Mandibular first molars (n = 103 with curved mesiobuccal canals were divided into one control (n = 5 and 7 experimental (n = 14 groups, were inoculated with E. faecalis (ATTC 29212 and prepared with the following RaCe files (FKG Dentaire as master apical file: Groups: 25.04, 25.06, 30.04, 30.06, 35.04, 35.06 and 40.06. All the experimental groups were irrigated with 2 mL of 1% sodium hypochlorite during instrumentation and finally rinsed with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA (2 mL followed by 5.25% NaOCl (2 mL and sterile distilled water. Colony counting was performed after incubation. Statistical Analysis Used: Resulting data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey′s post-hoc test, (P < 0.05. Results and Conclusions: All the experimental groups showed significant bacterial reduction (P < 0.001. Although the greater the size/taper or both led to more decreased amount of bacteria, differences between the groups with the identical size and different tapers, and among the groups with the same taper and different sizes were not significant. Based on this study, 25.04 along with using 2 mL of 1% NaOCl during instrumentation, and using 17% EDTA and 5.25% NaOCl as final rinse successively after the termination of preparation, can effectively reduce intra-canal bacteria and preserve root structure.

  17. Alkali basalts and enclosed ultramafic xenoliths near Ushuaia, Tierra Del Fuego, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Rogelio Daniel

    2016-01-01

    At the southernmost part of Tierra del Fuego a few outcrops and erratic boulders of alkali basaltic rocks with ultramafic enclaves have been studied. Alkali basalt plugs or pipes hitherto identified are scarce, and host rocks are constituted by slates that belong to Mesozoic deposition. The petrography, texture and composition of the basalt and xenoliths were investigated by petrographic microscope and electron microprobe analysis. Xenocrysts of amphibole and alkali feldspar, phenocrysts of nepheline, olivine, spinel, phlogopite and Fe-Ti minerals (10 %) and a diversity of xenoliths, mainly lherzolitic, pyroxenite and wehrlitic nodules (15 %), but also from metamorphic rocks provenance, are contained in the basalt groundmass (75 %). This finer-grained material is made up of laths or needles of plagioclase, pyroxene, opaque minerals, apatite and glass, with intersertal, hyalopilitic and pilotaxitic. Locally, rock has an even granoblastic texture. Former amygdules are filled by analcite, zeolites, sodalite and calcite. The normative classification, based on nepheline content, conclude that this rock is an alkali basalt. The chemical classification, considering immobile elements as Zr/TiO2 versus Nb/Y indicate an alkali basalt too and plots over the TAS diagram fall in the foidite (Na-rich or nephelinite) and basanite fields. The REE patterns are fractionated (La/Yb primitive mantle normalized is approximately 30). The K-Ar isotopic technique on individual macrocrysts gave ages of 146 ± 5 Ma (amphibole) and 127 ± 4 Ma (alkali feldspar); and K-Ar whole rock datum reported 8.3 ± 0.3 Ma. Nevertheless, fertile samples show geochemical features typical of deep derived material thus, based on the position in the actual tectonic setting, indicate that the basalt is older than its isotopic age.

  18. Mires and mire types of Peninsula Mitre, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

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    A. Grootjans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, a field visit by members of the International Mire Conservation Group (IMCG to the Atlantic coast of Peninsula Mitre (the easternmost part of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina gathered information on mire diversity in this remote wild area with largely pristine mires. Our expedition showed that Peninsula Mitre hosts a wide variety of habitats across two exciting ecological gradients: (i a regional west–east gradient from Sphagnum magellanicum dominated mires in the west to Astelia pumila dominated mires in the east; and (ii a gradient from extremely acid to extremely carbonate rich mire types induced by local bedrock. The large variety of hydromorphological mire types comprises raised bogs, blanket bogs, sloping fens, string fens, flat fens and calcareous spring fens. In the Atlantic coastal area, the abundance of Sphagnum magellanicum in the ombrogenic systems decreases conspicuously from west to east with the species being almost absent in the east. However, the fossil record shows thick layers of Sphagnum peat close beneath mire surfaces everywhere, indicating that substantial hydrological and ecological changes have taken place in the recent past. We observed large scale erosion in the mires along the Atlantic coast. Locally, well-developed fen systems are present, including calcareous spring fens with active travertine (tufa deposition. The regional vegetation can be regarded as a parallel to that of boreal oceanic regions in the northern hemisphere. The mires and peatlands of the peninsula are of global significance. They are impressive, peculiar, extensive and largely pristine mires in a globally very rare climatic and biogeographical context embedded in a landscape with significant natural dynamics. The damaging impact of free-roaming cattle on the mires and upland vegetation is, however, conspicuous and needs urgent attention. Peninsula Mitre deserves the highest possible protection, e.g. as a provincial protected

  19. EL PROBLEMA DE LA PROPIEDAD DE LA TIERRA EN EL SUR DE CHILE (1850-1930

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    Fabián Almonacid Z

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia el conflicto en torno a la propiedad de la tierra en el sur de Chile (principalmente en la Araucanía, Valdivia y Osorno, el que tuvo como protagonistas al Estado, chilenos y extranjeros. Se revisan los antecedentes del problema, especialmente la llegada de población chilena y extranjera a la zona y la presencia de comunidades indígenas, entre mediados del siglo XIX y 1929. Después, la búsqueda de una solución, a través de diversas leyes, la acción de un ministerio especial y, particularmente, la política estatal sobre comunidades indígenas. En general, se destaca el interés estatal por consolidar la propiedad rural privada, mediante el reconocimiento rápido de los propietarios con títulos y de los ocupantes efectivos y el término de las comunidades indígenas. El éxito de la labor estatal fue parcial, fortaleciendo la propiedad privada, pero sin lograr acabar con la propiedad comunitaria.This paper analyzes conflicts over land ownership in Southern Chile (Araucanía, Valdivia and Osorno mainly. This conflict had as its main protagonists the State, Chileans and foreigners. After the revision of its background, including the arrival of Chileans and foreigners to the area and the presence of indigenous communities, the article pays attention to the efforts made trough legislation, ministerial work and State policies over indigenous communities to solve the problem. This reveals the attempt made by the State to consolidate rural private ownership. This was made trough expedite recognition of owners in possession of land titles and land settlers, in an effort to put an end to indigenous communities. The success was partial because communal land ownership did not disappear, despite the strengthening of private land ownership.

  20. LA FAMILIA: UN DESAFÍO PARA EL FUTURO DE NUESTRA TIERRA

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    GILBERTO A. GAMBOA-BERNAL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos reconoce la familia como la célula básica de la sociedad, resalta su importancia, la necesidad de protegerla, de promocionarla, como elemento natural y fundamental de la sociedad. Para reflexionar sobre los efectos que la cultura actual tiene en la familia es importante partir de la situación como se presenta ahora, para luego pasar a plantear los cambios que se vean necesarios, para asegurar su propio futuro y el de su habitad que es la Tierra. Para cumplir esa primera tarea se glosan algunos resultados del estudio World Family Map de 2015. Posteriormente se hacen unas reflexiones sobre el binomio ecología ambiental y ecología humana, donde se muestra la importancia de partir de unos conceptos antropológicos adecuados para acertar en cada uno de estos campos. La actual decadencia de la cultura afecta directamente a la familia al minar una de sus principales bases, el amor humano, lo que constituye una verdadera amenaza. Se plantean algunos desafíos para la familia y se mencionan unas estrategias para hacerles frente. Como conclusión se bosqueja que para no seguir en la actividad de poner en riesgo la especie humana y destruir el planeta, es necesario cambiar la estructura social y la cultura actual, empezando por la familia; hay que ayudarla a tomar conciencia de sus problemas y limitaciones, para que luego pueda dar soluciones verdaderamente humanas a esos problemas, casi siempre generados por el mismo ser humano.

  1. Geoprocesamiento aplicado al analisis del uso de la tierra en el municipio de San Pedro de Ycuamandyyú, Paraguay.

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    Oscar Agustín Torres Figueredo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El municipio de San Pedro de Ycuamandyyú está ubicado en el noroeste de la región oriental del Paraguay. Los objetivos de este trabajo constituyen la elaboración y el análisis del mapa del uso de la tierra para la planificación de actividades forestales en la zona, para los cuales se utilizaron técnicas de cartografía, sensores remotos y (SIG Sistemas de Informaciones Geográficas, que posibilitaron el análisis de informaciones provenientes de imágenes satelitales LANDSAT TM 5, de cartas topográficas y de (GPS Sistema de Posicionamiento Global, que permitió el procesamiento de datos en el programa Idrisi 2.0 para la confección de un mapa que posibilitó el análisis sobre la situación del uso de la tierra en el municipio. Se distinguió categorías predominantes como praderas altas o campos naturales, uso agropecuario y praderas bajas o bañados, siendo la cobertura forestal con valor inferior al 25%. Se concluyó que el municipio presenta bastantes áreas de campos naturales y uso agropecuario que podrían utilizarse para actividades de reforestación, sea con especies nativas o exóticas de rápido crecimiento con la finalidad de obtener valores de cobertura forestal en equilibrio con las demás categorías de uso de la tierra.

  2. Geoprocesamiento aplicado al analisis del uso de la tierra en el municipio de San Pedro de Ycuamandyyú , Paraguay

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    Oscar Agustín Figueredo Torres

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El municipio de San Pedro de Ycuamandyyú está ubicado en el noroeste de la región oriental del Paraguay. Los objetivos de este trabajo constituyen la elaboración y el análisis del mapa del uso de la tierra para la planificación de actividades forestales en la zona, para los cuales se utilizaron técnicas de cartografía, sensores remotos y (SIG Sistemas de Informaciones Geográficas, que posibilitaron el análisis de informaciones provenientes de imágenes satelitales LANDSAT TM 5, de cartas topográficas y de (GPS Sistema de Posicionamiento Global, que permitió el procesamiento de datos en el programa Idrisi 2.0 para la confección de un mapa que posibilitó el análisis sobre la situación del uso de la tierra en el municipio. Se distinguió categorías predominantes como praderas altas o campos naturales, uso agropecuario y praderas bajas o bañados, siendo la cobertura forestal con valor inferior al 25%. Se concluyó que el municipio presenta bastantes áreas de campos naturales y uso agropecuario que podrían utilizarse para actividades de reforestación, sea con especies nativas o exóticas de rápido crecimiento con la finalidad de obtener valores de cobertura forestal en equilibrio con las demás categorías de uso de la tierra.

  3. GEOPROCESAMIENTO APLICADO AL ANALISIS DEL USO DE LA TIERRA EN EL MUNICIPIO DE SAN PEDRO DE YCUAMANDYYÚ, PARAGUAY

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    Oscar Agustín Torres Figueredo

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available El municipio de San Pedro de Ycuamandyyú está ubicado en el noroeste de la región oriental del Paraguay. Los objetivos de este trabajo constituyen la elaboración y el análisis del mapa del uso de la tierra para la planificación de actividades forestales en la zona, para los cuales se utilizaron técnicas de cartografía, sensores remotos y (SIG Sistemas de Informaciones Geográficas, que posibilitaron el análisis de informaciones provenientes de imágenes satelitales LANDSAT TM 5, de cartas topográficas y de (GPS Sistema de Posicionamiento Global, que permitió el procesamiento de datos en el programa Idrisi 2.0 para la confección de un mapa que posibilitó el análisis sobre la situación del uso de la tierra en el municipio. Se distinguió categorías predominantes como praderas altas o campos naturales, uso agropecuario y praderas bajas o bañados, siendo la cobertura forestal con valor inferior al 25%. Se concluyó que el municipio presenta bastantes áreas de campos naturales y uso agropecuario que podrían utilizarse para actividades de reforestación, sea con especies nativas o exóticas de rápido crecimiento con la finalidad de obtener valores de cobertura forestal en equilibrio con las demás categorías de uso de la tierra.

  4. Mercado de tierras en un ejido mexicano: El caso de Campos, en Manzanillo, Colima, 1994-2013

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    Francisco Javier Verduzco Miramón

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La reforma al artículo 27 constitucional de 1992 convirtió a los ejidatarios en propietarios de la tierra que trabajaban, condición reforzada por el Programa de Certificación de Derechos Ejidales (Procede que, en 1994, les otorgó títulos parcelarios y de propiedad. De manera colateral, con estas políticas neoliberales se dinamizó el mercado de tierras y, con ello, se facilitó la inversión nacional y extranjera en el territorio mexicano. En el caso de Manzanillo, particularmente en el ejido de Campos, se instaló una planta de almacenamiento y distribución de gas licuado de petróleo y otra de tratamiento de gas natural licuado, más un gasoducto que conecta a la ciudad portuaria con Guadalajara, Jalisco. El objetivo principal de este artículo, es mostrar cómo las reformas constitucionales decretadas hace poco más de dos décadas, en conjunto con factores globales y locales, en la actualidad han intensificado el mercado de tierras en el ejido de Campos, facilitando —aún más— la inversión capitalista ya existente. La información que se presenta en la investigación se obtuvo principalmente de las entrevistas con algunos ejidatarios de Campos, como resultado de trabajo etnográfico realizado en distintos momentos por ambos autores desde el año 2011 hasta 2013.

  5. Rentas y exigencias feudales en la tierra de Lemos durante la Baja Edad Media (siglos XIV y XV

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    López Sabatel, Jose Antonio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article seeks to carry out an analysis of the feudal income and requirements which are recorded in some documentation from the Later Middle Ages found in three monasteries situated in Tierra de Lemos: San Vicente de Pombeiro, Santa María de Ferreira and San Vicente del Pino (the two first ones are located in the council of Pantón and the third one in the council of Monforte de Lemos. Throughout this research, these feudal rights will be differentiated according to their origin: land property or domain, as well as, their common characteristics and their special features, which will be highlighted in connection with other parts of Galician geography during the same period.

    El presente artículo pretende elaborar un análisis de las rentas y exigencias feudales presentes en la documentación bajomedieval de tres monasterios ubicados en la Tierra de Lemos: San Vicente de Pombeiro, Santa María de Ferreira y San Vicente del Pino (los dos primeros localizados en el actual municipio de Pantón y el tercero en el de Monforte de Lemos. A lo largo de este estudio, se distinguirán dichos derechos feudales en virtud de su origen: la propiedad de la tierra o el señorío, así como se señalarán los rasgos comunes y los particularismos de los mismos respecto a otras áreas de la geografía gallega para el mismo periodo.

  6. MANAGEMENT OF LUMBAR SPINAL CANAL STENOSIS

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    Mukhergee G. S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Spinal stenosis is one of the most common conditions in the elderly. It is defined as a narrowing of the spinal canal. The term stenosis is derived from the Greek word for narrow, which is “Stenos”. The first description of this condition is attributed to Antoine portal in 1803. Verbiest is credited with coining the term spinal stenosis and the associated narrowing of the spinal canal as its potential cause. [1-10] Kirkaldy–Willis subsequently described the degenerative cascade in the lumbar spine as the cause for the altered anatomy and pathophysiology in spinal stenosis. [11-15] If compression does not occur, the canal should be described as narrow but not stenotic. Some studies defined lumbar spinal stenosis as a “narrowing of the osteoligamentous vertebral canal and/or the intervertebral foramina causing compression of the thecal sac and/or the caudal nerve roots; at a single vertebral level, narrowing may affect the whole canal or part of it” (Postacchini 1983. This definition distinguished between disc herniation and stenosis. [16] . The most common type of spinal stenosis is caused by degenerative arthritis of the spine. Hypertrophy and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament which usually are confined to the cervical spine, and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH syndrome also may result in an acquired form of spinal stenosis. Congenital forms caused by disorders such as achondroplasia and dysplastic spondylolisthesis are much less common. Congenital spinal stenosis usually is central and is evident or imaging studies. Idiopathic congenital narrowing usually involves the anteroposterior dimension of the canal secondary to short pedicles; the patient otherwise is normal. In contrast, in achondroplasia, the canal is narrowed in the anteroposterior plane owing to shortened pedicles and in lateral dimension because of diminished interpedicular distance. Acquired forms of spinal stenosis usually are

  7. Facial Canal Dehiscence in Patients with Chronic Otitis Surgery

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    Ahmet Uluat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To examine facial canal status in patients with chronic otitis media (COM surgery and to detect the relation between facial canals dehiscence (FCD with middle ear pathology in these patients. Material and Method: The surgery data of patients who were subjected to tympanoplasty with or without mastoidectomy and radical mastoidectomy due to COM were analyzed retrospectively from January 2006 to December 2012. In addition to demonstrative data of the patients, status of facial canal and preoperative diagnoses of patients, type of the operation performed, status of middle ear, number of surgeries, existence of cholesteatoma, existence of ossicular chain defect, lateral canal defect and dura defect were assessed and the relation thereof with facial canal dehiscence (FCD was analyzed statistically. Results: Seven hundred ninety six patients were included in the study. FCD was detected in 10.05% of the patients. FCD was most frequently observed in the tympanic segment. It was found out that there was a statistically significant relationship of middle ear pathology, cholesteatoma, revision surgery, lateral semicircular canal and ossicular chain defect with FCD. Discussion: COM diagnosed patients may have defect in facial canal according to their preoperative diagnoses, middle ear pathologies, number of operations and ossicular chain defects. These patients should be applied a more careful surgery and closely followed up in postoperative periods.

  8. La presión demográfica sobre la tierra en Toribío, Cauca

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    Jairo Alexander Castaño López

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El fenómeno de la recuperación de la tierra por parte de los indígenas nasa, de la región norte del Cauca, fundamentalmente en los municipios de Toribío, Jambaló, Caloto, Santander de Quilichao y Corinto, comenzó en la década de 1970 y continúa en la actualidad, con sucesivas tomas en la zona plana de los municipios de Caloto y Corinto. Uno de los argumentos de las organizaciones indígenas es el creciente número de familias que no tienen acceso a la tierra, ni por la herencia familiar ni por la asignación de los cabildos. Este artículo explora el proceso de cambio sociodemográfico que ha atravesado el municipio de Toribío en los últimos veintiún años, a partir de un análisis comparativo de los principales resultados de los censos de población del DANE de 1993 y el 2005 y de algunos resultados de la Encuesta piloto experimental indígena nasa sobre el buen vivir (Encuesta Nasa, 2014. Con base en esta última, se examina la relación existente entre las condiciones sociodemográficas y el acceso a la tierra de las Unidades Domésticas y de Producción Nasa (UDPN de los resguardos San Francisco, Tacueyó y Toribío, que componen el municipio de Toribío. Se sugiere que los cambios sociodemográficos recientes (crecimiento general de la población y aumento de las cohortes de edad productiva, en un territorio que no varía en extensión, han llevado al “estrangulamiento” de la tierra disponible en el municipio.

  9. Difference fractal surfaces poured earth floors Tamaulipas / Diferencia fractal en superficies de tierra vertida con suelo de Tamaulipas

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    Edgardo Jonathan Suárez Dominguez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Poured earth is a sustainable construction and economically feasible technique to develop in Tamaulipas, by the materials availability and traditional manufacturing procedures uses. There are several variables to be considered in these elements for their properties, among them it can be found roughness and porosity analysis which are important because they are related to material mechanical resistance and durability. This study aimed to characterize solid surfaces using fractal dimension to know its uniformity and porosity, compared with a concrete surface. Solids were obtained from poured earth of two combinations of soils stabilized with cement from the state of Tamaulipas. We found that a surface of a sample, obtained with ground, is more uniform than poured concrete surface, and that fractal dimension is higher while porosity increases; results suggest that this is because of the presence of clay in the poured earth mixtures. La tierra vertida es una técnica constructiva sustentable y económicamente viable para desarrollarse en Tamaulipas, por la disponibilidad de materiales y procedimientos de fabricación similares a los tradicionales. Son diversas las variables que deben estudiarse en estos elementos para conocer sus propiedades, entre las que se encuentran la rugosidad y la porosidad, las cuales son importantes debido a su estrecha relación con la resistencia mecánica y durabilidad del material estudiado. El presente trabajo tuvo por objetivo caracterizar superficies sólidas a partir de la dimensión fractal para conocer su uniformidad y porosidad, comparándola con una superficie de concreto. Los sólidos fueron obtenidos a partir de tierra vertida conformada de dos combinaciones de suelos estabilizadas con cemento provenientes del estado de Tamaulipas. Se encontró que una superficie de tierra vertida es menos irregular que una superficie de concreto además de tener una menor porosidad reflejada en una menor dimensión fractal

  10. CONOCIMIENTO, USO Y VALORACIÓN DE LA FLORA VASCULAR DE TIERRA DEL FUEGO: EL EJEMPLO DE KARUKINKA

    OpenAIRE

    Menegoz,Cora; Cerda,Claudia; Saavedra,Bárbara

    2013-01-01

    La preservación de la biodiversidad requiere del conocimiento y valoración del objeto de conservación. Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) se encuentra liderando un programa de conservación en el parque privado Karukinka, al sur de Tierra del Fuego, donde se espera preservar ecosistemas vegetales de importancia mundial, en beneficio de la comunidad local y global, presente y futura. El objetivo general de esta investigación es conocer el uso actual y potencial de la flora vascular contenida e...

  11. [Knowledge of the endoparasitic fauna of Lama guanicoe Muller, 1776, from the Mitre Peninsula, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navone, G T; Merino, M L

    1989-01-01

    Parasitological fauna of Lama guanicoe in the Peninsula Mitre, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, is analyzed in this paper. Coproparasitological tests of 58 samples were performed, and on this basis, the presence of the following genera was determined: Haemonchus, Marshallagia, Cooperia, Nematodirus, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, Oesophagostomun and Chavertia. Marshallagia and Chabertia are reported for the first time for this host. The dung piles are not considered as parasitic barriers. Infections occur in two seasons: at the beginning of the spring and at the beginning of summer, as a survival strategy of parasitic nematodes. Parasites of L. guanicoe would be secondarily acquired form cattle.

  12. FILIACIÓN, RELACIONES INTERPOBLACIONALES Y ENLACES CULTURALESEN LAS TIERRAS BAJAS MAYAS DURANTE EL PERIODO CLÁSICO

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Tiesler; Andrea Cucina

    2012-01-01

    La presente investigación se dedica al análisis morfológico de piezas dentales y de craneos deformados de poblaciones mayas que habitaron en las Tierras Bajas durante el periodo Clásico; el objetivo es reconstruir las dinámicas poblacionales, así como las afinidades biológicas y culturales. Los restos proceden de una serie de sitios ubicados en el Petén mexicano y guatemalteco; fueron estudiados tomando en cuenta un contexto regional y comparándolos con los datos de varios sitios coetáneos de...

  13. Tierra, nación y construcción del Estado en el Paraguay del siglo XIX

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    Ignacio Telesca

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El texto se plantea reflexionar sobre la sociedad paraguaya previa a la guerra en tanto su identidad como nación. Identidad implicada con el relacionamiento con la tierra y la construcción del Estado. Se plantea que esta identidad más que con el Paraguay como nación se relacionaba con su terruño, con su comunidad local, a pesar del incipiente proceso de construcción de un Estado moderno por Carlos Antonio López.

  14. La trashumancia en la zona de Tierras Altas de la Provincia de Soria y su desarrollo en el aula

    OpenAIRE

    Palomar del Río, José María

    2014-01-01

    Desde tiempos ancestrales, el ser humano ha sido un viajero que ha recorrido las diferentes comarcas, primero en busca de alimento y más tarde para ofrecer a su ganado mejores pastos, expandir su comercio, etc. El carácter trashumante transferido a través de generaciones, no solo ha sido una necesidad sino también una opción de vida. Este caminar por las tierras ha permitido conocer culturas, folclore, tradiciones, gastronomía, industrias…, es decir, ahondar en las raíces que s...

  15. Biología reproductiva de la golondrina patagónica Tachycineta meyeni en Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego

    OpenAIRE

    Liljesthrom, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    Durante cuatro temporadas reproductivas consecutivas (2006-2007 al 2009- 2010) se estudió la biología reproductiva de la Golondrina Patagónica, Tachycineta meyeni, nidificando en cajas-nidos en los alrededores de la ciudad de Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego. Las golondrinas construyeron nidos formados por una base de pasto seco entretejido con plumas y una copa tapizada con plumas. El número de plumas adicionadas al nido disminuyó al aumentar la temperatura ambiente y no estuvo asociado al éxito de...

  16. Patrimonio y producción en las tierras de los betlemitas. Córdoba, 1600-1870

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Inés Ferreyra

    2007-01-01

    En este trabajo pretendemos aproximarnos al complejo mundo rural cordobés y observar otras formas de tenencias de la tierra, con sus prácticas de producción y trabajo, los diversos actores que se mueven dentro y fuera de la unidad, sus trayectorias personales y empresarias y las múltiples relaciones sociales que los vincularon. Procuraremos ampliar nuestra mirada hacia el contexto en que operaron en el marco regional e interregional. A los fines de comparar y observar los cambios y permanenci...

  17. Tierra y comunidad. un problema irrsesuelto. El caso del altiplano cundiboyacense (Virrenaito de la Nueva Granada 1750-1800

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heraclio Bonilla

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Diana Bonnett Vélez, Tierra y comunidad. Un problema irresuelto. El caso del altiplano cundiboyacense (Virreinato de la Nueva Granada 1750-1800. Bogotá: Instituto Colombiano de Antropología e Historia Universidad de los Andes, 2002, 318 páginas. El libro de la profesora Diana Bonnett, inicialmente presentado como tesis doctoral ante el Colegio de México, constituye un aporte al esclarecimiento de esta problemática, a partir del análisis de lo ocurrido en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII en las áreas de Tunja y Santafé de Bogotá.

  18. Los carteles del periódico Tierra: construcción de la identidad del obrero colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria Eugenia Peters

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo pretende hacer una revisión del periódico Tierra, órgano central del Partido Comunista, en el periodo comprendido entre 1932 y 1939. Esta publicación se configuró como dispositivo de enunciación articulado con las actividades de un proyecto político que empezó a surgir en la década de 1930. La revisión incorpora una mirada analítica de algunas de las imágenes de dicho periódico, realizadas en xilografía y aplicadas a carteles políticos.

  19. Modelos del planeta Tierra en escolares rurales de Chile / Planet Earth models about students in rural schools from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Alonqueo Boudon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar los modelos del planeta Tierra en escolares mapuches y no mapuches de procedencia rural. Los participantes fueron 40 escolares distribuidos en dos grupos de edad, quienes respondieron a una tarea cognitiva que indaga la representación de la forma del planeta Tierra. En base al grado de acuerdo con la representación científica, cada participante fue categorizado en uno de cuatro modelos del planeta Tierra. El modelo 4, concordante con el conocimiento científico, no fue observado, pues la mayoría de los participantes se concentra en el modelo 3 en el que coexisten conocimientos previos con algunos elementos científicos. En los niños no mapuches se aprecia que el modelo del planeta Tierra se ajusta a los significados científicos a medida que aumenta el conocimiento escolar. Por el contrario, en los niños mapuches no se observa esta tendencia. Se discute el papel de la cultura y la enseñanza en el aprendizaje del modelo científico del planeta. ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to identify planet Earth models in mapuches and non mapuches students of rural origin. The participants were 40 students divided into two age groups who responded to a cognitive task which explores the representation of the shape of the planet Earth. Based on the degree of agreement with the scientific representation, each participant was categorized into one of four models of planet Earth. Model 4, consistent with the scientific knowledge was not observed because the majority of the participants were concentrated in Model 3. In non mapuche children, it is observed that the model of the planet Earth is adjusted to the scientific meaning in accordance with the increase of school knowledge. On the other hand, this trend is not observed in mapuche children. The role of culture and teaching is discussed in the learning of planet scientific model.

  20. A Novel HA/β-TCP-Collagen Composite Enhanced New Bone Formation for Dental Extraction Socket Preservation in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko-Ning Ho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Past studies in humans have demonstrated horizontal and vertical bone loss after six months following tooth extraction. Many biomaterials have been developed to preserve bone volume after tooth extraction. Type I collagen serves as an excellent delivery system for growth factors and promotes angiogenesis. Calcium phosphate ceramics have also been investigated because their mineral chemistry resembles human bone. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of a novel bioresorbable purified fibrillar collagen and hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP ceramic composite versus collagen alone and a bovine xenograft-collagen composite in beagles. Collagen plugs, bovine graft-collagen composite and HA/β-TCP-collagen composite were implanted into the left and right first, second and third mandibular premolars, and the fourth molar was left empty for natural healing. In total, 20 male beagle dogs were used, and quantitative and histological analyses of the extraction ridge was done. The smallest width reduction was 19.09% ± 8.81% with the HA/β-TCP-collagen composite at Week 8, accompanied by new bone formation at Weeks 4 and 8. The HA/β-TCP-collagen composite performed well, as a new osteoconductive and biomimetic composite biomaterial, for socket bone preservation after tooth extraction.

  1. S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine and it (R/S)-S-oxides in beagle dog plasma and hepatic cytosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Panayotis; Mitchell, Stephen C; Steventon, Glyn B

    2015-01-01

    1. Incubation of beagle hepatic cytosol, under conditions promoting phenylalanine hydroxylase activity, led to the formation of the sulfoxide derivatives of S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine, N-acetyl-S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine, S-methyl-L-cysteine and N-acetyl-S-methyl-L-cysteine. Thiodiglycolic acid was not a substrate. Enzyme kinetic parameters (Km, Vmax) were derived indicating S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine had the greatest clearance; no enantioselective preference was observed for this S-oxygenation reaction. 2. Following oral administration of S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine to beagle dogs, the parent substance and its sulfoxide were the only compounds identified in the plasma. Pharmacokinetic data have been obtained indicating that the small amount of sulfoxide formed persisted within the body for longer than the parent material, but that the majority of the ingested dose remained in the administered sulfide form. 3. The sulfide moiety within the muco-regulatory drug, S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine, is thought to be vital as it acts as a free radical scavenger, resulting in the inactive sulfoxide. Additional extensive enyzme-mediated sulfoxidation would decrease the amount of active sulfide available. In the dog this appears to not be an issue, signalling possible exploitation for therapeutic benefit in treating airway disease.

  2. Effect of a botanical composition, UP446, on respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous systems in beagle dogs and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young Chul; Jia, Qi

    2016-06-01

    Extensive safety evaluation of UP446, a botanical composition comprised of standardized extracts from roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and heartwoods of Acacia catechu, has been reported previously. Here we carried out additional studies to assess the effect of UP446 on respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous (CNS) systems. A Functional observational battery (FOB) and whole body plethysmography system in rats and implanted telemetry in dogs were utilized to evaluate the potential CNS, respiratory and cardiovascular toxicity, respectively. UP446 was administered orally at dose levels of 800, 2000 and 5000 mg/kg to SpragueDawley rats and at 4 ascending dose levels (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) to beagle dogs. No abnormal effects were observed on the cage side, open field, hand held, and sensori-motor observations suggestive of toxicity in respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous (CNS) systems. Rectal temperatures were comparable for each treatment groups. Similarly, respiratory rate, tidal volume and minute volume were unaffected by any of the treatment groups. No UP446 related changes were observed on blood pressure, heart rate and electrocardiogram in beagle dogs at dose levels of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg. Some minor incidental, non-dose correlated changes were observed in the FOB assessment. These data suggest that UP446 has minimal or no pharmaco-toxicological effect on the respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous systems.

  3. Spontaneous Pathology and Routine Clinical Pathology Parameters in Aging Beagle Dogs: A Comparison With Adolescent and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J; Cotton, P; Robinson, S; Jacobsen, M

    2016-03-01

    AstraZeneca ran a bespoke study to generate age-matched clinical pathology and histopathology data from a cohort of Beagle dogs aged between 25 and 37 months to support the use of these older animals in routine preclinical toxicology studies. As the upper age range of Beagle dogs routinely used in toxicology studies does not normally exceed 24 months, there is an absence of appropriate age-matched historical control data. The generation of such data was crucial to understand whether age-related differences in spontaneous findings might confound the interpretation of toxicology study data. While the majority of the histopathology findings in all the older dogs occurred at a similar prevalence as those expected in young adult dogs (<24 months), a number of differences were observed in the thymus (involution), bone marrow (increased adiposity), testes (degenerative changes), and lung (fibrosis, pigment and alveolar hyperplasia) that could be misinterpreted as a test article effect. Minor differences in some clinical pathology values (hemoglobin, alkaline phosphatase, absolute reticulocytes) were of a small magnitude and considered unlikely to affect the interpretation of study data.

  4. Cambio del uso de la tierra y pérdida de la cobertura boscosa, comunidades agrarias Sechina, La Ensenada y Cerro San Gil, Izabal Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddi Alejandro Vanegas Chacón

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available En Guatemala, pocas temáticas son abordadas con tanta pasión como el acceso a la tierra y sus relaciones de productividad. Ante el juicio histórico y la evidencia de las estadísticas se deslumbra que las políticas agrarias de los últimos cincuenta años, si bien mitigaron la pobreza en el agro rural conllevaron con ellas daños ambientales irreversibles y deudas agrarias millonarias. Se estudió la dinámica del cambio de uso de la tierra y la pérdida de la cobertura boscosa en las comunidades agrarias beneficiadas por la Ley de Transformación Agraria, Sechina, La Ensenada y Cerro San Gil ubicadas en el departamento de Izabal. Se utilizó fotointerpretación y se realizaron estudios semidetallados de la intensidad de la tierra para el periodo 1958 a 2010. Se concluyó que bajo las premisas de “mejora a la tierra” de la Ley de Transformación Agraria ocurrió cambio de uso y cobertura de la tierra, de forestal a agropecuaria, en las comunidades agrarias Sechina 42%, La Ensenada 46,2% y Cerro San Gil 48,6%, donde se promovieron sistemas de aprovechamiento agrícola que conllevaron al sobre-uso de las tierras en 42%, 78% y 30%, respectivamente. Esto sugiere, que la adquisición de la tierra no es el fin, más bien es el medio, para promover desarrollo rural sostenible, a través de acompañamiento técnico agropecuario, monitoreo y evaluación tanto económica como ambiental.

  5. Assessing the accuracy of tympanometric evaluation of external auditory canal volume: a scientific study using an ear canal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hussaini, A; Owens, D; Tomkinson, A

    2011-12-01

    Tympanometric evaluation is routinely used as part of the complete otological examination. During tympanometric examination, evaluation of middle ear pressure and ear canal volume is undertaken. Little is reported in relation to the accuracy and precision tympanometry evaluates external ear canal volume. This study examines the capability of the tympanometer to accurately evaluate external auditory canal volume in both simple and partially obstructed ear canal models and assesses its capability to be used in studies examining the effectiveness of cerumolytics. An ear canal model was designed using simple laboratory equipment, including a 5 ml calibrated clinical syringe (Becton Dickinson, Spain). The ear canal model was attached to the sensing probe of a Kamplex tympanometer (Interacoustics, Denmark). Three basic trials were undertaken: evaluation of the tympanometer in simple canal volume measurement, evaluation of the tympanometer in assessing canal volume with partial canal occlusion at different positions within the model, and evaluation of the tympanometer in assessing canal volume with varying degrees of canal occlusion. 1,290 individual test scenarios were completed over the three arms of the study. At volumes of 1.4 cm(3) or below, a perfect relationship was noted between the actual and tympanometric volumes in the simple model (Spearman's ρ = 1) with weakening degrees of agreement with increasing volume of the canal. Bland-Altman plotting confirmed the accuracy of this agreement. In the wax substitute models, tympanometry was observed to have a close relationship (Spearman's ρ > 0.99) with the actual volume present with worsening error above a volume of 1.4 cm(3). Bland-Altman plotting and precision calculations provided evidence of accuracy. Size and position of the wax substitute had no statistical effect on results [Wilcoxon rank-sum test (WRST) p > 0.99], nor did degree of partial obstruction (WRST p > 0.99). The Kamplex tympanometer

  6. Bacterial coronal leakage after obturation with three root canal sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpawat, S; Amornchat, C; Trisuwan, W R

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the bacterial leakage of root canals obturated with three root canal sealers, using Endodontalis faecalis as a microbial tracer to determine the length of time for bacteria to penetrate through the obturated root canal to the root apex. Seventy-five, single-rooted teeth with straight root canals had the crown cut off at the cementoenamel junction. Root canals were instrumented by a step-back technique. The prepared teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups of 19 teeth each and another 2 groups as positive and negative controls (9 teeth each). The experimental groups were dependent on the sealer used: AH-Plus, Apexit, and Ketac-Endo. The root canals were obturated using a lateral condensation technique. After 24 h the teeth were attached to microcentrifuge tubes with 2 mm of the root apex submerged in Brain Heart Infusion broth in glass test tubes. The coronal portions of the root canal filling materials were placed in contact with E. faecalis. The teeth were observed for bacterial leakage daily for 30 and 60 days. With the chi2 test for comparing pairs of groups at the 0.05 level (p 0.06), but Apexit had significantly higher leakage (p 0.05), but Apexit leaked more than AH-Plus. The conclusion drawn from this experiment was that epoxy resin root canal sealer was found to be more adaptable to the root canal wall and filling material than a calcium hydroxide sealer when bacterial coronal leakage was studied.

  7. Horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in a fighter pilot

    OpenAIRE

    Su-Jiang Xie; Jiang-Chang Wang; Li Ding; Xi-Qing Sun

    2011-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common disorder of the peripheral vestibular system, characterized by intense, positional provoked vertigo. BPPV is thought to occur due to canalithiasis of the posterior semicircular canal. Recently, a new entity of BPPV, known as horizontal canal (HC)-BPPV, has been recognized. Although only 3 to 8% of BPPV is due to horizontal canal involvement, HC-BPPV is not rare. We present a case of a naval fighter pilot who had an incident of HC-...

  8. Horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in a fighter pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Jiang Xie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV is the most common disorder of the peripheral vestibular system, characterized by intense, positional provoked vertigo. BPPV is thought to occur due to canalithiasis of the posterior semicircular canal. Recently, a new entity of BPPV, known as horizontal canal (HC-BPPV, has been recognized. Although only 3 to 8% of BPPV is due to horizontal canal involvement, HC-BPPV is not rare. We present a case of a naval fighter pilot who had an incident of HC-BPPV on the ground. The pilot aeromedical evaluation and considerations are discussed.

  9. Horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in a fighter pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Su-Jiang; Wang, Jiang-Chang; Ding, Li; Sun, Xi-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common disorder of the peripheral vestibular system, characterized by intense, positional provoked vertigo. BPPV is thought to occur due to canalithiasis of the posterior semicircular canal. Recently, a new entity of BPPV, known as horizontal canal (HC)-BPPV, has been recognized. Although only 3 to 8% of BPPV is due to horizontal canal involvement, HC-BPPV is not rare. We present a case of a naval fighter pilot who had an incident of HC-BPPV on the ground. The pilot aeromedical evaluation and considerations are discussed.

  10. Faraday ghosts depolarization canals in the Galactic radio emission

    CERN Document Server

    Shukurov, A M; Shukurov, Anvar; Berkhuijsen, Elly M.

    2003-01-01

    Narrow, elongated regions of very low polarized intensity -- so-called canals -- have recently been observed by several authors at decimeter wavelengths in various directions in the Milky Way, but their origin remains enigmatic. We show that the canals arise from depolarization by differential Faraday rotation in the interstellar medium and that they represent level lines of Faraday rotation measure RM, a random function of position in the sky. Statistical properties of the separation of canals depend on the autocorrelation function of RM, and so provide a useful tool for studies of interstellar turbulence.

  11. Route Selection by Tankers(Dirty) at the Suez Canal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Risto Laulajainen

    2007-01-01

    <正>The Suez Canal,attached route alternatives with traffic flows and areas are described and theoretical break-even points derived. Logistically,route selection depends on relative distances,the level of spot rates and canal dues,the sensitivity to change growing with rising rate levels.The connection is diluted by the canal /pipeline owners’ price differentiation and the charterers’ capital costs;interest on cargo and change of its value during transit.Ship-owners are largely neutral to route choice as long as rates and main cost items are directly related to distance.

  12. Constricted Canals: A New Strategy to Overcome This Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Negotiation of constricted canals can be a challenge during endodontic treatment. Over the years, several strategies have been presented in order to overcome the difficulties imposed by this anatomical feature. This paper presents three cases using a different protocol from that recommended by the manufacturer of the Protaper System in order to facilitate the negotiation of constricted canals. These cases suggest that the modified protocol shown is able to perform the shaping process with less resistance, reducing the risk of instrument separation and performing an effective process to reach the apical thirds in constricted canals.

  13. Cytogenetic findings in persons living near the Love Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, C W; Nadel, M R; Zack, M M; Chen, A T; Bender, M A; Preston, R J

    1984-03-16

    Cytogenetic analyses were performed on peripheral blood from 46 present or past residents of the area surrounding Love Canal, a former dump site for chemical wastes in Niagara Falls, NY. Participants included 17 persons in whom cytogenetic analyses had been performed in 1980 and 29 persons who had been living in 1978 in seven homes that directly adjoined the canal and in which environmental tests showed elevated levels of chemicals spreading from the canal. Frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) did not differ significantly from control levels. For all participants, cigarette smoking was associated with an increase in sister chromatid exchange frequency.

  14. Relación entre el uso de la tierra y su fertilidad en las laderas de la Sierra Norte de Oaxaca, México

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel A. Vergara Sánchez; Jorge D. Etchevers Barra

    2006-01-01

    El manejo del suelo en condiciones de ladera requiere cuidados especiales por los riesgos de erosión y degradación. En esos terrenos el uso de la tierra varía desde bosques primarios a intensivo agrícola y son frecuentes los cambios de uso. Las tierras de ladera de la Sierra Norte de Oaxaca han tenido un cambio intenso de uso, pero no se ha estudiado su efecto en las propiedades químicas del suelo, en particular las relacionadas con su fertilidad. Diagnosticar oportunamente los cambios en los...

  15. El Límite a la Protección de las Tierras Indígenas de la Ley 19.253

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Salamanca Huenchullán

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aborda el tema del límite a la protección de las tierras indígenas, que como una exigencia del interés nacional introduce en la legislación chilena la Ley Indígena 19.253, en su relación con la expropiación para la construcción de obras públicas, que en virtud de la utilidad pública se construyen sobre estas mismas tierras.

  16. MICROFLORA CULTIVABLE Y ENDOMICORRIZAS OBTENIDAS EN HOJARASCA DE BOSQUE (PÁRAMO GUERRERO FINCA PUENTE DE TIERRA ZIPAQUIRÁ, COLOMBIA Cultivable Microflora and Endomycorrhizas Obtained in Litter Forest (Paramo Guerrero Finca Puente de Tierra Zipaquirá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELEONORA BERNAL

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el recuento de microorganismos cultivables (bacterias y hongos, microorganismos celulolíticos y endomicorrizas presentes en la hojarasca de bosque (finca Puente de Tierra en el páramo Guerrero, Colombia. Los microorganismos aislados con mayor frecuencia pertenecían a los géneros Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Micrococcus, Penicillium, Rhodotorula y se aisló una cepa de Cladosporium sp. en un medio selectivo con carboximetil celulosa. Así mismo, se encontraron ocho morfotipos de endomicorrizas, entre los cuales predominaron especies de Glomus y Acaulospora. Este estudio contribuye con el conocimiento de la microbiota cultivable de hojarasca, que ha sido poco explorada en ecosistemas de páramo.The count of cultivable microorganisms (bacteria and fungi, cellulolytic microorganisms and endomycorrhizas present in litter forest (property Puente de Tierra in the Guerrero’s moor, Colombia was made. The most frequently isolated microorganisms belonged to the Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Micrococcus, Penicillium and Rhodotorula genus and Cladosporium sp., which is a cellulolytic microorganism, was isolated in carboxymethyl cellulose agar. In addition eight morphotypes of endomycorrhizas were found, species of Glomus and Acaulospora predominated among them. This study contributes with the knowledge of the cultivable microorganisms of litter that have been little explored in moor ecosystems.

  17. File list: InP.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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