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Sample records for canal beagle tierra

  1. Feeding habits of the false southern king crab Paralomis granulosa (Lithodidae in the Beagle Channel, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Inés Comoglio

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Stomach contents of 282 false southern king crabs (Paralomis granulosa, between 10 to 90 mm CL from the Beagle Channel (Golondrina Bay and Roca Mora, Argentina, were examined by the frequency of occurrence method of analysis and by a food index. Roca Mora is an area where juveniles ( 60 mm CL are common; in this last area sexual segregation was also observed. The principal food groups for crabs of Golondrina Bay were algae, molluscs, crustaceans, bryozoans and foraminiferans; for crabs from Roca Mora the natural diet consisted of three major food groups: hydrozoans, echinoderms and foraminiferans. The relative frequency of different prey groups varied in relation to the size, season and sex. There were no significant differences in the quantity of food consumed by sexes in both areas. Generally small crabs ( 50 mm CL. Juveniles consumed a greater amount of food during winter and spring. In summer (moulting period, juveniles had the highest vacuity index. Adults consumed minor amounts of food during autumn, before the spawning-moulting-mating period when the vacuity index was higher (spring.

  2. El fin de la tierra

    OpenAIRE

    Benitez Peña, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Ana Faura, una representante de una asociación de desplazados, desea recuperar la tierra que le fue arrebatada para enterrar allí los restos óseos de su esposo asesinado y volver a una vida que añora. En su propósito deberá enfrentarse no solo a amenazas de muerte en contra suya y de su único hijo sino a la necesidad de perdonar a los victimarios para lograr un verdadero retorno.

  3. Dental radiology: ageing changes in permanent teeth of Beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.; Miyabayashi, T.

    1991-01-01

    Radiographic interpretation of dental or periodontal disease is dependent in part on an understanding of ageing changes, A progressively ageing colony of healthy beagle dogs (120 to 3759 days) was studied by use of high-detail radiographs made following the death of the dog. Morphological features whose radiographic appearance was found to be especially age-dependent were: root canal size, both vertical and horizontal alveolar bone resorption, visualisation of the lamina dura dentis, and detection of hypercementosis. Understanding of these ageing changes is necessary to avoid over-diagnosis of disease

  4. La Memoria De Nuestra Tierra: Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, Judy

    2005-01-01

    La Memoria de Nuestra Tierra combines a meticulously hand-painted landscape with historic photographs in a seamless blend imprinted on the holographic-like surface of a metallic coated substrate. The mural for the Denver International Airport, entitled La Memoria de Nuestra Tierra is a breakthrough in digital murals, printed digitally on a…

  5. Penis Allotransplantation in Beagle Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongbin; Hu, Weilie; Zhang, Lichao; Guo, Fei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Bangqi; Zhang, Changzheng

    2016-01-01

    This is an original research of penis allotransplantation. The paper presents an experiment allogenic penis transplantation model in Beagles, with a focus on recovery of blood supply and changes in tissue architecture. Twenty adult Beagles were allocated to 10 pairs for penile transplantation. After operation, the skin and glans were observed. If adverse symptoms occurred, the transplanted penis was resected and pathologically examined. Frequency of urination, urinary stream, and patency level were recorded 7 days after transplantation. Cystourethrography was performed on Day 10. The transplanted penises were resected on Day 14 for pathological examination. The research showed that transplanted penises survived after allotransplantation, and the dogs regained urination ability. Penis autotransplantation in Beagles is feasible. This preliminary study shows a potential for application of this new procedure for penis transplantation in humans.

  6. BeagleBone media center

    CERN Document Server

    Lewin, David

    2015-01-01

    Whether you are a hobbyist or a professional, this book will get you fully equipped to resolve the most commonly occurring media-related challenges. If you want to expand your horizons beyond lighting an LED and push the limits of your board, this is just the book for you. Working knowledge of BeagleBone is assumed.

  7. Construcciones a base de tierra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez Alonso, Marina

    1984-11-01

    oriented towards dissipating possible prejudices which exist with regard to earthen constructions.Trabajo realizado y basado en las nuevas posibilidades de las construcciones con tierra, una vez considerado su interés en épocas anteriores y las nuevas posibilidades que ofrece ante la crítica impuesta por la crisis de la energía. Se hacen consideraciones sobre las necesidades de vivienda previstas hasta el año 2000 y otros parámetros que vuelven a ser importantes al confrontarlos económicamente con los materiales industrializados, sistemas de construcción, soluciones orientadas a los países en vías de desarrollo, etc. Continúa el trabajo con las primeras vías de experimentación práctica desarrolladas por el equipo de trabajo de viviendas de bajo coste orientadas a la búsqueda y promoción de recursos locales y abundantes como el material tierra, vías de experimentación que comienzan con el conocimiento por el equipo de técnicas y materiales durante el curso realizado en Ciadueña (Soria. Se describen aspectos técnicos del material tierra desarrollados paralelamente a la experiencia práctica inicial y orientada a la elección idónea de los componentes, una vez confrontada la información bibliográfica relacionada con el tema. Entre las consideraciones técnicas se llega a una exposición más exhaustiva sobre: 1 Las técnicas existentes: ladrillos de adobe, tierra apisonada (tapial, etc. 2 Porcentajes idóneos de los componentes para la elección de los materiales preferibles en cada una de las técnicas anteriores. 3 Consideraciones de los aspectos físicos y mecánicos de la maquinaria existente y en experimentación, así como de las posibilidades respecto a su puesta en obra, costes comparativos, etc. 4 Estudio de las posibilidades para mejorar las características del material tierra mediante diferentes técnicas de estabilización (compactación y correcciones granulométricas, estabilizantes fisicoquímicos, betunes, productos

  8. Bloque de tierra comprimida como material constructivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Javier Gutiérrez Junco

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La construcción con tierra es poco usada en la actualidad debido a la falta de difusión e investigación, y a que es relacionada con la pobreza; por ende, se desaprovechan muchas de sus ventajas, como la abundancia demateria prima, la localización, la disponibilidad, el reciclaje, la producción sin consumo de energía (calorífica, el bajo costo y la resistencia –con un adecuado estudio del material tierra, de la estructuración y del suelo de fundación–; otras de sus ventajas son el aislamiento térmico y acústico. Con el paso del tiempo se han mejorado las técnicas constructivas con tierra, realizando estabilizaciones e implementando el uso de maquinaria y herramienta mecánica para elaborar bloques de tierra comprimida, y así facilitar el trabajo y obtener mayor rendimiento. Este artículo presenta la tierra como material constructivo, las técnicas o sistemas constructivos, los bloques de tierra comprimida (BTC y algunos ensayos realizados a estos bloques.

  9. Aquilo que nomeia lei: a Madre Tierra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Zanella Rodrigues

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Este texto é sustentado teoricamente na Análise do Discurso de viés pêcheuxtiano e tem por corpus dois textos legais: a Ley de Derechos de La Madre Tierra (Ley nº 71/2010 e a Ley Marco de La Madre Tierra y Desarrollo Integral para Vivir Bien (Ley nº 300/2012 aprovadas na Bolívia. A irrupção da Madre Tierra como nome de lei faz ecoar, do lugar da voz dos povos originários, a memória cosmovisionária como discurso da resistência contra o silenciamento de uma história.  Ao atentar para o processo de subjetivação e os ruídos que este acontecimento pode ocasionar, há por objetivo analisar que efeitos de sentido e deslocamentos teóricos são produzidos a partir das formas de nomear, designar, referenciar, subjetivar a Madre Tierra na sua materialização linguístico-discursiva num texto legal. E como se podem operar os conceitos de falta, excesso e estranhamento (ERNST, 2009 no trabalho de análise do nome que nomeia uma lei.

  10. Ecologia de las lombrices de tierra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizelle Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    De los organismos de suelo, las lombrices de tierra son las mas conocidas y a menudo son consideradas las mas importantes por su influencia en el funcionamiento de ecosistemas de suelo (Hendriz y Bohlen, 2002). Tienen un efecto significativo en la estructura del suelo, el ciclo de nutrimentos y ls productividad de las cosechas. En terminos de biomasa, generalmente...

  11. canal24

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Canal system center lines in the Central Valley of California and adjacent areas captured from 1:24,000-scale USGS topographic maps. Updates and modifications made...

  12. UK and ESA announce Beagle 2 inquiry

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    An investigation will be held to identify the potential reasons surrounding the inability to communicate with the British-led Beagle 2 lander once it parted from the mother ship on Christmas day (1 page).

  13. CANAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gara, P.; Martin, E.

    1983-01-01

    The CANAL code presented here optimizes a realistic iron free extraction channel which has to provide a given transversal magnetic field law in the median plane: the current bars may be curved, have finite lengths and cooling ducts and move in a restricted transversal area; terminal connectors may be added, images of the bars in pole pieces may be included. A special option optimizes a real set of circular coils [fr

  14. Comprobaciones resistentes de elementos constructivos de tierra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada, Enrique

    1986-11-01

    Full Text Available This work has the purpose to compare, by means of different tests on adobe bricks and masonry, the obtained resistant properties and those of other similar works carried out in countries having a wide tradition and knowledge about earth as construction material. Elements (adobe bricks and blocks have been tested to compression and bending, and masonry made of those elements to compression and diagonal compression.El presente trabajo pretende comparar, por medio de distintos ensayos sobre elementos y fábricas de mampostería de tierra, las propiedades resistentes obtenidas con las de otros trabajos similares realizados en países con dilatada tradición y conocimiento de la tierra como material de construcción. Se han ensayado elementos (adobes y bloques a compresión y flexotracción y fábricas formadas por conjuntos de los mismos a compresión y a compresión diagonal.

  15. Canal rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, Eugen

    2010-01-01

    For more than fifty years the German physicist Eugen Goldstein was engaged in an obscure fringe field of physics, on which he has impressed like no other: Electrical gas discharges. Goldstein describes in this book his discovery of canal rays, which has given important impulses for modern atomic physics. For his research Goldstein received the Prix Hebert of the Parisienne Academie des sciences, the Hughes medal, and was repeatedly proposed for the Nobel prize. In Germany for the Jewish scientist the acknowledgement remained far-reachingly refused until after the war.

  16. Tierra Caliente, Michoacán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. I. Villa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas de producción ganaderos de la región de Tierra Caliente están vinculados al manejo agrosilvopastoril, aprovechando una amplia gama de recursos forrajeros naturales, siendo las familias quienes conducen la administración y aprovechamiento de dichos recursos. Se buscó definir las características, recursos forrajeros aprovechables e insumos alimenticios, estimando su calidad nutricional, con el fin de encontrar estrategias de alimentación de ganado que reduzcan al mínimo el uso de insumos externos al interior de las unidades productivas. Se trabajó en comunidades del municipio de Tuzantla, en la región de Tierra Caliente del estado de Michoacán. El método incluye la recolección de información por medio de encuestas aplicadas a productores campesinos, durante el ciclo productivo 2007. Se analizaron de 200 a 300 g de 41 muestras de alimentos con el método de Wendee, para analizar su composición química. Se encontró que para la región de Tierra Caliente existe un sistema de producción bovina de mediana escala, semi-estabulado y trashumante que, en promedio, tiene 250 a 260 ha y 86 cabezas de ganado destinado a la producción de carne y pie de cría, y que producen 9.2 l/vaca/día; con esta leche se elabora queso a razón de 1kg de queso por cada 10 litros de leche. Se identificó, también, el uso de seis ingredientes fundamentales que componen dos dietas básicas, cuya composición química detectada fue de 10.2- 13.9% (PC, 7.9-11.8% (FC, 62.8-67.9% (ELN, 1.4-5% (EE y 1.9-8.8% (cenizas. Por tanto, se concluye que los ganaderos cubren los requerimientos nutricionales con base en el alto uso de concentrados, dejando los forrajes para satisfacer las necesidades de consumo de su ganado. Por esto, se requiere establecer un sistema de balanceo de raciones que permita optimizar los recursos

  17. El recurso tierra en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floria Bertsch

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un análisis sistemático de la evolución del recurso tierra durante los últimos 10 años, desde diferentes perspectivas: las instituciones involucradas en su manejo, su uso actual y potencial, la actividad agropecuaria que sustenta dicho recurso a través de diferentes mundos agrícolas, y algunas otras opciones de agricultura sostenible que han surgido recientemente como es la agricultura orgánica. También se analiza el urbanismo, como aquella presión que efectúa la población sobre el recurso, y se discuten algunas alternativas de conservación planteadas a nivel nacional. Como conclusiones de la autora, en términos generales, el tema adolece de falta de información confiable desde hace 20 años, hay una clara tendencia al paso de la tierra de pequeños a más grandes propietarios y un incremento en la “peonización” a partir de la pérdida de la propiedad. El país se dirige hacia una clara dependencia de la compra en mercados extranjeros para la alimentación básica, a pesar de la existencia de nuevas opciones tecnológicas. Existen avances importantes en legislación pero aún están a nivel de papel y en términos urbanísticos, la presión social vence el ordenamiento territorial.

  18. Plutonium-induced lymphadenitis in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Park, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    Plutonium oxide particles accumulate in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of beagles exposed by inhalation and in the popliteal lymph nodes after subcutaneous injection in the hind paws. The sequence of histopathologic changes after phagocytosis of particles included necrosis, increased numbers of macrophages, and fibroplasia. Scar tissue eventually replaced the normal architecture of the lymph nodes and sequestered the plutonium particles from surrounding parenchyma. Electron microscopy showed that plutonium particles were aggregated in phagolysosomes of macrophages

  19. BeagleBone for secret agents

    CERN Document Server

    Datko, Josh

    2014-01-01

    If you have some experience with the BeagleBone or similar embedded systems and want to learn more about security and privacy, this book is for you. Alternatively, if you have a security and privacy background and want to learn more about embedded development, this book is for you. You should have some familiarity with Linux systems and with the C and Python programming languages.

  20. Radium rentention and dosimetry in juvenile beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.D.; Jones, C.W.; Bruenger, F.W.; Atherton, D.R.; Mays, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    Retention of administered 226 Ra was substantially greater in beagles injected as 3-month-old juveniles than as 1.4-year-old adults, but the measured 222 Rn/ 226 Ra ratio in bone was significantly less in juveniles for about the first 600 days after injection. An equation that describes the total-body biological retention R in beagles injected with 226 Ra at 3 months of age at any time t (in days) after injection during the first 6.6 years is R = 0.331e/sup -0.206t/ + 0.245e/sup -0.00374t/ + 0.424e/sup -0.000114t/. The rate constant of the final term in the equation for juveniles is similar to that for young adults, suggesting that this component reflects the net turnover rate in the slowly remodeling component of adult bone. Compared to young adult beagles, animals injected as juveniles had a greater fraction of their retained 226 Ra in parts of the skeleton containing much cortical bone, such as paws, and a smaller fraction in those parts containing much trabecular bone

  1. Root canal irrigants

    OpenAIRE

    Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu

    2010-01-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are...

  2. Preliminary Investigation of Beagle Dog as Substitute for Humans in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the suitability of beagle dog as an animal model for the evaluation of formulations in bioavailability and bioequivalence studies. Methods: A generic cetirizine 10 mg tablet formulation was compared with another reference formulation using beagle dog as animal model. A crossover oral comparative ...

  3. Skeletal lesions from inhaled plutonium in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Park, J.F.; Weller, R.E.; Ragan, H.A.; McClanahan, B.J.; Fisher, D.R.

    1984-10-01

    The report briefly reviews the skeletal effects observed in ongoing lifespan studies in beagle dogs at 13, 10, and 7 years, respectively, after inhalation exposure to 239 Pu oxide and nitrate or 238 Pu oxide. Plutonium nitrate was chosen to represent soluble material more readily translocated to bone and other tissues than the oxide. Bone lesions related to plutonium exposure were observed only in dogs exposed to 238 Pu oxide and 239 Pu nitrate. The skeleton accumulated approximately 2% ( 239 Pu oxide), 45% ( 238 Pu oxide) or 50% ( 239 Pu nitrate) of the final body burdens at 13, 10, and 7 years, respectively, after exposure. 11 references, 2 figures

  4. Mamary neoplasia in a closed beagle colony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.N.; Shabestari, L.; Williams, J.; Mays, C.W.; Angus, W.; McFarland, S.

    1975-01-01

    The incidence rate of mammary neoplasia in a large colony of beagles and its relationship to internal skeletal and/or liver radiation, age, relatively late ovariectomy (4 years and older), endometritis, parity status, and adrenal weight was examined. Of these various factors, age was the only condition that was clearly correlated with changes in the mammary tumor incidence. The rate became significant at approximately eight years of age and increased progressively throughout the successively older age classes. Within the female dogs, the incidence of mammary cancer was higher that that of any other form of spontaneous malignancy

  5. La temperatura del interior de la tierra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslava R. Jesús A.

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of defining the Earth interior temperature is analized from Heat Flow observations and the acceptance of convection processes in the mantle. Comparative analyses of thermal, adiabatic, and melting point profiles, allow to obtain the optimum temperature profile, wich fits the seismic model of a liquid external core.

    EI problema de definir la temperatura del interior de la Tierra, se analiza a partir de las observaciones del flujo térmico y la aceptación de procesos de convección en el manto.

    Análisis comparativos de perfiles térmicos, adiabáticos y de puntos de fusión, permiten obtener un perfil óptimo de distribución de temperaturas, que además satisface la observación sísmica de un núcleo externo líquido.

  6. Inferencias paleodietarias mediante isótopos estables en restos óseos humanos provenientes de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schinder, Gala

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Las actuales lineas de acción vinculadas al uso de isótopos estables en la Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego están orientándose a acotar factores de variación (especialmente la variación espacial y temporal y al cruce con otras lineas de evidencias como los estilos de vida. A partir de la ocupación europea en el Siglo XVIII se modificó el estilo de vida de las poblaciones históricas de la región. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivos explorar la variabilidad en cuanto al tipo de recursos consurnidos por hombres y mujeres a partir de la información isotópica obtenida de huesos de individuos provenientes de diferentes sectores geográficos (Norte, Sudeste y Beagle y la determinación de la composición de la dieta en términos de contenido proteico. Los datos isotópicos se complementaron con información etnográfica. El análisis Kruskal-Wallis sugiere que existen diferencias significativas entre los diferentes sectores geográficos, pero no se registraron diferencias significativas entre hombres y mujeres. Asimismo, los isótopos indican que los individuos del Sudeste consumían preferentemente dietas más ricas en proteínas que sus vecinos del norte de la Isla. En los últimos años, ha crecido el interé por los estudios orientados al análisis de la división sexual del trabajo en sociedades cazadoras recolectoras. Este trabajo constituye un primer aporte para evaluar la variabilidad en cuanto a las diferencias en la obtención de recursos entre sexos y el tipo de dieta en individuos históricos de Tierra del Fuego.

  7. Pathology associated with inhaled plutonium in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Park, J.F.; Weller, R.E.; Ragan, H.A.; Stevens, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The pathology associated with the inhalation of plutonium was studied in beagle dogs given a single exposure to aerosols of 239 PuO 2 , 238 PuO 2 , or 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 . The temporal-spatial relationships between plutonium deposition and the development of lesions in dogs were evaluated up to 11 years, 8 years, or 5 years, respectively, after exposures, resulting in initial lung burdens ranging from ∼2 to ∼5500 nCi. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels produced a spectrum of progressively more severe morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis to fibrosis. Lung tumors occurred at exposure levels that did not result in early death from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. Bronchiolar-alveolar carcinomas, papillary adenocarcinomas, epidermoid carcinomas, and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinomas were observed. Sclerosing tracheobronchial lymphadenitis, radiation osteodystrophy, osteosarcoma, and hepatic adenomatous hyperplasia were the principal extrapulmonary lesions resulting from translocation of plutonium. 15 refs., 2 tabs

  8. Myelopoiesis in whole-body-irradiated beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, A.F.G.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of dose-rate (DR) (either 5.2 or 52 cGy/min.) on the regeneration of bone marrow (BM) myelopoietic progenitor cells was studied in beagles after exposure to whole-body-irradiation (235, 375 and 1500 cGy + autologous BM-transplantation). Myelopoietic progenitor cells were assayed as colony-forming units in agar cultures (GM-CFU), in correlation with the colony-stimulation activity (CSA) in serum. At 235 cGy, the influence of DR on the recovery of GM-CFU was insignificant. However, at 375 cGy, the recovery was critically dependent on the DR. Depletion of GM-CFU numbers elevated CSA levels above pre-irradiation values. The DR determines the regenerative ability when the dose itself is critical to survival of the least number of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) necessary for restitution. (author)

  9. Preliminary Investigation of Beagle Dog as Substitute for Humans in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacokinetics, Ranbaxy Research ... Keywords: Cetirizine, Beagle dog, Bioavailability, Bioequivalence, Pharmacokinetics, Non- .... validated method based on the Food and Drug ... determined using high-performance liquid .... Sequence effect, if any, was tested at the 10 %.

  10. Endoscopic root canal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshonov, Joshua; Michaeli, Eli; Nahlieli, Oded

    2009-10-01

    To describe an innovative endoscopic technique for root canal treatment. Root canal treatment was performed on 12 patients (15 teeth), using a newly developed endoscope (Sialotechnology), which combines an endoscope, irrigation, and a surgical microinstrument channel. Endoscopic root canal treatment of all 15 teeth was successful with complete resolution of all symptoms (6-month follow-up). The novel endoscope used in this study accurately identified all microstructures and simplified root canal treatment. The endoscope may be considered for use not only for preoperative observation and diagnosis but also for active endodontic treatment.

  11. Estado, mercado de tierra urbana e inundaciones en ciudades argentinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Clichevsky

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre las relaciones que se establecen entre los mercados de tierra urbana y las inundaciones en ciudades argentinas, en el marco más amplio de la vulnerabilidad urbana. Se pretende despejar incógnitas acerca del papel jugado por el Estado como regulador del mercado en áreas urbanas con vulnerabilidad natural a la inundación y como constructor de defensas contra las inundaciones y acerca de los impactos que han tenido las inundaciones y las obras de defensa contra ellas sobre el mercado de tierra y, por lo tanto, sobre el acceso al suelo urbano por parte de los distintos sectores de la población.

  12. La Arquitectura de tierra es una herencia humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Domínguez Vega

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se aborda el uso de la tierra en la restauración y conservación de la vivienda más antigua de Holguín. Se basa en la tendencia actual para la conservación sostenible de los bienes patrimoniales y culturales que orienta los materiales utilizados en los trabajos de intervención, se detiene sobre la relevancia y alcance histórico cultural del patrimonio edificado en la provincia de Holguín, describe las características constructivas de sus muros de embarrado los morteros utilizados y las dificultades para la conservación de ésta. Propone que se revitalice el uso de la tierra en construcciones de viviendas y menciona las investigaciones arqueológicas históricas en el interior y exterior de la casa.

  13. Saber tradicional, ética de la tierra y sustentabilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyd, Thomas

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This is the crucial moment to take on sustainable forms of life, and hence it is now of primary importance to adopt a land ethic that takes into account not only the use value but also the intrinsic value of the beings that make up our natural environment. In this essay I begin by focusing on the obstacles that the development of a land ethic has to face, obstacles that are due to limitations in knowledge and to mistaken assumptions. As a way to resolve these practical difficulties I first point out the existence of our natural inclinations toward the land and life. Furthermore, I propose that the traditional knowledge of those peoples that have lived for extended periods with their environments can serve us as models for the development of a culture of appreciation for the earth and its inhabitants.

    Éste ese! momento crucial para emprender formas de vida sustentables, por lo que resulta esencial adoptar una ética de la tierra que reconozca el valor intrínseco además del valor útil de los seres que pueblan nuestro medio ambiente natural. En este ensayo empiezo enfocando los obstáculos a que se enfrenta el desarrollo de una ética de la tierra, obstáculos que resultan ser el producto de conocimientos limitados y suposiciones equivocadas. En resolución de esas problemáticas prácticas apunto, primero, la existencia de inclinaciones naturales hacia la tierra y la vida. Además propongo que en el saber tradicional de los pueblos que han convivido mucho tiempo con sus espacios tenemos modelos de formas del conocer que nos pueden servir de modelo para llegar a desarrollar una cultura de aprecio de la tierra y de sus habitantes.

  14. Evaluation of nanoparticle delivered cisplatin in beagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldhaeusser, Brittany; Platt, Simon R.; Marrache, Sean; Kolishetti, Nagesh; Pathak, Rakesh K.; Montgomery, David J.; Reno, Lisa R.; Howerth, Elizabeth; Dhar, Shanta

    2015-08-01

    Intracranial neoplasia is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in both human and veterinary patients, and is difficult to treat with traditional therapeutic methods. Cisplatin is a platinum (Pt)-containing chemotherapeutic agent approved by the Food and Drug Administration; however, substantial limitations exist for its application in canine brain tumor treatment due to the difficulty in crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB), development of resistance, and toxicity. A modified Pt(iv)-prodrug of cisplatin, Platin-M, was recently shown to be deliverable to the brain via a biocompatible mitochondria-targeted lipophilic polymeric nanoparticle (NP) that carries the drug across the BBB and to the mitochondria. NP mediated controlled release of Platin-M and subsequent reduction of this prodrug to cisplatin allowed cross-links to be formed with the mitochondrial DNA, which have no nucleotide excision repair system, forcing the overactive cancer cells to undergo apoptosis. Here, we report in vitro effects of targeted Platin-M NPs (T-Platin-M-NPs) in canine glioma and glioblastoma cell lines with results indicating that this targeted NP formulation is more effective than cisplatin. In both the cell lines, T-Platin-M-NP was significantly more efficacious compared to carboplatin, another Pt-based chemotherapy, which is used in the settings of recurrent high-grade glioblastoma. Mitochondrial stress analysis indicated that T-Platin-M-NP is more effective in disrupting the mitochondrial bioenergetics in both the cell types. A 14-day distribution study in healthy adult beagles using a single intravenous injection at 0.5 mg kg-1 (with respect to Platin-M) of T-Platin-M-NPs showed high levels of Pt accumulation in the brain, with negligible amounts in the other analyzed organs. Safety studies in the beagles monitoring physical, hematological, and serum chemistry evaluations were within the normal limits on days 1, 7, and 14 after injection of either 0.5 mg kg-1 or 2 mg kg

  15. Hematologic effects of inhaled plutonium in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, H.A.; Buschbom, R.L.; Park, J.F.; Dagle, G.E.; Weller, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Beagle dogs were exposed, by inhalation, 5 to 11 years ago, to aerosols of 239 PuO 2 , 238 PuO 2 , or 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , at six dose levels resulting in initial lung burdens ranging from ∼2 to ∼5500 nCi. Translocation of the plutonium to extrapulmonary sites was related to the physical-chemical characteristics of the plutonium compound. The highly insoluble 239 PuO 2 was retained primarily in the lung and associated lymph nodes, whereas 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 was much more soluble and translocated relatively rapidly to the skeleton and other extrapulmonary tissues. The 238 PuO 2 was intermediate in solubility and translocation characteristics. The hematologic effects of plutonium inhalation were most pronounced on lymphocyte populations. Evidence suggests that these effects result from irradiation of lymphocytes via the pulmonary lymph nodes with insoluble 239 PuO 2 , and via these same lymph nodes, extrapulmonary lymph nodes, and bone marrow lymphocytes with the more soluble forms, i.e., 238 PuO 2 and 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 . There is no evidence suggesting that these exposures increase the risk of developing myeloid or lymphoid neoplasia. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  16. MULTIPLE SPINAL CANAL MENINGIOMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandigama Pratap Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Meningiomas of the spinal canal are common tumours with the incidence of 25 percent of all spinal cord tumours. But multiple spinal canal meningiomas are rare in compare to solitary lesions and account for 2 to 3.5% of all spinal meningiomas. Most of the reported cases are both intra cranial and spinal. Exclusive involvement of the spinal canal by multiple meningiomas are very rare. We could find only sixteen cases in the literature to the best of our knowledge. Exclusive multiple spinal canal meningiomas occurring in the first two decades of life are seldom reported in the literature. We are presenting a case of multiple spinal canal meningiomas in a young patient of 17 years, who was earlier operated for single lesion. We analysed the literature, with illustration of our case. MATERIALS AND METHODS In September 2016, we performed a literature search for multiple spinal canal meningiomas involving exclusively the spinal canal with no limitation for language and publication date. The search was conducted through http://pubmed.com, a wellknown worldwide internet medical address. To the best of our knowledge, we could find only sixteen cases of multiple meningiomas exclusively confined to the spinal canal. Exclusive multiple spinal canal meningiomas occurring in the first two decades of life are seldom reported in the literature. We are presenting a case of multiple spinal canal meningiomas in a young patient of 17 years, who was earlier operated for solitary intradural extra medullary spinal canal meningioma at D4-D6 level, again presented with spastic quadriparesis of two years duration and MRI whole spine demonstrated multiple intradural extra medullary lesions, which were excised completely and the histopathological diagnosis was transitional meningioma. RESULTS Patient recovered from his weakness and sensory symptoms gradually and bladder and bowel symptoms improved gradually over a period of two to three weeks. CONCLUSION Multiple

  17. Design of canals

    CERN Document Server

    Swamee, P K

    2015-01-01

    The book presents firsthand material from the authors on design of hydraulic canals. The book discusses elements of design based on principles of hydraulic flow through canals. It covers optimization of design based on usage requirements and economic constraints. The book includes explicit design equations and design procedures along with design examples for varied cases. With its comprehensive coverage of the principles of hydraulic canal design, this book will prove useful to students, researchers, and practicing engineers. End-of-chapter pedagogical elements make it ideal for use in graduate courses on hydraulic structures offered by most civil engineering departments across the world.

  18. Atrophic thyroiditis in long-term Segment III beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, L.C.; Norrdin, R.W.; Benjamin, S.A.; Brewster, R.D.; Brooks, R.K.

    1981-01-01

    Lymphocytic thyroiditis associated with progressive thyroid atrophy is described in CRHL beagles. Depressed thyroid function was present in many of these dogs, as evidenced by clinical signs of hypothyroidism, elevation of serum cholesterol levels, depressed serum triiodothyronine levels, and alteration of basophils of the antero-medial region and/or unilateral or bilateral obliteration of the thyroid glands by neoplasia. Microscopic changes in the thyroid glands included lymphocytic thyroiditis, thyroid follicular atrophy, adenomatous hyperplasia of follicula cells and C-cells, and follicular cells neoplasia. This disease occurred with no sex predisposition in dogs 2 through 11 years of age. The disease does not appear to be influenced by previous radiation exposure but may be familial. In contrast to thyroid disease in some other beagle colonies, the disease in CRHL beagles more closely resembles atrophic thyroiditis of man rather than human Hashimoto's thyroiditis

  19. External scintigraphy in measuring rate of gastric emptying in beagles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorakis, M.C.

    1980-07-01

    The application of external scintigraphy and preparation of a new radiopharmaceutical agent for the investigation of the rate and pattern of gastric emptying in beagles and for the visualization of segments of the intestines have been described. 99mTc-labeled triethylenetetramine-polystyrene resin was mixed in a test meal and was administered to the animal. The gastric emptying rate of the beagle was evaluated by serially recording the gastric radioactivity by means of a scintillation camera. The experimental data indicate that the pattern of gastric emptying of beagles during the first 60 min was monoexponential and the gastric emptying half time was 1.3 h. The usefulness of external scintigraphy as a noninvasive method for determining the gastric emptying rates and for visualizing segments of GI tract in animals has been demonstrated.

  20. Exploraciones Micológicas en Tierra del Fuego Mycological explorations in Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma J. Gamundí

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Se narran las expediciones marítimas y terrestres en Tierra del Fuego durante los siglos XIX y XX, desde el punto de vista de la exploración micológica cuyos resultados han sido vertidos en publicaciones, destacando las expediciones argentinas. Contiene mapas con las principales expediciones argentinas. Se hace una evaluación de la diversidad fúngica de acuerdo con los datos previamente analizados, comparando los registros de colección en ambos períodos que indican una duplicación del número total de taxones de 647 especies descriptas en el siglo XIX hasta 1269 en el siglo XX. Simultáneamente se observa una disminución del 50,4 % al 19.7 % en el número de especies nuevas publicadas. Se agrega una lista de coleccionistas y otra del estado de conservación ex situ de especies seleccionadas. Se hace un breve comentario sobre la conservación de hábitats colonizados por hongos que están perturbados por la explotación no sustentable de los recursos naturales.A narration of the leading maritime and terrestrial expeditions in Fuegia during the XIX and XX centuries is approached from the point of view of the mycological exploration and published results on the mycobiota, emphazising the Argentine expeditions. Maps with the itinerary of main Argentine expeditions is given. An evaluation of the fungal diversity according to the previous review is presented, comparing the fungal records during both periods that shows duplication of the total number of taxa from 647 species described in XIX century to 1269 in the XX century. Simultaneously there is a decrease from 50.4 % to 19.7 % in the number of new species published. A list of collectors and a table with the state of ex-situ conservation of selected species is presented. A brief comment is given on conservation of habitats supporting fungal population that are disturbed by unsustainable exploitation of natural resources.

  1. Early retention of 237Pu + 239Pu in mature beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.D.; McFarland, S.S.; Atherton, D.R.; Bruenger, F.W.; Taylor, G.N.; Mays, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Five mature beagles, ranging in age from 57 to 84 months, were injected intravenously with about 0.05-0.1 μCi/kg of 239 Pu(IV) citrate to which tracer amounts of the photon-emitter 237 Pu had been added. Plutonium retention in liver and in non-liver tissue (mainly skeleton) was measured periodically in the living dogs for nearly 4 months after injection by a combination of total-body and partial-body counting. All excreta were collected during the first 21 days and analysed for their Pu content. One dog was sacrificed at 14 days and another at 118 days for distribution studies. About 17% (14-20%) of the injected Pu was excreted in the urine and feces in the first 3 weeks, about the same as that excreted in a corresponding time by beagles injected as young adults (14%), but substantially more than beagles injected as juveniles (11%). In contrasts to juvenile beagles injected at 3 months of age, in which early retention was about 12% in liver and 68% in the skeleton, mature beagles retained about 30% in liver and 50% in the skeleton. Retention in young adult beagles injected at 17 months of age was similar to that of mature dogs. Relative distribution of skeletal plutonium among various bones was similar in the mature animals to that seen previously in young adults, but quite different from that of juveniles. A notable exception was the humerus for which there was no significant difference (P>0.2) in the % of retained skeletal Pu represented by the humerus among the juvenile, young adult and mature dogs. (author)

  2. LUCHA POR LA TIERRA EN EL NORTE DE URUGUAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Oyhantçabal Benelli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la trayectoria de la lucha por la tierra en Bella Unión, una región característica en Uruguay por la producción de caña de azúcar, a través de los movimientos de clase de sus principales protagonistas: los cortadores de caña sindicalizados en la Unión de Trabajadores Azucareros de Artigas (UTAA. El recorrido histórico hace énfasis en dos períodos históricos diferentes: 1961-1973 y 2005-presente. El primero va desde la fundación del sindicato hasta el golpe militar. Se da en un contexto de auge de la lucha de masas en Uruguay en el cual los trabajadores rurales se organizan en la UTAA levantando, entre otras, la bandera de la Reforma Agraria. El segundo período está marcado por la llegada al gobierno nacional del Frente Amplio, una coalición social-demócrata que reactiva la producción de caña de azúcar en Bella Unión. Este cambio supone una oportunidad para las luchas sociales que la UTAA aprovecha con ocupaciones de tierra favoreciendo un proceso de colonización para los trabajadores rurales. Sin embargo el acceso a la tierra genera nuevas contradicciones, y por tanto nuevos desafíos, por los cambios en la forma de subsunción del trabajo al capital.

  3. Construcción con tierra en el siglo XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestraten, S.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Earthen construction during the 21rst century first decade has resurfaced worldwide as a sustainable, low environmental impact and great expressive material. The research and the number of projects has been increased related to the growth of the associations, institutions, universities and events surrounding this sector. These projects have managed to modernize the traditional techniques of building with earth in order to adapt them to today’s projecting needs, and have been widely recognized for its quality. The aim of this article is to provide a global view on earth construction internationally, providing technical data of its utilization in contemporary architectural projects.

    La construcción con tierra durante la primera década del siglo XXI ha resurgido en todo el mundo como un material con propiedades sostenibles, de bajo impacto ambiental y de gran capacidad expresiva. Se ha experimentado un crecimiento a nivel de proyectos e investigaciones sobre el material relacionado con el aumento de número de asociaciones, instituciones, universidades y eventos alrededor de este sector. Los proyectos actuales han sabido modernizar las técnicas tradicionales de construcción con tierra para adaptarlas a las necesidades proyectuales y constructivas, siendo ampliamente reconocidos por su calidad. El objetivo de este artículo es ofrecer una visión actual sobre la construcción con tierra a nivel internacional, aportando datos técnicos de su utilización en proyectos arquitectónicos contemporáneos.

  4. Sol, Tierra y Luna. Movimientos relativos y sus consecuencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Cardenete García

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cuando se pregunta a los estudiantes por la causa de las estaciones suelen responder: "en verano estamos más próximos al Sol y en invierno estamos más lejos del Sol". La persistencia de esta idea y el hecho de su generalización entre los estudiantes y muchos adultos me ha inducido a escribir este artículo, en el cual se trata de explicar, de una forma clara y simple, el motivo de este y otros fenómenos debidos al movimiento de la Luna alrededor de la Tierra y de ésta alrededor del Sol.

  5. Beagle 2: Seeking the signatures of life on Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson Jr., E. K.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Wright, Ian P.; Morse, Andy; Stewart, Jenny; Morgan, G.; Praine, Ian; Leigh, Dennis; Sims, Mark R.; Pullan, Derek

    2003-01-01

    ESA's Beagle 2 lander will land on Mars to search for signatures of present and past life. A Gas Analysis Package (GAP) with a mass spectrometer, XRF, Mossbauer, stereo cameras, microscope, environmental sensors, rock corer/grinder, and a Mole attachment are on the lander.

  6. Mars orbiter redirected in bid to find Beagle

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Mission controllers in Darmstadt, Germany, have successfully redirected Europe's Mars Express orbiter into a polar orbit, putting it on course for a last-ditch attempt to contact Beagle 2, the lander that has been missing since Christmas day when it should have touched down on the red planet" (1/2 page).

  7. Focal hyalinization during experimental tooth movement in beagle dogs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böhl, Martina von; Maltha, J.C.; Hoff, J.W. Von den; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim was to study morphological differences between the periodontal structures of beagle dogs showing different rates of tooth movement under identical experimental conditions. An orthodontic appliance was placed on the mandibular second premolar and the first molar to exert a continuous and

  8. Continuous Adductor Canal Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monahan, Amanda M; Sztain, Jacklynn F; Khatibi, Bahareh

    2016-01-01

    on cutaneous knee sensation in volunteers. METHODS: Bilateral adductor canal catheters were inserted in 24 volunteers followed by ropivacaine 0.2% administration for 8 hours. One limb of each subject was assigned randomly to a continuous infusion (8 mL/h) or automated hourly boluses (8 m...

  9. CANAL user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faya, A.; Wolf, L.; Todreas, N.

    1979-11-01

    CANAL is a subchannel computer program for the steady-state and transient thermal hydraulic analysis of BWR fuel rod bundles. The purpose of this manual is to introduce the user into the mechanism of running the code by providing information about the input data and options

  10. De vuelta a la concentración de tierras en el Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Arias Nieto, Custodio

    2014-01-01

    En este artículo presento el nuevo proceso de concentración de tierras en el Perú producido en los últimos quince años, teniendo como marco las normas legales del modelo neoliberal. Éstas han permitido la emergencia del latifundio en las mejores tierras que se encuentran en la costa peruana, cuya producción es principalmente para la exportación. Asimismo, las concesiones mineras, petroleras y forestales también vienen conduciendo a un nuevo tipo de concentración de tierras que degrada o destr...

  11. La arquitectura en tierra: Una alternativa para la construcción sostenible

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Zuleta Roa

    2012-01-01

    La inquietud sobre la sostenibilidad de la arquitectura hecha con tierra se convierte en el punto de partida para escribir este artículo sobre el uso de la tierra como alternativa para realizar construcciones sostenibles. Se inicia con una mirada histórica del uso de la tierra como material de construcción en el mundo y en Colombia; sus características en relación con la sostenibilidad en los procesos constructivos y finalmente su contextualización dentro de las normas que regulan la construc...

  12. La arquitectura en tierra: Una alternativa para la construcción sostenible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Zuleta Roa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La inquietud sobre la sostenibilidad de la arquitectura hecha con tierra se convierte en el punto de partida para escribir este artículo sobre el uso de la tierra como alternativa para realizar construcciones sostenibles. Se inicia con una mirada histórica del uso de la tierra como material de construcción en el mundo y en Colombia; sus características en relación con la sostenibilidad en los procesos constructivos y finalmente su contextualización dentro de las normas que regulan la construcción.

  13. Midiendo el diámetro de la Tierra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierra Porta, S.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available De distintas maneras se han ingeniado interesantes procedimientos para medir el radio de la tierra. Aquí se expone uno con la utilización de muchas técnicas sea formales o no para tal fín. El procedimiento es lo suficientemente sencillo como para que cualquier aficionado pueda repetirlo. No es un nuevo método, pero puede verse como pequeñas variaciones al mismo pudieran dar menos o más errores. El método precisa de tres piedras, una cuerda y una regla, de acuerdo con sus indicaciones, se debe contar también con un cerro desde donde podamos divisar el horizonte desde un lugar despejado en dos direcciones opuestas. La altura ideal de esta colina o promontorio seria de 30 a 300 metros sobre el nivel del mar (fácilmente podría ser desde un edificio; desde ella se divisara claramente una zona despejada. La motivación principal es proporcionar un marco para que los estudiantes en clase diserten acerca de la posibilidad de medier el tamaño de la tierra con argumentos muy sencillos y al alcance de todos. Se estimula de formulación de proyectos para investigación en el aula. Además se considera, en concordancia con las reformas de la educación y la globalización de las ciencias y los conocimientos, como estas actividades pueden acoger distintas disciplinas para un análisis óptimo de los resultados.

  14. Building networks and servers using BeagleBone

    CERN Document Server

    Pretty, Bill

    2015-01-01

    If you are a developer with BeagleBone experience and want to learn how to use it to set up a network and file server, then this book is ideal for you. To make the most of this book, you should be comfortable with the Linux operating system and know how to install software from the Internet, but you do not have to be a network guru.

  15. Subchronic feeding study of carnauba wax in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, R A; Cox, G E; Babish, J G; Gallo, M A; Hess, F G; Becci, P J

    1983-02-01

    Carnauba wax fed at levels of 0.1, 0.3 and 1% in the diet to beagle dogs for 28 wk did not produce evidence of toxicity or pathological effects. Body weight gain, food consumption, clinical chemical, haematological, and urine analysis data, and organ weights of animals fed carnauba wax were comparable with those of control animals. Ophthalmic, gross and histopathological examinations revealed no significant treatment-related findings.

  16. Absorption and pharmacokinetics of grapefruit flavanones in beagles

    OpenAIRE

    Mata Bilbao, María de Lourdes; Andrés Lacueva, Ma. Cristina; Roura Carvajal, Elena; Jáuregui Pallarés, Olga; Escribano Ferrer, Elvira; Torre, Celina; Lamuela Raventós, Rosa Ma.

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of three different grapefruit flavanone forms in dog plasma and demonstrated their absorption after an oral intake of a grapefruit extract; pharmacokinetic parameters of these forms were also determined. Ten healthy beagles were administered 70 mg citrus flavonoids as a grapefruit extract contained in capsules, while two additional dogs were used as controls and given an excipient. The grapefruit flavanone naringin, along with its metabolites n...

  17. Curved canals: Ancestral files revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Nidhi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an insight into different techniques of cleaning and shaping of curved root canals with hand instruments. Although a plethora of root canal instruments like ProFile, ProTaper, LightSpeed ® etc dominate the current scenario, the inexpensive conventional root canal hand files such as K-files and flexible files can be used to get optimum results when handled meticulously. Special emphasis has been put on the modifications in biomechanical canal preparation in a variety of curved canal cases. This article compiles a series of clinical cases of root canals with curvatures in the middle and apical third and with S-shaped curvatures that were successfully completed by employing only conventional root canal hand instruments.

  18. Atlas of experimentally-induced neoplasia in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Watson, C.R.

    1996-10-01

    Beagle dogs have been utilized extensively in biomedical research. The US Department of Energy''s (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) has sponsored life-span dose-effect radiation studies in beagles at various laboratories. Because results from studies in the various laboratories were to be compared, all the investigators strove to use similar nomenclature and criteria to describe biological effects. For this reason, pathologists from these laboratories met on five occasions between 1976 and 1977 to discuss nomenclature and histologic criteria for diagnoses. At these meeting, criteria were discussed for histopathologic description of lesions in bone, liver, lung, hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues, mammary gland, pituitary, testis, and thyroid. To provide further assurance of cooperation among the DOE laboratories involved, DOE organized several Task Groups in 1985, composed of staff members from the laboratories. The Task Group on Biological Effects was asked to standardize nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for pathology; this beagle pathology atlas is the result of that request. The atlas describes target organs of particular interest: lungs for radionuclides delivered by inhalation; bones for bone-seeking radionuclides; and hematopoietic and other soft tissues for external irradiation

  19. Life-span studies of inhaled plutonium in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1990-04-01

    In 1970 a life-span study with over 300 beagle dogs was begun to gain an understanding of long-term health effects resulting from respiratory tract intakes of plutonium and to derive risk estimates that might be applied to plutonium and other transuranic elements. Groups of beagle dogs were given single exposures to 239 PuO 2 , 238 PuO 2 , or 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 to obtain graded levels of initial lung burdens ranging from 1 to 1800 Bq lung. The objective of this paper is to give you a progress report on the current life-span studies of inhaled plutonium in beagle dogs at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. I will describe the biokinetics of inhaled plutonium in dogs and the resulting health effects. I will also mention some studies directed towards understanding the mechanism leading to these effects. Finally, I will discuss the current risk estimates derived from these studies and how they might relate to plutonium exposures in humans. 5 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Atlas of experimentally-induced neoplasia in beagle dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, G.E.; Watson, C.R.

    1996-10-01

    Beagle dogs have been utilized extensively in biomedical research. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) has sponsored life-span dose-effect radiation studies in beagles at various laboratories. Because results from studies in the various laboratories were to be compared, all the investigators strove to use similar nomenclature and criteria to describe biological effects. For this reason, pathologists from these laboratories met on five occasions between 1976 and 1977 to discuss nomenclature and histologic criteria for diagnoses. At these meeting, criteria were discussed for histopathologic description of lesions in bone, liver, lung, hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues, mammary gland, pituitary, testis, and thyroid. To provide further assurance of cooperation among the DOE laboratories involved, DOE organized several Task Groups in 1985, composed of staff members from the laboratories. The Task Group on Biological Effects was asked to standardize nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for pathology; this beagle pathology atlas is the result of that request. The atlas describes target organs of particular interest: lungs for radionuclides delivered by inhalation; bones for bone-seeking radionuclides; and hematopoietic and other soft tissues for external irradiation.

  1. Periodontal disease in research beagle dogs--an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortegaard, H E; Eriksen, T; Baelum, V

    2008-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence and describe the extent and severity of periodontal disease and associated periodontal parameters in beagle dogs. A full-mouth, site-specific examination was performed in 98 beagle dogs. Focus was placed on clinical attachment loss, pocket depth and bleeding on probing. The prevalence of clinical attachment loss greater than equal to 1 mm was 20 per cent in the one-year-old dogs, increasing to 84 per cent of the dogs aged more than three years. The number of sites affected with clinical attachment loss greater than equal to 1 mm showed a skewed distribution. The prevalence of clinical attachment loss greater than equal to 4 mm was only seven per cent. A probing pocket depth of 4+ mm was observed in 44 to 81 per cent of the dogs, depending on age. Also, the distribution of the number of deepened pockets/dog was skewed. The teeth most prone to clinical attachment loss greater than equal to 1 mm were the P2, the P3 and the P4 of the maxilla. The teeth most prone to pocket depth greater than equal to 4 mm were the maxillary canines. Periodontal disease in terms of clinical attachment loss greater than equal to 1 mm and pocket depth greater than equal to 4 mm is common in beagle dogs, but the major disease burden is carried by only a few dogs. The prevalence increases with increased age but is high already at the age of two years.

  2. Cultural tourism in fragile institutional contexts: project for cultural routes in Tierra del Fuego

    OpenAIRE

    Garcés Feliu, Eugenio

    2012-01-01

    The following paper presents a project of Cultural Routes designed for the Chilean Tierra del Fuego, linked to promoting tourism and boosting the economy, through the development of a specific high standard tourism offer, linked to its natural and cultural heritage, with the purpose of capturing the potential income generation for Chile. The project had as main goal to enhance the competitiveness of the tourism sector of special interests in Tierra del Fuego, a key sector of South...

  3. El nuevo acaparamiento de tierras y las cambiantes dinamicas de la agricultura en el sur de Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    El termino 'acaparamiento con fuerza en los ultimos anos para describir el renovado interes de las empresas por la tierra agraria, que se materializado en forma de cerramientos y privatizaciones de tierras a gran escala. Sin embargo, este termino esconde importantes diferencias respecto a la legalidad, la estructura y los resultados de los acuerdos comerciales sobre la tierra, de manera que desvia la atencion respecto al papel desempenado por las elites y los gobernos locales como socios, int...

  4. Acaparamiento de tierras y acumulación global capitalista: aspectos clave en América Latina.

    OpenAIRE

    Landívar, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    El análisis del acaparamiento de la tierra en América Latina está centrado básicamente en dos conceptos: la extranjerización y concentración de la tierra. Por un lado, en varios países como Argentina, Brasil, Uruguay, Paraguay y Guatemala la discusión se ha centrado en la extranjerización de la propiedad de la tierra. Esta se refiere a la adquisición de tierra por actores extranjeros, como gobiernos y corporaciones, así como de individuos, para una variedad de propósitos y de diferentes escal...

  5. Identification of the Beagle 2 lander on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, J. C.; Clemmet, J.; Croon, M.; Sims, M. R.; Pullan, D.; Muller, J.-P.; Tao, Y.; Xiong, S.; Putri, A. R.; Parker, T.; Turner, S. M. R.; Pillinger, J. M.

    2017-10-01

    The 2003 Beagle 2 Mars lander has been identified in Isidis Planitia at 90.43° E, 11.53° N, close to the predicted target of 90.50° E, 11.53° N. Beagle 2 was an exobiology lander designed to look for isotopic and compositional signs of life on Mars, as part of the European Space Agency Mars Express (MEX) mission. The 2004 recalculation of the original landing ellipse from a 3-sigma major axis from 174 km to 57 km, and the acquisition of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) imagery at 30 cm per pixel across the target region, led to the initial identification of the lander in 2014. Following this, more HiRISE images, giving a total of 15, including red and blue-green colours, were obtained over the area of interest and searched, which allowed sub-pixel imaging using super high-resolution techniques. The size (approx. 1.5 m), distinctive multilobed shape, high reflectivity relative to the local terrain, specular reflections, and location close to the centre of the planned landing ellipse led to the identification of the Beagle 2 lander. The shape of the imaged lander, although to some extent masked by the specular reflections in the various images, is consistent with deployment of the lander lid and then some or all solar panels. Failure to fully deploy the panels-which may have been caused by damage during landing-would have prohibited communication between the lander and MEX and commencement of science operations. This implies that the main part of the entry, descent and landing sequence, the ejection from MEX, atmospheric entry and parachute deployment, and landing worked as planned with perhaps only the final full panel deployment failing.

  6. Identification of the Beagle 2 lander on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, J C; Clemmet, J; Croon, M; Sims, M R; Pullan, D; Muller, J-P; Tao, Y; Xiong, S; Putri, A R; Parker, T; Turner, S M R; Pillinger, J M

    2017-10-01

    The 2003 Beagle 2 Mars lander has been identified in Isidis Planitia at 90.43° E, 11.53° N, close to the predicted target of 90.50° E, 11.53° N. Beagle 2 was an exobiology lander designed to look for isotopic and compositional signs of life on Mars, as part of the European Space Agency Mars Express (MEX) mission. The 2004 recalculation of the original landing ellipse from a 3-sigma major axis from 174 km to 57 km, and the acquisition of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) imagery at 30 cm per pixel across the target region, led to the initial identification of the lander in 2014. Following this, more HiRISE images, giving a total of 15, including red and blue-green colours, were obtained over the area of interest and searched, which allowed sub-pixel imaging using super high-resolution techniques. The size (approx. 1.5 m), distinctive multilobed shape, high reflectivity relative to the local terrain, specular reflections, and location close to the centre of the planned landing ellipse led to the identification of the Beagle 2 lander. The shape of the imaged lander, although to some extent masked by the specular reflections in the various images, is consistent with deployment of the lander lid and then some or all solar panels. Failure to fully deploy the panels-which may have been caused by damage during landing-would have prohibited communication between the lander and MEX and commencement of science operations. This implies that the main part of the entry, descent and landing sequence, the ejection from MEX, atmospheric entry and parachute deployment, and landing worked as planned with perhaps only the final full panel deployment failing.

  7. Pulmonary lesions induced by inhaled plutonium in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Lund, J.E.; Park, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    The histopathologic features of pulmonary fibrosis and bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma in beagles exposed to aerosols of 238 Pu or 239 Pu oxide are reviewed. A hypothesis of the pathogenesis of radiation pneumonitis induced by inhalation of plutonium oxide is presented; this hypothesis included phagocytosis of Pu particles, fibrosis responding to the necrosis, and alveolar cell hyperplasia compensating for alveolar cells killed by alpha radiation. Histopathologic features of the epithelial changes suggest a progression from hyperplasia to metaplasia and, finally, to bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma. The possibility of concurrent radiation-induced lymphopenia contributing to the development of bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma through a loss of immunologic surveillance is discussed

  8. Pulmonary lesions induced by inhaled plutonium in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Lund, J.E.; Park, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    The histopathologic features of pulmonary fibrosis and bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma in beagles exposed to aerosols of plutonium oxide were reviewed. A hypothesis of the pathogenesis of radiation pneumonitis induced by inhalation of plutonium oxide was presented; this hypothesis included phagocytosis of plutonium particles, fibrosis responding to the necrosis, and alveolar cell hyperplasia compensating for alveolar cells killed by alpha radiation. Histopathologic features of the epithelial changes suggest a progression from hyperplasia to metaplasia and, finally, to bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma. The possibility of concurrent radiation-induced lymphopenia contributing to the development of bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma through a loss of immunologic surveillance was discussed

  9. Extending the BEAGLE library to a multi-FPGA platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zheming; Bakos, Jason D

    2013-01-19

    Maximum Likelihood (ML)-based phylogenetic inference using Felsenstein's pruning algorithm is a standard method for estimating the evolutionary relationships amongst a set of species based on DNA sequence data, and is used in popular applications such as RAxML, PHYLIP, GARLI, BEAST, and MrBayes. The Phylogenetic Likelihood Function (PLF) and its associated scaling and normalization steps comprise the computational kernel for these tools. These computations are data intensive but contain fine grain parallelism that can be exploited by coprocessor architectures such as FPGAs and GPUs. A general purpose API called BEAGLE has recently been developed that includes optimized implementations of Felsenstein's pruning algorithm for various data parallel architectures. In this paper, we extend the BEAGLE API to a multiple Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based platform called the Convey HC-1. The core calculation of our implementation, which includes both the phylogenetic likelihood function (PLF) and the tree likelihood calculation, has an arithmetic intensity of 130 floating-point operations per 64 bytes of I/O, or 2.03 ops/byte. Its performance can thus be calculated as a function of the host platform's peak memory bandwidth and the implementation's memory efficiency, as 2.03 × peak bandwidth × memory efficiency. Our FPGA-based platform has a peak bandwidth of 76.8 GB/s and our implementation achieves a memory efficiency of approximately 50%, which gives an average throughput of 78 Gflops. This represents a ~40X speedup when compared with BEAGLE's CPU implementation on a dual Xeon 5520 and 3X speedup versus BEAGLE's GPU implementation on a Tesla T10 GPU for very large data sizes. The power consumption is 92 W, yielding a power efficiency of 1.7 Gflops per Watt. The use of data parallel architectures to achieve high performance for likelihood-based phylogenetic inference requires high memory bandwidth and a design methodology that emphasizes high memory

  10. Osmolarity and root canal antiseptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi-Fedele, G; Guastalli, A R

    2014-04-01

    Antiseptics used in endodontics for disinfection purposes include root canal dressings and irrigants. Osmotic shock is known to cause the alteration of microbial cell viability and might have a role in the mechanism of action of root canal antiseptics. The aim of this review was to determine the role of osmolarity on the performance of antiseptics in root canal treatment. A literature search using the Medline electronic database was conducted up to 30 May 2013 using the following search terms and combinations: 'osmolarity AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmolality AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmotic AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmosis AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; sodium chloride AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm'. Publications were included if the effects of osmolarity on the clinical performance of antiseptics in root canal treatment were stated, if preparations with different osmolarities values were compared and if they were published in English. A hand search of articles published online, 'in press' and 'early view', and in the reference list of the included papers was carried out following the same criteria. A total of 3274 publications were identified using the database, and three were included in the review. The evidence available in endodontics suggests a possible role for hyperosmotic root canal medicaments as disinfectants, and that there is no influence of osmolarity on the tissue dissolution capacity of sodium hypochlorite. There are insufficient data to obtain a sound conclusion regarding the role of hypo-osmosis in root canal disinfection, or osmosis in any further desirable

  11. Spinal canal stenosis; Spinalkanalstenose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Boutchakova, M. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte/Bremen-Ost, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Bremen (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal by a combination of bone and soft tissues, which can lead to mechanical compression of spinal nerve roots or the dural sac. The lumbal spinal compression of these nerve roots can be symptomatic, resulting in weakness, reflex alterations, gait disturbances, bowel or bladder dysfunction, motor and sensory changes, radicular pain or atypical leg pain and neurogenic claudication. The anatomical presence of spinal canal stenosis is confirmed radiologically with computerized tomography, myelography or magnetic resonance imaging and play a decisive role in optimal patient-oriented therapy decision-making. (orig.) [German] Die Spinalkanalstenose ist eine umschriebene, knoechern-ligamentaer bedingte Einengung des Spinalkanals, die zur Kompression der Nervenwurzeln oder des Duralsacks fuehren kann. Die lumbale Spinalkanalstenose manifestiert sich klinisch als Komplex aus Rueckenschmerzen sowie sensiblen und motorischen neurologischen Ausfaellen, die in der Regel belastungsabhaengig sind (Claudicatio spinalis). Die bildgebende Diagnostik mittels Magnetresonanztomographie, Computertomographie und Myelographie spielt eine entscheidende Rolle bei der optimalen patientenbezogenen Therapieentscheidung. (orig.)

  12. Complete atrioventricular canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, Raffaele; Limongelli, Giuseppe

    2006-04-05

    Complete atrioventricular canal (CAVC), also referred to as complete atrioventricular septal defect, is characterised by an ostium primum atrial septal defect, a common atrioventricular valve and a variable deficiency of the ventricular septum inflow. CAVC is an uncommon congenital heart disease, accounting for about 3% of cardiac malformations. Atrioventricular canal occurs in two out of every 10,000 live births. Both sexes are equally affected and a striking association with Down syndrome was found. Depending on the morphology of the superior leaflet of the common atrioventricular valve, 3 types of CAVC have been delineated (type A, B and C, according to Rastelli's classification). CAVC results in a significant interatrial and interventricular systemic-to-pulmonary shunt, thus inducing right ventricular pressure and volume overload and pulmonary hypertension. It becomes symptomatic in infancy due to congestive heart failure and failure to thrive. Diagnosis of CAVC might be suspected from electrocardiographic and chest X-ray findings. Echocardiography confirms it and gives anatomical details. Over time, pulmonary hypertension becomes irreversible, thus precluding the surgical therapy. This is the reason why cardiac catheterisation is not mandatory in infants (less than 6 months) but is indicated in older patients if irreversible pulmonary hypertension is suspected. Medical treatment (digitalis, diuretics, vasodilators) plays a role only as a bridge toward surgery, usually performed between the 3rd and 6th month of life.

  13. Complete atrioventricular canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limongelli Giuseppe

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complete atrioventricular canal (CAVC, also referred to as complete atrioventricular septal defect, is characterised by an ostium primum atrial septal defect, a common atrioventricular valve and a variable deficiency of the ventricular septum inflow. CAVC is an uncommon congenital heart disease, accounting for about 3% of cardiac malformations. Atrioventricular canal occurs in two out of every 10,000 live births. Both sexes are equally affected and a striking association with Down syndrome was found. Depending on the morphology of the superior leaflet of the common atrioventricular valve, 3 types of CAVC have been delineated (type A, B and C, according to Rastelli's classification. CAVC results in a significant interatrial and interventricular systemic-to-pulmonary shunt, thus inducing right ventricular pressure and volume overload and pulmonary hypertension. It becomes symptomatic in infancy due to congestive heart failure and failure to thrive. Diagnosis of CAVC might be suspected from electrocardiographic and chest X-ray findings. Echocardiography confirms it and gives anatomical details. Over time, pulmonary hypertension becomes irreversible, thus precluding the surgical therapy. This is the reason why cardiac catheterisation is not mandatory in infants (less than 6 months but is indicated in older patients if irreversible pulmonary hypertension is suspected. Medical treatment (digitalis, diuretics, vasodilators plays a role only as a bridge toward surgery, usually performed between the 3rd and 6th month of life.

  14. Hematological effects of inhaled plutonium dioxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, R.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Park, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    A life-span study indicated that plutonium activity in the thoracic lymph nodes is a contributor to development of lymphopenia in beagles exposed to 239 PuO 2 . Significant lymphopenia was found in 67 (58%) beagles given a single nose-only exposure to 239 PuO 2 to result in mean initial lung depositions ranging from 0.69 to 213.3 kBq. Lymphoid atrophy and sclerosis of the thoracic lymph nodes and lymphopenia were observed in exposure-level groups with initial lung depositions ≥2.5 kBq. Those dogs with final plutonium concentrations in the thoracic lymph nodes ≥0.4 kBq/g and dose rates ≥0.01 Gy/day developed lymphopenia. Marked differences existed between chronically lymphopenic dogs and intermittently lymphopenic dogs with regard to initial lung deposition, time to lymphopenic events and absolute lymphocyte concentrations. Linear regression analysis revealed moderate correlation between reduction in lymphocyte values and initial lung deposition, in both magnitude and time of appearance after exposure. Cumulative dose and dose rate appeared to act together to produce initial effects on lymphocyte populations, while dose rate alone appeared to be responsible for the maintenance and subsequent cycles of lymphopenia seen over the life span. No primary tumors were associated with the thoracic lymph nodes in this study, although 70% of the lymphopenic dogs developed lung tumors. 28 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  15. Absorption of DTPA from the respiratory tracts of Beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudley, R.E.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Cuddihy, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Absorption of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) from the nasopharyngeal (NP), tracheobronchial (TB) and pulmonary (P) regions of Beagle dogs was determined because of the current interest in aerosolized DTPA as a method for removal of internally deposited radionuclides. Radiolabeled DTPA was instilled into the NP, TB and P regions of Beagle dogs and its subsequent translocation was followed for 48 hours. Results revealed that 16, 48 and 90% of the instilled DTPA was absorbed into the circulatory system from the NP, TB and P regions, respectively. A comparison was also made between NP absorption of aerosolized DTPA and DTPA instilled into the nasopharynx. Nasopharyngeal absorption of aerosolized DTPA, 23%, was slightly higher than that of instilled DTPA. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid deposited in the respiratory tract remained in the body longer than intravenously injected DTPA. These findings indicate that substantial absorption of DTPA occurs from all regions of the respiratory tract and that DTPA need not be deposited deep within the respiratory tract to produce systemic absorption of DTPA for the removal of internally deposited radioactive isotopes

  16. Tetracycline treatment of periodontal disease in the beagle dog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffcoat, M.K.; Williams, R.C.; Kaplan, M.L.; Goldhaber, P.

    1982-01-01

    Bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical uptake (BSRU) was used to examine alveolar bone metabolism in a longitudinal study of tetracycline efficacy in beagle dogs. BSRU was measured in untreated control dogs and in beagles receiving either 250 mg or 500 mg oral tetracycline-HCl daily for 16 months. The rate of bone loss was determined for radiographs taken semiannually for a 6-month pretreatment period and for a 24-month treatment period. Measurements of BSRU obtained at month 16 of treatment were correlated with rates of bone loss determined radiographically in an attempt to determine whether BSRU was indicative of the subsequent rate of bone loss. A reduced rate of alveolar bone loss was found in the 500 mg tetracycline group at month 16 of the study relative to the untreated controls which was consistent with the decreased bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical uptake observed in this group. A significantly increased BSRU (p<.0001) was found in the 250 mg tetracycline group at month 16 of study relative to the untreated and 500 mg tetracycline groups. A rapid increase in the rate of bone loss in the 250 mg tetracycline group which was not detectable prior to 16 months of treatment became evident radiographically by 24 months. Thus, increased BSRU in the 250 mg tetracycline group appeared to detect the loss of the effect of tetracycline (escape phenomenon). 13 references, 4 figures.

  17. Radon in bone as measured in neonatal, juvenile, and mature beagles and in adult St. Bernards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.D.; Bruenger, F.W.; Mays, C.W.; Jones, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    The measured 222 Rn/ 226 Ra ratio in bone following 226 Ra injection of 5-year-old mature beagles and adult St. Bernards was similar to that predicted by an equation derived from data of beagles injected as young adults. However, Rn/Ra ratios were significantly lower in beagles injected as 3-month-old juveniles for about the first 600 days after injection, but were indistinguishable thereafter from the values predicted by the equation associated with young adult beagles. A 2-term equation was developed from the data for juveniles, the first term of which was the equation for young adults. For beagles injected as juveniles, the skeletal Rn/Ra ratio as a function of time after injection (t, in days) was Rn/Ra = 0.075 t 0 158 (1-e/sup -0.181t/) - 0.058 (e/sup -0.0061t/-e/sup -0.162t/). Beagles injected as 2-day-old neonates exhibited ratios for the first 2 weeks which were similar enough to those of juveniles that a separate equation was not derived for neonatal beagles

  18. Functional capacities of lungs and thorax in beagles after prolonged residence at 3,100 m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R L; Cassidy, S S; Grover, R F; Schutte, J E; Epstein, R H

    1985-12-01

    Functional capacities of the lungs and thorax in beagles taken to high altitude as adults for 33 mo or in beagles raised from puppies at high altitude were compared with functional capacities in corresponding sets of beagles kept simultaneously at sea level. Comparisons were made after reacclimatization to sea level. Lung volumes, airway pressures, esophageal pressures, CO diffusing capacities (DLCO), pulmonary blood flow, and lung tissue volume (Vt) were measured by a rebreathing technique at inspired volumes ranging from 15 to 90 ml/kg. In beagles raised from puppies we measured anatomical distribution of intrathoracic air and tissue using X-ray computed tomography at transpulmonary pressures of 20 cm H2O. Lung and thoracic distensibility, DLCO, and Vt were not different between beagles that had been kept at high altitude for 33 mo as adults and control subjects kept simultaneously at sea level. Lung distensibility, DLCO, and Vt were significantly greater in beagles raised at high altitude than control subjects raised simultaneously at sea level. Thoracic distensibility was not increased in beagles raised at high altitude; the larger lung volume was accommodated by a lower diaphragm, not a larger rib cage.

  19. The Beagle 2 Effect - public response to the UK Mars lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillinger, J. M.; Pillinger, C. T.

    As a prerequisite for understanding science, the target audience must first be aware of an issue and then continue to maintain interest. We discuss the impact of the Beagle 2 mission to Mars on raising awareness amongst the general public as the first step to increasing understanding of the scientific and technological challenges and solutions such a mission addresses. The massive amount of public interest created is now being ttributed to the so-called "Beagle 2 Effect". We consider the reasons why the public, particularly, but not exclusively, in the UK took Beagle 2 to heart. Initially our strategy, as part of the PR plan for Beagle 2, was to collate media coverage for various stages and discrete campaigns in particular to use press cuttings to determine the level of recognition of Beagle 2 as a brand. At the start of the project this information was to support sponsorship bids, latterly the intrinsic value of media, and hence public, awareness was recognised by the major partners in the project. Much of the subsequent public awareness resulted from the comprehensive coverage in all branches of the media. A second opportunity to evaluate the response to the mission was presented to us as it became increasingly clear that Beagle 2 was able to engage an audience much wider than that typically interested in space, or science in general. We highlighted how far mention of Beagle 2 has spread. Additionally numerous unsolicited letters have been received from the public and these have been collated to indicate the factors which appear to have contributed to the widespread interest in Beagle 2. It is not clear whether the "Beagle 2 Effect" can, or will, be transferred to subsequent space missions.

  20. Hood Canal Steelhead - Hood Canal Steelhead Supplementation Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hood Canal Steelhead Project is a 17-year before-after-control-impact experiment that tests the effects of supplementation on natural steelhead populations in...

  1. Formas de tierra y clases de pendiente del departamento de Cusco: informe ejecutivo

    OpenAIRE

    Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales. Dirección General de Estudios y Proyectos

    2000-01-01

    Muestra la evaluación de las formas de tierra y clases de pendiente de la región sierra del departamento de Cusco. El objetivo principal es presentar de manera esquemática el conjunto de formas de tierra, clases de pendiente dominante, sus diferencias morfoclimáticas y evolutivas, así como la identificación de las principales acciones erosivas que actualmente puedan significar riesgos a las actividades humanas, o a coadyuvar al deterioro generalizado del medio. El documento ha sido elaborado ...

  2. Formas de tierra y clases de pendiente del departamento de Amazonas: informe ejecutivo

    OpenAIRE

    Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales. Dirección General de Estudios y Proyectos

    2000-01-01

    Muestra la evaluación de las formas de tierra y clases de pendiente de la región sierra del departamento de Amazonas. El objetivo principal es presentar de manera esquemática el conjunto de formas de tierra, clases de pendiente dominante, sus diferencias morfoclimáticas y evolutivas, así como la identificación de las principales acciones erosivas que actualmente puedan significar riesgos a las actividades humanas, o a coadyuvar al deterioro generalizado del medio. El documento ha sido elabora...

  3. Formas de tierra y clases de pendiente del departamento de Ica: informe ejecutivo

    OpenAIRE

    Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales. Dirección General de Estudios y Proyectos

    2000-01-01

    Abarca la evaluación de las formas de tierra y clases de pendiente de la región sierra del departamento de Ica. El objetivo principal es brindar de manera esquemática el conjunto de formas de tierra, clases de pendiente dominante, sus diferencias morfoclimáticas y evolutivas, así como la identificación de las principales acciones erosivas que actualmente puedan significar riesgos a las actividades humanas, o a coadyuvar al deterioro generalizado del medio. El documento ha sido elaborado en el...

  4. Formas de tierra y clases de pendiente del departamento de Arequipa: informe ejecutivo

    OpenAIRE

    Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales. Dirección General de Estudios y Proyectos

    1999-01-01

    Abarca la evaluación de las formas de tierra y clases de pendiente de la región sierra del departamento de Arequipa. El objetivo principal es mostrar de manera esquemática el conjunto de formas de tierra, clases de pendiente dominante, sus diferencias morfoclimáticas y evolutivas, así como la identificación de las principales acciones erosivas que actualmente puedan significar riesgos a las actividades humanas, o a coadyuvar al deterioro generalizado del medio. El documento ha sido elaborado ...

  5. The architecture of the extremes cultural landscapes in Tierra del Fuego

    OpenAIRE

    Garcés Feliú, Eugenio

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the relevance of applying the notion of extreme cultural landscape to Tierra del Fuego, as a complementary category to those defined by Unesco. It states that in Chile there are anumber of territories at the margins –in the end, along the border– that have been built as landscapes, specifics and concretes, where the exploitation of natural resources has proved profitable and the building of human settlements as been allowed. This is the case of Tierra del Fuego, con...

  6. Periodismo ambiental en Canal Sur Televisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Miguel Montaño Montaño

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor estudia el origen histórico del periodismo ambiental, la evolución en España y Andalucía y su aparición en Canal Sur TV Realiza un análisis sobre la información medioambiental, especialidad del periodismo que en la década de los noventa despierta nuevamente gran interés entre el público. La televisión autonómica ha dedicado, desde su creación numerosos programas sobre el medio ambiente. Actualmente sus Servicios Informativos tienen la sección Medio Ambiente. De la importancia que se concede a este tipo de información es un buen ejemplo el programa «Tierra y Mar», que incorpora progresivamente noticias medioambientales, referidas a la educación ambiental, el mantenimiento y recuperación de la biodiversidad y la presentación de modelos de conducta respetuosos.

  7. Serial ultrasonographic appearance of postpartum uterine involution in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, A E; Concannon, P W

    1990-09-01

    Postpartum changes in uterine shape, architecture, echogenicity and diameter were determined during the serial examinations of five beagle bitches. During postpartum Week 1, the uterine horns were tubular structures composed of multiple layers of various echogenicity and had multiple, discrete enlargements with hypoechoic centers at placental sites. Diameters ranged from 1.1 to 3.8 cm at placental site enlargements, and 0.5 to 1.4 cm between enlargements. Uterine involution appeared to be completed by 15 wk post partum. At 15 weeks the uterine horns of each dog were uniform hypoechoic, tubular structures without enlargements and had a reduced diameter of 0.3 to 0.6 cm. These ultrasonographic findings are similar to previously reported gross and light microscopic descriptions of canine uterine involution.

  8. 241Am induced thyroid lesions in the beagle: interim observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.N.; Zizumbo, I.; Angus, W.; Jones, A.; Elliot, D.

    1976-01-01

    Injected doses of 2.88, 0.91 or 0.296 μCi 241 Am/kg in young adult beagles produced morphological changes in the thyroid gland and produce lower concentrations of thyroxin in the sera. Interstitial fibrosis without functional impairment was induced by the 0.099 μCi 241 Am/kg dose level. Clinical symptoms of hypothyroidism were not observed, even in those dogs with the most extreme thyroid lesions. The changes were characterized by a decrease in thyroid weight, interfollicular fibrosis, loss of colloid, loss of follicular epithelium, and hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the residual epithelium. Thus far, thyroid tumors have not been observed, however, a significant percentage of the animals in the lower dose levels are still living

  9. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.; Buschbom, R.L.; Case, A.C.

    1976-01-01

    Beagle dogs given single exposure to 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239 Pu body burden of the nine dogs dying due to pulmonary fibrosis-induced insufficiency during the first 3 years after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi. One of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor. Three additional dogs with body burdens of 0.7 to 1.8 μCi died due to pulmonary neoplasia 4-1/2 years after exposure. None of the dogs exposed to 238 Pu have died during the first two postexposure years. After inhalation of 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 lymphocytopenia was the earliest observed effect, occuring 0.5 to 2 years after deposition of greater than or equal to 80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  10. Effect of aging on tracheal mucociliary clearance in Beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, S.L.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Wolff, R.K.

    1985-01-01

    Tracheal mucous velocity measurements were made in 24 Beagle dogs, in 5 age groups, using a gamma camera to detect movement on instilled radiolabeled material. Age groups were defined as immature, young adult, middle-aged, mature, and aged dogs. Mean velocities (+/- SE) were 3.6 +/- 0.4 mm/min in the immature dogs, 9.8 +/- 0.7 mm/min in the young adults, 6.9 +/- 0.5 mm/min in the middle-aged dogs, 3.6 +/- 1.1 mm/min in the mature dogs, and 2.8 +/- 0.6 mm/min in the aged dogs. Tracheal mucous velocity was significantly faster in the young adult and middle-aged groups than in the immature, mature, and aged dog groups. 4 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  11. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The metabolism, dosimetry and effects of inhaled 91 YCl 3 in beagle dogs are being studied. Forty-two dogs with 91 Y initial body burdens from 14 to 1300 μCi/kg body weight and 12 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. Four additional dogs with a mean initial body burden of 180 μCi/kg body weight were placed in a sacrifice study. Thirty-six of the exposed dogs and 7 of the control dogs have died. Dogs with the highest activity levels died with bone marrow damage and pancytopenia. Three dogs died with nasal cavity carcinomas and three with pulmonary carcinomas and one with hepatic hemangiosarcoma that all appear related to radiation injury. Control dogs died of miscellaneous neoplastic and chronic diseases. Observations are continuing on 10 surviving exposed dogs and six surviving unexposed dogs

  12. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in Beagle dogs. XV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R.K.; Kusewitt, D.F.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The metabolism, dosimetry and biological effects of inhaled 91 YCl 3 in Beagle dogs are being studied. Forty-two dogs with initial 91 Y body burdens from 14 to 1300 μCi per kilogram body weight and 12 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. Four additional dogs with a mean initial body burden of 180 μCi per kilogram body weight were placed in a sacrifice study. Forty-three of the exposed dogs and 11 of the control dogs have died. Dogs with the highest initial body burdens died with bone marrow damage and pancytopenia. Three dogs died with nasal cavity carcinomas, three dogs died with pulmonary carcinomas and one dog died with hepatic hemangiosarcoma; these cancers all appeared to be related to radiation injury. Control dogs died of miscellaneous neoplastic and chronic diseases. Observations are continuing on three surviving exposed dogs and one surviving unexposed dog

  13. Primary joint disease in the shoulder of the beagle dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.; Pool, R.R.; Miyabayashi, T.; Soo, S.

    1985-01-01

    Shoulder joints of 149 beagle dogs, whose ages were over 8 years at the time of death, were examined to document primary joint disease. Clinical histories of the dogs suggested no underlying causes, i.e. no evidence of osteochondrosis, trauma or joint infection. Radiographic examinations revealed normally developing shoulders in the first years of their lives. Radiographic changes were progressive with age. Bilateral involvement was common. The changes consisted of osteophyte formation on the caudal aspect of the humeral head and glenoid. Postmortem findings included: subchondral bone sclerosis (thin-section radiographs), cartilage wearing, joint capsule thickening, and pannus formation. The authors believe that the changes occurring in the shoulder joints are those of primary joint disease. 12 references

  14. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in Beagle dogs. XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The metabolism, dosimetry, and biological effects of inhaled 91 YCl 3 in Beagle dogs are being studied. Forty-two dogs with initial 91 Y body burdens from 14 to 1300 μCi/kg body weight and 12 control dogs were observed during their life spans. Four additional dogs with a mean initial body burden of 180 μCi 91 Y/kg body weight were placed in a sacrifice study. All 46 of the exposed dogs and all 12 of the control dogs have died. Dogs with the highest initial body burdens died with bone marrow damage and pancytopenia. Three dogs died with nasal cavity carcinomas, three died with pulmonary carcinomas, and one died with hepatic hemangiosarcoma. These cancers all appeared to be related to radiation injury. Control dogs died of miscellaneous neoplastic and chronic diseases

  15. Evaluation of a hydrophilic gingival dental sealant in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzman, Clarence

    2013-01-01

    A liquid solution, gingival sealant containing polymers that form a barrier film upon application was evaluated in dogs. It is a non-toxic, low viscosity, hydrophilic barrier sealant that dries in approximately 10 to 15-seconds after subgingival application. It was designed as a preventative to be applied immediately following a professional oral hygiene procedure in order to block plaque and calculus formation in the sulcus and aid in the prevention of periodontal disease in companion animals. Additionally, the polymer was designed to promote an aerobic environment in the sulcus by oxygen and water transport through engineered pores within the polymer. A 30-day split-mouth, blinded study in two groups of 15 beagle dogs was used. Plaque was significantly (p periodontal disease in dogs.

  16. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.; Buschbom, R.L.; Case, A.C.

    1977-01-01

    Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239 Pu body burden of the nine dogs that died of pulmonary fibrosis-induced respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 yr after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi. One of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor. Five additional dogs with body burdens of 0.7 to 1.8 μCi died due to pulmonary neoplasia 3 to 5 yr after exposure. None of the dogs exposed to 238 Pu have died during the first 3 postexposure yr. Lymphocytopenia was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 , occurring 0.5 to 2 yr after deposition of greater than or equal to 80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  17. Radiation-induced erythroleukemia in the beagle dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolle, D.V.; Fritz, T.E.; Norris, W.P.

    1977-01-01

    Eleven cases of myeloproliferative disease occurred in a group of 24 beagle dogs placed in a 60 Co γ-ray field at about 13 months of age and irradiated at an exposure rate of 5 R/22-hour day for duration of life. Of these 11 dogs, 5 were diagnosed as having erythroleukemia. The bone marrow showed marked erythroblastic hyperplasia, with maturation arrest of the erythroid elements, and increased numbers of myeloblasts and promyelocytes. The terminal peripheral blood was characterized by marked anemia and thrombocytopenia, with circulating erythrocytic precursors and abnormal erythrocyte morphology. Splenomegaly and hepatomegaly occurred in 4 of the 5 animals. In the spleens and livers of all 5, there was extensive leukemic infiltration and proliferation. The extent of leukemic involvement in other tissues and organs varied in individual dogs

  18. Skeletal dosimetry of injected 226RA in young adult beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.D.; Mays, C.W.; Atherton, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Revised equations are presented for the skeletal dose to young adult beagles from 226 Ra injection. For 0.1 kg of skel/kg body and given 1 μCi 226 Ra/kg with 210 Pb/ 226 Ra = 0.05, the average skeletal dose in rad at 6 yr is 226 Ra = 1200, 222 Rn -> 214 Po = 1050, injected 210 Pb = 56 and 210 Pb from Rn decay in bone = 22. For a Pb/Ra ratio = 0.4, dose from injected 210 Pb is about 20% of that from 226 Ra -> 214 Po. A similar but not numerically indentical relationship obtains for ingested 226 Ra, so the dose from 210 Pb should be included in any study of 226 Ra effects. (orig.)

  19. Radium-226-induced dental disease in Beagles: a radiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.; Miyabayashi, T.; Goldman, M.; Soo, S.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of dental radiographs made at necropsy and during the life of the dogs clearly shows age dependent changes within the control dogs. Periodontal diseases, loss of lamina dura, root ankylosis, and loss of pulp cavity were all commonly noted. Tooth loss and dental caries were rare in the control dogs. In injected Beagles loss of lamina dura was noted earlier and was dose dependent. Tooth loss and dental carried increased with dose level and appeared earlier. Tooth loss was common by 1600-1800 days of age while dental caries were common in almost all dogs by 1600-1800 days of age in the R40 level. Dental caries was the most accurate indication of the level of 226 Ra toxicity. 18 reference, 1 table

  20. Decorporation of 241Am in beagles by DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.D.; McFarland, S.S.; Taylor, G.N.; Williams, J.L.; Mays, C.W.

    1975-01-01

    Chelation treatments using daily subcutaneous injections of ZnNa 3 -DTPA were begun 2 wk after the intravenous administration of 0.3 μCi/kg 241 Am citrate to six female beagles averaging 505 days of age. Retention of americium in the liver and in non-liver tissue (mainly skeleton) was followed serially in the living dogs by a combination of total-body and partial-body counting. During the first 13 mo of DTPA therapy, the removal of 241 Am from two dogs given one DTPA injection each day of 0.027 or 0.034 mmole/kg was similar to the fraction removed from two other dogs given a similar total of 0.035 or 0.037 mmole/kg/day in five fractionated injections each day. Increasing the daily amount of DTPA to 0.36 and 5.0 mmole/kg/day in the two remaining dogs only slightly increased the removal of 241 Am. At the beginning of chelation therapy, all six dogs averaged 43 percent of the injected 241 Am in the liver and 46 percent in nonliver tissue. 241 Am retention in liver at 2 mo of therapy was about 2 percent of pretreatment liver retention, decreased to roughly 1 percent of pretreatment retention by 5 mo of DTPA administration, and was undetectable at 13 months. Nonliver retention at 2 mo was 53 percent of pretreatment retention in nonliver tissue, at 5 mo averaged about 40 percent, and had decreased to 27 percent of pretreatment values by 13 mo of chelation therapy. In contrast, for beagles of our colony not treated with DTPA, 241 Am in the liver and in nonliver tissue exhibited a biological half-time in the order of 10 yr. (U.S.)

  1. Effect of Itraconazole on the Pharmacokinetics of Diclofenac in Beagle Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    AL-JENOOBI, Fahad

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential effect of itraconazole on the pharmacokinetics of diclofenac potassium in beagle dogs after oral coadministration. Five male beagle dogs received a single oral 50 mg dose of diclofenac potassium alone in phase I, and along with a single oral 100 mg dose of itraconazole in phase II. Blood samples obtained for 8.0 hours post dose were analysed for diclofenac concentration using a validated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...

  2. Consideration of age-dependent radium retention in people on the basis of the beagle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, N.J.; Keane, A.T.

    1982-01-01

    Skeletal calcification as a function of age has been estimated for human females on the basis of the beagle model. The interspecies scaling of radium retention characteristics has been described in terms of skeletal calcium addition rates for beagles and humans. radium retention in humans exposed to less than 200 μCi was greatest in individuals who were less than 18 years old when exposed

  3. Carcinogenesis of inhaled radio daughters with uranium ore dust in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.; Dagle, G.E.; Palmer, R.F.; Stuart, B.O.

    1977-01-01

    Daily exposures of adult beagle dogs to inhaled radon daughters and to uranium ore dust for 4-1/2 to 6 yr have produced respiratory tract carcinomas, at similar cumulative working level months (WLM) of exposures to those which induced carcinomas in uranium miners. Biological data from the beagle-dog experiments can therefore be used for prediction of carcinogenic risk under changing exposure conditions in future uranium miners

  4. Radium-induced dental changes in humans and beagles: a comparative microradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnham, J.E.; Morgan, J.P.; Pool, R.R.; Miyabayashi, T.

    1985-01-01

    Microradiographs made from thin sections of teeth of humans carrying skeletal deposits of 226 Ra and 228 Ra and of beagles injected with 226 Ra showed similar patterns of change with age. The patterns consisted of the presence of remodeling units of alveolar bone that extended across the gomphosis and involved the cementum and dentine. This is not described as a normal aging change in humans or beagles. 3 tables

  5. 226Ra-induced dental changes: a comparative microradiographic study of human and beagle dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.; Pool, R.R.; Farnham, J.E.; Miyabayashi, T.

    1984-01-01

    Comparison of microradiographs made from thin sections of teeth from human and the Beagle dog show a similar pattern of change dependent on age of exposure and duration of exposure prior to death or extraction. The pattern of change consisted of the presence of remodeling units of alveolar bone that extended across the gomphosis and involved the cementum and dentine. This pattern of change is not described as a normal aging change in either humans or the Beagle dog. 2 tables

  6. Un congreso de fisica estudia la composicion de las capas de la tierra

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "El Congreso de Internacional de Neutrinos, que ayer comenzo en el Jardin Botanico de Valencia, aborda, entre otros aspectos, la composicion y el perfil tomografico de las distintas capas de estratos del interior de la Tierra, segun informo a Efe el profesor Jose Furtado Valle" (1/2 page).

  7. La Carta de la Tierra en educación obligatoria desde una perspectiva internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Francisca Hinojosa-Pareja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La Carta de la Tierra surge como iniciativa de la sociedad civil en el año 2000. Desde su comienzo, es avalada por instituciones y organizaciones internacionales como la Unesco, que apoyó su contenido en 2003, e incorporada como instrumento educativo en proyectos de aplicación internacional como la “Década de la Educación para el Desarrollo Sostenible (2005-2014”, promovida por Naciones Unidas. Este artículo analiza distintas experiencias internacionales que utilizan la Carta de la Tierra como elemento de innovación en el ámbito de la educación obligatoria (infantil, primaria y secundaria. Una década después de la publicación de la Carta de la Tierra, y a través del análisis del contenido de estas experiencias, pretendemos hacer balance del camino recorrido, del grado de compromiso asumido desde el ámbito educativo, y favorecer el diálogo y la progresiva toma de conciencia sobre la Carta de la Tierra y su relevancia a nivel educativo.

  8. Relaciones entre la presencia de tierra y la supervivencia en serpientes de coral mantenidas en cautiverio

    OpenAIRE

    Reynoso, H.; Bucher, Enrique; Merlini, H. O.

    1985-01-01

    Teniendo en cuenta las particularidades de la especie Micrurus frontalis pyrrhocryptus (coral) en lo referente a su comportamiento semifosorial, hemos considerado conveniente relacionar distintos aspectos biológicos de la especie tales como longevidad, peso y producción de veneno, con la disponibilidad de tierra en recipientes y exposición a la luz.

  9. Los Takanas: el acceso a la tierra y los recursos naturales (1950-2003.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulema Lehm Ardaya

    2010-01-01

    uso comercial de diferentes especies naturales. El artículo discute la adaptación de los takanas a los desafíos y tendencias del uso de los recursos naturales en sistemas de acceso comunitario a la tierra.

  10. IMPACTOS DEL CAMBIO DE USO DE LA TIERRA EN LA MICROCUENCA MEMBRILLO, MANABÍ, ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Hernández Jiménez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El cambio de uso de la tierra, sobre todo el cambio de tierras forestales a tierras cultivadas, es una de las prácticas que mayor impacto ha tenido en la degradación de los suelos en el mundo y que ha provocado, en gran parte, la emisión de CO2 a la atmósfera. Por esto se hace necesario evaluar los cambios que han tenido las propiedades de los suelos por los diferentes ecosistemas, para de esta forma, tomar las medidas de mejoramiento y conservación de los suelos. En este trabajo, se estudia por primera vez, el cambio de algunas propiedades de los suelos de las partes medias y bajas de la microcuenca Membrillo (provincia de Manabí, Ecuador. Esta microcuenca presenta un relieve alomado, premontañoso, en la cual predominan bosques primarios y secundarios y plantaciones de cacao, pastizales y cultivos como el maíz en su parte baja. Los suelos son Feozems, Cambisoles y Fluvisoles y se presentan los resultados sobre cambios en sus características morfológicas (color, tipo de estructura, espesor de los horizontes A y B, las pérdidas de carbono orgánico y el cambio en la densidad aparente del suelo, provocado por el cambio de uso de la tierra.

  11. Review of Los nuevos amos de la tierra. Land Grabbing (Liberti, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Ignacio Ochoa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stefano Liberti. 2015. Los nuevos amos de la tierra. Land Grabbing. Bogotá: Penguin Random House Grupo Editorial. 250 pp. ISBN: 9788430616886. [Título original en italiano: Land Grabbing. Come il mercato delle terre crea il nuovo colonialismo].

  12. «Huarpes no tan huarpes» y «hombres modernos»: interpelaciones étnicas y disputas por las últimas tierras irrigadas en Mendoza (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Saldi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A través de un estudio etnográfico en la periferia del oasis de riego más importante del centro-oeste argentino, se analiza la intervención de persistentes representaciones étnico-raciales y ambientales en la delimitación de áreas irrigadas y de grupos sociales que ostentan la tenencia del agua y la tierra. Los grupos situados a uno y otro lado de los últimos canales de riego son interpelados desde paradigmas modernistas que vinculan a la tenencia del agua, la propiedad privada y la producción vitivinícola con la herencia europea y la idea de progreso, mientras que lo no irrigado, la tenencia comunitaria de la tierra y el pastoreo trashumante se asocia a la descendencia indígena huarpe y a la idea de atraso o involución. Debido a la presencia de dos espacios y grupos socio-culturales supuestamente autónomos, opuestos y separados por los últimos canales de riego es que se los conceptualiza como frontera hídrica. Esta, a pesar de ser considerada como natural y fija, es por el contrario artificial y dinámica, producto de luchas sociales y simbólicas por el agua y por la obtención de legitimidad como grupo socio-cultural capaz de obtenerla y controlarla. Asimismo se resaltan la presencia no solo de actores liminales, ni huarpes ni de origen europeo, sino también de alianzas que pueden llevar a la reconfiguración de espacios irrigados y de grupos socioculturales capaces de dar batalla en las disputas por los recursos naturales.

  13. Capitalismo, crisis y naturaleza: Un análisis del acaparamiento de tierras dentro y desde el Sur Global

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Sol

    2016-01-01

    El acaparamiento de tierras (land grabbing) refiere al proceso de adquisiciones a gran escala de tierras agrícolas en otros estados, desatado en el contexto de la convergencia de crisis internacionales —alimentaria, energética, financiera y climática— de 2008. Este artículo analiza las razones que convirtieron al acaparamiento de tierras en un fenómeno global, irreductible a la lógica Norte-Sur. Adicionalmente, indaga sus implicaciones sobre la posición internacional y definici...

  14. El Canal del Atazar I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López de Berges y de los Santos, Emilio

    1967-03-01

    Full Text Available The Atazar Canal helps to supply Madrid with water, from the rivers Lozoya, Jarama and Sorbe. The section which operates at present starts at the Torrelaguna dam and finishes at the El Goloso reservoir. Later a further section will be added, from the Atazar dam, on the Lozoya river, to link up with the control dam at Torrelaguna. The canal capacity is 16 m3/sec, and it is 43.47 km long. It has a slope of 4/10.000. The cross section is similar to that of the Jarama canal, already built. There are interconnections between this canal and the Canal Alto, which previously supplied the high and medium part of Madrid. To overcome the ground unevenness 5 syphons have been built, the most important of which is the Colmenar Goloso syphon, which is 10.88 km in length. Construction commenced on December 10, 1962, and water reached Madrid on June 15th, 1966. The initial budget for this project was 1,500 million pesetas.El canal del Atazar refuerza considerablemente el abastecimiento de aguas a Madrid, procedentes de los ríos Lozoya, Jarama y, en un próximo futuro, del Sorbe. El tramo, actualmente en funcionamiento, empieza en el salto de Torrelaguna y finaliza en los depósitos de El Goloso. Más adelante se completará su trazado mediante un nuevo tramo que partirá del embalse de Atazar, en el Lozoya, para unirse al actual en el depósito regulador de Torrelaguna. Su capacidad es de 16 m3/s; su longitud, 43,471 km, y su pendiente, 4 diezmilésimas. La sección tipo es análoga a la del canal del Jarama, de construcción anterior. Mediante la oportuna obra de transvase se realizan intercambios entre este Canal y el Canal Alto que abastecía anteriormente la parte media y alta de la capital. Para salvar los desniveles del terreno se han construido 5 sifones, siendo el más importante el de Colmenar-Goloso, con una longitud de 10,8S4 km. El comienzo de las obras tuvo lugar el 10 de diciembre de 1962, y el agua llegó a Madrid el 15 de junio de 1966. Su

  15. Occurrence of mammary tumors in beagls given radium-226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruenger, F.W.; Lloyd, R.D.; Miller, S.C.; Taylor, G.N.; Angus, W.; Huth, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    A total of 128 primary mammary tumors (66 of them malignant) occurred in 35 female beagles injected with 226 Ra at eight dose levels ranging from 0.2 to 440 kBq/kg body mass as young adults, while a total of 156 mammary tumors (57 of them malignant) were seen in 46 female control beagles not given any radioactivity. Sixty-three of 65 control dogs and 59 of 61 dogs given 226 Ra survived the minimum age for diagnosis of mammary tumors of 3.75 years. Based on the observed age-dependent tumor incidence rates in the controls and on the corresponding number of dog-years at risk, the total number of observed malignant tumors in the radium group was statistically greater than the number of expected malignant tumors (66 observed vs 34 expected, P < 0.005). There was no such difference for the benign tumors. Cox regression analysis indicated no increased risk for the first tumor occurrence in irradiated dogs. Cox regression analysis of the multivariate risk sets showed no significantly increased risk for the occurrence of benign tumors but a statistically higher risk of 1.66 with a confidence interval of 1.15-2.40 for the occurrence of malignant tumors. The increased risk was dependent on dose, but a dependence on the frequency of previous occurrence of mammary tumors could not be confirmed. Censoring ovariectomized dogs at time of surgery decreased the relative risks slightly but did not alter the significance. Exposure to diagnostic X rays with cumulative exposures below 0.2 Gy had no effect on tumor formation. It is unknown whether the increased risk for malignant mammary tumors was due to some initial deposition of radium in sensitive tissue, a possible irradiation of fatty mammary tissue from transient radon → polonium deposition, or a general effect of the overall radium deposition on the immune system of the dogs that lowered their resistance to formation of mammary tumors. 27 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Life-span studies of inhaled plutonium in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    In 1970 a life-span study with over 300 beagle dogs was begun. Groups of beagle dogs were given single exposures to 239 PuO 2 , 238 PuO 2 , or 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 to obtain graded levels of initial lung burdens ranging from 1 to 1800 Bq lung. After 16 years, the lungs contained about 2% of the initial lung burden of 239 PuO 2 , the thoracic lymph nodes 20%, skeleton 1% and liver 10%. After 15 years the lungs contained about 0.2% of the initial lung burden of 238 PuO 2 , thoracic lymph nodes 5%, skeleton 10%, and liver 10%. After 10 years the lungs contained about 0.29% of the initial lung burden of 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , thoracic lymph nodes 0.17%, skeleton 18% and liver 13%. Chronic lymphopenia has been one of the earliest biological effects observed. Other effects associated with plutonium exposure included sclerosis of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, focal radiation pneumonitis, adenomatous hyperplasia of the liver and dystrophic osteolytic lesions in the skeleton. In 16 years, mortality due to radiation pneumonitis and/or lung tumor increased with deposition of 24 Bq of 239 PuO 2 . In 15 years, mortality due to lung and/or bone tumors increased with deposition of 96 Bq of 238 PuO 2 . In 11 years, after exposure, mortality due to lung and/or bone tumors increased with deposition of 18 Bq of 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 . Lung cancers appeared to originate in the parenchymal regions of the lungs and were of several types; bronchiolar alveolar carcinoma, papillary adenocarcinomas, adenosquamous carcinoma, and epidermoid carcinoma. Metastases were primarily to the thoracic lymph nodes. Sites of osteosarcomas in the 238 PuO 2 and 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 dogs were in the lumbar cervical and thoracic vertebrae, humerus, pelvis, facial bones, ribs and nasal turbinates. The risk of lung cancer, based on cumulative dose to the lungs, was about 12 times higher for 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 than from inhaled 239 PuO 2 , and 50 times higher than for inhaled 238 PuO 2 . (J.P.N.)

  17. Unpredictable Root Canal Morphology: Expect the Unexpected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohez J Makani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A maxillary first molar with more than four canals is an interesting example of anatomic variations, especially when two of these canals are detected, with separate apical foramen in the distal root. The inability to locate the unexpected canals of various anatomical configuration and subsequently treat them , may lead to therapeutic failures. Endodontic retreatment is usually the modality of choice in such cases. This report describes a case of a maxillary first molar with five canals (two mesial canals in mesial root, two distal canals in two distal roots and a palatal canal in palatal root. Additionally it shows a rare anatomic configuration and emphasizes the importance of identifying additional canals.

  18. The architecture of the extremes cultural landscapes in Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Garcés Feliú

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the relevance of applying the notion of extreme cultural landscape to Tierra del Fuego, as a complementary category to those defined by Unesco. It states that in Chile there are anumber of territories at the margins –in the end, along the border– that have been built as landscapes, specifics and concretes, where the exploitation of natural resources has proved profitable and the building of human settlements as been allowed. This is the case of Tierra del Fuego, considered as a landscape and as a resource, according to Gregotti and Sola-Morales, that has been formed by a human process on the geographical support of Tierra del Fuego, and owes its existence to a process that transformed this territory into a product, placed south of the ice fields, southeast of the Strait of Magellan, in the confines of America, between south latitudes 52 and 55 degrees. On the other hand, reading the area in terms of palimpsest, according to Corboz, brings out several layers to form the extreme landscapes in Tierra del Fuego, considering some key issues including: the nomination of Magellan as extreme and special area by Cideze; the geographical context of Tierra del Fuego, as the exceptional finish of Patagonia and the gateway to Antarctica; the important collection of narratives and maps bequeathed by European explorers who recognized it; the rich cultural legacy of the aboriginal sélknam; and the human settlements, which emerged at the late nineteenth century, setting some recognizable and typical landscapes. In this way, we argued that the extreme cultural landscapes in Tierra del Fuego have been formed in the manner of overlapping layers, like a palimpsest, in a construction that transcends the physical territory, to settle in the Western cultural fantasy as an imaginary of that remote boundary.

  19. Multiple whole body hyperthermia treatments on normal beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geist, B.J.; Gillette, E.L.; Tucker, A.; Robertshaw, D.; Benjamin, S.A.; Macy, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Twelve young adult male castrated beagles were randomized into either a treatment or a control group. The treatment group received 4 consecutive treatments at 1 week intertreatment intervals. A temperature and humidity controlled chamber was used to raise the core temperature to 42 0 C. Time required to raise the core temperature from 38 0 C to 42 0 C was approximately 70 minutes. Dogs were maintained at 42 0 C breathing halothane, 35% O/sub 2/ and 65 0 N/sub 2/ for 2 hours, followed by a 30 minute cool down period during which a shunt determination using 100% O/sub 2/ was done. No significant changes in temperature adjusted blood oxygen tension were noted during hyperthermia. Mean arterial blood pressure dropped an average of 15mm Hg during the 2 hour plateau. Cardiac rhythms remained stable and rates did not exceed 180 beats per minute. Central venous pressure remained stable and within normal range without treatment, 1.0 - 2.5 mm Hg. Dogs regained alertness and ambulation within 3 hours post treatment. No diarrhea was noted. The most significant acute changes appeared to be liver enzyme elevation, total protein decrement and transient changes in platelet and white blood cell counts

  20. Retention of plutonium in the beagle after gastrointestinal absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toohey, R.E.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Oldham, R.D.; Larsen, R.P.; Moretti, E.S.

    1985-01-01

    A 0.01 M bicarbonate solution containing 130 nCi (approx. 5 kBq) of 237 Pu (90% hexavalent, 93% ultrafilterable) was administered via gelatin capsule to six adult male beagles following a 21-hr fast. The dogs were sacrificed after 5-6 weeks and the percentage of the administered plutonium retained in the liver plus skeleton and its distribution within the skeleton were determined. The mean amount retained in these tissues was (0.063 +- 0.006)% of the administered dose. The mean amounts of plutonium in the liver and the skeleton were approximately equal, and the distribution within the skeleton was similar to that observed by other workers following either intravenous injection or inhalation. The value for plutonium retention by the dog is about a factor of three less than the values the authors have reported for rodents. It is a factor of 7 greater than the product of the values for gastrointestinal absorption (f 1 ) and fractional retention (f 2 ) recommended by the ICRP for man

  1. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.; Case, A.C.; Catt, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239 PuO 2 and 238 PuO 2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239 Pu body burden of the nine dogs that died of pulmonary fibrosis-induced respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 yr after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi. One of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor; nine additional dogs with body burdens of 0.6 to 1.8 μCi died due to pulmonary neoplasia 3 to 6 yr after exposure. Two of the dogs exposed to 238 Pu have died during the first 4 yr postexposure, due to bone and lung tumors, with body burdens at death of 10 μCi. Lymphocytopenia was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 , occurring 0.5 to 2 yr after deposition of equal to or greater than 80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  2. Cutaneous papillomatous hyperplasia in cyclosporine-A treated beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, W; Sundberg, J P; Lesko, L J; Sauk, J J; McCleary, L B; Hassell, T M

    1989-08-01

    All twelve Beagle dogs undergoing long-term therapy (26 weeks) with the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine-A (30 mg/kg), developed cutaneous papillomatous hyperplasia. By week 7 all dogs developed generalized lesions distributed over the entire body. These occurred as irregular, oval, sessile, unpigmented, firm masses. The incidence and severity of the skin lesions varied among dogs and anatomic site, with no correlation to the blood level of cyclosporine. Microscopic analysis revealed that the epidermis formed short papillary folds on broad fibrovascular stalks and was hyperkeratotic and acanthotic. Mild hyperplasia of hair follicles and sebaceous glands was also evident. A mild diffuse infiltrate of lymphocytes and plasma cells was present in the papillary dermis. No histopathologic changes typical of papillomavirus infection were identified, nor were papillomavirus group-specific antigens or viral DNA detected. Other cutaneous side effects included hyperkeratosis of footpads, increased growth of hair and nails, and hyperkeratinization of the haired skin of the prepuce. All cutaneous lesions regressed spontaneously within 8 weeks following termination of cyclosporine administration. The hyperplastic lesions may have resulted from the action of cyclosporine via the T-lymphocyte system. Conversely a direct action of this drug on epithelial cells may have stimulated proliferation and keratinization.

  3. Biomedical risks of multiple lung lavages in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; Slauson, D.O.; Halliwell, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    The biomedical risk of a series of 10 lung lavages was evaluated in 10 Beagle dogs. The dogs were divided into three groups: one group of six dogs was given 10 lung lavages over a 49-day period and sacrificed at 77 days of the study; the second group contained two dogs that were controls that were not treated, but sacrificed on day 77 of the study; and the third group contained two dogs that were control dogs that were sacrificed 56 days into the study. The dogs were evaluated by cardiopulmonary function tests, clinical studies, and studies of the tissues at sacrifice. No significant changes were detected in the cardiopulmonary function tests of the dogs in the study. Clinical studies revealed a very mild, transient reaction to some of the lavage procedures. The reaction was mainly mild, scattered, moist rales heard on auscultation of the chest and a slight rise in body temperature. A mild, scattered tissue reaction was also observed on histologic examination of selected lung tissues. The observed tissue reactions did not appear to be chronic, permanent or progressive. Results of this study indicate that multiple lung lavages carry little biomedical risk and that the primary risk is that associated with general anesthesia

  4. Heart sounds analysis via esophageal stethoscope system in beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Hi; Shin, Young Duck; Bae, Jin Ho; Kwon, Eun Jung; Lee, Tae-Soo; Shin, Ji-Yun; Kim, Yeong-Cheol; Min, Gyeong-Deuk; Kim, Myoung hwan

    2013-10-01

    Esophageal stethoscope is less invasive and easy to handling. And it gives a lot of information. The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation of blood pressure and heart sound as measured by esophageal stethoscope. Four male beagles weighing 10 to 12 kg were selected as experimental subjects. After general anesthesia, the esophageal stethoscope was inserted. After connecting the microphone, the heart sounds were visualized and recorded through a self-developed equipment and program. The amplitudes of S1 and S2 were monitored real-time to examine changes as the blood pressure increased and decreased. The relationship between the ratios of S1 to S2 (S1/S2) and changes in blood pressure due to ephedrine was evaluated. The same experiment was performed with different concentration of isoflurane. From S1 and S2 in the inotropics experiment, a high correlation appeared with change in blood pressure in S1. The relationship between S1/S2 and change in blood pressure showed a positive correlation in each experimental subject. In the volatile anesthetics experiment, the heart sounds decreased as MAC increased. Heart sounds were analyzed successfully with the esophageal stethoscope through the self-developed program and equipment. A proportional change in heart sounds was confirmed when blood pressure was changed using inotropics or volatile anesthetics. The esophageal stethoscope can achieve the closest proximity to the heart to hear sounds in a non-invasive manner.

  5. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in Beagle dogs. XVIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The metabolism, dosimetry, and biological effects of inhaled 91 YCl 3 were studied in Beagle dogs. Forty-two dogs with initial 91 Y body burdens from 14 to 1300 μCi/kg (0.52-48 MBq/kg) body weight and 12 control dogs were observed during their life spans. Four additional dogs with a mean initial body burden of 180 μCi 91 Y/kg (6.7 MBq/kg) body weight were placed in a sacrifice study. All 46 of the exposed dogs and all 12 of the control dogs have died. Dogs with the highest initial body burdens died with bone marrow damage and pancytopenia. Of the dogs dying of late-occurring effects, three died with nasal cavity carcinomas, three died with pulmonary carcinomas, and one died with hepatic hemangiosarcoma. These cancers all appeared to be related to radiation injury. Control dogs died of miscellaneous neoplastic and chronic diseases. 1 reference, 1 figure, 3 tables

  6. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in beagle dogs. X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Benjamin, S.A.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry, and effects of inhaled 91 YCl 3 in Beagle dogs are being continued to provide information that will aid in assessing the biological consequences of nuclear accidents in which 91 Y or other radionuclides that produce a similar radiation dose pattern may be released. Forty-two dogs with 91 Y initial body burdens from 64 to 1300 μCi/kg body weight were placed in four groups with mean lung burdens of 310, 180, 75 and 40 μCi/kg body weight. These dogs and 12 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. An additional group of four dogs with a mean initial 91 Y body burden of 180 μCi/kg body weight were placed in a sacrifice study. Eleven dogs within the highest activity level groups died or were euthanized at 12 to 33 days after inhalation of 91 Y with changes related to severe bone marrow damage and associated pancytopenia. Two dogs died approximately 1 yr after 91 Y inhalation with convulsive seizures that were presumed to be unrelated to the 91 Y exposure. Five 91 Y-exposed dogs died or were euthanized due to neoplasms 2000 to 3341 days after exposure. Three dogs had nasal squamous cell carcinomas, one had a bronchioloalveolar carcinoma and another, a mast cell sarcoma. One dog died of renal failure 2660 days after exposure and one control dog died of empyema. Serial observations are continuing on all surviving dogs

  7. Pharmacokinetics of BMEDA after Intravenous Administration in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsien Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacokinetics of N,N-bis(2-mercapatoethly-N',N'-diethylenediamine (BMEDA, a molecule that can form a chelate with rhenium-188 (188Re to produce the 188Re-BMEDA-liposomes, was studied. In this work, beagles received a single injection of BMEDA, at doses of 1, 2, or 5 mg/kg; the concentration of BMEDA in the beagles’ plasma was then analyzed and determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Based on the pharmacokinetic parameters of BMEDA, we found that male and female animals shared similar patterns indicating that the pharmacokinetics of BMEDA is independent of gender differences. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of BMEDA was seen to be non-linear because the increase of mean AUC0–t and AUC0–∞ values tend to be greater than dose proportional while the mean Vss and CL values of BMEDA appeared to be dose dependent. The information on the pharmacokinetics of BMEDA generated from this study will serve as a basis to design appropriate pharmacology and toxicology studies for future human use.

  8. Effect of diet and tylosin on chronic diarrhea in beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermarck, Elias; Frias, Rafael; Skrzypczak, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    Seven beagles in a colony of dogs had chronic diarrhea for at least 30 days. The dogs were subsequently treated with tylosin 20 mg/kg BW q24h PO for 10 days. During the treatment period, the feces became firmer but remained loose. When the treatment was discontinued, the diarrhea reappeared in 3 weeks. The feces remained abnormally loose in all dogs treated with metronidazole, trimethoprim-sulfadiazine, or doxycycline and prednisone. The diet was then changed for 10 days from a highly digestible moist pet food to a dry food developed for normal adult dogs. The feces again became firmer, although still loose in some dogs. The period was then extended to 3 month, but the fecal consistency continued to fluctuate from ideal to diarrhea. The dogs were treated a 2nd time with tylosin 20 mg/kg BW q24h PO for 10 days. The feces then became significantly firmer and remained so throughout a 3-month follow-up. We conclude that the combination of diet and tylosin was more effective than either agent alone in control of chronic diarrhea.

  9. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in beagle dogs. VII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Benjamin, S.A.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1974-01-01

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry, and effects of inhaled 91 YCl 3 in Beagle dogs are being continued to provide information that will aid in assessing the biological consequences of nuclear accidents in which 91 Y or other radionuclides that produce a similar radiation dose pattern may be released. Forty-two dogs with 91 Y initial body burdens from 64 to 1300 μCi/kg body weight were placed in four groups with mean lung burdens of 310, 180, 75, and 40 μCi/kg body weight. These dogs and 12 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. An additional group of four dogs with a mean initial 91 Y body burden of 180 μCi/kg body weight were placed in a sacrifice study. Eleven dogs within the highest activity level groups died or were euthanized at 12 to 33 days after inhalation of 91 Y with changes related to severe bone marrow damage and associated paycytopenia. Two dogs died approximately one year after 91 Y inhalation with convulsive seizures that were presumed to be unrelated to the 91 Y exposure. Four 91 Y-exposed dogs died or were euthanized due to neoplasms 2000 to 2560 days after exposure. Two dogs had squamous cell carcinomas involving the maxillary and nasal regions, one a bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma of the lung and another, a mast cell sarcoma. One control dog died of empyema. Serial observations are continuing on all surviving dogs. (U.S.)

  10. Development of the canine tooth in the beagle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amimoto, A.; Iwamoto, S.; Hachimura, H.; Miyamoto, T.; Murata, T.; Taura, Y.; Nakama, S.; Hayashi, K.

    1993-01-01

    The growth of the crown and root in the canine tooth of beagle dogs were observed macroscopically and radiographically, and changes of occlusion with age were investigated. Completion of growth in the crown of the canine tooth was observed in both mandible and maxilla, and its eruption was accompanied by development of the dental root. The permanent canine erupted on the lingual side of deciduous canine in the mandible, and on the mesial side of the deciduous canine in the maxilla. Movement of the permanent canine to normal occlusal position(buccal direction in mandibular canine, and distal direction in maxillary canine)was followed by the loss of the deciduous canine. Coexistence of the permanent and deciduous canines occurred for about 2.4 weeks in the maxilla and about 1.4 weeks in the mandible, on average. Macroscopically, the growth of the permanent canine was completed by 33 weeks of age in the mandible and about 34 weeks of age in the maxilla. The mature root of the permanent canine was recognized radiographically at about 43 weeks of age in the mandible and 47 weeks of age in the maxilla

  11. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.; Case, A.C.; Catt, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239 PuO 2 and 238 PuO 2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239 Pu body burden of the nine dogs that died of pulmonary-fibrosis-induced respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 yr after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi; one of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor. Seventeen additional dogs, with body burdens of 0.2 to 1.8 μCi, died due to pulmonary neoplasia 3 to 8 yr after exposure. Ten of the dogs exposed to 238 Pu have died during the first 5 1/2 yr postexposure due to bone and/or lung tumors; the body burden at death ranged from 1.5 to 10 μCi. Lymphopenia was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 , occurring 0.5 to 2 yr after deposition of >80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  12. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.; Busch, R.H.; Case, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239 PuO 2 and 238 PuO 2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239 Pu body burden of the nine dogs that dies of pulmonary fibrosis-induced respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 yr after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi; one of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor. Eleven additional dogs with body burdens of 0.6 to 1.8 μCi died due to pulmonary neoplasia 3 to 7 yr after exposure. Four of the dogs exposed to 238 Pu have died during the first 4 1/2 yr postexposure due to bone and/or lung tumors; the body burden at death ranged from 6 to 10 μCi. Lymphopenia was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 , occurring 0.5 to 2 yr after deposition of greater than or equal to 80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  13. Visión de la Concentración de la Tierra en América Latina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Kay (Cristóbal)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractEn este breve artículo presento de manera muy general y esquemática algunos aspectos sobre la concentración de la tierra en América Latina. No pretendo hacer un análisis detallado y completo sobre la problemática de la tierra en la región. Pero espero poder resaltar algunos factores que

  14. Increased myocardial infarct size because of reduced coronary collateral blood flow in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, N.; Knight, D.R.; Shen, Y.T.; Nejima, J.; Cohen, M.V.; Thomas, J.X. Jr.; Vatner, S.F.

    1989-01-01

    Effects of permanent left circumflex coronary artery occlusion (CAO) were examined in conscious purebred beagles and mongrel dogs, instrumented with miniature left ventricular (LV) pressure gauges, wall thickness gauges in the ischemic zone, catheters in left atrium and aorta, and snares around the left circumflex coronary artery. Blood flow was measured using the radioactive microsphere technique before CAO and at 5 min, 1, 3, and 24 h after CAO. Although CAO reduced myocardial blood flow similarly in beagles and mongrels, significantly less (P less than 0.05) recovery of myocardial blood flow was observed over the following 24-h period in beagles. Infarct size, as determined by triphenyltetrazolium chloride and expressed as percentage of area at risk, was larger (P less than 0.05) in beagles (62.0 ± 5.1%) than mongrels (42.5 ± 4.2%). Thus beagles do not tolerate ischemia as well as mongrel dogs and possess fewer functional coronary collaterals resulting in larger infarcts after CAO

  15. Desplazamiento forzado y propiedad de la tierra en Antioquia, 1996-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Felipe Gaviria

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El desplazamiento forzoso es un fenómeno mundial que ha acompañado crisis políticas y sociales, relacionado, además, con el dominio del territorio por parte de los grupos inmersos en el conflicto. En Colombia, este fenómeno social se ha incrementado en los últimos años, junto con problemas agrarios, sociales y productivos. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la relación existente entre el desplazamiento forzado y los procesos de concentración de la tierra en Antioquia entre 1996-2004. Se encuentra que existe una relación positiva entre propiedad de la tierra y desplazamiento forzado; en especial en Urabá y Oriente, subregiones antioqueñas con la producción agrícola más importante.

  16. Efecto de la impermeabilidad del Mucílago de Nopal en bloques de tierra comprimidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Guadalupe Aranda Jiménez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La arquitectura de tierra1 es conocida desde hace siglos, sin embargo, actualmente es poco utilizada comparado con los sistemas constructivos comunes. Los bloques de tierra comprimido (BTC son elementos constructivos con un potencial elevado para ser utilizado en las construcciones de vivienda en México, principalmente por su similitud con los bloques tradicionales, siendo conveniente mejorar sus características a partir de un estabilizante. Se realizó el estudio de BTC estabilizados con cemento y una sustancia proveniente de las pencas maduras de nopal. Se encontró que al añadir mucílago de nopal se observa un incremento significativo de la resistencia a la compresión húmeda y seca, lo cual estar relacionado con una disminución de la porosidad; se ofrecen algunas relaciones del efecto del mucílago en el sólido analizado.

  17. Design of earth network in electric substations; Diseno de redes de tierra en subestaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raull-Martin, J. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a summarized version of the different types of construction of grounding systems, as web as their materials and formulas, which are necessary and useful for the design and building of a grounding network for medium to high voltage facilities. A description is also made of how to determine the electrical resistivity of subsoil layers with different physical characteristics. Several illustrative examples are also solved in the paper. [Spanish] El proposito de este articulo es presentar de manera resumida los diferentes tipos de construccion de los sistemas de tierra, asi como sus materiales y formulas, los cuales son necesarios y utiles para el diseno y edificacion de una red de tierra para instalaciones de mediana y alta tension. Se describe tambien la obtencion de las diferentes resistividades que presentan los terrenos con diversas caracteristicas fisicas. Asi mismo, se solucionan ejercicios ilustrativos a lo largo del articulo.

  18. Cultural Tourism In Fragile Institutional Contexts Project For Cultural Routes In Tierra Del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Garcés Feliú

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The following paper presents a project of Cultural Routes designed for the Chilean Tierra del Fuego, linked to promoting tourism and boosting the economy, through the development of a specific high standard tourism offer, linked to its natural and cultural heritage, with the purpose of capturing the potential income generation for Chile. The project had as main goal to enhance the competitiveness of the tourism sector of special interests in Tierra del Fuego, a key sector of Southern Patagonia, through the dissemination and transfer of technologies and knowledge, acquired in over 10 years of research and projects, onto the territory and local agents. These Cultural Routes build an innovative offer, capable of structuring the diverse touristic resources and strengthening the basis for the development of a new stage of national and international tourism market, located on the southern extreme of Chile and America.

  19. Arquitectura de tierra -histórica y moderna- en Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galdieri, Eugenio

    1986-02-01

    Full Text Available This work about the history of mud constructions in Italy -both of brick and formwork- gives an exposition of geographical zones where those are located, the kind of uses so as their possible historic origins, among which the author points the strong connections with Spanish adobe constructions, both in Cagliars (Aragonese influence and in Oristano (Castilian influence.El trabajo de carácter histórico sobre las construcciones con tierra en Italia, tanto de adobe como de tapial presenta una panorámica de las zonas geográficas en las que se encuentran enclavadas, así como el tipo de usos y posibles orígenes históricos, entre los que el autor señala los fuertes vínculos con las construcciones de tierra españolas, tanto en Cagliaria (influencia aragonesa como en Oristano (influencia castellana.

  20. Bryophyte diversity patterns in flooded and tierra firme forests in the Araracuara Region, Colombian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Benavides, Juan C.; Idarraga, Alvaro; Alvarez, Esteban

    2004-01-01

    We investigated patterns of bryophyte species richness and composition in two forest types of Colombian Amazonia, non-flooded tierra firme forest and floodplain forest of the Caquetá River. A total of 109 bryophyte species were recorded from 14 0.2 ha plots. Bryophyte life forms and habitats were analyzed, including the canopy and epiphylls. Bryophyte species did not show significant differences between landscapes but mosses and liverworts were different and with opposite responses balancing ...

  1. Quantification of brown dog tick repellents, 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde, and release from tick-resistant beagles, Canis lupus familiaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have recently shown that repellency of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato by the tick resistant dog breed Beagle is mediated by volatile organic compounds 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde present in Beagle dog odour. Ectoparasite location on animal hosts is affected by variation in odour com...

  2. La adecuación de tierras en el departamento de Antioquia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arango T. Julio César

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Los programas estatales de adecuación de tierras en Colombia comenzaron a partir de la década del 50, durante la cual se emprendió la construcción de infraestructuras básicas para el riego, el drenaje y el control de inundaciones. Las inversiones efectuadas por distintas entidades que en el país han tenido que ver con el Sector de la Adecuación de Tierras han sido cuantiosas y con ellas, se beneficiaron durante muchos años, los agricultores situados en distintas zonas planas de los departamentos del Tolima, Boyacá, Magdalena, Valle del Cauca entre otros. Antioquia durante este mismo tiempo, no se favoreció de esos recursos, por la carencia de políticas estatales en el Sector de la Adecuación de Tierras, solamente a partir de 1983, con el montaje por parte del HIMAT del Programa Nacional de Pequeña Irrigación, comienzan a solucionarse los problemas de manejo del agua para el riego de los cultivos en distintas veredas de Antioquia. Hoy se dispone de 29 distritos de riego en pequeña escala, los cuales corresponden a una superficie total de 3.759 ha, en las cuales, se benefician 1.510 familias campesinas.

  3. Radium retention in mature beagles injected at 5 years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.D.; Bruenger, F.W.; Jones, C.W.; Taylor, G.N.; Mays, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    Retention of 226 Ra was substantially lower in mature beagles injected at 5 years of age compared to corresponding values for 1 1/2-year-old young adult beagles. As with young adults, average retention in mature dogs given about 10 μCi/kg exceeded that of mature dogs given 4 μCi/kg or less. Measured 222 Rn/ 226 Ra ratios in bone were similar in mature and young adults. About 66% of the injected radium was excreted by mature dogs during the first 3 weeks, about 2/3 of the total excretion appearing in the feces. Distribution of 226 Ra within the skeleton was similar in mature and young adult beagles

  4. The early pathology and image study of percutaneous laser disc decompression in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Shunming; Ding Shiyi; You Jian; Mu Wei; Hu Jun; Li Qiang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the cause, influencing factor and possible solving method of transient adverse reactions during the operation. Methods: Sixteen healthy beagles were undergone virtual PLDD. The changes of vertebral discs and the surrounding tissues were observed by high resolution CT and MRI at different periods after the operation, and the same investigation procedure was carried out after the sacrifice of beagles. Results: The beagles of the conventional vaporization group occasionally had limb tic and whining in the operations. Pieces of necrosis and edema could be found in the tissues of intervertebral foramen at the paracentetic side. The histological changes in the negative pressure suction group were less than those in the conventional group. Conclusion: The reversible damages of the surrounding tissuses were observed in the conventional group and continuing negative pressure suction during the operations can prevent the damages to the surrounding tissues, all of the changes could be clearly displayed by CT and MRI scan. (authors)

  5. Beagle puppy model of intraventricular hemorrhage: ethamsylate studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ment, L R; Stewart, W B; Duncan, C C

    1984-02-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) remains a major problem of preterm neonates, and ethamsylate, an inhibitor of specific prostaglandin-synthetic enzymes has been demonstrated to prevent IVH in these patients. We have examined the effects of ethamsylate on newborn beagle pups who were, by randomized computerized design, assigned to four cells consisting of (a) either ethamsylate or saline pretreatment and (b) either insulted or not insulted with hemorrhagic hypovolemia/volume re-expansion. Prostaglandin levels were obtained prior to and thirty minutes following administration of the solutions and 14C iodoantipyrine autoradiography was performed for cerebral blood flow (CBF) determinations. Ethamsylate produced a significant decrease in the incidence of IVH in this model (p less than 0.05). Following drug administration, ethamsylate-pretreated pups had significant declines in thromboxane B2 and 6-keto PGF1 alpha levels, the major breakdown products of thromboxane A2 and prostacyclin. Although ethamsylate significantly lowered baseline CBF in all brain regions examined in insulted and non-insulted pups (p less than 0.05), in the drug-treated group it did not prevent the changes seen in CBF to the germinal matrix region which were detected in the saline-pretreated pups. Nor did it significantly blunt the blood pressure changes in response to the hemorrhagic hypovolemia/volume re-expansion insult found in the latter group of animals. In addition, only ethamsylate pretreated pups had marked hypotensive responses to the reperfusion phase of the insult. Although the diminution of baseline CBF may contribute to the prevention of neonatal IVH which this drug has been demonstrated to exhibit, ethamsylate may also act as a capillary stabilizing agent.

  6. Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy in beagle dogs: evaluation of a microsurgical technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meij, B. P. [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Voorhout, G.; Ingh, T.S.G.A.M. van den; Hazewinkel, H. A.W.; Verlaat, J.W. van ' t

    1997-07-15

    Objective-Assessment of a microsurgical technique for transsphenoidalhypophysectomy in dogs. Study Design-Prospective study using physicalexamination, pituitary function testing, computed tomography (CT), and histological examination at autopsy. Animals or Sample Population-Eight laboratory beagle dogs. Methods-Pituitary function was assessed before and at 10 weeks after hypophysectomy by combined administration of four releasing hormones (anterior pituitary), administration of haloperidol (pars intermedia), and infusion of hypertonic saline (posterior pituitary). Results-CT imaging enabled accurate preoperative localization of the pituitary. Appropriate positioning and surgical technique facilitated exposure of the pituitary and its extraction without hemorrhage. Postoperative recovery was generally uncomplicated. None of the eight dogs had somatotropic. gonadotropic, lactotropic, melanotropic, or posterior pituitary responses to stimulation at 10 weeks after hypophysectomy. Four dogs (ACTH nonresponders) also had no corticotropicresponse and four (ACTH responders) bad small but significant responses in the combined anterior pituitary function test. Adrenocortical atrophy was more pronounced in the ACTH nonresponders than in the responders. No residual pituitary tissue was found along the ventral hypothalamic diencephalon but nests of pituitary cells were found embedded infibrous tissue in the sella turcica. Conclusions-The surgical technique proved to be safe and effective. Microscopic nests of pituitary cells in the sella turcica may be responsible for residual corticotropic response to hypophysiotropic stimulation after hypophysectomy. Clinical Relevance-The surgical technique may be used in the treatment of dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. The corticotropic response is the most sensitive criterion in assessing completeness of hypophysectomy in dogs. (C) Copyright 1997 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  7. Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy in beagle dogs: evaluation of a microsurgical technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meij, B.P.; Voorhout, G.; Ingh, T.S.G.A.M. van den; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.; Verlaat, J.W. van 't

    1997-01-01

    Objective-Assessment of a microsurgical technique for transsphenoidalhypophysectomy in dogs. Study Design-Prospective study using physicalexamination, pituitary function testing, computed tomography (CT), and histological examination at autopsy. Animals or Sample Population-Eight laboratory beagle dogs. Methods-Pituitary function was assessed before and at 10 weeks after hypophysectomy by combined administration of four releasing hormones (anterior pituitary), administration of haloperidol (pars intermedia), and infusion of hypertonic saline (posterior pituitary). Results-CT imaging enabled accurate preoperative localization of the pituitary. Appropriate positioning and surgical technique facilitated exposure of the pituitary and its extraction without hemorrhage. Postoperative recovery was generally uncomplicated. None of the eight dogs had somatotropic. gonadotropic, lactotropic, melanotropic, or posterior pituitary responses to stimulation at 10 weeks after hypophysectomy. Four dogs (ACTH nonresponders) also had no corticotropicresponse and four (ACTH responders) bad small but significant responses in the combined anterior pituitary function test. Adrenocortical atrophy was more pronounced in the ACTH nonresponders than in the responders. No residual pituitary tissue was found along the ventral hypothalamic diencephalon but nests of pituitary cells were found embedded infibrous tissue in the sella turcica. Conclusions-The surgical technique proved to be safe and effective. Microscopic nests of pituitary cells in the sella turcica may be responsible for residual corticotropic response to hypophysiotropic stimulation after hypophysectomy. Clinical Relevance-The surgical technique may be used in the treatment of dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. The corticotropic response is the most sensitive criterion in assessing completeness of hypophysectomy in dogs. (C) Copyright 1997 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons

  8. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in beagle dogs. XI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Rebar, A.H.; Benjamin, S.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry and effects of inhaled 91 YCl 3 in Beagle dogs are being continued to provide information that will aid in assessing the biological consequences of nuclear accidents in which 91 Y or other radionuclides that produce a similar radiation dose pattern may be released. Forty-two dogs with 91 Y initial body burdens from 64 to 1300 μCi/kg body weight were placed in four groups with mean lung burdens of 310, 180, 75 and 40 μCi/kg body weight. These dogs and 12 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. An additional group of four dogs with a mean initial 91 Y body burden of 180 μCi/kg body weight were placed in a sacrifice study. Twenty-one of the exposed dogs have died and two of the control dogs have died. Eleven dogs within the highest activity level groups died or were euthanized at 12 to 33 days after inhalation of 91 Y with changes related to severe bone marrow damage and associated pancytopenia. Two dogs died approximately one year after 91 Y inhalation with convulsive seizures that were presumed to be unrelated to the 91 Y exposure. Seven 91 Y-exposed dogs died or were euthanized due to neoplasms 2000 to 3341 days after exposure. Three dogs had nasal squamous cell carcinomas, one had a bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, one, a mast cell sarcoma, one a mammary adenocarcinoma and one with a malignant lymphoma. One dog died of renal failure 2660 days after exposure, one control dog died of empyema and another control dog died with a mammary adenocarcinoma. Serial observations are continuing on all surviving dogs

  9. Absorption and pharmacokinetics of grapefruit flavanones in beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Bilbao, Maria de Lourdes; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina; Roura, Elena; Jáuregui, Olga; Escribano, Elvira; Torre, Celina; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa Maria

    2007-07-01

    The present study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of three different grapefruit flavanone forms in dog plasma and demonstrated their absorption after an oral intake of a grapefruit extract; pharmacokinetic parameters of these forms were also determined. Ten healthy beagles were administered 70 mg citrus flavonoids as a grapefruit extract contained in capsules, while two additional dogs were used as controls and given an excipient. The grapefruit flavanone naringin, along with its metabolites naringenin and naringenin glucuronide, was detected in dog plasma. Blood samples were collected between 0 and 24 h after administration of the extract. Naringin reached its maximun plasma concentration at around 80 min, whereas naringenin and naringenin glucuronide reached their maximun plasma concentrations at around 20 and 30 min, respectively. Maximum plasma concentrations of naringin, naringenin and naringenin glucuronide (medians and ranges) were 0.24 (0.05-2.08), 0.021 (0.001-0.3) and 0.09 (0.034-0.12) micromol/l, respectively. The areas under the curves were 23.16 l (14.04-70.62) min x micromol/for nariningin, 1.78 (0.09-4.95) min x micromol/l for naringenin and 22.5 (2.74-99.23) min x micromol/l for naringenin glucuronide. The median and range values for mean residence time were 3.3 (1.5-9.3), 2.8 (0.8-11.2) and 8.0 (2.3-13.1) h for naringin, naringenin and naringenin glucuronide, respectively. The results of the present study demonstrate the absorption of grapefruit flavanones via the presence of their metabolites in plasma, thus making an important contribution to the field since the biological activities ascribed to these compounds rely on their specific forms of absorption.

  10. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in Beagle dogs. XII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Rebar, A.H.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry and effects of inhaled 91 YCl 3 in Beagle dogs are being continued to provide information that will aid in assessing the biological consequences of nuclear accidents in which 91 Y or other radionuclides that produce a similar radiation dose pattern may be released. Forty-two dogs with 91 Y initial body burdens from 64 to 1300 μCi/kg body weight was placed in four groups with mean lung burdens of 310, 180, 75 and 40 μCi/kg body weight. These dogs and 12 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. An additional group of four dogs with a mean initial 91 Y body burden of 180 μCi/kg body weight was placed in a sacrifice study. Twenty-six of the exposed dogs and four of the control dogs have died. Eleven dogs within the highest activity level groups died or were euthanized at 12 to 33 days after inhalation of 91 Y with changes related to severe bone marrow damage and associated pancytopenia. Two dogs died approximately one year after 91 Y inhalation with convulsive seizures that were presumed to be unrelated to the 91 Y exposure. Nine 91 Y-exposed dogs died or were euthanized due to neoplasms 2012 to 4115 days after exposure. Three dogs had nasal squamous cell carcinomas, one had a bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, one a mast cell sarcoma, one a mammary adenocarcinoma, one a malignant lymphoma, one a melanosarcoma in the mouth and one heart base tumor. Two dogs died of renal failure 2663 and 4086 days after exposure. One dog died with autoimmune hemolytic anemia 3888 days after exposure and one died with congestive heart failure 4042 days after inhalation exposure. One control dog died of empyema, another control dog died with a mammary adenocarcinoma, one died with congestive heart failure and one with malabsorption syndrome. Serial observations are continuing on all surviving dogs

  11. Toxicity of 239Pu and 226Ra in young adult beagles: risk estimate in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    The overall objective of this research program is to predict the risk to humans following exposure to 239 Pu. The beagle was originally selected for this program because it is relatively long-lived and has skeletal functions and structure analogous to young adults humans, simulating that of a young adult radium dial painter or occupationally exposed person. Young adult (17 month-old) beagles from the moderately inbred colony at the University of Utah were administered one intravenous injection of 239 Pu (0.0007-2.88 μCi/kg in 238 dogs) or 226 Ra (0.007-10.4 μCi/kg in 119 dogs), and compared to appropriate age-matched control beagles. All beagles have been and are being observed clinically throughout their expected 12 to 15 year post-injection lifespan. A thorough clinical and post-mortem survey is conducted to determine causes of death or lesions at death. The clinical findings are being encoded using SNOMED terminology and entered into a computerized database. All beagles in the 226 Ra study are dead and the data are being analyzed and published. The shape of the curve for dose vs. bone tumor incidence is highly linear up to average skeletal doses of 2200 rads. In higher dose groups, the time to tumor appearance is decreased and skeletal tumors occur in almost all animals. The 226 Ra response is being compared with the 239 Pu response in beagles. This toxicity ratio will allow use of the bone tumor response in the radium dial painters to predict the toxicity of plutonium for bone tumor induction in man

  12. Características y Problemas de Tenencia de la Tierra en el Sector Agropecuario Colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobón Restrepo Arturo

    1964-12-01

    Full Text Available El término “Tenencia” es bastante amplio, pues relaciona la posesión física de un bien sin importar la legitimidad en el dominio de él. En cuanto a la posesión nuestro Código Civil (3 estipula: "La posesión es la tenencia de una cosa determinada con ánimo de señor o dueño, sea que el dueño o el que se la da por tal tenga la cosa por sí misma, o por otra persona que la tenga en lugar y a nombre de él". Para nuestro fin concretemos únicamente en el aspecto de la tierra. El presente estudio se encauza hacia la economía agrícola y la administración rural, más que al aspecto jurídico de la tenencia de la tierra Es bien sabido que en el sistema económico cada factor de producción encierra numerosas especificaciones, además el uso de uno de ellos .implica la combinación en el uso de los demás. Es por ello que al hablar de solución a un problema no se debe decir que se llegue a salvar los obstáculos que impiden el desarrollo económico en el panorama nacional ya que la tenencia de la tierra es un rubro dentro de los muchos con que cuenta el factor tierra. Es claro, que no podría separarse por completo el concepto de tenencia de la tierra de las demás circunstancias de carácter económico en todos sus aspectos; pero las consideraciones que se harán en el transcurso del presente trabajo serán tomadas con cierta tendencia individualista hacia el tema en mención.

  13. TECNOLOGÍAS DE TRATAMIENTO PARA LA TIERRA FULLER CONTAMINADA CON ACEITE DIELÉCTRICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Darío Beltrán Pérez

    Full Text Available Desde hace algunos años en Colombia se vienen implementando convenios y normas para el adecuado manejo y disposición final de los residuos peligrosos, debido a que la cantidad generada cada vez va en aumento y al impacto adverso que estos residuos presentan en el ser humano y el medio ambiente. La tierra Fuller es un material inorgánico adsorbente (mineral de aluminosilicatos principalmente, utilizado en la industria eléctrica para la regeneración del aceite dieléctrico, un derivado del petróleo empleado como aislante eléctrico y térmico en los transformadores de potencia. Después del proceso de regeneración del aceite, el contenido de hidrocarburos del tipo poliaromáticos (o los PAH por sus siglas en inglés que presenta la tierra Fuller la convierten en un residuo peligroso que requiere de un adecuado tratamiento, para que reduzca su contaminación y permita su reutilización o segura disposición final en un relleno sanitario. Por esto, en este artículo se revisan las tecnologías disponibles para el tratamiento de este tipo de residuo peligroso (tierra Fuller contaminada con aceite dieléctrico, dividiendo los tratamientos en dos corrientes, las tecnologías fisicoquímicas y las biológicas, explorando las alternativas más apropiadas y eficientes para su tratamiento. La escasa información acerca de los tratamientos existentes para la tierra Fuller contaminada con aceite dieléctrico han orientado la revisión en términos de las tecnologías implementadas en suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos siendo válida la analogía debido a las similares características físicas que presenta la tierra Fuller con respecto a un suelo de bajo contenido de carbono.

  14. Real-time implementation of logo detection on open source BeagleBoard

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M.; Kehtarnavaz, N.; Estevez, L.

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents the real-time implementation of our previously developed logo detection and tracking algorithm on the open source BeagleBoard mobile platform. This platform has an OMAP processor that incorporates an ARM Cortex processor. The algorithm combines Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) with k-means clustering, online color calibration and moment invariants to robustly detect and track logos in video. Various optimization steps that are carried out to allow the real-time execution of the algorithm on BeagleBoard are discussed. The results obtained are compared to the PC real-time implementation results.

  15. Abundancia y Biomasa de Lombrices de Tierra en dos Ecosistemas Intervenidos del Bosque Trópica l Húmedo, Bluefields Las lombrices de tierra son el intestino de la tierra Gilbert White, 1789.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Luna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Muchos estudios han demostrado que las lombrices de tierra (Anelidae son el componente más abundante de la macrofauna del suelo y desempeñan funciones ecológicas dentro de él.El objetivo fue evaluar la abundancia y biomasa de lombrices de tierra en dos hábitats del bosque tropical húmedo con diferentes usos de suelo en la ciudad de Bluefields, Región Autónoma Atlántico Sur (RAAS. En cada hábitat se seleccionaron dos micro-hábitats: uno con sombra y otro sin sombra y en cada uno se delimitaron tres subparcelas de 1pie2 cada una, y una profundidad de 10 cm, ubicadas al azar y a una distancia mínima de 15 m entre sí.Cada muestra de suelo se tamizó y se extrajeron, se midieron y se pesaron los individuos por subparcela. El número de lombrices registradas fue mayor en el hábitat de área reforestada que en el hábitat de bosque, pero ocurrió lo contrario con respecto al tamaño promedio de los individuos.La mayor disponibilidad de materia orgánica en el bosque puede explicar el mayor tamaño de los individuos en este sitio.En aquellos suelos que han sufrido alteraciones antrópicas, como en el campus universitario, las comunidades de lombrices han experimentado cambios extremos denotando así una mala salud; sin embargo, estas comunidades se están recuperando, especialmente en los microhabitats con sombra.

  16. La función económica social: un medio para el acceso y conservación de la tenencia de la tierra en Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Bejarano Torrejón, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    La tenencia de la tierra constituye un factor importante en la estructura productiva y de desarrollo de los Estados, por cuanto el equilibrio entre las fuerzas productivas denominadas tierra y hombre constituyen la base para un desarrollo armónico del área rural lo cual impacta también en el desarrollo del mismo Estado; así la tenencia de la tierra es la relación entre la cantidad de tierra existente en un determinado Estado y su población, mediando su ocupación o posesión. El principio ag...

  17. Old beagle dogs have lower faecal concentrations of some fermentation products and lower peripheral lymphocyte counts than young adult beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Márcia de Oliveira Sampaio; Beraldo, Mariana Casteleti; Putarov, Thaila Cristina; Brunetto, Márcio Antônio; Zaine, Leandro; Glória, Maria Beatriz Abreu; Carciofi, Aulus Cavalieri

    2011-10-01

    The effects of age on microbiota composition, gut fermentation end-product formation and peripheral lymphocyte numbers were compared between old and young adult Beagle dogs fed four kibble diets differing in yeast cell wall contents. The experiment had a double 4 × 4 Latin square design, one with four mature dogs (4 years old) and the other with four old dogs (10 years old), with four replicates (diets) per dog. In each period a 15 d adaptation period preceded a 5 d total collection of faeces for the digestibility trial. On day 21, fresh faecal samples were collected for the determination of bacterial enumeration, pH, biogenic amine and short-chain fatty acid. Flow cytometry was used for immunophenotypic evaluation. Dogs were fed four kibble diets with similar composition with 0, 0.15, 0.30 and 0.45 % of yeast cell wall (as-fed), respectively. Data were evaluated using general linear models of Statistical Analysis Systems statistical software (P 0.15). Faecal concentrations of butyrate, histamine, agmatine and spermine were lower (P ≤ 0.05) and faecal pH was higher (P = 0.03) in older dogs than in mature adult dogs, suggesting an alteration in bacterial metabolic activity, or in the rate of intestinal absorption of these compounds. Concentrations of T-lymphocytes, T-cytotoxic lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes were also lower (P ≤ 0.01) in older dogs than in mature adult dogs. The study confirmed alterations in peripheral lymphocytes and revealed a reduced concentration of some fermentation end products in the colon of old dogs.

  18. Retention of Root Canal Posts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, A; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Flury, S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the cement film thickness of a zinc phosphate or a resin cement on retention of untreated and pretreated root canal posts. Prefabricated zirconia posts (CosmoPost: 1.4 mm) and two types of luting cements (a zinc phosphate cement [DeTrey Zinc...... received tribochemical silicate coating according to the manufacturer's instructions. Posts were then luted in the prepared root canals (n=30 per group). Following water storage at 37°C for seven days, retention of the posts was determined by the pull-out method. Irrespective of the luting cement......, pretreatment with tribochemical silicate coating significantly increased retention of the posts. Increased cement film thickness resulted in decreased retention of untreated posts and of pretreated posts luted with zinc phosphate cement. Increased cement film thickness had no influence on retention...

  19. Scalloping at the lumbosacral canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, R.

    1987-07-01

    Scalloping is an indentation of the dorsal side of the vertebral body (anterior wall of the lumbosacral or sacral canal) which typically involves several adjacent lumbal vertebral body segments and the anterior wall of the canalis sacralis. Occurrence without underlying disease is rare; it occurs most frequently with chondrodystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Morquio's syndrome, Hurler's syndrome, acromegaly, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, cysts, tumors and in peridural lipomas.

  20. Scalloping at the lumbosacral canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt, R.

    1987-01-01

    Scalloping is an indentation of the dorsal side of the vertebral body (anterior wall of the lumbosacral or sacral canal) which typically involves several adjacent lumbal vertebral body segments and the anterior wall of the canalis sacralis. Occurrence without underlying disease is rare; it occurs most frequently with chondrodystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Morquio's syndrome, Hurler's syndrome, acromegaly, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, cysts, tumors and in peridural lipomas. (orig.) [de

  1. Effects of lifetime ingestion of 90Sr in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Book, S.A.; Spangler, W.L.; Swartz, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    To investigate the effects of lifetime 90 Sr ingestion, fifteen beagle dogs were fed the equivalent of 1.3, 4.0, and 12.0 μCi 90 Sr. Exposures prior to weaning were made by maternal administration of one of the same 90 Sr levels, begining at 21 days of gestation. Median survival was 12.5 years for the 1.3 μCi/day group, 6.5 years for the 4 μCi/day group, and 5.2 years of the 12 μCi/day group, compared to unirradiated control values of 14.5 to 15 years. The normal life span of more than half of the 1.3 μCi/day group is remarkable, considering they ingested 5900 to 7500 μCi 90 Sr during their lifetimes. One of seven 1.3 μCi/day dogs died of mycloproliferative syndrome (MPS), while one of four 4 μCi/day and one of four 12 μCi/day dogs died from MPS. In addition, another 12 μCi/day dog died of osteosarcoma and two others in the same group showed skeletal changes related to 90 Sr exposure. Other deaths were as could be expected in normal canine populations. Lifetime skeletal doses, determined by periodic whole-body counting, were 1990-3750, 1880-9230, and 6360-14,680 rad for the 1.3, 4, and 12 μCi/day groups, respectively. Comparison of these values with those from the large 90 Sr toxicity study at Davis in which 90 Sr feeding ended at 18 months of age indicates similar average skeletal doses from the two types of feeding regimens. The similarity of the skeletal doses may relate to the inability of 90 Sr to be incorporated to any great extent into a mature skeleton that no longer has the high calcium turnover associated with early life. As a result, deaths from lifetime 90 Sr ingestion appeared no earlier than when 90 Sr ingestion ended in early adulthood

  2. Epidemiología de las lesiones por mordedura de perro en Tierra del Fuego, Argentina Epidemiology of dog bite lesions in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Zanini

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available La convivencia del hombre y el perro ha resultado en beneficios mutuos durante miles de años, si bien en el último tiempo han surgido una serie de inconvenientes donde las lesiones por mordeduras ocupan un lugar destacado. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue describir las características epidemiológicas de las lesiones por mordedura de perro ocurridas a lo largo de un año en Tierra del Fuego. Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo, transversal, de los pacientes que ingresaron con lesiones por mordedura de perro al Servicio de Guardia Clínica y Pediátrica de los Hospitales y Centros de Salud desde el 1/3/05 hasta el 1/3/06. Se confeccionaron 382 planillas. El 49.5% fueron niños resultando más afectado el grupo de 5-9 años (44.4%; IC95% 37.2-51.8. En adultos correspondió al grupo de 15-24 años (29.5%; IC95% 23.2-36.5. Se registraron más lesiones en varones (57.6% que en mujeres (42.4% (x² = 8.6, p= 0.003. En los meses primavera y verano se registró el 56.5% de las lesiones, en la vía pública el 72.8% de ellas. Los perros de tamaño grande causaron el 49.7% (IC95% 44.6-54.9 de las lesiones. El 89.8% de los ataques fueron causados por perros ajenos. El 55.8% (IC95% 50.6-60.8 se registró en miembros inferiores y el 11% (IC95% 8.1-14.7 en cabeza y cuello. Los datos obtenidos demuestran que en Tierra del Fuego las lesiones por mordedura de perro afectan en forma permanente la salud e impactan en la calidad de vida de la población.The coexistence between man and dog has resulted in mutual benefits during thousands of years, nevertheless some problems have recently arisen where bite injuries have an important role. The aim of this work was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of dog bite lesions which occurred during a year in Tierra del Fuego. A descriptive observational, transversal study of patients who were admitted with dog bite injuries to clinic and pediatric emergency services of hospitals and health

  3. Habitar en Tierras Secas: La Tierra Cruda como vehículo de habitabilidad en el territorio no irrigado del norte de la Provincia de Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Miranda Gassull

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El territorio no irrigado del norte de la provincia de Mendoza es un vasto espacio sin acceso al bien hídrico, donde habita dispersa una población campesina de identidad originaria Huarpe. Habitar en este territorio ha sido desde hace siglos un desafío tanto al clima/ambiente como a condiciones sociopolíticas. Por lo tanto, el hábitat en tierras secas presenta particulares características respecto a su forma de gestión (autónoma, a su adaptación al ambiente y al uso de la técnica constructiva con tierra cruda: adobe. El objetivo a desarrollar aquí se sustenta en el uso actual del adobe, concebido como un vehículo que facilita la autoconstrucción y autoproducción de soluciones habitacionales en poblaciones desposeídas, ajustando su vivienda a las implicancias de un territorio árido y a un largo proceso de vulnerabilidad de derechos. Este artículo aproxima los primeros resultados de los relevamientos realizados sobre la técnica constructiva del adobe (a través de técnicas cuantitativas: encuesta y muestras in situ y las características propias del hábitat social de la población originaria Huarpe, a partir de la técnica de la observación participante.

  4. Clotting mechanism in beagles irradiated by 4.5 Gy γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhenhu; Wang Ning; Li Ming; Xing Shuang; Huang Haixiao; Ou Hongling; Xiong Guolin; Zhao Yanfang; Xie Ling; Wang Jinxiang; Miao Jingcheng; Zhu Nankang; Zhang Xueguang; Luo Qingliang; Cong Yuwen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clotting mechanism in beagles irradiated by 4.5 Gy γ-rays after treatment with supportive care, or supportive care and combined cytokines. Methods: Sixteen beagles were divided into irradiation control group, Supportive care group and combined cytokines treatment group. Platelet aggregation test, thrombelastography (TEG) and the time measurement were analyzed in vitro. Results: In irradiation group and supportive care group, the platelet aggregation rates in beagles were decreased markedly and the k value of TEG was increased 7 d post-irradiation, while those indexes in combined cytokines treatment group changed little. At 14 d post-irradiation, each parameter of TEG in irradiated group changed obviously. The values of r, k, r + k and M were elevated significantly, clotting time and the maximum coagulation time of thrombus delayed, the Ma value was decreased markedly, and the maximum elasticity amplitude of thrombus was diminished. All parameters in combined cytokines treatment group were better than those in supportive care group. The thrombin time was prolonged obviously in irradiated group 14 d post-irradiation, while the thrombin time was the longest at 2-3 weeks post irradiation in supportive care group and combined cytokines treatment group (P>0.05). Conclusions: Cytokines could improve the platelet aggregation and the blood clotting functions of beagles suffering from acute radiation sickness. (authors)

  5. The Voyage of the Beagle: Field Work Lessons from Charles Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Louis M.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes Charles Darwin's letters to his family during his voyage on H.M.S. Beagle. Relates the information to the development of Darwin's professional identity and the degree to which the concepts, field methods, and research methods revealed in Darwin's personal correspondence are useful to students of educational administration. (MD)

  6. Web-Beagle: a web server for the alignment of RNA secondary structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Eugenio; Pietrosanto, Marco; Ferrè, Fabrizio; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela

    2015-07-01

    Web-Beagle (http://beagle.bio.uniroma2.it) is a web server for the pairwise global or local alignment of RNA secondary structures. The server exploits a new encoding for RNA secondary structure and a substitution matrix of RNA structural elements to perform RNA structural alignments. The web server allows the user to compute up to 10 000 alignments in a single run, taking as input sets of RNA sequences and structures or primary sequences alone. In the latter case, the server computes the secondary structure prediction for the RNAs on-the-fly using RNAfold (free energy minimization). The user can also compare a set of input RNAs to one of five pre-compiled RNA datasets including lncRNAs and 3' UTRs. All types of comparison produce in output the pairwise alignments along with structural similarity and statistical significance measures for each resulting alignment. A graphical color-coded representation of the alignments allows the user to easily identify structural similarities between RNAs. Web-Beagle can be used for finding structurally related regions in two or more RNAs, for the identification of homologous regions or for functional annotation. Benchmark tests show that Web-Beagle has lower computational complexity, running time and better performances than other available methods. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Differentiation of peripheral lymphocyte population in Pu-exposed beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    The percentage of peripheral lymphocytes binding fluorescent-labeled anticanine antibodies was measured in plutonium-oxide-exposed and unexposed beagle dogs. With this assay system, there was a significant decrease in the percentage of lymphocytes binding the labeled antibody in exposed animals compared to control animals

  8. Principal disease or cause of death in nonsacrifice beagles receiving gamma radiation during development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, R.W.; Hargis, A.M.; Benjamin, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    Epilepsy, hypothyroidism, cor pulmonale, and neoplasia are the leading causes of death of Segment III beagles, accounting for 90 to 208 fatalities from 1968 through 1977. Of the four, only neoplasia appears to be related to radiation history. Fifteen of 16 dogs dying of neoplasia were irradiated. Nine of these were exposed at either 55 days post coitus (dpc) or 2 days post partum

  9. Principal disease or cause of death in nonsacrifice Segment III beagles receiving gamma radiation during development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, L.; Kitchen, D.N.; Benjamin, S.A.; Stephens, L.C.; Hargis, A.M.; Lovering, S.L.; Lee, A.C.; Brewster, R.D.; Brooks, R.K.

    1981-01-01

    Epilepsy, hypothyroidism and neoplasia rank as the three leading causes of death in nonsacrifice Segment III beagles. Chronic renal disease is a fourth major disease entity occurring with increasing frequency in the experimental population. These four major diseases accounted for 57% of the deaths in 1979. Of the four leading causes of death, neoplasia alone can be related to the history of radiation exposure

  10. Clinical status and philosophy of clinical care of radionuclide-treated beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMillan, K.; Holbrook, C.; White, R.; Chrisp, C.

    1975-01-01

    A manual for therapy of beagles is reviewed. The following protocol is outlined and described: antibiotic therapy, chemotherapy for neoplasms, hormone therapy, nutritional therapy, radiation therapy, steroid therapy, and miscellaneous treatments. The manual also includes sections on diagnosis and discussions of individual cases. Tables summarizing clinical cases seen during 1974 are presented

  11. Enantioselective HPLC determination of oxiracetam enantiomers and application to a pharmacokinetic study in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuyang; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Qing; Yang, Yue; Li, Junxiu; Lu, Yang; Zheng, Yi; He, Jiake; Zhao, Di; Chen, Xijing

    2015-07-01

    An enantioselective high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the determination of oxiracetam enantiomers, a cognition and memory enhancer, in beagle dog plasma. The plasma samples were prepared by methanol extraction from 200μL plasma, and then the baseline resolution was achieved on a Chiralpak ID column (250mm×4.6mm, 5μm) with mobile phase of hexane-ethanol-trifluoroacetic acid (78:22:0.1, v/v/v) at flow rate of 1.0mL/min. The column elute was monitored using ultraviolet detection at 214nm. The method was linear over concentration range 0.50-100μg/mL for both enantiomers. The relative standard deviation values for intra- and inter-day precision were 0.78-13.61 and 0.74-8.92% for (R)- and (S)-oxiracetam, respectively. The relative error values of accuracy ranged from -4.74 to 10.48% for (R)-oxiracetam and from -0.19 to 11.48% for (S)-oxiracetam. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of individual enantiomer and racemic oxiracetam in beagle dogs after oral administration. The disposition of the two enantiomers was not stereoselective and chiral inversion was not observed in beagle dogs. The pharmacokinetic profiles of (S)-oxiracetam were similar with racemic oxiracetam in beagle dogs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Principal disease or cause of death in nonsacrifice Segment III beagles receiving gamma radiation during development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargis, A.M.; Lovering, S.L.; Benjamin, S.A.; Thomassen, R.W.; Lee, A.C.; Brewster, R.D.; Brooks, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    Epilepsy, hypothyroidism, neoplasia, and cor pulmonale remain the leading causes of death in Segment III beagles. This past year neoplasia became the third leading cause of death with the addition of 10 animals in this category. Of the four leading causes of death, neoplasia alone can be related to history of irradiation

  13. Late effects of inhaled 238PuO2 in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.; Case, A.C.; Catt, D.L.; Hackett, P.L.; Lund, J.E.; Powers, G.J.; Ragan, H.A.; Watson, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    Osteosarcomas were the primary cause of death in beagle dogs 4 to 8 years after inhalation of 238 PuO 2 . The plutonium body burden at death ranged from 0.4 to 2.6 μCi with 32 to 55 percent of the plutonium in the skeleton. Pulmonary neoplasia was observed in three of the bone-tumor-bearing dogs

  14. Hydrocele of the canal of Nuck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourah ALSaleh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocele of the canal of Nuck is a rare condition in female children caused by a failure of complete obliteration of the canal of Nuck. The canal of Nuck is an abnormal patent pouch of the peritoneum extending anterior to the round ligament of the uterus into the labia majora. Incomplete obliteration of this canal (patent processus vaginalis can result in either an inguinal hernia or a hydrocele. Here, we report two cases of hydrocele of the canal of Nuck presented within a two-month period. In the first case, incarcerated right-sided inguinal hernia was suspected while the second case was clinically diagnosed as encysted hydrocele of canal of Nuck. Both patients underwent surgical exploration. Hydrocelectomy with high ligation was also performed. One month after the surgery, the first patient showed signs of hydrocele on contralateral side, while the other patient showed no sign of contralateral hydrocele or hernia.

  15. Stability of guest molecules in urea canal complexes by canal polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi, Keizo

    1995-01-01

    It was found that various organic materials are attracted into urea canal by hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) and long chain compounds. This means that materials which does not form complex by itself are induced in canal by HDDA and long chain compounds. To include with stability perfumes, insecticides, attractants and repellents in urea canal, leaf alcohol was used as a model compound for guest molecules in the canal. The leaf alcohol from the canal released gradually over many days and the release was inhibited for 15 days by long chain compounds and for 30 days by polymerized HDDA after irradiation. After releasing, the leaf alcohol in the canal remained 25 % stable for long chain compounds and 40 % for polymerized HDDA. The dose required for stabilization of leaf alcohol in the urea canal by canal polymerization of HDDA was 30 kGy. (author)

  16. [Root canal treatment of mandibular first premolar with 4 root canals: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-yang; Zhan, Fu-Liang

    2015-10-01

    The mandibular first premolar can be considered one of the most challenging teeth to treat, due to the complexity of its root canal morphology and increased incidence of multiple canals. A case of endodontic treatment of a mandibular first premolar exhibiting a total of 4 distinct root canals and 4 apical foramina was described. Anatomic variation of root canal morphology should be considered in endodontic treatment to ensure a favorable healing outcome, and its identification could be enhanced by careful examination using a dental operating microscope. Obturation of root canals using a warm vertical compaction technique with a highly-radiopaque root canal sealer, such as AH Plus, after careful ultrasonic activated irrigation might allow the flow of sealer into the narrowed but unprepared part of the canal, thereby facilitating optimum chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system.

  17. Computed tomography of the facial canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, Sousuke

    1983-01-01

    The radiological details of the facial canal was investigated by computed tomography. In the first part of this study, dry skulls were used to delineate the full course of the facial canal by computed tomography. In the second part of this study, the patients with chronic otitis media and secondary cholesteatoma were evaluated. The labyrinthine and tympanic parts of the canal were well demonstrated with the axial scanning, and the mastoid part with the coronal scanning. Moreover, computed tomography showed excellent delineation of the middle ear contents. In patients with secondary cholesteatoma, the destructions of the intratympanic course of the bony facial canal were also assessed preoperatively. (author)

  18. Lung, liver and bone cancer mortality after plutonium exposure in beagle dogs and nuclear workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dulaney A; Mohr, Lawrence C; Frey, G Donald; Lackland, Daniel; Hoel, David G

    2010-01-01

    The Mayak Production Association (MPA) worker registry has shown evidence of plutonium-induced health effects. Workers were potentially exposed to plutonium nitrate [(239)Pu(NO(3))(4)] and plutonium dioxide ((239)PuO(2)). Studies of plutonium-induced health effects in animal models can complement human studies by providing more specific data than is possible in human observational studies. Lung, liver, and bone cancer mortality rate ratios in the MPA worker cohort were compared to those seen in beagle dogs, and models of the excess relative risk of lung, liver, and bone cancer mortality from the MPA worker cohort were applied to data from life-span studies of beagle dogs. The lung cancer mortality rate ratios in beagle dogs are similar to those seen in the MPA worker cohort. At cumulative doses less than 3 Gy, the liver cancer mortality rate ratios in the MPA worker cohort are statistically similar to those in beagle dogs. Bone cancer mortality only occurred in MPA workers with doses over 10 Gy. In dogs given (239)Pu, the adjusted excess relative risk of lung cancer mortality per Gy was 1.32 (95% CI 0.56-3.22). The liver cancer mortality adjusted excess relative risk per Gy was 55.3 (95% CI 23.0-133.1). The adjusted excess relative risk of bone cancer mortality per Gy(2) was 1,482 (95% CI 566.0-5686). Models of lung cancer mortality based on MPA worker data with additional covariates adequately described the beagle dog data, while the liver and bone cancer models were less successful.

  19. Age and dosage-level dependence of radium retention in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, N.J.; Pool, R.R.; Williams, J.R.; Wolf, H.G.

    1978-01-01

    Radium retention was measured over the lifespan of 46 beagles exposed by eight semimonthly injections at 60 to 160, 120 to 220, or 435 to 535 days of age. Injection dosage levels ranged from 0.37 to 10 μCi of 226 Ra/kg. The fractional retention of each animal is described in terms of a modified power function, R = [(t + d)/d] - /sup b/. Young adult beagles (approximately equal to 10 kg) injected at a mean age (A) of 485 days with 226 Ra at dosage levels of 10, 3.3, 1.11, and 0.37 μCi/kg had mean values for d and b of [0.897; 0.187], [2.015; 0.206], [2.778; 0.257], and [3.894; 0.274], respectively. Juvenile beagles injected with 10 μCi/kg at A = 110 days (average weight approximately equal to 6 kg) and at A = 170 days (average weight approximately equal to 10 kg) had mean values for d and b of [137; 0.277] and [5.53; 0.086], respectively. The d values are geometric means and the units are days; b values are arithmetic means. The formula for deriving the age-dependent retention function for dogs is given. The beagle results were correlated with human data in terms of age-to-equivalent fraction of adult body calcium content and were used to construct a similar age-dependent retention function for chronically exposed people. The correlation of age-dependent retention functions for beagles and humans is used to estimate scaling factors between the two species for the fraction of injected dosage associated with bone for various ages of exposure

  20. Skeletal retention of 239Pu and 226Ra in beagles injected at ages ranging from 2 days to 5 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruenger, F.W.; Stevens, W.; Atherton, D.R.; Jee, W.S.S.; Smith, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The age at exposure significantly affects the retention and distribution of 226 Ra and 239 Pu, both of which deposit in the skeleton, although in different patterns. Beagles aged 2 days (neonates), 90 days (juveniles), 18 months (young adults) or 5 years (old), received a single injection of one of these nuclides at a dosage level at which no significant acute effects have been observed. Nuclide concentrations in plasma and the skeleton were determined and retention equations were calculated. Initial deposition and retention of the two nuclides were age-dependent, but differences between the growing and young adult beagles were much greater than between the young adult and old beagles

  1. Mapa de usos potenciales de la tierra de Galicia. Una perspectiva arqueológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Currás Refojos, Brais X.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A digital version of the map of potential land use of Galicia is here presented, adapted to a reclassification of three types of potential land use, established using historical criteria. An analytical procedure is developed to select the land-types and the system used for their digitalisation. In the final part the map is used to critically revise the possibilities of using this record for territorial characterisation in archaeological research.La cartografía de usos potenciales de la tierra es una herramienta de gran utilidad en el estudio de las formas de poblamiento y su relación con la explotación de los recursos agrícolas desde el enfoque de la arqueología del paisaje. La digitalización de esta información permite su aplicación sistemática en el análisis del territorio mediante SIG. En este trabajo se presenta el Mapa de usos potenciales de la tierra de Galicia, reclasificado en tres tipos establecidos en función de criterios históricos. Se muestra el procedimiento analítico desarrollado para la selección y clasificación de los tipos de tierra y su sistema de digitalización. Se examina la validez de esta fuente para la investigación arqueológica de las formas agrícolas en la antigu.edad desde el punto de vista del análisis del territorio y se ofrece una visión crítica sobre sus ventajas y limitaciones.

  2. [Tierra del Fuego: the scientific-political construction of exclusion and counter-image of the ideal city dweller].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacach, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Due to its late incorporation into the national State, the social, economic and political setting of the Argentine province Tierra del Fuego differed from that of the rest of the national territory. In the construction of dependent otherness, objectifications and representations were imposed by state-related and non-state-related institutions, among other agencies. In this context, the Salesian mission of La Candelaria and Ushuaia's Jail for recidivists stand out as spaces in which biopolitics was concretised. The native population and criminals in Tierra del Fuego were those to be subjugated. The thesis of the extinction of the Indian and the simultaneous exaltation of the criminal as the subject of progress identified the scientific and political mechanisms by which the exclusion of certain social groups (Tierra del Fuego's indigenous population) and the inclusion of others (criminals) were regulated.

  3. Las normativas de construcción con tierra en el mundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cid, J.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, earth has been used as a construction material. Nevertheless, the normative in this matter is very scattered, and in the most developed countries, carrying out a construction with this material implies a variety of technical and legal problems. This article analyzes, in an international level, the normative panorama about constructions with earth, analyzing fifty five standards and regulations of countries all around the five continents; these represent the state of art that normalizes the earth as a construction material. It is a study indexed on the actual procedures and regulations developed by the national organisms of normalization or correspondent authorities. The standards and the organisms that produce them appear, analyzing the structure and the content of each one. We have studied and analyzed the most relevant aspects, such as stabilization, soil selections, the requisites of the products and the existent test, comparing the diverse normative. The knowledge from this study could be very useful for the development of future standards and as a reference for architects and engineers that work with earth.

    La tierra ha sido utilizada como material de construcción desde hace siglos. No obstante, la normativa al respecto está muy dispersa, y en la mayoría de países desarrollados surgen numerosos problemas técnicos y legales para llevar a cabo una construcción con este material. Este artículo estudia el panorama normativo para las construcciones con tierra cruda a nivel internacional, analizando cincuenta y cinco normas y reglamentos de países repartidos por los cinco continentes, que representan el estado del arte de la normalización de la tierra cruda como material de construcción. Es un estudio referenciado sobre las normas y reglamentos vigentes desarrollados por los organismos nacionales de normalización o autoridades correspondientes. Se presentan las normativas y los organismos que las emiten

  4. Modelo de levantamiento de informacion fisica catastral para el Instituto Nacional de Tierras, oficina regional Trujillo

    OpenAIRE

    Castellanos, Víctor

    2011-01-01

    Se identificó la metodología utilizada para el catastro físico de los Asentamientos Campesinos del Estado Trujillo, durante la vigencia del Instituto Agrario Nacional, y la existente actualmente con el Instituto Nacional de Tierras, Ofi cina Regional Trujillo. La evaluación de esta información determinó la propuesta de un modelo de levantamiento con fi nes de densifi cación de redes geodésicas utilizando tecnología satelital GPS, que facilite la actualización catastral de los pred...

  5. Narrow, duplicated internal auditory canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, T. [Servico de Neurorradiologia, Hospital Garcia de Orta, Avenida Torrado da Silva, 2801-951, Almada (Portugal); Shayestehfar, B. [Department of Radiology, UCLA Oliveview School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Lufkin, R. [Department of Radiology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2003-05-01

    A narrow internal auditory canal (IAC) constitutes a relative contraindication to cochlear implantation because it is associated with aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve or its cochlear branch. We report an unusual case of a narrow, duplicated IAC, divided by a bony septum into a superior relatively large portion and an inferior stenotic portion, in which we could identify only the facial nerve. This case adds support to the association between a narrow IAC and aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The normal facial nerve argues against the hypothesis that the narrow IAC is the result of a primary bony defect which inhibits the growth of the vestibulocochlear nerve. (orig.)

  6. Some History and Hydrology of the Panama Canal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pabst, Arthur

    2000-01-01

    At the request of the Panama Canal Commission (now Panama Canal Authority), the Hydrologic Engineering Center participated in the development of a model to simulate the existing operation of the Panama Canal System...

  7. The cerebrovascular structure and brain tissue volume: a comparative study between beagle dogs and mongrel dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Sheng; Shi Haibin; Hu Weixing; Zu Qingquan; Lu Shanshan; Xu Xiaoquan; Sun Lei; Li Linsun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the differences of cerebrovascular structure and brain tissue volume between beagle and mongrel dogs by using angiography and MR scanning. Methods: A total of 40 dogs, including 20 beagle dogs (beagle group) and 20 mongrel dogs (mongrel group), were enrolled in this study. Under general anesthesia, all dogs were examined with cerebral angiography and MR scanning. The cerebrovascular structure was evaluated with angiography via selective catheterization of aortic arch, bilateral external cerebral arteries (ECA), maxillary arteries, internal cerebral arteries (ICA) and vertebral arteries separately. The diameters of the ICA, middle cerebral artery (MCA), rostral cerebral artery (RCA), the anastomosis channel ICA and ECA, and basilar artery (BA) were measured at the similar point of each dog. Meanwhile the volumes of the brain tissue were calculated in coronal T2 view of MR scanning. The statistical analysis was performed among the weight of dogs, the diameter of arteries and the volume of brain tissue. The differences in the diameters and brain tissue volume were compared between the two groups. Results: No obvious variations in the cerebrovascular structure and brain tissue volume were found in these dogs. One mongrel dog was excluded from this study because of the severe stenosis of ICA. The mean weight of 20 beagle dogs and 19 mongrel dogs was (12.81±1.29) kg and (12.85±1.12) kg, respectively. The diameters of the ICA, MCA, RCA, the anastomosis channel between ICA and ECA and BA in beagle group were (1.26±0.07) mm, (0.90±0.05) mm, (0.58±0.07) mm, (0.55±0.07) mm and (0.95±0.06) mm, respectively. These parameters in mongrel group were (1.27±0.07) mm, (0.92±0.05) mm, (0.59±0.06) mm, (0.67±0.07) mm and (0.94±0.05) mm, respectively. The volume of brain in two groups was (76232.33±5018.51) mm 3 and (71863.96±4626.87) mm 3 , respectively. There were no obvious correlation among the body weight, the cerebrovascular diameters and brain

  8. About ecological aspects of "Eurasia" canal construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological aspects of "Eurasia" canal construction are considered here. The fact that can negatively affect natural area preservation (preserves, reserves, located in Kumo-Manych depression, along where the canal construction will take place, is shown in this article.

  9. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum.

  10. Neuronal hyperplasia in the anal canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, C; Schrøder, H D

    1990-01-01

    In a consecutive series of minor surgical specimens from the anal canal, neuronal hyperplasia was found in nine of 56 haemorrhoidectomy specimens and in four of 23 fibrous polyps. In an additional series of 14 resections of the anal canal, neuronal hyperplasia was present in six cases, of which f...

  11. Bilateral duplication of the internal auditory canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weon, Young Cheol; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Choi, Sung Kyu; Koo, Ja-Won

    2007-01-01

    Duplication of the internal auditory canal is an extremely rare temporal bone anomaly that is believed to result from aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. We report bilateral duplication of the internal auditory canal in a 28-month-old boy with developmental delay and sensorineural hearing loss. (orig.)

  12. External dose conversion factor from canal water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, Pradeep; Chitra, S.; Mhatre, Arti S.; Singh, Kapil Deo

    2016-01-01

    External dose needs to be estimated for the radioactivity discharged into the canal, as it constitutes one of the pathways of exposure to the public. Two activities are considered here: i) a walk along the bank of the canal ii) and the walk on the bridge. A concentration of 1 Bq/l is assumed here for the gross beta activity for the estimation of the dose conversion factor. A canal of width 14.39 m and the depth of 2.5 m is considered for this study. Length of the canal is taken to be infinite. Canal side wall is assumed to be the 25 cm thick concrete. Two points are selected, one on the bank, and the second on a bridge 1 m above the top surface of canal water. Dose Conversion factors for the person moving on the Bridge (at one meter above the water surface) and standing on bank of canal is estimated by using the QAD CG code for 137 Cs. Dose conversion factors for the location mentioned above are found to be 1.11E-10 Sv/hr/(Bq/l) and 1.55 E-11 Sv/hr/(Bq/l) for bridge and bank of canal respectively. (author)

  13. La industria textil en Tierra de Campos afines de la Edad Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipólito Rafael OLIVA HERRER

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El presente articulo trata de analizar el desarrollo de la industria textil rural en la región de Tierra de Campos, en torno al tradicional centro de producción textil de Palencia, a fines del XV y comienzos del XVI. La producción en el entorno rural conoció un amplio desarrollo basado en la producción de paños de calidad media-baja destinados al consumo interno, y dio lugar a formas organizativas complejas que se constituyeron en una alternativa frente al sistema gremial imperante en la urbe palentina, implicando intereses de un amplio espectro de grupos sociales.ABSTRACT: The present article aims to analyze the spreading of the rural textile industry in the region of Tierra de Campos in the late fifteenth and the early sixteenth centuries, around the traditional productive centre of Palencia. Here rural clothing experienced an important development based on the production of low and medium quality cloth under a putting-out system directed to interregional trade. The interests around rural industry involved a wide range of social groups, giving rise to complex organization forms and arising as an alternative to the traditional gudd stmcture.

  14. Ecohydrological features of some contrasting mires in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grootjans

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In November 2005, Tierra del Fuego (Argentina hosted the biennial conference and field excursion of the International Mire Conservation Group (IMCG. The group considered the vegetation, hydrology, peat stratigraphy and possible management options for about 20 mires which were visited during a seven-day excursion. We report here some field observations and measurements of electrical conductivity (EC25 in five mires which have been selected to encompass the most important ecohydrological features of the mires of Tierra del Fuego. Existing and new data on landscape topography and vegetation were combined in three-dimensional drawings. These drawings are actually conceptual models which could underpin further ecohydrological research, and proved to be very useful as a basis for discussions amongst conference participants about possible ecohydrological relationships. The mires that were studied developed under a wide range of climatic conditions and included fens and bogs. The bogs typically developed from lakes or fens and most are now dominated by Sphagnum magellanicum. This species forms large hummocks, and can invade weakly-buffered fens. Most of the mires were well preserved, but effects of human impact - such as road building and peat extraction - were also noticeable.

  15. State of knowledge of the Corallinales (Rhodophyta of Tierra del Fuego and the Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Mendoza

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Corallinales (Rhodophyta in Tierra del Fuego are abundant, with 9 genera, 17 species and 1 subspecies. Pseudolithophyllum with 1 species (P. fueguianum, which represents 35.8% of the coralline algae, is dominant. The genera Parahydrolithon with 4 species (P. consociatum, P. discoideum, P. falklandicum, P. subantarcticum and 20%, Lithothamnion with 3 species (Lt. heterocladum, Lt. rugosum, Lt. granuliferum and 17.5%, and Synarthrophyton with 3 species (S. neglectum, S. patena, S. schmitzii and 12% share are abundant. Clathromorphum with 4 species (Cl. annulatum, Cl. lemoineanum, Cl. obtectulum, Cl. Variabile and a share of 5.8%, and Mesophyllum with 1 species (M. fueguianum and a share of 4.9% are frequent. The remaining three genera, Bossiella with 1 subspecies (B. orbigniana ssp. orbigniana, Corallina with 2 species (C. elongata, C. officinalis (1.1%, and Titanoderna with 1 species (T. conspectum (1% are scarce. C. officinalis is a cosmopolitan, and the other geniculate corallines are found in both hemispheres, whereas the crustose coralline occur only in the southern hemisphere. The characteristic vertical distribution of the species in the intertidal and subtidal zone of Tierra del Fuego is given. The Corallinales in the Antarctic Region are poorly known and need further investigation.

  16. Effects of Sweet Bee Venom on cardiovascular system in the conscious telemetered Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Chung-San

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:This study was performed to analyse the effects of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV on cardiovascular system in the conscious telemetered Beagle Dogs. Methods:All experiments were conducted at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical studies authorized institution, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP. Male Beagle dogs of 13-19 months old were chosen for the pilot study and surgical implantation was performed for conscious telemetered Beagle dogs. And after confirming condition of Beagle dogs was stable, Sweet BV was administered 4 times(first: 0.0 ㎎/㎏, 2nd: 0.01 ㎎/㎏, 3rd: 0.1 ㎎/㎏, and forth: 0.5 ㎎/㎏, one time/week in thigh muscle of Beagle dogs. And blood pressure, heart rate, electrocardiography and clinical responses were measured. Equal amount of normal saline to the Sweet BV experiment groups was administered to the control group. 1. In the analysis of body weight and taking amount, Beagle dogs did not show significant changes. 2. In the clinical observation, responses of pain and edema were showed depend on dosage of Sweet BV. 3. In the analysis of blood pressure, treatment with Sweet BV did not show significant changes in the dosage of 0.01 ㎎/㎏, but in the dosage of 0.1 ㎎/㎏ and 0.5 ㎎/㎏, treatment with Sweet BV increased blood pressure significantly. 4. In the analysis of heart rate, treatment of Sweet BV did not show significant changes in all dosage and period. 5. In the analysis of electrocardiography, treatment of Sweet BV was not showed significant changes in all dosage and period. Conclusion:Above findings suggest that Sweet BV is relatively safe treatment in the cardiovascular system. But in the using of over dosage, Sweet BV may the cause of increasing blood pressure. Further studies on the subject should be conducted to yield more concrete evidences.

  17. Type III apical transportation of root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv P Mantri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Procedural accidents leading to complications such as canal transportation have been ascribed to inapt cleaning and shaping concepts. Canal transportation is an undesirable deviation from the natural canal path. Herewith a case of apical transportation of root canal resulting in endodontic retreatment failure and its management is presented. A healthy 21-year-old young male presented discomfort and swelling associated with painful endodontically retreated maxillary incisor. Radiograph revealed periradicular radiolucency involving underfilled 11 and overfilled 12. Insufficiently obturated 11 exhibited apical transportation of canal. This type III transportation was treated by periradicular surgery and repair using white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Comfortable asymptomatic patient presented uneventful healing at third and fourth month recall visits. A decrease in the size of radiolucency in radiograph supported the clinical finding. In the present case, MTA is useful in repairing the transportation defect. The result of these procedures is predictable and successful.

  18. Establishing an elite sport: the men and hounds of the National Beagle Club of America, 1890-1940

    OpenAIRE

    Garneau, Christine Elise

    2012-01-01

    This thesis argues that the National Beagle Club of America defined and regulated beagling as a way for upper class men to demonstrate their social status in a sporting context. As members of the American elite, the club’s leadership used their personal resources and social access to shape the sport for their own purposes. The club’s governing documents and regular events reinforced ideas about exclusivity, performance, and wealth. The breed standard formalized the dogs’ position as animal...

  19. Microbiological examination of infected dental root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B P F A; Pinheiro, E T; Gadê-Neto, C R; Sousa, E L R; Ferraz, C C R; Zaia, A A; Teixeira, F B; Souza-Filho, F J

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the root canal microbiota of primary and secondary root-infected canals and the association of constituent species with specific endodontic signs and symptoms. Microbial samples were taken from 60 root canals, 41 with necrotic pulp tissues (primary infection) and 19 with failed endodontic treatment (secondary infection). Strict anaerobic techniques were used for serial dilution, plating, incubation and identification. A total of 224 cultivable isolates were recovered belonging to 56 different bacterial species. Individual root canals yielded a maximum of 10 bacterial species. Of the bacterial isolates, 70% were either strict anaerobes or microphilic. The anaerobes most frequently isolated were: Peptostreptococcus micros (35%), Fusobacterium necrophorum (23.3%), Fusobacterium nucleatum (11.7%), Prevotella intermedia/nigrescens (16.7%), Porphyromonas gingivalis (6.7%) and Porphyromonas endodontalis (5%). The root canal microflora of untreated teeth with apical periodontitis was found to be mixed, comprising gram-negative and gram-positive and mostly anaerobic microorganisms and usually containing more than 3 species per canal. On the other hand, facultative anaerobic and gram-positive bacteria predominated in canals with failed endodontic treatment, which harbored 1-2 species per canal. Suggested relationships were found between anaerobes, especially gram-negatives, and the presence or history of pain, tenderness to percussion and swelling (PEubacterium spp. (both Pspp. (Pspp. (Pspp. (Pspp. (Pspp. (Pspp. (Pspp. (Pspp., P. micros, F. necrophorum (P<0.05). Our findings indicate potential complex interactions of species resulting in characteristic clinical pictures which cannot be achieved by individual species alone. They also indicate that the microbiota of primary infected canals with apical periodontitis differs in number and in species from the secondary infected canals by using the culture technique.

  20. Taenia saginata Goeze, 1872 (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda: Taeniidae en un indígena de Tierra del Fuego, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo I. Faúndez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Se entrega el primer registro del céstodo Taenia saginata en un indígena de Tierra del Fuego (Patagonia chilena, correspondiente al año 1902. Se discute la importancia del registro y se entregan ilustraciones del ejemplar.

  1. Modelo matemático para la descripción de la transferencia de calor para tierra vertida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Jonathan Suárez-Domínguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La arquitectura de tierra implica procesos constructivos sustentables ya que utiliza materiales vernáculos duraderos cuyos residuos son de bajo impacto al ambiente. La tierra vertida es una técnica a partir de la cual pueden tenerse muros resistentes dentro de la edificación de viviendas pero cuyas propiedades han sido poco evaluadas y representadas a partir de modelos. La transferencia de calor es una de las características más importantes cuando se edifica en zonas calurosas pues implica ciertos niveles de confort para los usuarios. El presente trabajo propone un modelo para determinar la difusividad térmica de tierra vertida con uso potencial para otras determinaciones a diversas temperaturas, algunas implicaciones también son presentadas. Se encontró que el coeficiente de difusividad térmica de muestras de tierra vertida fue de   4.319  10 8 m 2 s 1 , mientras que su calor específico es de 1.1030 kJkg-1K 1 .

  2. Familia nuclear y jefatura del hogar: acceso a la mujer a la tierra en las reformas agrarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena León

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available En este texto se analizan las consecuencias que la neutralidad de género ha dejado para la política pública, en el caso específico de las reformas agrarias y acceso de la mujer a la tierra en América Latina.

  3. Some similarities of radium and plutonium toxicity in the beagle and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.N.; Jee, W.S.S.; Mays, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    The value of many toxicity studies, involving various experimental animals, is contingent on how reliably the data can be related to man. An equation has been proposed for extrapolating the Pu syndrome from dog studies to man. It employs the extensive human radium experience and a plutonium-radium toxicity ratio in the dog. The validity of this method is contingent on similar target tissues for both Pu and Ra and approximately equal RBE's for Pu relative to Ra in both man and the dog. Thus, although the radiosensitivity might be significantly different, the endpoints within a given tissue in man and the animal model must necessarily be comparative. The degree of parallelism in the radium-induced syndromes of man and the beagle are examined in order to assess the practicability of estimating Pu risk in man through use of a Pu-Ra toxicity ratio in the beagles

  4. Mechanical and morphological evaluation of age-related changes in the Beagle spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillett, N.A.; Gerlach, R.; Cassidy, J.; Brown, S.

    1986-01-01

    Age-related changes were evaluated in the spines of Beagle dogs by biomechanical testing, radiology and pathology. Thirty age-matched healthy Beagle dogs were divided into five groups having mean ages of 2, 5, 8, 11, and 14 years. Spinal radiographs of anesthetized dogs were taken prior to euthanasia and on defleshed pines following necropsy. Cervical, thoracic, and lumbar segments were tested in compression to calculate peak stress, peak strain, and elastic modulus. Adjacent spinal segments were examined histologically. Histological evidence of the disc degeneration and changes in the mechanical properties of the intervertebral disc joint preceded radiographical evidence of spondylosis. Changes in the mechanical properties of the disc space were probably a result of the disc degeneration rather than the spondylytic lesions. 3 references, 4 figures

  5. In vitro interactions of lymphocytes and cultured cells from beagles with plutonium-induced bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, M.E.; Lund, J.E.; Busch, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    Cell cultures have been prepared from lung and bone tumors arising in beagle dogs following exposure to inhaled plutonium. Evaluation of the cultured cells by commonly applied criteria (i.e., cell morphology, lack of contact inhibitory mechanisms, cloning efficiency, growth in soft agar, and tumor production in vivo) indicated that tumor cells were being grown in culture. Blood leukocytes and peripheral lymphocytes from beagle dogs were tested for cytotoxic effects against several cell cultures. Lymphocytes from normal dogs or dogs with unrelated tumors would not kill the bone tumor cells unless monocytes (macrophage) were present, in which case the leukocyte preparation was capable of mounting de novo cytotoxic immune reactions after 3 to 5 days in culture. In contrast, the dogs with plutonium-induced bone tumors had circulating lymphocytes that appeared to have undergone presensitization to bone-tumor-distinctive antigens in vivo. Consequently these lymphocytes interacted with cultured cells promptly after encounter in vitro

  6. The shallow-water Asellota (Crustacea: Isopoda from the Beagle Channel: Preliminary taxonomic and zoogeographical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Lía Doti

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The shallow-water Asellota from the Beagle Channel were investigated, based on material collected at four localities in 2001-2002. A total of 3,124 asellotes were sorted, and three new species and 12 new records of distribution were reported. The Paramunnidae showed the highest species diversity and abundance (11 species and 1,463 specimens. The present research raises the number of species known from the Beagle Channel to 23; of these, 16 were previously reported from the Magellan Straits, representing 69% of similarity. Based on the present results and published data, the faunistic affinities for the shallow-water Asellota was 30% between the Magellan region and the Scotia Arc, and 26% between the Magellan region and the Antarctic Peninsula.

  7. How Do You Answer the Life on Mars Question? Use Multiple Small Landers Like Beagle 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Hurst, S. J.; Richter, L.; Sims, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    To address one of the most important questions in planetary science Is there life on Mars? The scientific community must turn to less costly means of exploring the surface of the Red Planet. The United Kingdom's Beagle 2 Mars lander concept was a small meter-size lander with a scientific payload constituting a large proportion of the flown mass designed to supply answers to the question about life on Mars. A possible reason why Beagle 2 did not send any data was that it was a one-off attempt to land. As Steve Squyres said at the time: "It's difficult to land on Mars - if you want to succeed you have to send two of everything".

  8. Toxicity of inhaled 239PuO2 in aged beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Guilmette, R.A.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1980-01-01

    Studies to determine the effects of age at exposure on metabolism, dosimetry and biological effects of inhaled particles of 239 PuO 2 have been initiated in aged beagle dogs (8.0 to 10.5 years of age at exposure). Beagle dogs have been exposed to 1.5 μm AD particles of 239 PuO 2 resulting in initial lung burdens ranging from 0.03 to 0.76 μCi/kg body weight. Dogs exposed to the aerosol diluent serve as controls. There were four blocks exposed in the past year, one of males and three of female dogs. Nine dogs died during the year. Seven of these had radiation pneumonitis and two died of nonradiation induced diseases. The surviving dogs are as long as 538 days after exposure. There are three blocks of male dogs planned for exposure in the next 12 months

  9. Quantitation of uveoscleral outflow in normotensive and glaucomatous Beagles by 3H-labeled dextran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrie, K.P.; Gum, G.G.; Samuelson, D.A.; Gelatt, K.N.

    1985-01-01

    In uveoscleral outflow, aqueous humor leaves the anterior chamber and passes caudally through the trabecular meshwork and the sclerociliary cleft to enter the supraciliary and suprachoroidal spaces. The fluid is then absorbed by choroidal and scleral circulations. Using 3 H-labeled dextran, uveoscleral outflow was quantitated in normotensive and glaucomatous Beagles under general anesthesia. The intrascleral plexus was isolated and 3 H-labeled dextran was injected into the anterior chamber. Intrascleral plexus contents were sampled every 5 minutes over a 30- to 60-minute period. The eyes were enucleated, sectioned, and prepared for scintillation counting. Uveoscleral outflow accounted for 15% and 3% of the total aqueous humor outflow in the normotensive dogs and in the advanced glaucomatous dogs, respectively. In the advanced glaucomatous Beagle, conventional and uveoscleral outflow pathways were reduced and contributed to the etiopathogenesis of glaucoma

  10. Meiofauna communities from the Straits of Magellan and the Beagle Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Chen

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Meiofauna from 20 stations (ranging between 8 and 550 m in the Magellan Straits and the Beagle Channel revealed 28 small sized taxa of higher categories including the temporary meiofauna. Nematoda, Copepoda Harpacticoidea and Polychaeta occurred in all samples; Turbellaria, Bivalvia, Kinorhyncha and Ostracoda were regularly present. Nematodes represented between 68% and 94% of the meiofauna at each station, followed by the copepods (2.3% to 14.5% and polychaetes (1.1% to 11.5%. Maximal total density, 9700 individuals 10 cm-2, was found in the surroundings of Picton Island, while the mean abundance per station was 3374 individuals 10 cm-2. The vertical pattern within the sediment showed that 87% of meiofauna components concentrated in the upper 0-5 cm sediment layers and 13% in the lower ( > 5cm layers. More than 95% of copepods, as well as the temporary meiofauna occurred in the top 5 cm layers. The proportion of nematodes and copepods shows opposite trends in the vertical distribution. Multivariate analysis using the total density and the 10 `true´ meiofauna taxa densities discriminates between communities in the Straits of Magellan and the Beagle Channel area. Meiofaunal density was much higher in the Beagle Channel, but the diversity was lower than that in the Straits of Magellan. The Southern Magellan meiofauna communities are compared with those found at the Antarctic Peninsula and in the Weddell Sea (high Antarctic. It is considered that hydrodynamic features (tidal currents with strong winds, geographical characteristics, together with sediment composition are the key parameters structuring the meiofauna community in the Straits of Magellan and in the Beagle Channel.

  11. Experimental induction of struvite uroliths in miniature schnauzer and beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausner, J S; Osborne, C A; O'Leary, T P; Muscoplat, C M; Griffith, D P

    1980-09-01

    Urease positive staphylococcal urinary tract infection was experimentally induced in 13 dogs. Eight dogs developed cystic and/or urethral struvite calculi in 2 to 8 weeks. No abnormalities in systemic cell mediated immunity were detected in dogs before or after the establishment of the urinary tract infection. Miniature schnauzers whose ancestors had developed stones seemed to be no more susceptible to experimental urinary tract infection and stone formation than miniature schnauzers or beagles whose ancestors did not develop stones.

  12. Early effects of inhaled 239Pu(NO3)4 aerosols in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Ragan, H.A.; Watson, C.R.; Stevens, D.L.; Rowe, S.E.; Madison, R.M.; Wierman, E.L.; Schirmer, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    Beagle dogs given a single inhalation exposure to 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , and observed for life-span dose-effect relationship, died from radiation pneumonitis (4 of 5) at the highest dosage level, 14 to 25 mo postexposure. There were also indications in these dogs of radiation osteosis, characterized by peritrabecular fibrosis. Leukopenia, lymphopenia, neutropenia and decreased numbers of circulating monocytes and eosinophils occurred at the two highest dosage levels, as previously reported

  13. Spontaneous necrotizing sialometaplasia of the submandibular salivary gland in a Beagle dog

    OpenAIRE

    Mukaratirwa, Sydney; Petterino, Claudio; Bradley, Alys

    2015-01-01

    A single mass was found on the left submandibular salivary gland at necropsy of a 15-month-old male commercially bred laboratory Beagle dog from a control dose group from a repeat toxicity study. Microscopically, the mass was composed of a well-demarcated area of coagulative necrosis surrounded and separated from the normal salivary gland tissue by a thick fibrovascular capsule. Necrosis was admixed with areas of hemorrhage, fibrin, edema, fibrinoid necrosis of the vascular tunica media, and ...

  14. Experimental inoculation of beagle dogs with Ehrlichia species detected from Ixodes ovatus

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Malaika; Oikawa, T; Hiraoka, Hiroko; Kaneko, N; Itamoto, Kazuhito; Mizuno, Tohru; Okuda, Masaru; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2006-01-01

    Three beagle dogs were inoculated with mice spleen/liver homogenate infected with Ehrlichia species detected from Ixodes ovatus (EIO) and one dog was used as a control. All three infected dogs did not show clinical signs of disease except for mild pyrexia throughout the 41-day study period. Splenomegaly was observed from Day 7 post-inoculation (p.i.) in two of the dogs. Hematological and biochemical abnormalities included mild thrombocytopenia, hypoproteinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia and increased...

  15. Pharmacokinetics of Ginkgolide B after Oral Administration of Three Different Ginkgolide B Formulations in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgolide B (GB, an important active constituent of Ginkgo biloba extract, has been used in clinical applications for the treatment of dementia, cerebral insufficiency or related cognitive decline. To investigate the main pharmacokinetic characteristics of three different GB formulations in beagle dogs, a simple, specific and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was established and validated. The separation of the analytes was achieved on an Agilent Eclipse Plus C18 column (1.8 μm, 2.1 × 50 mm with a mobile phase consisting of water and acetonitrile. The flow rate was set at 0.4 mL/min. Quantitation was performed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM in negative ion mode, with the transitions at m/z (Q1/Q3 423.1/367.1 for GB and m/z 269.3/170.0 for IS. The linear calibration curve of GB was obtained over the concentration range of 2–200 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions were <15% and the accuracies were within ±12.7%. The validated method was applied to compare the pharmacokinetic characteristics of GB in healthy beagle dogs after oral administration of three formulations (HME08, GB capsule prepared by hot-melt extrusion technology; LL06, GB pellet prepared by liquid layer technology; conventional GB tablet. The Cmax values of GB from different formulations in beagle dog plasma were 309.2, 192.4 and 66.6 µg/L, and the AUC values were 606.7, 419.1 and 236.2 µg/L·h, respectively. The data suggested that the exposure level of GB from HME08 and LL06 in beagle dog plasma was greatly improved compared with conventional tablets. This study should be helpful for the design and development of oral GB preparations.

  16. Non-neoplastic pulmonary disease from inhaled radon daughters with uranium ore dust in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.; Palmer, R.F.; Stuart, B.O.

    1977-01-01

    Daily exposures of adult beagle dogs to inhaled radon daughters plus uranium ore dust, with and without concurrent cigarette smoking, for 2 to 5-1/2 yr have produced massive pulmonary fibrosis and severe emphysema. The cumulative exposure doses are similar to those associated with a 5-fold or greater increase in death rate of uranium miners due to chronic respiratory insufficiency, including pneumoconiosis, pulmonary fibrosis, and emphysema

  17. Acceleration induced water removal from ear canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hosung; Averett, Katelee; Jung, Sunghwan

    2017-11-01

    Children and adults commonly experience having water trapped in the ear canals after swimming. To remove the water, individuals will shake their head sideways. Since a child's ear canal has a smaller diameter, it requires more acceleration of the head to remove the trapped water. In this study, we theoretically and experimentally investigated the acceleration required to break the surface meniscus of the water in artificial ear canals and hydrophobic-coated glass tubes. In experiments, ear canal models were 3D-printed from a CT-scanned human head. Also, glass tubes were coated with silane to match the hydrophobicity in ear canals. Then, using a linear stage, we measured the acceleration values required to forcefully eject the water from the artificial ear canals and glass tubes. A theoretical model was developed to predict the critical acceleration at a given tube diameter and water volume by using a modified Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Furthermore, this research can shed light on the potential of long-term brain injury and damage by shaking the head to push the water out of the ear canal. This research was supported by National Science Foundation Grant CBET-1604424.

  18. Clinical significance of dental root canal microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B P; Lilley, J D; Drucker, D B

    1996-01-01

    Previous work by this group has shown that a significant association exists between pain and the presence of either Prevotella or Peptostreptococcus spp. in dental root canals. The aim of this study was to examine a more extensive series of canals microbiologically, to determine whether any other particular endodontic symptoms or clinical signs showed specific associations with individual bacterial species. Seventy root canals were examined microbiologically and clinical data collected to investigate in detail such associations. Of the canals studied, 37 were associated with pain, 49 with tenderness to percussion, 23 with swelling, six with purulent exudate and 57 presented with wet root canals. Anaerobes were isolated from 70.3% of painful canals and from 29.7% of pain-free canals. Significant associations were found between (a) pain and either Prevotella spp. or peptostreptococci, both with P spp. (P Eubacterium spp. (P spp. or Pstr. micros, both with P spp. (each P Eubacterium, Peptostreptococcus, Prevotella or Propionibacterium (each P < 0.05). It was concluded that several different endodontic clinical signs and symptoms are significantly associated with specific bacterial species.

  19. Charles Darwin's beagle voyage, fossil vertebrate succession, and "the gradual birth & death of species".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Paul D

    2010-01-01

    The prevailing view among historians of science holds that Charles Darwin became a convinced transmutationist only in the early spring of 1837, after his Beagle collections had been examined by expert British naturalists. With respect to the fossil vertebrate evidence, some historians believe that Darwin was incapable of seeing or understanding the transmutationist implications of his specimens without the help of Richard Owen. There is ample evidence, however, that he clearly recognized the similarities between several of the fossil vertebrates he collected and some of the extant fauna of South America before he returned to Britain. These comparisons, recorded in his correspondence, his diary and his notebooks during the voyage, were instances of a phenomenon that he later called the "law of the succession of types." Moreover, on the Beagle, he was following a geological research agenda outlined in the second volume of Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology, which implies that paleontological data alone could provide an insight into the laws which govern the appearance of new species. Since Darwin claims in On the Origin of Species that fossil vertebrate succession was one of the key lines of evidence that led him to question the fixity of species, it seems certain that he was seriously contemplating transmutation during the Beagle voyage. If so, historians of science need to reconsider both the role of Britain's expert naturalists and the importance of the fossil vertebrate evidence in the development of Darwin's ideas on transmutation.

  20. SNPs of melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) associated with body weight in Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ruixia; Zhang, Yibo; Du, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), which is associated with inherited human obesity, is involoved in food intake and body weight of mammals. To study the relationships between MC4R gene polymorphism and body weight in Beagle dogs, we detected and compared the nucleotide sequence of the whole coding region and 3'- and 5'- flanking regions of the dog MC4R gene (1214 bp). In 120 Beagle dogs, two SNPs (A420C, C895T) were identified and their relation with body weight was analyzed with RFLP-PCR method. The results showed that the SNP at A420C was significantly associated with canine body weight trait when it changed amino acid 101 of the MC4R protein from asparagine to threonine, while canine body weight variations were significant in female dogs when MC4R nonsense mutation at C895T. It suggested that the two SNPs might affect the MC4R gene's function which was relative to body weight in Beagle dogs. Therefore, MC4R was a candidate gene for selecting different size dogs with the MC4R SNPs (A420C, C895T) being potentially valuable as a genetic marker.

  1. [Pharmacokinetic study of six aconitine alkaloids in aconiti lateralis radix praeparata in beagle dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ri-Ping; Lai, Xiao-Ping; Zhao, Yai; Yu, Liang-Wen; Zhu, Yue-Lan; Li, Geng

    2014-02-01

    To study the pharmacokinetics characteristics of six Aconitum alkaloids aconitine (AC), mesaconitine (MA), hypaconitine (HA), benzoylaconine (BAC), benzoylmesaconine (BMA) and benzoylhypaconine (BHA) in beagle dogs. An ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous quantitation of six Aconitum alkaloids in beagle dog plasma after oral administration of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata decoction. UPLC/MS/MS system coupled with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source was performed in multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Sample preparation was performed with solid-phase extraction(SPE) on a 3 mL HLB cartridge before the analysis. The separation was applied on a Waters C8 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm) and a gradient elution of methanol and 0.2% formic acid-water was used as mobile phase. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by the results of the analysis through the DAS 2. 1 software (Drug and Statistics for Windows). The results showed that the fitting model for the six Aconitum alkaloids was the one-compartment model pharmacokinetics. The method is successfully used for the pharmacokinetic evaluation of the six Aconitum alkaloids in beagle dog plasma, it can help monitor the ADME/Tox process when taking Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata by observing the pharmacokinetic process. The results provide a good reference for clinical treatment and safe application of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata.

  2. Incidence of liver tumors in beagles with body burdens of 239Pu or 241Am

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.N.; Mays, C.W.; Wrenn, M.E.; Shabestari, L.; Lloyd, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    Tetravalent 239 Pu or trivalent 241 Am in a citrate buffer, given via a single intravenous injection to beagles, induced very pronounced liver changes, usually at relatively long postinjection times. The lesions consisted of cell injury or cell necrosis which was followed by nodular hyperplasia and a significant incidence of primary liver tumors. The most frequent neoplasm was the bile duct adenoma, followed by the bile duct carcinoma. A lesser number of sarcomas were also induced, especially fibrosarcomas. The number of hepatic cell tumors was low. An abnormally high incidence of both hyperplastic nodules and primary liver tumors occurred at long postinjection times and at average doses extending down to ∼10 rads. The various nodular lesions and liver tumors frequently occurred as incidental findings in dogs dying from other causes, especially bone cancer. In comparison to bone neoplasia, the liver was a much less important target organ in the high-dose level groups, but in some of the low-dose groups, especially in the 241 Am groups, the risk of radiation-induced liver cancer was approximately equal to or exceeded the risk of skeletal tumors. However, in any projection of the risks observed in this animal model to man, one should be mindful that the beagle skeleton is approximately 25 times more sensitive to radiation-induced bone neoplasia than is the human skeleton (Mays et al., 1976) and that the radiosensitivity difference for the beagle and human liver is unknown. 41 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  3. The biological effects of high dose total body irradiation in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Qingliang; Liu Xiaolan; Hao Jing; Xiong Guolin; Dong Bo; Zhao Zhenhu; Xia Zhengbiao; Qiu Liling; Mao Bingzhi

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the biological effects of Beagle dogs irradiated by γ-rays at different doses. Methods: All Beagle dogs were divided into six groups and were subjected respectively to total-body irradiation (TBI) with a single dose of 6.5, 5.5, 5.0, 4.5, 3, 5 and 2.5 Gy γ-rays delivered by 60 Co sources at 7.224 x 10 -2 C/kg per minute. The general condition, blood cell counts and bone marrow cell CFC assays were observed. Results: Vomiting occurred at 0.5 to 2 hours after TBI in all groups. In 6.5 Gy group 3/5 dogs had blood-watery stool and 1/5 in 5.5 Gy group had watery stool. Diarrhea occurred in all other animals. Only one dog in 2.5 Gy group survived, all of others died. in order of decreasing irradiation dosage, the average survival time was 5.0, 8.0, 9.3, 9.5, 10.5 and 14.1 days, respectively. Conclusions: According to the clinical symptoms, leukocyte count and survival time of the dogs, the irradiation dose which will induce very severe hematopoietic radiation syndrome in Beagle dogs is 4.5 to 5.0 Gy

  4. Hyperhidrosis in naïve purpose-bred beagle dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Catherine A; Seeman, Jennifer L; Hoffmann, Guenther

    2011-05-01

    This case study details the unusual clinical findings in a unique paw-pad disorder that recently emerged among 2 male and 1 female naïve purpose-bred beagle dogs (Canis familiaris) newly received into our facility. During acclimation period physical examinations, the affected dogs demonstrated constantly moist, soft paw pads on all 4 feet. No information was available regarding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of this pad condition in beagle dogs. Here, we report the results of physical examination, clinical chemistry analysis, hematology, histopathology, detailed observations, and novel testing techniques performed during the acclimation period. Histopathology of several sections of affected footpads was compared with that of an age-matched dog with clinically normal paw pads. We describe the morphologic features of a distinctive cutaneous canine footpad condition and discuss the possible differential diagnoses. The histologic and clinical features were most consistent with those of hyperhidrosis; to our knowledge, this report is the first description of hyperhidrosis as a distinct condition in purpose-bred beagle dogs.

  5. Beagle puppy model of intraventricular hemorrhage: effect of indomethacin on cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ment, L.R.; Stewart, W.B.; Duncan, C.C.; Scott, D.T.; Lambrecht, R.

    1983-01-01

    The newborn beagle puppy has been demonstrated to provide a good model for neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). A study was designed to determine if indomethacin can prevent IVH and if indomethacin would produce changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF). Newborn beagle puppies were randomized by computer into two groups: one was pretreated with indomethacin, a known inhibitor of prostaglandin synthetase, and the other was saline. The dogs in both groups were then assigned either to undergo hemorrhagic hypotension/volume reexpansion insult or to receive no insult. Twenty percent of all pups receiving indomethacin and undergoing the insult experienced IVH, compared to 71% of the pups undergoing insult that had been pretreated with saline. Significant alterations in the blood pressure responses to the hemorrhagic hypotension/volume reexpansion insult were noted in the former group compared to the saline-pretreated pups subjected to insult. Finally, employing carbon-14 autoradiography for the determination of CBF, it was demonstrated that indomethacin decreases resting CBF of the newborn beagle pups and, in indomethacin-pretreated animals subjected to insult, prevents the increases in CBF seen in the saline-pretreated traumatized pups. 62 references, 1 figure, 3 tables

  6. La tierra en armas de Dávalos-Serrano (o las armas del teatro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Beatriz Sosa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La tierra en armas (1926 constituye un texto enigmático por diversas cuestiones, a pesar de su celebridad –es la obra teatral más famosa de la literatura salteña- y de su aparente transparencia al representar hechos históricos relativos a la gesta de Güemes. El primer enigma es el problema de la autoría, ya que La tierra en armas surge de la escritura en colaboración de Juan Carlos Dávalos y Ramón Serrano, pero en el momento de publicación del texto (1935 aparecerá en la portada sólo el nombre de Dávalos. El gesto editorial de borrar el nombre del segundo autor en esa primera publicación es decisivo para el futuro teatral de Serrano, quien desaparece posteriormente de la escena salteña. La segunda cuestión deriva de la categoría de teatro histórico a la cual pertenece La tierra en armas La ficcionalización de un personaje histórico implica plantear las complejas relaciones que se establecen entre discurso dramático y discurso histórico. Luego de trazar someramente la trayectoria épica de Güemes, se realiza una descripción de la acción dramática y de los fundamentales procedimientos discursivos, como el encadenamiento entre la intriga principal (histórica y la secundaria (sentimental, la mise en abyme de la leyenda de la flor del Ilolay y la visualización escénica del texto. La tercera cuestión incluye el contexto de producción, circulación y recepción del teatro de la época, así como el nivel ideológico, sin los cuales sería imposible postular una interpretación del texto de Dávalos y Serrano como estrategia individual y colectiva de afianzamiento de la identidad.

  7. Respuesta transitoria de las puestas a tierra en la protección contra rayos. Software GTIERRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor David Gómez Montoya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se usa un programa computacional desarrollado en Matlab (GTIERRAS que implementa un modelo de base electromagnética, para determinar la impedancia de puesta a tierra de configuraciones arbitrarias y su comportamiento ante excitaciones tipo impulso. Impedancia, corrientes y voltajes, u otras variables eléctricas de sistemas de puesta a tierra se pueden presentar en el dominio de la frecuencia o del tiempo usando la transformada rápida de Fourier. La base general del modelo considerado se usa para valorar no sólo sobretensiones por descargas atmosféricas, sino también, otros transitorios típicos asociados con problemas de compatibilidad electromagnética. Los resultados muestran la influencia de algunas variables en la respuesta del sistema de puesta a tierra y revelan algunas diferencias que se deben tener en cuenta cuando se aplican criterios basados en el desempeño a baja frecuencia, para esfuerzos impulsivos de puestas a tierra. Adicionalmente, se presentan ejemplos de cálculo y comparaciones con resultados de otros autores para ilustrar algunos comportamientos que de ninguna manera son evidentes. Se investiga además, el efecto de la geometría de los electrodos y la resistividad del suelo, así como del frente de onda y el número de puntos de inyección. También se presentan resultados de tensiones de contacto y de paso, así como, el estudio de un sistema de protección contra rayos como ampliación de las aplicaciones del modelo. Finalmente, se derivan algunas conclusiones útiles para el diseño de sistemas de puesta a tierra.

  8. Mandibular molar with five root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, Fernando Branco; Dotto, Sidney Ricardo; Reis, Magda de Sousa; Ferreira, Ronise; Travassos, Rosana Maria Coelho

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the importance of knowledge of the internal anatomy of root canals for the success of endodontic treatment. Lack of knowledge of anatomic variations and their characteristics in different teeth has been pointed out as one of the main causes of endodontic therapy failure. In this report, the authors describe the endodontic treatment of a mandibular first molar with five root canals, evaluate the rate of occurrence of this number of canals, and discuss the importance of their identification and treatment.

  9. 21 CFR 872.3810 - Root canal post.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal post. 872.3810 Section 872.3810 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3810 Root canal post. (a) Identification. A root canal... of the platinum group intended to be cemented into the root canal of a tooth to stabilize and support...

  10. Assessment of periapical health, quality of root canal filling, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty three teeth were found to have short root canal fillings, whereas 74 teeth had adequate root canal fillings, and the remaining 10 teeth had over extended root canal filling. A significant correlation was observed between the length of root filling and apical periodontitis (P = 0,023). Inadequately dense root canal filling was ...

  11. Scanning electron microscopy investigation of canal cleaning after canal preparation with nickel titanium files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Slavoljub

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Root canal preparation is the most important phase of endodontic procedure and it consists of adequate canal space cleaning and shaping. In recent years, rotary instruments and techniques have gained importance because of the great efficacy, speed and safety of the preparation procedure. Objective. The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of different NiTi files on the canal wall cleaning quality, residual dentine debris and smear layer. Methods. The research was conducted on extracted human teeth in vitro conditions. Teeth were divided in 7 main groups depending on the kind of instruments used for root canal preparation: ProTaper, GT, ProFile, K-3, FlexMaster, hand ProTaper and hand GT. Root canal preparation was accomplished by crown-down technique. Prepared samples were assessed on scanning electron microscopy JEOL, JSM-6460 LV. The evaluation of dentine debris was done with 500x magnification, and the evaluation of smear layer with 1,000 times magnification. Quantitive assessment of dentine debris and smear layer was done according to the criteria of Hulsmann. Results. The least amount of debris and smear layer has been found in canals shaped with ProFile instruments, and the largest amount in canals shaped with FlexMaster instruments. Canal cleaning efficacy of hand GT and ProTaper files has been similar to cleaning efficacy of rotary NiTi files. Statistic analysis has shown a significant difference in amount of dentine debris and smear layer on the canal walls between sample groups shaped with different instruments. Conclusion. Completely clean canals have not been found in any tested group of instruments. The largest amount of debris and smear layer has been found in the apical third of all canals. The design and the type of endodontic instruments influence the efficacy of the canal cleaning.

  12. RIESGOS CLIMÁTICOS EN LAS TIERRAS VALENCIANAS. INCIDENCIA EN LA ACTIVIDAD AGRARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Olcina Cantos

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available La actividad agraria es el sector económico que, con mayor frecuencia, sufre los efectos de episodios atmosféricos excepcionales que ocasionan graves pérdi- das de cosecha y daños en campos de cultivo e infraestructura agraria (caminos, redes de riego. El campo valenciano no es ajeno a estos eventos, por lo demás condignos a sus condiciones climáticas (lluvias torrenciales, heladas, tormentas de granizo, temporales de viento y sequías, que precisan estudio de causas, consecuencias económicas y localización territorial de sectores de riesgo, para la posterior propuesta de medidas de actuación. La relación de prácticas de defensa puestas en práctica en tierras valencianas ante estos sucesos atmosféri- cos completa el presente estudio.

  13. El regreso de los judíos hispanos a Tierra Santa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Cantera Montenegro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Tras un breve análisis acerca del lugar que la ciudad de Jerusalén y la Tierra Prometida ocupan en el judaismo y en la conciencia colectiva del pueblo judío, y del papel que la Ciudad Santa desempeña como meta de los peregrinos judíos, se estudian los movimientos de migración de los judíos hispanos hacia Palestina, a lo largo de la Edad Media y hasta el siglo XVII.After a brief analysis about the importance of Jerusalem and the Promised Land in the Judaism and in the collective consciousness of the Jewish people, and the role played by the Holy City as a destination for the Jewish pilgrims, the migration movements of the Spanish Jewish to Palestine are studied, along the Middle Ages, until the 17th century.

  14. Substations grounding systems design; Diseno de sistemas de conexion a tierra en subestaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez Sanchez, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    The grounding systems have been the object of a great number of analytical and experimental studies in the past 15 years, that have given rise to research reports on the several aspects involved in this technique. In this work are briefly reviewed various aspects that is necessary to take into account for its design, analysis and put in operation. [Espanol] Los sistemas de conexion a tierra han sido objeto de gran cantidad de estudios analiticos y experimentales en los pasados quince anos, que han dado origen a informes de investigacion sobre los diversos aspectos que involucra esta tecnica. En este trabajo se revisan brevemente diversos aspectos que es necesario considerar para su diseno, analisis y puesta en operacion.

  15. Soil-water retention curve and beginning of monitoring in Tierra Blanca Joven (TBJ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, Jose; Lopez, Reynaldo; Kopecky, Lubomir; Landaverde, Jose

    2013-01-01

    The areas covered by the volcanic tephras Tierra Blanca Joven (TBJ) in El Salvador, was suffered mass movements, liquefaction and erosion during the rainy season or when major earthquakes occur, causing important environmental, social and economic losses. A pressure plate, centrifuge and filter paper were used to build a Soil-Water Retention Curve, obtain the characterization of these unsaturated soil, suction values of the fall unit of TBJ. The use of this curve into finite elements software can help to acquire shear strength and permeability properties. The filter paper showed to be a practical method but close to saturation the pressure plate is needed.Scatter results were observed with the centrifuge. The Quickdraw tensiometre (suction) and TMS3 (soil moisture content) are being used in field test to proposed a field methodology for an early warning system for the slopes, that could help in urban planning and risk assessment. (author)

  16. Soil-water retention curve and beginning of monitoring in Tierra Blanca Joven (TBJ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, Jose A.; Lopez, Reynaldo; Kopecky, Lubomir; Landaverde, Jose

    2013-01-01

    The areas covered by the Tierra Blanca Joven volcanic tephra (TBJ) have suffered hillside movements, liquefaction and erosion causing important environmental, social and economic losses during the rainy season or when earthquakes occur in El Salvador. Suction values of a TBJ drop unit were obtained with the pressure cooker, centrifuge and filter paper to construct the Soil-Water Retention Curve to initiate the characterization of these partially saturated soils. The use of this curve in finite element programs has helped to know the shear stresses and permeability. The filter paper has proved to be a practical method but it is necessary to use the pressure cooker as it becomes saturated. Field tests with tensiometer (suction) and TMS3 (humidity) have been carried out to propose field methodology for an early warning system for hillsides, which can help urban planning and risk studies. (author)

  17. La tierra entre derecho y cultura indígena en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Rosti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the relationships between the indigenous peoples and the Argentinian State since the XIX century until 1994, when it was introduced in the Constitution the provision acknowledging to the indigenous peoples “la posesión y propiedad comunitarias de las tierras que tradicionalmente ocupan”, “la entrega de otras aptas y suficientes para el desarrollo humano” and granting them “la parcipación en la gestión referida a sus recursos naturales y a los demás intereses que los afecten” (art. 75, inc. 17. The paper describes then the issue concerning the claim for indigenous land – raised by the new constitutional provision – and focuses on some significant cases and the more recent jurisprudence on that issue.

  18. Atmospheric electric discharges and grounding systems; Descargas atmosfericas y sistemas de conexion a tierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, Elena [ed.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this article the work made by the Institute of Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), in the area of atmospheric electric discharges and grounding connections at Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) is presented. The work consisted of the revision of the procedures for the design of transmission lines and substations of CFE from which high indexes of interruptions are reported, from this, a program was defined that allowed to improve the existing designs in CFE. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta el trabajo realizado por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), en el area de descargas atmosfericas y conexiones a tierra en Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). El trabajo consistio en la revision de los procedimientos de diseno de las areas de transmision y subestaciones de la CFE para los que se reportan altos indices de salidas, a partir de esto se definio un programa que permitio mejorar los disenos existentes en la CFE.

  19. Substations grounding systems design; Diseno de sistemas de conexion a tierra en subestaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez Sanchez, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    The grounding systems have been the object of a great number of analytical and experimental studies in the past 15 years, that have given rise to research reports on the several aspects involved in this technique. In this work are briefly reviewed various aspects that is necessary to take into account for its design, analysis and put in operation. [Espanol] Los sistemas de conexion a tierra han sido objeto de gran cantidad de estudios analiticos y experimentales en los pasados quince anos, que han dado origen a informes de investigacion sobre los diversos aspectos que involucra esta tecnica. En este trabajo se revisan brevemente diversos aspectos que es necesario considerar para su diseno, analisis y puesta en operacion.

  20. Violence in Tierra Caliente: Inequality, Development and Education Rates in Drug War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Zepeda Gil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The following article presents the effects of social and economic variables on the increment of violence in regional areas of Mexico, upon the intensification of drug prohibitions policies established by former President Felipe Calderon’s administration. This study involved using a data panel of homicides rates with firearms in 31 municipalities of the region of Tierra Caliente for the time period between 2006 to 2012. The results from the study help indicate that agroindustrial development, income inequality, and education rates have been effected in correlation with the increasing of homicidal rates. Also, based on the relevance of the inequality indicators of the study, it can be argued that there is a possible coincidence between the literature of civil wars and sociology of crime in that can be used to explain such cases of violence.

  1. Parábola existencial de la primera Residencia en la Tierra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gómez

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available Como sucede con muchos artistas, es el amor el que hace de Neruda un gran poeta. Su iniciación en la literatura universal data, sin duda, de los "Veinte poemas de amor y una canción desesperada" pero es a partír de "Residencia en la tierra" que logra afianzarse, en profundidad, como uno de los grandes poetas de la lengua castellana y uno de los más extraordinarios líricos de la historia de la literatura. En "Veinte poemas... ", el amor lo hace compenetrarse, estremecido, con la Naturaleza, lo desnuda de convenciones y prejuicios, lo embriaga de gozos dolorosos y le descubre todo el vasto mundo popular del drama sentim ental, depurado y abierto a la profundidad cósmica.

  2. Significações da queda em Residencia en la tierra

    OpenAIRE

    Luigi Patruno

    2011-01-01

    En el presente trabajo, estudio las variantes que asume la imagen de la caída en Residencia en la tierra de Pablo Neruda. Por un lado, la caída se vincula con la decadencia y la muerte y es el movimiento que insiste en la condición frágil del sujeto; por el otro, es imagen de un hundimiento deseable en la memoria, tensión positiva hacia el conocimiento y descenso poético. En mi análisis, procedo hacia una revisión general de los discursos críticos sobre la caída en los poemas de Neruda, propo...

  3. Grey matter volume in healthy and epileptic beagles using voxel-based morphometry – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Frank

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most common chronic neurological disorders in dogs is idiopathic epilepsy (IE diagnosed as epilepsy without structural changes in the brain. In the current study the hypothesis should be proven that subtle grey matter changes occur in epileptic dogs. Therefore, magnetic resonance (MR images of one dog breed (Beagles were used to obtain an approximately uniform brain shape. Local differences in grey matter volume (GMV were compared between 5 healthy Beagles and 10 Beagles with spontaneously recurrent seizures (5 dogs with IE and 5 dogs with structural epilepsy (SE, using voxel-based morphometry (VBM. T1W images of all dogs were prepared using Amira 6.3.0 for brain extraction, FSL 4.1.8 for registration and SPM12 for realignment. After creation of tissue probability maps of cerebrospinal fluid, grey and white matter from control images to segment all extracted brains, GM templates for each group were constructed to normalize brain images for parametric statistical analysis, which was achieved using SPM12. Results Epileptic Beagles (IE and SE Beagles displayed statistically significant reduced GMV in olfactory bulb, cingulate gyrus, hippocampus and cortex, especially in temporal and occipital lobes. Beagles with IE showed statistically significant decreased GMV in olfactory bulb, cortex of parietal and temporal lobe, hippocampus and cingulate gyrus, Beagles with SE mild statistically significant GMV reduction in temporal lobe (p < 0.05; family- wise error correction. Conclusion These results suggest that, as reported in epileptic humans, focal reduction in GMV also occurs in epileptic dogs. Furthermore, the current study shows that VBM analysis represents an excellent method to detect GMV differences of the brain between a healthy dog group and dogs with epileptic syndrome, when MR images of one breed are used.

  4. Bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations during primary succession in recently Deglaciated areas of Tierra del Fuego (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arróniz-Crespo, María; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; De Los Ríos, Asunción; Green, T G Allan; Ochoa-Hueso, Raúl; Casermeiro, Miguel Ángel; de la Cruz, María Teresa; Pintado, Ana; Palacios, David; Rozzi, Ricardo; Tysklind, Niklas; Sancho, Leopoldo G

    2014-01-01

    Bryophyte establishment represents a positive feedback process that enhances soil development in newly exposed terrain. Further, biological nitrogen (N) fixation by cyanobacteria in association with mosses can be an important supply of N to terrestrial ecosystems, however the role of these associations during post-glacial primary succession is not yet fully understood. Here, we analyzed chronosequences in front of two receding glaciers with contrasting climatic conditions (wetter vs drier) at Cordillera Darwin (Tierra del Fuego) and found that most mosses had the capacity to support an epiphytic flora of cyanobacteria and exhibited high rates of N2 fixation. Pioneer moss-cyanobacteria associations showed the highest N2 fixation rates (4.60 and 4.96 µg N g-1 bryo. d-1) very early after glacier retreat (4 and 7 years) which may help accelerate soil development under wetter conditions. In drier climate, N2 fixation on bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations was also high (0.94 and 1.42 µg N g-1 bryo. d-1) but peaked at intermediate-aged sites (26 and 66 years). N2 fixation capacity on bryophytes was primarily driven by epiphytic cyanobacteria abundance rather than community composition. Most liverworts showed low colonization and N2 fixation rates, and mosses did not exhibit consistent differences across life forms and habitat (saxicolous vs terricolous). We also found a clear relationship between cyanobacteria genera and the stages of ecological succession, but no relationship was found with host species identity. Glacier forelands in Tierra del Fuego show fast rates of soil transformation which imply large quantities of N inputs. Our results highlight the potential contribution of bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations to N accumulation during post-glacial primary succession and further describe the factors that drive N2-fixation rates in post-glacial areas with very low N deposition.

  5. Guanaco’s diet and forage preferences in Nothofagus forest environments of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinteros, C.P.; Bava, J.; Gobbi, M.E.; Defossé, G.E.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: Guanaco (Lama guanicoe Müller), is a South American native ungulate widely distributed in Patagonia, which in the island of Tierra del Fuego (TF), extends its habitat into Nothofagus spp. forests. Within these forests, guanacos consume lenga (Nothofagus pumilio) leaves and twigs, and other understory species. The aim of this work was to determine: 1) the spring and summer diet of free ranging guanacos, and 2) which plants, grown in the forest understory, guanacos do prefer, or avoid, in these seasons of great forage abundance. Area of study: Tierra del Fuego (Argentina), on three representative areas which combined Nothofagus forests and adjacent meadows (vegas). Material and Methods: uanacos’ diet was determined by comparing epidermal and non-epidermal plant fragments with micro-histological analyses of feces. The analysis was made from composite samples of fresh feces, collected at the seasons of maximum forage productivity (spring and summer). Main results: During spring, 48% of guanacos’ diet was composed of lenga leaves, 30% of grass-like species, 15% of grasses, and less than 7% of herbs, shrubs, and lichens. In summer, 40% of the diet was composed of grasses, 30% of lenga leaves, 25% of grass-like species and the rest corresponded to herbs, shrubs, and lichens. Within the forest understory, guanaco selected lenga leaves and twigs, grass species were consumed according to their availability (or sometimes rejected), while other herbs were not consumed at all. Research highlights: Guanacos’ consumption preference for lenga, even considering the high availability of other forages, could adversely affect forest regeneration.

  6. Bryophyte-Cyanobacteria Associations during Primary Succession in Recently Deglaciated Areas of Tierra del Fuego (Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arróniz-Crespo, María; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; De los Ríos, Asunción; Green, T. G. Allan; Ochoa-Hueso, Raúl; Casermeiro, Miguel Ángel; de la Cruz, María Teresa; Pintado, Ana; Palacios, David; Rozzi, Ricardo; Tysklind, Niklas; Sancho, Leopoldo G.

    2014-01-01

    Bryophyte establishment represents a positive feedback process that enhances soil development in newly exposed terrain. Further, biological nitrogen (N) fixation by cyanobacteria in association with mosses can be an important supply of N to terrestrial ecosystems, however the role of these associations during post-glacial primary succession is not yet fully understood. Here, we analyzed chronosequences in front of two receding glaciers with contrasting climatic conditions (wetter vs drier) at Cordillera Darwin (Tierra del Fuego) and found that most mosses had the capacity to support an epiphytic flora of cyanobacteria and exhibited high rates of N2 fixation. Pioneer moss-cyanobacteria associations showed the highest N2 fixation rates (4.60 and 4.96 µg N g−1 bryo. d−1) very early after glacier retreat (4 and 7 years) which may help accelerate soil development under wetter conditions. In drier climate, N2 fixation on bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations was also high (0.94 and 1.42 µg N g−1 bryo. d−1) but peaked at intermediate-aged sites (26 and 66 years). N2 fixation capacity on bryophytes was primarily driven by epiphytic cyanobacteria abundance rather than community composition. Most liverworts showed low colonization and N2 fixation rates, and mosses did not exhibit consistent differences across life forms and habitat (saxicolous vs terricolous). We also found a clear relationship between cyanobacteria genera and the stages of ecological succession, but no relationship was found with host species identity. Glacier forelands in Tierra del Fuego show fast rates of soil transformation which imply large quantities of N inputs. Our results highlight the potential contribution of bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations to N accumulation during post-glacial primary succession and further describe the factors that drive N2-fixation rates in post-glacial areas with very low N deposition. PMID:24819926

  7. Guanaco’s diet and forage preferences in Nothofagus forest environments of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinteros, C.P.; Bava, J.; Gobbi, M.E.; Defossé, G.E.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study: Guanaco (Lama guanicoe Müller), is a South American native ungulate widely distributed in Patagonia, which in the island of Tierra del Fuego (TF), extends its habitat into Nothofagus spp. forests. Within these forests, guanacos consume lenga (Nothofagus pumilio) leaves and twigs, and other understory species. The aim of this work was to determine: 1) the spring and summer diet of free ranging guanacos, and 2) which plants, grown in the forest understory, guanacos do prefer, or avoid, in these seasons of great forage abundance. Area of study: Tierra del Fuego (Argentina), on three representative areas which combined Nothofagus forests and adjacent meadows (vegas). Material and Methods: uanacos’ diet was determined by comparing epidermal and non-epidermal plant fragments with micro-histological analyses of feces. The analysis was made from composite samples of fresh feces, collected at the seasons of maximum forage productivity (spring and summer). Main results: During spring, 48% of guanacos’ diet was composed of lenga leaves, 30% of grass-like species, 15% of grasses, and less than 7% of herbs, shrubs, and lichens. In summer, 40% of the diet was composed of grasses, 30% of lenga leaves, 25% of grass-like species and the rest corresponded to herbs, shrubs, and lichens. Within the forest understory, guanaco selected lenga leaves and twigs, grass species were consumed according to their availability (or sometimes rejected), while other herbs were not consumed at all. Research highlights: Guanacos’ consumption preference for lenga, even considering the high availability of other forages, could adversely affect forest regeneration.

  8. Radioanatomy of the singular nerve canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muren, C. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Sabbatsbergs Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Wadin, K. [University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Dimopoulos, P. [University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1991-08-01

    The singular canal conveys vestibular nerve fibers from the ampulla of the posterior semicircular canal to the posteroinferior border of the internal auditory meatus. Radiographic identification of this anatomic structure helps to distinguish it from a fracture. It is also a landmark in certain surgical procedures. Computed tomography (CT) examinations of deep-frozen temporal bone specimens were compared with subsequently prepared plastic casts of these bones, showing good correlation between the anatomy and the images. The singular canal and its variable anatomy were studied in CT examinations of 107 patients. The singular canal could be identified, in both the axial and in the coronal planes. Its point of entry into the internal auditory meatus varied considerably. (orig.)

  9. Infected Hydrocele of the Canal of Nuck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parkash Mandhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocele of the canal of Nuck in children is rare. It may present as incarcerated inguinal hernia and necessitates emergency exploration. Risk of infection in hydrocele of the canal of nuck is very rare. We present a case report of a 5-year-old girl who presented with a left tender inguinolabial region swelling with fever, tachycardia, and mild dehydration. The clinical features were suggestive of strangulated left inguinal hernia and further imaging and surgical exploration revealed it to be an infected hydrocele of the canal of Nuck. High ligation and hydrocelectomy were performed. Hydrocele of the canal of Nuck in a female child presenting with an inguinal swelling should be considered in differential diagnosis.

  10. Mechanics of the Panama Canal slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, George F.

    1917-01-01

    Dr. Becker visited the Canal Zone in 1913 as a geologist of the United States Geological Survey and since that time has given the problem the benefit of his study. His appointment as a member of the committee of the National Academy of Sciences has made it appropriate for his conclusions, based upon his personal observations and already reported in part to the Canal Commission, to be stated for the benefit of his associates and other American scientists and engineers.

  11. Knowing for controlling: ecological effects of invasive vertebrates in Tierra del Fuego Conocer para controlar: efectos ecológicos de vertebrados invasores en Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA A SILVA

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Tierra del Fuego (TDF archipelago is recognized as part o the last places on Earth that may still be considered wild. However, this condition may be threatened by the large number of invasive species present on the archipelago. These species can have significant effects on the ecology of the invaded ecosystems, at the genetic as well as at population, community and ecosystem levels. The aim of this study is to, by a bibliographic review, systematize existing information on the ecological impacts these species would be having on the TDF archipelago and detect information gaps in order to orient future research and effective management programs on these species. We restricted our review to vertebrate, non-marine invaders. We determined which species have invaded TDF, described their impacts on the archipelago and evaluated their potential impacts; this last issue was determined by reviewing some of the impacts these species have had in other geographic areas. Our findings indicate that at least nine vertebrate species (Salmo trutta, Salvelinus fontinalis, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Castor canadensis, Ondatra zibethicus, Oryctolagus cuniculus, Pseudalopex griseus, Mustela vison and Sus seroja have wild populations established away from human settlements in TDF. There is some scientific evidence on ecological impacts on the area for only five of these invaders, with the American beaver (Castor canadensis being the species monopolizing the greatest number of studies. These results contrast with the recognition, both in TDF and worldwide, of the potential of most of these species to cause significant ecological impacts, which makes it unlikely that the lack of verified impacts on TDF reflects an absence of significant effects of these invaders on the archipelago. We suggest that future research should focus on determining population density and distribution of these and other (i.e., feral species invasive vertebrates, as well as their impacts mainly on

  12. External auditory canal carcinoma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yoichi; Ueda, Yoshihisa; Kurita, Tomoyuki; Nakashima, Tadashi

    2010-01-01

    External auditory canal (EAC) carcinomas are relatively rare conditions lack on established treatment strategy. We analyzed a treatment modalities and outcome in 32 cases of EAC squamous cell carcinoma treated between 1980 and 2008. Subjects-17 men and 15 women ranging from 33 to 92 years old (average: 66) were divided by Arriaga's tumor staging into 12 T1, 5 T2, 6 T3, and 9 T4. Survival was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Disease-specific 5-year survival was 100% for T1, T2, 44% for T3, and 33% for T4. In contrast to 100% 5-year survival for T1+T2 cancer, the 5-year survival for T3+T4 cancer was 37% with high recurrence due to positive surgical margins. The first 22 years of the 29 years surveyed, we performed surgery mainly, and irradiation or chemotherapy was selected for early disease or cases with positive surgical margins as postoperative therapy. During the 22-years, 5-year survival with T3+T4 cancer was 20%. After we started superselective intra-arterial (IA) rapid infusion chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy in 2003, we achieved negative surgical margins for advanced disease, and 5-year survival for T3+T4 cancer rise to 80%. (author)

  13. SU-C-303-03: Dosimetric Model of the Beagle Needed for Pre-Clinical Testing of Radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, M; Sands, M; Bolch, W [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Large animal models, most popularly beagles, have been crucial surrogates to humans in determining radiation safety levels of radiopharmaceuticals. This study aims to develop a detailed beagle phantom to accurately approximate organ absorbed doses for therapy nuclear medicine preclinical studies. Methods: A 3D NURBS model was created subordinate to a whole body CT of an adult beagle. Bones were harvested and CT imaged to offer macroscopic skeletal detail. Samples of trabecular spongiosa were cored and imaged to offer microscopic skeletal detail for bone trabeculae and marrow volume fractions. Results: Organ masses in the model are typical of an adult beagle. Trends in volume fractions for skeletal dosimetry are fundamentally similar to those found in existing models of other canine species. Conclusion: This work warrants its use in further investigations of radiation transport calculation for electron and photon dosimetry. This model accurately represents the anatomy of a beagle, and can be directly translated into a useable geometry for a voxel-based Monte Carlo radiation transport program such as MCNP6. Work supported by a grant from the Hyundai Hope on Wheels Foundation for Pediatric Cancer Research.

  14. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L; Gilbertson, M; Eames, I

    2010-12-01

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid

  15. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L; Gilbertson, M; Eames, I

    2010-01-01

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid

  16. Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence: a morphologic cause of vertigo similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krombach, G.A.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Haage, P.; Guenther, R.W.; DiMartino, E.; Prescher, A.; Kinzel, S.

    2003-01-01

    Heading Abstract.The aim of this study was to assess imaging findings of posterior semicircular dehiscence on computed tomography and to evaluate incidence of posterior and superior semicircular canal dehiscence in patients presenting with vertigo, sensorineuronal hearing loss or in a control group without symptoms related to the inner ear. Computed tomography was performed in 507 patients presenting either with vertigo (n=128; 23 of these patients suffered also from sensorineuronal hearing loss), other symptoms related to the inner ear, such as hearing loss or tinnitus (n=183) or symptoms unrelated to the labyrinth (n=196). All images were reviewed for presence of dehiscence of the bone, overlying the semicircular canals. Twenty-nine patients had superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Of these patients, 83% presented with vertigo, 10% with hearing loss or tinnitus and the remaining 7% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. In 23 patients dehiscence of the posterior semicircular canal was encountered. Of these patients, 86% presented with vertigo, 9% with hearing loss or tinnitus and 5% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. Defects of the bony overly are found at the posterior semicircular canal, in addition to the recently introduced superior canal dehiscence syndrome. Significant prevalence of vertigo in these patients suggests that posterior semicircular canal dehiscence can cause vertigo, similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence. (orig.)

  17. Industrial canal waterfronts in The Netherlands : transforming the canal zones of B5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curulli, G.I.

    2012-01-01

    Industrial Canal Waterfronts in The Netherlands provides a comprehensive presentation of the characteristics and challenges of five interconnected and dismissed industrial canal zones located in the Dutch Brabant cities of Eindhoven, Breda, Tilburg, s’-Hertogenbosch and Helmond (B5). Through the

  18. Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence: a morphologic cause of vertigo similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krombach, G A; Schmitz-Rode, T; Haage, P; Guenther, R W [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); DiMartino, E [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Prescher, A [Department of Anatomy, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Kinzel, S [Department of Experimental Veterinarian Medicine, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    Heading Abstract.The aim of this study was to assess imaging findings of posterior semicircular dehiscence on computed tomography and to evaluate incidence of posterior and superior semicircular canal dehiscence in patients presenting with vertigo, sensorineuronal hearing loss or in a control group without symptoms related to the inner ear. Computed tomography was performed in 507 patients presenting either with vertigo (n=128; 23 of these patients suffered also from sensorineuronal hearing loss), other symptoms related to the inner ear, such as hearing loss or tinnitus (n=183) or symptoms unrelated to the labyrinth (n=196). All images were reviewed for presence of dehiscence of the bone, overlying the semicircular canals. Twenty-nine patients had superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Of these patients, 83% presented with vertigo, 10% with hearing loss or tinnitus and the remaining 7% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. In 23 patients dehiscence of the posterior semicircular canal was encountered. Of these patients, 86% presented with vertigo, 9% with hearing loss or tinnitus and 5% with symptoms unrelated to the inner ear. Defects of the bony overly are found at the posterior semicircular canal, in addition to the recently introduced superior canal dehiscence syndrome. Significant prevalence of vertigo in these patients suggests that posterior semicircular canal dehiscence can cause vertigo, similar to superior semicircular canal dehiscence. (orig.)

  19. 77 FR 42644 - Safety Zone; Canal Fest of the Tonawandas, Erie Canal, Tonawanda, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    .... ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the... Canal during the Canal Fest of the Tonawandas Fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect spectators and vessels from the hazards associated with a fireworks display. DATES: This...

  20. Surface-seeking radionuclides in the skeleton: current approach and recent developments in biokinetic modelling for humans and beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciani, A.; Polig, E.

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade, the biokinetics of surface-seeking radionuclides in the skeleton has been the object of several studies. Investigations were carried out to determine the kinetics of plutonium and americium in the skeleton of humans and beagles. As a result of these investigations, in recent years the models presented by ICRP in Publication 67 for humans were partially revised, particularly the skeletal part. The aim of the present work is to present recent developments in the biokinetic modelling of surface-seeking radionuclides (plutonium and americium) in beagles and humans. Various assumptions and physiological interpretations of the different approaches to the biokinetic modelling of the skeleton are discussed. Current ICRP concepts and skeleton modelling of plutonium and americium in humans are compared to the latest developments in biokinetic modelling in beagles. (authors)

  1. Renal function and morphology in aged Beagle dogs before and after hydrocortisone administration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale M Y Smets

    Full Text Available Objectives of this study were to evaluate glomerular filtration rate (GFR, renal structural changes and proteinuria in aged Beagle dogs before and after hydrocortisone (HC administration. Eleven Beagle dogs ≥10 years old were treated with either hydrocortisone (HC group, n = 6 or placebo (control group, n = 5. Urinary markers, GFR and kidney biopsies were evaluated before (T0, during (T16 wks and after discontinuing HC administration (T24 wks. Results indicate that HC administration causes a significant increase in GFR. At all time points except T16 wks, proteinuria was higher in the control group than in the HC group, and there was no significant difference in urinary markers between groups. At T16 wks, proteinuria, urinary albumin-to-creatinine (c ratio, immunoglobulin G/c and retinol-binding protein/c were higher compared to baseline in the HC group. At T0, rare to mild renal lesions were detected in all HC dogs and rare to moderate changes in all control dogs. Glomerulosclerosis progressed in both groups until T24 wks. Tubular atrophy was detected in three HC dogs at T16 wks and T24 wks, but also in five control dogs throughout the study. At every time point, five HC dogs and all control dogs had rare to moderate interstitial inflammation. Rare to mild interstitial fibrosis was found in up to three HC dogs at T16 wks and T24 wks, and severe fibrosis in one HC dog at T24 wks. Up to four control dogs had rare to mild fibrosis at all time points. These findings indicate that clinically healthy, aged Beagle dogs may have considerable renal lesions and proteinuria, which could have implications for experimental or toxicological studies. Additional research is needed to elucidate glucocorticoid effects on renal structure, but functional changes such as hyperfiltration and proteinuria warrant attention to kidney function of canine patients with Cushing's syndrome or receiving exogenous glucocorticoids.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of Ginkgolide B after Oral Administration of Three Different Ginkgolide B Formulations in Beagle Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Geng, Ting; Wang, Qi; Si, Haihong; Sun, Xiaoping; Guo, Qingming; Li, Yanjing; Huang, Wenzhe; Ding, Gang; Xiao, Wei

    2015-11-06

    Ginkgolide B (GB), an important active constituent of Ginkgo biloba extract, has been used in clinical applications for the treatment of dementia, cerebral insufficiency or related cognitive decline. To investigate the main pharmacokinetic characteristics of three different GB formulations in beagle dogs, a simple, specific and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was established and validated. The separation of the analytes was achieved on an Agilent Eclipse Plus C18 column (1.8 μm, 2.1×50 mm) with a mobile phase consisting of water and acetonitrile. The flow rate was set at 0.4 mL/min. Quantitation was performed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in negative ion mode, with the transitions at m/z (Q1/Q3) 423.1/367.1 for GB and m/z 269.3/170.0 for IS. The linear calibration curve of GB was obtained over the concentration range of 2-200 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions were dogs after oral administration of three formulations (HME08, GB capsule prepared by hot-melt extrusion technology; LL06, GB pellet prepared by liquid layer technology; conventional GB tablet). The Cmax values of GB from different formulations in beagle dog plasma were 309.2, 192.4 and 66.6 µg/L, and the AUC values were 606.7, 419.1 and 236.2 µg/L·h, respectively. The data suggested that the exposure level of GB from HME08 and LL06 in beagle dog plasma was greatly improved compared with conventional tablets. This study should be helpful for the design and development of oral GB preparations.

  3. Assessment of stress in laboratory beagle dogs constrained by a Pavlov sling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracke, Jenny; Bert, Bettina; Fink, Heidrun; Böhner, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    The 3Rs - Replacement, Reduction and Refinement - have become increasingly important in designing animal experiments. The Pavlov sling is thought to be a non-invasive method to restrain dogs for examinations. The aim of our study was to investigate whether laboratory Beagle dogs that had been trained to tolerate restraint by a Pavlov sling are stressed by this procedure and, furthermore, to analyze their behavior during this period. Five male and five female Beagle dogs were used, each three years of age. Animals were restrained in the Pavlov sling for 30 min on six days with an interval of at least two days. The following behaviors were recorded every minute for each session: postures of body, head, and ears, as well as state of eyes, tail, legs, and mouth. Additionally, the animals were observed for the occurrence of particular stress signs, including body shaking, sweating of the paws, increased saliva production, piloerection, blinking of eyes, snout licking, yawning, and panting. As an indicator for stress, salivary cortisol levels were measured before, during, and after each session. Our results show that for most behavioral parameters, e.g., body, leg, head, tail, and ear posture, the frequency of changes between different behavior patterns, as well as cortisol concentration, were not influenced by restraint in the Pavlov sling. Therefore, the Pavlov sling does not seem to be perceived as a stressful situation by the Beagle dogs. Our study demonstrates that under certain conditions the use of the Pavlov sling in trained dogs can substitute for more ordinary methods of immobilization, e.g., the use of narcotics.

  4. BEAGLE: an application programming interface and high-performance computing library for statistical phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Daniel L; Darling, Aaron; Zwickl, Derrick J; Beerli, Peter; Holder, Mark T; Lewis, Paul O; Huelsenbeck, John P; Ronquist, Fredrik; Swofford, David L; Cummings, Michael P; Rambaut, Andrew; Suchard, Marc A

    2012-01-01

    Phylogenetic inference is fundamental to our understanding of most aspects of the origin and evolution of life, and in recent years, there has been a concentration of interest in statistical approaches such as Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood estimation. Yet, for large data sets and realistic or interesting models of evolution, these approaches remain computationally demanding. High-throughput sequencing can yield data for thousands of taxa, but scaling to such problems using serial computing often necessitates the use of nonstatistical or approximate approaches. The recent emergence of graphics processing units (GPUs) provides an opportunity to leverage their excellent floating-point computational performance to accelerate statistical phylogenetic inference. A specialized library for phylogenetic calculation would allow existing software packages to make more effective use of available computer hardware, including GPUs. Adoption of a common library would also make it easier for other emerging computing architectures, such as field programmable gate arrays, to be used in the future. We present BEAGLE, an application programming interface (API) and library for high-performance statistical phylogenetic inference. The API provides a uniform interface for performing phylogenetic likelihood calculations on a variety of compute hardware platforms. The library includes a set of efficient implementations and can currently exploit hardware including GPUs using NVIDIA CUDA, central processing units (CPUs) with Streaming SIMD Extensions and related processor supplementary instruction sets, and multicore CPUs via OpenMP. To demonstrate the advantages of a common API, we have incorporated the library into several popular phylogenetic software packages. The BEAGLE library is free open source software licensed under the Lesser GPL and available from http://beagle-lib.googlecode.com. An example client program is available as public domain software.

  5. Minipig and beagle animal model genomes aid species selection in pharmaceutical discovery and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vamathevan, Jessica J., E-mail: jessica.j.vamathevan@gsk.com [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Hall, Matthew D.; Hasan, Samiul; Woollard, Peter M. [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Xu, Meng; Yang, Yulan; Li, Xin; Wang, Xiaoli [BGI-Shenzen, Shenzhen (China); Kenny, Steve [Safety Assessment, PTS, GlaxoSmithKline, Ware (United Kingdom); Brown, James R. [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA (United States); Huxley-Jones, Julie [UK Platform Technology Sciences (PTS) Operations and Planning, PTS, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Lyon, Jon; Haselden, John [Safety Assessment, PTS, GlaxoSmithKline, Ware (United Kingdom); Min, Jiumeng [BGI-Shenzen, Shenzhen (China); Sanseau, Philippe [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-15

    Improving drug attrition remains a challenge in pharmaceutical discovery and development. A major cause of early attrition is the demonstration of safety signals which can negate any therapeutic index previously established. Safety attrition needs to be put in context of clinical translation (i.e. human relevance) and is negatively impacted by differences between animal models and human. In order to minimize such an impact, an earlier assessment of pharmacological target homology across animal model species will enhance understanding of the context of animal safety signals and aid species selection during later regulatory toxicology studies. Here we sequenced the genomes of the Sus scrofa Göttingen minipig and the Canis familiaris beagle, two widely used animal species in regulatory safety studies. Comparative analyses of these new genomes with other key model organisms, namely mouse, rat, cynomolgus macaque, rhesus macaque, two related breeds (S. scrofa Duroc and C. familiaris boxer) and human reveal considerable variation in gene content. Key genes in toxicology and metabolism studies, such as the UGT2 family, CYP2D6, and SLCO1A2, displayed unique duplication patterns. Comparisons of 317 known human drug targets revealed surprising variation such as species-specific positive selection, duplication and higher occurrences of pseudogenized targets in beagle (41 genes) relative to minipig (19 genes). These data will facilitate the more effective use of animals in biomedical research. - Highlights: • Genomes of the minipig and beagle dog, two species used in pharmaceutical studies. • First systematic comparative genome analysis of human and six experimental animals. • Key drug toxicology genes display unique duplication patterns across species. • Comparison of 317 drug targets show species-specific evolutionary patterns.

  6. Study of single dose toxic test of Sweet Bee Venom in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Chul, Yoon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was performed to analyse single dose toxicity of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV extracted from the bee venom in Beagle dogs. Methods : All experiments were conducted under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical study authorized institution. Male and female Beagle dogs of 5-6 months old were chosen for the pilot study of single dose toxicity of Sweet BV which was administered at the level of 9.0 ㎎/㎏ body weight which is 1300 times higher than the clinical application dosage as the high dosage, followed by 3.0 and 1.0 ㎎/㎏ as midium and low dosage, respectively. Equal amount of excipient(normal saline to the Sweet BV experiment groups was administered as the control group. Results : 1. No mortality was witnessed in all of the experiment groups. 2. Hyperemia and movement disorder were observed around the area of administration in all the experiment groups, and higher occurrence in the higher dosage treatment. 3. For weight measurement, Neither male nor female groups showed significant changes. 4. To verify abnormalities of organs and tissues, thigh muscle which treated with Sweet BV, brain, liver, lung, kidney, and spinal cords were removed and histologocal observation using H-E staining was conducted. In the histologocal observation of thigh muscle, cell infiltration, inflammation, degeneration, necrosis of muscle fiber, and fibrosis were found in both thigh tissue. And the changes depend on the dose of Sweet BV. But the other organs did not showed in any abnormality. 5. The maximum dose of Sweet BV in Beagle dogs were over 9 ㎎/㎏ in this study. Conclusions : The above findings of this study suggest that Sweet BV is a relatively safe treatment medium. Further studies on the toxicity of Sweet BV should be conducted to yield more concrete evidences.

  7. Minipig and beagle animal model genomes aid species selection in pharmaceutical discovery and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vamathevan, Jessica J.; Hall, Matthew D.; Hasan, Samiul; Woollard, Peter M.; Xu, Meng; Yang, Yulan; Li, Xin; Wang, Xiaoli; Kenny, Steve; Brown, James R.; Huxley-Jones, Julie; Lyon, Jon; Haselden, John; Min, Jiumeng; Sanseau, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Improving drug attrition remains a challenge in pharmaceutical discovery and development. A major cause of early attrition is the demonstration of safety signals which can negate any therapeutic index previously established. Safety attrition needs to be put in context of clinical translation (i.e. human relevance) and is negatively impacted by differences between animal models and human. In order to minimize such an impact, an earlier assessment of pharmacological target homology across animal model species will enhance understanding of the context of animal safety signals and aid species selection during later regulatory toxicology studies. Here we sequenced the genomes of the Sus scrofa Göttingen minipig and the Canis familiaris beagle, two widely used animal species in regulatory safety studies. Comparative analyses of these new genomes with other key model organisms, namely mouse, rat, cynomolgus macaque, rhesus macaque, two related breeds (S. scrofa Duroc and C. familiaris boxer) and human reveal considerable variation in gene content. Key genes in toxicology and metabolism studies, such as the UGT2 family, CYP2D6, and SLCO1A2, displayed unique duplication patterns. Comparisons of 317 known human drug targets revealed surprising variation such as species-specific positive selection, duplication and higher occurrences of pseudogenized targets in beagle (41 genes) relative to minipig (19 genes). These data will facilitate the more effective use of animals in biomedical research. - Highlights: • Genomes of the minipig and beagle dog, two species used in pharmaceutical studies. • First systematic comparative genome analysis of human and six experimental animals. • Key drug toxicology genes display unique duplication patterns across species. • Comparison of 317 drug targets show species-specific evolutionary patterns

  8. Comparison of radiological changes in humans and beagles with skeletal deposits of radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, J P [Univ. of California, Davis; Pool, R R; Kirsh, I E

    1983-01-01

    At the Laboratory for Energy-related Health Research at the University of California, Davis, semimonthly injections of /sup 226/Ra were given to a group of beagle dogs, and periodic skeletal radiography followed, as well as histological studies of the bones. At the Center for Human Radiobiology measurements were made of radium body content in 2259 occupationally or otherwise exposed persons. Of these, 1768 had skeletal radiography (one or more times). In humans, the radiographic changes were, in decreasing order of frequency, osteolytic cortical and cancellous bone destruction, bone sclerosis, pathological fracture, and avascular necrosis of bone. In beagles, osteolytic destruction and pathological fractures were common, avascular necrosis was not observed, but there was frequently cortical thickening and new-bone formation in cancellous bone. In both population groups, there was a high incidence of bone sarcoma. In the beagles, one high-dosage group numbering 38 dogs had 49 malignant bone tumors. Among the 2259 measured persons, there were 60 who had bone sarcoma, and 29 who had cancer of the mastoids or paranasal sinuses. No significant skeletal effects have been diagnosed radiologically in persons with systemic intakes of /sup 226/Ra or /sup 228/Ra below about 10 ..mu..Ci or with skeletal doses below about 100 rad. In humans, the lowest skeletal dose at which a bone sarcoma has been diagnosed is 890 rad, and the lowest intake associated with a bone sarcoma is 96 ..integral..Ci /sup 226/Ra or about 1.7 ..mu..Ci per kg body weight.

  9. Centro de Control de Tierra para Colaboración de Vehículos Autónomos Marinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Bonache Seco

    2017-12-01

    donde la incorporación del operador en la supervisión y control de las maniobras de los vehículos es un requisito imprescindible para dar seguridad y confianza a la operación realizada. Finalmente, se presenta un caso de uso del Centro de Control de Tierra donde se realiza una maniobra de seguimiento entre dos vehículos autónomos de superficie.

  10. A new genus and new species of felt scales (Homoptera: Coccinea: Eriococcidae from Tierra del Fuego (Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya A. Gavrilov-Zimin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Telmatococcus igniumterrae gen. nov. et sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on the material collected from a sphagnum bog in the extreme southern part of South America (Tierra del Fuego. The new monotypic genus differs from all known genera of Eriococcidae in having short cylindrical truncated setae of the anal apparatus and pouches with numerous quinquelocular pores near the anal apparatus. The habitat of the new taxon is characterized.

  11. Treatment of extremely severe acute hemopoietic radiation sickness beagles with RhG-CSF and RhIL-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jianzhi; Zhang Ri; Li Ming; Xing Shuang; Luo Qingliang; Zhang Xueguang; Miao Jingcheng; Zhu Nankang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of treatment combined recombinant human G-CSF (rhG-CSF) and recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11) on severe acute hemopoietic radiation sickness (ARS) beagles. Methods: Beagles were irradiated with 4.5 Gy 60 Co γ-ray to establish ARS models, and animals were divided into the irradiated control group and the supportive care and combined cytokines treatment cohort. After irradiation the irradiated control beagles was given no treatment, the supportive care beagles received purely symptomatic treatment including blood transfusion and anti-infection while the combined cytokines treatment beagles received rhG-CSF and rhIL-11 subcutaneously for three weeks besides symptomatic treatment.Results After irradiation, all kinds of cells' population declined sharply, but rebounded to normal basically in the combined cytokines treatment rate in the cohort. The mean blood transfusion volume of cytokines in the cohort and the period of blood transfusion all were less than those in the supportive care cohort (P<0.01). The period of administrated antibiotic of cytokines in the cohort was shorter than that in the supportive care cohort (P<0.05). In the observe period of 45 d, survival rate in the irradiated controls cohort was 0%, in the supportive care cohort was 80%, and in the combined cytokines treatment cohort was 100%(P<0.01). Conclusion: Administration of rhG-CSF and rhIL-11 early after irradiation and continued daily, in combined with supportive care in severe acute hemopoietic radiation sickness beagles can improve hematopoietic function restoration, stimulate blood cells to restore to the normal level quickly, significantly decrease the reguired volume of blood transfusion, shorten the period of anti-infection and increase survival of irradiated canines. (authors)

  12. Competitive radiation-induced carcinogenesis: an analysis of data from beagle dogs exposed to 226Ra and 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momeni, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    The incidence of radiation-induced primary bone sarcoma and myeloproliferative diseases was studied as a function of dose rate and time in beagles that were fed diets containing 90 SrCl 2 in equilibrium with 90 Y from midgestation to 1.5 yr of age or that were administered eight intravenous injections of 226 RaCl 2 (one injection every 2 weeks for 4 months) starting at 14 months of age. Analysis of incidence of each disease in 776 beagles showed a normal probability density function with respect to time. Median incidence time and standard deviation from the mean of distribution were calculated for primary osteosarcoma at each level of administered radioactivity. The median incidence age (T) for mortality from primary osteosarcoma increased from 4.1 yr of age, 2.6 yr after final injection of radium, for beagles injected (A 0 ) with 83.6 μCi 226 Ra, to 11.5 yr of age for beagles given A 0 = 3.14 μCi 226 Ra. A similar increase in T was observed for beagles that ingested a daily diet containing 90 Sr + 90 Y, from T = 2.8 yr of age at 36 μCi 90 Sr/day to 12.6 yr at 4 μCi 90 Sr/day. Tumor yield was calculated assuming that the causes of death from competing diseases were mutually exclusive with respect to individual diseases. Incidence and cumulative incidence for each of the diseases were calculated as a function of time and maximum dose rate. These analyses were extended to beagles administered 226 Ra by a single injection or 90 Sr by injection and inhalation. Extrapolation of the observed dose effects to lower levels of administered radioactivity (comparable to maximum permissible body burden) is discussed within the framework of a competitive mortality. (author)

  13. HPLC assay for ethiofos in plasma: Application to pharmacokinetics in the beagle dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swynnerton, N.F.; Mangold, D.J.; Ludden, T.M.

    1985-01-01

    An HPLC assay for ethiofos [S-2-(3-amino-propylamino)ethyl phosphorothioate, WR 2727] in plasma is presented. Its application to the development of pharmacokinetic parameters following IV administration of the drug to beagle dogs is demonstrated and preliminary pharmacokinetics of four dosings will be presented. Following a dose of 150 mg kg -1 , the plasma concentration versus time profile was best described by a two-compartment pharmacokinetics model. Mean pharmacokinetic parameters were: terminal elimination half-life = 16.0 minutes, volume of central compartment = 129 mL kg -1 , and clearance = 11.0 mL min -1 kg -1

  14. Hypoadrenocorticism in beagles exposed to aerosols of plutonium-238 dioxide by inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, R.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Dagle, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    Hypoadrenocorticism, known as Addison's disease in humans, was diagnosed in six beagles after inhalation of at least 1.7 kBq/g lung of 238 PuO 2 . Histological examination of adrenal gland specimens obtained at necropsy revealed marked adrenal cortical atrophy in all cases. Autoadiographs showed only slight α-particle activity. Although the pathogenesis of adrenal cortical atrophy in these dogs is unclear, there is evidence to suggest an automimmune disorder linked to damage resulting from α-particle irradiation to the lymphatic system

  15. Toxicity of 239PuO2 in immature Beagle dogs. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1981-01-01

    Immature Beagle dogs have been exposed by inhalation to a monodisperse aerosol of 239 PuO 2 (1.5 μm AD) to compare the biological effects with those seen in young adult and aged dogs exposed to a similar aerosol. To date 45 dogs have been exposed to the aerosol, resulting in graded lung burdens from 0.0031 to 0.64 μCi/kg body weight. Six dogs exposed to the dilute ammonium hydroxide aerosol only serve as controls. One experimental dog has died of parvovirus enteritis. Exposures will continue during the coming year to complete the experimental design

  16. Hypodontia in the beagle after perinatal whole-body 60Co gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.C.; Angleton, G.M.; Benjamin, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a long-term study to evaluate health effects of pre- and postnatal irradiation, dental development was examined. Beagles were irradiated in utero at 8, 28, or 55 days postcoitus or postnatally at 2, 70, or 365 days postpartum. Whole-body 60 Co gamma radiation doses ranged from 0 to 3.8 Gy. There was an age-dependent dose-related increase in premolar hypodontia for animals irradiated at 55 days postcoitus or 2 days postpartum with doses of 0.83 Gy or higher and for those irradiated at 28 days postcoitus with 1.2 Gy or higher

  17. Investigations with beagles about toxicity and radioprotective effect of the chemical radioprotection substance WR 2721

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, M.; Sedlmeier, H.; Wustrow, T.; Messerschmidt, O.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of the chemical radioprotection substance WR 2721 (S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethyl-thiophosphate) was examined in 25 beagles. The study showed that the toxicity of the substance increases as the dose gets higher. Between the doses 200 and 250 mg/kg of body weight, the increase of toxicity was significantly greater than could be expected on the basis of the dose difference. Until a dose of 200 mg/kg, the authors found no side effects which would have disturbed vital functions, but higher doses led to marked symptoms of intoxication. (orig.) [de

  18. Radiation induced skeletal changes in beagle: dose rates, dose, and age effect analysis from 226Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momeni, M.H.; Williams, J.R.; Rosenblatt, L.S.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation-induced skeletal injury (E) and the rate of skeletal injury were studied as a function of time and dose in beagles administered 226 Ra Cl 2 in eight semimonthly iv injections starting at 2, 4, or 14 months of age. Skeletal changes were evaluated with a radiographic x-ray scoring system in 20 skeletal regions; each region was scored on a 0 to 6 scale. Bone changes in six regions of humeri were qualitatively analyzed for comparison with total skeletal changes. Skeletal changes were classified by endosteal or periosteal cortical sclerosis and thickening, fractures, osteolytic lesions, and trabecular coarsening

  19. Local cerebral glucose utilization in the beagle puppy model of intraventricular hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ment, L.R.; Stewart, W.B.; Duncan, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    Local cerebral glucose utilization has been measured by means of carbon-14( 14 C)-autoradiography with 2-deoxyglucose in the newborn beagle puppy model of intraventricular hemorrhage. Our studies demonstrate gray matter/white matter differentiation of uptake of 14 C-2-deoxyglucose in the control pups, as would be expected from adult animal studies. However, there is a marked homogeneity of 14 C-2-deoxyglucose uptake in all brain regions in the puppies with intraventricular hemorrhage, possibly indicating a loss of the known coupling between cerebral blood flow and metabolism in this neuropathological condition

  20. Thyroid neoplasia in beagles receiving whole-body irradiation during development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, L.C.; Norrdin, R.W.; Hargis, A.M.; Benjamin, S.A.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty malignant and 17 benign thyroid neoplasms have been diagnosed in 37 Segment III beagles. Nine males and 8 females had follicular adenomas, and 7 males and 13 females had thyroid carcinomas. The dogs ranged in age from 5.16 to 10.66 years. Twenty-nine of the 37 dogs (78.4 percent) were hypothyroid. Twenty-six (70.3 percent) dogs were irradiated. Of the 26 irradiated dogs 15 had malignant tumors. Fourteen (37.8 percent) of the 37 dogs had the same sire

  1. Deposition of inhaled LMFBR-fuel-sodium aerosols in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, P.L.; Mahlum, D.D.; Briant, J.K.; Catt, D.L.; Peters, L.R.; Clary, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    Initial alveolar deposition of LMFBR-fuel aerosols in beagle dogs amounted to 30% of the inhaled activity, but only 5% of the total inhaled activity was deposited in dogs exposed to sodium-fuel aerosols. Aerosol deposition in the gastrointestinal tract amounted to 4% of the initial body burden of fuel-aerosol exposed dogs and 24% of the burden of animals receiving sodium-fuel aerosols. Preliminary analytical data for the dog exposures appear to agree with rodent data for deposition and distribution patterns of aerosols of similar sodium: fuel ratios

  2. Repeated inhalation exposure of Beagle dogs to aerosols of 239PuO2. XII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diel, J.H.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    Beagle dogs were exposed once or semi-annually for 10 yr by inhalation to aerosols of 239 PuO 2 to study the relative doses and effects of these two types of exposures. All exposures have been completed. Dogs exposed at high levels died predominantly of radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. Dogs exposed at lower levels, either once or repeatedly, are dying of a variety of causes including lung cancer. Dogs have survived up to 11 yr after their first exposure. Preliminary results suggest that single and repeated exposures cause similar health effects for equal accumulated radiation doses. (author)

  3. Toxicity of 90Sr inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs. XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study was initiated to determine health effects resulting from inhalation of 90 Sr in relatively insoluble form. Beagle dogs were briefly exposed by inhalation to produce lung burdens of 90 Sr that ranged from 0.12 to 96 μCi (4.4-3500 kBq)/kg body weight. Exposures to the higher concentrations of 90 Sr caused radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis, typically resulting in death 90 Sr-exposed dogs were euthanized during the past year. One remaining exposed dog and one control dog are both 14 yr old and are being maintained for lifetime observation. (author)

  4. Beagle: an appropriate experimental animal for extrapolating the organ distribution pattern of Th in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.P.; Zimmerman, C.J.; Taylor, G.N.; Wrenn, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations and the organ distribution patterns of 228Th, 230Th and 232Th in two 9-y-old dogs of our beagle colony were determined. The dogs were exposed only to background environmental levels of Th isotopes through ingestion (food and water) and inhalation as are humans. The organ distribution patterns of the isotopes in the beagles were compared to the organ distribution patterns in humans to determine if it is appropriate to extrapolate the beagle organ burden data to humans. Among soft tissues, only the lungs, lymph nodes, kidney and liver, and skeleton contained measurable amounts of Th isotopes. The organ distribution pattern of Th isotopes in humans and dog are similar, the majority of Th being in the skeleton of both species. The average skeletal concentrations of 228Th in dogs were 30 to 40 times higher than the average skeletal concentrations of the parent 232Th, whereas the concentration of 228Th in human skeleton was only four to five times higher than 232Th. This suggests that dogs have a higher intake of 228Ra through food than humans. There is a similar trend in the accumulations of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in the lungs of dog and humans. The percentages of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in human lungs are 26, 9.7 and 4.8, respectively, compared to 4.2, 2.6 and 0.48, respectively, in dog lungs. The larger percentages of Th isotopes in human lungs may be due simply to the longer life span of humans. If the burdens of Th isotopes in human lungs are normalized to an exposure time of 9.2 y (mean age of dogs at the time of sacrifice), the percent burden of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in human lungs are estimated to be 3.6, 1.3 and 0.66, respectively. These results suggest that the beagle may be an appropriate experimental animal for extrapolating the organ distribution pattern of Th in humans

  5. Radiation-induced external ear canal cholesteatoma-like disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Akiko; Okuno, Hideji; Noguchi, Keisuke; Komatsuzaki, Atsushi [Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-06-01

    Three cases of cholesteatoma-like disease in the ear canals after radiation therapy for head and neck tumor were reported. Effect of irradiation on bone and soft tissue including skin brings about pathological reaction to the external ear canal as well. Two types of disease resembling cholesteatomas have been recognized: keratosis obturans (KO) and external auditory canal cholesteatoma (EACC). KO appears to be derived from disease of canal skin involved with keratinization, creating a widning of the canal. EACC, on the other hand, seems to develop in the disease of bony canal where a localized absorption of its bone with invasion of squamous epithelium takes place. (author)

  6. Root canal treatment and special needs patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, E; Parashos, P; Borromeo, G L

    2015-04-01

    To identify current trends of root canal treatment for patients with special needs. A postal questionnaire was sent to General Dentists in Victoria, Australia and Endodontists and Special Needs Dentists across Australia to determine the extent of root canal treatment performed on special needs patients. Over a four-month period, 1120 questionnaires were distributed with an overall response rate of 63.9% (n = 716). Response rates were 63.2% (n = 655), 68.5% (n = 50) and 100.0% (n = 11) amongst General Dentists, Endodontists and Special Needs Dentists, respectively. Endodontists (95.7%) and Special Needs Dentists (100.0%) performed significantly more root canal treatment on adult patients with special needs compared with 51.2% of General Dentists, (P special needs patients compared with only 29.7% of General Dentists (P special needs patients was more likely to be carried out by specialist dental practitioners who were more likely to utilize a pharmacological approach for behaviour guidance and to perform single-visit root canal treatment compared with General Dentists. A multidisciplinary approach for special needs patients who require root canal treatment provides an opportunity for these patients to retain their dentition. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Fate of a broad spectrum of perfluorinated compounds in soils and biota from Tierra del Fuego and Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llorca, Marta; Farré, Marinella; Tavano, Máximo Sebastián; Alonso, Bruno; Koremblit, Gabriel; Barceló, Damià

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the presence of 18 perfluorinated compounds was investigated in biota and environmental samples from the Antarctica and Tierra de Fuego, which were collected during a sampling campaign carried out along February and March 2010. 61 samples were analysed including fish, superficial soils, guano, algae, dung and tissues of Papua penguin by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The concentrations of PFCs were ranging from 0.10 to 240 ng/g for most of the samples except for penguin dung, which presented levels between 95 and 603 ng/g for perfluorooctane sulfonate, and guano samples from Ushuaia, with concentration levels of 1190–2480 ng/g of perfluorohexanoic acid. PFCs acids presented, in general, the highest levels of concentration and perfluorooctanesulfonate was the most frequently found compound. The present study provides a significant amount of results, which globally supports the previous studies, related to the transport, deposition, biodegradation and bioaccumulation patterns of PFCs. - Highlights: ► 61 samples from the Antarctica and Tierra de Fuego analysed for the presence of 18 perfluorinated compounds. ► Acid compounds presented the highest levels of concentration and perfluorooctane sulfonate was the most frequently found. ► Concentrations in algae much higher than those in soils. ► Data supporting existing models for the transport, deposition, biodegradation and bioaccumulation patterns are presented. - 18 perfluorinated compounds assessed in biota and environmental samples from Tierra del Fuego and the Antarctica. Concentrations related to Compounds properties.

  8. Género y arrebato de tierras: el caso del nuevo aeropuerto internacional de Ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Vázquez García

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se explora la dinámica de género del arrebato de tierras en el municipio de Atenco, Estado de México, para la construcción del nuevo aeropuerto internacional de la Ciudad de México. A partir de datos obtenidos mediante la sistematización de expedientes ejidales, la observación participante y las entrevistas a profundidad, se analiza la discriminación de género en la venta de tierras y las estrategias de las mujeres para enfrentarla. El artículo contribuye a estudiar la infraestructura de comunicaciones, un sector poco teorizado; a utilizar información documental, principalmente testimonial, y a visibilizar los efectos de género y el papel de las mujeres en la resistencia. Se muestra que los agentes del arrebato de tierras son el Estado, el capital y las estructuras comunitarias que reproducen la inequidad de género, para concentrar la riqueza y los privilegios políticos en manos predominantemente masculinas.

  9. Seguimiento al comportamiento del mercado de tierras rurales a través de un GIS, Santander Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lozano-Botache

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de los marcos legales y políticas públicas, en algunos países, los derechos de propiedad sobre la tierra siguen siendo usurpados o impedidos con métodos violentos. Este trabajo de investigación, desde el marco de referencia de la Administración de Tierras, el Neoinstitucionalismo y las herramientas computacionales –conocidas genéricamente como Sistemas de Información Geográfica (GIS, por sus siglas en inglés– presenta un modelo de observación regional de precios que, por la secuencia de datos y su proceso informático, puede mantenerse a través del tiempo como referente en procesos agrarios de restitución de tierras a víctimas del despojo, así como en la ejecución de proyectos de desarrollo social o económico.

  10. The perceived image of Tierra del Fuego (Argentina in travel stories published by “TravelPod”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Andrea Mosti

    2017-07-01

    environmental conditions, with inhospitable landscapes and, by all appearances, a pristine ecosystem. Together these things form a constitutive part the territorial identity of southern Patagonia. The cartography, the scientific expeditions, the religious missions, the journalism and the literature played an important role in the diffusion and permanency of these representations. In modern Western societies, companies have positioned the concept as a powerful tourist resource, capable of motivating travelers coming to Tierra del Fuego. The present communication proposes an approximation to the perceived image of Tierra del Fuego, according to tourists’ statements in trip blogs, taking these chronicles from sources posted on the site Travelpod. The aim is to examine the contents of the perceived image and to investigate the ways that the concept “End of the World” is resignified. The tourists’ testimonies appeal always to the idea of the End of the World; these representations can be condensed to two dimensions, the one linked to physical – geographical aspects and another that recreates symbolic contents. In the perceived images of Tierra del Fuego, there is an intermingling of the archaic, the legend and the distance, the impregnable vastness of the nature and the recollection of heroic expeditions.

  11. Negociando la tierra: empresas extranjeras, minería a gran escala y derechos humanos en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Velasco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La adquisición masiva de tierras por parte de empresas extranjeras en países africanos, asiáticos y latinoamericanos refleja una nueva fase del capitalismo global (Sassen, 2013. Colombia no ha escapado a esta lógica mundial del capitalismo, pues en la última década la influencia de las empresas extranjeras en el mercado de tierras ha sido notoria. En esa lógica, este artículo compara, desde un enfoque de Derechos Humanos, las prácticas de adquisición de tierras de tres compañías extranjeras que han explotado carbón a cielo abierto en La Guajira y Cesar. Los resultados indican que la formalidad de la propiedad agraria y las restricciones institucionales de las empresas —asociadas al gobierno corporativo, la participación en bolsa de valores y el veto de compradores internacionales—influyen significativamente en el respeto a los derechos humanos.

  12. PERSPECTIVAS DEL PROCESO DE TITULACIÓN DE TIERRAS EN LA COMUNIDAD CAMPESINA SAN JUAN DE MIRAFLORES, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Ricardo Ríos Ramirez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar las perspectivas hacia la titulación de tierras en la Comunidad Campesina San Juan de Miraflores (CCSJM.El estudio fue de tipo descriptivo, con un diseño no experimental transversal. Se aplicó un cuestionario estructurado para evaluar perspectivas a una muestra de 353 comuneros seleccionados de manera aleatoria, estratificada y proporcional, previa validación de expertos y con una confiabilidad alfa de Cronbach α =  0.944.En la CCSJM, las parcelas no tienen las características necesarias para que la agricultura o ganadería se desarrollen, asimismo la actividad campesina no es la principal actividad económica. Asimismo, los comuneros de la CCSJM muestran una perspectiva favorable hacia la titulación de tierras.Por lo tanto, consideramos imperante el proceso de titulación de tierras y la promoción de opciones laborales distintas a las que usualmente realiza un campesino.

  13. Rock Magnetic Properties of Laguna Carmen (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina): Implications for Paleomagnetic Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogorza, C. G.; Orgeira, M. J.; Ponce, F.; Fernández, M.; Laprida, C.; Coronato, A.

    2013-05-01

    We report preliminary results obtained from a multi-proxy analysis including paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic studies of two sediment cores of Laguna Carmen (53°40'60" S 68°19'0" W, ~83m asl) in the semiarid steppe in northern Tierra del Fuego island, Southernmost Patagonia, Argentina. Two short cores (115 cm) were sampled using a Livingstone piston corer during the 2011 southern fall. Sediments are massive green clays (115 to 70 cm depth) with irregularly spaced thin sandy strata and lens. Massive yellow clay with thin sandy strata continues up to 30 cm depth; from here up to 10 cm yellow massive clays domain. The topmost 10 cm are mixed yellow and green clays with fine sand. Measurements of intensity and directions of Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM), magnetic susceptibility, isothermal remanent magnetization, saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM), back field and anhysteretic remanent magnetization at 100 mT (ARM100mT) were performed and several associated parameters calculated (ARM100mT/k and SIRM/ ARM100mT). Also, as a first estimate of relative magnetic grain-size variations, the median destructive field of the NRM (MDFNRM), was determined. Additionally, we present results of magnetic parameters measured with vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The stability of the NRM was analyzed by alternating field demagnetization. The magnetic properties have shown variable values, showing changes in both grain size and concentration of magnetic minerals. It was found that the main carrier of remanence is magnetite with the presence of hematite in very low percentages. This is the first paleomagnetic study performed in lakes located in the northern, semiarid fuegian steppe, where humid-dry cycles have been interpreted all along the Holocene from an aeolian paleosoil sequence (Orgeira et el, 2012). Comparison between paleomagnetic records of Laguna Carmen and results obtained in earlier studies carried out at Laguna Potrok Aike (Gogorza et al., 2012

  14. ANÁLISIS PRELIMINAR DEL TRATAMIENTO FISICOQUÍMICO Y BIOLÓGICO DEL ACEITE DIELÉCTRICO PRESENTE EN TIERRA FULLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDISON ALEXANDER AGUDELO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio evalúa dos tecnologías: una físico-química y otra biológica, que buscan eliminar la contaminación por el aceite dieléctrico presente en la tierra Fuller, Buscando con ello gestionar de forma ambientalmente adecuada este residuo peligroso. Para la Tecnología físico-química, se usó hexano como solvente y se alcanzó de manera preliminar remociones del aceite dieléctrico del orden del 87% en la tierra Fuller tratada, con una relación tierra Fuller: solvente de 1:8 p/v, una velocidad de agitación de 100 rpm y un tiempo de contacto de 30 minutos. La calidad del aceite dieléctrico recuperado no es apta para su uso en equipos eléctricos, por su baja rigidez dieléctrica, baja densidad y color desfavorable. La tierra Fuller recuperada alcanzó una densidad aparente de 0.623 gr/ml, una densidad real de 2.231 gr/ml y una porosidad de 72.075 %, lo que indica al menos preliminarmente que dicha tierra está muycercana en sus características físicas a la tierra fuller limpia. Para la tecnología biológica se trató la tierra contaminada en un reactor biológico de tierra activada, evaluando la velocidad de agitación y el tiempo de degradación necesario para alcanzar niveles de contaminación adecuados que permitan disponer el residuo en un relleno sanitario convencional sin riesgo para la salud de los ecosistemas y el ser humano, esta fase aún se encuentra en experimentación y los resultados dependen del análisis cromatográfi co del aceite dieléctrico que permanece en la tierra Fuller tratada, en el cual se hará el seguimiento de 10 especies que son clave dentro de este producto, debido a su cantidad y/o toxicidad , falta comprobar la calidad química de la tierra fuller y del aceite dieléctrico recuperados en el tratamiento físico-químico, y validar el proceso biológico para degradar el aceite dieléctrico.

  15. Computed tomography in lumbar canal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Shu; Baba, Itsushi; Ishida, Akihisa; Sumida, Tadayuki; Sasaki, Seishu

    1984-01-01

    Preoperative CT was done in 39 patients with lumbar canal stenosis. Marked symmetrical narrowing of the whole vertebral canal was seen in the group with nervous symptoms in the cauda equina. Deformed bilateral intervertebral joints were seen in the group with both nervous symptoms in the cauda equina and radicular sciatica. The lateral recess on the affected side was markedly narrowed by the projection of the upper and lower joints and herniation. In the group with radicular sciatica, the vertebral canal itself was not so narrowed, but the unilateral intervertebral joint was extremely deformed, causing a narrowing of the lateral recess. There were large differences in the angle of the left and right intervertebral joints. (Namekawa, K)

  16. Canal shaping of different single-file systems in curved root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio D'Amario

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: This study compared maintenance of canal anatomy, occurrence of apical transportation, and working time observed after instrumentation with One Shape New Generation rotary system (Micro-Mega, with those observed after instrumentation with Reciproc (VDW and WaveOne (Dentsply-Maillefer reciprocating systems. Materials and methods: The mesial canals of 45 mandibular molars (curvature angles between 35° and 45° were selected. Specimens were randomly divided into three groups, and canal preparations were performed using One Shape, Reciproc, or WaveOne systems (size #25. A digital double radiographic technique was used to determine apical transportation and change in angle of curvature. Also, working time and instrument failures were recorded. Data were statistically analyzed. Results: During preparation, no file fractured. No statistically significant differences were found among groups. No system showed a significantly faster preparation time than others (P>0.05. All instruments maintained the original canal curvature well and were safe to use. Conclusion: Both continuous rotary instrument and reciprocating systems did not have any influence on the presence of apical transportation or caused an alteration in angle of canal curvature. Keywords: canal curvature, canal straightening, endodontics, reciprocating motion, single file instrumentation

  17. Decreased levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in root-canal exudates during root canal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattamapun, Kassara; Handagoon, Sira; Sastraruji, Thanapat; Gutmann, James L; Pavasant, Prasit; Krisanaprakornkit, Suttichai

    2017-10-01

    To determine the matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) levels in root-canal exudates from teeth undergoing root-canal treatment. The root-canal exudates from six teeth with normal pulp and periradicular tissues that required intentional root canal treatment for prosthodontic reasons and from twelve teeth with pulp necrosis and asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AAP) were sampled with paper points for bacterial culture and aspirated for the detection of proMMP-2 and active MMP-2 by gelatin zymography and the quantification of MMP-2 levels by ELISA. By gelatin zymography, both proMMP-2 and active MMP-2 were detected in the first collection of root-canal exudates from teeth with pulp necrosis and AAP, but not from teeth with normal pulp, and their levels gradually decreased and disappeared at the last collection. Consistently, ELISA demonstrated a significant decrease in MMP-2 levels in the root-canal exudates of teeth with pulp necrosis and AAP following root canal procedures (papical lesions, similar to the clinical application of MMP-8 as a biomarker. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Otolith and canal reflexes in human standing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathers, Ian; Day, Brian L; Fitzpatrick, Richard C

    2005-01-01

    We used galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) to identify human balance reflexes of the semicircular canals and otolith organs. The experiment used a model of vestibular signals arising from GVS modulation of the net signal from vestibular afferents. With the head upright, the model predicts that the GVS-evoked canal signal indicates lateral head rotation while the otolith signal indicates lateral tilt or acceleration. Both signify body sway transverse to the head. With the head bent forward, the model predicts that the canal signal indicates body spin about a vertical axis but the otolith signal still signifies lateral body motion. Thus, we compared electromyograms (EMG) in the leg muscles and body sway evoked by GVS when subjects stood with the head upright or bent forward. With the head upright, GVS evoked a large sway in the direction of the anodal electrode. This response was abolished with the head bent forward leaving only small, oppositely directed, transient responses at the start and end of the stimulus. With the head upright, GVS evoked short-latency (60–70 ms), followed by medium-latency (120 ms) EMG responses, of opposite polarity. Bending the head forward abolished the medium-latency but preserved the short-latency response. This is compatible with GVS evoking separate otolithic and canal reflexes, indicating that balance is controlled by independent canal and otolith reflexes, probably through different pathways. We propose that the short-latency reflex and small transient sway are driven by the otolith organs and the medium-latency response and the large sway are driven by the semicircular canals. PMID:15618274

  19. Tierras estatales y desigualdad de género en Uruguay=State lands and gender inequality in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Florit O`Neill

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En Uruguay, el Instituto Nacional de Colonización (INC es la institución encargada de la adjudicación de tierra por parte del Estado, orientado a la distribución racional de la tierra y su acceso por parte de la población rural más vulnerable. A partir del año 2005, atravesó una reforma que jerarquizó su rol en las políticas de Estado y gestó un nuevo modelo de adjudicación de tierras: las experiencias asociativas. Ese mismo año, el nuevo gobierno impulsó la transversalización de género en el Estado, impulso que anclara en el INC a partir del 2013. Este artículo analiza desde una perspectiva de género la reforma refundacional y la nueva política de tierras, develando la ceguera de género de la reforma y evidenciando desafíos pendientes para la transversalización de género en el diseño de la principal modalidad de adjudicación de tierras públicas.      Abstract In Uruguay, the National Institute of Colonization is the institution resposible for the adjudication of land by the State, aimed at the rational distribution of land and its access by the most vulnerable rural population. Since 2005, the INC went through a reform that prioritized its role in the policies of the State and created a new model of land adjudication: associative experiences of colonization. In that same year, the new government promoted gender mainstreaming in the State, impulse that took roots in the INC from 2013 onwards. This article analyzes from a gender perspective the refounding reform and the new land policy, unveiling the gender blindness of the reform and highlighting pending challenges for gender mainstreaming in the design of the main public land adjudication modality.

  20. Health at the Extremes. Epidemiological and Sanitary Scene in Tierra del Fuego, 1890-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Casali

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the epidemiological and sanitary conditions of the city of Ushuaia (National Territory of Tierra del Fuego at a key time in its history- a time in which interethnic contact and the consolidation of the Argentine nation-state were intensified as two parallel and related processes. Materials and methods: All death certificates available for the period 1890-1930 were analyzed, as well as relevant government documents and secondary sources in order to ob¬tain the health profile of the city and its relationship with the country in the following aspects: type of epidemiological phase, mortality rates, population structure, and the structure in health¬care. Conclusions: There was a great relevance of infectious diseases, and specially tuberculosis, among the population of the city in general, and among the indigenous and criminal population in particular. This epidemiological profile showed the shortcomings of a national health system that was trying to establish at the time, especially in a region difficult to reach.

  1. Arriendo y desigualdad en las tierras altas de Jujuy (Argentina a fines del siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia A. Fandos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Las estructuras agrarias originadas en los procesos más generales de desarrollo capitalista y de redefinición de los derechos de propiedad del siglo XIX en la provincia argentina de Jujuy, resultaron favorables a la formación de importantes latifundios. La contracara de esa fuerte concentración de tierras fue la existencia de un amplio sector de la sociedad que compartía la condición de arrendatarios. De ahí que en este artículo nos proponemos estudiar a los arrendatarios como productores –la riqueza y los ingresos brutos procedentes de la explotación rural que tenían a su cargo– a fin de indagar su capacidad de remuneración, contrastándolos entre sí y con otras situaciones sociales. Para ello, analizamos dos casos que tratan el asunto de sus relaciones de producción en el arriendo. A partir de fuentes fiscales y censales de la década de 1890 que contienen datos de la actividad agropecuaria y de informes sobre la rentabilidad de los distintos productos de origen agrícola o ganaderos de la misma época, reconstruimos el ingreso bruto de esas unidades para cada uno de los actores involucrados en ellas y analizamos los niveles de desigualdad para ese conjunto social.

  2. Functional ecology of soil microbial communities along a glacier forefield in Tierra del Fuego (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Martínez, Miguel A; Pointing, Stephen B; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; Arróniz-Crespo, María; Green, T G Allan; Rozzi, Ricardo; Sancho, Leopoldo G; de Los Ríos, Asunción

    2016-09-01

    A previously established chronosequence from Pia Glacier forefield in Tierra del Fuego (Chile) containing soils of different ages (from bare soils to forest ones) is analyzed. We used this chronosequence as framework to postulate that microbial successional development would be accompanied by changes in functionality. To test this, the GeoChip functional microarray was used to identify diversity of genes involved in microbial carbon and nitrogen metabolism, as well as other genes related to microbial stress response and biotic interactions. Changes in putative functionality generally reflected succession-related taxonomic composition of soil microbiota. Major shifts in carbon fixation and catabolism were observed, as well as major changes in nitrogen metabolism. At initial microbial dominated succession stages, microorganisms could be mainly involved in pathways that help to increase nutrient availability, while more complex microbial transformations such as denitrification and methanogenesis, and later degradation of complex organic substrates, could be more prevalent at vegetated successional states. Shifts in virus populations broadly reflected changes in microbial diversity. Conversely, stress response pathways appeared relatively well conserved for communities along the entire chronosequence. We conclude that nutrient utilization is likely the major driver of microbial succession in these soils. [Int Microbiol 19(3):161-173 (2016)]. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  3. EVALUATION OF INSECTICIDES FOR PEST CONTROL IN MANGO (Mangifera indica L. IN TIERRA CALIENTE, GUERRERO, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuridia Duran

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The mango crop is attacked by various pests, in Arcelia, Tierra Caliente, Guerrero, Mexico. Scale insects (Hemiptera and thrips (Thysanoptera were identified, the pesticides imidacloprid, spinosad, sulfur and mineral oil were tested against them, as well as their effect on fruit quality, using pest action thresholds. The thrips Frankliniella invasor appeared in the highest populations, but F. difficilis, F. occidentalis, F. fortissima, F. cephalica, Leptothrips macconnelli, L. bifurcatus and L. theobromae were also found. It was observed that mineral oil maintained the lowest populations and least damage in fruit; thrips species did not cause significant damage because they were seasonal pests that only occur when soft tissue is available in plants and once this tissue becomes unavailable populations diminish without the need of insecticides.  The mite Cisaberoptus kenyae was identified, which in high populations can cause crop damage; for its control sulfur yielded better results. The scale Milviscutulus mangiferae was present in very low populations. Treatment with mineral oil resulted in the highest quality fruits.

  4. MICROFUNGAL COMPOSITION IN AN ASTELIA-DONATIA CUSHION PEATLAND IN TIERRA DEL FUEGO, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia I. Paredes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En el Hemisferio Sur las turberas almacenan grandes cantidades de carbono en el suelo. A pesar de su importancia en el ciclo global del carbono, se sabe poco acerca de los procesos de descomposición y su diversidad fúngica. El presente estudio se realizó para describir la composición de hongos filamen - tosos en dos profundidades de una turbera compacta donde las especies vegetales predominantes son Astelia (Asteliaceae y Donatia (Donatiaceae en Moat, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. De 48 muestras procesadas, se obtuvieron 338 aislamientos. Mediante el uso de diferentes metodologías de cultivo, a través de observación microscópica y por métodos moleculares identificamos 38 especies fúngicas y 18 géneros de Ascomycetes y Zygomycetes. Los aislamientos de Ascomycetes fueron los más abundantes, con dominancia de Penicillium y Trichoderma . Se describe la composición fúngica y se comparó la diversidad y equitatividad de las especies a dos profundidades de muestreo. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre la composición de especies, la diversidad y equitatividad. La turbera estudiada es un ecosistema que presenta alta diversidad de especies fúngicas filamentosas, algunas de ellas descritas en otras turberas en todo el mundo.

  5. The two faces of Robert Fitzroy, Captain of HMS Beagle and governor of New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Diane B; Stenhouse, John; Spencer, Hamish G

    2013-09-01

    Robert FitzRoy, Captain of HMS Beagle and second governor of New Zealand, has two contradictory reputations among modern academics. Evolutionary biologists and Darwin scholars generally view FitzRoy as a supporter of slavery, famously quarrelling with the abolitionist Darwin over that topic during a Brazilian stopover early in the voyage of HMS Beagle. He is also regarded as a political and religious reactionary, taking a biblically creationist position at the infamous 1860 Oxford meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. New Zealand historians, however, view his record as governor much more positively. They emphasize that FitzRoy was wildly unpopular with the British settlers because of his enlightened insistence that the native Maori should be treated fairly. We outline the history of these seemingly inconsistent views and examine the evidence for each. We conclude by suggesting that a more nuanced account of FitzRoy's career would surely be more thought-provoking as well as respectful of the facts.

  6. Relative effectiveness of 239Pu and some other internal emitters for bone cancer induction in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.D.; Miller, S.C.; Taylor, G.N.; Bruenger, F.W.; Jee, W.S.S.; Angus, W.

    1994-01-01

    The toxicity ratio (relative effectiveness per gray of average skeletal dose) has been estimated for bone cancer induction in beagles injected as young adults with a number of bone-seeking internal emitters. These experiments yielded calculated toxicity ratios (± SD) relative to 226 Ra = 1.0 of 239 Pu = 16 ± 5 (single exposure to monomeric Pu) and 32 ± 10 (continuous exposure from an extraskeletal deposit in the body), 224 Ra = 16 ± 5 (chronic exposure) and approximately 6 ± 2 (single exposure), 228 Th = 8.5 ± 2.3, 241 Am = 6 ± 0.8, 228 Ra = 2.0 ± 0.5, 249 Cf = 6 ± 3, 252 Cf = 4 ±2, 90 Sr = 1.0 ± 0.5 (for high doses) and 0.05 ± 0.03 (for low doses) and 0.01 ± 0.01 (for extremely low doses). Because no skeletal malignancies were observed among beagles given only 253 Es, the toxicity ratio is undefined. 43 refs., 2 tabs

  7. Comparative toxicity of strontium-90 and radium-226 in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raabe, O.G.; Culbertson, M.R.; White, R.G.; Spangler, W.L.; Cain, G.R.; Parks, N.J.; Samuels, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    The authors are completing a 30-year study of the biologic effects of 90 Sr and 226 Ra in the beagle in order to predict the possible long-term hazards to people from chronic exposure to low levels of irradiation. Animals received either radionuclide by several means of administration: (a) continual ingestion of 90 Sr, (b) a single intravenous injection of 90 Sr, or (c) a series of eight intravenous injections of 226 Ra. Although administration of 90 Sr and 226 Ra ended at 540 days of age, the animals continued to receive chronic, low-level radiation doses from these bone-seeking radionuclides throughout life. This project is the largest single cohort study in beagles of internally deposited radionuclides. It is unique in use of the ingestion route for 90 Sr and in exposures that began before birth and continued throughout development to adulthood with uniform labeling of the skeletons with 90 Sr. The last of the dogs died in 1986 at age 18.5, but the authors are continuing to investigate the significance of these long-term exposures given at low dose rates with regard to cancer production, physiologic well-being, and shortening of life through the detailed records that were kept and by study of preserved materials. All the data have been successfully accumulated and entered into a main-frame computer data base management system. Current work is exclusively directed at preparing research papers summarizing the results and the associated biostatistical and survival analyses

  8. Comparative toxicity of strontium-90 and radium-226 in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raabe, O.G.; Culbertson, M.R.; White, R.G.; Spangler, W.L.; Cain, G.R.; Parks, N.J.; Samuels, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    The authors are completing a 30-year study of the biological effects of 90 Sr and 226 Ra in the beagle in order to predict the possible long-term hazards to people from chronic exposure to low levels of irradiation. Animals received either radionuclide by several means of administration: (a) continual ingestion of 90 Sr, (b) a single intravenous injection of 90 Sr, or (c) a series of eight intravenous injections of 226 Ra. Although administration of 90 Sr and 226 Ra ended at 540 days of age, the animals continued to receive chronic, low-level radiation doses from these bone-seeking radionuclides throughout life. This project is the largest single cohort study in beagles of internally deposited radionuclides. It is unique in use of the ingestion route for 90 Sr and in exposures that began before birth and continued throughout development to adulthood with uniform labeling of the skeletons with 90 Sr. The last of the dogs died in 1986 at age 18.5 years, but the authors are continuing to investigate the significance of these long-term exposures given at low dose rates with regard to cancer production, physiologic well-being, and shortening of life through the detailed records that were kept and by study of preserved materials. All the data have been successfully accumulated and entered into a main-frame computer data base management system. Current work is exclusively directed at preparing research papers summarizing the results and the associated biostatistical and survival analyses

  9. Consideration of age-dependent radium retention in people on the basis of the beagle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, N.J.; Keane, A.T.

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines in humans the proposition emanating from studies in beagles that long-term retention of radium varies in proportion to the calcium addition rate at the time of intake. Because data on the calcium addition rate in younger humans were fragmentary, human calcium-addition rates were scaled from those in beagles, the relative calcium accretion rates in the two species at equivalent stages of skeletal growth providing the scaling factor. The variation of radium retention with age was determined by fitting a modified power function to data on the retention of radium from about 30 to 15,000 days following a series of therapeutic injections of 226 Ra in humans ranging in age from 18 to 63 yr. The fractional retention R at t days following a single injection of 226 Ra was described by R = (1 + t/d) - 0 44 . The age-dependent time constant d in the retention function was found to be proportional to the calcium addition rate at the time of injection in subjects receiving 226 Ra

  10. Age-related changes in the testes and prostate of the Beagle dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowseth, L.A.; Gerlach, R.F.; Gillett, N.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    Age-related changes in the histologic morphology of the Beagle dog prostate and testes must be separated from those changes that may result from the testing of experimental compounds. The prostate and testes of healthy age-matched Beagle dogs 3 to 14 yr of age were obtained. Serum to evaluate testosterone levels was also obtained from each dog at the time of euthanasia. Tissue sections from the prostate and testes were examined by light microscopy for both qualitative and quantitative morphologic assessment. A statistically significant increase in prostatic weight with increased age was noted. Significant morphometric findings in the prostate included a decrease in the relative percent of epithelial cells and an increase in the relative lumen size of glandular acini with increased age. The absolute volume of prostate interstitial tissue and inflammation showed a statistically significant increase with age. Stereological analysis of the testes showed a decrease in the relative percent epithelium with increasing age. No distinct age-related trend could be detected in serum testosterone levels. Serum testosterone levels did not correlate with the morphologic age-related changes observed in the testes or prostate. (author)

  11. Soft tissue organ masses of Beagles as a function of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Gillett, N.A.; Gerlach, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    Beagle dogs have been used for the past 30 yr for radio toxicological studies in several Department of Energy laboratories. Since the animals are maintained for their life span, it is important to recognize the potential importance of age-related changes in organ masses, particularly as they relate to dosimetry. To determine the extent and magnitude of soft-tissue organ mass changes relative to age and gender of Beagle dogs, groups of three male and three female dogs at ages 2.7, 6.0, 8.8, 11.7, and 14.0 yr were sacrificed. The resulting organ mass data were analyzed by linear regression both in terms of gross mass and mass normalized to whole-body mass. The results indicated that very little change in masses could be detected in this population over the age range studied, which includes the median life span of dogs In this colony. The rate of change of masses was shown to have an insignificant effect on the calculation of radiation dose, even over long time periods. (author)

  12. Pathologic changes in the hearts of beagles irradiated with fractionated fast neutrons or photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zook, B.C.; Bradley, E.W.; Casarett, G.W.; Rogers, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-nine adult male purebred beagles received either fast-neutron or photon irradiation to the right thorax to determine the effects on pulmonary tissue. The right atrium, a small portion of the right ventricle, and the right anterior abdomen were included in the field. Twenty-four dogs (six/group) received fast neutrons with a mean energy of 15 MeV to doses of 1000, 1500, 2250, or 3375 rad in four fractions per week for 6 weeks. Fifteen dogs received 3000, 4500, or 6750 rad of photons (five/group) in an identical fractionation pattern. Fourteen dogs died or were euthanatized in extremis between 47 and 708 days after radiation because of radiation damage to digestive organs. Six other dogs died of anesthetic accidents between 196 and 1144 days after radiation; these deaths were probably related to hepatic dysfunction. Two neutron-irradiated dogs developed cardiac neoplasms after 396 and 1624 days. One dog died of a myocardial infarct and one died of an unrelated infection. The major atrial lesions were hemorrhage and necrosis of myocardial cells in dogs that died 47-109 days postirradiation. Myocardial and endocardial fibrosis were most extensive in dogs that died 84 or more days following irradiation. All beagles had degenerative and occlusive vascular changes associated with atrial lesions. The relative biological effectiveness of fast neutrons for pathologic injury of the heart was estimated to be between 4 and 5

  13. Lymphocytopenia induced in beagle dogs by inhalation of 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, H.A.; Park, J.F.; Olson, R.J.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    To determine the life-span dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium, we gave 124 beagle dogs a single exposure of 239 PuO 2 2 to 3 years ago at six different levels, i.e., 4, 20, 80, 300, 1100, or 5800 nCi mean initial alveolar depositions. Another group (20 dogs) served as controls. All dogs were about 18 months old. At the four highest exposure levels, a chronic lymphocytopenia developed which correlated with the initial alveolar plutonium burden in regard to magnitude of depression and time of development after exposure. The nadir occurred near 10 months after exposure in dogs receiving 5800, 1100, and 300 nCi, with corresponding lymphocyte levels 40, 55, and 75 percent, respectively, of those observed in control dogs. In the 80-nCi level the nadir occurred about 2 years after exposure at approximately 80 percent of control values. At the two lowest doses, i.e., 4 and 20 nCi, no effect on lymphocyte concentrations was noted 3 years after exposure. The persistent lymphocytopenia related to plutonium inhalation may be of significance in the subsequent development of pulmonary neoplasms previously observed in beagles at this laboratory 8 to 11 years after initial lung depositions of 200 to 1000 nCi of 239 Pu

  14. Lifetime effects of long-term exposures to strontium-90 and radium-226 in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Book, S.A.; Rosenblatt, L.S.; Goldman, M.

    1986-01-01

    Graded doses of injected 226 Ra or ingested 90 Sr were given to 804 beagles in early life. The median survival times of the various irradiated groups at higher exposures were lower than the control value of 14.7 years. The 226 Ra group with the highest total skeletal dose had a median survival of 4.5 years. For 90 Sr the highest group had a median survival of 2.2 years. Normal life spans were evident in treatment groups with average skeletal doses of 226 Ra or of 2600 rads from 90 Sr. The life-shortening effects of 226 Ra and 90 Sr are related to the tumors produced from the radionuclide exposure. The significant causes of death among the 226 Ra-treated beagles were primary bone cancers, mostly osteosarcomas. Among dogs exposed to 90 Sr, significant numbers of deaths were from primary bone cancer, myeloproliferative disease, and squamous-cell carcinoma of the gingiva. In general, more of these effects were produced in the groups receiving higher doses and dose rates; at lower doses the effects, when present, appeared later than they did at higher doses. 9 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Evaluation of pharmacokinetics underlies the collaborated usage of lamivudine and oxymatrine in beagle dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenbao Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Combinational therapy of lamivudine and oxymatrine has been employed in the battle against hepatitis B virus in clinical setting. However, the pharmacokinetic behavior of the drug or active metabolism in intravenous/oral co-administration regime is poorly investigated. Herein, we evaluated the pharmacokinetic characteristic through a tailor-designed 3 way crossover-Latin square experiment in adult male beagle dogs. Six dogs were randomly treated by intravenous administration of lamivudine (2.5 mg/kg, oxymatrine (15 mg/kg and combinational dosage, named as intravenous regime. Meanwhile the other six dogs were orally administrated with lamivudine (2.5 mg/kg, oxymatrine (15 mg/kg and combinational dosage, named as oral regime. The pharmacokinetic feature in simultaneous oral treatment appeared to have no significant difference when compared with individual administration, even including matrine, the active metabolite of oxymatrine. In intravenous regime, the main pharmacokinetic parameters of simultaneous administration were nearly consistent with intravenous regime remedy. The collaborated application of lamivudine and oxymatrine contributed to non-distinctive pharmacokinetic fluctuations of beagle dogs in intravenous/oral regime, compared with individual employment, which established a vital base for the clinical co-administration against hepatitis B. Furthermore, the present study demonstrated that the determination of pharmacokinetics between combinational and individual therapy might assist in the development of drug compatibility in clinical therapy.

  16. Radiation injury of the developing immune system in the beagle dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.K.

    1982-01-01

    Fetal lymphoid organs of the beagle dog were studied to determine if the developing immune system displays an age-dependent sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Pregnant beagle dams received abdominal 60 Co gamma exposures to 200R or were sham irradiated at one of three ages in gestation; 35, 40, or 45 days postcoitus. The mean calculated dose to each fetus was 1.5 Gy. Half the fetuses in each litter were harvested by hysterotomy at five days and half at ten days postirradiation (PI). The volumes of the thymus lobules and lobular cortices were significantly reduced at five and ten days PI as compared to age matched controls. Radiation damage in the developing immune system was expressed in the lymphocyte populations of fetal lymphoid organs and in thymus epithelium. Damage was qualitatively and quantitatively more severe following irradiation earlier in gestation, confirming that the developing immune system displays an age-dependent sensitivity. Prenatal radiation injury to the developing lymphoid system could compromise postnatal immunologic function and could alter immunoregulation

  17. The removal of inhaled 239Pu from beagle dogs by bronchopulmonary lavage and chelation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Slauson, D.O.; Miglio, J.J.; Ruoff, L.; Mersch, S.; McClellan, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    The efficacy of bronchopulmonary lavage and chelatan therapy for removing 239 Pu from beagle dogs after inhalation of 239 Pu aerosols having different solubilities has been investigated. The four aerosols used were nebulized from a solution of 239 PuCl 4 and heat treated at temperatures of 325, 600, 900 and 1150 0 C. Groups of six beagle dogs were exposed to each of the aerosols. Subsequently, three dogs in each group were treated by lavage and intravenous injections of DTPA. The remaining three dogs in each group served as untreated controls. It was found that bronchopulmonary lavage treatment was effective in removing nearly half of the 239 Pu activity from the lung regardless of the aerosol production temperature. This early removal of 239 Pu activity resulted in a significant reduction in daily dose rate and therefore cumulative α dose to lung. The effectiveness of DTPA treatment depended on aerosol production temperature, and was effective in reducing accumulation of 239 Pu in liver and skeleton of the dogs that inhaled aerosols produced at 325 0 and 600 0 C by enhancing urinary excretion of 239 Pu. (U.K.)

  18. Mesozooplankton assemblages in two bays in the Beagle Channel (Argentina during January, 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Daiana Fernández-Severini

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the composition and abundance of mesozooplankton of Bahía Ushuaia and Bahía Golondrina. These small bays are located in the northern Beagle Channel. Sampling was carried out from January 20 to 23, 2001 and samples were collected from the upper layer at nine stations. This study is the first research on mesozooplankton in this part of the Beagle Channel. Due to their dominance in the mesozooplankton community, we compared our Copepoda data with those reported by other authors from Antarctic coastal environments. By applying cluster analysis, we found two station groups in both bays: one in slightly polluted zones and the other in undisturbed external zones. Four assemblages in Bahía Ushuaia and two in Bahía Golondrina were determined by using non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS and cluster analysis. Mesozooplanktonic assemblages showed a certain resemblance in zones with and without anthropogenic influence. Most of the copepod species in our samples are typical of the sub-Antarctic region. Oithona similis (=O. helgolandica sensu Ramírez, 1966, Oncaea curvata, and Ctenocalanus citer show either similar or higher abundances at Antarctic coastal sites, including the upper layer in oceanic areas, in comparison with sub-Antarctic coastal localities. This suggests that, in agreement with other findings, the Polar Front is probably not a major geographic boundary for the distribution of these species.

  19. Microanalysis of oligosaccharide HS203 in beagle dog plasma by postcolumn fluorescence derivatization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shumeng; Zhao, Xia; Li, Guangsheng; Yu, Guangli; Xing, Xiaoxu; Zeng, Yangyang; Wu, Jian; Wang, Jianing

    2012-06-20

    A rapid and sensitive postcolumn fluorescence derivatization method was developed for microanalysis of antidiabetic oligosaccharide HS203 in beagle dog plasma. After plasma protein was removed by a simple and fast ultrafiltration method, chromatographic separation was performed on an Asahipak GS-320 HQ column with a mobile phase of 50 mmol/L phosphate buffer (pH 6.7) and acetonitrile (83/17, v/v). The column effluent was monitored by fluorescence detection at 249 nm (excitation) and 435 nm (emission) using guanidine hydrochloride as a postcolumn derivatizing reagent. A satisfactory resolution of the analyte was achieved and the limit of detection was found to be 4 ng (more sensitive than silver staining of HS203 in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis). The method described above was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of HS203 and to monitor blood glucose level simultaneously in beagle dog. It is also possible to be applied for microanalysis of other oligosaccharides in biological samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiographic evaluation of obesity-caused oppression of the thoracic cavity in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morooka, T.; Niiyama, M.; Kougo, A.; Soya, M.; Nunome, K.

    2004-01-01

    Thoracic radiographs of fifteen beagles with mild-to-moderate obesity revealed that oppression of the thoracic cavity increased with increasing degree of obesity. Oppression of the thoracic cavity was evaluated based on the length, depth, width and area of the thoracic cavity. To obtain thoracic radiographs at the terminal inspiration and expiration phases, thoracic fluororadiographs were recorded with a digital video camera. Bodyweight and the depth of the back fat layer at the seventh lumbar vertebra (DB, measured by ultrasonography) were used as indicators of the degree of obesity. The length of the thoracic cavity tended to become shorter and the depth and width of the thoracic cavity tended to increase as bodyweight increased and as DB increased. On the other hand, the area of the thoracic cavity was not clearly related to bodyweight or DB. These results suggest that oppression of the thoracic cavity due to the cranial shift of the diaphragm is compensated for by increases in the depth and width of the thoracic cavity in beagles with mild-to-moderate obesity

  1. Occurrence of bone cancer among young adult Beagles given 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Bruenger, F.W.; Angus, W.; Miller, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Two hundred thirty-five young adult Beagles of both sexes were each given a single intravenous injection of 239 Pu-citrate at graded dose-levels averaging about 0.026 to 106 kBq/kg when they were about 1 1/2 years of age and were maintained for lifespan observation. An additional 133 young adult Beagles of both sexes were entered into the experiment as control animals. All of these animals have now died or have been removed from the colony, and the occurrence of skeletal malignancies has been determined from histological examination. There were a total of 85 radiographically apparent malignant bone tumors in 77 dogs given 239 Pu, and there was one control animal that developed a skeletal malignancy. Most of these were osteosarcomas, but there were seven chondrosarcomas of bone, one liposarcoma of bone, and in addition, there was one plasma cell myeloma and one ameloblastoma (admantinoma). Only those dogs that survived to at least the minimum latent period for death with radiation-induced bone sarcoma are included in the tabulation. There appeared to be a linear relationship between the percent of dogs with bone tumor and the average skeletal dose up to a dose of about 1 Gy. All dose-levels with skeletal doses of about 2 Gy and greater exhibited close to 100% occurrence

  2. Soft tissue organ masses of Beagles as a function of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilmette, R A; Gillett, N A; Gerlach, R F

    1988-12-01

    Beagle dogs have been used for the past 30 yr for radio toxicological studies in several Department of Energy laboratories. Since the animals are maintained for their life span, it is important to recognize the potential importance of age-related changes in organ masses, particularly as they relate to dosimetry. To determine the extent and magnitude of soft-tissue organ mass changes relative to age and gender of Beagle dogs, groups of three male and three female dogs at ages 2.7, 6.0, 8.8, 11.7, and 14.0 yr were sacrificed. The resulting organ mass data were analyzed by linear regression both in terms of gross mass and mass normalized to whole-body mass. The results indicated that very little change in masses could be detected in this population over the age range studied, which includes the median life span of dogs In this colony. The rate of change of masses was shown to have an insignificant effect on the calculation of radiation dose, even over long time periods. (author)

  3. Incidence and characteristics of mandibular accessory canals: A radiographic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonovo, Andrea Enrico; Taschieri, Silvio; Vavassori, Virna; Re, Dino; Francetti, Luca; Corbella, Stefano

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore, through tridimensional reconstructions of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans, the presence and the characteristics of mandibular accessory canals. For each included participant, the presence of accessory canals was recorded. The diameter of the canal, as well as the distance between the canal walls and the walls of the mandibular bone (lingual, buccal, cranial and caudal), were measured and recorded. Mandibular accessory canals could be found in 8.8% of participants. Retromolar canals were the most frequently found accessory mandibular canals. Accessory mandibular canals were found in a relatively high number of participants through the examination of CBCT scans and tridimensional reconstruction. The presence of such structures should be considered cautiously when planning and performing surgical interventions in mandibular area. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Radiographic versus electronic root canal working length determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumnije Kqiku

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The present ex vivo study showed that electronic root canal working length determination is not superior to radiographic methods. Both methods provided a good performance in determining the root canal working length.

  5. Report from the Panama Canal Stakeholder Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This project assists the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) in assessing the potential impacts of the Panama Canal expansion on Texas ports and the landside transportation system. TxDOT formed a Panama Canal Stakeholder Working Group (PCSWG) ...

  6. Tierras de la microcuenca potrerillo (Cauca, Colombia: Clasificación local en relación con propiedades edáficas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerón Rengifo Carmen Patricia

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio se realizó con el objetivo de relacionar la clasificación local de tierras con propiedades físicas, químicas y biológicas del suelo. Se hicieron entrevistas a 36 agricultores de la microcuenca, Potrerillo, Cauca, Colombia, para considerar criterios culturales de clasificación local; se tomaron muestras de suelo en 8 tierras, de 0 a 5 y 0 a 20 cm, con 5 repeticiones. Se determinó color, textura, N y P disponible, C total, fracción liviana de materia orgánica (LL, PH, Ca, K, Mg y Al. Los datos se trabajaron estadísticamente a partir de análisis de varianza, prueba Duncan y análisis de clasificación de datos. La información sugiere que los agricultores diferencias las tierras a partir de la ubicación, características físicas del suelo y de categorías culturales llamadas tierra buena, mala, brava y cansada. Las tierras consideradas buenas se relacionan con colores pardos oscuros, contenidos más altos de N, C y fracción LL, mayor densidad de miriápodos en tierras con vegetación arbórea y mayor biomasa de lombrices en barbecho de la parte baja de la colina. Entre las tierras de menor calidad, disminuye N, C fracción LL y Al y aumenta el pH; en aquellas que no son utilizadas son frecuentes los colores amarillos o rojos, decrecen los valores de N, C, LL, Ph y se incrementa el Al.

  7. Lumbar Vertebral Canal Diameters in Adult Ugandan Skeletons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Normal values of lumbar vertebral canal diameters are useful in facilitating diagnosis of lumbar vertebral canal stenosis. Various studies have established variation on values between different populations, gender, age, and ethnic groups. Objectives: To determine the lumbar vertebral canal diameters in adult ...

  8. Newer Root Canal Irrigants in Horizon: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Jaju

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium hypochloride is the most commonly used endodontic irrigant, despite limitations. None of the presently available root canal irrigants satisfy the requirements of ideal root canal irrigant. Newer root canal irrigants are studied for potential replacement of sodium hypochloride. This article reviews the potential irrigants with their advantages and limitations with their future in endodontic irrigation.

  9. Comparison of Curved Root Canals Prepared with Various Chelating Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    aqueous base (11). According to Bramante and Betti, instrumentation with NiTi hand files using EDTA caused greater deviation of the root canal from...15. Peters OA, Peters CI, Schonenberger K, Barbakow F. ProTaper rotary root canal preparation: effects of canal anatomy on final shape analysed by

  10. Middle mesial canals in mandibular molars: incidence and related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrat, Ali; Deschenes, Raney J; Tordik, Patricia A; Hicks, M Lamar; Fouad, Ashraf F

    2015-01-01

    Although the internal anatomy of mandibular molars has been extensively studied, information about middle mesial (MM) canals is limited. The primary aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the incidence of MM canals in mandibular first and second molars. The secondary aim was to correlate the incidence of MM canals with variables of molar type, sex, age, ethnicity, and presence of a second distal canal. All mature permanent first and second mandibular molars treated from August 2012 to May 2014 were included in the analysis. After completion of root canal instrumentation in all main canals, the clinician inspected the isthmus area of the mesial root using the dental operating microscope. If there was a catch point in this area with a file or explorer, the operator spent more time attempting to negotiate an MM canal. Seventy-five mandibular first and second molars were treated during the specified period. Fifteen (20%) teeth had negotiable MM canals. The incidence of MM canals was 32.1% in patients ≤ 20 years old, 23.8% in patients 21-40 years old, and 3.8% in patients > 40 years. Analysis of data revealed a significant difference in the distribution of MM canals among different age groups (P molar type, and presence of a second distal canal were not significant. The incidence of negotiable MM canals overall and their frequency of identification in younger patients were higher than in previous reports. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate, intended...

  12. Nerve canals at the fundus of the internal auditory canal on high-resolution temporal bone CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Yoon Ha; Youn, Eun Kyung; Kim, Seung Chul

    2001-01-01

    To identify and evaluate the normal anatomy of nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal which can be visualized on high-resolution temporal bone CT. We retrospectively reviewed high-resolution (1 mm thickness and interval contiguous scan) temporal bone CT images of 253 ears in 150 patients who had not suffered trauma or undergone surgery. Those with a history of uncomplicated inflammatory disease were included, but those with symptoms of vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, or facial nerve palsy were excluded. Three radiologists determined the detectability and location of canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial, superior vestibular and cochlear nerve, and the saccular branch and posterior ampullary nerve of the inferior vestibular nerve. Five bony canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were identified as nerve canals. Four canals were identified on axial CT images in 100% of cases; the so-called singular canal was identified in only 68%. On coronal CT images, canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial and superior vestibular nerve were seen in 100% of cases, but those for the cochlear nerve, the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve, and the singular canal were seen in 90.1%, 87.4% and 78% of cases, respectiveIy. In all detectable cases, the canal for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve was revealed as one which traversed anterolateralIy, from the anterosuperior portion of the fundus of the internal auditory canal. The canal for the cochlear nerve was located just below that for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve, while that canal for the superior vestibular nerve was seen at the posterior aspect of these two canals. The canal for the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve was located just below the canal for the superior vestibular nerve, and that for the posterior ampullary nerve, the so-called singular canal, ran laterally or posteolateralIy from the posteroinferior aspect of

  13. Nerve canals at the fundus of the internal auditory canal on high-resolution temporal bone CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Yoon Ha; Youn, Eun Kyung; Kim, Seung Chul [Sungkyunkwan Univ., School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    To identify and evaluate the normal anatomy of nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal which can be visualized on high-resolution temporal bone CT. We retrospectively reviewed high-resolution (1 mm thickness and interval contiguous scan) temporal bone CT images of 253 ears in 150 patients who had not suffered trauma or undergone surgery. Those with a history of uncomplicated inflammatory disease were included, but those with symptoms of vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, or facial nerve palsy were excluded. Three radiologists determined the detectability and location of canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial, superior vestibular and cochlear nerve, and the saccular branch and posterior ampullary nerve of the inferior vestibular nerve. Five bony canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were identified as nerve canals. Four canals were identified on axial CT images in 100% of cases; the so-called singular canal was identified in only 68%. On coronal CT images, canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial and superior vestibular nerve were seen in 100% of cases, but those for the cochlear nerve, the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve, and the singular canal were seen in 90.1%, 87.4% and 78% of cases, respectiveIy. In all detectable cases, the canal for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve was revealed as one which traversed anterolateralIy, from the anterosuperior portion of the fundus of the internal auditory canal. The canal for the cochlear nerve was located just below that for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve, while that canal for the superior vestibular nerve was seen at the posterior aspect of these two canals. The canal for the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve was located just below the canal for the superior vestibular nerve, and that for the posterior ampullary nerve, the so-called singular canal, ran laterally or posteolateralIy from the posteroinferior aspect of

  14. Comparison of axillary and rectal temperatures for healthy Beagles in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Justin C; Campbell, Vicki L

    2015-07-01

    To compare axillary and rectal temperature measurements obtained with a digital thermometer for Beagles in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment. 26 healthy Beagles (17 sexually intact males and 9 sexually intact females). Dogs were maintained in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment for 56 days before rectal and axillary temperatures were measured. Axillary and rectal temperatures were obtained in triplicate for each dog by use of a single commercially available manufacturer-calibrated digital thermometer. Mean rectal and axillary temperatures of Beagles maintained in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment were significantly different, with a median ± SD difference of 1.4° ± 0.15°C (range, 0.7° to 2.1°C). Mean rectal and axillary temperatures were 38.7°C (range, 37.6° to 39.5°C) and 37.2°C (range, 36.6° to 38.3°C), respectively. Results of this study indicated that the historical reference of a 0.55°C gradient between rectal and axillary temperatures that has been clinically used for veterinary patients was inaccurate for healthy Beagles in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment. Rectal and axillary temperatures can be measured in veterinary patients. Reliable interpretation of axillary temperatures may accommodate patient comfort and reduce patient anxiety when serial measurement of temperatures is necessary. Further clinical studies will be needed.

  15. Periapical repair after root canal filling with different root canal sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanomaru-Filho, Mário; Tanomaru, Juliane Maria Guerreiro; Leonardo, Mario Roberto; da Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate periapical repair after root canal filling with different endodontic sealers. Sixty-four root canals from dog s teeth were filled, divided into 4 groups (n=16). Root canals were instrumented with K-type files and irrigated with 1% sodium hypochlorite solution. Root canals were filled in the same session by active lateral condensation of the cones and sealers: Intrafill, AH Plus, Roeko Seal and Resilon/Epiphany System. After 90 days, the animals were euthanized and the tissues to be evaluated were processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. For histopathological analysis, the following parameters were evaluated: inflammatory process, mineralized tissue resorption, and apical mineralized tissue deposition. Histopathological analysis demonstrated that Intrafill had less favorable results in terms of apical and periapical repair, compared to the other sealers (p0.05). In conclusion, AH Plus and the materials Roeko Seal and Epiphany are good options for clinical use in Endodontics.

  16. The Suez Canal and the petroleum harbors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The Suez Canal is the second longest channel in the world and allows to save 60% of the travel time between the petroleum harbors of the Arabic peninsula and Europe. This short paper gives a summary of the main petroleum harbors activity along the channel from the Red sea to the Mediterranean sea. (J.S.)

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of semicircular canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbarbati, A; Leclercq, F; Zancanaro, C; Antonakis, K

    1992-01-01

    The present paper reports the results of the first investigation of the semicircular canals in a living, small animal by means of high spatial resolution magnetic resonance imaging. This procedure is noninvasive and allows identification of the endolymphatic and perilymphatic spaces yielding a morphology quite consistent with direct anatomical examination. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:1506290

  18. Note on Tendipedidae of the Suez Canal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruseman, G.

    1949-01-01

    Mr. A. C. V. VAN BEMMEL and Dr. A. DIAKONOFF of the Buitenzorg Museum (Java) collected Tendipedidae, which were attracted by artificial lights, when they passed the Suez Canal on 8-XI-1937 and 16-V-1939 respectively. This very interesting collection, containing some new species, was sent to me for

  19. The crazy project – Canal Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Kundak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It was late April 2011 when “the Crazy Project - Canal Istanbul” was proposed by the Prime Minister of Turkey, during his election campaign.  Although the idea of an artificial canal is not new, since it is initiated without any consensus between the people and institutions in Istanbul, the project immediately set a large number of debates. These vary from the legitimacy of decentralization of governance, to potential impacts of the canal on international politics, economy, environment and urban life.  Regarding past infrastructure projects in Istanbul, such large scale investments have caused extensive acceleration in construction sector in one hand and social and economic shifts on the other.  In this paper, the Canal Istanbul Project is evaluated according to basic motivations and claims of the PM, multi-perspective view through challenges and limitation that the project is likely to face with and speculations on implementation approach. The final discussion on the project is based on benefits/losses of Istanbul once the project will be implemented.

  20. Anatomic study on mental canal and incisive nerve canal in interforaminal region in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yun; Suo, Ning; Tian, Xiufen; Li, Fei; Zhong, Guangxin; Liu, Xiaoran; Bao, Yongxing; Song, Tao; Tian, Hua

    2015-08-01

    This study was aimed to detect the positions of mental canal and incisive nerve canal as well as the prolongation of mandibular canal in interforaminal region in Chinese population to supply the reference data of the surgical safe zone in chin for clinicians. A total of 80 formalin-fixed semi-mandibles of Chinese adult cadavers were dissected, the positions and courses of mental canal and incisive nerve canal as well as the prolongation of mandibular canal in interforaminal region were measured. The mental foramina were present in all cases (100 %), and most of them were located below 2nd premolar (58.75 %). Accessory mental foramina were observed in 5 %. The anterior end of mandibular canal, extending along the course of 7.37 ± 1.10 mm above the lower border of mandible to interforaminal region about 3.54 ± 0.70 mm medial to the mental foramen, most often ended below between the two premolars (73.75 %), where it continued as the incisive nerve canal (100 %) and the mental canal (96.25 %). Mental canal, with the wall formed by compact bone, being 2.60 ± 0.60 mm in diameter and 4.01 ± 1.20 mm in length, opened into mental foramen. Incisive nerve canal, with the wall formed by thin compact bone and/or partly or completely by spongy bone, being 1.76 ± 0.27 mm in diameter and 24.87 ± 2.23 mm in length, extended to the incisor region along the course of 9.53 ± 1.43 mm above the lower border of mandible, and most often ended below the lateral incisor (70.00 %). This research recommended for chin operations in Chinese population: the surgical safe zone could be set in the region about over 4 mm anterior to the mental foramen, and over 12 mm above inferior border of mandible for anterior alveolar surgery, or within 9 mm above inferior border of mandible for genioplasty.

  1. Comparison of freely-moving telemetry Chinese Miniature Experiment Pigs (CMEPs) to beagle dogs in cardiovascular safety pharmacology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haitao; Zhao, Jing; Guo, Jiabin; Wu, Ruiqin; He, Li; Cui, Yaxiong; Feng, Min; Zhang, Tingfen; Hou, Mingyue; Guo, Qian; Zhang, Lijun; Jia, Li; Huang, Chang; Ye, Lin; Peng, Shuangqing

    2014-01-01

    Telemetry beagle dogs are the most frequently used species in cardiovascular telemetry assessments. However, beagle dogs may not be always suitable for all of the tests. Recently minipigs have received increased attention for these studies. Differences between the two species regarding the response of their cardiovascular systems to environmental stimuli are unclear. This study investigates how the telemetry minipig compares to beagle dog as a test subject and also refines the experimental protocols necessary to obtain accurate data. Beagle dogs and Chinese Miniature Experiment Pigs (CMEPs) were implanted with telemetry transmitters and the influences of gavage, feeding and the circadian cycle on various cardiovascular parameters were investigated. ECG signal quality from CMEPs was superior to that of the beagle dogs. Poor ECG signal quality, elevated HR, BP and locomotor activity associated with gavage and feeding were observed in both species. ECG signal quality, BP and locomotor activity recovered more quickly in the CMEPs than in the beagle dogs. Residual elevation of HR found in CMEPs lasted approximately 4h post-feeding, which has a profound influence on the circadian cycle. A diurnal rhythm in CMEP with a significant increase of body temperature during the dark period and a clear circadian rhythm of locomotor activity in both species were observed. The present data demonstrated that gavage, feeding and circadian cycle were having an enormous influence on BP, HR and locomotor activity in both species. If drug-induced effects are expected rapidly after oral administration and feeding, CMEP seems to be a favorable choice. Also, due to the effects of feeding on HR, CMEPs should fast at least 5h before the start of recording or should not be fed during the study where the Tmax of a given compound might occur very late. It also should be taken into consideration when the test article has a potential effect on body temperature by using CMEPs. In summary, the

  2. El escritor, las sombras y la Patria: En esta dulce tierra de Andrés Rivera The writer, the shadows and the homeland in Andrés Rivera's "La dulce tierra"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Perilli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La novela En esta dulce tierra arma un simulacro histórico que se desintegra en una narración de finales múltiples. Parodia su nombre "en esta dulce tierra" ya que el circunstancial anuncia sucesos terribles que hacen estallar el adjetivo. Remite a la literatura decimonónica, en especial a los romances fundacionales como Amalia de José Mármol. La nación se imagina como espacio cerrado, clausurado por el despotismo en el asilo, la morgue, la cárcel, el sótano. Los protagonistas se mueven ilusoriamente de Sur a Norte. Si Sarmiento invoca la sombra de Facundo, Rivera evoca en Cufré otras propias sombras, dobles en tiempos y lugares otros. La narración de la historia argentina es la narración de una derrota, la de la civilización. La imagen histórica es disfórica: el mundo está enfermo, ebrio de sangre y violencia. Facundo es la sombra de la barbarie, cifra de la naturaleza americana, producto de los llanos riojanos. Cufré es la sombra de una clase "culta" que dibuja en su trayectoria una figura paradojal. Las dos son víctimas de una tierra concebida como naturaleza bárbara en un caso y de una tierra construida como patria siniestra en el otro. El Poder actúa como una segunda naturaleza que, en esta tierra, tiene el sabor de la muerte.The novel En esta dulce tierra sets up a historical pretense that disintegrates into several endings. The title is an irony, since terrible events take place in this "sweet land." It refers to the literature of the XIX century, especially to the founding romances such as that of José Mármol's Amalia. The nation is envisioned as a closed space relegated by despotism to the asylum, the morgue, the jail, the basement. The characters live an illusion moving from north to south. If Sarmiento invokes the shadow of Facundo, Rivera evokes some of his own shadows in Cufré, doubles in different times and spaces. The narration of the Argentine history is a story of defeat: civilizarion's. The historical

  3. EL SITIO HESHKAIA 35: NUEVOS DATOS SOBRE LA ARQUEOLOGÍA DE MOAT (TIERRA DEL FUEGO, ARGENTINA / Heshkaia 35 site: new data on the archaeology of Moat (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilio Francisco Zangrando

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available arqueológicos recuperados en el sitio Heshkaia 35 (costa sur de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Este sitio se ubica en un ámbito costero en la sección media de la cuenca del río Moat y registra ocupaciones durante el Holoceno Tardío (ca. 800-500 AP. La diversidad tecnológica y el registro zooarqueológico señalan el desarrollo de actividades múltiples. Los artefactos líticos dominan el conjunto tecnológico. Los desechos líticos indican un fuerte énfasis hacia los estadios finales de talla, puesto de manifiesto en la baja presencia de artefactos con corteza y la elevada frecuencia de lascas de formatización y de reactivación de filos. El conjunto zooarqueológico se compone mayormente de restos óseos de guanacos. Los moluscos también habrían cumplido un rol significativo en la dieta. Restos óseos de mamíferos marinos, zorros, aves y peces están representados por frecuencias bajas. La composición artefactual y arqueofaunística estaría indicando que el aprovisionamiento de recursos se habría articulado principalmente desde el ámbito costero y no necesariamente en el mar. Se discuten las implicaciones de esta evidencia para las pautas conductuales de cazadores-recolectores en la costa sur de Tierra del Fuego. Palabras Clave: Arqueología de costas, Cazadores-recolectores, Tierra del Fuego, Holoceno Tardío   Abstract This paper presents and discusses the archaeological evidence from Heshkaia 35 site (southern coast of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. This site is located in a coastal setting in the middle section of the Moat River Basin and records occupations during the Late Holocene (ca. 800-500 BP. Technological diversity and the zooarchaeological record point to the development of multiple activities. Lithic artifacts dominate the technological assemblage. Lithic debitage indicates a strong emphasis towards final stages of reduction, shown by the lower occurrence of artifacts with cortex and the high frequency resharpening

  4. MR determination of neonatal spinal canal depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthurs, Owen; Thayyil, Sudhin; Wade, Angie; Chong, W K Kling; Sebire, Neil J; Taylor, Andrew M

    2012-08-01

    Lumbar punctures (LPs) are frequently performed in neonates and often result in traumatic haemorrhagic taps. Knowledge of the distance from the skin to the middle of the spinal canal (mid-spinal canal depth - MSCD) may reduce the incidence of traumatic taps, but there is little data in extremely premature or low birth weight neonates. Here, we determined the spinal canal depth at post-mortem in perinatal deaths using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Spinal canal depth was measured in 78 post-mortem foetuses and perinatal cases (mean gestation 26 weeks; mean weight 1.04kg) at the L3/L4 inter-vertebral space at post-mortem MRI. Both anterior (ASCD) and posterior (PSCD) spinal canal depth were measured; MSCD was calculated and modelled against weight and gestational age. ASCD and PSCD (mm) correlated significantly with weight and gestational age (all r>0.8). A simple linear model MSCD (mm)=3×Weight (kg)+5 was the best fit, identifying an SCD value within the correct range for 87.2% (68/78) (95% CI (78.0, 92.9%)) cases. Gestational age did not add significantly to the predictive value of the model. There is a significant correlation between MSCD and body weight at post-mortem MRI in foetuses and perinatal deaths. If this association holds in preterm neonates, use of the formula MSCD (mm)=3×Weight (kg)+5 could result in fewer traumatic LPs in this population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. MR determination of neonatal spinal canal depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen, E-mail: owenarthurs@uk2.net [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London WC1N 3JH (United Kingdom); Thayyil, Sudhin, E-mail: s.thayyil@ucl.ac.uk [Academic Neonatology, Institute for Women' s Health, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom); Wade, Angie, E-mail: a.wade@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Chong, W.K., E-mail: Kling.Chong@gosh.nhs.uk [Paediatric Neuroradiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J., E-mail: Neil.Sebire@gosh.nhs.uk [Histopathology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom); Taylor, Andrew M., E-mail: a.taylor76@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Cardiorespiratory Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children and UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Objectives: Lumbar punctures (LPs) are frequently performed in neonates and often result in traumatic haemorrhagic taps. Knowledge of the distance from the skin to the middle of the spinal canal (mid-spinal canal depth - MSCD) may reduce the incidence of traumatic taps, but there is little data in extremely premature or low birth weight neonates. Here, we determined the spinal canal depth at post-mortem in perinatal deaths using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients and methods: Spinal canal depth was measured in 78 post-mortem foetuses and perinatal cases (mean gestation 26 weeks; mean weight 1.04 kg) at the L3/L4 inter-vertebral space at post-mortem MRI. Both anterior (ASCD) and posterior (PSCD) spinal canal depth were measured; MSCD was calculated and modelled against weight and gestational age. Results: ASCD and PSCD (mm) correlated significantly with weight and gestational age (all r > 0.8). A simple linear model MSCD (mm) = 3 Multiplication-Sign Weight (kg) + 5 was the best fit, identifying an SCD value within the correct range for 87.2% (68/78) (95% CI (78.0, 92.9%)) cases. Gestational age did not add significantly to the predictive value of the model. Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between MSCD and body weight at post-mortem MRI in foetuses and perinatal deaths. If this association holds in preterm neonates, use of the formula MSCD (mm) = 3 Multiplication-Sign Weight (kg) + 5 could result in fewer traumatic LPs in this population.

  6. Anomalous facial nerve canal with cochlear malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, L V; Curtin, H D

    2001-05-01

    Anteromedial "migration" of the first segment of the facial nerve canal has been previously identified in a patient with a non-Mondini-type cochlear malformation. In this study, several patients with the same facial nerve canal anomaly were reviewed to assess for the association and type of cochlear malformation. CT scans of the temporal bone of 15 patients with anteromedial migration of the first segment of the facial nerve canal were collected from routine departmental examinations. In seven patients, the anomalous course was bilateral, for a total of 22 cases. The migration was graded relative to normal as either mild/moderate or pronounced. The cochlea in each of these cases was examined for the presence and size of the basilar, second, and apical turns. The turns were either absent, small, normal, or enlarged. The CT scans of five patients with eight Mondini malformations were examined for comparison. The degree of the facial nerve migration was pronounced in nine cases and mild/moderate in 13. All 22 of these cases had associated cochlear abnormalities of the non-Mondini variety. These included common cavity anomalies with lack of definition between the cochlea and vestibule (five cases), cochleae with enlarged basilar turns and absent second or third turns (five cases), and cochleae with small or normal basilar turns with small or absent second or third turns (12 cases). None of the patients with Mondini-type cochlear malformations had anteromedial migration of the facial nerve canal. Anteromedial migration of the facial nerve canal occurs in association with some cochlear malformations. It did not occur in association with the Mondini malformations. A cochlea with a Mondini malformation, being similar in size to a normal cochlea, may physically prohibit such a deviation in course.

  7. Cervical spinal canal narrowing in idiopathic syringomyelia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struck, Aaron F.; Carr, Carrie M.; Shah, Vinil; Hesselink, John R.; Haughton, Victor M.

    2016-01-01

    The cervical spine in Chiari I patient with syringomyelia has significantly different anteroposterior diameters than it does in Chiari I patients without syringomyelia. We tested the hypothesis that patients with idiopathic syringomyelia (IS) also have abnormal cervical spinal canal diameters. The finding in both groups may relate to the pathogenesis of syringomyelia. Local institutional review boards approved this retrospective study. Patients with IS were compared to age-matched controls with normal sagittal spine MR. All subjects had T1-weighted spin-echo (500/20) and T2-weighted fast spin-echo (2000/90) sagittal cervical spine images at 1.5 T. Readers blinded to demographic data and study hypothesis measured anteroposterior diameters at each cervical level. The spinal canal diameters were compared with a Mann-Whitney U test. The overall difference was assessed with a Friedman test. Seventeen subjects were read by two reviewers to assess inter-rater reliability. Fifty IS patients with 50 age-matched controls were studied. IS subjects had one or more syrinxes varying from 1 to 19 spinal segments. Spinal canal diameters narrowed from C1 to C3 and then enlarged from C5 to C7 in both groups. Diameters from C2 to C4 were narrower in the IS group (p < 0.005) than in controls. The ratio of the C3 to the C7 diameters was also smaller (p = 0.004) in IS than controls. Collectively, the spinal canal diameters in the IS were significantly different from controls (Friedman test p < 0.0001). Patients with IS have abnormally narrow upper and mid cervical spinal canal diameters and greater positive tapering between C3 and C7. (orig.)

  8. Cervical spinal canal narrowing in idiopathic syringomyelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struck, Aaron F. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Neurology, Boston, MA (United States); Carr, Carrie M. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Shah, Vinil [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hesselink, John R. [University of California San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Haughton, Victor M. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The cervical spine in Chiari I patient with syringomyelia has significantly different anteroposterior diameters than it does in Chiari I patients without syringomyelia. We tested the hypothesis that patients with idiopathic syringomyelia (IS) also have abnormal cervical spinal canal diameters. The finding in both groups may relate to the pathogenesis of syringomyelia. Local institutional review boards approved this retrospective study. Patients with IS were compared to age-matched controls with normal sagittal spine MR. All subjects had T1-weighted spin-echo (500/20) and T2-weighted fast spin-echo (2000/90) sagittal cervical spine images at 1.5 T. Readers blinded to demographic data and study hypothesis measured anteroposterior diameters at each cervical level. The spinal canal diameters were compared with a Mann-Whitney U test. The overall difference was assessed with a Friedman test. Seventeen subjects were read by two reviewers to assess inter-rater reliability. Fifty IS patients with 50 age-matched controls were studied. IS subjects had one or more syrinxes varying from 1 to 19 spinal segments. Spinal canal diameters narrowed from C1 to C3 and then enlarged from C5 to C7 in both groups. Diameters from C2 to C4 were narrower in the IS group (p < 0.005) than in controls. The ratio of the C3 to the C7 diameters was also smaller (p = 0.004) in IS than controls. Collectively, the spinal canal diameters in the IS were significantly different from controls (Friedman test p < 0.0001). Patients with IS have abnormally narrow upper and mid cervical spinal canal diameters and greater positive tapering between C3 and C7. (orig.)

  9. Deposition of 239Pu in the skeleton and soft tissues of beagles: effect of age at time of injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, W.; Atherton, D.R.; Bates, D.; Bruenger, F.W.

    1976-01-01

    Previous reports from the laboratory have clearly defined the whole body deposition of 239 Pu in beagles injected as young adults (18 mo.). However, deposition has not been evaluated as a function of skeletal maturity at the time of injection. Juvenile beagles 3 months of age were injected with 0.1 μCi 239 Pu/kg in 0.08 M citrate buffer, pH 3.5. Six of these beagles have been sacrificed at short times after injection for distribution data. Another group receiving 3.0 μCi 239 Pu/kg was allowed to live until osteosarcoma developed and they were autopsied (1228 days average). Finally an aged beagle (81 mo.) was injected with 0.1 μCi/kg plutonium (P 2.0) and sacrificed 2 weeks later. Selected soft tissues, 1/2 of the symmetrical skeleton, and a known fraction of the asymmetrical skeleton were collected and analyzed for Pu content. Independent of the age at injection, a total of approximately 80 percent of the Pu was initially deposited in liver plus skeleton, however the age of the animal at time of injection altered the relative proportion in liver and skeleton in a reciprocal manner. The percent of the injected Pu found in the liver at 14 days P.I. increased with the increase in age at time of injection (13.2 percent at 3 months, 30.9 percent at 18 months and 36.9 percent at 81 months). The lower the age at injection, the larger was the fraction of 239 Pu deposited in the skeleton. The amounts ranged from an average of 69 percent in animals injected at 3 months to 49 percent in dogs injected at 18 months and 40 percent in the dog injected at 81 months of age. The difference in skeletal deposition reflects the different rates of bone growth and remodeling in juveniles, young adults and aged beagles

  10. Maxillary First Molars with 2 Distobuccal Canals: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Howard M; Cunha, Rodrigo Sanches

    2017-11-01

    An appreciation of the anatomic complexity of the root canal system is essential at every step of endodontic treatment. Endodontic treatment of teeth with unusual root canal anatomy presents a unique challenge. Eight patients underwent nonsurgical root canal treatment of 3-rooted maxillary first molars in a specialty endodontic private practice. Four cases of Weine type II and 4 cases of Weine type III canal configurations in the distobuccal root of maxillary first molars were presented.This article highlighted an uncommon anatomic variation of 2 canals in the distobuccal root of the maxillary first molar. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Gut Microbiota-Regulated Pharmacokinetics of Berberine and Active Metabolites in Beagle Dogs After Oral Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ru; Zhao, Zhen-Xiong; Ma, Shu-Rong; Guo, Fang; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Jian-Dong

    2018-01-01

    Berberine (BBR) is considered a multi-target drug that has significant advantages. In contrast to its significant pharmacological effects in clinic, the plasma level of BBR is very low. Our previous work revealed that dihydroberberine (dhBBR) could be an absorbable form of BBR in the intestine, and butyrate is an active metabolite that is generated by gut bacteria in rats. In this study, for the first time we describe gut microbiota-regulated pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs after oral administration of BBR by single (50 mg/kg) or multiple doses (50 mg/kg/d) for 7 days. GC-MS, GC, LC-MS/MS, and LC/MS n -IT-TOF were used to detect dhBBR, butyrate and BBR as well as its Phase I and II metabolites, respectively. The results showed that dhBBR was not detected in dog plasma but was excreted in small amounts in the feces of dogs examined on days 3 and 7. Butyrate was generated by gut bacteria and increased by 1.3- and 1.2-fold in plasma or feces, respectively, after 7 days of BBR treatment compared to the levels before treatment. Changes of intestinal bacterial composition were analyzed by 16S rRNA genes analysis. The results presented that dogs treated with BBR for 7 days increased both the abundance of the butyrate- and the nitroreductases- producing bacteria. We also identified chemical structures of the Phase I and II metabolites and analyzed their contents in beagle dogs. Eleven metabolites were detected in plasma and feces after BBR oral administration (50 mg/kg) to dogs, including 8 metabolites of Phase I and III metabolites of Phase II. The pharmacokinetic profile indicated that the concentration of BBR in plasma was low, with a C max value of 36.88 ± 23.45 ng/mL. The relative content of glucuronic acid conjugates (M11) was higher than those of other metabolites (M1, M2, M12, and M14) in plasma. BBR was detected in feces, with high excreted amounts on day 3 (2625.04 ± 1726.94 μg/g) and day 7 (2793.43 ± 488.10 μg/g). In summary, this is the first study to

  12. [Plasma ibuprofen enantiomers and their pharmacokinetics in Beagle dogs determined by HPLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-yan; Kong, Ai-ying; Yang, Bo; Yan, Liang-ping; Di, Xin

    2015-12-01

    A chiral high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of ibuprofen enantiomers in dog plasma. It was used to study the pharmacokinetics in the Beagle dog after intravenous administration of racemic-ibuprofen, S-ibuprofen and R-ibuprofen. Ketoprofen was chosen as the internal standard. After a simple precipitation using methanol as the precipitating solvent, both analytes and IS were separated on a Kromasil 100-5CHI-TBB chiral column (250 mm x4.6 mm, 5 μm) with isocratic elution using acetonitrile - 20 mmol x L(-1) phosphate buffer (pH 3.0, containing 5% methanol) (6 : 4) as the mobile phase. The detection wavelength was 220 nm. Liner calibration curves for both of the ibuprofen enantiomers were over the concentration range from 0.5 to 50 μg x mL(-1) with a lower limit of quantification of 0.5 μg x mL(-1), the accuracies were all in standard ranges. The intra- and inter- assay precisions were all below 7%. The recovery rate was 93.1% to 100.4%. The experiments proved that the method was simple, rapid and sensitive. It can be used in the quantitative determination of ibuprofen enantiomers in dog plasma. The method was used to determine the concentration of ibuprofen enantiomers in Beagle dog plasma after a single intravenous administration of racemic-ibuprofen, S-ibuprofen and R-ibuprofen (9 mg x kg(-1)) and the pharmacokinetics parameters were calculated based on the concentration-time curves. The C(max) of S-ibuprofen in Beagle dog plasma after a single intravenous administration of racemic-ibuprofen, S-ibuprofen and R-ibuprofen were 30.8 ± 4.7, 46.1 ± 5.9 and 20.0 ± 2.6 μg x mL(-1), respectively. In terms of the exposure of active ingredient, it revealed a significant difference between the administration of S-ibuprofen and the other two groups. The systematical R- to S- chiral inversion was discussed. Comparing the pharmacokinetic parameters at different doses, chiral inversion were 70.1% ± 36.6% and 76

  13. Study of four week repeated dose toxic test of Sweet Bee Venom in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Seuk Park

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to analyse four week repeated dose toxicity of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV extracted from the bee venom in Beagle dogs. Methods: All experiments were conducted under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical study authorized institution. Male and female Beagle dogs of 5-6 months old were chosen for the pilot study of four week repeated dose toxicity of Sweet BV which was administered at the level of 0.56㎎/㎏ body weight which is eighty times higher than the clinical application dosage as the high dosage, followed by 0.28 and 0.14㎎/㎏ as midium and low dosage, respectively. Equal amount of excipient(normal saline to the Sweet BV experiment groups was administered as the control group every day for four weeks. Results: 1. No mortality was witnessed in all of the experiment groups. 2. All experiment groups were appealed pain sense in the treating time compared to the control group, and hyperemia and movement disorder were observed around the area of administration in all experiment groups, and higher occurrence in the higher dosage treatment. 3. For weight measurement, Neither male nor female groups showed significant changes. 4. In the urine analysis, CBC and biochemistry didn't show any significant changes in the experiment groups compared with control group. 5. For weight measurement of organs, experiment groups didn't show any significant changes compared with control group. 6. To verify abnormalities of organs and tissues, thigh muscle which treated with Sweet BV, cerebrum, liver, lung, kidney, and spinal cords were removed and conducted histologocal observation with H-E staining. In the histologocal observation of thigh muscle, cell infiltration, inflammatory, degeneration, necrosis of muscle fiber, and fibrosis were found in both thigh tissue. And the changes were depend on the dose of Sweet BV. But another organs were not detected in any abnormalities. 7

  14. La ganadería lanar en Madrid y su tierra durante la Edad Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Puñal Fernández

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de la ganadería en general y ovina en particular ofrece un campo muy generoso de investigación porque permite conocer muchas de las estructuras socioeconómicas regionales y locales de un país o territorio. En el caso de Madrid dicho estudio es importante por cuanto en el conjunto de las labores agropecuarias del concejo, las ganaderas fueron las que mejor marcaron su desarrollo económico. La tierra madrileña es tierra de ganado, sobre todo lanar, y ello fue el punto de referencia de diversas actividades económicas que iban desde el abastecimiento de carne para la alimentación hasta la obtención de materia prima, lana y pieles, para las industrias textil y del cuero. Para tener una visión más amplia e interdisciplinar el presente estudio se ha hecho desde una doble perspectiva económica y social. Desde la ganadería estante y local a la trashumante, con especial mención a la Mesta y toda su problemática, así como los aspectos cuantitativos derivados del número de ovejas y el tamaño y tipo de los rebaños y sus aspectos fiscales concomitantes. En relación a ello toda la infraestructura de pastos y cañadas. Los aspectos sociales se refieren a los propietarios de ovejas como una oligarquía rural de labradores enriquecidos, así como a los trabajadores del ganado, es decir los pastores, sus contratos, salarios y condiciones de vida. En conjunto el panorama que se ofrece es muy significativo y permite acercarnos un poco más a la realidad socioeconómica del Madrid medieval.The study of the livestock in general and sheep in particular, offers a huge field to research as it allows to know many of the local and regional socioeconomíc structures of a city or country. In the case of Madrid, that study is important because the sheep livestock is, among the rest of the agricultural activities, the main one for its contribution to the economic development. Madrid is a livestock área, mainly for sheep, as the point of

  15. Mires and mire types of Peninsula Mitre, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grootjans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, a field visit by members of the International Mire Conservation Group (IMCG to the Atlantic coast of Peninsula Mitre (the easternmost part of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina gathered information on mire diversity in this remote wild area with largely pristine mires. Our expedition showed that Peninsula Mitre hosts a wide variety of habitats across two exciting ecological gradients: (i a regional west–east gradient from Sphagnum magellanicum dominated mires in the west to Astelia pumila dominated mires in the east; and (ii a gradient from extremely acid to extremely carbonate rich mire types induced by local bedrock. The large variety of hydromorphological mire types comprises raised bogs, blanket bogs, sloping fens, string fens, flat fens and calcareous spring fens. In the Atlantic coastal area, the abundance of Sphagnum magellanicum in the ombrogenic systems decreases conspicuously from west to east with the species being almost absent in the east. However, the fossil record shows thick layers of Sphagnum peat close beneath mire surfaces everywhere, indicating that substantial hydrological and ecological changes have taken place in the recent past. We observed large scale erosion in the mires along the Atlantic coast. Locally, well-developed fen systems are present, including calcareous spring fens with active travertine (tufa deposition. The regional vegetation can be regarded as a parallel to that of boreal oceanic regions in the northern hemisphere. The mires and peatlands of the peninsula are of global significance. They are impressive, peculiar, extensive and largely pristine mires in a globally very rare climatic and biogeographical context embedded in a landscape with significant natural dynamics. The damaging impact of free-roaming cattle on the mires and upland vegetation is, however, conspicuous and needs urgent attention. Peninsula Mitre deserves the highest possible protection, e.g. as a provincial protected

  16. Comparison of the rheological properties of four root canal sealers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seok Woo Chang; Kwang Shik Bae; Young-Kyu Lee; Qiang Zhu; Won Jun Shon; Woo Cheol Lee; Kee Yeon Kum; Seung Ho Baek; In Bog Lee; Bum-Soon Lim

    2015-01-01

    The flowability of a root canal sealer is clinically important because it improves the penetration of the sealer into the complex root canal system. The purpose of this study was to compare the flowabilities of four root canal sealers, measured using the simple press method (ISO 6876), and their viscosities, measured using a strain-controlled rheometer. A newly developed, calcium phosphate-based root canal sealer (Capseal) and three commercial root canal sealers (AH Plus, Sealapex and Pulp Canal Sealer EWT) were used in this study. The flowabilities of the four root canal sealers were measured using the simple press method (n55) and their viscosities were measured using a strain-controlled rheometer (n55). The correlation between these two values was statistically analysed using Spearman’s correlation test. The flow diameters and the viscosities of the root canal sealers were strongly negatively correlated (r520.8618). The viscosity of Pulp Canal Sealer EWT was the lowest and increased in the following order:AH Plus,Sealapex,Capseal (P,0.05). All of the tested root canal sealers showed characteristic time-and temperature-dependent changes in their rheological properties. The viscosities measured using the strain-controlled rheometer were more precise than the flowabilities measured using the simple press method, suggesting that the rheometer can accurately measure the rheological properties of root canal sealers.

  17. Dorello's Canal for Laymen: A Lego-Like Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Haim; Banerjee, Anirban Deep; Thakur, Jai Deep; Nanda, Anil

    2012-06-01

    Objective Dorello's canal was first described by Gruber in 1859, and later by Dorello. Vail also described the anatomy of Dorello's canal. In the preceding century, Dorello's canal was clinically important, in understanding sixth nerve palsy and nowadays it is mostly important for skull base surgery. The understanding of the three dimensional anatomy, of this canal is very difficult to understand, and there is no simple explanation for its anatomy and its relationship with adjacent structures. We present a simple, Lego-like, presentation of Dorello's canal, in a stepwise manner. Materials and Methods Dorello's canal was dissected in five formalin-fixed cadaver specimens (10 sides). The craniotomy was performed, while preserving the neural and vascular structures associated with the canal. A 3D model was created, to explain the canal's anatomy. Results Using the petrous pyramid, the sixth nerve, the cavernous sinus, the trigeminal ganglion, the petorclival ligament and the posterior clinoid, the three-dimensional structure of Dorello's canal was defined. This simple representation aids in understanding the three dimensional relationship of Dorello's canal to its neighboring structures. Conclusion Dorello's canal with its three dimensional structure and relationship to its neighboring anatomical structures could be reconstructed using a few anatomical building blocks. This method simplifies the understanding of this complex anatomical structure, and could be used for teaching purposes for aspiring neurosurgeons, and anatomy students.

  18. Even at the uttermost ends of the Earth: how seabirds telecouple the Beagle Channel with regional and global processes that affect environmental conservation and social-ecological sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea N. Raya Rey

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Human-wildlife dynamics exhibit novel characteristics in the Anthropocene, given the unprecedented degree of globalization that has increased the linkages between habitats and people across space and time. This is largely caused by transnational mobility and migration, international labor, resource markets, and trade. Understanding the relationship between humans and wildlife, and their associated telecoupling processes, helps to promote better management practices and governance for reconciling socioeconomic and conservation interests. Even remote places on the globe exhibit these features. For example, in southern Patagonia's coastal and marine ecosystems, seabirds are not only very abundant and charismatic members of the wildlife community, nowadays, their colonies are a main tourism attraction of global significance, and in the past they were used for consumptive and scientific purposes that also linked the "uttermost ends of the Earth" with distant places. Thus, in this study, we review human-seabird interactions in the iconic Beagle Channel (BC in the Argentine portion of the Tierra del Fuego Archipelago. We adapted and employed the coupled human and natural systems (CHANS approach and telecoupling framework to integrate disparate social and biological information and obtain a more holistic understanding of current human-seabird dynamics and trends in the BC. Although our assessment includes the temporal scale of human-seabird relationships, we centered the CHANS and telecoupling analysis on the modern seabird-tourism interaction, focused on the channel's Argentine sector, in which tourism is most intensively developed. Our synthesis of the BC's telecoupled CHANS allowed us to recognize the strong historical local-to-global interactions between both human and natural subsystems and the sharp increase in distance telecoupling during the 20th century. Despite this globalizing trend in seabirds connecting the BC's local ecosystems to distant

  19. Geoprocesamiento aplicado al analisis del uso de la tierra en el municipio de San Pedro de Ycuamandyyú , Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Agustín Figueredo Torres

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El municipio de San Pedro de Ycuamandyyú está ubicado en el noroeste de la región oriental del Paraguay. Los objetivos de este trabajo constituyen la elaboración y el análisis del mapa del uso de la tierra para la planificación de actividades forestales en la zona, para los cuales se utilizaron técnicas de cartografía, sensores remotos y (SIG Sistemas de Informaciones Geográficas, que posibilitaron el análisis de informaciones provenientes de imágenes satelitales LANDSAT TM 5, de cartas topográficas y de (GPS Sistema de Posicionamiento Global, que permitió el procesamiento de datos en el programa Idrisi 2.0 para la confección de un mapa que posibilitó el análisis sobre la situación del uso de la tierra en el municipio. Se distinguió categorías predominantes como praderas altas o campos naturales, uso agropecuario y praderas bajas o bañados, siendo la cobertura forestal con valor inferior al 25%. Se concluyó que el municipio presenta bastantes áreas de campos naturales y uso agropecuario que podrían utilizarse para actividades de reforestación, sea con especies nativas o exóticas de rápido crecimiento con la finalidad de obtener valores de cobertura forestal en equilibrio con las demás categorías de uso de la tierra.

  20. Geoprocesamiento aplicado al analisis del uso de la tierra en el municipio de San Pedro de Ycuamandyyú, Paraguay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Agustín Torres Figueredo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El municipio de San Pedro de Ycuamandyyú está ubicado en el noroeste de la región oriental del Paraguay. Los objetivos de este trabajo constituyen la elaboración y el análisis del mapa del uso de la tierra para la planificación de actividades forestales en la zona, para los cuales se utilizaron técnicas de cartografía, sensores remotos y (SIG Sistemas de Informaciones Geográficas, que posibilitaron el análisis de informaciones provenientes de imágenes satelitales LANDSAT TM 5, de cartas topográficas y de (GPS Sistema de Posicionamiento Global, que permitió el procesamiento de datos en el programa Idrisi 2.0 para la confección de un mapa que posibilitó el análisis sobre la situación del uso de la tierra en el municipio. Se distinguió categorías predominantes como praderas altas o campos naturales, uso agropecuario y praderas bajas o bañados, siendo la cobertura forestal con valor inferior al 25%. Se concluyó que el municipio presenta bastantes áreas de campos naturales y uso agropecuario que podrían utilizarse para actividades de reforestación, sea con especies nativas o exóticas de rápido crecimiento con la finalidad de obtener valores de cobertura forestal en equilibrio con las demás categorías de uso de la tierra.

  1. GEOPROCESAMIENTO APLICADO AL ANALISIS DEL USO DE LA TIERRA EN EL MUNICIPIO DE SAN PEDRO DE YCUAMANDYYÚ, PARAGUAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Agustín Torres Figueredo

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available El municipio de San Pedro de Ycuamandyyú está ubicado en el noroeste de la región oriental del Paraguay. Los objetivos de este trabajo constituyen la elaboración y el análisis del mapa del uso de la tierra para la planificación de actividades forestales en la zona, para los cuales se utilizaron técnicas de cartografía, sensores remotos y (SIG Sistemas de Informaciones Geográficas, que posibilitaron el análisis de informaciones provenientes de imágenes satelitales LANDSAT TM 5, de cartas topográficas y de (GPS Sistema de Posicionamiento Global, que permitió el procesamiento de datos en el programa Idrisi 2.0 para la confección de un mapa que posibilitó el análisis sobre la situación del uso de la tierra en el municipio. Se distinguió categorías predominantes como praderas altas o campos naturales, uso agropecuario y praderas bajas o bañados, siendo la cobertura forestal con valor inferior al 25%. Se concluyó que el municipio presenta bastantes áreas de campos naturales y uso agropecuario que podrían utilizarse para actividades de reforestación, sea con especies nativas o exóticas de rápido crecimiento con la finalidad de obtener valores de cobertura forestal en equilibrio con las demás categorías de uso de la tierra.

  2. El acaparamiento de tierras como proceso dinámico. Las estrategias de los actores en contextos de estancamiento económico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gras

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende contribuir a la comprensión de los procesos de acaparamiento de tierras. A partir de un análisis realizado en el norte de Córdoba (Argentina, se sugiere que dicho fenómeno: (a no es lineal, uniforme ni se incrementa de manera sostenida en el tiempo; y (b no se limita a la concentración de tierras sino que integra recursos estratégicos (financieros, tecnológicos, gerenciales que convergen en el objetivo más general de acaparamiento de capital. Analizamos una dinámica específica, la “ralentización” o disminución en la cantidad de tierra controlada por las empresas, bajo la hipótesis que ella no constituye necesariamente una retracción del acaparamiento.

  3. Effects of whole-body, ionizing radiation on the semen in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    Six beagle dogs were exposed to a total dose of 183 R of gamma radiation at a dose rate of 1 R/day, while three other dogs were exposed to a single dose of 100 R. Weekly semen analysis was performed on all irradiated dogs plus four nonirradiated dogs. Semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, sperm motility and sperm head morphometry were examined. Dogs exposed to chronic radiation showed a severe decline in sperm numbers, detected after seven weeks of exposure. Sperm concentration and total sperm count were the first parameters affected and were the only parameters consistently affected. The dogs exposed to 100 R as a single dose, did not show a significant decline in sperm numbers. During a 36 week recovery period, the chronically irradiated dogs did show a slight increase in sperm numbers, but they never approached pre-exposure levels

  4. Expression of Kirsten murine sarcoma virus sequences in Beagle dog tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkof, P R; Kelly, G

    1988-12-01

    Labeled cDNA synthesized from RNA extracted from {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}-, {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}-, and {sup 90}Sr-induced lung tumors in Beagle dogs, from nontumor tissue from {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}-exposed dogs, and from unexposed dog lung and liver tissue produces strong hybridization signals with a plasmid (pKSma) that contains Kirsten murine sarcoma virus (KMSV) sequences. At least 90 percent of the KMSV sequences are expressed in these dog tissues, including sequences corresponding to p21 K-ras, qp70 envelope glycoprotein, and at least one other proviral sequence. The expression of Kirsten ras and other sarcoma virus sequences may have important implications for the interpretation of carcinogenesis studies in these dogs. (author)

  5. Immunohistochemical detection of epidermal growth factor receptor in radiation-induced lung tumors in Beagle dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillett, N A; Haley, P J; Hahn, F F

    1988-12-01

    Increased levels of epidermal growth factor receptor have been reported in a variety of tumors, including pulmonary squamous cell carcinomas in man. The purpose of this study was to determine if increased levels of epidermal growth factor (EGFR) were present in lung tumors from Beagle dogs that had been exposed to {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}- Using immunohistochemical techniques, sections from 17 lung tumors were examined for the presence of EGFR. Seven of the tumors were strongly positive for EGFR; the remainder of the tumors and the normal lung sections were negative. The positive immunostaining could not be correlated with the histologic phenotype of the tumors. Work is in progress to determine the level of EGFR in preneoplastic, proliferative epithelial foci in the Iung. (author)

  6. Biological effects of cesium-137 injected in beagle dogs of different ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikula, K.J.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C. [and others

    1995-12-01

    The toxicity of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) in the Beagle dog was investigated at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as part of a program to evaluate the biological effects of internally deposited radionuclides. The toxicity and health effects of {sup 137}Cs are important to understand because {sup 137}Cs is produced in large amounts in light-water nuclear reactors. Large quantities of cesium radioisotopes have entered the human food chain as a result of atmospheric nuclear weapons test, and additional cesium radioisotopes were released during the Chernobyl accident. Although the final analyses are not complete, three findings are significant: older dogs dies significantly earlier than juvenile and young adult dogs; greater occurrence of sarcomas in the cesium-137 injected dogs; the major nonneoplastic effect in dogs surviving beyond 52 d appears to be testicular atrophy.

  7. Lifetime tumor risk coefficients for beagle dogs that inhaled cerium-144 chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Reported here is one of the life-span radionuclide toxicology studies being conducted at ITRI in Beagle dogs. These studies are examining the life-span health risks of inhaled {Beta}-, {gamma}- and {alpha}-emitting radionuclides to expand available knowledge on these risks especially for the many cases for which human data are not available. The outcomes of these studies are providing important information on dosimetry and dose-response relationships for these inhaled radionuclides and the relative importance of a broad range of dose- and effect-modifying factors. A number of these studies are currently coming to completion. Much of the ITRI effort is being directed to final reviews of the dosimetric, clinical, and pathologic results and writing summary manuscripts. Radiation doses and effects in tissues adjacent to bone, specifically those of epithelial or marrow origin, should be considered when determining risks from internally deposited, bone-seeking radionuclides such as {sup 144}Ce.

  8. Lifetime tumor risk coefficients for beagle dogs that inhaled cerium-144 chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C.

    1995-01-01

    Reported here is one of the life-span radionuclide toxicology studies being conducted at ITRI in Beagle dogs. These studies are examining the life-span health risks of inhaled Β-, γ- and α-emitting radionuclides to expand available knowledge on these risks especially for the many cases for which human data are not available. The outcomes of these studies are providing important information on dosimetry and dose-response relationships for these inhaled radionuclides and the relative importance of a broad range of dose- and effect-modifying factors. A number of these studies are currently coming to completion. Much of the ITRI effort is being directed to final reviews of the dosimetric, clinical, and pathologic results and writing summary manuscripts. Radiation doses and effects in tissues adjacent to bone, specifically those of epithelial or marrow origin, should be considered when determining risks from internally deposited, bone-seeking radionuclides such as 144 Ce

  9. Comparison of radiological changes in humans exposed to radium and in beagle dogs injected with radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.; Kirsh, J.E.; Pool, R.R.

    1982-01-01

    Data from MIT and New Jersey studies were combined with data from the Center for Human Radiobiology, Argonne National Laboratory, to create a material of 2259 persons occupationaly exposed to radium. The population studied consisted of radium-dial painters, radium chemists, and persons who had received radium in past years in attempts to treat various medical conditions. Within a colony of beagle dogs at the LEHR, UCD, which received eight semi-monthly injections of 226 Ra were 28 dogs that received a dosage of 80 to 130 times maximum permissible skeletal burden for man (0.1 μCi 226 Ra). The intravenous injections of 226 Ra began at 435 days of age

  10. Biological effects of inhaled 144CeCl3 in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.; Griffith, W.C.; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    Data on biological effects in humans exposed briefly to high levels of external X or gamma irradiation provide the foundation of protection guidelines for low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. Unfortunately, the extrapolation of the risk of these biological effects to humans exposed to internally deposited radionuclides is complicated by the protracted exposure and differences in local doses to organs and tissues that result from internal irradiation. Therefore, data from humans exposed to external radiation may not provide all of the information necessary to understand the long-term health effects of internally deposited, beta-particle-emitting radionuclides. Because of these uncertainties, it is important to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of radionuclides such as radiocerium in the body and the relationship of their distribution to biological effects that result from acute inhalation exposure. The radiation effects of inhaled cerium 144 were studied in beagles

  11. Long-term accumulation and microdistribution of uranium in the bone and marrow of beagle dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda-Neto, J D T; Manso Guevara, M V; Nogueira, G P; Taricano, I D; Saiki, M; Zamboni, C B; Bonamin, L V; Camargo, S P; Cestari, A C; Deppman, A; Garcia, F; Gouveia, A N; Guzman, F; Helene, O A M; Jorge, S A C; Likhachev, V P; Martins, M N; Mesa, J; Rodriguez, O; Vanin, V R

    2004-08-01

    The accumulation and microdistribution of uranium in the bone and marrow of Beagle dogs were determined by both neutron activation and neutron-fission analysis. The experiment started immediately after the weaning period, lasting till maturity. Two animal groups were fed daily with uranyl nitrate at concentrations of 20 and 100 microg g(-1) food. Of the two measuring techniques, uranium accumulated along the marrow as much as in the bone, contrary to the results obtained with single, acute doses. The role played by this finding for the evaluation of radiobiological long-term risks is discussed. It was demonstrated, by means of a biokinetical approach, that the long-term accumulation of uranium in bone and marrow could be described by a piling up of single dose daily incorporation.

  12. Toxicity of injected 137CsCl in Beagle dogs. XVIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of the metabolism, dosimetry, and effects of intravenously administered 137 CsCl in the Beagle dog are being conducted to aid in assessing the biological consequences of exposure to 137 Cs that might occur in the event of certain nuclear accidents. Effects of the chronic, relatively uniform whole-body exposures produced by 137 CsCl are being compared with other diverse radiation dose patterns resulting from inhalation of radioactive aerosols. The fifty-four dogs that were injected with 137 CsCl have died, as have eleven control dogs; three control dogs died during the past year. Observations are continuing on the surviving control dog. 2 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  13. Spontaneous necrotizing sialometaplasia of the submandibular salivary gland in a Beagle dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, Sydney; Petterino, Claudio; Bradley, Alys

    2015-07-01

    A single mass was found on the left submandibular salivary gland at necropsy of a 15-month-old male commercially bred laboratory Beagle dog from a control dose group from a repeat toxicity study. Microscopically, the mass was composed of a well-demarcated area of coagulative necrosis surrounded and separated from the normal salivary gland tissue by a thick fibrovascular capsule. Necrosis was admixed with areas of hemorrhage, fibrin, edema, fibrinoid necrosis of the vascular tunica media, and thrombosis of small and large vessels. Within the necrotic tissue, there was marked ductal hyperplasia, and squamous metaplasia of duct and acinar epithelium. The mass was diagnosed as necrotizing sialometaplasia of the submandibular gland. Hyperplastic ductal elements and squamous metaplasia can be mistaken microscopically with squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, pathologists should be aware of this lesion as to avoid errors in the diagnosis of this benign pathologic condition.

  14. Single inhalation exposure to 90SrCl2 in the Beagle dog: early hematological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillett, N.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.; Rebar, A.H.; McClellan, R.O.

    1985-01-01

    Young adult Beagle dogs were exposed once to aerosols containing 90 SrCl 2 to obtain initial body burdens ranging from 2.5 to 250 uCi 90 Sr/kg body weight and subsequently observed throughout their life span. All of the dogs are now dead. The primary cause of death over the entire length of the study was radiation-induced osteosarcomas. However, six dogs died at less than 30 days after exposure as a result of a radiation-induced bone marrow aplasia. Review of hematological parameters of all dogs showed a similar, consistent, and often dramatic pancytopenia in those animals having a long-term retained burden of greater than 10 uCi 90 Sr/kg. The hematologic changes were similar to those seen in people exposed to high doses of whole body external radiation. 4 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  15. Toxicity of 239PuO2 inhaled by aged Beagle dogs. X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Gillett, N.A.; Guilmette, R.A.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of age at exposure on the metabolism, dosimetry, and biological effects of inhaled 239 PuO 2 particles is being studied in aged Beagle dogs (8.0-10.5 yr of age at exposure). Forty-eight dogs inhaled 239 PuO 2 particles with an activity median aerodynamic diameter of 1.5 mm to achieve graded levels of initial pulmonary burdens (IPB) ranging from 0.02-0.66 μCi 239 Pu/kg body weight (0.75-24 kBq/kg). Twelve other dogs were exposed to the aerosol diluent only. All forty-eight exposed dogs have died, including two in the past year. The twelve control dogs have also died, including one in the past year. Radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis have been the primary causes of death in these aged dogs exposed to 239 PuO 2 . (author)

  16. Further characterization of serum alkaline phosphatase from male and female beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amacher, D E; Higgins, C V; Schomaker, S J; Clay, R J

    1989-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) from the sera of both male and female beagle dogs was partially purified and then analyzed for the presence of AP isoenzymes having intestinal or osseous characteristics as detected by bromotetramisole inhibition or wheat germ lectin agarose electrophoresis, respectively. The sera from both sexes were similar in regard to the presence of AP isoenzymes with intestinal (16 vs. 20%) or osseous (19 vs. 23%) characteristics, but serum AP from the male had a greater sialic acid content and only the male serum contained a detectable constitutive acidic (pI = 3.4) AP isoenzyme. This was similar to a serum AP isoenzyme previously found elevated in the sera of dogs afflicted with hyperadrenocorticalism or of dogs treated with certain corticosteroids.

  17. Toxicity of inhaled 239PuO2 in immature beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1980-01-01

    Immature beagle dogs have been exposed by inhalation to a 1.5 μm aerodynamic diameter monodisperse aerosol of 239 PuO 2 to compare the biological effects with those seen in young adult and aged dogs exposed to a similar aerosol. To date, 18 dogs have been exposed to the aerosol, resulting in graded initial lung burdens ranging from 0.003 to 0.38 μCi/kg body weight. Two dogs have been exposed to the aerosol diluent and serve as controls. Two of the 18 exposed animals were sacrificed 8 days after exposure to provide information on initial deposition and distribution. All other exposed animals are alive 400 days after exposure. No dogs were exposed during the past year because of an outbreak of canine parvovirus enteritis which caused death in 8 to 10 week-old dogs

  18. Malignancy as a cause of death in nonsacrifice Segment III beagles receiving gamma radiation during development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, S.A.; Hargis, A.M.; Lovering, S.L.; Thomassen, R.W.; Angleton, G.M.; Lee, A.C.; Brewster, R.D.; Brooks, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    As of December 31, 1978, 31 Segment III beagles had died or been euthanatized because of a malignant neoplasm. Twenty-five of the 31 had been irradiated. Fifteen of the 25 irradiated dogs were exposed at either 55 days postcoitus (dpc) or 2 days postpartum (dpp) to 20 or 100R. Of these 15, 4 dogs irradiated at either 55 dpc or 2 dpp died with malignancies prior to 2 years of age, an unusual occurrence in the dog. Eight irradiated and no control dogs developed malignant lymphoma. Four of the dogs with lymphoma were irradiated at 55 dpc. These findings suggest a relatively high sensitivity for radiation carcinogenesis in dogs exposed in the perinatal period

  19. Toxicity of 90Y in a relatively insoluble form inhaled by Beagle dogs. XIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Hobbs, C.H.; Kusewitt, D.F.; McClellan, R.O.; Mauderly, J.L.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The metabolism, dosimetry and biological effects of inhaled 90 Y in fused aluminosilicate particles in Beagle dogs are being studied. Eighty-nine dogs with initial lung burdens ranging from 80 to 5200 μCi 90 Y/kg body weight and 12 control dogs are being maintained for life span observations. The lung burdens achieved, short physical half-life and relative insolubility of the 90 Y in this vector resulted in a relatively high, rapidly decreasing radiation dose rate to the lung. To date, 69 exposed dogs have died; 38 from radiation pneumonitis, seven with pulmonary neoplasms and 24 from other causes. Four control dogs have died. Twenty-nine surviving exposed and eight control dogs are being studied for their life spans

  20. Toxicity of inhaled 144CeCl3 in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The metabolism, dosimetry and effects of inhaled 144 CeCl 3 in beagle dogs are being studied to assess the biological consequences of inhaling 144 Ce. Studies have shown that the 144 Ce deposited in the lung as 144 CeCl 3 is translocated at a moderately rapid rate to liver and skeleton and that significant radiation doses are accumulated by all three organs. Fifty-five dogs that inhaled 144 CeCl 3 and 17 control dogs are being observed for their life span. The 144 Ce-exposed dogs had long-term retained burdens that ranged from 2.6 to 360 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight. Fifty-three of the dogs exposed to 144 CeCl 3 have died and twelve control dogs have died. Serial observations are continuing on the two surviving exposed dogs and five control dogs

  1. Toxicity of 90Sr inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs. XIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to 90 Sr in a relatively insoluble form to study long-term health effects. Lung burdens ranged from 0.12 to 96 μCi of 90 Sr/kg body weight. High levels of exposure resulted in radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis; lower level exposures caused long-term effects, including cancer of the lung, heart, and tracheobronchial lymph modes. Most of these tumors were hemangiosarcomas. Two control dogs and two 90 Sr-exposed dogs died or were euthanized during the past year. One exposed dog died with hemangiosarcoma of the spleen; the other exposed dog died with pulmonary thrombosis. One control dog died of pulmonary carcinoma, and the other control dog died of a carcinoma of the bladder. The remaining 19 exposed and 11 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation

  2. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of Shenfu Injection in beagle dogs after intravenous drip administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiao Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Shenfu Injection (SFI is a well-defined Chinese herbal formulation that is obtained from red ginseng and processed aconite root. The main active constituents in SFI are ginsenosides and aconitum alkaloids. In this work, ginsenosides (ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Rb1 and ginsenoside Rc and aconitum alkaloids (benzoylmesaconine and fuziline were used as the index components to explore the pharmacokinetic behavior of SFI. A selective and sensitive HPLC–MS/MS method was developed for the quantification of ginsenosides and aconitum alkaloids in dog plasma and was used to characterize the pharmacokinetics of the five index components after intravenous drip of three different dosages of SFI in beagle dogs. The pharmacokinetic properties of the index components were linear over the dose range of 2–8 mL/kg.

  3. Clearance patterns for 111In-oxide particles deposited in specific airways of beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C.; Guilmette, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has incorporated long-term retention of radioactive particles in conducting airways into its newly approved respiratory tract dosimetry model. This model is purported to provide a better basis for assessing risk associated with human inhalation exposures to radioactive particles. However, applying the new model requires an understanding of particle retention patterns in conducting airways of the lung. Studies are being conducted at ITRI to quantify long-term retention patterns for particles deposited at specific sites in conducting airways of Beagle dogs. The dog was selected as a model because long-term retention and clearance patterns for particles deposited in the lungs of dogs and humans are similar

  4. Case report: study of a beagle with a malignant ectopic thyroid tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewster, R.D.; Miller, C.W.; Stephens, L.C.; Jaenke, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    A Segment III beagle was noted clinically to have cervical edema and muffled heart sounds. Radiographically, masses were found at the base of the heart and throughout the lung field. An electrocardiogram revealed right bundle branch blockage. An echocardiogram demonstrated thickening of the left ventricle and conduction disturbances in the heart which could not be visualized by conventional diagnostic techniques. At necropsy, a neoplasm was found at the base of the heart that had extended into the pulmonary artery, right atria-auricle, interatrial septum, dorsal interventricular septum, and between the pericardium and epicardium over the surface of the right and left ventricles. The location of the tumor masses accounted for the clinical signs and the abnormalities in the electrocardiogram and echocardiogram. Light and electron microscopic examination of the neoplasm at the base of the heart and metastatic neoplasms in the lungs, kidney, and pancreas established a diagnosis of malignant ectopic thyroid tumor

  5. Pyovagina and stump pyometra in a neutered XX sex-reversed Beagle: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.; Partington, B.P.; Smith, B.; Hedlund, C.S.; Law, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    An 18-month-old, neutered male beagle presented with acute abdominal signs and a suppurative infection of the urogenital tract. Chromosomal sex was female (78, XX), gonadal sex was male (testicles), and phenotypic sex was ambiguous, with evidence of both male and female duct systems. The internal and external genitalia consisted of epididymides, an underdeveloped uterus with an immature spermatic cord, communication between the uterus or cranial vagina and the membranous urethra, a urethrographically male urethra, a hypoplastic os penis, and a hypoplastic penis with hypospadia. Based on these findings and the familial history of a similarly affected litter mate, the dog was diagnosed as having the XX male syndrome with pyovagina and uterine stump pyometra. Radiographic and ultrasonographic investigations are described, and abnormalities of chromosomal sex, gonadal sex, and phenotypic sex are discussed

  6. Late biological effects of 137CsCl injected in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikula, K.J.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.

    1994-01-01

    The toxicity of intravenously administered 137 CsCl in the Beagle dog was investigated as part of the ITRI program to evaluate the biological effects of internally deposited fission product radionuclides. The toxicity and health effects of 137 Cs are important to understand because 137 Cs is produced in large amounts in light-water nuclear reactors. Also, large quantities of cesium radioisotopes have entered the human food chain as a result of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests and additonal cesium radioisotopes were released during the Chernobyl accident. The intravenous route of exposure was chosen because it was known that after intravenous injection, inhalation, or ingestion, internally deposited 137 CsCl is rapidly adsorbed and distributed throughout the body, exposing the whole body to beta and gamma radiation, and because of the reduced radiation protection problems associated with high-level exposure via injection compared to these other routes

  7. Toxicity of injected 137CsCl in Beagle dogs. XVI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.; Redman, H.C.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of the metabolism, dosimetry, and effects of intravenously administered 137 CsCl in the Beagle dog are being conducted to aid in assessing the biologic consequences of exposure to 137 Cs that might occur in the event of certain nuclear accidents. Effects of the chronic, relatively uniform whole-body exposures produced by 137 Cs are being compared with other diverse radiation dose patterns resulting from inhalation of radioactive aerosols. Fifty-four of the dogs that were injected with 237 CsCl have died, as have eight control dogs; four exposed and two control dogs died during the past year. Serial observations are continuing on the surviving four control dogs

  8. Expression of Kirsten murine sarcoma virus sequences in Beagle dog tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerkof, P.R.; Kelly, G.

    1988-01-01

    Labeled cDNA synthesized from RNA extracted from 238 PuO 2 -, 239 PuO 2 -, and 90 Sr-induced lung tumors in Beagle dogs, from nontumor tissue from 239 PuO 2 -exposed dogs, and from unexposed dog lung and liver tissue produces strong hybridization signals with a plasmid (pKSma) that contains Kirsten murine sarcoma virus (KMSV) sequences. At least 90 percent of the KMSV sequences are expressed in these dog tissues, including sequences corresponding to p21 K-ras, qp70 envelope glycoprotein, and at least one other proviral sequence. The expression of Kirsten ras and other sarcoma virus sequences may have important implications for the interpretation of carcinogenesis studies in these dogs. (author)

  9. Omental leiomyosarcoma with unusual giant cells in a Beagle dog - Short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Jun; Toyoshima, Megumi; Okamura, Yasuhiko; Goryo, Masanobu

    2016-06-01

    A 10-year-old castrated male Beagle dog was presented with a 2-month history of intermittent vomiting and abdominal pain. The dog was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Iwate University for further evaluation, and a splenic tumour was suspected on the basis of ultrasonography and computed tomography. Surgery identified a large, solid, light-pink mass on the greater omentum with blood-coloured ascites in the abdominal cavity, and resection was performed. Microscopically, the mass comprised spindle-shaped tumour cells and scattered osteoclast-like giant cells. Most spindle-shaped cells were positive for vimentin, desmin, and smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), whereas osteoclast-like giant cells were positive only for vimentin. On the basis of histopathological and immunohistochemical findings, a diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma was made. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first report of leiomyosarcoma associated with osteoclast-like giant cells developing from the greater omentum in a dog.

  10. Summary of dosimetry, pathology, and dose response for bone sarcomas in beagles injected with 226Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrenn, M.E.; Taylor, G.N.; Stevens, W.

    1985-01-01

    One hundred and sixty dogs given single intravenous injections of 226 Ra citrate at age 17 +/- 2 months (116) or a non-radioactive solution (44 controls) were part of a 30 year long experiment to determine the relative radiotoxicity of injected 226 Ra and 239 Pu. The authors report a preliminary summary of the results of the 226 Ra study. Skeletal development of the beagles used in this study is analogous to a young adult human, simulating that of a young adult radium dial painter or occupationally exposed person. Injected dosage of 226 Ra, average skeletal dose, and number of dogs and dogs developing bone sarcomas in each group are presented. The lowest nominal injected activity was 0.007 μCi/kg. Each of the 8 dosage levels contained about 12 dogs, except for 23 dogs at 0.06 μCi/kg and 25 dogs at 0.02 μCi/kg

  11. Biological effects of cesium-137 injected in beagle dogs of different ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikula, K.J.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C.

    1995-01-01

    The toxicity of cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) in the Beagle dog was investigated at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as part of a program to evaluate the biological effects of internally deposited radionuclides. The toxicity and health effects of 137 Cs are important to understand because 137 Cs is produced in large amounts in light-water nuclear reactors. Large quantities of cesium radioisotopes have entered the human food chain as a result of atmospheric nuclear weapons test, and additional cesium radioisotopes were released during the Chernobyl accident. Although the final analyses are not complete, three findings are significant: older dogs dies significantly earlier than juvenile and young adult dogs; greater occurrence of sarcomas in the cesium-137 injected dogs; the major nonneoplastic effect in dogs surviving beyond 52 d appears to be testicular atrophy

  12. Hematological responses after inhaling 238PuO2: An extrapolation from beagle dogs to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Welsh, C.A.; Angerstein, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The alpha emitter plutonium-238 ( 238 Pu), which is produced in uranium-fueled, light-water reactors, is used as a thermoelectric power source for space applications. Inhalation of a mixed oxide form of Pu is the most likely mode of exposure of workers and the general public. Occupational exposures to 238 PuO 2 have occurred in association with the fabrication of radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Organs and tissue at risk for deterministic and stochastic effects of 238 Pu-alpha irradiation include the lung, liver, skeleton, and lymphatic tissue. Little has been reported about the effects of inhaled 238 PuO 2 on peripheral blood cell counts in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate hematological responses after a single inhalation exposure of Beagle dogs to alpha-emitting 238 PuO 2 particles and to extrapolate results to humans

  13. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by immature Beagle dogs. XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeker, B.B.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    Immature Beagle dogs (3-mo old) received a single, brief inhalation exposure to 144 Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles as part of a series of studies designed to study the effects of age on dose response relationships for inhaled radionuclides. Forty-nine dogs inhaled graded levels of 144 Ce that resulted in initial lung burdens ranging from 0.004-140 μCi/kg 0.15-5200 kBq/kg) body weight. Five control dogs inhaled nonradioactive fused aluminosilicate particles. Forty-one of the 144 Ce-exposed dogs have died: 11 with lung tumors 4 with tumors of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, with a nasal cavity tumor, and 9 with non neoplastic diseases of the respiratory tract. Observations are continuing on the 8 144 Ce-exposed dogs that are surviving at this time. (author)

  14. Toxicity of {sup 144}Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by immature Beagle dogs. XVII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeker, B B; Muggenburg, B A; Hahn, F F; Mauderly, J L; McClellan, R O

    1988-12-01

    Immature Beagle dogs (3-mo old) received a single, brief inhalation exposure to {sup 144}Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles as part of a series of studies designed to study the effects of age on dose response relationships for inhaled radionuclides. Forty-nine dogs inhaled graded levels of {sup 144}Ce that resulted in initial lung burdens ranging from 0.004-140 {mu}Ci/kg 0.15-5200 kBq/kg) body weight. Five control dogs inhaled nonradioactive fused aluminosilicate particles. Forty-one of the {sup 144}Ce-exposed dogs have died: 11 with lung tumors 4 with tumors of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, with a nasal cavity tumor, and 9 with non neoplastic diseases of the respiratory tract. Observations are continuing on the 8 {sup 144}Ce-exposed dogs that are surviving at this time. (author)

  15. Modelos del planeta Tierra en escolares rurales de Chile / Planet Earth models about students in rural schools from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Alonqueo Boudon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar los modelos del planeta Tierra en escolares mapuches y no mapuches de procedencia rural. Los participantes fueron 40 escolares distribuidos en dos grupos de edad, quienes respondieron a una tarea cognitiva que indaga la representación de la forma del planeta Tierra. En base al grado de acuerdo con la representación científica, cada participante fue categorizado en uno de cuatro modelos del planeta Tierra. El modelo 4, concordante con el conocimiento científico, no fue observado, pues la mayoría de los participantes se concentra en el modelo 3 en el que coexisten conocimientos previos con algunos elementos científicos. En los niños no mapuches se aprecia que el modelo del planeta Tierra se ajusta a los significados científicos a medida que aumenta el conocimiento escolar. Por el contrario, en los niños mapuches no se observa esta tendencia. Se discute el papel de la cultura y la enseñanza en el aprendizaje del modelo científico del planeta. ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to identify planet Earth models in mapuches and non mapuches students of rural origin. The participants were 40 students divided into two age groups who responded to a cognitive task which explores the representation of the shape of the planet Earth. Based on the degree of agreement with the scientific representation, each participant was categorized into one of four models of planet Earth. Model 4, consistent with the scientific knowledge was not observed because the majority of the participants were concentrated in Model 3. In non mapuche children, it is observed that the model of the planet Earth is adjusted to the scientific meaning in accordance with the increase of school knowledge. On the other hand, this trend is not observed in mapuche children. The role of culture and teaching is discussed in the learning of planet scientific model.

  16. Género, propiedad y empoderamiento: tierra, Estado y mercado en América Latina [Reseña

    OpenAIRE

    García Núñez, Luis Fernando; León, Magdalena; Deere, Carmen Diana

    2001-01-01

    Es un texto de una gran importancia para el momento actual. Un documento que trabaja el problema de género desde otras perspectivas. Integra el conflicto alrededor de las fronteras de lo social, lo político, lo cultural y lo económico. "Desde nuestra investigación inicial en los años setenta y ochenta se habían realizado relativamente pocos estudios sobre género y derecho a la tierra, y casi no se había prestado atención a las implicaciones de género de la contrarreforma agraria neoliberal". ...

  17. Estudio de la estructura cortical en la Isla de Tierra del Fuego a partir de datos sismológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Buffoni, C.; Schimmel, Martin; Sabbione, N.C.; Rosa, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    La Isla de Tierra del Fuego (TdF) se encuentra ubicada en el extremo sur de la Cuenca de Magallanes, donde el borde transformante entre la Placa de Scotia y la Sudamericana define el Sistema de Fallas Magallanes-Fagnano (MFS), cuya falla principal tiene un movimiento sinestral. Con el fin de obtener información de la corteza, se realizó un análisis de funciones receptoras (FR) a partir de datos registrados en cinco estaciones sismológicas instaladas en la Isla. Una FR es el resultado de un pr...

  18. Tierra y negocios en Salta a fines del siglo XIX y principios del XX. Estudio de casos

    OpenAIRE

    del Valle Michel, Azucena; Parrón, Mario Gustavo; Corregidor, Blanca Esther

    2017-01-01

    El trabajo analiza las estrategias desarrolladas por Vicente Arquati y Paulino Echazú en diferentes espacios socioeconómicos de la provincia de Salta, entre fines del siglo XIX y principios del XX. Las mismas, posibilitaron la concentración de tierras, la comercialización de productos y otras actividades lucrativas. Sobre estas cuestiones se plantean interrogantes para identificar los factores explicativos de la imposibilidad de esos sujetos de mantener sus logros económicos, a pesar de haber...

  19. Difference fractal surfaces poured earth floors Tamaulipas / Diferencia fractal en superficies de tierra vertida con suelo de Tamaulipas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Jonathan Suárez Dominguez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Poured earth is a sustainable construction and economically feasible technique to develop in Tamaulipas, by the materials availability and traditional manufacturing procedures uses. There are several variables to be considered in these elements for their properties, among them it can be found roughness and porosity analysis which are important because they are related to material mechanical resistance and durability. This study aimed to characterize solid surfaces using fractal dimension to know its uniformity and porosity, compared with a concrete surface. Solids were obtained from poured earth of two combinations of soils stabilized with cement from the state of Tamaulipas. We found that a surface of a sample, obtained with ground, is more uniform than poured concrete surface, and that fractal dimension is higher while porosity increases; results suggest that this is because of the presence of clay in the poured earth mixtures. La tierra vertida es una técnica constructiva sustentable y económicamente viable para desarrollarse en Tamaulipas, por la disponibilidad de materiales y procedimientos de fabricación similares a los tradicionales. Son diversas las variables que deben estudiarse en estos elementos para conocer sus propiedades, entre las que se encuentran la rugosidad y la porosidad, las cuales son importantes debido a su estrecha relación con la resistencia mecánica y durabilidad del material estudiado. El presente trabajo tuvo por objetivo caracterizar superficies sólidas a partir de la dimensión fractal para conocer su uniformidad y porosidad, comparándola con una superficie de concreto. Los sólidos fueron obtenidos a partir de tierra vertida conformada de dos combinaciones de suelos estabilizadas con cemento provenientes del estado de Tamaulipas. Se encontró que una superficie de tierra vertida es menos irregular que una superficie de concreto además de tener una menor porosidad reflejada en una menor dimensión fractal

  20. Tenencia de la tierra y desarrollo rural sostenible: algunos puntos para la reflexión en el caso venezolano.

    OpenAIRE

    Delahaye, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    1.- Artículos Tenencia de la tierra y desarrollo rural sostenible: algunos puntos para la reflexión en el caso venezolano. Land tenure and sustained rural development: points for reflecting on the Venezuelan case. Tenure de la terre et développement rural durable : quelques points pour la réflexion dans le cas du Venezuela. Delahaye, Olivier Paradigmas del mercado financiero rural en países en desarrollo. Paradigms in the rural financial markets in developing countries. ...

  1. Acceso a la tierra de los ex huasipungueros en la hacienda "Carpuela", en el valle del Chota.

    OpenAIRE

    Villa Zura, Marco Patricio

    2015-01-01

    El propo?sito del presente estudio de investigacio?n es abordar como fue el acceso a la tierra de los ex huasipungueros en la hacienda Carpuela en el Valle del Chota, parroquia Ambuqui?, canto?n Ibarra, Provincia de Imbabura, quienes fortalecieron la organizacio?n comunitaria, apoya?ndose en la Ley de Reforma Agraria, ejecutada por el Instituto Ecuatoriano de Reforma Agraria y Colonizacio?n de 1964 y la de 1973 que continuo. Adema?s autores teo?ricos reflejan la historia de los jesuitas qu...

  2. Cultivable microflora and endo mycorrhizas obtained in litter forest (Paramo Guerrero - Finca Puente de Tierra) Zipaquira, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, Eleonora; Celis, Sebastian; Galindez, Ximena; Moratto, Claudia; Sanchez, Jimena; Garcia, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The count of cultivable microorganisms (bacteria and fungi), cellulolytic microorganisms and endo mycorrhizas present in litter forest (property Puente de Tierra) in the Guerrero's moor, Colombia was made. The most frequently isolated microorganisms belonged to the staphylococcus, bacillus, pseudomonas, micrococcus, penicillium and rhodotorulagenus and cladosporium sp., which is a cellulolytic microorganism, was isolated in carboxymethyl cellulose agar. In addition eight morphotypes of endomycorrhizas were found, species of glomus and acaulospora predominated among them. This study contributes with the knowledge of the cultivable microorganisms of litter that have been little explored in moor ecosystems

  3. Forestaciones en tierras agrarias de la Región de Murcia : cambios medioambientales y paisajísticos

    OpenAIRE

    González Botía, Miguel Ángel

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo principal de esta tesis ha sido el estudio de las consecuencias derivadas de las forestaciones de tierras agrarias abandonadas en la Región de Murcia (FOTARM), considerada una medida agroambiental de la PAC, que pretende paliar los graves problemas de erosión, degradación y desertificación, derivados de dicho abandono. Primeramente se ha realizado un minucioso análisis de las forestaciones, que se llevaron a cabo en dos periodos: el primero (y principal) de 1994 a 1999, (llegando ...

  4. Osteoporotic-like effects of cadmium on bone mineral density and content in aged ovariectomized beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacco-Gibson, N.; Abrams, J.; Chaudhry, S.; Hurst, D.; Peterson, D.; Bhattacharyya, M.

    1992-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in conjunction with cadmium (Cd) exposure on bone. Aged female beagles with 45 Ca-labeled skeletons ovariectomized and exposed to Cd. Successive vertebral scans by dual photon absorptiometry monitored changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in each dog with time. Results showed that ovariectomy or Cd exposure alone caused significant decreases in BMD; ovariectomy with Cd exposure caused the greatest decrease. Ovariectomy alone did not decrease BMD in the distal end or mid-shaft of the tibia while BMD of the distal tibia decreased significantly due to Cd exposure alone. Combination treatment resulted in significant decreases in BMD of both tibial regions. At necropsy, tibiae, humeri, lumbar vertebrae and ribs were obtained for biochemical analysis. No group-to-group differences in bone weights (wet, dry, ash), in ash/dry ratios, or in long bone and vertebral Ca/dry or Ca/ash ratios were observed. Significantly higher total 45 Ca content and 45 Ca/dry and 45 Ca/ash ratios were observed in long bones and vertebrae of OV- and OV+ groups. In contrast, intact ribs showed significantly decreased Ca/dry and Ca/ash ratios compared to the SO-group. Quartered ribs demonstrated regional responses to specific treatment; decreases in total Ca content were greatest in the mid-rib region (-36 to -46%). Results suggest that in the aged female beagle, bone mineral loss associated with estrogen depletion is not only related to bone type (trabecular versus cortical) but also to bone Ca pools. Our results also suggest that a regional heterogeneity of bone plays a role in responsiveness to ovariectomy and Cd exposure. These aspects suggest that Cd is an exogenous factor affecting bone mineral loss independently of estrogen depletion. However, estrogen depletion primes bone for responsiveness to Cd-induced bone mineral loss

  5. Relationship of dose rate and total dose to responses of continuously irradiated beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.; Norris, W.P.; Tolle, D.V.; Seed, T.M.; Poole, C.M.; Lombard, L.S.; Doyle, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Young-adult beagles were exposed continuously (22 hours/day) to 60 Co γ rays in a specially constructed facility. The exposure rates were either 5, 10, 17, or 35 R/day, and the exposures were terminated at either 600, 1400, 2000, or 4000 R. A total of 354 dogs were irradiated; 221 are still alive as long-term survivors, some after more than 2000 days. The data on survival of these dogs, coupled with data from similar preliminary experiments, allow an estimate of the LD 50 for γ-ray exposures given at a number of exposure rates. They also allow comparison of the relative importance of dose rate and total dose, and the interaction of these two variables, in the early and late effects after protracted irradiation. The LD 50 for the beagle increases from 258 rad delivered at 15 R/minute to approximately 3000 rad at 10 R/day. Over this entire range, the LD 50 is dependent upon hematopoietic damage. At 5 R/day and less, no meaningful LD 50 can be determined; there is nearly normal continued hematopoietic function, survival is prolonged, and the dogs manifest varied individual responses in other organ systems. Although the experiment is not complete, interim data allow several important conclusions. Terminated exposures, while not as effective as radiation continued until death, can produce myelogenous leukemia at the same exposure rate, 10 R/day. More importantly, at the same total accumulated dose, lower exposure rates are more damaging than higher rates on the basis of the rate and degree of hematological recovery that occurs after termination of irradiation. Thus, the rate of hematologic depression, the nadir of the depression, and the rate of recovery are dependent upon exposure rate; the latter is inversely related and the former two are directly related to exposure rate

  6. Radiation-Induced Neoplasms in Beagles after Administrations of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, M.; Dungworth, D. L.; Bulgin, M. S.; Rosenblatt, L. S.; Richards, W. P.C.; Bustad, L. K. [Radiobiology Laboratory and Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1969-11-15

    The comparative carcinogenic efficiency of two bone-seeking radionuclides is under study in a colony of several hundred beagles. The toxicity of internally deposited alpha emitters ({sup 226}Ra and its daughters) and of beta irradiation ({sup 90}Sr) at comparable dosage rates indicates marked differences in site of appearance and mode of action in litters studied up to 7 years of age. Radiation carcinogenesis in beagles exposed to {sup 90}Sr daily from midgestation to adulthood (1.5 yr) is at present confined to dogs fed 4 {mu}Ci {sup 90}Sr/d or higher. The 20 cases constitute a spectrum of myeloproliferative disorders characterized by terminal anaemias, and ranging from myeloid metaplasia to granulocytic leukaemia. Continuous high-level {sup 90}Sr irradiation to bone and marrow from early life onward causes a thickened hypocellular bone ('pachyostosis'), some instances of myelofibrosis, and persistent mild leukopenia on which the final spectrum of terminal disoideis is superimposed. In contrast, up to 100 {mu}Cl {sup 226}Ra given intravenously (8 equally spaced injections at 14 to 18 months of age) to young adults is not a potent marrow cell carcinogen. The higher LET, shorter-range alpha particles are efficient in inducing bone cancers (14 cases) and skeletal lesions similar to those documented in watch-dial luminizers exposed to {sup 226}Ra in the early 1900's. The incidence of haematopoietic and skeletal neoplasms observed is dose-rate related, and the morphologic characteristics have several analogues in human cancer. The use of identically treated litters rather than individuals affords additional opportunity to study possible familial factors in the distribution of the neoplasms. Pathogenic evaluation at this juncture strongly indicates that continued bone and marrow irradiation in early life is more likely to induce haematopoietic neoplasms than is skeletal irradiation starting in young adulthood, which induces osseous neoplasms. (author)

  7. An artificial pancreas provided a novel model of blood glucose level variability in beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munekage, Masaya; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Takezaki, Yuka; Tamura, Takahiko; Namikawa, Tsutomu; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Although the effects on prognosis of blood glucose level variability have gained increasing attention, it is unclear whether blood glucose level variability itself or the manifestation of pathological conditions that worsen prognosis. Then, previous reports have not been published on variability models of perioperative blood glucose levels. The aim of this study is to establish a novel variability model of blood glucose concentration using an artificial pancreas. We maintained six healthy, male beagles. After anesthesia induction, a 20-G venous catheter was inserted in the right femoral vein and an artificial pancreas (STG-22, Nikkiso Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was connected for continuous blood glucose monitoring and glucose management. After achieving muscle relaxation, total pancreatectomy was performed. After 1 h of stabilization, automatic blood glucose control was initiated using the artificial pancreas. Blood glucose level varied for 8 h, alternating between the target blood glucose values of 170 and 70 mg/dL. Eight hours later, the experiment was concluded. Total pancreatectomy was performed for 62 ± 13 min. Blood glucose swings were achieved 9.8 ± 2.3 times. The average blood glucose level was 128.1 ± 5.1 mg/dL with an SD of 44.6 ± 3.9 mg/dL. The potassium levels after stabilization and at the end of the experiment were 3.5 ± 0.3 and 3.1 ± 0.5 mmol/L, respectively. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that an artificial pancreas contributed to the establishment of a novel variability model of blood glucose levels in beagles.

  8. Experimental study on brain injury in Beagle dogs caused by adjacent cabin explosion in warship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-teng LI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  Through the establishment of adjacent cabin blast injury model of Beagle dog, to investigate the pathophysiological changes in the experimental animals in this scenario, then speculate on the mechanisms of injury. Methods  Several adjacent cabins were built in the same size with the real warship. Seven Beagle dogs were subjected to injuries from the explosion, from whom one was selected randomly to implant intracranial pressure transducers before blast, the others were tested on the pathophysiological changes after blast. The dogs were mounted on the platform of a cabinet in the adjacent cabin, subjected to injury from 650g bare TNT explosive blast. The transducers recorded the value of space and intracranial shock wave pressure. Following blast treatment, the serum levels of IL -6, IL -8, neuron specific enolase (NSE, brain and chest CT and pathological changes of the brain tissue were observed. Results  Serum levels of IL-6, IL-8 and NSE were elevated to varying degrees after blast. All of them increased significantly at different time points after blast (P<0.05. Brain and chest CT examinations did not show any significant positive results. Pathological results showed that there was a little necrosis in the brain, some neurons had karyopycnosis, karyolysis or disappearance of the nucleoli, and the cell boundaries were blurred. The blast wave was blocked greatly by the scalp and skull (about 90%, but could still penetrate them and cause brain injuries. Conclusions  Explosion in the adjacent cabin causes mainly mild traumatic brain injuries. Blast wave can be blocked by the scalp and skull greatly. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.03.11

  9. Toxicity of inhaled 90Sr in fused aluminosilicate particles in beagle dogs. VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry and biological effects of 90 Sr inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs have continued during the past year to define the biological consequences of inhaling this important radionuclide in a form which has a long retention time in the lung. One hundred and six dogs were exposed to a polydisperse aerosol of fused aluminosilicate particles labeled with 90 Sr. Initial lung burdens ranged from 0.21 to 94 μCi 90 Sr per kilogram of body weight (μCi/kg). Eighteen control dogs were exposed to an aerosol of stable strontium in fused aluminosilicate particles. These 124 dogs were assigned to the longevity study. An additional 26 dogs were exposed similarly to achieve lung burdens of approximately 1.5 to 12 μCi/kg and assigned for sacrifice at intervals after exposure to define metabolism and dosimetry of this aerosol in Beagle dogs. Of the longevity dogs, 33 dogs having initial lung burdens of 16 to 94 μCi 90 Sr/kg and cumulative doses to lung of 40,000 to 96,000 rads have died from radiation pneumonitis and/or pulmonary fibrosis from 159 to 2373 days after exposure. Thirty-one dogs with initial lung burdens of 3.7 to 36 μCi 90 Sr/kg and cumulative doses to lung of 13,000 to 68,000 rads have died from hemangiosarcomas in the lung or heart between 644 and 2565 days after exposure. In addition, one dog developed a bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, another developed epidermoid carcinoma of the lung, another died of pneumonia while recovering from anesthesia, one dog died at 1821 days after exposure with a hemangiosarcoma of the spleen and two dogs developed squamous cell carcinomas in the nasal cavity. The remaining exposed dogs and controls of the longevity study are surviving at 1022 to 2803 days after exposure

  10. Osteoporotic-like effects of cadmium on bone mineral density and content in aged ovariectomized beagles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacco-Gibson, N.; Abrams, J.; Chaudhry, S.; Hurst, D.; Peterson, D.; Bhattacharyya, M.

    1992-12-31

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in conjunction with cadmium (Cd) exposure on bone. Aged female beagles with {sup 45}Ca-labeled skeletons ovariectomized and exposed to Cd. Successive vertebral scans by dual photon absorptiometry monitored changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in each dog with time. Results showed that ovariectomy or Cd exposure alone caused significant decreases in BMD; ovariectomy with Cd exposure caused the greatest decrease. Ovariectomy alone did not decrease BMD in the distal end or mid-shaft of the tibia while BMD of the distal tibia decreased significantly due to Cd exposure alone. Combination treatment resulted in significant decreases in BMD of both tibial regions. At necropsy, tibiae, humeri, lumbar vertebrae and ribs were obtained for biochemical analysis. No group-to-group differences in bone weights (wet, dry, ash), in ash/dry ratios, or in long bone and vertebral Ca/dry or Ca/ash ratios were observed. Significantly higher total {sup 45}Ca content and {sup 45}Ca/dry and {sup 45}Ca/ash ratios were observed in long bones and vertebrae of OV- and OV+ groups. In contrast, intact ribs showed significantly decreased Ca/dry and Ca/ash ratios compared to the SO-group. Quartered ribs demonstrated regional responses to specific treatment; decreases in total Ca content were greatest in the mid-rib region ({minus}36 to {minus}46%). Results suggest that in the aged female beagle, bone mineral loss associated with estrogen depletion is not only related to bone type (trabecular versus cortical) but also to bone Ca pools. Our results also suggest that a regional heterogeneity of bone plays a role in responsiveness to ovariectomy and Cd exposure. These aspects suggest that Cd is an exogenous factor affecting bone mineral loss independently of estrogen depletion. However, estrogen depletion primes bone for responsiveness to Cd-induced bone mineral loss.

  11. Retention and distribution of 241AmIII in neonatal beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, W.; Atherton, D.R.; Bates, D.; Lloyd, R.D.; Buster, D.S.; Bruenger, F.W.

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of Am in newborn beagles was studied during the first week after birth. Seven litter mates (4 males, 3 females) weighing 250-280 g were injected intravenously with 3.0 μCi 241 AmIII/kg, in citrate buffer, at 1 day of age and sacrificed 1, 3 and 5 days later. At sacrifice, livers, spleens, kidneys, other selected soft tissues and skeletons were analyzed for Am content. Cumulative excretion during the time observed was 6.7% of the injected dose, 5.5% of which occurred during the first day. Skeletal retention ranged from 76% of the injected dose at 1 day to 84% by 5 days. The skeletons of dogs given the same dose of Am at 18 months of age contained 29% of the injected Am at 1 week. The relative distribution of Am within the skeleton was dependent on the state of development of its individual bones and differed considerably from that of the young adult. In neonates, the Am content of the bones of the skull was 3 times that seen in dogs injected as young adults. Initial liver deposition of Am in neonates was only 7%, in contrast to approximately 50% in young adult beagles. The subcellular distribution of Am in liver also differed in the two age groups. In neonates, a greater fraction of the nuclide was associated with soluble proteins of the cytosol, and the increase in the Am content of mitochondria and lysosomes proceeded at a much slower rate than was observed in mature animals. (author)

  12. Relationship of dose rate and total dose to responses of continuously irradiated beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.; Norris, W.P.; Tolle, D.V.; Seed, T.M.; Poole, C.M.; Lombard, L.S.; Doyle, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Young-adult beagles were exposed continuously (22 hours/day) to 60 Co gamma rays in a specially constructed facility. The exposure rates were 5, 19, 17 or 35 R/day, and the exposures were terminated at 600, 1400, 2000 or 4000 R. A total of 354 dogs were irradiated; 221 are still alive as long-term survivors, some after more than 2000 days. The data on survival of these dogs, coupled with data from similar preliminary experiments, allow an estimate of the LD 50 for gamma-ray exposures given at a number of exposure rates. They also allow comparison of the relativeimportance of dose rate and total dose, and the interaction of these two variables, in the early and late effects after protracted irradiation. The LD 50 for the beagle increases from 344 R (258 rads) delivered at 15 R/minute to approximately 4000 R (approximately 3000 rads) at 10 R/day. Over this entire range, the LD 50 is dependent upon haematopoietic damage. At 5 R/day and less, no definitive LD 50 can be determined; there is nearly normal continued haematopoietic function, survival is prolonged, and the dogs manifest varied individual responses in the organ systems. Although the experiment is not complete, interim data allow serveral important conclusions. Terminated exposures, while not as effective as irradiation continued until death, can produce myelogenous leukaemia at the same exposure rate, 10 R/day. More importantly, at the same total accumulated dose, lower exposure rates appear more damaging than higher rates on the basis of the rate and degree of haematological recovery that occurs after termination of irradiation. Thus, the rate of haematologic depression, the nadir of the depression and the rate of recovery are dependent upon exposure rate; the latter is inversely related and the first two are directly related to exposure rate. ( author)

  13. Comparative toxicity of strontium-90 and radium-226 in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raabe, O.G.; Culbertson, M.R.; White, R.G.; Spangler, W.L.; Cain, G.R.; Parks, N.J.; Samuels, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    We are completing a 30-year study of the biological effects of 90 Sr and 226 Ra in the beagle in order to predict the possible long-term hazards to people from chronic exposure to low levels of irradiation. Animals received either radionuclide by several means of administration: (a) continual ingestion of 90 Sr, (b) a single intravenous injection of 90 Sr, or (c) a series of eight intravenous injections of 226 Ra. Although administration of 90 Sr and 226 Ra ended at 540 days of age, the animals continued to receive chronic, low-level radiation doses from these bone-seeking radionuclides throughout life. This project is the largest single cohort study in beagles of internally deposited radionuclides. It is unique in use of the ingestion route for 90 Sr and in exposure that began before birth and continued throughout development to adulthood with uniform labeling of the skeletons with 90 Sr. The last of the dogs died in 1986 at age 18.5 years, but we are continuing to investigate the significance of these long-term exposures given at low dose rates with regard to cancer production, physiologic well-being, and shortening of life through the detailed records that were kept and by study of preserved materials. All the data have been successfully accumulated and entered into a main-frame computer data base management system. Current work is exclusively directed at preparing research papers summarizing the results and the associated biostatistical and survival analyses. 15 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  14. Cambio del uso de la tierra y pérdida de la cobertura boscosa, comunidades agrarias Sechina, La Ensenada y Cerro San Gil, Izabal Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddi Alejandro Vanegas Chacón

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available En Guatemala, pocas temáticas son abordadas con tanta pasión como el acceso a la tierra y sus relaciones de productividad. Ante el juicio histórico y la evidencia de las estadísticas se deslumbra que las políticas agrarias de los últimos cincuenta años, si bien mitigaron la pobreza en el agro rural conllevaron con ellas daños ambientales irreversibles y deudas agrarias millonarias. Se estudió la dinámica del cambio de uso de la tierra y la pérdida de la cobertura boscosa en las comunidades agrarias beneficiadas por la Ley de Transformación Agraria, Sechina, La Ensenada y Cerro San Gil ubicadas en el departamento de Izabal. Se utilizó fotointerpretación y se realizaron estudios semidetallados de la intensidad de la tierra para el periodo 1958 a 2010. Se concluyó que bajo las premisas de “mejora a la tierra” de la Ley de Transformación Agraria ocurrió cambio de uso y cobertura de la tierra, de forestal a agropecuaria, en las comunidades agrarias Sechina 42%, La Ensenada 46,2% y Cerro San Gil 48,6%, donde se promovieron sistemas de aprovechamiento agrícola que conllevaron al sobre-uso de las tierras en 42%, 78% y 30%, respectivamente. Esto sugiere, que la adquisición de la tierra no es el fin, más bien es el medio, para promover desarrollo rural sostenible, a través de acompañamiento técnico agropecuario, monitoreo y evaluación tanto económica como ambiental.

  15. An evaluation of canal curvature at the apical one third in type II mesial canals of mandibular molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Rim Yun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the buccolingual curvature at the apical one third in type II mesial canals of mandibular molars using the radius and angle of curvature. Materials and Methods Total 100 mandibular molars were selected. Following an endodontic access in the teeth, their distal roots were removed. #15 H- or K-files (Dentsply Maillefer were inserted into the mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals of the teeth. Radiographs of the teeth were taken for the proximal view. Among them, type II canals were selected and divided into two subgroups, IIa and IIb. In type IIa, two separate canals merged into one canal before reaching the apex and in type IIb, two separate canals merged into one canal within the apical foramen. The radius and angle of curvature of specimens were examined. Results In type II, mean radius of curvature in mesiolingual and mesiobuccal canals were 2.82 mm and 3.58 mm, respectively. The radius of the curvature of mesiolingual canals were significantly smaller than that of mesiobuccal canals in type II, and especially in type IIa. However, there were no statistically significant differences in radius of curvature between mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals in type IIb and there were no significant differences in angle of curvature between type IIa and IIb. Conclusion In this study, type II mesial canals of mandibular molars showed severe curvature in the proximal view. Especially, mesiolingual canals of type IIa had more abrupt curvature than mesiobuccal canals at the apical one third.

  16. Estudios florísticos y ecológicos sobre las algas de agua dulce de turberas de Tierra del Fuego

    OpenAIRE

    Mataloni, María Gabriela

    1994-01-01

    En esta Tesis Doctoral se realizan diversas investigaciones florísticas y ecológicas sobre las algas de turberas de Sphagnum de la provincia de Tierra Fuego. Para ello se condijeron básicamente dos trabajos. en la primera parte se estudiaron ocho ojos de agua pertenecientes a siete turberas ubicadas en el sur de Tierra del Fuego. En cada una de ellas se muestrearon tanto el fitoplancton del agua libre como las algas que viven asociadas a Sphagnum a lo largo de un gradiente ambiental caracteri...

  17. El acaparamiento de tierras como proceso dinámico. Las estrategias de los actores en contextos de estancamiento económico

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Gras; Daniel M. Cáceres

    2017-01-01

    Este artículo pretende contribuir a la comprensión de los procesos de acaparamiento de tierras. A partir de un análisis realizado en el norte de Córdoba (Argentina), se sugiere que dicho fenómeno: (a) no es lineal, uniforme ni se incrementa de manera sostenida en el tiempo; y (b) no se limita a la concentración de tierras sino que integra recursos estratégicos (financieros, tecnológicos, gerenciales) que convergen en el objetivo más general de acaparamiento de capital. Analizamos una dinámica...

  18. El Límite a la Protección de las Tierras Indígenas de la Ley 19.253

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Salamanca Huenchullán

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aborda el tema del límite a la protección de las tierras indígenas, que como una exigencia del interés nacional introduce en la legislación chilena la Ley Indígena 19.253, en su relación con la expropiación para la construcción de obras públicas, que en virtud de la utilidad pública se construyen sobre estas mismas tierras.

  19. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, F T

    2012-01-31

    Squamous cell carcinoma ofthe anal canal represents 1.5% of all malignancies affectingthe gastrointestinal tract. Over the past 20 years dramatic changes have been seen in both the epidemiological distribution of the disease and in the therapeutic modalities utilised to manage it. CLINICAL MANAGEMENT: Historically abdominoperineal resection had been the treatment of choice with local resection reserved for early stage disease. Work by Nigro et al. has revolutionised how we currently manage carcinoma of the anal canal, demonstrating combined modality chemoradiotherapy as an appropriate alternative to surgical resection with the benefit of preserving sphincter function. Surgery is then reserved for recurrent disease with salvage abdominoperineal resection. This article reviews current literature and highlights the changing therapeutic modalities with selected clinical cases

  20. Cancer of the external auditory canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyrop, Mette; Grøntved, Aksel

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of surgery for cancer of the external auditory canal and relate this to the Pittsburgh staging system used both on squamous cell carcinoma and non-squamous cell carcinoma. DESIGN: Retrospective case series of all patients who had surgery between 1979 and 2000....... Median follow-up was 47 months (range, 2-148 months). Data on age, sex, symptoms, TNM status, histopathological diagnosis, surgery, adjunctive therapy, sequelae, recurrence, and status at follow-up were obtained. SETTING: An ear, nose, and throat department in an ambulatory and hospitalized care center....... PATIENTS: Ten women and 10 men with previously untreated primary cancer. Median age at diagnosis was 67 years (range, 31-87 years). Survival data included 18 patients with at least 2 years of follow-up or recurrence. INTERVENTION: Local canal resection or partial temporal bone resection. MAIN OUTCOME...

  1. The shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal A forma do canal vertebral lombar humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Zarzur

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on the anatomy of the human vertebral column characterizes the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal as triangular. The purpose of the present study was to determine the precise shape of the lumbar vertebral canal. Ten lumbar vertebral columns of adult male cadavers were dissected. Two transverse sections were performed in the third lumbar vertebra. One section was performed at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava, and the other section was performed at the level of the pedicles. The shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the pedicles tends to be oval or circular, whereas the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava is triangular. Thus, the shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal is not exclusively triangular, as reported in the literature. It is related to the level of the transversal section performed on the lumbar vertebra. This finding should be taken into consideration among factors involved in the spread of solutions introduced into the epidural space.A literatura sobre a anatomia da coluna vertebral descreve como sendo triangular o formato do canal vertebral na região lombar. O objetivo deste estudo é determinar a real forma do canal da coluna vertebral lombar.Dez colunas vertebrais de cadáveres de homens adultos foram dissecadas. Dois cortes transversais foram executados na terceira vértebra lombar. Um corte foi feito no nível das bordas inferiores de dois ligamentos amarelos vizinhos e o outro corte foi transversal, no nível dos pedículos. A forma do canal vertebral variou: no nível dos pedículos ela tende a ser oval ou circular e junto às bordas inferiores dos ligamentos amarelos passa a ser triangular. Portanto, a forma do canal vertebral lombar não é somente triangular; ela depende do nível em que se faz o corte transversal da vértebra. Estes achados devem ser levados em consideração entre os fatores envolvidos na difusão das

  2. Meningeal cysts in the sacral canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salatkova, A.; Matejka, J.

    1996-01-01

    Meningeal cysts develop from the meningeal cover, contain liquor, are localised in the spinal canal. Clinical demonstration are different, often with no clinical manifestation, or with manifestation from compression surrounding structures. Meningeal cysts is possible diagnostic imaging with perimyelography, CT and MRI. In the paper it was discussed different feature in the diagnosis meningeal cysts with perimyelography and CT of the spine, position and time of the examination.(authors). 7 figs., 11 refs

  3. Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, O

    2012-02-01

    The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, O

    2009-02-01

    The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head and neck region and highlights the need for biopsy to allow accurate histopathological diagnosis and treatment.

  5. Root canal filling using Resilon: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, D J

    2011-07-01

    Root canal treatment is achieved by chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system followed by filling. The filling material \\'entombs\\' residual bacteria and acts as a barrier which prevents the entrance of oral microorganisms and reinfection of the root canal system through microleakage. However, filling with contemporary root filling materials such as gutta-percha offers limited long-term resistance to microorganisms; as a result other materials such as Resilon have been investigated as alternatives. The aim of this review was to analyse the literature to consider whether Resilon is a suitable root canal filling material. A MEDLINE and Cochrane library search including various keyword searches identified several papers which investigated or discussed Resilon or RealSeal\\/Epiphany. Analysis of the literature demonstrated that the bulk of the literature is in vitro in nature, based largely on leakage-type studies, and demonstrates a wide variety of methodologies with conflicting findings; as a result meaningful conclusions are difficult. Within the limit of these in vitro studies Resilon appears to perform adequately in comparison to gutta-percha, however, as a result of the questionable merit of such studies, it cannot presently be considered an evidence-based alternative to the current gold standard gutta-percha. It is imperative that before Resilon is considered as a replacement material, a better understanding of the physical properties of the resin sealer and the reality of the adhesive \\'monoblock\\' are elucidated. The literature also demonstrates a paucity of quality long-term clinical outcome studies which will need to be addressed before firm conclusions can be reached.

  6. Anal canal plasmacytoma - An uncommon presentation site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, M. I.; Bujor, L.; Grillo, I. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Extramedullary plasmacytomas (EMP) are rare plasma cell tumors that arise outside the bone marrow. They are most often located in the head and neck region, but may also occur in the other locations. The lower gastrointestinal EMP represents less than 5% of all cases, and location in the anal canal is exceedingly rare. Aim: We present an exceedingly rare case of anal canal plasmacytoma, aiming to achieve a better understanding of this rare entity. Methods: We report a case of a 61-year-old man with a bulky mass in the anal canal. The lesion measured about 6 cm and invaded in all layers of the anal canal wall. The biopsy was performed and revealed a round and plasmocitoid cell population with a solid growth pattern and necrosis. The tumoral cells have express CD79a and CD138 with lambda chains. There was no evidence of disease in other locations and these features were consistent with the diagnosis of an extra-osseous plasmacytoma. The patient was submitted to conformal radiotherapy 50.4 Gy total dose, 1.8 Gy per fraction. After 24 months, the patient is asymptomatic and the lesion has completely disappeared. Conclusions: EMP accounts for approximately 3% of plasma cell malignancies. The median age is about 60 years, and the majority of patients are male. The treatment of choice for extramedullary plasmacytoma is radiation therapy in a dosage of about 50 Gy. Patients should be followed-up for life with repeated bone marrow aspiration and protein studies to detect the development of multiple myeloma. (authors)

  7. Epidermoid carcinoma of the external auditory canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonso Rodriguez, Javier; Llerena Suarez, Jose Angel; Campis Cruz, Hipolito Amable

    2009-01-01

    A 43 years-old, urban, male patient assists the consultation of Otolaryngology with a long evolving otorrhea (around two years), receiving several treatments against the external otitis he suffered. With those antecedents and what we found when examining him, we decided to take a sample (biopsy) of the area, diagnosing an epidermoid carcinoma of the left external canal, an infrequent pathology in our settings

  8. Roentgenographic study of the mandibular canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Hyung Kyu

    1980-01-01

    The mandibular canal must be considered carefully during the surgical treatment, especially surgical extraction of the impacted tooth and intraosseous implant, because it contains the important inferior alveolar nerve and vessels. The author investigated the curvature of the mandibular canal and its relation to the mandibular molars and positional relation between the mental foramen and the mandibular premolars in orthopantomogram. The materials consisted of 441 orthopantomograms divided four groups; Group I consisted of 56 males and 44 females from 1 to 6 years of age, Group II consisted of 58 males and 45 females from 7 to 12 years of age, Group III consisted of 65 males and 33 females from 13 to 18 years of age, Group IV consisted of 86 males and 54 females over 19 years of age. The results were as followings; 1. The curvature of mandibular canal was 144.50 .deg. in Group II, 148.11 .deg. in Group III, 147.33 .deg. in Group IV. 2. The curvature of mandibular canal was located most frequently on the area between mandibular 1st molar and mandibular 2nd molar in Group I (42%) and on the mandibular 2nd molar area in Group II (54%), Group III (59%), Group IV (53%). 3. The position of mental foramen was most frequently below the mandibular 1st premolar in Group I (58%), between the mandibular 1st premolar and the 2nd premolar in Group II (62%), Group III (47%), and below the mandibular 2nd premolar in Group IV (58%).

  9. Diagnosis and root canal treatment in a mandibular premolar with three canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Lanuce Rosa; Arruda, Marcos; de Arruda, Marcos Pôrto; Rangel, Andréa Leão; Takano, Edson; de Carvalho Júnior, Jacy Ribeiro; Saquy, Paulo Cesar

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a case report of a left mandibular second premolar with three canals and three different apical foramina. A 39-year-old male patient presented to our clinic with pain in the mandibular left second premolar. Initially, pain was caused by cold stimulus and later was spontaneously. The intraoral clinical examination revealed a fractured amalgam restoration with occlusal caries. Percussion and cold (Endo-Frost) tests were positive. The radiographic examination showed the presence of two roots. The probable diagnosis was an acute pulpitis. After access cavity, it was observed remaining roof of the pulp chamber and mild bleeding in the tooth lingual area, indicating the possible presence of a third canal. The endodontic treatment was completed in a single session using Root ZX apex locator and K3 NiTi rotary system with surgical diameter corresponding to a .02/45 file in the three canals and irrigation with 1% sodium hypochlorite. The canals were obtured with gutta-percha cones and Sealer 26 using the lateral condensation technique. After 1 year of follow-up, the tooth was asymptomatic and periapical repair was observed radiographically. Internal alterations should be considered during the endodontic treatment of mandibular second premolars. The correct diagnosis of these alterations by the analysis of preoperative radiographs can help the location of two or more canals, thereby avoiding root therapy failure.

  10. Semiconductor laser irradiation improves root canal sealing during routine root canal therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xingxue; Wang, Dashan; Cui, Ting; Yao, Ruyong

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of semiconductor laser irradiation on root canal sealing after routine root canal therapy (RCT). Methods Sixty freshly extracted single-rooted human teeth were randomly divided into six groups (n = 10). The anatomic crowns were sectioned at the cementoenamel junction and the remaining roots were prepared endodontically with conventional RCT methods. Groups A and B were irradiated with semiconductor laser at 1W for 20 seconds; Groups C and D were ultrasonically rinsed for 60 seconds as positive control groups; Groups E and F without treatment of root canal prior to RCT as negative control groups. Root canal sealing of Groups A, C and E were evaluated by measurements of apical microleakage. The teeth from Groups B, D and F were sectioned, and the micro-structures were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). One way ANOVA and LSD-t test were used for statistical analysis (α = .05). Results The apical sealing of both the laser irradiated group and the ultrasonic irrigated group were significantly different from the control group (pirrigated group (p>0.5). SEM observation showed that most of the dentinal tubules in the laser irradiation group melted, narrowed or closed, while most of the dentinal tubules in the ultrasonic irrigation group were filled with tooth paste. Conclusion The application of semiconductor laser prior to root canal obturation increases the apical sealing of the roots treated. PMID:28957407

  11. Effects of a tetracycline blended polylactic and polyglycolic acid membrane on the healing of one-wall intrabony defects in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Il-Young; Jung, Ui-Won; Kim, Chang-Sung; Lee, Yong-Keun; Cho, Kyoo-Sung; Chai, Jung-Kiu; Kim, Chong-Kwan; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the regenerative effects of a tetracycline blended polylactic and polyglycolic acid (TC-PLGA) and non-blended polylactic and polyglycolic acid (PLGA) barrier membrane on one-wall intrabony defects in beagle dogs. It can be concluded that when used for guided tissue regeneration TC-PLGA membranes show a beneficial effect on one-wall intrabony defects in beagle dogs

  12. Nodular Fasciitis of External Auditory Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihyun Ahn

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nodular fasciitis is a pseudosarcomatous reactive process composed of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, and it is most common in the upper extremities. Nodular fasciitis of the external auditory canal is rare. To the best of our knowledge, less than 20 cases have been reported to date. We present a case of nodular fasciitis arising in the cartilaginous part of the external auditory canal. A 19-year-old man complained of an auricular mass with pruritus. Computed tomography showed a 1.7 cm sized soft tissue mass in the right external auditory canal, and total excision was performed. Histologic examination revealed spindle or stellate cells proliferation in a fascicular and storiform pattern. Lymphoid cells and erythrocytes were intermixed with tumor cells. The stroma was myxoid to hyalinized with a few microcysts. The tumor cells were immunoreactive for smooth muscle actin, but not for desmin, caldesmon, CD34, S-100, anaplastic lymphoma kinase, and cytokeratin. The patient has been doing well during the 1 year follow-up period.

  13. Evaluación del efecto insecticida de tierra de diatomeas sobre Triatoma infestans (Hemíptera, Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana L Bilbao

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El Triatoma infestans es el principal vector de la enfermedad de Chagas en Argentina. La tierra de diatomeas (TD es un producto natural que se comercializa actualmente con fines insecticidas y que produce la muerte por deshidratación. Se evaluó la eficacia insecticida de TD al 60% de pureza, proveniente del yacimiento La Iglesiana (San Juan, Argentina sobre ninfas V y adultos de T.infestans. Se ensayaron dos dosis: 112,5 g/m2 (T1 y 225 g/m2 (T2, con cuatro réplicas por tratamiento, con cinco ejemplares, incluyendo los controles (TC en el laboratorio. Se contaron los individuos vivos y muertos durante cinco días. No se encontró diferencias en la mortalidad (ANOVA, p>0,05 en los adultos (T1: 40%, T2: 25% y TC: 30% ni en las ninfas V (T1: 10%, T2: 15% y TC: 10%. Se concluye que la tierra de diatomeas del yacimiento La Iglesiana, en las condiciones de laboratorio evaluadas, no posee capacidad insecticida sobre T.infestans.

  14. Crecimiento ganadero y ocupación de tierras públicas, causas de conflictividad en la frontera bonaerense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Enrique Barba

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sin dudas, la forma más visible de violencia practicada en la frontera de Buenos Aires durante los siglos XVIII y XIX fue la guerra entre el blanco y las diferentes parcialidades indígenas. Si bien puede afirmarse en sentido amplio que dicha guerra fue permanente, esta se intensificó en momentos determinados coincidentes con lo que podemos calificar, en rasgos generales, períodos de expansión ganadera. La presente colaboración intenta señalar entonces cuatro momentos en el proceso de expansión ganadera cuyas características generales fueron el aumento de los rebaños y ocupación de nuevas tierras, siendo estos hechos seguidos por la reacción de los indios quienes incrementaron los malones, pequeños en general y eventualmente masivos, en busca de los ganados de todo tipo existentes en las estancias bonaerenses. Los cuatro períodos a estudiar son: 1º a partir de las últimas vaquerías (1718; 2º la formación del virreinato y las nuevas condiciones de comercio; 3º la expansión ganadera a partir de 1810 y la ocupación de tierras más allá del Salado y 4º y el gran crecimiento a partir de Caseros

  15. Plan de manejo sostenible de tierra para la producción de leche en la UBPC Aguadita, Cienfuegos, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eligia de la C Cuellar

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio en la UBPC Aguadita, del municipio Rodas _provincia Cienfuegos, Cuba_, con el objetivo de elaborar un plan de manejo sostenible del suelo para incrementar la producción de leche. Se utilizó la guía contenida en el manual de procedimientos para la implementación del manejo sostenible de tierra. Los pasos de la guía permitieron concebir una investigación no experimental, de tipo correlacional/múltiple, en la que se utilizaron métodos teóricos y prácticos con sus correspondientes técnicas (entrevistas, encuestas, revisión documental, observación directa; y se realizaron mediciones en el lugar, con la aplicación de diez herramientas metodológicas. Se demostró que la baja producción de leche en la UBPC es causada fundamentalmente por la degradación de los suelos, la mala calidad de los pastos y la deficiente gestión del conocimiento, lo que coincide con la principal barrera para la aplicación del manejo sostenible de tierra. A partir de estos resultados se elaboró el plan de manejo sostenible, como herramienta que contribuye a desarrollar acciones que mitiguen el impacto negativo de la degradación de suelos en el rendimiento lechero de la unidad.

  16. Diversity of endosymbiotic Nostoc in Gunnera magellanica from Tierra del Fuego, Chile [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Martínez, M A; de Los Ríos, A; Sancho, L G; Pérez-Ortega, S

    2013-08-01

    Global warming is causing ice retreat in glaciers worldwide, most visibly over the last few decades in some areas of the planet. One of the most affected areas is the region of Tierra del Fuego (southern South America). Vascular plant recolonisation of recently deglaciated areas in this region is initiated by Gunnera magellanica, which forms symbiotic associations with the cyanobacterial genus Nostoc, a trait that likely confers advantages in this colonisation process. This symbiotic association in the genus Gunnera is notable as it represents the only known symbiotic relationship between angiosperms and cyanobacteria. The aim of this work was to study the genetic diversity of the Nostoc symbionts in Gunnera at three different, nested scale levels: specimen, population and region. Three different genomic regions were examined in the study: a fragment of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (16S), the RuBisCO large subunit gene coupled with its promoter sequence and a chaperon-like protein (rbcLX) and the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The identity of Nostoc as the symbiont was confirmed in all the infected rhizome tissue analysed. Strains isolated in the present study were closely related to strains known to form symbioses with other organisms, such as lichen-forming fungi or bryophytes. We found 12 unique haplotypes in the 16S rRNA (small subunit) region analysis, 19 unique haplotypes in the ITS region analysis and 57 in the RuBisCO proteins region (rbcLX). No genetic variability was found among Nostoc symbionts within a single host plant while Nostoc populations among different host plants within a given sampling site revealed major differences. Noteworthy, interpopulation variation was also shown between recently deglaciated soils and more ancient ones, between eastern and western sites and between northern and southern slopes of Cordillera Darwin. The cell structure of the symbiotic relationship was observed with low-temperature scanning

  17. Canal Centring Ability of ProTaper and Mtwo Rotary Systems in Curved Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkaydin Dilek Erbay

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to compare centring ratio of ProTaper and Mtwo rotary systems. 60 mandibular molar teeth which had 25, 30 and 35 degree curvature in mesio-buccal root canal were used. Group 1 had 25°, Group 2 had 30°, and Group 3 had 35° curvatures. The roots were sectioned horizontally at 2 mm away from the apex. The apical region was then observed under a stereo-microscope. In each group, teeth were instrumented using ProTaper and Mtwo systems. After canal preparation, digital images of apical part of canals were taken. These images were then superimposed by using Adobe Photoshop CS2 programme. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and Student’s t-test.

  18. Ranges of diurnal variation and the pattern of body temperature, blood pressure and heart rate in laboratory beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Hiroyasu; Yoshida, Mutsumi; Samura, Keiji; Matsumoto, Hiroyoshi; Ikemoto, Fumihiko; Tagawa, Masahiro

    2002-01-01

    Ranges in diurnal variation and the patterns of body temperature (T), blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and locomotor activity (LA) in 61 laboratory beagle dogs were analyzed using a telemetry system. Body temperature, BP, HR and LA increased remarkably at feeding time. Locomotor activity increased sporadically during the other periods. Body temperature was maintained at the higher value after feeding but had decreased by 0.2 C by early the next morning. Blood pressure fell to a lower value after feeding but had increased by 2.8% by early the next morning. Heart rate decreased progressively after feeding and was 14.5% lower the next morning. This study determined that in laboratory beagles the ranges of diurnal variation and patterns of T, BP and HR are significantly different from those reported in humans and rodents, and that over 24 hr these physiological changes were associated with their sporadic wake-sleep cycles of the dogs.

  19. Environmental pollution and shipping feasibility of the Nicaragua Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jihong; Zeng, Xin; Deng, Yibing

    2016-12-15

    In recent years, the Nicaraguan government's renewed interest in constructing this interoceanic canal has once again aroused widespread concern, particularly in the global shipping industry. The project's immense ecological risks, coupled with the recent expansions of both the Panama Canal and the Suez Canal, have raised questions among scientists and experts about its viability. Whether the Nicaragua Canal is really feasible for international shipping, given its high marine pollution risks, requires the further study. This paper discusses and analyses the feasibility of the Nicaragua Canal in the context of its environmental impact and value as a shipping service. This paper aims to provide an important information reference to inform strategic decision-making among policymakers and stakeholders. Our research results indicate that the environmental complexity, economic costs and safety risks of building a new transoceanic canal are simply too high to justify the project. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Canal of Nuck hernia: a multimodality imaging review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, Mitchell A. [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Squires, James E. [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Gastroenterology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Tadros, Sameh; Squires, Judy H. [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Canal of Nuck abnormalities are a rare but important cause of morbidity in girls, most often those younger than 5 years of age. The canal of Nuck, which is the female equivalent of the male processus vaginalis, is a protrusion of parietal peritoneum that extends through the inguinal canal and terminates in the labia majora. The canal typically obliterates early in life, but in some cases the canal can partially or completely fail to close, potentially resulting in a hydrocele or hernia of pelvic contents. Recognition of this entity is especially important in cases of ovarian hernia due to the risk of incarceration and torsion. We aim to increase awareness of this condition by reviewing the embryology, anatomy and diagnosis of canal of Nuck disorders with imaging findings on US, CT and MRI using several cases from a single institution. (orig.)

  1. Canal of Nuck hernia: a multimodality imaging review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, Mitchell A.; Squires, James E.; Tadros, Sameh; Squires, Judy H.

    2017-01-01

    Canal of Nuck abnormalities are a rare but important cause of morbidity in girls, most often those younger than 5 years of age. The canal of Nuck, which is the female equivalent of the male processus vaginalis, is a protrusion of parietal peritoneum that extends through the inguinal canal and terminates in the labia majora. The canal typically obliterates early in life, but in some cases the canal can partially or completely fail to close, potentially resulting in a hydrocele or hernia of pelvic contents. Recognition of this entity is especially important in cases of ovarian hernia due to the risk of incarceration and torsion. We aim to increase awareness of this condition by reviewing the embryology, anatomy and diagnosis of canal of Nuck disorders with imaging findings on US, CT and MRI using several cases from a single institution. (orig.)

  2. Checklist of the Discomycetes (Fungi of Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego and adjacent antarctic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma J. Gamundí

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La información brindada en este catálogo consiste en registrar las especies de hongos pertenecientes a los órdenes Cyttariales, Helotiales, Ostropales, Pezizales, Rhytismatales y Thelebolales (Discomycetes coleccionadas en Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego y áreas adyacentes antárticas (Patagonia. Además datos sobre sus organismos asociados fueron localizados, resumidos, validados y editados. Las fuentes de información fueron las exsiccatae depositadas en colecciones de Argentina y otros países y de las publicaciones listadas en la bibliografía. Otros registros derivaron de observaciones de campo sobre material fresco y colecciones de referencia. La información fue acumulada en un sistema computarizado relacional de datos taxonómicos, nomenclaturales, bibliográficos, de distribución geográfica y de observaciones biológicas. Este sistema permite la acumulación de datos paralelos en diferentes idiomas, y distingue la información original de la opinión corriente de lo que puede significar esa información. En la Biological Records Database, 5029 registros fueron creados para observaciones sobre la ocurrencia temporal y espacial de los organismos vivos de la región. De éstos, 2613 corresponden a registros de colecciones de Discomycetes de la Patagonia y Tierra del Fuego, con la siguiente distribución: 1854 para a la Argentina, 687 para Chile y 72 para áreas adyacentes antárticas. Excluyendo los sinónimos, los Discomycetes están representados por 361 especies y taxones subespecíficos (160 géneros, 22 familias y 7 órdenes. Los registros remanentes fueron de organismos asociados con los Discomycetes: 163 animales (8 especies, 8 géneros, 6 familias y 5 órdenes; 2 Chromista; 223 hongos (52 especies, 54 géneros, 26 familias y 13 ódenes; 2028 plantas (159 especies, 122 géneros, 59 familias y 39 órdenes. Cada uno de estos taxones (y cada sinónimo conocido está representado por un registro separado en la Base de Datos Taxon

  3. Modelo para evaluar la calidad de las tierras: caso del cultivo de papa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Luis Joel

    2006-06-01

    Hidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Emphasis" />

    Dentro de la busqueda de la sostenibilidad y la competitividad de la agricultura, la evaluacion de la calidad de las tierras es un aspecto basico que permite tomar decisiones sobre  las areas mas apropiadas para ubicar los cultivos y sobre los procesos de degradación de las tierras, con el fin de tomar medidas para su manejo y conservacion. En esta investigacion se

  4. NMR imaging of the vertebral column and the spinal canal. 2. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsting, Michael; Uhlenbrock, Detlev; Wanke, Isabel; Universitaetsklinikum Essen

    2009-01-01

    The book on the MRT (magnetic resonance tomography) of the vertebral cord and spinal canal covers the following topics: physics fundamentals and application; malformation of the spinal canal; degenerative vertebral column diseases; vertebral column and spinal canal carcinomas; inflammatory diseases of the vertebral column and the spinal canal; applicability of MRT in case of acute spinal cord traumata; vascular diseases of the spinal canal

  5. Studies on separation and pharmacokinetics of m-nisoldipine enantiomers in beagle dog plasma by LC/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Yuan, Lin; Li, Xiuqing; Zhi, Xuran; Sheng, Ning; Zhang, Lantong

    2013-11-01

    A rapid, sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC/MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the separation and determination of m-nisoldipine enantiomers in beagle dog plasma. Samples were pretreated by a single-step protein precipitation with acetonitrile. After m-nisoldipine racemic administration to beagle dogs, samples of m-nisoldipine enantiomers in beagle dog plasma were separated and determined on a ULTRON ES-OVM column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) at 20°C with a mobile phase consisted of methanol-acetonitrile-ammonium acetate (pH 7.0; 2mM) (15:15:70, v/v/v) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Chromatograms were monitored at 237 nm, and the API 4000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) scan mode using ElectroSpray ionization (ESI) source. The good linearity (rs=0.9958 and rr=0.9983) were found in the range 0.25-20 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) obtained was 0.25 ng/mL (n=6). All the validation data, such as accuracy, precision, intra-day and inter-day repeatability, were within the required limits. The method was successfully applied to separation and pharmacokinetics of m-nisoldipine enantiomers in beagle dog plasma. The result of statistics analysis shows that there are no significant differences between R-(-)-m-nisoldipine and S-(+)-m-nisoldipine (p>0.05). The study provides necessary evidences for the research and new drug development of m-nisoldipine enantiomers. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of the internal auditory canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, D.L.; Herfkins, R.; Koehler, P.R.; Millen, S.J.; Shaffer, K.A.; Williams, A.L.; Haughton, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    Three patients with exclusively or predominantly intracanalicular neuromas and 5 with presumably normal internal auditory canals were examined with prototype 1.4- or 1.5-tesla magnetic resonance (MR) scanners. MR images showed the 7th and 8th cranial nerves in the internal auditory canal. The intracanalicular neuromas had larger diameter and slightly greater signal strength than the nerves. Early results suggest that minimal enlargement of the nerves can be detected even in the internal auditory canal

  7. CT of the external auditory canal: Correlation with clinical otoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, L.; Hawke, M.; Leekam, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    CT is the modality of choice in the assessment of external auditory canal abnormalities. Disorders of the complex structures within the ear that may be difficult to define clinically are well visualized on high-resolution CT. This exhibit illustrates various external auditory canal abnormalities and correlates these with color illustrations from clinical otoscopy. Congenital lesions of the external auditory canal - microtia, temporo-bandibular joint herniation, and fistulas - and various acquired lesions - traumatic, inflammatory, and neoplastic - are reviewed in this exhibit

  8. Computed tomography imaging for superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobeli, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Superior semicircular canal dehiscence is a newly described syndrome of sound and/or pressure induced vertigo. Computed tomography (CT) imaging plays an important role in confirmation of a defect in the bone overlying the canal. A high resolution CT technique utilising 0.5 mm or thinner slices and multi-planar reconstructions parallel to the superior semicircular canal is required. Placement of a histogram over a suspected defect can assist CT diagnosis

  9. Optimizing the chemical aspect of root canal irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    de Macedo, R.G.

    2013-01-01

    Root canal treatment is aimed at the removal of inflamed and infected tissue present in the root canal system. It will prevent the entrance of new microorganisms or nutrients in order to maintain or create a healthy environment around the root. There is sufficient evidence that shows that traditional endodontic therapy cannot make the root canal system completely free of bacteria. Moreover, it may not always result in complete healing of apical periodontitis, highlighting the need of optimizi...

  10. ROOT CANAL IRRIGANTS AND IRRIGATION TECHNIQUES: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Aniketh; Mohamed; Geeta; Nandakishore; Gourav Kumar; Patrick Timothy; Jayson Mathew; Sahle Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Root canal irrigation is not much emphasised in endodontic therapy. Most articles discussed are on root canal shaping and obturation not much emphasis is given for irrigation. There are many irrigation solutions which are introduced into market. The primary objective of root canal therapy is the ret ention of the pulpless or pulpally involved tooth with its associated periapical tissues in a healthy state. Achievement of this objective requires that the pulpal spaces and con...

  11. SCADA system with predictive controller applied to irrigation canals

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, João; Botto, Miguel; Rijo, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    This paper applies a model predictive controller (MPC) to an automatic water canal with sensors and actuators controlled by a network (programmable logic controller), and supervised by a SCADA system (supervisory control and a data acquisition). This canal is composed by a set of distributed sub-systems that control the water level in each canal pool, constrained by discharge gates (control variables) and water off-takes (disturbances). All local controllers are available through an industria...

  12. Three root canals in the maxillary second premolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Almeida-Gomes Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report an endodontic treatment of the maxillary second premolar with three root canals and distinct foramens. The possibility of three root canals in this tooth is quite small; however, it must be taken into account in clinical and radiographic evaluation during endodontic treatment. Many times, their presence is noticed only after canal treatment due to continuing post-operative discomfort.

  13. [Impact of different degree pulpitis on cell proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of dental pulp stem cell in Beagle immature premolars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, L; Zhao, Y M; Ge, L H

    2016-10-18

    To compare the proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of dental pulp stem cell (DPSC) isolated from normal and inflamed pulps of different degrees in Beagle immature premolars, and provide evidence for the use of inflammatory DPSC (IDPSC). This study evaluated 14 Beagle's young premolars (21 roots). In the experiment group, irreversible pulpitis was induced by pulp exposure and the inflamed pulps were extracted 2 weeks and 6 weeks after the pulp chamber opening.For the control group, normal pulps were extracted immediately after the exposure. HE staining and real-time PCR were performed to confirm the inflammation. The cells were isolated from the inflamed and normal pulps (IDPSC and DPSC). Cell proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation potentials of the two cells were compared. Inflammation cells infiltration was observed in the inflamed pulps by HE staining. The expression of inflammatory factor was much higher in the 6 week inflamed pulp. IDPSC had higher potential of cell proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation potentials. Furthermore, the osteoblastic differentiation potentials of IDPSC from 2 week inflamed pulp were higher than those from 6 week inflamed pulp. The potential of cell proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of DPSC was enhanced at early stage of irreversible pulpitis, and reduced at late stage in Beagle immature premolars.

  14. Use of linear model analysis techniques in the evaluation of radiation effects on the life span of the beagle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angleton, G.M.; Lee, A.C.; Benjamin, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    The dependency of the beagle-dog life span on level of and age at exposure to 60 Co gamma radiation was analyzed by several techniques; one of these methods was linear model analysis. Beagles of both sexes were given single, bilateral exposures at 8, 28, or 55 days postcoitus (dpc) or at 2, 70, or 365 days postpartum (dpp). Dogs exposed at 8, 28, or 55 dpc or at 2 dpp received 0, 20, or 100 R, whereas those exposed at 70 or 365 dpp received 0 or 100 R. Beagles were designated initially either as sacrifice or as life-span animals. All deaths of life-span study animals were classified as spontaneous, hence for this group the mean age of death was a quantitative response that can be analyzed by linear model analysis techniques. Such analyses for each age group were performed, taking into account differences due to sex, linear and quadratic dependency on dose, and interaction between sex and dose. At this time most of the animals have reached 11 years of age. No significant effects of radiation on mean life span have been detected. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Environmental pollution and shipping feasibility of the Nicaragua Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jihong; Zeng, Xin; Deng, Yibing

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the Nicaraguan government's renewed interest in constructing this interoceanic canal has once again aroused widespread concern, particularly in the global shipping industry. The project's immense ecological risks, coupled with the recent expansions of both the Panama Canal and the Suez Canal, have raised questions among scientists and experts about its viability. Whether the Nicaragua Canal is really feasible for international shipping, given its high marine pollution risks, requires the further study. This paper discusses and analyses the feasibility of the Nicaragua Canal in the context of its environmental impact and value as a shipping service. This paper aims to provide an important information reference to inform strategic decision-making among policymakers and stakeholders. Our research results indicate that the environmental complexity, economic costs and safety risks of building a new transoceanic canal are simply too high to justify the project. - Highlights: • The Nicaragua Canal is a long-standing controversial maritime project. • We develop specific analysis of the high environmental pollution risks of the canal. • The shipping service feasibility of the canal is faced with great uncertainty. • The government and stakeholders are suggested to be discreet to the mega project.

  16. Management of Acquired Atresia of the External Auditory Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajin, Münir Demir; Yılmaz, Taner; Günaydın, Rıza Önder; Kuşçu, Oğuz; Sözen, Tevfik; Jafarov, Shamkal

    2015-08-01

    The aim was to evaluate surgical techniques and their relationship to postoperative success rate and hearing outcomes in acquired atresia of the external auditory canal. In this article, 24 patients with acquired atresia of the external auditory canal were retrospectively evaluated regarding their canal status, hearing, and postoperative success. Acquired stenosis occurs more commonly in males with a male: female ratio of 2-3:1; it seems to be a disorder affecting young adults. Previous ear surgery (13 patients, 54.2%) and external ear trauma (11 patients, 45.8%) were the main etiological factors of acquired ear canal stenosis. Mastoidectomy (12/13) and traffic accidents (8/11) comprise the majority of these etiological factors. Endaural incision is performed in 79.2% and postauricular incision for 20.8% of cases during the operation. As types of surgical approach, transcanal (70.8%), transmastoid (20.8%), and combined (8.4%) approaches are chosen. The atretic plate is generally located at the bony-cartilaginous junction (37.5%) and in the cartilaginous canal (33.3%); the bony canal is involved in a few cases only. Preserved healthy canal skin, split- or full-thickness skin grafts, or pre- or postauricular skin flaps are used to line the ear canal, but preserved healthy canal skin is preferred. The results of surgery are generally satisfactory, and complications are few if surgical principles are followed.

  17. Cumulative damage effect of 32P-colloidal chromic phosphate interstitial delivery on beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Qi; Liu Lu; Liu Zhiyong; Huang Peilin; Lan Xinghao; Gao Hailin; Wu Qinghua; Sun Jin; Huang Ying

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the possibility and safety of 3 '2P-colloidal chromic phosphate interstitial injection.Methods: Ten Beagle dogs were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 2) according to different doses (185 and 370 MBq), different sites (gluteus maximus and liver) and cold colloid as a control group. At different time-points after surgery, the weights of dogs were measured, and the blood and blood biochemical inspections were examined. ECT imaging was performed and histomorphology was observed dynamically. The radioactive counts of body surface for 90 days, blood for 12 weeks and urine and feces for 30 days were measured continuously. Measured data were expressed by mean ± standard error ((x-bar) ± s) and SPSS 13.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: ECT imaging demonstrated that the whole liver imaging was obtained although the radioactive distribution was uneven in liver groups, and the radioactivity concentrated continuously in the area of injection, but no liver imaging in muscle groups. Dogs in group 4 lost weight progressively and reduced by 2.7 kg till 45 d after operation. While the mean weight increments in the other groups were 3.0, 1.6, 0.8 and 3.1 kg in order. In group 4, PLT and RBC reduced obviously. Dogs died at 23 or 45 d.AST and ALT were elevated sharply before death. In the other groups, blood and blood biochemistry inspection showed there were no significant statistical differences. The highest radioactive counts after operation were obtained from the injection spot, while the urinary bladder and the spleen were followed. The peak of blood cpm in liver groups presented at 5 min.Peak values were 0.5 x 10 7 /min and 1.0 x 10 7 /min, respectively. The blood cpm in the muscle groups was always maintained at 3 x l0 5 /min. Histology study showed the hyperemia dropsy changes in muscle groups and 185 MBq liver group in 4 weeks, while after 8 weeks the organizational structure restored normally. There were partial liver cells

  18. Expansión estatal, política de tierras y desarrollo de la repartición topográfica en Buenos Aires, siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Araceli D'Agostino

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aborda la política de tierras del Estado provincial bonaerensey su relación con el proceso de conformación de la repartición topográfi ca,tomando como punto de partida el contexto de expansión territorial y deincorporación de tierras a la economía provincial abierto luego de la rupturadel vínculo colonial. Se considera que la centralidad de la problemática dela tierra en este contexto impulsó la temprana organización de la reparticióndestinada a: realizar las tareas de reconocimiento, mensura y delimitación delos territorios de dominio público y privado, elaborar un catastro territorial,controlar el traspaso de tierras públicas a particulares, perfeccionar el trazadode pueblos y ejidos y regular las actividades de los agentes encargados de lasmismas, entre otras.

  19. Organización territorial y distribución de la tierra en la comunidad de San Felipe Otlaltepec, Puebla, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús García Maceda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available San Felipe Otlaltepec, una comunidad indígena Popoloca del estado de Puebla, organiza su territorio en secciones, una unidad territorial colonial. Esta organización es la base de la apropiación del territorio urbano y de las tierras agrícolas. Con entrevistas y fotografías aéreas, se construyó un modelo de la conformación original y actual de las viviendas de las secciones y de la apropiación de la tierra, para su comparación. Actualmente, se observa una mezcla de viviendas de diferentes secciones, que no corresponde al arreglo original de las mismas. Situación similar se observó en la distribución de las tierras agrícolas. Estos cambios se deben principalmente a casamientos entre miembros de diferentes secciones, los cuales cambian la posesión de la tierra y la pertenencia a una sección determinada. A pesar de la mezcla de viviendas de diferentes secciones, los entrevistados manifestaron un sentido profundo de pertenencia a la sección a la que pertenecen formalmente.

  20. Mandibular second premolar with three canals: Re-treatment of a case with unusual root canal anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjan Desai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A thorough knowledge of root canal anatomy along with the anatomical variations that may be present is essential for success of endodontic therapy. Unusual presentations in the number of the roots or the canals should be expected in every tooth. Mandibular second premolars are thought of as having a single root and canal. Studies have stated that the prevalence of three canals with three orifices in this tooth is 0.4%. The mandibular second premolar is particularly difficult to treat owing to the fact that a wide variation in the number, location and curvature of the roots and canals exist. Added to this is the fact that the access opening is restricted and location of the lingually placed orifices is difficult. This case report details the re-treatment of a mandibular second premolar with three canals and three separate orifices using the surgical microscope.

  1. Regulación en el uso de la tierra con fines preventivos en los alrededores del cuadrante de la antigua comunidad de Cinchona, Alajuela, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esquivel Valverde, Lidier

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La regulación del uso de la tierra permite establecer cuales lugares son aptas para el establecimiento de zonas habitacionales, comercios, industria, actividades agrícolas, actividades turísticas, entre otras, evitando incrementar la vulnerabilidad física o ambiental. El presente artículo se basa en un estudio realizado a la comunidad de Cinchona a raíz del sismo del año 2009, el cual, por las características topográficas y geológicas de la región, generó una cantidad alta de daños a la infraestructura y pérdida de vidas humanas, lo que propició la elaboración de una herramienta técnica normativa que regulara el uso de la tierra en esa zona. La investigación consideró aspectos como el uso de la tierra antes del sismo, tenencia de la tierra, producción agropecuaria, valor de la tierra, pendientes de terreno, geomorfología, capacidad de uso de la tierra, aguas subterráneas, zonas de vida y áreas silvestres y por último las amenazas más relevantes. Como resultado del estudio se presenta en el artículo un resumen de la regulación de tierra propuesta, la cual comprende el sector de Vieja Cinchona (zona devastada por el sismo y las microcuencas cercanas Land use regulations allow to identify suitable places to establish housing, commerce, industry, agricultural activities, and tourism, among others, avoiding to increase physical or environmental vulnerability. This article is based on a study developed at the Cinchona community after the 2009 earthquake, which due to the topographic and geological characteristics generated a lot of damages to infrastructures and losses of human lives. In this context, a normative technical tool was developed to regulate the land use in the zone. The investigation considered aspects such as land use before the earthquake, land possession, farming production, land value, land slopes, geomorphology, land use capacity, underground water, wild life areas and most relevant threats. As a result of

  2. Historia y memoria campesina: silencios y representaciones sobre la lucha por la tierra y la represión en Ongoy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Chati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo sostiene que hay espacios sociales en Perú donde se producen memorias alternativas sobre la violencia política que tuvo lugar entre 1980 y 2000. En Andahuaylas, Apurímac, las narrativas recurrentes hablan acerca de la servidumbre en la hacienda, de la movilización campesina por la restitución de sus tierras, la ocupación de tierras y sobre su violenta represión. Existe esta memoria victoriosa respecto de la ocupación de la tierra, al lado de una memoria de victimización respecto de la guerra interna. Sin embargo, esas representaciones han sido silenciadas a través de estudios oficiales sobre la memoria, que están tan de moda. En Ongoy, Andahuaylas, bajo la apariencia de un conflicto entre las comunidades y hacienda, se encuentran prácticas políticas campesinas en relación con el Estado. Los campesinos desarrollan redes con las instituciones del Estado, sindicatos, estudiantes, inmigrantes, partidos políticos y otros en busca de la restitución de sus tierras. Reúnen documentos que utilizan como apoyo de su memoria y de su precedencia en el territorio. Ellos muestran que la lucha por la tierra que relativamente termina en 1963 con la ocupación de la tierra, la masacre de los campesinos y la represión, tiene orígenes coloniales. Son historias y recuerdos que reconstruyen la lucha por la tierra como un acto heroico y se superponen con otras representaciones más recientes de la violencia política. Para analizar el proceso, reconstruyo lo ocurrido en Ongoy entre 1960 y 1969 en diálogo con los documentos que los campesinos reunieron y con los testimonios de los actores sobre la forma en que se da una lectura posterior a la violencia política.

  3. Toxicity of inhaled 90Sr fused clay particles in beagle dogs. V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.; Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Hobbs, C.H.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry, and biological effects of 90 Sr in fused clay particles in Beagle dogs have continued with a view toward defining the biological consequences of inhaling this important radionuclide in a relatively insoluble form. Seventy-two dogs were exposed to a polydisperse aerosol (AMAD 1.4 to 2.8 μm and sigma/sub g/ 1.4 to 2.7) of fused montmorillonite clay particles labeled with 90 Sr to achieve graded initial lung burdens (ILB) of 3.7 to 94 μCi/kg body weight; 12 control dogs were exposed to an aerosol of stable strontium in fused clay particles. These 84 dogs were assigned to the 90 Sr fused clay longevity study. An additional 26 dogs were exposed similarly (AMAD 1.9 to 2.5 μm and sigma/sub g/ 1.6 to 2.0) and assigned for sacrifice (Series II) at intervals after exposure to define metabolism and dosimetry of this aerosol in Beagle dogs. Of the 72 longevity dogs, 32 dogs having ILBs of 29 to 94 μCi/kg and cumulative doses to lung to death of 40,000 to 96,000 rads have died from radiation pneumonitis and/or pulmonary fibrosis from 159 to 477 days post-exposure. Fourteen dogs with ILBs of 15 to 36 μCi/kg and cumulative doses to lung to death of 34,000 to 68,000 rads have died from primary pulmonary hemangiosarcomas between 644 and 1214 days post-exposure. In addition, one dog developed a bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma, another epidermoid carcinoma of the lung and a third, a squamous cell carcinoma in the nasal cavity. The remaining 26 exposed dogs and 12 controls of the longevity study are surviving at 1070 to 1707 days post-exposure. Dogs in the sacrifice series have been sacrificed to 1536 days post-exposure. (U.S.)

  4. Bone sarcoma induction by {sup 224}Ra in Beagles: An interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, C W [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Taylor, G N; Lloyd, R D; Bruenger, F W; Angus, W [Radiobiology Division, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1988-12-01

    During 1963-1968, 20 young adult Beagle dogs were given a single intravenous injection of {sup 224}Ra that was unintentionally contaminated with {sup 210}Pb and {sup 228}Th. All of these dogs have died, eight with bone sarcomas. In addition, 128 Beagle dogs were given purified {sup 224}Ra in one, ten or fifty weekly injections during 1977-1979. The acute lethal dosage (LD{sub 50}) for a single injection was about 400 kBq {sup 224}Ra/kg (11 {mu}Ci {sup 224}Ra/kg). As of September 14, 1987, at the highest skeletal dose of 3 Gy from purified {sup 224}Ra, bone sarcomas occurred in 5 of 6 dogs at an average {+-} SD of 2069 {+-} 302 days after the start of injections (no survivors), in 4 of 6 dogs at 2485 {+-} 1,110 days after the start of 10 injections (healthy survivor) and in 1 of 8 dogs at 3066 days after a single injection (3 healthy survivors). At 3 Gy the toxicity of {sup 224}Ra relative to {sup 239}Pu, based on the ratio of skeletal doses at equal tumor appearance times, was 1.0 for 50 injections of {sup 224}Ra, 0.7 for 10 injections, and 0.4 for one injection. In contrast, the effectiveness per Gy of a {sup 224}Ra-equivalent dose from a single injection of {sup 224}Ra contaminated with {sup 228}Th and {sup 210}Pb was equal to that from {sup 239}Pu, assuming that the {sup 224}Ra-equivalent dose equaled the {sup 224}Ra dose plus the {sup 228}Th dose pus 0.1 of the {sup 210}Pb dose. A possible explanation is that protracted irradiation from the 1.91-yr half-life {sup 228}Th and the 22.3-yr half-life {sup 210}Pb may have 'activated' residual damage from the short-lived, 3.62 day half-life {sup 224}Ra, possibly by stimulating the division of damaged stem cells to replace the bone cells killed by the protracted alpha particle irradiation. An important spin off from the study is experimental support for the assumption that the bone sarcoma effectiveness for {sup 210}Pb is similar to that from long-lived, 1600 yr half-life {sup 226}Ra. (author)

  5. Bone sarcoma induction by 224Ra in Beagles: An interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, C.W.; Taylor, G.N.; Lloyd, R.D.; Bruenger, F.W.; Angus, W.

    1988-01-01

    During 1963-1968, 20 young adult Beagle dogs were given a single intravenous injection of 224 Ra that was unintentionally contaminated with 210 Pb and 228 Th. All of these dogs have died, eight with bone sarcomas. In addition, 128 Beagle dogs were given purified 224 Ra in one, ten or fifty weekly injections during 1977-1979. The acute lethal dosage (LD 50 ) for a single injection was about 400 kBq 224 Ra/kg (11 μCi 224 Ra/kg). As of September 14, 1987, at the highest skeletal dose of 3 Gy from purified 224 Ra, bone sarcomas occurred in 5 of 6 dogs at an average ± SD of 2069 ± 302 days after the start of injections (no survivors), in 4 of 6 dogs at 2485 ± 1,110 days after the start of 10 injections (healthy survivor) and in 1 of 8 dogs at 3066 days after a single injection (3 healthy survivors). At 3 Gy the toxicity of 224 Ra relative to 239 Pu, based on the ratio of skeletal doses at equal tumor appearance times, was 1.0 for 50 injections of 224 Ra, 0.7 for 10 injections, and 0.4 for one injection. In contrast, the effectiveness per Gy of a 224 Ra-equivalent dose from a single injection of 224 Ra contaminated with 228 Th and 210 Pb was equal to that from 239 Pu, assuming that the 224 Ra-equivalent dose equaled the 224 Ra dose plus the 228 Th dose pus 0.1 of the 210 Pb dose. A possible explanation is that protracted irradiation from the 1.91-yr half-life 228 Th and the 22.3-yr half-life 210 Pb may have 'activated' residual damage from the short-lived, 3.62 day half-life 224 Ra, possibly by stimulating the division of damaged stem cells to replace the bone cells killed by the protracted alpha particle irradiation. An important spin off from the study is experimental support for the assumption that the bone sarcoma effectiveness for 210 Pb is similar to that from long-lived, 1600 yr half-life 226 Ra. (author)

  6. Teacher's Guide to Canal. The Middlesex Canal: A Role Playing Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Cary W.; Tedesco, Paul H.

    The document consists of a role-playing game and related teacher's guide designed to illustrate decision-making processes leading to the building of the Middlesex Canal in Massachusetts in 1793. The primary educational objective is to involve students in the decision-making process through role play. The game is designed to facilitate…

  7. Impact of canal water shortages on groundwater in the Lower Bari Doab Canal system in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakir, A.S.; Rehman, H.U.; Khan, N.M.; Qazi, A.U.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents rigorous analysis of shortage of canal water supplies, crop water requirements, and groundwater use and its quality in the command of Lower Bari Doab Canal, Pakistan. The annual canal water supplies are 36% less than the crop water requirements. This shortage further increases to 56% if actual canal supplies (averaged over last ten years) are compared with the crop water requirement. The groundwater levels are depleting at the rate of 30 to 40 cm per year in most parts of the LBDC command and this tendency of lowering may increase in future due to further increase in crop water requirements. The analysis of data for the last seven years indicate that quality of groundwater in most parts of LBDC command is generally good (64% of the area) or marginally acceptable (28%) for irrigation use. However, declining trends in groundwater quality are visible and can create long term sustain ability problems if proper remedial actions are not taken well in time. (author)

  8. Large blastholes in coal mining, canal effects. Barrenos largos en la mineria del carbon, efecto canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muniz Hevia, E.; Legorburu Zuazva, V.; Blanco Gonzalez, R. (Union Explosivos Rio Tinto SA, Madrid (Spain))

    1988-01-01

    The 'canal effect' has been known for a long time. It appears only in underground workings. It may be said that the coal industry has suffered from it less than other sectors, perhaps because of its rigorous safety legislation. The Spanish coal mining industry has now been without this phenomenon for many years. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  9. The enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal: a new CT finding of facial nerve canal fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Ruozhen; Li Yuhua; Gong Wuxian; Wu Lebin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the value of enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal in the diagnosis of facial nerve canal fracture. Methods: Thirty patients with facial nerve canal fracture underwent axial and coronal CT scan. The correlation between the fracture and the enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was analyzed. The ability of showing the fracture and enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal in axial and coronal imaging were compared. Results: Fracture of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was found in the operation in 30 patients, while the fracture was detected in CT in 18 patients. Enlargement of geniculate ganglion of facial nerve was detected in 30 patients in the operation, while the enlargement of fossa was found in CT in 28 cases. Enlargement and fracture of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal were both detected in CT images in 18 patients. Only the enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was shown in 12 patients in CT. Conclusion: Enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was a useful finding in the diagnosis of fracture of geniculate fossa in patients with facial paralysis, even no fracture line was shown on CT images. (authors)

  10. Three distal root canals in mandibular first molar with different canal configurations: Report of two cases and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing number of reports of aberrant root canal morphology, the clinician needs to be aware of the variable anatomy. Various case reports have been published with the finding of middle mesial canal in mandibular first molar, however finding of three distal canals in distal roots of mandibular first molar is rare. This article reports endodontic management of two mandibular first molars presented with three distal canals present in a single distal root (Sert and Bayirli type XVIII and distal and distolingual root.

  11. Evaluación de la tasa de infiltración en tierras agrícolas, forestales y de pastoreo en la subcuenca del río Shullcas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Carlos Gómez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar y determinar el uso del suelo con mayor tasa de infiltración en la subcuenca del río Shullcas en Huancayo. Métodos: Se desarrolló una investigación básica con diseño correlacional. Los usos actuales de la tierra fueron identificadas y demarcadas, según la normativa peruana de clasificación de tierras por su capacidad de uso mayor; en estas zonas se seleccionó 31 puntos de muestreo al azar usando las herramientas de software ArcGIS, en los que se midieron la infiltración empleando infiltrómetros de doble anillo, se registraron los tipos de cobertura vegetal y se tomaron muestras de suelo para analizar sus contenidos de arcilla, arena, limo y humedad; asimismo densidad aparente y porosidad en laboratorio. Resultados: Las tasas de infiltración promedio, según el tipo de uso de tierras, fueron: 14,04 cm/h para las tierras forestales; 12,42 cm/h para las tierras agrícolas y 2,07 cm/h para las tierras de pastoreo; además, solo el 12,63% de la subcuenca del río Shullcas tiene infiltración mayor a 0,2 cm/h. Conclusiones: No existe diferencia estadística significativa entre la tasa de infiltración de tierras forestales y agrícolas, pero si existe diferencias de la tasa de infiltración de tierras forestales y agrícolas respecto a la tasa de infiltración de tierras de pastoreo.

  12. Is the beagle dog an appropriate experimental animal for extrapolating data to humans on organ distribution patterns of U, Th, and Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.P.; Wrenn, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    Concentrations and organ distribution patterns of alpha-emitting isotopes of U (238U and 234U), Th (232Th, 230Th, and 228Th), and Pu (239,240Pu) were determined for beagle dogs of our colony. The dogs were exposed to environmental levels of U and Th isotopes through ingestion (food and water) and inhalation to stimulate environmental exposures of the general human population. The organ distribution patterns of these radionuclides in beagles are compared to patterns in humans to determine if it is appropriate to extrapolate organ content data from beagles to humans. The results indicated that approximately 80% of the U and Th accumulated in bone in both species. The organ content percentages of these radionuclides in soft tissues such as liver, kidney, etc. of both species were comparable. The human lung contained higher percentages of U and Th than the beagle lung, perhaps because the longer life span of humans resulted in a longer exposure time. If the U and Th content of dog lung is normalized to an exposure time of 58 y and 63 y, median ages of the U and Th study populations, respectively, the lung content for both species is comparable. The organ content of 239,240Pu in humans and beagles differed slightly. In the beagle, the liver contained more than 60%, and the skeleton contained less than 40% of the Pu body content. In humans, the liver contained approximately 37%, and the skeleton contained approximately 58% of the body content. This difference may have been due to differences in the mode of intake of Pu in each species or to differences in the chemical form of Pu. In general, the results suggest that the beagle may be an appropriate experimental animal from which to extrapolate data to humans with reference to the percentage of U, Th, and Pu found in the organs

  13. El movimiento de los trabajadores rurales sin tierra y la reforma agraria en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo FERNÁNDEZ FRANCO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este artículo, es un primer avance, de carácter exploratorio, de una investigación más amplia que el autor está llevando a cabo sobre el mismo tema. Centrado en el "Movimiento de los Trabajadores Rurales sin Tierra", habitualmente identificado en Brasil por las siglas MST, se contempla dicho movimiento social desde sus orígenes más remotos, al final de los años 50, hasta nuestros días situándolo, por un lado, en las transformaciones políticas y en parte sociales, y en el largo y lento proceso de una reforma agraria inconclusa, por otro. De forma descriptiva, se desarrollan, en un primer paso, los antecedentes, proceso de constitución, etapas y estructura agraria brasileña, se plantea de forma suscinta la problemática de la reforma agraria. Con estas consideraciones preliminares, siguiendo casi literalmente la formulación del propio MST, se exponen, con mayor amplitud, los objetivos y características de la Reforma Agraria desde la perspectiva de los propios trabajadores rurales. Asimismo, aunque de forma más esquemática y en base a los datos oficiales, se plantean las directrices, metas y algunas de las realizaciones del Gobierno de Fernando H. Cardoso sobre dicha reforma. En definitiva, con este artículo, se pretenden establecer las bases y los ejes analíticos necesarios para una investigación más amplia y comprensiva de este fenómeno social de masas que va más allá de la propia realidad de injusticia que se está viviendo en el mundo rural brasileño y que está contando también con un amplio y sorprendente apoyo de sectores urbanos de la población brasileña.ABSTRACT: This article is an introductory and exploratory advance of a more extensive investigation that the author is carrying out on the same subject. The research is centred on the "Movement of the Rural Workers without Land", which is ussually identified in Brazil with the initials MST. This social movement is analyzed since its remotest origins, the

  14. Water Environment Evolution along the China Grand Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, F; Wu, Y X; Yang, B F; Li, X J

    2014-01-01

    The China Grand Canal is one of the earliest canals in the world, having lasted for nearly 3000 years. Even its section canals have a rich history, such as the North-South Grand Canal that was established during the Sui Dynasty, whereas the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal was excavated during the Yuan Dynasty and the east line of the South-to-North Water Diversion. As one of the longest in the world, the China Grand Canal's total length is over 3500 kilometers. This length includes the navigable, unnavigable, and underground sections. Making the best use of situations and according to local conditions, the Chinese people harmoniously constructed the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal with nature. Tens of millions of workers took nearly 3000 years to complete the great shipping system. Navigable sections still exist for up to 900 kilometers and the volume of freight traffic is approximately 300 million tons. The canal remains the main logistical channel of the North-to-South Coal Transportation, South-to-North Water Diversion, and resources circulation. To date, China is promoting the success of heritage application. Part of these efforts is the declaration of the China Grand Canal as a World Cultural Heritage by 2014. In addition, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer project is planned to be navigable by 2016. The ancient Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal will usher in the new ecological civilization and cultural revival along the canal. This paper presents technical methods of water environment evolution research on the river system, river, and water quality along the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal through the integration of historical literature and modern remote sensing image data. The study carried out water environment investigation and analysis along the Beijing-Hangzhou canal by using ETM, SPOT image data, and GPS measurement data. Spatial and temporal evolution characteristics and regulations of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal regional water environment in the span of

  15. Root canal treatment of mandibular second premolar tooth with taurodontism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujašković Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Taurodontism is a morphoanatomical change in the shape of a tooth. An enlarged body of a tooth with smaller than usual roots is a characteristic feature. Internal tooth anatomy correlates with this appearance, which means that a taurodontal tooth has a large pulp chamber and apically positioned furcations. This dental anomaly may be associated with different syndromes and congenital discoders. CASE OUTLINE The case report presents the patient of a rare case of taurodontism in the mandibular second premolar with chronic periodontitis. Endodontic treatment was performed after dental history and clinical examination. Special care is required in all segments of endodontic treatment of a taurodontal tooth from the identification orifice, canal exploration, determining working length, cleaning and shaping and obturation of the root canal. Precurved K-file was used for canal exploration and location of the furcation. One mesial and one distal canal with the buccal position were identified in the apical third of the root canal. The working lengths of two canals were determined by radiographic interpretation with two K-files in each canal and verified with the apex locator. During canal instrumentation, the third canal was located in the disto-lingual position. The working length of the third canal was established using the apex locator. CONCLUSION Thorough knowledge of tooth anatomy and its variations can lead to lower percentage of endodontic failure. Each clinical case involving these teeth should be investigated carefully, clinically and radiographically to detect additional root canals. High quality radiographs from different angles and proper instrumentarium improve the quality of endodontic procedure.

  16. 78 FR 69847 - North Side Canal Company; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... Canal Hydro Project would be located along North Side Canal Company's irrigation system on the U Canal... agricultural, municipal, or industrial consumption and not primarily for the generation of electricity. FPA 30...

  17. File list: Pol.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 RNA polymerase Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canals... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  18. File list: Pol.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 RNA polymerase Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canals... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  19. File list: His.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 Histone Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canals http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  20. File list: Unc.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 Unclassified Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canals http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  1. File list: Pol.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 RNA polymerase Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canals... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  2. File list: Unc.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 Unclassified Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canals... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  3. File list: His.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 Histone Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canals... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  4. File list: Unc.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 Unclassified Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canals... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  5. File list: DNS.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 DNase-seq Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canals... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  6. File list: His.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 Histone Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canals... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  7. File list: His.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 Histone Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canals... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.CDV.50.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  8. File list: Pol.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 RNA polymerase Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canals... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  9. File list: DNS.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 DNase-seq Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canals... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.CDV.05.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  10. File list: DNS.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 DNase-seq Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canals... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  11. File list: DNS.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 DNase-seq Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canals... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.CDV.20.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  12. File list: Unc.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals mm9 Unclassified Cardiovascular Atrioventicular canals... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.CDV.10.AllAg.Atrioventicular_canals.bed ...

  13. Physical Properties of the MER and Beagle II Landing Sites on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakosky, B. M.; Pelkey, S. M.; Mellon, M. T.; Putzig, N.; Martinez-Alonso, S.; Murphy, N.; Hynek, B.

    2003-12-01

    The ESA Beagle II and the NASA Mars Exploration Rover spacecraft are scheduled to land on the martian surface in December 2003 and January 2004, respectively. Mission operations and success depends on the physical properties of the surfaces on which they land. Surface structural characteristics such as the abundances of loose, unconsolidated fine material, of fine material that has been cemented into a duricrust, and of rocks affect the ability to safely land and to successfully sample and traverse the surface. Also, physical properties affect surface and atmospheric temperatures, which affect lander and rover functionality. We are in the process of analyzing surface temperature information for these sites, derived from MGS TES and Odyssey THEMIS daytime and nighttime measurements. Our approach is to: (i) remap thermal inertia using TES data at ~3-km resolution, to obtain the most complete coverage possible; (ii) interpret physical properties from TES coverage in conjunction with other remote-sensing data sets; (iii) map infrared brightness using daytime and nighttime THEMIS data at 100-m resolution, and do qualitative analysis of physical properties and processes; and (iv) derive thermal inertia from THEMIS nighttime data in conjunction with daytime albedo measurements derived from TES, THEMIS, and MOC observations. In addition, we will use measured temperatures and derived thermal inertia to predict surface temperatures for the periods of the missions.

  14. Thermophysical properties of the MER and Beagle II landing site regions on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.; Hynek, Brian M.; Pelkey, Shannon M.; Mellon, Michael T.; Martínez-Alonso, Sara; Putzig, Nathaniel E.; Murphy, Nate; Christensen, Philip R.

    2006-08-01

    We analyzed remote-sensing observations of the Isidis Basin, Gusev Crater, and Meridiani Planum landing sites for Beagle II, MER-A Spirit, and MER-B Opportunity spacecraft, respectively. We emphasized the thermophysical properties using daytime and nighttime radiance measurements from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer and Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) and thermal inertias derived from nighttime data sets. THEMIS visible images, MGS Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) narrow-angle images, and MGS Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data are incorporated as well. Additionally, the remote-sensing data were compared with ground-truth at the MER sites. The Isidis Basin surface layer has been shaped by aeolian processes and erosion by slope winds coming off of the southern highlands and funneling through notches between massifs. In the Gusev region, surface materials of contrasting thermophysical properties have been interpreted as rocks or bedrock, duricrust, and dust deposits; these are consistent with a complex geological history dominated by volcanic and aeolian processes. At Meridiani Planum the many layers having different thermophysical and erosional properties suggest periodic deposition of differing sedimentological facies possibly related to clast size, grain orientation and packing, or mineralogy.

  15. Osteosarcomas among beagles exposed to 239Plutonium. Technical report No. 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittemore, A.S.; McMillan, A.

    1980-03-01

    A Weibull distribution was fit to the osteosarcoma death times of beagles given single intravenous injections of 239 Pu. For injected doses in the range 0 to 1 μCi/kg the osteosarcoma incidence rate h(t) at t days after injection can be fit by a quadratic function of the injected dose. The best fitting linear function was rejected by the data (p < 0.001). A different formula for h(t), derived from amultistage theory for osteosarcoma induction, was also fit to these data. For this purpose microdosimetry calculations were used to estimate the dose to the cells at risk in the endosteal layer (endosteal dose). According to the best fit, h(t) is a quadratic function of endosteal dose at low doses. A linear dose-response relationship was agan rejected. The absence of a linear component at low doses might be explained by the fact that 108 of the 185 animals injected at the lowest doses (< 0.02 μCi/kg) were still alive at the time these data were collected

  16. Small intestinal emptying time in normal Beagle dogs: a contrast radiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyabayashi, T.; Morgan, J.P.; Atilola, M.A.O.; Muhumuza, L.

    1986-01-01

    Gastric emptying time and small intestinal transit time in dogs are frequently discussed. However, it is often of interest to the radiologist to know what normal small intestinal emptying times should be. A total of 15 upper gastrointestinal studies was performed on five internal parasite-free, normal, standard Beagle dogs with three studies on each dog, 6 days apart. The ages and weights of the dogs ranged from 2–8 years and from 12.4–13.7 kg, respectively. Following 24-hour fasting, a dose of 10 ml/kg bw of 60% wt/vol barium sulfate suspension was administered through a stomach tube. Then, sequential radiographs were made at 30-minute intervals until the entire contrast medium column was in the colon and cecum. The mean, standard deviation, and range of gastric emptying time, small intestinal transit time, and small intestinal emptying time were 76 ± 16.7 (30–120), 73 ± 16.4 (30–120), and 214 ± 25.1 (180–300) minutes, respectively. This study offers the possibility that small intestinal emptying time may be used to further evaluate patients with suspected small intestinal partial obstruction, pseudo-obstruction, ischemia, or lymphangiectasia

  17. Regional effects of ovariectomy and cadmium on bone mineral in ribs from aged female beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of estrogen depletion and cadmium (Cd) on bone calcium and to determine if these effects were localized in specific regions of ribs. Fourteen female beagles with 45 Ca labeled skeletons were divided into four groups: sham controls (SO-); ovariectomized (OV-); shams exposed to Cd (SO+); ovariecomized exposed to Cd (OV+). Total Cd exposure period was 7 months, including 1 month by capsules and 6 months by drinking H 2 O. Ribs were taken at necropsy from 12 of the 14 dogs, and each rib was quartered. Wet, dry, and ash weights, as well as total Ca and 45 Ca content, were determined for each quarter. Analysis of ribs from control animals demonstrated that a given rib is heterogeneous in composition. One end appears to be less mineralized and more metabolically active than other regions. The OV- and OV+ mid-rib regions had significantly lower dry and ash weights than SO-. Total Ca contents of these same regions were also decreased in the OV- and OV+. The only significant change in Ca/dry and Ca/ash was observed when comparing OV+ to SO-. Analysis of treatment suggests that there are regional effects following ovariectomy increased the loss of bone mineral occurring as a result of ovariectomy. 30 refs., 1 fig

  18. Current status of life-span studies with inhaled plutonium in beagles at Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.; Dagle, G.E.; Ragan, H.A.; Weller, R.E.; Stevens, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Beagles that inhaled 239 PuO 2 , 238 PuO 2 , or 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , in dose-level groups of 20 dogs, with initial lung burdens of ∼2, 15, 70, 300, 1100, or 5500 nCi, are now 11, 9, or 5 years postexposure. Lung tumors, bone tumors, and radiation pneumonitis, the plutonium-exposure-related causes of death observed to date, have occurred in the two, three, and four highest dose-level groups exposed to 238 PuO 2 , 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , and 239 PuO 2 , respectively. No plutonium-exposure-related deaths have thus far been observed in dose-level groups exposed to less than ∼40 times the current maximum permissible lung dose for a plutonium worker. Plutonium-exposure-related effects not directly related to the cause of death include chronic lymphopenia, chronic neutropenia, sclerosis of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, focal radiation pneumonitis, adenomatous hyperplasia in the liver, and dystrophic osteolytic lesions in the skeleton. No plutonium-exposure-related effects have thus far been observed in dose-level groups that received less than ∼15 times the current maximum permissible lung dose for a plutonium worker. 10 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Metabolism and dosimetry of 106Ru inhaled as 106RuO4 by beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.

    1981-01-01

    This report provides metabolism and dosimetry data for inhaled ruthenium developed from studies in Beagle dogs that were exposed by inhalation to 106 RuO 4 . Twenty-six dogs were exposed nose-only to 106 RuO 4 and sacrificed at times from 2 hr to 512 days after inhalation exposure. Ninety-nine percent of the initial body burden was retained with an effective half-time of 1.2 days, 0.7% with a half-time of 14 days and 0.3% with a half-time of 170 days. Initial deposition was primarily in the nasopharyngeal and tracheobronchial regions. Results for deposition and retention of 106 Ru inhaled as 106 RuO 4 in dogs were similar to what has been observed for humans. The data for dogs were used to develop a model to predict potential radiation exposure patterns for humans after inhalation exposure to 106 RuO 4 . The model indicates that for humans the nasopharyngeal region, lower large intestine, and tracheobronchial epithelium would receive approx. 36, 13 and 10 times, respectively, the dose to 500 days after inhalation exposure to 106 RuO 4 that the lung would receive. The nasopharyngeal region should be considered the critical region for inhalation exposures to 106 RuO 4 . (author)

  20. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by immature Beagle dogs. XIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.

    1984-01-01

    Immature Beagle dogs (3 months old) were exposed once by inhalation to an aerosol of 144 Ce incorporated in fused aluminosilicate particles. The influence of this age on the dose-response relationships is being compared to that of 13-month-old and 8 to 10.5-year-old dogs. This study involves 49 dogs that received graded initial lung burdens from 0.004 to 140 μCi 144 Ce/kg (0.15 to 5200 kBq/kg) body weight and five control dogs. To date, 23 of the 144 Ce-exposed dogs and three of the controls have died. Dogs with the highest initial lung burdens of 144 Ce died during the first 4 months with radiation pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis, and congestive heart failure. Pulmonary hemangiosarcoma was the primary finding in dogs that died at 1.5 to 2 years after exposure. Deaths beyond that time have been due primarily to extrapulmonary hemangiosarcomas. Observations are continuing on the surviving 26 144 Ce-exposed and two control dogs at 8.0 to 12.2 years after exposure. 2 figures, 1 table