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Sample records for canadian schools variations

  1. Canadian Business Schools: Going out of Business?

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    Dobni, Dawn; Dobni, Brooke

    1996-01-01

    Using Porter's five-forces model (potential entrants, suppliers, buyers, rivalry, substitutes) to analyze competition in Canadian university business schools, the authors conclude that schools are becoming increasingly vulnerable to competitive pressures and that strategic reorientation is necessary. (SK)

  2. Refugees and education in Canadian schools

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    Kaprielian-Churchill, Isabel

    1996-07-01

    This article summarizes some of the findings and recommendations of a research project focusing on the nature and needs of refugee students in Canadian schools. The school performance of refugee students is examined under the following headings: immigration regulations; initial identification, assessment, placement and monitoring; unaccompanied youngsters; "at risk" students; academic needs; the conflict of cultures. In particular, the article discusses the changing role of the school in the light of recent immigration trends. Many of the findings are applicable to other national settings.

  3. School Ethnic Composition and Bullying in Canadian Schools

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    Vitoroulis, Irene; Brittain, Heather; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Bullying in ethnically diverse schools varies as a function of the ethnic composition and degree of diversity in schools. Although Canada is highly multicultural, few researchers have focused on the role of context on ethnic majority and minority youths' bullying involvement. In the present study, 11,649 European-Canadian/ethnic majority (77%) and…

  4. Food and eating environments: in Canadian schools.

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    Browning, H Frances; Laxer, Rachel E; Janssen, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This national study was conducted to examine healthy eating programs, healthy eating education, and the food retail environments of schools. A total of 436 Canadian schools were studied. Administrators completed a questionnaire designed to assess school healthy eating programs, healthy eating education, and food retail environment. The number of chain fast food restaurants, chain cafés/coffee shops, and convenience stores within 1 km of schools was measured using geographic information systems food retailer measures from DMTI Spatial Inc. and the Yellow Pages. During the preceding year, 67% of schools had initiated healthy eating lunch programs while 18% had junk food-free days. The majority of schools offered cooking classes (59%) and healthy eating media literacy education (67%), while a minority offered gardening activities (15%) and field trips to farmers' markets (27%) and grocery stores (36%). Fifty-three percent had a school cafeteria, and most had a school tuck shop (75%) and pop/juice vending machines (76%). Fifty percent had a chain fast food restaurant, 33% had a chain café/coffee shop, and 41% had a convenience store within 1 km. An important aspect of addressing childhood obesity will be improving the food environments of schools and their surrounding neighbourhoods, and providing healthy eating education for all students.

  5. Transferrin variation and evolution of Canadian barren-ground caribou

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    Knut H. Røed

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples were obtained from 95 barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus of the Beverly herd in Northwest Territories, Canada. Polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis was used to score for genetic variation in the locus coding for transferrin. The pattern of allele frequency distribution are compared with previously reported values of Eurasian tundra reindeer (R.t. tarandus, Alaska caribou (R.t. granti, Peary caribou (R.t. pearyi, and Svalbard reindeer (R.t. platyrhynchus. In the Beverly herd a total of 21 different transferrin alleles were detected. The amount of genetic variation was higher in the Canadian barren-ground caribou than what has been detected in other subspecies of reindeer/caribou. Highly gene-tical differences in the allele frequencies were detected between the Canadian barren-ground caribou and the other subspecies. The genetic identity analyses indicates approximately the same amount of genetic differentiation when the Canadian barren-ground caribou are compared with Alaska caribou as with the Peary caribou. The allele frequency pattern could be explained by a possible origin of the Canadian barren-ground caribou from an ancestral population which was genetical influenced by animals surviving the We-ichselian glaciation in refugia both in high Arctic, in Beringia, and south of the ice sheet.

  6. The Trust Imperative in the School Principalship: The Canadian Perspective

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    Kutsyuruba, Benjamin; Walker, Keith; Noonan, Brian

    2016-01-01

    As a fundamental concept in human interactions, trust is important for understanding and mediating the social structures in schools. The instrumental work of cultivating, brokering, and maintaining trust in schools lies within the role of the school administrator. Our exploratory study examined the Canadian school principals' perceptions of their…

  7. School Autonomy and 21st Century Learning: The Canadian Context

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    Newton, Paul; da Costa, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the policy and practice contexts for school autonomy and twenty-first century learning in Canadian provinces. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reports on an analysis of policies in Canadian provinces (particularly the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan). The authors review policies…

  8. Canadian Offshore Schools in China: A Comparative Policy Analysis

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    Wang, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Internationalisation is no longer a well-recognised feature unique to higher education. It has permeated K-12 education. However, little research has been done on internationalisation at the K-12 level, particularly on offshore schools. This study examines how Canadian and Chinese policies regarding offshore schools have developed over the years,…

  9. Doctrinal Disciplining of Queer Educators in Canadian Catholic Schools

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    Callaghan, Tonya D.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the experiences of non-heterosexual educators in Canadian Catholic schools. This article reveals previously unreported data from a qualitative study that compares the treatment of and attitudes towards lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (lgbtq) teachers in publicly-funded Catholic school systems in the Canadian…

  10. Stages of Gender Education in Canadian Secondary Schools

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    Zhukovskyi, Vasyl; Kostiuk, Olha

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the issue of educational preconditions of gender education formation and development in Canadian secondary schools. On the basis of conducted scientific and pedagogical literature analysis it has been determined that gender education has undergone three main stages and is currently developing during its fourth, modern…

  11. Community engagement in US and Canadian medical schools

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    Adam O Goldstein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adam O Goldstein, Rachel Sobel BearmanDepartment of Family Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USAIntroduction: This study examines the integration of community engagement and community-engaged scholarship at all accredited US and Canadian medical schools in order to better understand and assess their current state of engagement.Methods: A 32-question data abstraction instrument measured the role of community engagement and community-engaged scholarship as represented on the Web sites of all accredited US and Canadian medical schools. The instrument targeted a medical school's mission and vision statements, institutional structure, student and faculty awards and honors, and faculty tenure and promotion guidelines.Results: Medical school Web sites demonstrate little evidence that schools incorporate community engagement in their mission or vision statements or their promotion and tenure guidelines. The majority of medical schools do not include community service terms and/or descriptive language in their mission statements, and only 8.5% of medical schools incorporate community service and engagement as a primary or major criterion in promotion and tenure guidelines.Discussion: This research highlights significant gaps in the integration of community engagement or community-engaged scholarship into medical school mission and vision statements, promotion and tenure guidelines, and service administrative structures.Keywords: medical school, education, community service, mission, tenure, engagement

  12. Nightly variation of disorder in a Canadian nightclub.

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    Boivin, Rémi; Geoffrion, Steve; Ouellet, Frédéric; Felson, Marcus

    2014-03-01

    This paper aims to study nightly disorder within a single bar over an extended period, in order to analyse variations across time (n = 258 nights). The security staff of a large Canadian nightclub agreed to note detailed information on every intervention in which they were involved. Bouncers wrote detailed narratives of each incident of aggression and incivility that occurred in the bar. Environmental characteristics (e.g. number of admissions and alcohol sales) were collected by one of the co-authors. "Hot nights" were observed. The number of problem events was particularly high on Tuesday nights, which had the highest number of customers admitted and higher alcohol sales. The average alcohol sale per customer was also higher during long weekends, and alcohol sales were positively related to problem events. Finally, path analyses revealed that the presence of more bouncers was a deterrent. The level of disorder in a bar varies greatly over time. Contrary to what is often postulated, bars are not always high- or low-risk. The results strongly support responsible alcohol-serving policies and highlight the benefits of adequate surveillance.

  13. A survey of medical ethics education at U.S. and Canadian medical schools.

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    Lehmann, Lisa Soleymani; Kasoff, Willard S; Koch, Phoebe; Federman, Daniel D

    2004-07-01

    To assess the format, content, method, and placement of medical ethics education in medical schools; the faculty and curricular resources and institutional structure and support of medical ethics; and the perceptions of ethics education among deans of medical education and medical ethics course directors at U.S. and Canadian medical schools. Two questionnaires were mailed to 125 U.S. medical schools and 16 Canadian schools: one to be completed by the deans of medical education and one to be completed by the medical ethics course director. Descriptive statistics were used to compare responses. In all, 123 (87%) deans and 91 (64%) course directors responded, providing information about 91 schools (six Canadian). All responding institutions offered some formal instruction in medical ethics, and among these, 71 (78%) incorporated ethics into required preclinical courses. The primary pedagogic course structure was small-group discussion and the primary pedagogic method was case discussions. One-fifth of schools provided no funding for ethics teaching, and 47 (52%) did not fund curricular development in ethics. Institutions with a dedicated ethics faculty member were twice as likely to have a mandatory introductory ethics course (64% versus 32%, p ethics education were thought to be a lack of time in the curriculum, a lack of qualified teachers, and a lack of time in faculty schedules. Within a few decades the number of U.S. and Canadian medical schools requiring medical ethics has increased. Nevertheless, significant variation in the content, method, and timing of ethics education suggests consensus about curricular content and pedagogic methods remains lacking. Further progress in ethics education may depend on institutions' willingness to devote more curricular time and funding to medical ethics.

  14. Comprehensive School Mental Health: An Integrated "School-Based Pathway to Care" Model for Canadian Secondary Schools

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    Wei, Yifeng; Kutcher, Stan; Szumilas, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for the promotion of mental health and the treatment of mental disorders. Schools are well-positioned to address adolescent mental health. This paper describes a school mental health model, "School-Based Pathway to Care," for Canadian secondary schools that links schools with primary care providers and…

  15. Mental health literacy in secondary schools: a Canadian approach.

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    Kutcher, Stan; Bagnell, Alexa; Wei, Yifeng

    2015-04-01

    "Mental health literacy is an integral component of health literacy and has been gaining increasing attention as an important focus globally for mental health interventions. In Canada, youth mental health is increasingly recognized as a key national health concern and has received more focused attention than ever before within our health system. This article outlines 2 unique homegrown initiatives to address youth mental health literacy within Canadian secondary schools." Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Virtual patient simulation at US and Canadian medical schools.

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    Huang, Grace; Reynolds, Robby; Candler, Chris

    2007-05-01

    "Virtual patients" are computer-based simulations designed to complement clinical training. These applications possess numerous educational benefits but are costly to develop. Few medical schools can afford to create them. The purpose of this inventory was to gather information regarding in-house virtual patient development at U.S. and Canadian medical schools to promote the sharing of existing cases and future collaboration. From February to September 2005, the authors contacted 142 U.S. and Canadian medical schools and requested that they report on virtual patient simulation activities at their respective institutions. The inventory elicited information regarding the pedagogic and technical characteristics of each virtual patient application. The schools were also asked to report on their willingness to share virtual patients. Twenty-six out of 108 responding schools reported that they were producing virtual patients. Twelve schools provided additional data on 103 cases and 111 virtual patients. The vast majority of virtual patients were media rich and were associated with significant production costs and time. The reported virtual patient cases tended to focus on primary care disciplines and did not as a whole exhibit racial or ethnic diversity. Funding sources, production costs, and production duration influenced the extent of schools' willingness to share. Broader access to and cooperative development of these resources would allow medical schools to enhance their clinical curricula. Virtual patient development should include basic science objectives for more integrative learning, simulate the consequences of clinical decision making, and include additional cases in cultural competency. Together, these efforts can enhance medical education despite external constraints on clinical training.

  17. Multilingualism in Canadian schools: Myths, realities and possibilities

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    Patricia A. Duff

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bilingualism and multiculturalism have for four decades been official ideologies and policies in Canada but, as is often the case, the implementation and outcomes of such government policies nationally are less impressive than the rhetoric would suggest. This article reviews the political, theoretical and demographic contexts justifying support for the learning and use of additional languages in contemporary Canadian society and schools, and summarizes research demonstrating that bilingualism and multilingualism are indeed cognitively, socially, and linguistically advantageous for children (and adults, as well as for society. The five studies in this special issue are then previewed with respect to the following themes that run across them: (1 the potential for bilingual synergies and transformations in language awareness activities and crosslinguistic knowledge construction; (2 the role of multiliteracies and multimodality in mediated learning; and (3 the interplay of positioning, identity, and agency in language learning by immigrant youth. The article concludes that more Canadian schools and educators must, like the researchers in this volume, find ways to embrace and build upon students’ prior knowledge, their creativity, their collaborative problem-solving skills, their potential for mastering and manipulating multiple, multilingual semiotic tools, and their desire for inclusion and integration in productive, engaging learning communities.

  18. Socialization to professionalism in medical schools: a Canadian experience.

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    Byszewski, Anna; Gill, Jeewanjit S; Lochnan, Heather

    2015-11-17

    Accrediting bodies now recognize the importance of developing the professionalism competency, by setting standards that require medical schools to identify where professionalism is addressed and how it is evaluated within the formal curriculum. The objective of this study was to compare how professionalism competency is formally addressed in the curricula of Canadian medical schools, and to better understand the Canadian approach to reporting and remediation of lapses. A literature review was performed and with the input of the AFMC(Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada) Professionalism group, questionnaires were generated. An electronic survey was circulated to key leaders across the country at all the medical schools. In-depth telephone interviews were used to further explore themes, and a subsequent focus group was held to discuss challenges, particularly related to reporting and remediation. The preponderance of formal professionalism teaching remains in the form of lectures and small group sessions in the preclinical years. Formal teaching declines significantly in the clerkship/clinical years. Evaluation is usually performed by a clinical supervisor, but OSCE, portfolio, and concern notes are increasingly used. Role modeling is heavily relied upon in clinical years, suggesting faculty training can help ensure clinical teachers recognize their influence on trainees. Formal remediation strategies are in place at most schools, and often involve essay writing, reflection exercises, or completion of learning modules about professionalism. Lack of clarity on what defines a lapse and fear of reprisal (for both trainees and faculty) limits reporting. This study provides an overview of how professional identity formation is supported in the Canadian context, guided by the standards set out by CanMEDS. Despite a rich literature that describes the definition, program design and evaluation methods for professionalism, in some areas of the curriculum there is

  19. After-school snack intake among Canadian children and adolescents.

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    Gilbert, Jo-Anne; Miller, Doris; Olson, Shannon; St-Pierre, Sylvie

    2012-11-06

    The article describes the after-school (AS) snacking pattern of young Canadians and its relationship with the amount of energy consumed daily and at dinner. We analyzed cross-sectional dietary data, measured by 24h recall, from 9,131 children and adolescents aged 4 to 18 years from the Canadian Community Health Survey, cycle 2.2 (2004). We evaluated AS snack intake; i.e., foods consumed Monday to Friday between 3:00 and 6:00 pm, excluding lunch and dinner. We also assessed the consumption frequency of AS snack items, the energy provided by AS snacks and total daily energy intake (TDEI) by age group and sex. Approximately 63% of respondents consumed AS snacks. AS snacks provided on average 1212[95%CI,1157-1268] kJ (290[95%CI,276-303] kcal), representing 13[95%CI,12-13]% of TDEI. Youth who consumed AS snacks contributing 1-418 kJ (1-99 kcal) reported lower TDEI than those who consumed no snack. Among AS snack consumers, TDEI was higher in groups consuming the highest amount of energy from AS snacks. Fruits were among the most frequently consumed food categories. However, the largest energy contributors were mostly foods that may be energy-dense and nutrient-poor, such as cookies, sugar-sweetened beverages and sweets. Considering that the majority of children and adolescents consumed AS snacks, that these snacks provided about 13% of their TDEI, and that the majority of the most frequently consumed snacks were generally energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods, the AS time period presents an opportunity to promote healthy eating in order to improve diet quality and potentially influence TDEI among Canadian children and adolescents.

  20. Canadian Innovation: A Brief History of Canada's First Online School Psychology Graduate Program

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    Drefs, Michelle A.; Schroeder, Meadow; Hiebert, Bryan; Panayotidis, E. Lisa; Winters, Katherine; Kerr, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a brief historical review and survey of the current landscape of online graduate psychology programs within the Canadian context. Specific focus is given to outlining the establishment and evolution of the first Canadian online professional specialization program in school psychology. The article argues that given the virtual…

  1. The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks: prevalence and key correlates among Canadian high school students.

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    Azagba, Sunday; Langille, Don; Asbridge, Mark

    2013-01-01

    An emerging body of research has reported high consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among young adults, particularly college students. However, little is known about adolescents' consumption of these drinks. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks and to examine its correlates among Canadian high school students. We used a nationally representative sample of 36 155 Canadian students in grades 7 to 12 who participated in the 2010/2011 Youth Smoking Survey. About 20% of Canadian high school students reported consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks in the last year, with considerable variation across provinces. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of consumption of these drinks were higher among students in lower grades (grades 7 and 8) and among students who identified their ethnicity as black or "other." Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks was positively associated with substance use (current smoking [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-1.95], past-year heavy drinking [adjusted OR 3.41, 95% CI 2.84-4.09] and marijuana use [adjusted OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.90-2.76]), absence from school, participation in school team sports and having more weekly spending money. Students who felt more connected to school and had an academic average of 70% or higher were less likely to consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks. The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks is an emerging public health concern. Consumption of these drinks is substantial among Canadian high school students and can lead to many potential harms, both acute (e.g., injury) and long term (e.g., increased alcohol dependence). Our findings highlight the need for further research into the long-term effects of consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among young people, as well as the development of interventions aimed at reducing consumption of these drinks.

  2. Literacy, Culture, and Politics of Schooling: Counternarratives of a Chinese Canadian Family.

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    Li, Guofang

    2003-01-01

    Describes a Chinese Canadian immigrant family that is encountering difficulties with schooling, demonstrating the complex interrelationship between home literacy, culture, and politics of schooling. Findings suggest that cultural mismatch theory alone cannot explain minority school failure. Rather, multilevel interactions, including cultural…

  3. Beyond the Dialectics and Polemics: Canadian Catholic Schools Addressing LGBT Youth Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liboro, Renato M.; Travers, Robb; St. John, Alex

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Canadian media coverage on Bill 13--an Ontario legislative proposal to require all publicly funded schools to support Gay-Straight Alliances as a means of addressing issues concerning bullied lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students--instigated a divisive exchange among representatives of the Ontario Catholic school sector.…

  4. Tanzanian and Canadian Children's Valued School Experiences: A Cross Case Comparison

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    Streelasky, Jodi

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates children's multimodal perspectives on their school experiences in two diverse, international contexts. The research shares data from 45 Canadian and Tanzanian children, and focused on the children's use of multimodal methods to share what mattered to them at school. The children's significant interest in their outdoor…

  5. School Experiences Influence Personal Health and Interpersonal Relationships of Adolescents: The Canadian Case

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    Ma, Xin

    2007-01-01

    Canadian data from the 1998 Cross-National Survey on Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children were analyzed to examine the effects of school experiences on personal health (physical health, mental health, self-esteem, helplessness, and body image) and interpersonal relationships (number of close friends and making friends) among adolescents.…

  6. How are we 'doing' cultural diversity? A look across English Canadian undergraduate medical school programmes.

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    Gustafson, Diana L; Reitmanova, Sylvia

    2010-01-01

    Cultural diversity education is a required curriculum component at all accredited North American medical schools. Each medical school determines its own content and pedagogical approaches. This preliminary study maps the approaches to cultural diversity education in English Canadian medical schools. A review of 14 English Canadian medical school websites was undertaken to identify the theoretical approaches to cultural diversity education. A PubMed search was also completed to identify the recent literature on cultural diversity medical education in Canada. Data were analysed using 10 criteria that distinguish pedagogical approaches, curricular structure, course content and theoretical understandings of cultural diversity. Based on the information posted on English Canadian medical school websites, all schools offer cultural diversity education although how each 'does' cultural diversity differs widely. Two medical schools have adopted the cultural competency model; five have adopted a critical cultural approach to diversity; and the remaining seven have incorporated some aspects of both approaches. More comprehensive research is needed to map the theoretical approaches to cultural diversity at Canadian medical schools and to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of these approaches on improving physician-patient relationships, reducing health disparities, improving health outcomes and producing positive learning outcomes in physicians.

  7. Unveiled Sentiments: Gendered Islamophobia and Experiences of Veiling among Muslim Girls in a Canadian Islamic School

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    Zine, Jasmin

    2006-01-01

    The practice of veiling has made Muslim women subject to dual oppressions--racism and Islamophobia--in society at large and patriarchal oppression and sexism from within their communities. Based on a narrative analysis of the politics of veiling in schools and society, the voices of young Muslim women attending a Canadian Islamic school speak to…

  8. Creeping Capitalism and Academic Culture at a Canadian Law School

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    Theresa Shanahan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the influence of academic restructuring associated with neo-liberal postsecondary policies on the culture of law schools and legal scholarship in Canada. It offers empirical data from a case study of the Faculty of Law at the University of British Columbia. This paper examines the impact of the changing Canadian political economy on the scholarship and culture at the law school and explores the implications for professional autonomy and academic freedom. The findings suggest that, at the time of data collection (2002-2004, the changing political economy had not (yet affected the law school at the University of British Columbia in the same manner as other jurisdictions and disciplines described in the literature. The data shows that law professors who participated in the study experienced increasing pressures associated with corporatization, commodification and marketization in the larger university, however they consistently described high levels of academic freedom and professional autonomy over their work and scholarship. While there is some evidence of the transformation of academic culture associated with economic restructuring there is also evidence that law professors at this school have maintained control over the direction of their intellectual scholarship. Cet article se penche sur l’influence de la restructuration académique associée aux politiques postsecondaires néo-libérales sur la culture au sein des écoles de droit et sur les études juridiques au Canada. Il présente des données empiriques à partir d’une étude de cas de la Faculté de droit à l’Université de Colombie- Britannique. L’article examine l’impact de l’économie politique canadienne changeante sur l’érudition et la culture à l’école de droit et explore ce que cela implique pour l’autonomie professionnelle et la liberté de l’enseignement. Les résultats suggèrent qu’au moment de la collecte des données (2002

  9. Proximity of public elementary schools to major roads in Canadian urban areas.

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    Amram, Ofer; Abernethy, Rebecca; Brauer, Michael; Davies, Hugh; Allen, Ryan W

    2011-12-21

    Epidemiologic studies have linked exposure to traffic-generated air and noise pollution with a wide range of adverse health effects in children. Children spend a large portion of time at school, and both air pollution and noise are elevated in close proximity to roads, so school location may be an important determinant of exposure. No studies have yet examined the proximity of schools to major roads in Canadian cities. Data on public elementary schools in Canada's 10 most populous cities were obtained from online databases. School addresses were geocoded and proximity to the nearest major road, defined using a standardized national road classification scheme, was calculated for each school. Based on measurements of nitrogen oxide concentrations, ultrafine particle counts, and noise levels in three Canadian cities we conservatively defined distances school proximity to major roads, urban density, and indicators of socioeconomic status. Addresses were obtained for 1,556 public elementary schools, 95% of which were successfully geocoded. Across all 10 cities, 16.3% of schools were located within 75 m of a major road, with wide variability between cities. Schools in neighborhoods with higher median income were less likely to be near major roads (OR per $20,000 increase: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.00), while schools in densely populated neighborhoods were more frequently close to major roads (OR per 1,000 dwellings/km²: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.16). Over 22% of schools in the lowest neighborhood income quintile were close to major roads, compared to 13% of schools in the highest income quintile. A substantial fraction of students at public elementary schools in Canada, particularly students attending schools in low income neighborhoods, may be exposed to elevated levels of air pollution and noise while at school. As a result, the locations of schools may negatively impact the healthy development and academic performance of a large number of Canadian children.

  10. Providing a Safe Learning Environment for Queer Students in Canadian Schools: A Legal Analysis of Homophobic Bullying

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    Anderson, James

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews Canadian administrative law regarding homophobic bullying and school board decision making. Depending on the provincial legislation, school boards either have a mandatory or a discretionary duty to provide queer students with a safe learning environment. However, Canadian case law has arguably limited that discretion. Recent…

  11. Myths and Delusions: English Language Instruction in Canadian Schools

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    Meyers, Mary

    2006-01-01

    The state of ESL in Canada has been a looming, mishandled entity. Canadians espouse the benefits of diversity and have politically correct policies concerning racism and equity for the linguistically disadvantaged, but in reality something has gone terribly wrong. This article outlines specific myths and delusions that plague educational…

  12. Proximity of public elementary schools to major roads in Canadian urban areas

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    Amram Ofer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic studies have linked exposure to traffic-generated air and noise pollution with a wide range of adverse health effects in children. Children spend a large portion of time at school, and both air pollution and noise are elevated in close proximity to roads, so school location may be an important determinant of exposure. No studies have yet examined the proximity of schools to major roads in Canadian cities. Methods Data on public elementary schools in Canada's 10 most populous cities were obtained from online databases. School addresses were geocoded and proximity to the nearest major road, defined using a standardized national road classification scheme, was calculated for each school. Based on measurements of nitrogen oxide concentrations, ultrafine particle counts, and noise levels in three Canadian cities we conservatively defined distances Results Addresses were obtained for 1,556 public elementary schools, 95% of which were successfully geocoded. Across all 10 cities, 16.3% of schools were located within 75 m of a major road, with wide variability between cities. Schools in neighborhoods with higher median income were less likely to be near major roads (OR per $20,000 increase: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.00, while schools in densely populated neighborhoods were more frequently close to major roads (OR per 1,000 dwellings/km2: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.16. Over 22% of schools in the lowest neighborhood income quintile were close to major roads, compared to 13% of schools in the highest income quintile. Conclusions A substantial fraction of students at public elementary schools in Canada, particularly students attending schools in low income neighborhoods, may be exposed to elevated levels of air pollution and noise while at school. As a result, the locations of schools may negatively impact the healthy development and academic performance of a large number of Canadian children.

  13. Too few, too weak: conflict of interest policies at Canadian medical schools.

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    Adrienne Shnier

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The education of medical students should be based on the best clinical information available, rather than on commercial interests. Previous research looking at university-wide conflict of interest (COI policies used in Canadian medical schools has shown very poor regulation. An analysis of COI policies was undertaken to document the current policy environment in all 17 Canadian medical schools. METHODS: A web search was used to initially locate COI policies supplemented by additional information from the deans of each medical school. Strength of policies was rated on a scale of 0 to 2 in 12 categories and also on the presence of enforcement measures. For each school, we report scores for all 12 categories, enforcement measures, and summative scores. RESULTS: COI policies received summative scores that ranged from 0 to 19, with 0 the lowest possible score obtainable and 24 the maximum. The highest mean scores per category were for disclosure and ghostwriting (0.9 and for gifts and scholarships (0.8. DISCUSSION: This study provides the first comprehensive evaluation of all 17 Canadian medical school-specific COI policies. Our results suggest that the COI policy environment at Canadian medical schools is generally permissive. Policy development is a dynamic process. We therefore encourage all Canadian medical schools to develop restrictive COI policies to ensure that their medical students are educated based on the best clinical evidence available, free of industry biases and COI relationships that may influence the future medical thinking and prescribing practices of medical students in Canada once they graduate.

  14. Too Few, Too Weak: Conflict of Interest Policies at Canadian Medical Schools

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    Shnier, Adrienne; Lexchin, Joel; Mintzes, Barbara; Jutel, Annemarie; Holloway, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The education of medical students should be based on the best clinical information available, rather than on commercial interests. Previous research looking at university-wide conflict of interest (COI) policies used in Canadian medical schools has shown very poor regulation. An analysis of COI policies was undertaken to document the current policy environment in all 17 Canadian medical schools. Methods A web search was used to initially locate COI policies supplemented by additional information from the deans of each medical school. Strength of policies was rated on a scale of 0 to 2 in 12 categories and also on the presence of enforcement measures. For each school, we report scores for all 12 categories, enforcement measures, and summative scores. Results COI policies received summative scores that ranged from 0 to 19, with 0 the lowest possible score obtainable and 24 the maximum. The highest mean scores per category were for disclosure and ghostwriting (0.9) and for gifts and scholarships (0.8). Discussion This study provides the first comprehensive evaluation of all 17 Canadian medical school-specific COI policies. Our results suggest that the COI policy environment at Canadian medical schools is generally permissive. Policy development is a dynamic process. We therefore encourage all Canadian medical schools to develop restrictive COI policies to ensure that their medical students are educated based on the best clinical evidence available, free of industry biases and COI relationships that may influence the future medical thinking and prescribing practices of medical students in Canada once they graduate. PMID:23861928

  15. Perspectives from Japanese Staff in Canadian ESL Schools regarding Japanese Students' Groupism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoko

    2006-01-01

    The present study, which stems from a critical approach to common perceptions about ESL learners in the TESOL community, examines the perspectives of Japanese-speaking staff in Canadian ESL institutions on their students' school performance. From September 2003 to April 2004, qualitative data were gathered from 11 staff members through mail…

  16. Gay-Straight Alliance (GSA) Members' Engagement with Sex Education in Canadian High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers an examination of gay-straight alliance (GSA) members' engagement with sex education, sexual health, and prejudice and discrimination in Canadian public high schools. It explores how five students' (four straight and one gay-identifying) participation in GSAs served as a springboard for learning about and challenging stereotypes;…

  17. Canadian High School Athletics and the Saga of Continuing Gender Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    In most Canadian jurisdictions, high school athletics are still governed by outdated and sexist views about participation. The author argues that the current approach is discriminatory and violates human rights laws. In addition, a careful analysis of the jurisprudence reveals a host of specious arguments that keeps athletically talented female…

  18. Family Language Policy and School Language Choice: Pathways to Bilingualism and Multilingualism in a Canadian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavkov, Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a survey with 170 school-age children growing up with two or more languages in the Canadian province of Ontario where English is the majority language, French is a minority language, and numerous other minority languages may be spoken by immigrant or Indigenous residents. Within this context the study focuses on minority…

  19. Violence in the Schools: Programs and Policies for Prevention. A Report from the Canadian Education Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Jyl

    This publication offers some insight into the problem of violence in Canadian schools and provides examples of ways to reduce it. The forms of violent activities examined include youth/youth-gang violence, violence against teachers, bullying, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. Each chapter presents research findings and examples of programs…

  20. Patterns of cross-continental variation in tree seed mass in the Canadian Boreal Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jushan Liu

    Full Text Available Seed mass is an adaptive trait affecting species distribution, population dynamics and community structure. In widely distributed species, variation in seed mass may reflect both genetic adaptation to local environments and adaptive phenotypic plasticity. Acknowledging the difficulty in separating these two aspects, we examined the causal relationships determining seed mass variation to better understand adaptability and/or plasticity of selected tree species to spatial/climatic variation. A total of 504, 481 and 454 seed collections of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P., white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench Voss and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb across the Canadian Boreal Forest, respectively, were selected. Correlation analyses were used to determine how seed mass vary with latitude, longitude, and altitude. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine how geographic and climatic variables influence seed mass. Climatic factors explained a large portion of the variation in seed mass (34, 14 and 29%, for black spruce, white spruce and jack pine, respectively, indicating species-specific adaptation to long term climate conditions. Higher annual mean temperature and winter precipitation caused greater seed mass in black spruce, but annual precipitation was the controlling factor for white spruce. The combination of factors such as growing season temperature and evapotranspiration, temperature seasonality and annual precipitation together determined seed mass of jack pine. Overall, sites with higher winter temperatures were correlated with larger seeds. Thus, long-term climatic conditions, at least in part, determined spatial variation in seed mass. Black spruce and Jack pine, species with relatively more specific habitat requirements and less plasticity, had more variation in seed mass explained by climate than did the more plastic species white spruce. As traits such as seed mass are related to seedling growth and survival, they

  1. School food environments associated with adiposity in Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, C; Datta, G D; Henderson, M; Gray-Donald, K; Kestens, Y; Barnett, T A

    2017-07-01

    Targeting obesogenic features of children's environment that are amenable to change represents a promising strategy for health promotion. The school food environment, defined as the services and policies regarding nutrition and the availability of food in the school and surrounding neighborhood, is particularly important given that students travel through the school neighborhood almost daily and that they consume a substantial proportion of their calories at school. As part of the Quebec Adipose and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth (QUALITY) cohort study, we assessed features of school indoor dietary environment and the surrounding school neighborhoods, when children were aged 8-10 years (2005-2008). School principals reported on food practices and policies within the schools. The density of convenience stores and fast-food outlets surrounding the school was computed using a Geographical Information System. Indicators of school neighborhood deprivation were derived from census data. Adiposity outcomes were measured in a clinical setting 2 years later, when participants were aged 10-12 years (2008-2011). We conducted cluster analyses to identify school food environment types. Associations between school types and adiposity were estimated in linear regression models. Cluster analysis identified three school types with distinct food environments. Schools were characterized as: overall healthful (45%); a healthful food environment in the surrounding neighborhood, but an unhealthful indoor food environment (22%); or overall unhealthful (33%). Less healthful schools were located in more deprived neighborhoods and were associated with greater child adiposity. Despite regulatory efforts to improve school food environments, there is substantial inequity in dietary environments across schools. Ensuring healthful indoor and outdoor food environments across schools should be included in comprehensive efforts to reduce obesity-related health disparities.

  2. "Nutritional Wastelands": Vending Machines, Fast Food Outlets, and the Fight over Junk Food in Canadian Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidney, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    In light of a growing obesity crisis among children and concern about junk food in schools, this article investigates the attempt by food and beverage companies to gain entry into Canadian schools. Focusing in particular on the introduction of fast-food franchises in cafeterias and on school boards' secret exclusivity deals with soft drink manufacturers in the 1990s, it examines how and why this process occurred, public reactions to it, and government responses. Placing this phenomenon within a larger pattern of commercialization in North American schools, it argues that long-lasting reforms require government intervention and enforcement.

  3. Bedside ultrasound education in Canadian medical schools: A national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Steinmetz

    2016-04-01

    Results:  Approximately half of the 13 responding medical schools had integrated bedside ultrasound teaching into their undergraduate curriculum. The most common trends in undergraduate ultrasound teaching related to duration (1-5 hours/year in 50% of schools, format (practical and theoretical in 67% of schools, and logistics (1:4 instructor to student ratio in 67% of schools. The majority of responding vice-deans indicated that bedside ultrasound education should be integrated into the medical school curriculum (77%, and cited a lack of ultrasound machines and infrastructure as barriers to integration. Conclusions: This study documents the current characteristics of undergraduate ultrasound education in Canada.

  4. School start time and sleep in Canadian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariépy, Geneviève; Janssen, Ian; Sentenac, Mariane; Elgar, Frank J

    2017-04-01

    Insufficient sleep is a serious problem in adolescents and school start time is thought to be a key contributor. This study provided the first comprehensive assessment of school start times across Canada and examined whether school start times were associated with sleep duration and tiredness among adolescents. We collected information on school start times from 362 schools that participated in the 2013/2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. We calculated sleep duration from weekday bedtime and wake time reported by 29 635 students (aged 10-18 years). We classified weekday sleep as sufficient if it met national recommendations, and used data on self-reported tiredness at school in the morning. Random-effects regression models estimated the association of school start time with sleep duration, sleep sufficiency and tiredness. On average, schools started at 08:43 hours. Students slept an average of 8:36 h on weekdays and 69% met sleep duration recommendations, but 60% reported feeling tired in the morning. Every 10-min delay in school start time corresponded with 3.2 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0, 4.5] additional minutes of sleep, a 1.6% (95% CI: 0.5, 2.8) greater probability of sufficient sleep and a 2.1% (95% CI: 1.0, 3.2) smaller probability of feeling tired at school in the morning. Students from schools that started later slept longer, were more likely to meet sleep recommendations and were less likely to report feeling tired in the morning. The study adds weight to the mounting evidence that delaying school start time benefits adolescent sleep. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  5. “We have been forced to move away from home”: print news coverage of Canadians studying abroad at Caribbean offshore medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Morgan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canadian international medical graduates are Canadian-citizens who have graduated from a medical school outside of Canada or the United States. A growing number of Canadians enroll in medical school abroad, including at Caribbean offshore medical schools. Often, Canadians studying medicine abroad attempt to return to Canada for postgraduate residency training and ultimately to practice. Methods The authors conducted a qualitative media analysis to discern the dominant themes and ideologies that frame discussion of offshore medical schools, and the Canadian medical students they graduate, in the Canadian print news. We carried out structured searches on Canadian Newsstand Database for print media related to offshore medical schools. Results Canadian news articles used two frames to characterize offshore medical schools and the Canadian international medical graduates they train: (1 increased opportunity for medical education for Canadians; and (2 frustration returning to Canada to practice despite domestic physician shortages. Conclusion Frames deployed by the Canadian print media to discuss Caribbean offshore medical schools and Canadians studying abroad define two problems: (1 highly qualified Canadians are unable to access medical school in Canada; and (2 some Canadian international medical graduates are unable to return to Canada to practice medicine. Caribbean offshore medical schools are identified as a solution to the first problem while playing a central role in creating the second problem. These frames do not acknowledge that medical school admissions are a primary means to control the make-up of the Canadian physician workforce and they do not address the nature of Canadian physician shortages.

  6. School recess, social connectedness and health: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Lauren; Colley, Paige; Franklin, Nicole

    2017-04-01

    Children need opportunities to establish positive social connections at school, yet many school playgrounds are challenged by social conflict that can undermine these connections. When children's social needs go unmet, the resultant feelings of loneliness, isolation and self-doubt can cumulatively lead to mental and physical illness. Because recess is typically the only time during the school day that children are free to socialize and play, we propose a more thoughtful way of thinking about it: from the lens of belongingness. Schools are, historically, designed for instruction. We argue, however, that we need to attend to children's social needs at school. We highlight current research from social neuroscience, belonging and social connectedness in order to delineate the pathways between daily school recess and developmental health trajectories. We then consolidate an array of research on play, social interaction and school change to suggest four areas that could benefit from consideration in research, practice and policy: (i) the culture of recess, (ii) the importance of healthy role models on the playground, (iii) the necessity of activities, options and variety during recess and (iv) the significance of space and spatial layout (indoor and outdoor). We bridge our discussion with the conception of health as described in the Ottawa Charter and emphasize the need to build alliances across sectors to assist schools in their efforts to support children's overall health needs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Bedside ultrasound education in Canadian medical schools: A national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Peter; Dobrescu, Octavian; Oleskevich, Sharon; Lewis, John

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the extent and characteristics of bedside ultrasound teaching in medical schools across Canada. A cross-sectional, survey-based study was used to assess undergraduate bedside ultrasound education in the 17 accredited medical schools in Canada. The survey, consisting of 19 questions was pilot-tested, web-based, and completed over a period of seven months in 2014. Approximately half of the 13 responding medical schools had integrated bedside ultrasound teaching into their undergraduate curriculum. The most common trends in undergraduate ultrasound teaching related to duration (1-5 hours/year in 50% of schools), format (practical and theoretical in 67% of schools), and logistics (1:4 instructor to student ratio in 67% of schools). The majority of responding vice-deans indicated that bedside ultrasound education should be integrated into the medical school curriculum (77%), and cited a lack of ultrasound machines and infrastructure as barriers to integration. This study documents the current characteristics of undergraduate ultrasound education in Canada.

  8. Ubiquitous technology integration in Canadian public schools: Year one study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Sclater

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The current investigation was an exploration of the first year of a multi-year project designed to provide every Grade 3 to Grade 11 student throughout an English school board in Quebec with a laptop computer. Data were collected from 403 elementary and 270 secondary students from the experimental school board and also from 330 students in the control school board. In addition, questionnaire data were collected from 60 elementary school teachers and 51 secondary school teachers. Finally, interviews were conducted with 72 students and 20 teachers. Potentially the most interesting finding was the difference in achievement scores between the experimental and control boards. Secondary students from the experimental board had higher scores on the CAT-3 reading test and indicated making six times more frequent use of computer technology in their English classes, suggesting a possible treatment effect. In contrast, math scores were higher at the control board where neither board indicated high levels of computer use. Nevertheless, these findings must be interpreted with some caution until the threats to validity of selection bias are more clearly overcome.

  9. A survey study of evidence-based medicine training in US and Canadian medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Maria A; Capello, Carol F; Dorsch, Josephine L; Perry, Gerald; Zanetti, Mary L

    2014-07-01

    The authors conducted a survey examining (1) the current state of evidence-based medicine (EBM) curricula in US and Canadian medical schools and corresponding learning objectives, (2) medical educators' and librarians' participation in EBM training, and (3) barriers to EBM training. A survey instrument with thirty-four closed and open-ended questions was sent to curricular deans at US and Canadian medical schools. The survey sought information on enrollment and class size; EBM learning objectives, curricular activities, and assessment approaches by year of training; EBM faculty; EBM tools; barriers to implementing EBM curricula and possible ways to overcome them; and innovative approaches to EBM education. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used for data analysis. Measurable learning objectives were categorized using Bloom's taxonomy. One hundred fifteen medical schools (77.2%) responded. Over half (53%) of the 900 reported learning objectives were measurable. Knowledge application was the predominant category from Bloom's categories. Most schools integrated EBM into other curricular activities; activities and formal assessment decreased significantly with advanced training. EBM faculty consisted primarily of clinicians, followed by basic scientists and librarians. Various EBM tools were used, with PubMed and the Cochrane database most frequently cited. Lack of time in curricula was rated the most significant barrier. National agreement on required EBM competencies was an extremely helpful factor. Few schools shared innovative approaches. Schools need help in overcoming barriers related to EBM curriculum development, implementation, and assessment. Findings can provide a starting point for discussion to develop a standardized competency framework.

  10. teacher thinking and practice in canadian elementary schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In The End of Education, Neil Postman (1995) proposes several new narratives to animate the debate about the purposes of schooling. Narratives are needed, he says, that attend to students' social and emotional development. They must be capable of guiding and supporting young peoples' experience of participation and ...

  11. Lunch-time food source is associated with school hour and school day diet quality among Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugault-Lafleur, C N; Black, J L; Barr, S I

    2017-07-31

    There is limited research on the dietary behaviours of Canadian children at school, including where students obtain food from during school hours or whether lunch-time food source influences diet quality. Nationally representative cross-sectional data from 24-h dietary recalls were analysed from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey (n = 4589). Dietary outcomes included school hour and school day dietary intakes and School Healthy Eating Index (S-HEI) scores. Survey-weighted covariate-adjusted linear regression models examined differences in dietary outcomes across lunch-time food source groups. The majority of children (72.8%) reported bringing lunch from home, whereas fewer students obtained lunch from off-campus locations (11.6%), schools (9.6%) or skipped lunch (5.9%). Compared to off-campus lunches, home-packed lunches were significantly higher in fibre, vitamins A, D and C, thiamin, magnesium, iron, grains, vegetables and fruit, but lower in total calories, fat and calories from minimally nutritious foods. Average school hour diet quality required improvement for all age groups, although S-HEI scores did not differ significantly by lunch-time food source among 6-8-year-old children. However, for children age 9-17 years, bringing a home-packed lunch was associated with significantly higher S-HEI scores compared to students obtaining lunch from off-campus locations. After adjusting for age and sex, lunch-time food source was also significantly associated with whole day dietary quality. Although the nutritional quality of off-campus lunches was lower than home-packed lunches, the quality of foods was suboptimal, regardless of food source. Strategies are needed to enhance access to nutritious foods on campus and improve the nutritional quality of packed lunches, which supply the majority of lunch-time foods consumed by Canadian children. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  12. Factors associated with physical activity among Canadian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Carly; Irwin, Melinda; Griffith, Jane; Xue, Lin; Fradette, Katherine

    2012-04-01

    Identifying multi-level factors affecting physical activity (PA) levels among adolescents is essential to increasing activity to promote health within this population. This study examines the associations between PA and 11 independent factors among Manitoba high school students. The sample included 31,202 grade 9-12 students who completed the Manitoba Youth Health Survey. Associations between PA and independent factors were examined separately and through multivariate regression. Analyses were stratified by gender. Perception of athletic ability, school location, parental encouragement and number of active friends were strong predictors of activity for moderately active and active males and females. Grade was a significant predictor of PA for females at both levels of activity but only significant for males when comparing active to inactive students. Perception of schoolwork and means of transport were minimally associated with PA. Results highlight the importance of targeting multiple levels of influence to increase PA among youth. Programs should focus on older students, females and those who are inactive or moderately active. In addition, social modeling of PA and increasing self-efficacy around activity should be encouraged.

  13. Sustained improvements in students? mental health literacy with use of a mental health curriculum in Canadian schools

    OpenAIRE

    McLuckie, Alan; Kutcher, Stan; Wei, Yifeng; Weaver, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Background Enhancement of mental health literacy for youth is a focus of increasing interest for mental health professionals and educators alike. Schools are an ideal site for addressing mental health literacy in young people. Currently, there is limited evidence regarding the impact of curriculum-based interventions within high school settings. We examined the effect of a high-school mental health curriculum (The Guide) in enhancing mental health literacy in Canadian schools. Methods We cond...

  14. Predicting performance in Canadian dental schools: the new CDA structured interview, a new personality assessment, and the DAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Amanda; Catano, Victor M; Cunningham, D P

    2007-05-01

    Using a sample of dental students (N=373) from four Canadian dental schools, this longitudinal study determined whether the new Canadian Dental Association (CDA) structured interview was a predictor of clinical and academic performance. The new interview predicted clinical performance in the third and fourth years of dental school, but not academic performance. The Canadian Dental Aptitude Test (DAT) continued to predict first- and second-year academic performance, but not clinical performance in the senior years. A personality factor, "Conscientiousness," predicted clinical and academic performance to various degrees across the four years of dental school. A second personality factor, "Openness to Experience," predicted third-year academic performance. The results suggest that a combination of scores from the DAT, a valid measure of personality, and a well-designed structured interview will provide the best prediction of those applicants who will do well in both the academic and clinical aspects of dental school.

  15. Organizational models of educational technology in U.S. and Canadian medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Kevin H; Kamin, Carol; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Moses, Anna; Heestand, Diane

    2008-07-01

    To examine the organizational structure of educational technology units within U.S. and Canadian medical schools in order to (1) identify organization models that support educational technology, (2) describe key attributes of these models, and (3) discuss the strengths and challenges associated with these models. The authors distributed a survey to 88 schools that had previously provided information on their educational technology services and infrastructure. The authors developed the survey through a series of pilots and, then, from the data for each respondent school, created concept maps, which were used to identify organizational models. The authors conducted analyses to determine differences among models. The authors coded the comments about organizational models and identified themes. The authors received adequate data for analysis from 61 schools (69%). Four models for educational technology organizations emerged: (1) centralized units located in the school of medicine, (2) centralized units located at the health science center, (3) centralized units at the comprehensive university, and (4) no centralized unit (Dispersed Model). The majority (75%) of schools relied on some type of centralized organization. Whereas few organization attributes proved to be statistically significant, the centralized models have more resources devoted to educational technology and a closer alignment with the academic mission than the Dispersed Model. Medical schools primarily use central models. The authors recommend that schools structuring their educational technology resources consider exploration of a central model because of its focused use of resources to improve teaching and learning.

  16. A survey of digital rectal examination training in Canadian medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nensi, Alysha; Chande, Nilesh

    2012-07-01

    The digital rectal examination (DRE) is important for the diagnosis of a variety of gastrointestinal, urological and gynecological disorders. However, it appears that Canadian medical students may not be adequately taught nor provided the opportunity to practice their skills often enough. The present study was an analysis of the current practices in DRE teaching and evaluation in undergraduate medicine programs across Canada. Clinical skills coordinators from the 14 English-speaking medical schools in Canada were invited to participate in the survey and to respond to questions regarding DRE teaching at their respective schools. Thirteen of the 14 schools (93%) responded to the survey. The DRE is taught in various ways: 69% of schools use anatomical rectal models, 62% use video tutorials and 62% involve physician instruction. Most schools (85%) offer one formal teaching session before clerkship. Generally, there is no formal DRE teaching session during clerkship. Preclerkship students in 62% of the schools perform competence in their students as well as provide more opportunities for students to obtain the necessary experience performing DREs during their clinical training.

  17. Hunger and overweight in Canadian school-aged children: A propensity score matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentenac, Mariane; Gariepy, Geneviève; McKinnon, Britt; Elgar, Frank J

    2016-12-27

    The last decade saw a higher prevalence of overweight reported among food-insecure families in Canada, but no robust evidence exists on the covariate-adjusted association in children. In this study, we examined the association between hunger and overweight in Canadian students, using a propensity score matching analysis to reduce confounding. This research used data from the 2009/2010 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study on a representative national sample of students in Grades 6 through 10. Students self-reported their height and weight and how often they have gone to school or to bed hungry due to a lack of food at home. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was conducted on the total sample (N = 17,694) and on the sample matched on propensity scores (n = 7,788). The overall prevalence of overweight among students was 20.2% with a significant difference between students who reported hunger (24.0%; 95% CI: 22.1-26.0) and students who did not (19.0%; 95% CI: 17.9-20.2). Analysis on the matched sample revealed a significant association between hunger and overweight in children (adjusted odds ratio: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.12-1.50). A substantial number of Canadian students have reported being hungry because of a lack of food at home. These students are at increased risk of overweight, regardless of their social class. Child hunger and household food insecurity exist in Canada and constitute a call for policy action at a national level.

  18. Building a framework for global health learning: an analysis of global health concentrations in Canadian medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Rita; Matthews, David; Bach, Paxton; Kherani, Irfan; Halpine, Mary; Meili, Ryan

    2015-04-01

    This study set out to explore the current state of global health concentrations in Canadian medical schools and to solicit feedback on the barriers and challenges to implementing rigorous global health concentration programs. A set of consensus guidelines for global health concentrations was drafted through consultation with student and faculty leaders across Canada between May 2011 and May 2012. Drawing on these guidelines, a formal survey was sent to prominent faculty at each of the 14 English-speaking Canadian medical schools. A thematic analysis of the results was then conducted. Overall, the guidelines were strongly endorsed. A majority of Canadian medical schools have programs in place to offer global health course work, extracurricular learning opportunities, local community service-learning, low-resource-setting clinical electives, predeparture training, and postreturn debriefing. Although student evaluation, global health mentorship, and knowledge translation projects were endorsed as important components, few schools had been successful in implementing them. Language training for global health remains contested. Other common critiques included a lack of time and resources, and difficulties in setting standards for student evaluation. The results suggest that these guidelines are appropriate and, at least for the major criteria, achievable. Although many Canadian schools offer individual components, the majority of schools have yet to develop formally structured concentration programs. By better articulating guidelines, a standardized framework can aid in the establishment and refinement of future programs.

  19. Active transportation to school in Canadian youth: should injury be a concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropp, Kathleen; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William

    2013-02-01

    Active transportation to school provides a means for youth to incorporate physical activity into their daily routines, and this has obvious benefits for child health. Studies of active transportation have rarely focused on the negative health effects in terms of injury. This cross-sectional study is based on the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey. A sample of children aged 11-15 years (n=20 076) was studied. Multi-level logistic regression was used to examine associations between walking or bicycling to school and related injury. Regular active transportation to school at larger distances (approximately >1.6 km; 1.0 miles) was associated with higher relative odds of active transportation injury (OR: 1.52; 95% CI 1.08 to 2.15), with a suggestion of a dose-response relationship between longer travel distances and injury (p=0.02). Physical activity interventions for youth should encourage participation in active transportation to school, while also recognising the potential for unintentional injury.

  20. Brighter Smiles Africa--translation of a Canadian community-based health-promoting school program to Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnab, A J; Radziminski, N; Budden, H; Kasangaki, A; Zavuga, R; Gagnon, F A; Mbabali, M

    2010-08-01

    PROJECT GOAL: To adapt a successful Canadian health-promoting school initiative to a Ugandan context through international partnership. Rural children face many health challenges worldwide; health professionals in training understand these better through community-based learning. Aboriginal leaders in a Canadian First-Nations community identified poor oral health as a child health issue with major long-term societal impact and intervened successfully with university partners through a school-based program called "Brighter Smiles". Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda (MUK) sought to implement this delivery model for both the benefit of communities and the dental students. MUK identified rural communities where hospitals could provide dental students with community-based learning and recruited four local schools. A joint Ugandan and Canadian team of both trainees and faculty planned the program, obtained ethics consent and baseline data, initiated the Brighter Smiles intervention model (daily at-school tooth-brushing; in-class education), and recruited a cohort to receive additional bi-annual topical fluoride. Hurdles included: challenging international communication and planning due to inconsistent internet connections; discrepancies between Canadian and developing world concepts of research ethics and informed consent; complex dynamics for community engagement and steep learning curve for accurate data collection; an itinerant population at one school; and difficulties coordinating Canadian and Ugandan university schedules. Four health-promoting schools were established; teachers, children, and families were engaged in the initiative; community-based learning was adopted for the university students; quarterly team education/evaluation/service delivery visits to schools were initiated; oral health improved, and new knowledge and practices were evident; an effective international partnership was formed providing global health education, research and health care

  1. The current status of medical genetics instruction in US and Canadian medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Virginia Carol; Wales, Paula Sue; Bell, Mary Alice; Torbeck, Laura; Brokaw, James Joseph

    2007-05-01

    Relatively little is known about how medical genetics is being taught in the undergraduate medical curriculum and whether educators concur regarding topical priority. This study sought to document the current state of medical genetics education in U.S. and Canadian accredited medical schools. In August 2004, surveys were sent from the Indiana University School of Medicine to 149 U.S. and Canadian medical genetics course directors or curricular deans. Returned surveys were collected through June 2005. Participants were asked about material covered, number of contact hours, year in which the course was offered, and what department sponsored the course. Data were collated according to instructional method and course content. The response rate was 75.2%. Most respondents (77%) taught medical genetics in the first year of medical school; only half (47%) reported that medical genetics was incorporated into the third and fourth years. About two thirds of respondents (62%) devoted 20 to 40 hours to medical genetics instruction, which was largely concerned with general concepts (86%) rather than practical application (11%). Forty-six percent of respondents reported teaching a stand-alone course versus 54% who integrated medical genetics into another course. Topics most commonly taught were cancer genetics (94.2%), multifactorial inheritance (91.3%), Mendelian disorders (90.3%), clinical cytogenetics (89.3%), and patterns of inheritance (87.4%). The findings provide important baseline data relative to guidelines recently established by the Association of American Medical Colleges. Ultimately, improved genetics curricula will help train physicians who are knowledgeable and comfortable discussing and answering questions about genetics with their patients.

  2. Using High School Football to Promote Life Skills and Student Engagement: Perspectives from Canadian Coaches and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camiré, Martin; Trundel, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In Canada, adolescent boys have been shown to have a higher high school dropout rate compared to girls. This situation is particularly evident in the country's second largest province by population, Quebec. The sport of Canadian football has recently gained in popularity in Quebec as many people believe that the sport can be used to promote both…

  3. Gaps between Beliefs, Perceptions, and Practices: The Every Teacher Project on LGBTQ-Inclusive Education in Canadian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine G.; Meyer, Elizabeth J.; Peter, Tracey; Ristock, Janice; Short, Donn; Campbell, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The Every Teacher Project involved large-scale survey research conducted to identify the beliefs, perspectives, and practices of Kindergarten to Grade 12 educators in Canadian public schools regarding lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ)-inclusive education. Comparisons are made between LGBTQ and cisgender heterosexual…

  4. Relationship between Canadian medical school student career interest in emergency medicine and postgraduate training disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Laban, Riyad B; Scott, Ian M; Gowans, Margot C

    2017-06-01

    Canada has two independent routes of emergency medicine (EM) training and certification. This unique situation may encourage medical students with EM career aspirations to apply to family medicine (FM) residencies to subsequently acquire College of Family Physicians of Canada (CFPC) training and certification in EM. We sought answers to the following: 1) Are medical students who indicate EM as their top career choice on medical school entry, and then complete a FM residency, more likely to undertake subsequent CFPC-EM training than other FM residents who did not indicate EM as their top career choice; and 2) What are the characteristics of medical students in four predefined groups, based upon their early interest in EM as a career and ultimate postgraduate training disposition. Data were accessed from a survey of medical students in 11 medical school classes from eight Canadian universities and anonymously linked to information from the Canadian Residency Matching Service between 2006 and 2009. Of 1036 participants, 63 (6.1%) named EM as their top career choice on medical school entry. Of these, 10 ultimately matched to a Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) EM residency program, and 24 matched to a FM residency program, nine of whom went on to do a one-year CFPC-EM residency program in contrast to 57 of the remaining 356 students matching to FM residency programs who did not indicate EM was their top career choice (37.5% vs 16.0%, p=0.007). Statistically significant attitudinal differences related to the presence or absence of EM career interest on medical school entry were found. Considering those who complete CFPC-EM training, a greater proportion indicate on admission to medical school that EM is their top career choice compared to those who do not. Moreover, students with an early career interest in EM are similar for several attitudinal factors independent of their ultimate postgraduate training disposition. Given the current issues and

  5. Modeling historical tuberculosis epidemics among Canadian First Nations: effects of malnutrition and genetic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah F. Ackley

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Late 19th century epidemics of tuberculosis (TB in Western Canadian First Nations resulted in peak TB mortality rates more than six times the highest rates recorded in Europe. Using a mathematical modeling approach and historical TB mortality time series, we investigate potential causes of high TB mortality and rapid epidemic decline in First Nations from 1885 to 1940. We explore two potential causes of dramatic epidemic dynamics observed in this setting: first, we explore effects of famine prior to 1900 on both TB and population dynamics. Malnutrition is recognized as an individual-level risk factor for TB progression and mortality; its population-level effects on TB epidemics have not been explored previously. Second, we explore effects of heterogeneity in susceptibility to TB in two ways: modeling heterogeneity in susceptibility to infection, and heterogeneity in risk of developing disease once infected. Our results indicate that models lacking famine-related changes in TB parameters or heterogeneity result in an implausibly poor fit to both the TB mortality time series and census data; the inclusion of these features allows for the characteristic decline and rise in population observed in First Nations during this time period and confers improved fits to TB mortality data.

  6. A queer day in Canada: examining Canadian high school students' experiences with school-based homophobia in two large-scale studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Tracey; Taylor, Catherine; Chamberland, Line

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study is to examine how location (nationally, compared to Canadian regions) is related to indicators of a hostile school environment for sexual minority youth, particularly when physical abuse is used as the outcome variable. Data representing 5,766 Canadian students were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate techniques. Results from the multivariate analyses showed that non-physical abuse was the most significant predictor of homophobically based physical abuse, for both LGBQ and non-LGBQ students. Findings reiterate the importance of considering the progression of harmful events as an escalation of violence as well as the need to view homophobic bullying as having a significant impact on all students. Finally, while the presence of homophobia is prevalent across all Canadian regions, there are, nevertheless, many regional differences, which could be used to inform region-specific action plans.

  7. The association between food insecurity and academic achievement in Canadian school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Erin L; Williams, Patty L; Willows, Noreen D; Asbridge, Mark; Veugelers, Paul J

    2017-10-01

    Education is a crucial social determinant of health. Food insecurity can be detrimental to children's academic achievement, potentially perpetuating a cycle of poverty and food insecurity. We aimed to assess the relationship between food insecurity and academic achievement in Canadian school-aged children. Cross-sectional study of children and parents. Parents completed the short-form Household Food Security Survey Module and questions about income and education level (socio-economic status). Children completed FFQ. Data were prospectively linked to children's performance on standardized exams written one year later. Mixed-effect logistic regression was employed to assess the relationship between food insecurity and likelihood of meeting academic expectations adjusting for socio-economic status, diet quality and potential confounders. Nova Scotia, Canada in 2011-2012. Students (n 4105) in grade 5 (10-11 years; 2167 girls) and their parents. Low food security was reported by 9·8 % of households; very low food security by 7·1 % of households. Students from low-income households and reporting poor diet quality were less likely to do well in school. Children who lived in households reporting very low food security had 0·65 times the odds (OR=0·65; 95 % CI 0·44, 0·96) of meeting expectations for reading and 0·62 times the odds (OR=0·62; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·86) of meeting expectations for mathematics. Very low household insecurity is associated with poor academic achievement among children in Nova Scotia.

  8. Engaging Canadian youth in conversations: Using knowledge exchange in school-based health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Murnaghan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The voice of youth is crucial to advancing solutions that contribute to effective strategies to improve youth health outcomes. The problem, however, is that youth/student voices are often overlooked, and stakeholders typically engage in decision-making without involving youth. The burden of chronic disease is increasing worldwide, and in Canada chronic disease accounts for 89 per cent of deaths. However, currently, youth spend less time being physically active while engaging in more unhealthy eating behaviours than ever before. High rates of unhealthy behaviours such as physical inactivity, unhealthy eating and tobacco use are putting Canadian youth at risk of health problems such as increased levels of overweight and obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Focus group methodology was utilised to conduct 7 focus groups with 50 students in grades 7–12 from schools in Prince Edward Island, Canada. The key themes that emerged included: (1 youth health issues such as lack of opportunities to be physically active, cost and quality of healthy food options, and bullying; (2 facilitators and barriers to health promotion, including positive peer and adult role models, positive relationships with adults and competitiveness of school sports; and (3 lack of student voice. Our findings suggest that actively engaging youth provides opportunities to understand youth perspectives on how to encourage them to make healthy choices and engage in healthy behaviours. Attention needs to be paid to inclusive knowledge exchange practices that value and integrate youth perspectives and ideas as a basis for building health promotion actions and interventions. Keywords: knowledge exchange, youth health, youth engagement

  9. Sustained improvements in students' mental health literacy with use of a mental health curriculum in Canadian schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcluckie, Alan; Kutcher, Stan; Wei, Yifeng; Weaver, Cynthia

    2014-12-31

    Enhancement of mental health literacy for youth is a focus of increasing interest for mental health professionals and educators alike. Schools are an ideal site for addressing mental health literacy in young people. Currently, there is limited evidence regarding the impact of curriculum-based interventions within high school settings. We examined the effect of a high-school mental health curriculum (The Guide) in enhancing mental health literacy in Canadian schools. We conducted a secondary analysis on surveys of students who participated in a classroom mental health course taught by their usual teachers. Evaluation of students' mental health literacy (knowledge/attitudes) was completed before and after classroom implementation and at 2-month follow-up. We used paired-samples t-tests and Cohen's d value to determine the significance and impact of change. There were 265 students who completed all surveys. Students' knowledge significantly improved between pre- and post-tests (p mental health. This is the first study to demonstrate the positive impact of a curriculum-based mental health literacy program in a Canadian high school population.

  10. The Sea Stacks Project: Enhancing the Use of Regional Literature in Atlantic Canadian Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Howard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research over the past two decades has amply demonstrated the importance of literature to the formation of both regional and national cultural identity, particularly in the face of mass market globalization of children’s book publishing in the 21st century as well as the predominance of non-Canadian content from television, movies, books, magazines and internet media. However, Canadian children appear to have only very limited exposure to Canadian authors and illustrators. In Atlantic Canada, regional Atlantic Canadian authors and illustrators for children receive very limited critical attention, and resources for the study and teaching of Atlantic Canadian children’s literature are few. Print and digital information sources on regional children’s books, publishing, authors and illustrators are scattered and inconsistent in quality and currency. This research project directly addresses these key concerns by summarizing the findings of a survey of Atlantic Canadian teachers on their use of regional books. In response to survey findings, the paper concludes by describing the creation of the Sea Stacks Project an authoritative web-delivered information resource devoted to contemporary Atlantic Canadian literature for children and teens.

  11. Indoor air quality : Tools for schools action kits for Canadian schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    Few people realize that indoor air pollution can contribute to health effects like asthma. Several agencies, notably the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), have indicated that levels of indoor pollutants can be significantly higher than those found outside. As such, poor indoor air quality (IAQ) could impact the health of students and staff, as well as the educational process and costs. Many factors can influence IAQ, including building materials, furnishings, cleaning agents, pesticides, printing and copying devices, and more. Reduction in IAQ can also result from tighter buildings and reduced ventilation. This kit was developed by Health Canada in collaboration with the Indoor Air Quality Working Group of the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Committee on Environmental and Occupational Health (CEOH) to provide school officials with the tools to prevent, identify, assess, and address most indoor air problems while minimizing cost and involvement. It was suggested that trained professionals should perform the limited and well-defined set of operations and maintenance activities described in the kit.

  12. Dental education about patients with special needs: a survey of U.S. and Canadian dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Meggan; Vainio, Lauren; Zwetchkenbaum, Samuel; Inglehart, Marita R

    2010-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore how U.S. and Canadian dental schools educate students about special needs patients and which challenges and intentions for curricular changes they perceive. Data were collected from twenty-two dental schools in the United States and Canada with a web-based survey. While 91 percent of the programs covered this topic in their clinical education, only 64 percent offered a separate course about special needs patients. The clinical education varied widely. Thirty-seven percent of the responding schools had a special clinical area in their school for treating these patients. These areas had between three and twenty-two chairs and were funded and staffed quite differently. Most programs covered the treatment of patients with more prevalent impairments such as Down syndrome (91 percent), autism spectrum disorders (91 percent), and motion impairments (86 percent). Written exams were the most common outcome assessments (91 percent), while objective structured clinical examinations (18 percent) and standardized patient experiences (9 percent) were used less frequently. The most commonly reported challenge was curriculum overload (55 percent). The majority (77 percent) planned educational changes over the next three years, with 36 percent of schools planning to increase clinical and 27 percent extramural experiences. The findings showed that the responding U.S. and Canadian dental schools had a wide range of approaches to educating predoctoral students about treating special needs patients. In order to eliminate oral health disparities and access to care issues for these patients, future research should focus on developing best practices for educational efforts in this context.

  13. Development of inquiry-based planetary science resources for Canadian schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, G. R.; Gilbert, A.; Brown, P.

    2011-12-01

    abilities) outline the independent variables, and design an experiment. This is conducted in groups after the proposed experiment is approved by the teacher. (4) Students draw conclusions on their experiment, and present results in the lab hand out and to their peers. Learning outcomes based on the Ontario curriculum have been pre-identified allowing the teachers to know what portion of the curriculum is being taught. Future activities include increasing the number of activity-based learning themes and modules available, implementing more Teacher Training Courses and workshops, increasing the number of schools that participate to the programme and continuing to participate in the annual Science Teacher's Association of Ontario Conference. Acknowledgements: Funding from the Canadian Space Agency's Space Awaremess and Learning program and an Interdisciplinary Development Initiative award from Western has made this program possible. Melissa Battler, Anna Chanou, Heather Henry, Emily McCullough, Alexandra Pontefract, and Alaura Singleton are thanked for their participation in this program.

  14. Mapping the future: towards oncology curriculum reform in undergraduate medical education at a Canadian medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Jennifer Y Y; Nyhof-Young, Joyce; Catton, Pamela; Giuliani, Meredith E

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health needs. Defining minimum curricular content

  15. Mapping the Future: Towards Oncology Curriculum Reform in Undergraduate Medical Education at a Canadian Medical School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, Jennifer Y.Y. [School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Nyhof-Young, Joyce [Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Catton, Pamela [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Giuliani, Meredith E., E-mail: Meredith.Giuliani@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Methods and Materials: Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. Results: The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). Conclusions: The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health

  16. The association between senior student tobacco use rate at school and alternative tobacco product use among junior students in Canadian secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Adam G; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2014-01-01

    The use of alternative tobacco products (ATPs) has grown in popularity among Canadian youth. This study examined the association between a school-level characteristic (the senior student tobacco use rate) and the current use of manufactured cigarettes, little cigars or cigarillos, cigars, roll-your-own cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (SLT), and a hookah among junior students. This study used nationally representative Canadian data from 29,495 students in grades 9 to 12 as part of the 2010/2011 Youth Smoking Survey. For each ATP, we described rates of senior and junior tobacco use, calculated the variance attributed to school-level factors, and examined the association between the senior student (grades 11 and 12) tobacco use rate and the current use of each ATP among junior students (grades 9 and 10) while accounting for relevant student-level characteristics. SAS 9.3 was used for all analyses. Over half of schools sampled had senior students that reported using each ATP. School-level differences accounted for between 14.1% and 29.7% of the variability in ATP current use among junior students. Each one percent increase in the number of senior students at a school that currently use manufactured cigarettes, SLT, or a hookah was significantly independently associated with an increased likelihood that a junior student at that school currently used manufactured cigarettes (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.06), SLT (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.24), or a hookah (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.14). Characteristics of the school environment a junior student attends appear to play an important role in ATP use, and tobacco control programs and policies should be designed to ensure that they include strategies to curb the use of all tobacco products. Additional evidence is needed for the impact of comprehensive school-based tobacco control approaches.

  17. "When I Was Little": Childhood Recollections in Chinese and European Canadian Grade School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carole; Wang, Qi; Hou, Yubo

    2009-01-01

    Recollection of early childhood experiences was investigated in 225 European Canadian and 133 Chinese children (ages 8, 11, and 14) by a memory fluency task that measured accessibility of multiple early memories and elicited the earliest memory. Younger children provided memories of events that occurred at earlier ages than older children.…

  18. Co-Occurring Cyberbullying and School Bullying Victimization and Associations With Mental Health Problems Among Canadian Middle and High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the associations between co-occurring cyberbullying and school bullying victimization with poor self-rated mental health, psychological distress, and suicidal ideation and attempts among 4,886 Canadian students in Grades 7-12 and tested whether these associations differed between middle and high school students. There are 12.2% of students who were victims of both cyberbullying and school bullying. After adjusting for covariates, victims of both cyberbullying and school bullying presented the highest odds of poor self-rated mental health (odds ratio [OR] = 5.02; 95% CI [3.75, 6.74]), psychological distress (OR = 5.91; 95% CI [4.38, 7.96]), and suicidal ideation (OR = 6.17; 95% CI [4.44, 8.56]) and attempts (OR = 7.68; 95% CI [3.95, 14.93]). These associations were stronger among middle-school youth than their high school counterparts. Results suggest that victims of both cyberbullying and school bullying may constitute the most vulnerable group and that there is a need for intervention programs addressing both forms of bullying simultaneously, particularly among middle school students.

  19. Associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among Canadian schoolchildren

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Roumeliotis, Paul; Xu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization with suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle and high school students...

  20. Losing Sleep over It: Daily Variation in Sleep Quantity and Quality in Canadian Students' First Semester of University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Dalton, Andrea L.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Daily covariation of sleep quantity and quality with affective, stressful, academic, and social experiences were observed in a sample of Canadian 17-19-year-olds in their first year of university. Participants (N = 191) completed web-based checklists for 14 consecutive days during their first semester. Multilevel models predicting sleep quantity…

  1. An Environmental Scan of Academic Emergency Medicine at the 17 Canadian Medical Schools: Why Does this Matter to Emergency Physicians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiell, Ian G; Artz, Jennifer D; Lang, Eddy S; Sherbino, Jonathan; Morrison, Laurie J; Christenson, James; Perry, Jeffrey J; Topping, Claude; Woods, Robert; Green, Robert S; Lim, Rodrick; Magee, Kirk; Foote, John; Meckler, Garth; Mensour, Mark; Field, Simon; Chung, Brian; Kuuskne, Martin; Ducharme, James; Klein, Vera; McEwen, Jill

    2017-01-01

    We sought to conduct a major objective of the CAEP Academic Section, an environmental scan of the academic emergency medicine programs across the 17 Canadian medical schools. We developed an 84-question questionnaire, which was distributed to academic heads. The responses were validated by phone by the lead author to ensure that the questions were answered completely and consistently. Details of pediatric emergency medicine units were excluded from the scan. At eight of 17 universities, emergency medicine has full departmental status and at two it has no official academic status. Canadian academic emergency medicine is practiced at 46 major teaching hospitals and 13 specialized pediatric hospitals. Another 69 Canadian hospital EDs regularly take clinical clerks and emergency medicine residents. There are 31 full professors of emergency medicine in Canada. Teaching programs are strong with clerkships offered at 16/17 universities, CCFP(EM) programs at 17/17, and RCPSC residency programs at 14/17. Fourteen sites have at least one physician with a Master's degree in education. There are 55 clinical researchers with salary support at 13 universities. Sixteen sites have published peer-reviewed papers in the past five years, ranging from four to 235 per site. Annual budgets range from $200,000 to $5,900,000. This comprehensive review of academic activities in emergency medicine across Canada identifies areas of strengths as well as opportunities for improvement. CAEP and the Academic Section hope we can ultimately improve ED patient care by sharing best academic practices and becoming better teachers, educators, and researchers.

  2. A Survey of Digital Rectal Examination Training in Canadian Medical Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alysha Nensi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The digital rectal examination (DRE is important for the diagnosis of a variety of gastrointestinal, urological and gynecological disorders. However, it appears that Canadian medical students may not be adequately taught nor provided the opportunity to practice their skills often enough. The present study was an analysis of the current practices in DRE teaching and evaluation in undergraduate medicine programs across Canada.

  3. Knowledge Transfer or Social Competence? A Comparison of German and Canadian Adolescent Students on Their Socio-Motivational Relationships in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoferichter, Frances; Raufelder, Diana; Eid, Michael; Bukowski, William M.

    2014-01-01

    This cross-national study investigates the perception of the impact of students' relationships towards teachers and peers on scholastic motivation in a total sample of 1477 seventh and eighth grade German (N?=?1088) and Canadian (N?=?389) secondary school students. By applying Multigroup Confirmatory Latent Class Analysis in Mplus we confirmed…

  4. Canadian Children's Literature: An Alberta Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Carbonaro, Mike; Green, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the findings of an online survey administered to Alberta elementary school teachers in 2000-2001. The survey explored the teachers' knowledge and use of Canadian children's literature and their thoughts about the role of Canadian literature in elementary school classrooms. Canadian children's trade books espouse particular…

  5. High School Music Programmes as Potential Sites for Communities of Practice--A Canadian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Countryman, June

    2009-01-01

    My exploration of the nature of the high school music experience was undertaken with 33 young adults who had graduated from high school one to six years previous to the data collection. All of these participants had been involved in their school music programmes and 30 had not continued formal music study following graduation. One might predict…

  6. Reconciliation or Racialization? Contemporary Discourses about Residential Schools in the Canadian Prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhard, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    The residential school system is one of the darkest examples of Canada's colonial policy. Education about the residential schools is believed to be the path to reconciliation; that is, the restoration of equality between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples in Canada. While the acquisition of the long-ignored history of residential schools has…

  7. Organized Extracurricular Activities: Are In-School and Out-of-School Activities Associated with Different Outcomes for Canadian Youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guèvremont, Anne; Findlay, Leanne; Kohen, Dafna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Participation in extracurricular activities can have positive effects on youth, with greater participation associated with higher academic as well as better socioemotional and behavioral outcomes. Little research has examined differential effects of in-school and out-of-school activities. Methods: This study examines in-school and…

  8. Associations between the school food environment, student consumption and body mass index of Canadian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mâsse, Louise C; de Niet-Fitzgerald, Judith Evelyn; Watts, Allison W; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

    2014-03-26

    Increasing attention has been paid to the school food environment as a strategy to reduce childhood obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between the school food environment, students' dietary intake, and obesity in British Columbia (BC), Canada. In 2007/08, principal responses about the school environment (N=174) were linked to grades 7-12 students (N=11,385) from corresponding schools, who participated in the BC Adolescent Health Survey. Hierarchical mixed-effect regression analyses examined the association between the school food environment and student's intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), food consumption, and body mass index. Analyses controlled for school setting, neighborhood education level and student's age and sex. School availability of SSBs was positively associated with moderate (Odds Ratio (OR)=1.15, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.02-1.30) and high (OR=1.43, 95% CI=1.13-1.80) SSB intake as were less healthful school nutrition guidelines for moderate SSB consumers only (OR=0.65, 95% CI=0.48-0.88). Availability of SSBs at school and its consumption were positively associated with student obesity (OR=1.50, 95% CI=1.12-2.01 and OR=1.66, 95% CI=1.19-2.34, respectively) but not with overweight. In contrast, consumption of less healthful food was positively associated with overweight (OR=1.03, 95% CI=1.01-1.06). The results of this study provide further evidence to support the important role of schools in shaping adolescents' dietary habits. Availability and consumption of SSBs, but not less healthful foods, at school were associated with higher adolescent obesity highlighting that other environments also contribute to adolescent obesity.

  9. Beyond the Barriers: Marking the Place for Marijuana Use at a Canadian High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joy L.; Moffat, Barbara; Bottorff, Joan; Shoveller, Jean; Fischer, Benedikt; Haines, Rebecca J.

    2008-01-01

    This ethnographic study aimed at developing a richer understanding of how youth, their schools, and the communities in which they are emplaced coincide to generate a set of local social processes that affect marijuana use. We trace the interplay between high school staff and students with regards to marijuana use in the proximity of a local high…

  10. Physical activity among Canadian children on school days and nonschool days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Ploeg, Kerry Ann; Wu, Biao; McGavock, Jon; Veugelers, Paul J

    2012-11-01

    Schools are frequently cited as a favorable venue to promote physical activity (PA), however little data exist describing times when students are least active. Our objective was to overcome this limitation and describe time periods when students are least active. We used a cross-sectional design to assess patterns of PA in 923 grade 5 students [mean age: 10.9 (± 0.4) years] from 30 schools in Alberta, Canada. Students wore time-stamped pedometers for 9 consecutive days, providing 7 full days of data. We compared step counts adjusted for nonwear time between school days and nonschool days as well as during school hours and after school hours. 689 (75%) students provided complete data. The average daily step count was higher on school days (boys 13,476 ± 4123 step/day; girls 11,436 ± 3158 steps/day) than nonschool days (boys 11,009 ± 5542 steps/day; girls 10,256 ± 5206 steps/day). More steps were also taken during school hours than nonschool hours (boys +206 ± 420 steps/hour, P school hours, and weekends.

  11. School Engagement among Youth in Canadian Forces Families: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Karen; Albanese, Patrizia; Harrison, Deborah; Sanders, Chris

    2013-01-01

    There has been a growing body of literature on adolescents in military families since 2002. This research has focused on how frequent moves and parental deployments are two unique potential stressors for youth in military families, and are associated with negative school outcomes. Analyzing data collected from a school in a military community, and…

  12. The Pasternak Case and American Gender Equity Policy: Implications for Canadian High School Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaubier, Dean M.; Gadbois, Shannon A.; Stick, Sheldon L.

    2011-01-01

    In 2004 twin sisters Amy and Jesse Pasternak competed for the prospect of playing high school hockey, vying for the boys' team rather than the girls'. The sisters' opportunities were negated by the Manitoba High School Athletic Association (MHSAA). This paper examines the 2006 decision by the Manitoba Human Rights Commission and a 2008 judgment by…

  13. Adaptations of Euro-Canadian Schools to Inuit Culture in Selected Communities in Nunavut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Paul

    Formal schooling is less than 100 years old in the Kivalliq region of Nunavut. In the last three decades, efforts to reflect and value Inuit culture in northern schools have increased, in light of concerns over whether the dominant culture's education system was appropriate or effective for Inuit children. These efforts have resulted in varying…

  14. Planning for Sustainability of an Evidence-Based Mental Health Promotion Program in Canadian Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J; Gladstone, Emilie J; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena

    2015-09-01

    Substantial research illuminates many factors effecting the implementation of evidence-based mental health promotion programs in schools; however, research on how schools plan for sustaining their investments in these programs is limited. In this qualitative study, we elicited descriptions of opportunities and challenges for sustainability. We interviewed 24 individuals from schools involved in a longitudinal, qualitative research project that followed uptake and implementation of the evidence-based WITS Programs across 2 years (Leadbeater et al. 2012). WITS stands for Walk away, Ignore, Talk it out and Seek help and the online WITS Programs focus on preventing peer victimization ( www.witsprograms.ca ). Our findings suggest that sustainability planning in schools is not merely a next step following high quality implementation, but rather involves multiple ongoing processes that need to be anticipated and supported by school leadership and program champions and developers in order to realize investments in evidence-based programs.

  15. Associations between Cyberbullying and School Bullying Victimization and Suicidal Ideation, Plans and Attempts among Canadian Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Roumeliotis, Paul; Xu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The negative effects of peer aggression on mental health are key issues for public health. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization with suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle and high school students, and to test whether these relationships were mediated by reports of depression. Methods Data for this study are from the 2011 Eastern Ontario Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, which is a cross-sectional regional school-based survey that was conducted among students in selected Grade 7 to 12 classes (1658 girls, 1341 boys; mean±SD age: 14.3±1.8 years). Results Victims of cyberbullying and school bullying incurred a significantly higher risk of suicidal ideation (cyberbullying: crude odds ratio, 95% confidence interval  = 3.31, 2.16–5.07; school bullying: 3.48, 2.48–4.89), plans (cyberbullying: 2.79, 1.63–4.77; school bullying: 2.76, 2.20–3.45) and attempts (cyberbullying: 1.73, 1.26–2.38; school bullying: 1.64, 1.18–2.27) compared to those who had not encountered such threats. Results were similar when adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, and sedentary activities. Mediation analyses indicated that depression fully mediated the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and each of the outcomes of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. Depression also fully mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and suicide attempts, but partially mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and both suicidal ideation and plans. Conclusion These findings support an association between both cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and risk of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. The mediating role of depression on these links justifies the need for addressing depression among victims of both forms of bullying to prevent the risk of subsequent suicidal behaviours. PMID:25076490

  16. Associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among Canadian schoolchildren.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues Sampasa-Kanyinga

    Full Text Available The negative effects of peer aggression on mental health are key issues for public health. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization with suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle and high school students, and to test whether these relationships were mediated by reports of depression.Data for this study are from the 2011 Eastern Ontario Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, which is a cross-sectional regional school-based survey that was conducted among students in selected Grade 7 to 12 classes (1658 girls, 1341 boys; mean ± SD age: 14.3 ± 1.8 years.Victims of cyberbullying and school bullying incurred a significantly higher risk of suicidal ideation (cyberbullying: crude odds ratio, 95% confidence interval  = 3.31, 2.16-5.07; school bullying: 3.48, 2.48-4.89, plans (cyberbullying: 2.79, 1.63-4.77; school bullying: 2.76, 2.20-3.45 and attempts (cyberbullying: 1.73, 1.26-2.38; school bullying: 1.64, 1.18-2.27 compared to those who had not encountered such threats. Results were similar when adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, and sedentary activities. Mediation analyses indicated that depression fully mediated the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and each of the outcomes of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. Depression also fully mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and suicide attempts, but partially mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and both suicidal ideation and plans.These findings support an association between both cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and risk of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. The mediating role of depression on these links justifies the need for addressing depression among victims of both forms of bullying to prevent the risk of subsequent suicidal behaviours.

  17. Associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among Canadian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Roumeliotis, Paul; Xu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    The negative effects of peer aggression on mental health are key issues for public health. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization with suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle and high school students, and to test whether these relationships were mediated by reports of depression. Data for this study are from the 2011 Eastern Ontario Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, which is a cross-sectional regional school-based survey that was conducted among students in selected Grade 7 to 12 classes (1658 girls, 1341 boys; mean ± SD age: 14.3 ± 1.8 years). Victims of cyberbullying and school bullying incurred a significantly higher risk of suicidal ideation (cyberbullying: crude odds ratio, 95% confidence interval  = 3.31, 2.16-5.07; school bullying: 3.48, 2.48-4.89), plans (cyberbullying: 2.79, 1.63-4.77; school bullying: 2.76, 2.20-3.45) and attempts (cyberbullying: 1.73, 1.26-2.38; school bullying: 1.64, 1.18-2.27) compared to those who had not encountered such threats. Results were similar when adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, and sedentary activities. Mediation analyses indicated that depression fully mediated the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and each of the outcomes of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. Depression also fully mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and suicide attempts, but partially mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and both suicidal ideation and plans. These findings support an association between both cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and risk of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. The mediating role of depression on these links justifies the need for addressing depression among victims of both forms of bullying to prevent the risk of subsequent suicidal behaviours.

  18. Associations between Cyberbullying and School Bullying Victimization and Suicidal Ideation, Plans and Attempts among Canadian Schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Hugues Sampasa-Kanyinga; Paul Roumeliotis; Hao Xu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The negative effects of peer aggression on mental health are key issues for public health. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization with suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle and high school students, and to test whether these relationships were mediated by reports of depression. Methods Data for this study are from the 2011 Eastern Ontario Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, which is a cross-sectional regi...

  19. How Do Medical Schools Identify and Remediate Professionalism Lapses in Medical Students? A Study of U.S. and Canadian Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziring, Deborah; Danoff, Deborah; Grosseman, Suely; Langer, Debra; Esposito, Amanda; Jan, Mian Kouresch; Rosenzweig, Steven; Novack, Dennis

    2015-07-01

    Teaching and assessing professionalism is an essential element of medical education, mandated by accrediting bodies. Responding to a call for comprehensive research on remediation of student professionalism lapses, the authors explored current medical school policies and practices. In 2012-2013, key administrators at U.S. and Canadian medical schools accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education were interviewed via telephone or e-mail. The structured interview questionnaire contained open-ended and closed questions about practices for monitoring student professionalism, strategies for remediating lapses, and strengths and limitations of current systems. The authors employed a mixed-methods approach, using descriptive statistics and qualitative analysis based on grounded theory. Ninety-three (60.8%) of 153 eligible schools participated. Most (74/93; 79.6%) had specific policies and processes regarding professionalism lapses. Student affairs deans and course/clerkship directors were typically responsible for remediation oversight. Approaches for identifying lapses included incident-based reporting and routine student evaluations. The most common remediation strategies reported by schools that had remediated lapses were mandated mental health evaluation (74/90; 82.2%), remediation assignments (66/90; 73.3%), and professionalism mentoring (66/90; 73.3%). System strengths included catching minor offenses early, emphasizing professionalism schoolwide, focusing on helping rather than punishing students, and assuring transparency and good communication. System weaknesses included reluctance to report (by students and faculty), lack of faculty training, unclear policies, and ineffective remediation. In addition, considerable variability in feedforward processes existed between schools. The identified strengths can be used in developing best practices until studies of the strategies' effectiveness are conducted.

  20. Cultural competence and cultural safety in Canadian schools of nursing: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Margo S; Rukholm, Ellen; Bourque-Bearskin, Lisa; Baker, Cynthia; Voyageur, Evelyn; Robitaille, Annie

    2013-04-23

    Cultural competence and cultural safety are essential knowledge in contemporary nursing care. Using a three-phase, mixed methods sequential triangulation design, this study examines the extent to which Anglophone Schools of Nursing in Canada have integrated cultural competence and/or cultural safety into the undergraduate nursing curricula. Factors that influence successful integration are identified through the lens of Donabedian's structure, process, and outcome model. Results suggest that several facilitating factors are present, such as leadership, partnerships and linkages, and educational supports for students. Of particular concern is the lack of policies to recruit and retain Aboriginal faculty, financial resources, and outcome evaluation indicators. A conceptual model of integration is offered to explain how Schools of Nursing function to support the implementation of these concepts into their curriculum. This study provides theoretical and practical implications for initiation and improvement of cultural competence and/or cultural safety integration strategies in Schools of Nursing.

  1. Faculty and student perceptions of academic integrity at U.S. and Canadian dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Kenneth G; Smith, Linda A; Henzi, David; Demps, Elaine

    2007-08-01

    The issues of cheating and plagiarism in educational settings have received a large amount of attention in recent years. The purpose of this study was to assess the degree to which academic integrity issues currently exist in the dental schools throughout the United States and Canada. An online survey was developed to gather data pertaining to this topic from two key groups in dental education: faculty and students. Responses were obtained from 1,153 students and 423 faculty members. The results of the survey clearly reveal that cheating is a significant problem in dental schools and that significant differences exist between students' and faculty members' perceptions of academic integrity. The challenge for dental schools is to identify effective strategies to prevent cheating opportunities and to implement and enforce effective means of dealing with specific examples of cheating.

  2. Soil 4 Youth: Charting New Territory in Canadian High School Soil Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzic, Maja; Wilson, Julie; Basiliko, Nathan; Bedard-Haughn, Angela; Humphreys, Elyn; Dyanatkar, Saeed; Hazlett, Paul; Strivelli, Rachel; Crowley, Chris; Dampier, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    As global issues continue to place increasing demands on soil resources, the need to provide soil science education to the next generation of soil scientists and the general public is becoming more imminent. In many countries around the world, including Canada, soil is either not included in the high school curriculum or it is not covered in…

  3. Everyday Racism in Canadian Schools: Ideologies of Language and Culture among Korean Transnational Students in Toronto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyunjung

    2015-01-01

    Drawing from a 2.4-year ethnography with Korean Early Study Abroad (ESA, pre-college-aged study abroad) students in Toronto high schools, I examine the intersections among race, class, language, culture and citizenship (including immigrant status) in the identity construction and language learning of these students. Conceptualising race as a…

  4. School Readiness amongst Urban Canadian Families: Risk Profiles and Family Mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Dillon T.; Wade, Mark; Prime, Heather; Jenkins, Jennifer M.

    2018-01-01

    There is an ongoing need for literature that identifies the effects of broad contextual risk on school readiness outcomes via family mediating mechanisms. This is especially true amongst diverse and urban samples characterized by variability in immigration history. To address this limitation, family profiles of sociodemographic and contextual risk…

  5. Drinking Water Quality Guidelines across Canadian Provinces and Territories: Jurisdictional Variation in the Context of Decentralized Water Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Gemma; Bakker, Karen; Harris, Leila

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the first comprehensive review and analysis of the uptake of the Canadian Drinking Water Quality Guidelines (CDWQG) across Canada’s 13 provinces and territories. This review is significant given that Canada’s approach to drinking water governance is: (i) highly decentralized and (ii) discretionary. Canada is (along with Australia) only one of two Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member states that does not comply with the World Health Organization’s (WHO) recommendation that all countries have national, legally binding drinking water quality standards. Our review identifies key differences in the regulatory approaches to drinking water quality across Canada’s 13 jurisdictions. Only 16 of the 94 CDWQG are consistently applied across all 13 jurisdictions; five jurisdictions use voluntary guidelines, whereas eight use mandatory standards. The analysis explores three questions of central importance for water managers and public health officials: (i) should standards be uniform or variable; (ii) should compliance be voluntary or legally binding; and (iii) should regulation and oversight be harmonized or delegated? We conclude with recommendations for further research, with particular reference to the relevance of our findings given the high degree of variability in drinking water management and oversight capacity between urban and rural areas in Canada. PMID:24776725

  6. Drinking Water Quality Guidelines across Canadian provinces and territories: jurisdictional variation in the context of decentralized water governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Gemma; Bakker, Karen; Harris, Leila

    2014-04-25

    This article presents the first comprehensive review and analysis of the uptake of the Canadian Drinking Water Quality Guidelines (CDWQG) across Canada's 13 provinces and territories. This review is significant given that Canada's approach to drinking water governance is: (i) highly decentralized and (ii) discretionary. Canada is (along with Australia) only one of two Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member states that does not comply with the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendation that all countries have national, legally binding drinking water quality standards. Our review identifies key differences in the regulatory approaches to drinking water quality across Canada's 13 jurisdictions. Only 16 of the 94 CDWQG are consistently applied across all 13 jurisdictions; five jurisdictions use voluntary guidelines, whereas eight use mandatory standards. The analysis explores three questions of central importance for water managers and public health officials: (i) should standards be uniform or variable; (ii) should compliance be voluntary or legally binding; and (iii) should regulation and oversight be harmonized or delegated? We conclude with recommendations for further research, with particular reference to the relevance of our findings given the high degree of variability in drinking water management and oversight capacity between urban and rural areas in Canada.

  7. Drinking Water Quality Guidelines across Canadian Provinces and Territories: Jurisdictional Variation in the Context of Decentralized Water Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Dunn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the first comprehensive review and analysis of the uptake of the Canadian Drinking Water Quality Guidelines (CDWQG across Canada’s 13 provinces and territories. This review is significant given that Canada’s approach to drinking water governance is: (i highly decentralized and (ii discretionary. Canada is (along with Australia only one of two Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD member states that does not comply with the World Health Organization’s (WHO recommendation that all countries have national, legally binding drinking water quality standards. Our review identifies key differences in the regulatory approaches to drinking water quality across Canada’s 13 jurisdictions. Only 16 of the 94 CDWQG are consistently applied across all 13 jurisdictions; five jurisdictions use voluntary guidelines, whereas eight use mandatory standards. The analysis explores three questions of central importance for water managers and public health officials: (i should standards be uniform or variable; (ii should compliance be voluntary or legally binding; and (iii should regulation and oversight be harmonized or delegated? We conclude with recommendations for further research, with particular reference to the relevance of our findings given the high degree of variability in drinking water management and oversight capacity between urban and rural areas in Canada.

  8. Ideas, Institutions, and School Curricula: Explaining Variation between England and France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haus, Leah

    2015-01-01

    This study raises the question of why the French secondary school history curricula introduced in the late 2000s prescribed more extensive coverage of plural histories than did secondary school history curricula for English schools introduced in the same time period. Both countries share similar societal diversity. To explain the variation in…

  9. Paleomagnetic dating of Holocene western and eastern Canadian Arctic sediments: combined use of radiocarbon, paleomagnetic secular variation and global spherical harmonic model of the geomagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Guillaume; Barletta, Francesco; Ledu, David; Rochon, André; Channell, James E. T.

    2010-05-01

    Radiocarbon dating of Holocene sediments is often challenging in the Arctic due to the paucity of datable material, carbonate dissolution and an often poorly constrained reservoir correction, highlighting the need to combine 14C dating with other methods to establish robust Arctic chronologies. Here we illustrate the potential of using Holocene paleomagnetic secular variation records and a time-varying spherical harmonic model of the geomagnetic field (CALS7K.2; Korte and Constable, 2005) in conjunction with radiocarbon dating to establish or improve age models from marine sedimentary records recently recovered on board the CCGS Amundsen in the Beaufort Sea (western Canadian Arctic, core 2004-804-650PC) and Lancaster Sound (eastern Canadian Arctic, core 2004-804-009PC). For both cores, a u-channel-based paleomagnetic study reveals the presence of a strong, stable, well-defined single component magnetization (maximum angular deviation < 5°), with characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) inclinations varying around the expected inclination for the latitude of the sites assuming a geocentric axial dipole. For core 650PC (Beaufort Sea), an age model spanning the last ~6 000 cal BP was established from one radiocarbon age in addition to nine paleomagnetic tie points obtained by comparing the ChRM declination profiles of core 650PC and the CALS7k.2 geomagnetic model output. In order to verify the robustness of this correlation, the ChRM inclination record of core 650PC was then compared with other western North American lacustrine and volcanic Holocene paleomagnetic secular variation records. Several common magnetic inclination features are detected among all the considered records during the last ~6 000 cal BP, indicating the same geomagnetic origin as well as the consistency of the derived age model. Similarly, for core 009PC (Lancaster Sound), the initial age model consisting of 4 radiocarbon ages was improved by adding 4 paleomagnetic tie points derived by

  10. CAREER PLANS OF GRADUATES OF A CANADIAN DENTAL SCHOOL: PRELIMINARY REPORT OF A 5-YEAR SURVEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Usama; Fairbanks, Connor; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Kilistoff, Alan; Easton, Rick

    2016-07-01

    Comprehensive data on the characteristics and opinions of graduating dental students in Canada are lacking. Specifically, only minimal information is available on graduates' immediate career plans and factors that may influence their decisions regarding these plans. Our aim was to gather such data to allow better understanding of this issue and improve the design of future studies on this topic. The Career Development Committee at the school of dentistry, University of Alberta, designed a short survey to be administered to graduating students over 5 years to gain insight into their immediate career plans and opinions on career services at the school. Preliminary results from 2012-2014 are reported here. With a response rate of close to 90% (n = 99/111), the data reveal considerable differences in immediate career plans between the surveyed students and those in other schools in Canada and the United States. Of the students, 89% were planning to work in a general dental practice and only 9% were planning to enroll in advanced education, including general practice residency training. More research is needed to better understand the factors affecting career path decisions of students.

  11. School readiness and later achievement: replication and extension using a nationwide Canadian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Elisa; Babchishin, Lyzon; Pagani, Linda S; Kohen, Dafna

    2010-09-01

    In this article we replicate and extend findings from Duncan et al. (2007). The 1st study used Canada-wide data on 1,521 children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) to examine the influence of kindergarten literacy and math skills, mother-reported attention, and mother-reported socioemotional behaviors on 3rd-grade math and reading outcomes. Similar to Duncan et al., (a) math skills were the strongest predictor of later achievement, (b) literacy and attention skills predicted later achievement, and (c) socioemotional behaviors did not significantly predict later school achievement. As part of extending the findings, we incorporated a multiple imputation approach to handle missing predictor variable data. Results paralleled those from the original study in that kindergarten math skills and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised scores continued to predict later achievement. However, we also found that kindergarten socioemotional behaviors, specifically hyperactivity/impulsivity, prosocial behavior, and anxiety/depression, were significant predictors of 3rd-grade math and reading. In the 2nd study, we used data from the NLSCY and the Montreal Longitudinal-Experimental Preschool Study (MLEPS), which was included in Duncan et al., to extend previous findings by examining the influence of kindergarten achievement, attention, and socioemotional behaviors on 3rd-grade socioemotional outcomes. Both NLSCY and MLEPS findings indicated that kindergarten math significantly predicted socioemotional behaviors. There were also a number of significant relationships between early and later socioemotional behaviors. Findings support the importance of socioemotional behaviors both as predictors of later school success and as indicators of school success.

  12. Identification of amino acid variation in the prion protein associated with classical scrapie in Canadian dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srithayakumar, Vythegi; Mitchell, Gordon B; White, Bradley N

    2016-03-22

    A clear association of amino acid variation in the prion protein gene (PRNP) with susceptibility and resistance to classical scrapie exists in sheep, but not in goats. In this study we examined DNA sequence variation in the PRNP of 149 animals from two scrapie-infected herds of Saanen dairy goats, and identified 6 non-synonymous variants in the coding region. In the larger herd, all of the 54 scrapie-affected goats tested had at least one allele with the arginine (R) codon at position 211, with 52 being homozygous for that variant. No animal homozygous for the glutamine (Q) codon at 211 were affected and only two heterozygotes (R/Q) were affected. A weak association was found at position 146 and no significant associations were found with amino acid variation at the remaining four variant positions (142, 143, 222 and 240), however, the allelic variation was low. Similar patterns were observed in the second scrapie-affected herd. We also evaluated previous studies on goat herds affected with scrapie and this relationship of R susceptibility and Q resistance at 211 was present independent of the genotypes at the other positions including 222. The fact that glutamine at 211 provides a significant protective property to scrapie irrespective of the other positions could be important for breeding strategies aimed at improving herd resistance to scrapie, while maintaining important productivity traits.

  13. The Impact of School Climate: Variation by Ethnicity and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Maureen A.; Storino, Meri; Sebastiani, Ann Marie

    This paper presents findings from a district-wide survey of 7th grade students in a semi-rural school district where 23% of the students are Latino. Participating students completed the California School Climate and Safety Survey which assesses student perceptions regarding general school climate and personal safety-related experiences.…

  14. A multiple case history and systematic review of adoption, diffusion, implementation and impact of provincial daily physical activity policies in Canadian schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Campbell, Elizabeth J; Raine, Kim D; Nykiforuk, Candace I J

    2015-04-15

    Few children meet physical activity (PA) recommendations, and are therefore at increased risk for overweight/obesity and adverse health outcomes. To increase children's opportunities for PA, several Canadian provinces have adopted school-based daily PA (DPA) policies. It is not clear why some jurisdictions have adopted DPA policies, and others have not, nor whether these policies have been implemented and have achieved their intended outcomes. The purpose of this study was to understand the processes underlying adoption and diffusion of Canadian DPA policies, and to review evidence regarding their implementation and impact. We adopted a multiple case history methodology in which we traced the chronological trajectory of DPA policies among Canadian provinces by compiling timelines detailing key historical events that preceded policy adoption. Publicly available documents posted on the internet were reviewed to characterize adopter innovativeness, describe the content of their DPA policies, and explore the context surrounding policy adoption. Diffusion of Innovations theory provided a conceptual framework for the analyses. A systematic literature search identified studies that had investigated adoption, diffusion, implementation or impact of Canadian DPA policies. Five of Canada's 13 provinces and territories (38.5%) have DPA policies. Although the underlying objectives of the policies are similar, there are clear differences among them and in their various policy trajectories. Adoption and diffusion of DPA policies were structured by the characteristics and capacities of adopters, the nature of their policies, and contextual factors. Limited data suggests implementation of DPA policies was moderate but inconsistent and that Canadian DPA policies have had little to no impact on school-aged children's PA levels or BMI. This study detailed the history and current status of Canadian DPA policies, highlighting the conditional nature of policy adoption and diffusion, and

  15. Homelessness in the Medical Curriculum: An Analysis of Case-Based Learning Content From One Canadian Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Matthew J; MacLeod, Anna; Hwang, Stephen W

    2016-01-01

    PHENOMENON: Homelessness is a major public health concern. Given that homeless individuals have high rates of mortality and morbidity, are more likely to be users of the healthcare system, and often report unmet health needs, it is important to examine how homelessness is addressed in medical education. We wanted to examine content and framing of issues related to homelessness in the case-based learning (CBL) curriculum and provide insights about whether medical students are being adequately trained to meet the health needs of homeless individuals through CBL. CBL content at a Canadian medical school that featured content related to homelessness was analyzed. Data were extracted from cases for the following variables: curriculum unit (e.g., professionalism/ethics curriculum or biomedical/clinical curriculum), patient characteristics (e.g., age, sex), and medical and social conditions. A thematic analysis was performed on cases related to homelessness. Discrepancies in analysis were resolved by consensus. Homelessness was mentioned in five (2.6%) of 191 CBL cases in the medical curriculum. Homelessness was significantly more likely to be featured in professionalism/ethics cases than in biomedical/clinical cases (p = .03). Homeless patients were portrayed as socially disadvantaged individuals, and medical learners were prompted to discuss ethical issues related to homeless patients in cases. However, homeless individuals were largely voiceless in cases. Homelessness was associated with serious physical and mental health concerns, but students were rarely prompted to address these concerns. Insights: The health and social needs of homeless individuals are often overlooked in CBL cases in the medical curriculum. Moreover, stereotypes of homelessness may be reinforced through medical training. There are opportunities for growth in addressing the needs of homeless individuals through medical education.

  16. Spatial variation in school performance, a local analysis of socio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setup

    and Oosthuizen, 2009; Smith, 2011; Spaull, 2013) with racial composition and socio-economic background as the major explanatory factors for matric pass rates (Van der Berg, 2007, 2008, 2011;. Smith, 2011). Within the post-apartheid school system, school characteristics ofinfrastructure and pupil teacher ratios, teacher, ...

  17. Spatial Variation in School Performance, a Local Analysis of Socio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor pass rates of matric learners at secondary schools in South Africa has been a concern for quite some time. Despite large government spending on education, research has shown that the South African schooling system is struggling to convert resources to student performances and failing to promote social equity.

  18. Exploring the use of lesson study with six Canadian middle-school science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Terry James

    This qualitative case study explores the use of lesson study over a ten-week period with six Ontario middle school science teachers. The research questions guiding this study were: (1) How does participation in science-based lesson study influence these teachers': (a) science subject matter knowledge (science SMK), (b) science pedagogical content knowledge (science PCK), and (c) confidence in teaching science?, and (2) What benefits and challenges do they associate with lesson study? Data sources for this study were: teacher questionnaires, surveys, reflections, pre- and post- interviews, and follow-up emails; researcher field notes and reflections; pre- and post- administration of the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument; and audio recordings of group meetings. The teachers demonstrated limited gains in science SMK. There was evidence for an overall improvement in teacher knowledge of forces and simple machines, and two teachers demonstrated improvement in over half of the five scenarios assessing teacher science SMK. Modest gains in teacher science PCK were found. One teacher expressed more accurate understanding of students' knowledge of forces and a better knowledge of effective science teaching strategies. The majority of teachers reported that they would be using three-part lessons and hands-on activities more in their science teaching. Gains in teacher pedagogical knowledge (PK) were found in four areas: greater emphasis on anticipation of student thinking and responses, recognition of the importance of observing students, more intentional teaching, and anticipated future use of student video data. Most teachers reported feeling more confident in teaching structures and mechanisms, and attributed this increase in confidence to collaboration and seeing evidence of student learning and engagement during the lesson teachings. Teacher benefits included: learning how to increase student engagement and collaboration, observing students, including video data

  19. Spatial variation in hydraulic conductivity determined by slug tests in the Canadian River alluvium near the Norman Landfill, Norman, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Martha A.; Christenson, Scott C.

    1998-01-01

    Slug tests were used to characterize hydraulic conductivity variations at a spatial scale on the order of meters in the alluvial aquifer downgradient of the Norman Landfill. Forty hydraulic conductivity measurements were made, most along a 215-meter flow path transect. Measured hydraulic conductivity, excluding clayey layers, ranged from 8.4 ? 10-7 to 2.8 ? 10-4 meters per second, with a median value of 6.6 ? 10-5 meters per second. The hydraulic conductivity measurements yield a preliminary concept of the permeability structure of the aquifer along this transect. A low hydraulic conductivity silt-clay layer at about 4 meters below the water table and a high hydraulic conductivity layer at the base of the aquifer appear to have the most potential to affect contaminant transport. Specific conductance measurements show the leachate plume along this transect becomes attenuated between 150 and 200 meters downgradient of the landfill, except at the base of the aquifer, where it extends at least 225 meters downgradient of the landfill.

  20. Variations in Reading Achievement Across 14 Southern African School Systems: Which Factors Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungi, Njora; Thuku, Florence W.

    2010-02-01

    In this study the authors employed a multilevel analysis procedure in order to examine the pupil and school levels factors that contributed to variation in reading achievement among Grade 6 primary school pupils in 14 southern African school systems (Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zanzibar). The data for this study were collected in 2002 as part of a major project known as the Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) that sought to examine the quality of education offered in primary schools in these countries. The most important factors affecting variation in pupil achievement across most of these school systems were grade repetition, pupil socioeconomic background, speaking the language of instruction at home, and Pupil age. South Africa, Uganda and Namibia were among the school systems with the largest between-school variation while Seychelles and Mauritius had the largest within-school variation. Low social equity in reading achievement was evident in Mauritius, Seychelles and Tanzania. Policy implications of the findings are discussed.

  1. Schooling and Variation in the "COMT" Gene: The Devil Is in the Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Daniel; Bick, Johanna; Yrigollen, Carolyn M.; Lee, Maria; Joseph, Antony; Chang, Joseph T.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Schooling is considered one of the major contributors to the development of intelligence within societies and individuals. Genetic variation might modulate the impact of schooling and explain, at least partially, the presence of individual differences in classrooms. Method: We studied a sample of 1,502 children (mean age = 11.7 years)…

  2. Epilepsy, birth weight and academic school readiness in Canadian children: Data from the national longitudinal study of children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, A N; Corbett, B

    2017-02-01

    Birth weight is an important indicator of prenatal/in-utero environment. Variations in birth weight have been reportedly associated with risks for cognitive problems. The National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) dataset was explored to examine relationships between birth weight, academic school readiness and epilepsy. A population based sample of 32,900 children of the NLSCY were analyzed to examine associations between birth weight, and school readiness scores in 4-5-year-old children. Logistic and Linear regression was used to examine associations between having epilepsy and these outcomes. Gestation data was available on 19,867 children, full-term children represented 89.67% (gestation >259days), while 10.33% of children were premature (gestation children with reported epilepsy in the sample. Effects of confounding variables (diabetes in pregnancy, smoking in pregnancy, high blood pressure during pregnancy, and gender of the infant) on birth weight and epilepsy were controlled using a separate structural equation model. Logistic regression analysis identified an association between epilepsy and lower birth weights, as well as an association between lower birth weight, having epilepsy and lower PPVT-R Scores. Model results show the relationship between low birth weight and epilepsy remains statistically significant even when controlling for the influence of afore mentioned confounding variables. Low birth weight appears to be associated with both epilepsy and academic school readiness. The data suggest that an abnormal prenatal environment can influence both childhood onset of epilepsy and cognition. Additional studies with larger sample sizes are needed to verify this relationship in detail. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Variations in State Laws Governing School Reintegration Following Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Leah L; Lyons, Vivian H; McCart, Melissa; Herring, Stanley A; Rivara, Frederick P; Vavilala, Monica S

    2016-12-01

    We sought to examine the prevalence, scope, and specificity of provisions governing school reintegration in current state concussion laws. State concussion laws as of May 2016 were independently assessed and classified by 2 trained coders. Statutes were classified as "Return-to-Learn" (RTL) laws if they contained language mandating institutional action at the state, district, or school level related to academic reintegration of youth who have sustained a concussion. All statutes classified as RTL laws were further analyzed to determine scope, required actions, and delineation of responsibility. RTL laws were uncommon, present in only 8 states. Most (75%) of these laws held schools responsible for RTL management but mandated RTL education for school personnel was less frequent, present in only one-quarter of the laws. None of the RTL laws provided guidance on support of students with persistent postconcussive symptoms, and only 1 recommended an evidence-based standard for RTL guidelines. Our review of state concussion laws indicates scant and vague legal guidance regarding RTL. These findings suggest an opportunity for legislative action on the issue of RTL, and reveal the need for better integration of laws and research, so that laws reflect existing best-practice recommendations and remain current as the evidence base develops. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Variation in school health policies and programs by demographic characteristics of US schools, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Alexandra B; Brener, Nancy D; McManus, Tim

    2010-12-01

    To identify whether school health policies and programs vary by demographic characteristics of schools, using data from the School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) 2006. This study updates a similar study conducted with SHPPS 2000 data and assesses several additional policies and programs measured for the first time in SHPPS 2006. SHPPS 2006 assessed the status of 8 components of the coordinated school health model using a nationally representative sample of public, Catholic, and private schools at the elementary, middle, and high school levels. Data were collected from school faculty and staff using computer-assisted personal interviews and then linked with extant data on school characteristics. Results from a series of regression analyses indicated that a number of school policies and programs varied by school type (public, Catholic, or private), urbanicity, school size, discretionary dollars per pupil, percentage of white students, percentage of students qualifying for free lunch funds, and, among high schools, percentage of college-bound students. Catholic and private schools, smaller schools, and those with low discretionary dollars per pupil did not have as many key school health policies and programs as did schools that were public, larger, and had higher discretionary dollars per pupil. However, no single type of school had all key components of a coordinated school health program in place. Although some categories of schools had fewer policies and programs in place, all had both strengths and weaknesses. Regardless of school characteristics, all schools have the potential to implement a quality school health program. © Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. An examination of school- and student-level characteristics associated with the likelihood of students' meeting the Canadian physical activity guidelines in the COMPASS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Amanda; Faulkner, Guy; Giangregorio, Lora; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2017-11-09

    To examine school- and student-level correlates of physical activity. Cross-sectional Year 2 data collected from 45 298 grade 9-12 students attending 89 secondary schools in the COMPASS study were examined using multi-level modelling to predict the likelihood of students a) achieving 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) daily; and b) achieving the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP) activity guideline for youth (60 minutes/MVPA daily, vigorous physical activity at least three days in a week, and resistance training at least three days in a week). The prevalence of students achieving 60 minutes of MVPA daily and meeting the CSEP guideline was 49.3% and 31.0% respectively. Modest between-school variability was identified (1.1% for 60 minutes MVPA and 0.8% for CSEP guideline). School-level characteristics significantly associated with the outcome measures included location, school size, quality of facilities, and accessibility of facilities. Significant student-level correlates included sex, grade, weekly income, binge drinking, fruit and vegetable consumption, and body mass index. Most youth in this large study reported inadequate physical activity levels. Students were more likely to achieve 60 minutes of MVPA if they attended a larger school or a school in an urban location, whereas students were less likely to meet the CSEP guideline if they attended a school in a small urban location. However, student-level factors, such as binge drinking and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, were more strongly associated with the outcomes examined.

  6. Associations between Cyberbullying and School Bullying Victimization and Suicidal Ideation, Plans and Attempts among Canadian Schoolchildren: e102145

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hugues Sampasa-Kanyinga; Paul Roumeliotis; Hao Xu

    2014-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization with suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle and high school students...

  7. Variation in School Health Policies and Programs by Demographic Characteristics of US Schools, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Alexandra B.; Brener, Nancy D.; McManus, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Background: To identify whether school health policies and programs vary by demographic characteristics of schools, using data from the School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) 2006. This study updates a similar study conducted with SHPPS 2000 data and assesses several additional policies and programs measured for the first time in SHPPS…

  8. Variation in exemptions to school immunization requirements among New York State private and public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yun-Kuang; Nadeau, Jessica; McNutt, Louise-Anne; Shaw, Jana

    2014-12-12

    School immunization requirements have ensured high vaccination rates and have helped to control vaccine-preventable diseases. However, vaccine exemptions have increased in the last decade. This study compared New York State private versus public schools with respect to medical and religious exemption rates. This retrospective study utilizes New York State Department of Health Immunization Survey data from the 2003 through 2012 academic years. Schools were categorized as private or public, the former further categorized by religious affiliation. Rates of medical and religious vaccine exemptions were compared by school category. From 2003 to 2012, religious exemptions increased in private and public schools from 0.63% to 1.35% and 0.17% to 0.29% (Spearman's R: 0.89 and 0.81), respectively. Among private schools, increases in religious exemption rates during the study period were observed in Catholic/Eastern Orthodox, Protestant/Other Christian, Jewish, and secular schools (Spearman's R=0.66, 0.99, 0.89, and 0.93), respectively. Exemption rate ratios in private schools compared to public schools were 1.39 (95% CI 1.15-1.68) for medical and 3.94 (95% CI: 3.20-4.86) for religious exemptions. Among private school students, all school types except for Catholic/Eastern Orthodox and Episcopal affiliates were more likely to report religious exemptions compared to children in public schools. Medical and religious exemption rates increased over time and higher rates were observed among New York State private schools compared to public schools. Low exemption rates are critical to minimize disease outbreaks in the schools and their community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Understanding Students' Transition to High School: Demographic Variation and the Role of Supportive Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Aprile D; Boyle, Alaina E; Bakhtiari, Farin

    2017-10-01

    The transition to high school is disruptive for many adolescents, yet little is known about the supportive relational processes that might attenuate the challenges students face as they move from middle to high school, particularly for students from more diverse backgrounds. Identifying potential buffers that protect youth across this critical educational transition is important for informing more effective support services for youth. In this study, we investigated how personal characteristics (gender, nativity, parent education level) and changes in support from family, friends, and school influenced changes in socioemotional adjustment and academic outcomes across the transition from middle to high school. The data were drawn from 252 students (50% females, 85% Latina/o). The results revealed declines in students' grades and increases in depressive symptoms and feelings of loneliness across the high school transition, with key variation by student nativity and gender. Additionally, stable/increasing friend support and school belonging were both linked to less socioemotional disruptions as students moved from middle to high school. Increasing/stable school belonging was also linked to increases in school engagement across the high school transition. These findings suggest that when high school transitions disrupt supportive relationships with important others in adolescents' lives, adolescents' socioemotional well-being and, to a lesser extent, their academic engagement are also compromised. Thus, in designing transition support activities, particularly for schools serving more low-income and race/ethnic minority youth, such efforts should strive to acclimate new high school students by providing inclusive, caring environments and positive connections with educators and peers.

  10. Sustained improvements in students' mental health literacy with use of a mental health curriculum in Canadian schools

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mcluckie, Alan; Kutcher, Stan; Wei, Yifeng; Weaver, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    .... Schools are an ideal site for addressing mental health literacy in young people. Currently, there is limited evidence regarding the impact of curriculum-based interventions within high school settings...

  11. Equity Variation of Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Outcomes of Middle School Education in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Alberto Cervini Iturre

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The equity level and variations of cognitive and non-cognitive achievements are analyzed, in the mathematics and language subjects, at the end of middle school education in Argentina. It has been used, all the available data from the National Census at the Conclusion of Middle School Level 1988, (“Censo Nacional de Finalización del Nivel Secundario de 1988” performed by the Culture and Education Ministry of that country. The analyzed data is of about 116,894 students from about 2,062 schools. The model of lineal hierarchy or multilevel technique is used with three levels: students, schools and State. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of a set of factors of educational (in equity, from cognitive and non-cognitive outcomes, the interschool variation from the effect of such factors and the consistency of institutional effectiveness. This study detects different variation levels of institutional (in equity, depending on the kind of achievement inequity factor considered herein. Also sustains some variations of the institutional effectiveness degree, according to different kind of students and speaks of the implications of the findings.

  12. The Association between Health Behaviours and Academic Performance in Canadian Elementary School Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D.; Kirk, Sara F. L.; Stefan Kuhle

    2015-01-01

    Background: Establishing early healthy eating and physical activity behaviours is critical in supporting children’s long-term health and well-being. The objective of the current paper was to examine the association between health behaviours and academic performance in elementary school students in a school board in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods: Our population-based study included students in grades 4–6 across 18 schools in a rural school board. Diet and physical activity were assessed throu...

  13. Extracurricular Activity Participation and the Acquisition of Developmental Assets: Differences between Involved and Noninvolved Canadian High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forneris, Tanya; Camiré, Martin; Williamson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In order to prepare students for adulthood and responsible citizenship, most high schools offer extracurricular activities designed to facilitate the learning of a wide range of competencies. The purpose of this study was to examine how participation in a single or a combination of extracurricular school activities for high school students may…

  14. The Impact on Anxiety and Depression of a Whole School Approach to Health Promotion: Evidence from a Canadian Comprehensive School Health (CSH) Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassanayake, Wijaya; Springett, Jane; Shewring, Tania

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the impact of adopting a comprehensive school health (CSH) approach on reducing anxiety and depression of school-age children. We use the data from 245 schools that received government funding support to adopt a CSH approach in order to build health promoting school environments in Alberta. Using a linear multi-level…

  15. Phonological Variability in Canadian English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wolf, Gaelan Dodds

    A study compared salient variables of Canadian English from two concurrent sociodialectal surveys, one for Ottawa, Ontario and one for Vancouver, British Columbia. Using the Labovian model of phonological variation in association with sociological parameters and other linguistic variables within each specific area, the analysis investigated four…

  16. Canadian Art Partnership Program in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ketovuori, Mikko Mr.

    2011-01-01

    This article is about a multidisciplinary R&D project in which a Canadian Learning Through The Arts (LTTA) program was imported to Finland in 2003–2004. Cultural differences in arts education in Finland and Canada are discussed. While Finland has a national school curriculum with all the arts included. Canada relies more on partnerships to ensure arts education for children in the schools. Despite the fact that Canadian learning methods appeared to be quite similar to the ones Finnish teacher...

  17. Examining Variations in Fourth-Grade Children's Participation in School Breakfast and Lunch Programs by Student and Program Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Caroline H.; Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Finney, Christopher J.; Hitchcock, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Analyses were conducted to examine variations in fourth-grade children's participation in school-breakfast and school-lunch programs by weekday, month, socioeconomic status, absenteeism, gender, and school-breakfast location. Methods: Fourth-grade children were participants in a dietary-reporting validation study during either…

  18. I Am Canadian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Joe

    2011-01-01

    "I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness......."I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness....

  19. Consistency and Variation in School-Level Youth Sports Traumatic Brain Injury Policy Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxe, Kathryn; Hamilton, Kelsey; Harvey, Hosea H; Xiang, Joe; Ramirez, Marizen R; Yang, Jingzhen

    2017-09-27

    The purpose of the study was to examine the consistency and variation in content of high school written traumatic brain injury (TBI) policies in relation to the three key tenets of youth sports TBI laws. A content analysis was conducted on written TBI policies retrieved from 71 high schools currently participating in High School Reporting Information Online. Each policy was independently analyzed by two trained coders. The number and percent of the policies reflecting the three key tenets of state youth sports TBI laws were described and compared on policy enforcement (i.e., strictness of language), policy description (i.e., details and definitions of the requirements), and policy implementation steps (i.e., specific steps for implementing the requirements). Direct quotes were identified to support quantitative findings. All 71 high school TBI policies contained at least two of the three main TBI law tenets, where 98.6% (n = 70) included the return to play tenet, 83.1% (n = 59) included the removal from play tenet, and 59.2% (n = 42) specified the distribution of TBI information sheets to student-athletes and their parents. Nearly half of the policies (49.3%, n = 35) required parents' signature while only 39.4% (n = 28) required students' signature on the TBI information sheet. The language exhibited wide variance across the 71 TBI policies regarding policy enforcement, policy description, and policy implementation specifications. All 71 TBI policies covered at least two of the three youth sports TBI law tenets, but with considerable variation. Future research should assess variations by schools within the same state and their impact on TBI rates in school athletics. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Association between Health Behaviours and Academic Performance in Canadian Elementary School Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie-Lee D. McIsaac

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Establishing early healthy eating and physical activity behaviours is critical in supporting children’s long-term health and well-being. The objective of the current paper was to examine the association between health behaviours and academic performance in elementary school students in a school board in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods: Our population-based study included students in grades 4–6 across 18 schools in a rural school board. Diet and physical activity were assessed through validated instruments. Academic performance measures were obtained from the school board for Mathematics and English Language Arts (ELA. Associations between health behaviours and academic performance were assessed using multilevel logistic regression. Results: Students with unhealthy lifestyle behaviours were more likely to have poor academic performance for both ELA and Mathematics compared to students with healthy lifestyle behaviours; associations were statistically significant for diet quality, physical activity, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption for ELA; and breakfast skipping, not being physically active at morning recess, and not being physically active after school for Mathematics. The effects of diet and physical activity were independent of each other and there was no interaction between the two exposures. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that support for healthy behaviours may help to improve academic outcomes of students.

  1. The Association between Health Behaviours and Academic Performance in Canadian Elementary School Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D.; Kirk, Sara F. L.; Kuhle, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Establishing early healthy eating and physical activity behaviours is critical in supporting children’s long-term health and well-being. The objective of the current paper was to examine the association between health behaviours and academic performance in elementary school students in a school board in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods: Our population-based study included students in grades 4–6 across 18 schools in a rural school board. Diet and physical activity were assessed through validated instruments. Academic performance measures were obtained from the school board for Mathematics and English Language Arts (ELA). Associations between health behaviours and academic performance were assessed using multilevel logistic regression. Results: Students with unhealthy lifestyle behaviours were more likely to have poor academic performance for both ELA and Mathematics compared to students with healthy lifestyle behaviours; associations were statistically significant for diet quality, physical activity, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption for ELA; and breakfast skipping, not being physically active at morning recess, and not being physically active after school for Mathematics. The effects of diet and physical activity were independent of each other and there was no interaction between the two exposures. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that support for healthy behaviours may help to improve academic outcomes of students. PMID:26610537

  2. The Association between Health Behaviours and Academic Performance in Canadian Elementary School Students: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D; Kirk, Sara F L; Kuhle, Stefan

    2015-11-20

    Establishing early healthy eating and physical activity behaviours is critical in supporting children's long-term health and well-being. The objective of the current paper was to examine the association between health behaviours and academic performance in elementary school students in a school board in Nova Scotia, Canada. Our population-based study included students in grades 4-6 across 18 schools in a rural school board. Diet and physical activity were assessed through validated instruments. Academic performance measures were obtained from the school board for Mathematics and English Language Arts (ELA). Associations between health behaviours and academic performance were assessed using multilevel logistic regression. Students with unhealthy lifestyle behaviours were more likely to have poor academic performance for both ELA and Mathematics compared to students with healthy lifestyle behaviours; associations were statistically significant for diet quality, physical activity, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption for ELA; and breakfast skipping, not being physically active at morning recess, and not being physically active after school for Mathematics. The effects of diet and physical activity were independent of each other and there was no interaction between the two exposures. Our findings suggest that support for healthy behaviours may help to improve academic outcomes of students.

  3. Person-in-context: insights on contextual variation in the victim-offender overlap across schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posick, Chad; Zimmerman, Gregory M

    2015-05-01

    The correlation between victimization and offending (i.e., the victim-offender overlap) is one of the most documented empirical findings in delinquency research, leading researchers to investigate potential contingencies in this relationship. A small number of studies have found evidence of contextual variation in the victim-offender overlap, but these studies have produced conflicting results as to whether urban context amplifies or attenuates this relationship. To add clarity to this body of literature, the present study uses a nationally representative sample of adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to investigate potential variation in the victim-offender overlap across school context. Results indicate that victimization is positively and significantly related to offending in all school contexts but that the relationship between victimization and offending is stronger in non-urban schools than in urban schools. Results also indicate that negative emotionality may play a key role in unpacking the mechanisms through which context moderates the victim-offender overlap. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Variation in access to sugar-sweetened beverages in vending machines across rural, town and urban high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi-Mejia, A M; Longacre, M R; Skatrud-Mickelson, M; Li, Z; Purvis, L A; Titus, L J; Beach, M L; Dalton, M A

    2013-05-01

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans include reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Among the many possible routes of access for youth, school vending machines provide ready availability of sugar-sweetened beverages. The purpose of this study was to determine variation in high school student access to sugar-sweetened beverages through vending machines by geographic location - urban, town or rural - and to offer an approach for analysing school vending machine content. Cross-sectional observational study. Between October 2007 and May 2008, trained coders recorded beverage vending machine content and machine-front advertising in 113 machines across 26 schools in New Hampshire and Vermont, USA. Compared with town schools, urban schools were significantly less likely to offer sugar-sweetened beverages (P = 0.002). Rural schools also offered more sugar-sweetened beverages than urban schools, but this difference was not significant. Advertisements for sugar-sweetened beverages were highly prevalent in town schools. High school students have ready access to sugar-sweetened beverages through their school vending machines. Town schools offer the highest risk of exposure; school vending machines located in towns offer up to twice as much access to sugar-sweetened beverages in both content and advertising compared with urban locations. Variation by geographic region suggests that healthier environments are possible and some schools can lead as inspirational role models. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Variations in archaeal and bacterial diversity associated with the anaerobic oxidation of methane in the active mud volcanoes of the Canadian Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. M.; Lee, D. H.; Hwang, K.; Hong, S. G.; Jin, Y. K.

    2016-12-01

    The prokaryotic microorganisms inhabiting Mud Volcanoes (MVs) play an important role for mitigation of methane (CH4) emission. Despite the identification of active MVs in the continental slope of the Canadian Beaufort Sea, little is known about the distribution and functions of prokaryotic community in this region. Hence, we investigated the prokaryotic diversity of four sediment cores (three from the active MVs and one from a non-methane influenced reference site) of the Canadian Beaufort Sea using 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes as the first step to understand the prokaryotic roles in controlling outgassing methane. Bacterial and archaeal communities of MVs were distinctive from those of the reference site, and the communities of MVs were similar to each other at deeper depth levels. Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, unclassified bacterial groups, and MCG_c of Crenarchaeota were predominant in the MVs, while Firmicutes, Deltaproteobacteria, and unclassified class of Thaumarchaeota were dominant in reference site. The relative abundance of dominant bacterial groups varied at sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) of individual MVs. However, certain microbial taxa such as members of SAGMEG_o or Methanosarcinales of Euryarcheaota and Dehalococcoidales of Chloroflexi were predominant at SMTZs. Since they are not the classical representative taxa known to be involved in anaerobic oxidation of methane, their dominance implicates that they could be playing important roles in methane cycling using unrevealed mechanisms. We will further perform the phylogenetic and network analyses to infer mechanisms and interactions of dominant operational taxonomic units in controlling methane flux.

  6. What information is provided in transcripts and Medical Student Performance Records from Canadian Medical Schools? A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Jason A; McInnes, Matthew D F; Esmail, Kaisra

    2014-01-01

    Resident selection committees must rely on information provided by medical schools in order to evaluate candidates. However, this information varies between institutions, limiting its value in comparing individuals and fairly assessing their quality. This study investigates what is included in candidates' documentation, the heterogeneity therein, as well as its objective data. Samples of recent transcripts and Medical Student Performance Records were anonymised prior to evaluation. Data were then extracted by two independent reviewers blinded to the submitting university, assessing for the presence of pre-selected criteria; disagreement was resolved through consensus. The data were subsequently analysed in multiple subgroups. Inter-rater agreement equalled 92%. Inclusion of important criteria varied by school, ranging from 22.2% inclusion to 70.4%; the mean equalled 47.4%. The frequency of specific criteria was highly variable as well. Only 17.7% of schools provided any basis for comparison of academic performance; the majority detailed only status regarding pass or fail, without any further qualification. Considerable heterogeneity exists in the information provided in official medical school documentation, as well as markedly little objective data. Standardization may be necessary in order to facilitate fair comparison of graduates from different institutions. Implementation of objective data may allow more effective intra- and inter-scholastic comparison.

  7. Social capital reduces socio-economic differences in child health: evidence from the Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgar, Frank J; Trites, Stephen J; Boyce, William

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether adolescents' exposure to neighbourhood social capital, which is defined as levels of trust, cohesion and cooperation, reduces socio-economic differences in physical and psychological health outcomes. Survey data were collected from the 9717 Canadian youths in grades 6 to 10 participating in the 2006 Health Behaviour of School-aged Children study. Data analyses tested interaction effects of socio-economic status (SES) and social capital on five outcomes: psychological symptoms, somatic symptoms, injuries, fighting and life satisfaction. SES effects on the five health outcomes varied depending on the level of exposure to neighbourhood social capital. High levels of social capital reduced or eliminated SES differences in health. However, in areas of high social capital, more affluent children reported slightly more somatic symptoms, injuries and fighting than less affluent children. Reduction of health inequalities in children and youth is a priority for public policy. Our results suggest that building social capital in neighbourhoods is one avenue for reducing socio-economic disparities in children's physical and psychological health. However, the findings suggest that there might be a downside to social capital in that it appears to reverse socio-economic differences in some outcomes.

  8. How Much of a Difference Do Principals Make? an Analysis of Between-Schools Variation in Academic Achievement in Hong Kong Public Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Allan David; Lee, Moosung; Bryant, Darren A.

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to explain the role principals play in the variation in academic achievement between secondary schools in Hong Kong. The article draws on survey data from 179 key staff and 2,037 students from 42 schools. The study uses 2 analytical approaches. First, it employs classification and regression tree analysis (CART). This was used to…

  9. Epilepsy, school readiness in Canadian children: data from the National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth (NLSCY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Charushree; Corbett, Bradley A; Prasad, Asuri N

    2014-06-01

    Utilizing data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) we evaluated the association between childhood epilepsy and health impairments on measures of school readiness employed in the survey. Standard scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R) were employed in a regression analysis to compare scores in children with and without epilepsy. We also examined the effect of impairments in any of the 8 domains of the Health Utilities index (HUI) on test scores. A total sample size of 39,130 children (20,044 males, and 19,086 female were included in the analysis, 33,560 children were administered the PPVT-R at a mean age of 4.5 years. There were 70 children with epilepsy, 21 had a score of 1 on the HUI, 21 were assessed to have a HUIchildren without epilepsy and HUI score of Children with epilepsy and a HUI score of 1 scored 9.90 points lower (β = -9.902, 95% CI -16.343, -3.461, p=0.003) while those with epilepsy and HUIchildren with epilepsy are at risk of scholastic underachievement at school entry, while those with additional health impairments as measured by the HUI are at greater risk of underachievement. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Surface Water pCO2 Variations and Sea-Air CO2 Fluxes During Summer in the Eastern Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgers, T. M.; Miller, L. A.; Thomas, H.; Else, B. G. T.; Gosselin, M.; Papakyriakou, T.

    2017-12-01

    Based on a 2 year data set, the eastern Canadian Arctic Archipelago and Baffin Bay appear to be a modest summertime sink of atmospheric CO2. We measured surface water CO2 partial pressure (pCO2), salinity, and temperature throughout northern Baffin Bay, Nares Strait, and Lancaster Sound from the CCGS Amundsen during its 2013 and 2014 summer cruises. Surface water pCO2 displayed considerable variability (144-364 μatm) but never exceeded atmospheric concentrations, and average calculated CO2 fluxes in 2013 and 2014 were -12 and -3 mmol C m-2 d-1 (into the ocean), respectively. Ancillary measurements of chlorophyll a reveal low summertime productivity in surface waters. Based on total alkalinity and stable oxygen isotopes (δ18O) data, a strong riverine signal in northern Nares Strait coincided with relatively high surface pCO2, whereas areas of sea-ice melt occur with low surface pCO2. Further assessments, extending the seasonal observation period, are needed to properly constrain both seasonal and annual CO2 fluxes in this region.

  11. Dictionaries of Canadian English

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Technology

    ... Globe and Mail said, an enterprising publication. Despite the existence of the Winston dictionary, some Canadians were still, at the end of the 1950s, prepared to dismiss Canadian lexicography as pointless. When the idea of a Canadian dictionary was introduced to the Dean of Arts and Science at Dalhousie University in ...

  12. The Long Term Effects of Forcible Assimilation Policy: The Case of Indian Boarding Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Donna Feir

    2013-01-01

    For decades in North America and Australia, indigenous children were forcibly removed from their homes and placed in boarding schools. These schools had the stated goal of cultural assimilation and are perceived to have been an educational failure. I offer the first causal evidence on the long run effects of these schools using the interaction of changes in Canadian national policy and variation in the power of the Catholic Church. I find that the average boarding school had substantial effec...

  13. Between-school variation in physical activity, aerobic fitness, and organized sports participation: a multi-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Peter L; Olesen, Line G; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Grøntved, Anders; Wedderkopp, Niels; Froberg, Karsten; Andersen, Lars B

    2013-01-01

    A large proportion of a child's day is spent at school interacting with certain physical surroundings, teachers, and school friends. Thus, schools could have a marked impact on establishing physical activity habits. The aim of the present study was to assess between-school variation in physical activity, aerobic fitness, and organized sports participation. Altogether, we tested 1766 nine- and fifteen-year-old children attending 242 school classes at 35 different schools in Denmark in 1997-2003. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) for objectively assessed physical activity ranged between 0.06 and 0.18 depending on the dimension of physical activity and the time considered (i.e. school time vs. leisure time). For aerobic fitness, an ICC of 0.10 was observed, whereas that for organized sports participation ranged between 0.01 and 0.10 depending on the age group. Studying between-school variation in physical activity provides information about the extent to which children adjust their physical activity habits according to the social and environmental circumstances that they share, and helps to plan future school-based physical activity studies, especially in terms of sample size and power calculation.

  14. Is There a Magnet School Effect? Using Meta-Analysis to Explore Variation in Magnet School Success. CRESST Report 843

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Schweig, Jonathan D.; Herman, Joan L.

    2014-01-01

    Magnet schools are one of the largest sectors of choice schools in the United States. In this study, we explored whether there is heterogeneity in magnet school effects on student achievement by examining the effectiveness of 24 recently funded magnet schools in 5 school districts across 4 states. We used a two-step analysis: First, separate…

  15. Variations in the NBN/NBS1 gene and the risk of breast cancer in non-BRCA1/2 French Canadian families with high risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desjardins Sylvie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome is a chromosomal instability disorder characterized by microcephaly, growth retardation, immunodeficiency, and increased frequency of cancers. Familial studies on relatives of these patients indicated that they also appear to be at increased risk of cancer. Methods In a candidate gene study aiming at identifying genetic determinants of breast cancer susceptibility, we undertook the full sequencing of the NBN gene in our cohort of 97 high-risk non-BRCA1 and -BRCA2 breast cancer families, along with 74 healthy unrelated controls, also from the French Canadian population. In silico programs (ESEfinder, NNSplice, Splice Site Finder and MatInspector were used to assess the putative impact of the variants identified. The effect of the promoter variant was further studied by luciferase gene reporter assay in MCF-7, HEK293, HeLa and LNCaP cell lines. Results Twenty-four variants were identified in our case series and their frequency was further evaluated in healthy controls. The potentially deleterious p.Ile171Val variant was observed in one case only. The p.Arg215Trp variant, suggested to impair NBN binding to histone γ-H2AX, was observed in one breast cancer case and one healthy control. A promoter variant c.-242-110delAGTA displayed a significant variation in frequency between both sample sets. Luciferase reporter gene assay of the promoter construct bearing this variant did not suggest a variation of expression in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, but indicated a reduction of luciferase expression in both the HEK293 and LNCaP cell lines. Conclusion Our analysis of NBN sequence variations indicated that potential NBN alterations are present, albeit at a low frequency, in our cohort of high-risk breast cancer cases. Further analyses will be needed to fully ascertain the exact impact of those variants on breast cancer susceptibility, in particular for variants located in NBN promoter region.

  16. Methane Gas Hydrate Stability Models on Continental Shelves in Response to Glacio-Eustatic Sea Level Variations: Examples from Canadian Oceanic Margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Safanda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We model numerically regions of the Canadian continental shelves during successive glacio-eustatic cycles to illustrate past, current and future marine gas hydrate (GH stability and instability. These models indicated that the marine GH resource has dynamic features and the formation age and resource volumes depend on the dynamics of the ocean-atmosphere system as it responds to both natural (glacial-interglacial and anthropogenic (climate change forcing. Our models focus on the interval beginning three million years ago (i.e., Late Pliocene-Holocene. They continue through the current interglacial and they are projected to its anticipated natural end. During the current interglacial the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ thickness in each region responded uniquely as a function of changes in water depth and sea bottom temperature influenced by ocean currents. In general, the GHSZ in the deeper parts of the Pacific and Atlantic margins (≥1316 m thinned primarily due to increased water bottom temperatures. The GHSZ is highly variable in the shallower settings on the same margins (~400–500 m. On the Pacific Margin shallow GH dissociated completely prior to nine thousand years ago but the effects of subsequent sea level rise reestablished a persistent, thin GHSZ. On the Atlantic Margin Scotian Shelf the warm Gulf Stream caused GHSZ to disappear completely, whereas in shallow water depths offshore Labrador the combination of the cool Labrador Current and sea level rise increased the GHSZ. If future ocean bottom temperatures remain constant, these general characteristics will persist until the current interglacial ends. If the sea bottom warms, possibly in response to global climate change, there could be a significant reduction to complete loss of GH stability, especially on the shallow parts of the continental shelf. The interglacial GH thinning rates constrain rates at which carbon can be transferred between the GH reservoir and the atmosphere

  17. The Diurnal Variation on Cardiovascular Endurance Performance of Secondary School Athlete Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Chun-Yip; Chow, Gary Chi-Ching; Hung, Kwong-Chung; Kam, Lik-Hang; Chan, Ka-Chun; Mok, Yuen-Ting; Cheng, Nga-Mei

    2015-06-01

    The previous investigations in diurnal variation of endurance sports performance did not reach a consensus and have been limited. This study would be a valuable resource for endurance sports trainers and event managers to plan their training and competition in a specific time of day. The aim of this study is to find out the diurnal variation in cardiovascular endurance performance in the young athletes. Thirty five athlete students (15.17 ± 1.62 years) participated in this study. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), post-exercise percentage of maximal heart rate (MHR% post-ex), post-exercise body temperature (BTemppost-ex), and post exercise blood lactic acid level (LApost-ex) were measured in this study. Three non-consecutive testings: A) Morning (09:00-10:00; AM), B) Noon (12:00-13:00; NN) and C) Afternoon (16:00-17:00; PM) were conducted. Participants were required to follow the meal plan and resting schedule for all testing days. VO2max was significantly higher at NN (F2. 68 = 3.29, P performance was found and the highest exercise VO2max was identified at noon. Secondary school students or young athletes are recommended to have sports training related to VO2max at noon for the purpose of maximizing training effectiveness.

  18. Canadian Medical Education Statistics, 1980/81 = Statistiques Relatives a l'enseignement Medical au Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Canadian Medical Colleges, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Data for 1980-1981 pertaining to medical education in Canada are presented. Information about Canadian medical schools, population of Canada by province and distribution of medical school openings, tuition, payment scales for post-M.D. clinical trainees, clinical clerkship stipends, and numbers of Canadian medical schools offering instruction in…

  19. "The School of Life": Differences in U.S. and Canadian Settlement Policies and Their Effect on Individual Haitian Immigrants' Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguay, Annie Laurie

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that language proficiency in the main language of the destination country is one of the most significant factors in the integration of immigrants. This study examines the overall differences in U.S. and Canadian settlement policy, using the provision of language courses as a specific example of the ways in…

  20. Challenges to Learning Evidence-Based Medicine and Educational Approaches to Meet These Challenges: A Qualitative Study of Selected EBM Curricula in U.S. and Canadian Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Lauren A; ten Cate, Olle; Chen, H Carrie; Irby, David M; O'Brien, Bridget C

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is a fixture in many medical school curricula. Yet, little is known about the challenges medical students face in learning EBM or the educational approaches that medical schools use to overcome these challenges. A qualitative multi-institutional case study was conducted between December 2013 and July 2014. On the basis of the Association of American Medical Colleges 2012 Medical School Graduation Questionnaire data, the authors selected 22 U.S. and Canadian Liaison Committee on Medical Education-accredited medical schools with graduates reporting confidence in their EBM skills. Participants were interviewed and asked to submit EBM curricular materials. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using an inductive approach. Thirty-one EBM instructors (17 clinicians, 11 librarians, 2 educationalists, and 1 epidemiologist) were interviewed from 17 medical schools (13 in the United States, 4 in Canada). Four common EBM learning challenges were identified: suboptimal role models, students' lack of willingness to admit uncertainty, a lack of clinical context, and students' difficulty mastering EBM skills. Five educational approaches to these challenges that were common across the participating institutions were identified: integrating EBM with other courses and content, incorporating clinical content into EBM training, EBM faculty development, EBM whole-task exercises, and longitudinal integration of EBM. The identification of these four learner-centered EBM challenges expands on the literature on challenges in teaching and practicing EBM, and the identification of these five educational approaches provides medical educators with potential strategies to inform the design of EBM curricula.

  1. Variations in prevalence and conduct of school food gardens in tropical and subtropical regions of north-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerset, Shawn; Bossard, Antoine

    2009-09-01

    To determine the prevalence and usage of food gardens in primary schools in three distinct climatic regions of north-eastern Australia. Cross-sectional surveys combining quantitative and qualitative data collection. Two separate telephone questionnaires were developed and implemented, according to the presence or absence of a food garden within the school. Main outcome measures were answers to scaled response and open-ended questions related to factors supporting and inhibiting the establishment and sustainability of school food gardens. All state primary schools in three disparate regions of the north-eastern Australian state of Queensland were asked to participate in the study. A total of 71% (n 128) of schools agreed to participate. Of these, thirty-seven primary schools had functioning food gardens. The variations in prevalence between regions combined with respondent views indicated climate as a major factor affecting the success of food gardens. Gardens were often used as a tool by schools to teach science, environment or social skills. Gardening activities were generally linked to curriculum studies on plants, fruit and vegetable intake, and healthy eating. The main issues for schools and teachers in establishing food gardens were the time required and the lack of personnel to coordinate garden activities. Of the schools with food gardens, 92% believed their garden had been a success. The study revealed strong grass-roots support for school-based food gardens. Although climate and location were important factors associated with the presence of a functioning food garden, respondents nominated teacher involvement and sustained motivation as essential factors for successful school food gardens.

  2. Framing Canadian federalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saywell, John; Anastakis, Dimitry; Bryden, Penny E

    2009-01-01

    ... the pervasive effects that federalism has on Canadian politics, economics, culture, and history, and provide a detailed framework in which to understand contemporary federalism. Written in honour of John T. Saywell's half-century of accomplished and influential scholarly work and teaching, Framing Canadian Federalism is a timely and fitting t...

  3. School-Based Racial and Gender Discrimination among African American Adolescents: Exploring Gender Variation in Frequency and Implications for Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Cogburn, Courtney D.; Chavous, Tabbye M.; Griffin, Tiffany M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined school-based racial and gender discrimination experiences among African American adolescents in Grade 8 (n = 204 girls; n = 209 boys). A primary goal was exploring gender variation in frequency of both types of discrimination and associations of discrimination with academic and psychological functioning among girls and boys. Girls and boys did not vary in reported racial discrimination frequency, but boys reported more gender discrimination experiences. Multiple reg...

  4. CONTRER L'INTIMIDATION SCOLAIRE : PORTRAIT DES PLANS D'ACTION PANCANADIENS/COUNTERING BULLYING IN SCHOOLS: AN OVERVIEW OF CANADIAN ACTION PLANS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ginette Roberge; Huguette Beaudoin

    2016-01-01

      Over the last several years, alarmist discourse from the public and the media has been commonly heard in reference to the deterioration of the school climate, particularly in regards to safety in schools...

  5. Canadians' eating habits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garriguet, Didier

    2007-01-01

    This report is an overview of Canadians' eating habits: total calories consumed and the number of servings from the various food groups, as well as the percentage of total calories from fat, protein and carbohydrates...

  6. Evolution of gender representation among Canadian OTL-HNS residents: a 27-year analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorfi, Sarah; Schwartz, Joseph S; Verma, Neil; Young, Meredith; Joseph, Lawrence; Nguyen, Lily H P

    2017-08-29

    The proportion of females enrolling into medical schools has been growing steadily. However, the representation of female residents among individual specialties has shown considerable variation. The purpose of this study was to compare the trends of gender representation in Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery (OTL-HNS) residency programs with other specialty training programs in Canada. In order to contextualize these findings, a second phase of analysis examined the success rate of applicants of different genders to OTL-HNS residency programs. Anonymized data were obtained from the Canadian Residency Matching Service (CaRMS) and from the Canadian Post-M.D. Education Registry (CAPER) from 1988 to 2014. The differences in gender growth rates were compared to other subspecialty programs of varying size. Descriptive analysis was used to examine gender representation among OTL-HNS residents across years, and to compare these trends with other specialties. Bayesian hierarchical models were fit to analyze the growth in program rates in OTL-HNS based on gender. CaRMS and CAPER data over a 27 year period demonstrated that OTL-HNS has doubled its female representation from 20% to 40% between 1990 and 1994 and 2010-2014. The difference in annual growth rate of female representation versus male representation in OTL-HNS over this time period was 2.7%, which was similar to other large specialty programs and surgical subspecialties. There was parity in success rates of female and male candidates ranking OTL-HNS as their first choice specialty for most years. Female representation in Canadian OTL-HNS residency programs is steadily increasing over the last 27 years. Large variation in female applicant acceptance rates was observed across Canadian universities, possibly attributable to differences in student body or applicant demographics. Factors influencing female medical student career selection to OTL-HNS require further study to mitigate disparities in gender

  7. Shifting tides in the emigration patterns of Canadian physicians to the United States: a cross-sectional secondary data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Thomas R; Petterson, Stephen; Finnegan, Sean; Bazemore, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    The relative ease of movement of physicians across the Canada/US border has led to what is sometimes referred to as a 'brain drain' and previous analysis estimated that the equivalent of two graduating classes from Canadian medical schools were leaving to practice in the US each year. Both countries fill gaps in physician supply with international medical graduates (IMGs) so the movement of Canadian trained physicians to the US has international ramifications. Medical school enrolments have been increased on both sides of the border, yet there continues to be concerns about adequacy of physician human resources. This analysis was undertaken to re-examine the issue of Canadian physician migration to the US. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the 2015 American Medical Association (AMA) Masterfile to identify and locate any graduates of Canadian schools of medicine (CMGs) working in the United States in direct patient care. We reviewed annual reports of the Canadian Resident Matching Service (CaRMS); the Canadian Post-MD Education Registry (CAPER); and the Canadian Collaborative Centre for Physician Resources (C3PR). Beginning in the early 1990s the number of CMGs locating in the U.S. reached an all-time high and then abruptly dropped off in 1995. CMGs are going to the US for post-graduate training in smaller numbers and, are less likely to remain than at any time since the 1970's. This four decade retrospective found considerable variation in the migration pattern of CMGs to the US. CMGs' decision to emigrate to the U.S. may be influenced by both 'push' and 'pull' factors. The relative strength of these factors changed and by 2004, more CMGs were returning from abroad than were leaving and the current outflow is negligible. This study supports the need for medical human resource planning to assume a long-term view taking into account national and international trends to avoid the rapid changes that were observed. These results are of importance to medical

  8. Bullying and Social Support: Variation by School-Type and Emotional or Behavioural Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margraf, Hannah; Pinquart, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The present study analysed whether bullying/victimisation and related social support vary by emotional and behavioural disturbances (EBD) as well as school type. We examined 540 German adolescents with and without emotional disturbances (ED)/behavioural disturbances (BD) attending regular and special schools for students with EBD. Adolescents with…

  9. Dropout in the lower tracks of Dutch secondary education : Predictor variables and variation among schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyten, H; Bosker, R.J.; Dekkers, H; Derks, A

    2003-01-01

    This study analyses the data from a large-scale longitudinal investigation into the effect of both school and student characteristics on the dropout rate for students in lower secondary education in The Netherlands. Dropout rates were found to vary significantly between schools, but only a single

  10. Racial-Ethnic Identity and Adjustment in Canadian Indigenous Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfellner, Barbara M.; Armstrong, Helen D.

    2013-01-01

    This study supported associations between three theoretically driven conceptualizations of racial and ethnic identity (REI; Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure; Multidimensional Racial Identity Measure; Bicultural Identity Measure) and with adaptive functioning among Canadian indigenous adolescents in middle school to high school. Age differences…

  11. Can Money Undo the Past? A Canadian Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. Murray

    2003-01-01

    In Canada, more than 9,000 lawsuits have been filed by American Indians and Inuits seeking reparations for the mistreatment Indigenous children suffered in residential schools operated by four religious groups and financed by the Canadian government. Although most suits allege "cultural damage" caused by schooling practices, little of…

  12. Social and Psychological Adjustment of Chinese Canadian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin; Tse, Hennis Chi-Hang

    2010-01-01

    This study examined social and psychological adjustment of immigrant and Canadian-born Chinese children in Canada. Participants included a sample of elementary school children (N = 356, M age = 11 years). Data on social functioning, peer relationships, school-related social competence, perceived self-worth, and loneliness were collected from peer…

  13. Between-school variation in physical activity, aerobic fitness, and organized sports participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter L; Olesen, Line G; Ried-Larsen, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    in physical activity, aerobic fitness, and organized sports participation. Altogether, we tested 1766 nine- and fifteen-year-old children attending 242 school classes at 35 different schools in Denmark in 1997-2003. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) for objectively assessed physical activity...... ranged between 0.06 and 0.18 depending on the dimension of physical activity and the time considered (i.e. school time vs. leisure time). For aerobic fitness, an ICC of 0.10 was observed, whereas that for organized sports participation ranged between 0.01 and 0.10 depending on the age group. Studying...

  14. 30th International School of Mathematics "G Stampacchia" : Equilibrium Problems and Variational Models "Ettore Majorana"

    CERN Document Server

    Giannessi, Franco; Maugeri, Antonino; Equilibrium Problems and Variational Models

    2000-01-01

    The volume, devoted to variational analysis and its applications, collects selected and refereed contributions, which provide an outline of the field. The meeting of the title "Equilibrium Problems and Variational Models", which was held in Erice (Sicily) in the period June 23 - July 2 2000, was the occasion of the presentation of some of these papers; other results are a consequence of a fruitful and constructive atmosphere created during the meeting. New results, which enlarge the field of application of variational analysis, are presented in the book; they deal with the vectorial analysis, time dependent variational analysis, exact penalization, high order deriva­ tives, geometric aspects, distance functions and log-quadratic proximal methodology. The new theoretical results allow one to improve in a remarkable way the study of significant problems arising from the applied sciences, as continuum model of transportation, unilateral problems, multicriteria spatial price models, network equilibrium...

  15. VARIATIVE EDUCATION IN THE CHANGING WORLD: SOCIO-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE OF THE PRIMARY SCHOOL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Asmolov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reflects the ideas of the author (one of the new educational standard developers concerning the prospects of primary school evolution, published in the Educational Policy journal in 2011, being still relevant due to the introduction of the Federal Act on Education from September 1, 2013.In author's opinion, a successful accomplishment and implementation of the given act and standards can be achieved through careful explanation of their content and essence to the interested people, and justification of the related benefit for the society and teachers alike. The alteration of educational concepts is regarded as a challenging task, education being the most conservative sphere of human activity. As a solution to the primary school problem, the paper emphasizes several referent points including teachers' motivation, strengthening and updating of their professional skills and knowledge, etc. The primary school appears to be the most important basis for children’s personal socialization. And therefore, it should transform into the school of understanding, cultural dialog, game and project didactics, variant education, and foundation for the universal learning activities and value formation. The primary school should teach productive cooperation with adults and advanced peers, help in solving complicated life tasks, and raise children’s confidence in personal strength and capability. 

  16. VARIATIVE EDUCATION IN THE CHANGING WORLD: SOCIO-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE OF THE PRIMARY SCHOOL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Asmolov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper reflects the ideas of the author (one of the new educational standard developers concerning the prospects of primary school evolution, published in the Educational Policy journal in 2011, being still relevant due to the introduction of the Federal Act on Education from September 1, 2013.In author's opinion, a successful accomplishment and implementation of the given act and standards can be achieved through careful explanation of their content and essence to the interested people, and justification of the related benefit for the society and teachers alike. The alteration of educational concepts is regarded as a challenging task, education being the most conservative sphere of human activity. As a solution to the primary school problem, the paper emphasizes several referent points including teachers' motivation, strengthening and updating of their professional skills and knowledge, etc. The primary school appears to be the most important basis for children’s personal socialization. And therefore, it should transform into the school of understanding, cultural dialog, game and project didactics, variant education, and foundation for the universal learning activities and value formation. The primary school should teach productive cooperation with adults and advanced peers, help in solving complicated life tasks, and raise children’s confidence in personal strength and capability. 

  17. Schooling Transnational Speakers of the Societal Language: Language Variation Policy-Making in Madrid and Toronto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecter, Sandra R.; García Parejo, Isabel; Ambadiang, Théophile; James, Carl E.

    2014-01-01

    A cross-national comparative study in Toronto, Ontario, Canada and Madrid, Spain examines educational policies and practices that target immigrant students for whom the language variety normally spoken in the host country represents a second dialect. Policy contexts and schooling environments of the two urban centres were analyzed to gain deeper…

  18. Variations in Star Excursion Balance Test Performance Between High School and Collegiate Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Ryan S; Kosik, Kyle B; Beard, Megan Q; Terada, Masafumi; Pietrosimone, Brian G; Gribble, Phillip A

    2015-10-01

    The Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) is a reliable inexpensive tool used to assess dynamic postural control deficits and efficacy in the prediction of musculoskeletal injuries, but with little previous consideration for performance differences across age and skill levels. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in SEBT scores between high school and collegiate football players. Three-hundred eighteen high school football players and 180 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate football players volunteered to participate. Star Excursion Balance Test scores were obtained bilaterally for anterior (ANT), posterolateral (PL), and posteromedial (PM) directions, and for an overall composite (COMP) score. The mean of 3 trials from each leg was normalized to stance leg length and presented as a percentage score. Bilaterally averaged scores were compared between high school and collegiate football players using separate independent t-tests. A multiple linear backward regression determined the amount of variance in SEBT scores explained by age, mass, and height. Compared with collegiate athletes, high school athletes had lower PL (72.8 ± 11.4% vs. 77.1 ± 10.2%; p football players.

  19. Seasonal variation of indoor air radon concentration in schools in Kosovo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahtijari, M. [Faculty of Education, University of Prishtina, Kosovo (Country Unknown); Stegnar, P. [Randon Center, Jozef Stefan Institute, P.O. Box 3000, 1001 Ljublajna (Slovenia); Shemsidini, Z. [Faculty of Education, University of Prishtina, Kosovo (Country Unknown); Ajazaj, H. [Faculty of Education, University of Prishtina, Kosovo (Country Unknown); Halimi, Y. [Faculty of Medicine, University of Prishtina, Kosovo (Country Unknown); Vaupotic, J. [Randon Center, Jozef Stefan Institute, P.O. Box 3000, 1001 Ljublajna (Slovenia); Kobal, I. [Randon Center, Jozef Stefan Institute, P.O. Box 3000, 1001 Ljublajna (Slovenia)]. E-mail: ivan.kobal@ijs.si

    2007-02-15

    Indoor air radon (Rn222) concentrations were measured in March, May, August and December in 15 rooms of five elementary and in six rooms of one high school in Sharr, Kosovo, using alpha scintillation cells. Only in one room did the value exceed 200Bqm{sup -3}. Values decreased from December to August, and from basement to first floor.

  20. Tensions in Teacher Development and Community: Variations on a Recurring School Reform Theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Cheryl J.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Conducted in the fourth-largest urban center in the United States, this research depicts how different reform initiatives were introduced to one middle school context over the decade from 1999 to 2009. Purposes/Objectives/Research Question/Focus of Study: The study focuses on teachers' experiences of three reform endeavors and…

  1. Twitter and Canadian Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Max

    2012-01-01

    An emerging group of leaders in Canadian education has attracted thousands of followers. They've made Twitter an extension of their lives, delivering twenty or more tweets a day that can include, for example, links to media articles, research, new ideas from education bloggers, or to their own, or simply a personal thought. At their best,…

  2. Recent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Substance Use Variations between Rural and Urban Middle and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jacob C.; Smalley, K. Bryant; Barefoot, K. Nikki

    2017-01-01

    The use of addictive substances by adolescents is a major public health concern; however, rural versus urban variations are poorly understood. The purpose of the current study was to examine rural-urban differences in the prevalence of recent use of 11 substances in grades 6 through 12 in a statewide sample of students from the Georgia Student…

  3. Active transportation safety features around schools in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, Bryn; Rosu, Andrei; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William

    2013-10-31

    The purpose of this study was to describe the presence and quality of active transportation safety features in Canadian school environments that relate to pedestrian and bicycle safety. Variations in these features and associated traffic concerns as perceived by school administrators were examined by geographic status and school type. The study was based on schools that participated in 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey. ArcGIS software version 10 and Google Earth were used to assess the presence and quality of ten different active transportation safety features. Findings suggest that there are crosswalks and good sidewalk coverage in the environments surrounding most Canadian schools, but a dearth of bicycle lanes and other traffic calming measures (e.g., speed bumps, traffic chokers). Significant urban/rural inequities exist with a greater prevalence of sidewalk coverage, crosswalks, traffic medians, and speed bumps in urban areas. With the exception of bicycle lanes, the active transportation safety features that were present were generally rated as high quality. Traffic was more of a concern to administrators in urban areas. This study provides novel information about active transportation safety features in Canadian school environments. This information could help guide public health efforts aimed at increasing active transportation levels while simultaneously decreasing active transportation injuries.

  4. Active Transportation Safety Features around Schools in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryn Pinkerton

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the presence and quality of active transportation safety features in Canadian school environments that relate to pedestrian and bicycle safety. Variations in these features and associated traffic concerns as perceived by school administrators were examined by geographic status and school type. The study was based on schools that participated in 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC survey. ArcGIS software version 10 and Google Earth were used to assess the presence and quality of ten different active transportation safety features. Findings suggest that there are crosswalks and good sidewalk coverage in the environments surrounding most Canadian schools, but a dearth of bicycle lanes and other traffic calming measures (e.g., speed bumps, traffic chokers. Significant urban/rural inequities exist with a greater prevalence of sidewalk coverage, crosswalks, traffic medians, and speed bumps in urban areas. With the exception of bicycle lanes, the active transportation safety features that were present were generally rated as high quality. Traffic was more of a concern to administrators in urban areas. This study provides novel information about active transportation safety features in Canadian school environments. This information could help guide public health efforts aimed at increasing active transportation levels while simultaneously decreasing active transportation injuries.

  5. Doctors of osteopathic medicine (DO): a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evren, Sevan; Bi, Andrew Yuzhong; Talwar, Shuchi; Yeh, Andrew; Teitelbaum, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Doctors of osteopathic medicine (DO) are one of the fastest growing segments of health care professionals in the United States. Although Canada has taken significant leaps in the acknowledgment of US trained DOs, there continues to be a lack of understanding of the profession by Canadian trained physicians. In this article, we provide a brief overview of osteopathic medical education and training in the United States. Current information of osteopathic training by American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine (AACOM) and American Osteopathic Association (AOA) was presented. Data pertaining to Canadians enrolled in osteopathic colleges was compared with allopathic (MD) and international medical graduates (IMGs). Doctors of osteopathic medicine programs provide an additional pathway for students interested in pursuing a medical education. Canadian applications to osteopathic colleges are expected to grow due to successful post-graduate US residency matching, increased difficulty of matriculating at Canadian medical schools, and a greater awareness of the profession in Canada. Given the increasing enrollment of Canadian students in US osteopathic medical schools, we expect that Canadian DOs will play a significant role in shaping health care in both the US and Canada.

  6. Regional variation in the effect of schooling on people's incomes in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domański Henryk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis, based on a Polish national sample from 2006, aims to cast light on the regional variation in the effect of education on incomes. Building on the conceptual framework developed in the theory of human capital we investigate to what extent pay-offs for human capital differ across detailed administrative districts in Poland. By incorporating contextual characteristics, we examine how micro- and macro-level factors shape labour market outcomes. Our findings provide further support for the hypothesis that there is much regional variation in the influence of education on incomes, which suggests that there are better and worse places for the development of a meritocratic distribution of incomes. It appears that education pays more highly in more economically-developed regions, marked by a higher rate of occupational activity.

  7. "We're Here Because We're Black": The Schooling Experiences of French-Speaking African-Canadian Students with Refugee Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, Sara; James, Carl E.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the educational experiences of a group of French-speaking Black African-born students who entered Canada as refugees. They were attending a French school and were placed in a separate programme that was designed to meet their particular needs given their limited language skills and level of education. Drawing on critical…

  8. Prospective, randomized controlled assessment of the short- and long-term efficacy of a hearing conservation education program in Canadian elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Anastasia; Westerberg, Brian D; Nabi, Shahin; Bryce, Graham; Bureau, Yves

    2011-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of a hearing conservation program in changing acoustic risk-taking and hearing conservation behaviors in elementary school children. Prospective, randomized, mixed design controlled study. Participants were grade-six students from 16 Vancouver School Board schools. Differences between the intervention and control group responses on a behavioral questionnaire were measured at baseline, and then at 2 weeks and 6 months after administration of a hearing conservation program (Sound Sense™). The intervention resulted in significant interactions for improved earplug use at dances (P = .019), rock concerts (P = .001), with percussion musical instruments (P = .002), and electric guitars (P = .028) at 2 weeks postintervention relative to baseline. Improvements in children's earplug use at dances (P = .041), rock concerts (P = .0024), and with power lawn mowers (P = .043) at 6 months postintervention relative to baseline were also observed. Behavior in the intervention group compared to control group improved in earplug use with any "other noises" at 2 weeks (P = .001), and 6 months (P = .022) relative to baseline. There was a tendency in the intervention group to reduce the duration of use of personal music devices at 2 weeks and 6 months after the hearing conservation program, which was nonsignificant. The Sound Sense™ hearing conservation program improved earplug use practices in elementary school children in the short and long term. The development, implementation and evaluation of a community-based health promotion project around hearing loss can serve as a tremendous opportunity for students to develop their knowledge and skills in health advocacy.

  9. Socio-motivational moderators-two sides of the same coin? Testing the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships on achievement drive and test anxiety among German and Canadian secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoferichter, Frances; Raufelder, Diana; Eid, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The current cross-national study investigates the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships for the association of achievement drive (AD) and test anxiety (TX) in secondary school students from Canada and Germany. One thousand and eighty-eight students (54% girls, M age = 13.71, SD = 0.53, age span 12-15 years) from the state of Brandenburg and 389 students from Quebéc (55.9% girls, M age = 13.43, SD = 0.82, age span 12-16 years) were asked about their socio-motivational relationships with their teachers and peers, their drive for achievement, and TX. Multigroup latent moderated structural equations were conducted to test for the moderator role of socio-motivational relationships that would buffer feelings of TX related to the drive for achievement. The analyses revealed the two-sided role socio-motivational relationships can have for students with different levels of AD; intensifying or mitigating feelings of TX. Thereby, the results of this study extend the buffering hypothesis by Cohen and Wills (1985). Cross-national differences between Canada and Germany were found concerning the studied moderators on the association of AD and TX: While for German students teacher-student relationships acted as moderator, for Canadian students student-student relationships and teachers acting as positive motivators displayed a moderator role.

  10. Socio-motivational moderators – Two sides of the same coin?Testing the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships on achievement drive and test anxiety among German and Canadian secondary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances eHoferichter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The current cross-national study investigates the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships for the association of achievement drive and test anxiety in secondary school students from Canada and Germany. One thousand eighty-eight students (54% girls, Mage = 13.71, SD = .53, age span 12–15 years from the state of Brandenburg and 389 students from Quebéc (55.9% girls, Mage = 13.43, SD = .82, age span 12–16 years were asked about their socio-motivational relationships with their teachers and peers, their drive for achievement, and test anxiety. Multigroup latent moderated structural equations (MGLMS were conducted to test for the moderator role of socio-motivational relationships that would buffer feelings of test anxiety related to the drive for achievement. The analyses revealed the two-sided role socio-motivational relationships can have for students with different levels of achievement drive; intensifying or mitigating feelings of test anxiety. Thereby, the results of this study extend the buffering hypothesis by Cohen and Wills (1985. Cross-national differences between Canada and Germany were found concerning the studied moderators on the association of achievement drive and test anxiety: While for German students teacher-student relationships acted as moderator, for Canadian students student-student relationships and teachers acting as positive motivators displayed a moderator role.

  11. Socio-motivational moderators—two sides of the same coin? Testing the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships on achievement drive and test anxiety among German and Canadian secondary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoferichter, Frances; Raufelder, Diana; Eid, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The current cross-national study investigates the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships for the association of achievement drive (AD) and test anxiety (TX) in secondary school students from Canada and Germany. One thousand and eighty-eight students (54% girls, Mage = 13.71, SD = 0.53, age span 12–15 years) from the state of Brandenburg and 389 students from Quebéc (55.9% girls, Mage = 13.43, SD = 0.82, age span 12–16 years) were asked about their socio-motivational relationships with their teachers and peers, their drive for achievement, and TX. Multigroup latent moderated structural equations were conducted to test for the moderator role of socio-motivational relationships that would buffer feelings of TX related to the drive for achievement. The analyses revealed the two-sided role socio-motivational relationships can have for students with different levels of AD; intensifying or mitigating feelings of TX. Thereby, the results of this study extend the buffering hypothesis by Cohen and Wills (1985). Cross-national differences between Canada and Germany were found concerning the studied moderators on the association of AD and TX: While for German students teacher–student relationships acted as moderator, for Canadian students student–student relationships and teachers acting as positive motivators displayed a moderator role. PMID:26583000

  12. Social Functioning and Adjustment in Canadian-Born Children with Chinese and European Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin; Tse, Hennis Chi-Hang

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine social functioning and adjustment in peer context in Chinese Canadian and European Canadian children. A sample of elementary school children participated in the study. Data on social functioning, peer acceptance and rejection, and victimization were collected from peer assessments and sociometric…

  13. Youth De-Radicalization: A Canadian Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafal (Haval Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Youth radicalization leading to violence has become a growing fear among Canadians, as terrorist attacks are carried out in Western states. Although Canada has suffered relatively fewer acts of violence, this fear has intensified and a de-radicalization strategy is needed in the Canadian context. In a qualitative case study methodology, interviews were conducted with school counsellors, religious leaders, and academics to explore solutions to youth radicalization. Youth de-radicalization approaches from the United Kingdom were analyzed and found that community-based initiatives were missing from programming. Social identity theory is used to explain that youth join radicalized groups to feel a sense of belonging and have to be provided an alternative and moderate group identity to de-radicalize. This study found youth de-radicalization in Canada is best served through a community collaboration approach.

  14. Canadian Mathematical Congress

    CERN Document Server

    1977-01-01

    For two weeks in August, 1975 more than 140 mathematicians and other scientists gathered at the Universite de Sherbrooke. The occasion was the 15th Biennial Seminar of the Canadian Mathematical Congress, entitled Mathematics and the Life Sciences. Participants in this inter­ disciplinary gathering included researchers and graduate students in mathematics, seven different areas of biological science, physics, chemistry and medical science. Geographically, those present came from the United States and the United Kingdom as well as from academic departments and government agencies scattered across Canada. In choosing this particular interdisciplinary topic the programme committee had two chief objectives. These were to promote Canadian research in mathematical problems of the life sciences, and to encourage co-operation and exchanges between mathematical scientists" biologists and medical re­ searchers. To accomplish these objective the committee assembled a stim­ ulating programme of lectures and talks. Six ...

  15. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  16. Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon H Hoeppner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic tuberculosis (TB was almost certainly present in Canadian aboriginal people (aboriginal Canadians denotes status Indians, Inuit, nonstatus Indians and metis as reported by Statistics Canada before the Old World traders arrived. However, the social changes that resulted from contact with these traders created the conditions that converted endemic TB into epidemic TB. The incidence of TB varied inversely with the time interval from this cultural collision, which began on the east coast in the 16th century and ended in the Northern Territories in the 20th century. This relatively recent epidemic explains why the disease is more frequent in aboriginal children than in Canadian-born nonaboriginal people. Treatment plans must account for the socioeconomic conditions and cultural characteristics of the aboriginal people, especially healing models and language. Prevention includes bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and chemoprophylaxis, and must account for community conditions, such as rates of suicide, which have exceeded the rate of TB. The control of TB requires a centralized program with specifically directed funding. It must include a program that works in partnership with aboriginal communities.

  17. Canadian identity: Implications for international social work by Canadians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2011-01-01

    This paper is in response to recent calls to conceptualize and articulate Canadian perspectives and experiences in international social work, given that the Canadian standpoint has been lacking in international social work literature. This paper contends that it is imperative, first of all......, to critically examine and unpack our ‘Canadian’ identity in order to practice international work that is socially just and anti-imperialist. Drawing on the work of post-colonial authors, critical race theorists, and those who study national myth-making, this essay revisits Canadian identity because...... it is this identity that Canadian social workers often carry into their international work....

  18. School-Based Racial and Gender Discrimination among African American Adolescents: Exploring Gender Variation in Frequency and Implications for Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavous, Tabbye M.; Griffin, Tiffany M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined school-based racial and gender discrimination experiences among African American adolescents in Grade 8 (n = 204 girls; n = 209 boys). A primary goal was exploring gender variation in frequency of both types of discrimination and associations of discrimination with academic and psychological functioning among girls and boys. Girls and boys did not vary in reported racial discrimination frequency, but boys reported more gender discrimination experiences. Multiple regression analyses within gender groups indicated that among girls and boys, racial discrimination and gender discrimination predicted higher depressive symptoms and school importance and racial discrimination predicted self-esteem. Racial and gender discrimination were also negatively associated with grade point average among boys but were not significantly associated in girls’ analyses. Significant gender discrimination X racial discrimination interactions resulted in the girls’ models predicting psychological outcomes and in boys’ models predicting academic achievement. Taken together, findings suggest the importance of considering gender- and race-related experiences in understanding academic and psychological adjustment among African American adolescents. PMID:22837794

  19. [Effect of intermittent variable intensity exercise on QT variation and risk of sudden cardiac death among Cameroonian school adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bika Lele, E C; Pepouomi, M N; Temfemo, A; Mekoulou, J; Assomo Ndemba, P; Mandengue, S H

    2017-07-10

    Several cases of sudden deaths are observed among students practicing sport and physical activity (SPA). Just few studies have been carried out on the variation of the QT (interval) and risk of sudden death during sporting exercises. To determine the effect of variable intermittent stress intensity on the variation of QT and the risk of sudden cardiac death. Form 4, lower sixth and upper sixth students were recruited from a high school in Douala (Cameroon). Each subject was tested; starting with a 2-km walk followed by a sprint race or an endurance race, protocol I (P1) or the reverse; protocol II (P2). Two electrocardiograms were recorded; prior to the beginning of the SPA and 5minutes after the last race. QT was corrected using four formulas. Forty-one subjects (21 women and 20 men), mean age 18±2 years were recruited. At the end of the exercise, corrected QT increased with Bazzet's formula and decreased with Frahmingam's formula. The difference was not significant with Fridericia and Hodges formulas. The frequency of long QT was higher at the end of the exercise with Bazzet's formula (12.2% vs. 24.4%, P=0.009) while the difference was not significant for the other formulas. The risk of sudden cardiac death increases significantly after SPA. More studies on large samples are needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  20. Variations in schools’ commitment to health and implementation of health improvement activities: a cross-sectional study of secondary schools in Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham F. Moore

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interventions to improve young people’s health are most commonly delivered via schools. While young people attending the lowest socioeconomic status (SES schools report poorer health profiles, no previous studies have examined whether there is an ‘inverse care law’ in school health improvement activity (i.e., whether schools in more affluent areas deliver more health improvement. Nor have other factors that may explain variations, such as leadership of health improvement activities, been examined at a population level. This paper examines variability in delivery of health improvement actions among secondary schools in Wales, and whether variability is linked to organisational commitment to health, socioeconomic status and school size. Methods Of the 82 schools participating in the 2013/14 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC survey in Wales, 67 completed a questionnaire on school health improvement delivery structures and health improvement actions within their school. Correlational analyses explore associations of delivery of health improvement activity among schools in Wales with organisational commitment to health, socioeconomic context and school size. Results There is substantial variability among schools in organisational commitment to health, with pupil emotional health identified as a priority by 52 % of schools, and physical health by 43 %. Approximately half (49 % report written action plans for pupil health. Based on composite measures, the quantity of school health improvement activity was greater in less affluent schools and schools reporting greater commitment to health. There was a consistent though non-significant trend toward more health improvement activity in larger schools. In multivariate analysis deprivation (OR = 1.06; 95 % CI = 1.01 to 1.12 and organisational commitment to health were significant independent predictors of the quantity of health improvement (OR = 1.60; 95

  1. Co-op Education in the Canadian Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munby, Hugh; Hutchinson, Nancy; Chin, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Research on co-op education in Canadian secondary schools indicates that it was under-appreciated in ministry policy. However, participants felt that cooperative education was a career exploration opportunity, contextualized the academic curriculum, taught work ethics, and prepared students for postsecondary programs. A clearer commitment to…

  2. The Right to Live and Die. Canadian Critical Issues Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, John; Bourne, Paula

    One of a series adapted from the Canadian Public Issues Project, this book is designed to stimulate discussion and reflection about controversial issues through case studies. The book is based on high school units originally drawn from cases in newspapers, journals, books, legal documents, and government reports. Conflicts from issues arising over…

  3. Culture and Parenting: Psychological Adjustment among Chinese Canadian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Cynthia S. M.; Miller, Lynn D.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between adolescents' cultural identification, perceptions of maternal and paternal parenting, and psychological adjustment with a sample of 192 Chinese Canadian adolescents. Participants were recruited from public urban high schools and completed 4 self-report questionnaires. Data were analyzed using…

  4. Iron sufficiency of Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Marcia; Greene-Finestone, Linda; Lowell, Hélène; Levesque, Johanne; Robinson, Stacey

    2012-12-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world, but little is known about the iron status of people in Canada, where the last estimates are from 1970-1972. The data are from cycle 2 (2009 to 2011) of the Canadian Health Measures Survey, which collected blood samples from a nationally representative sample of Canadians aged 3 to 79. Descriptive statistics (percentages, arithmetic means, geometric means) were used to estimate hemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations, and other markers of iron status. Analyses were performed by age/sex group, household income, self-perceived health, diet, and use of iron supplements. World Health Organization reference values (2001) were used to estimate the prevalence of iron sufficiency and anemia. The overall prevalence of anemia was low in the 2009-to-2011 period--97% of Canadians had sufficient hemoglobin levels. Generally, hemoglobin concentration increased compared with 1970-1972; however, at ages 65 to 79, rates of anemia were higher than in 1970-1972. Depleted iron stores were found in 13% of females aged 12 to 19 and 9% of females aged 20 to 49. Lower household income was associated with a lower prevalence of hemoglobin sufficiency, but was not related to lower serum ferritin sufficiency. Self-perceived health and diet were not significantly associated with hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels. The lack of a relationship between iron status and diet may be attributable to the use of questions about food consumption frequency that were not specifically designed to estimate dietary iron intake. Factors other than iron intake might have contributed to the increase in the prevalence of anemia among seniors.

  5. Canadian space robotic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallaberger, Christian; Space Plan Task Force, Canadian Space Agency

    The Canadian Space Agency has chosen space robotics as one of its key niche areas, and is currently preparing to deliver the first flight elements for the main robotic system of the international space station. The Mobile Servicing System (MSS) is the Canadian contribution to the international space station. It consists of three main elements. The Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) is a 7-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm. The Special Purpose Dextrous Manipulator (SPDM), a smaller 2-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm can be used independently, or attached to the end of the SSRMS. The Mobile Base System (MBS) will be used as a support platform and will also provide power and data links for both the SSRMS and the SPDM. A Space Vision System (SVS) has been tested on Shuttle flights, and is being further developed to enhance the autonomous capabilities of the MSS. The CSA also has a Strategic Technologies in Automation and Robotics Program which is developing new technologies to fulfill future robotic space mission needs. This program is currently developing in industry technological capabilities in the areas of automation of operations, autonomous robotics, vision systems, trajectory planning and object avoidance, tactile and proximity sensors, and ground control of space robots. Within the CSA, a robotic testbed and several research programs are also advancing technologies such as haptic devices, control via head-mounted displays, predictive and preview displays, and the dynamic characterization of robotic arms. Canada is also now developing its next Long Term Space Plan. In this context, a planetary exploration program is being considered, which would utilize Canadian space robotic technologies in this new arena.

  6. Unique Factors Affecting Canadian Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Robin H.

    In a background statement identifying what is unique about Canada and the issues it currently faces, this paper begins by discussing the concurrent movements toward Canadian nationalism and Quebec nationalism as an illustration of the problems caused by large size and great diversity. It then focuses on unique aspects of Canadian education,…

  7. Canadian National Vegetation Classification (CNVC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The mandate of the CNVC is to comprehensively classify and describe natural and semi-natural Canadian vegetation in an ecologically meaningful manner. The...

  8. Engendering migrant health: Canadian perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    .... What contributes to this deterioration, and how can its effects be mitigated? Engendering Migrant Health brings together researchers from across Canada to address the intersections of gender, immigration, and health in the lives of new Canadians...

  9. Natural history of Canadian mammals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Naughton, Donna; Banfield, A. W. F

    2012-01-01

    .... A complete revision of A.W.F. Banfield's classic text Mammals of Canada, it features brand-new, full-colour images of each species, as well as stunning photographs from Canadian Geographic magazine's national photography...

  10. Engendering migrant health: Canadian perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    "Voluntary migrants to Canada are generally healthier than the average Canadian, but after ten years in the country they report poorer health and higher rates of chronic disease than those born here...

  11. Variations in Academic Performance Trajectories during High School Transition: Exploring Change Profiles Via Multidimensional Scaling Growth Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Cody S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the baseline change profiles of academic performance (math and English) trajectories during the high school transition for the students who went from middle school to high school. Using multidimensional scaling growth profile analysis, we identified a no-change group plus 4 other groups with different change profile types: 1…

  12. Home Economics/Family Studies Education in Canadian Schools: A Position Paper = L'enseignement de l'economie familiale/etudes familiales dans les ecoles canadiennes: Expose de principes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Home Economics Journal, 1996

    1996-01-01

    English and French versions of the Canadian Home Economics Association's position paper describe the place of home economics/family studies (HEFS) in education and worldwide trends indicating the need for HEFS. Suggests it is the only subject with the primary focus on preparing students for everyday life in an increasingly complex global society.…

  13. Canadian leadership in energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Canada's energy is complex and an important resource as it fuels and funds the economy. The unique character of Canada's energy production and consumption provides strength to the country. The purpose of this booklet was to highlight Canada's energy production and consumption and to demonstrate Canada's rank globally with other major global energy players. The document also presented information on the value of Canada's energy exports, Canada's relationship with the United States, and Canada's energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. Specifically, the document discussed Canada's energy in a global context; the value of Canada's energy exports; domestic value of energy; Canada's unique energy mix; Canada's electricity mix; Canada's carbon dioxide emissions; energy strategies; and the importance of energy to Canadians. It was concluded that there are 14 federal, provincial and territorial jurisdictions managing their respective energy resources. All of these regions, with the exception of Saskatchewan have produced an energy strategy document or a climate change action plan focusing on 8 areas of action, notably awareness; benefit; efficiency; development; diversification; electricity; and emissions. refs., tabs., figs.

  14. School Effectiveness and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, I. I.; Oakley, W. F.

    1992-01-01

    Fiedler's contingency theory relates school effectiveness to a combination of principals' leadership style and situational favorability for the principal. Data from teacher questionnaires on school climate and effectiveness and measures of principal's leadership in 176 Canadian elementary schools did not support Fiedler's model. Contains 54…

  15. Socio-economic and demographic variations in school lunch participation of French children aged 3-17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuisson, Carine; Lioret, Sandrine; Dufour, Ariane; Calamassi-Tran, Gloria; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Lafay, Lionel; Turck, Dominique

    2011-02-01

    To assess school canteen attendance in a French nationally representative sample of children and to analyse its association with the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the children and their families. Data from the second French national cross-sectional food consumption survey (INCA2), performed in 2006-2007, were used. Information on usual weekly school canteen attendance was collected through a self-reported questionnaire, and demographic and socio-economic variables through a face-to-face questionnaire. The associations between school canteen attendance and the socio-economic and demographic variables were investigated by multivariate logistic regression analyses. The INCA2 sample was representative of the children aged 3-17 years in France. Analysis was performed on 1413 schoolchildren who completed the school canteen attendance questions. Some 65·6 % of schoolchildren aged 3-17 years had school lunch at least once weekly. This rate of attendance was positively correlated with age. Whatever the school level, school canteen attendance was positively associated with the educational level of the caregiver/parent. In pre- and elementary-school children, enrolment at the school canteen was also higher when the caregiver/parent worked, or in single-parent families. In secondary-school children, school lunch participation decreased with children living in more densely populated areas and increased with the level of the household's living standards. School canteen attendance was positively associated with children's socio-economic background. This could reduce the effectiveness of the forthcoming school meal composition regulations designed to improve the diet of children from deprived backgrounds, who are more likely to have unhealthy food habits.

  16. Comparison of United States and Canadian Glaucoma Medication Costs and Price Change from 2006 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B. Schlenker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Compare glaucoma medication costs between the United States (USA and Canada. Methods. We modelled glaucoma brand name and generic medication annual costs in the USA and Canada based on October 2013 Costco prices and previously reported bottle overfill rates, drops per mL, and wastage adjustment. We also calculated real wholesale price changes from 2006 to 2013 based on the Average Wholesale Price (USA and the Ontario Drug Benefit Price (Canada. Results. US brand name medication costs were on average 4x more than Canadian medication costs (range: 1.9x–6.9x, averaging a cost difference of $859 annually. US generic costs were on average the same as Canadian costs, though variation exists. US brand name wholesale prices increased from 2006 to 2013 more than Canadian prices (US range: 29%–349%; Canadian range: 9%–16%. US generic wholesale prices increased modestly (US range: −23%–58%, and Canadian wholesale prices decreased (Canadian range: −38%–0%. Conclusions. US brand name glaucoma medications are more expensive than Canadian medications, though generic costs are similar (with some variation. The real prices of brand name medications increased more in the USA than in Canada. Generic price changes were more modest, with real prices actually decreasing in Canada.

  17. Beyond nutrition: hunger and its impact on the health of young Canadians

    OpenAIRE

    Pickett, William; Michaelson, Valerie; Davison, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In a large Canadian study, we examined: (1) the prevalence of hunger due to an inadequate food supply at home; (2) relations between this hunger and a range of health outcomes, and; (3) contextual explanations for any observed associations. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted of 25,912 students aged 11?15?years from 436 Canadian schools. Analyses were descriptive and also involved hierarchical logistic regression models. Results Hunger was reported by 25?% of participant...

  18. Modelling the influence of individual and spatial factors underlying variations in the levels of secondary school examination results

    OpenAIRE

    Coombes, M; Raybould, S

    1997-01-01

    There are several strands of research which have recently converged in the analysis of exam results. A long-standing line of enquiry has been to assess the impact of deprivation on educational performance. At the school level, recent work has concentrated on trying to assess the 'added value' of the education provided by a school, taking into account the abilities of the children on entry. The need to assess influences operating at different levels (notably, the individual and the school) has...

  19. "Go West Young Man!" Youth Apprenticeship and Opportunity Structures in Two Canadian Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Wolfgang; Taylor, Alison; Hamm, Zane

    2015-01-01

    Most Canadian provinces offer high-school apprenticeships to facilitate students' transitions to skilled work and address employers' concerns about labour shortages. Using interview data with graduates from high-school apprenticeships in Alberta and Ontario, we analyse the impact participation in these programmes has had on their educational and…

  20. Understanding Public Perceptions of the HPV Vaccination Based on Online Comments to Canadian News Articles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Feinberg

    Full Text Available Given the variation in human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine coverage across Canada, and debate regarding delivery of HPV vaccines in Catholic schools, we studied online comments on Canadian news websites to understand public perceptions of HPV and HPV vaccine.We searched English- and French-language Canadian news websites for 2012 articles that contained the terms "HPV" or "human papillomavirus." Articles about HPV vaccinations that contained at least one comment were included. Two researchers independently coded comments, analyzing them for emerging themes.We identified 3073 comments from 1198 individuals in response to 71 news articles; 630 (52.6% individuals expressed positive sentiments about HPV vaccination (2.5 comments/individual, 404 (33.7% were negative (3.0 comments/individual, 34 (2.8% were mixed (1.5 comments/individual and 130 (10.8% were neutral (1.6 comments/individual. Vaccine-supportive commenters believed the vaccine is safe and effective. Common themes in negative comments included concerns regarding HPV vaccine safety and efficacy, distrust of pharmaceutical companies and government, and belief that school-age children are too young for HPV vaccine. Many comments focused on whether the Catholic Church has the right to inform health policy for students, and discussion often evolved into debates regarding HPV and sexual behaviour. We noted that many individuals doubted the credibility of vaccine safety information.The majority of commenters do not appear to be against HPV vaccination, but public health messaging that focuses on both the vaccine's safety profile, and its use as a means to prevent cancer rather than sexually transmitted HPV infection may facilitate its acceptance.

  1. Understanding Public Perceptions of the HPV Vaccination Based on Online Comments to Canadian News Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Yael; Pereira, Jennifer A; Quach, Susan; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Wilson, Sarah E; Guay, Maryse; Lei, Yang; Deeks, Shelley L

    2015-01-01

    Given the variation in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage across Canada, and debate regarding delivery of HPV vaccines in Catholic schools, we studied online comments on Canadian news websites to understand public perceptions of HPV and HPV vaccine. We searched English- and French-language Canadian news websites for 2012 articles that contained the terms "HPV" or "human papillomavirus." Articles about HPV vaccinations that contained at least one comment were included. Two researchers independently coded comments, analyzing them for emerging themes. We identified 3073 comments from 1198 individuals in response to 71 news articles; 630 (52.6%) individuals expressed positive sentiments about HPV vaccination (2.5 comments/individual), 404 (33.7%) were negative (3.0 comments/individual), 34 (2.8%) were mixed (1.5 comments/individual) and 130 (10.8%) were neutral (1.6 comments/individual). Vaccine-supportive commenters believed the vaccine is safe and effective. Common themes in negative comments included concerns regarding HPV vaccine safety and efficacy, distrust of pharmaceutical companies and government, and belief that school-age children are too young for HPV vaccine. Many comments focused on whether the Catholic Church has the right to inform health policy for students, and discussion often evolved into debates regarding HPV and sexual behaviour. We noted that many individuals doubted the credibility of vaccine safety information. The majority of commenters do not appear to be against HPV vaccination, but public health messaging that focuses on both the vaccine's safety profile, and its use as a means to prevent cancer rather than sexually transmitted HPV infection may facilitate its acceptance.

  2. Canadian synthetic resins industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margeson, J. [Industry Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    The growth of the synthetic resin industry in Canada is described. In 1999 the industry had shipments totalling $6.3 billion and employed about 9,000 people in 105 establishments. The industry is concentrated in Alberta, Ontario and Quebec. Plants in Alberta produce commodity-grade thermoplastic resins from raw materials derived mainly from natural gas, whereas plants in Ontario and Quebec produce both thermoplastic and thermoset resins using raw materials derived from both crude oil and natural gas. Sixty-four per cent of the synthetic reins produced in Canada, worth about $4.1 billion, are exported. This is offset by imports of 68 per cent of domestic consumption, (valued at $5.0 billion) reflecting rationalization and specialization of the resin industry on a continental basis. Process and product technologies used in Canada are up-to-date and licensed from parent or other foreign chemical companies. Capital investment in the Canadian resin industry is lagging behind investment in the United States, however, this is expected to change once the impact of recent investments in the industry in Alberta is reflected in the statistics. A five to seven per cent real average annual growth in world-wide consumption is predicted over the next five years. Growth in North America is projected to be in the three to four per cent range. The Alberta-based component of the industry, being relatively new, is expected to improve its ability to compete globally in commodity thermoplastics. In contrast, the plants in Ontario and Quebec suffer from the fact that they were built prior to the Free Trade Agreement and were designed to satisfy domestic requirements. They are attempting to compensate for their lack of economics of scale by developing strategies to supply niche products. 8 figs.

  3. Missing the mark: Current practices in teaching the male urogenital examination to Canadian undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Kristen; Steele, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The urogenital physical examination is an important aspect of patient encounters in various clinical settings. Introductory clinical skills sessions are intended to provide support and alleviate students' anxiety when learning this sensitive exam. The techniques each Canadian medical school uses to guide their students through the initial urogenital examination has not been previously reported. This study surveyed pre-clerkship clinical skills program directors at the main campus of English-speaking Canadian medical schools regarding the curriculum they use to teach the urogenital examination. A response rate of 100% was achieved, providing information on resources and faculty available to students, as well as the manner in which students were evaluated. Surprisingly, over one-third of the Canadian medical schools surveyed failed to provide a setting in which students perform a urogenital examination on a patient in their pre-clinical years. Additionally, there was no formal evaluation of this skill set reported by almost 50% of Canadian medical schools prior to clinical training years. To ensure medical students are confident and accurate in performing a urogenital examination, it is vital they be provided the proper resources, teaching, and training. As we progress towards a competency-based curriculum, it is essential that increased focus be placed on patient encounters in undergraduate training. Further research to quantify students' exposure to the urogenital examination during clinical years would be of interest. Without this commitment by Canadian medical schools, we are doing a disservice not only to the medical students, but also to our patient population.

  4. The Use of Language Variation in Narrating the Story of Lahilote by Students with Physical Disability at an Exceptional School in Gorontalo City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellyana Hinta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Language is the most important communication tool that has various functions to be used in people’s interaction. It is essentially utilized in every aspect of life in which there will be no good movement without a language. The same language used differently by some people is known as language variation that also takes place at an exceptional school (henceforth called as ES in Gorontalo City, particularly the students with a physical disability. For that reason, this study aims to describe the use of language variation by the students with a physical disability at ES in Gorontalo City. Sociolinguistics theory about the use of language variation becomes the guideline of this study, and it refers to the speaker’s language variation viewed by (1 lexical choice; (2 sentence; (3 intonation and (4 plot suitability.  The result finally shows that the use of language variation by the students with a physical disability is based on the speaker’s lexical choice, sentence arrangement, intonation, and plot suitability.

  5. Educational Progression in Ghana: Gender and Spatial Variations in Longitudinal Trajectories of Junior High School Completion Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansong, David; Alhassan, Mustapha

    2016-01-01

    Completion of junior high school is a critical milestone in every Ghanaian child's educational trajectory and a critical step toward the transition to higher education. However, the rate of children completing junior high school still lags behind most educational indicators in Ghana. Far more attention is paid to ensuring that students enroll in…

  6. Variations in students' perceived reasons for, sources of, and forms of in-school discrimination: A latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Christy M; Carter Andrews, Dorinda J

    2016-08-01

    Although there exists a healthy body of literature related to discrimination in schools, this research has primarily focused on racial or ethnic discrimination as perceived and experienced by students of color. Few studies examine students' perceptions of discrimination from a variety of sources, such as adults and peers, their descriptions of the discrimination, or the frequency of discrimination in the learning environment. Middle and high school students in a Midwestern school district (N=1468) completed surveys identifying whether they experienced discrimination from seven sources (e.g., peers, teachers, administrators), for seven reasons (e.g., gender, race/ethnicity, religion), and in eight forms (e.g., punished more frequently, called names, excluded from social groups). The sample was 52% White, 15% Black/African American, 14% Multiracial, and 17% Other. Latent class analysis was used to cluster individuals based on reported sources of, reasons for, and forms of discrimination. Four clusters were found, and ANOVAs were used to test for differences between clusters on perceptions of school climate, relationships with teachers, perceptions that the school was a "good school," and engagement. The Low Discrimination cluster experienced the best outcomes, whereas an intersectional cluster experienced the most discrimination and the worst outcomes. The results confirm existing research on the negative effects of discrimination. Additionally, the paper adds to the literature by highlighting the importance of an intersectional approach to examining students' perceptions of in-school discrimination. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reasons for Home Schooling in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, A. Bruce

    2000-01-01

    Studied the reasons Canadian parents choose to home school their children through interviews with 23 home-schooling families and compared findings with those from previous studies in the United States. Findings suggest that Canadian home schoolers have very different reasons from those of their U.S. counterparts. (SLD)

  8. THE IMPROVEMENT OF STAFF PERFORMANCE THROUGH VARIATION OF LEADERSHIP APPROACH AT STATE VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL (SMKN 2 METRO ACADEMIC YEAR 2015/2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutarman - -

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : SMKN 2 Metro, as one of vocational high schools potentially becomes a reference school, need to deal that possibility with high performace both teachers and staff. Reference school requires all staffs to manage and organize the school establishment in accordance with quality management procedure and do their best to improve their competency and qualification. The improvement of their competency and qualification is a supporting factor of the service provided by the school to all stake holders at SMKN 2 Metro. The aim of the research is to improve the performance of the staff at SMKN 2 Metro.It was school action research applied. This research was conducted to improve working situation and process to overcome problems of the school. SMKN 2 Metro is located at Street Yos Sudars, West Metro of Metro Municipal City. The subjcts of the research were staff consist of 13 civil servants (PNS and 20 volunteer (PTT. It was done for three months from February to April 2015.The researcher was able to conclude that staff performance at SMKN 2 Metro improved when variation of leadership approach applied. This conclusion was supported by some findings. There was linear improvement of staff performance both PNS and PTT. The improvement of PTT performance was better than PNS in the beggining of the treatment, bu then they reached the same quality of improvement. Coersive power needed to be apllied more intensive in the beggining although applied with very careful manner. Flexible leadership approach must equip authoritative approach. Reward, even in smallest amount of recognition, must be applied more intensive.   Key Words: Approach, Performance, Staff

  9. Context Matters for Social-Emotional Learning: Examining Variation in Program Impact by Dimensions of School Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Meghan P; Cappella, Elise; O'Connor, Erin E; McClowry, Sandee G

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines whether three dimensions of school climate-leadership, accountability, and safety/respect-moderated the impacts of the INSIGHTS program on students' social-emotional, behavioral, and academic outcomes. Twenty-two urban schools and N = 435 low-income racial/ethnic minority students were enrolled in the study and received intervention services across the course of 2 years, in both kindergarten and first grade. Intervention effects on math and reading achievement were larger for students enrolled in schools with lower overall levels of leadership, accountability, and safety/respect at baseline. Program impacts on disruptive behaviors were greater in schools with lower levels of accountability at baseline; impacts on sustained attention were greater in schools with lower levels of safety/respect at baseline. Implications for Social-Emotional Learning program implementation, replication, and scale-up are discussed.

  10. Responsible Canadian energy progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents oil and gas companies throughout Canada; its members produce over 90% of Canada's natural gas and crude oil output. The aim of the Association is to improve the economics of the Canadian upstream petroleum sector in an environmentally and socially responsible way. The aim of this Responsible Canadian Energy report is to present the performance data of CAPP's members for the year 2009. Data, trends, and performance analyses are provided throughout the document. This analysis makes it possible to determine where progress has been made and where performance improvement is necessary. It also presents success stories and best practices so that other companies can learn from them how to improve their own performance. This paper provides useful information on the performance of the upstream petroleum industry in Canada and highlights where the focus should be for further improvement in its performance.

  11. Transnational archives: the Canadian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Creet

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the concept of the transnational archive as a counterpoint to the idea that a national archive is necessarily a locus of a static idea of nation. The Canadian national archives is used as a case study of an archives that was transnational in its inception, and one that has continued to change in its mandate and materials as a response to patterns in migration and changing notions of multiculturalism as a Canadian federal policy. It introduces the most recent formation of the transnational archive and its denizens: the genealogical archive inhabited by family historians.

  12. Sleep duration estimates of Canadian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Janssen, Ian

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to provide contemporary sleep duration estimates of Canadian school-aged children and adolescents and to determine the proportion adhering to the sleep duration recommendations. This study included 24 896 participants aged 10-17 years from the 2013/2014 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (HBSC), a nationally representative cross-sectional study. Bedtime and wake-up times were reported by participants and their sleep duration was calculated. Participants were then classified as having a sleep duration that met the recommended range (9-11 h per night for 10-13-year-olds or 8-10 h per night for 14-17-year-olds), a sleep duration that was shorter than the recommended range or a sleep duration that was longer than the recommended range. An estimated 68% of children aged 10-13 years and 72% of adolescents aged 14-17 years sleep for the recommended amount per night when averaged across all days of the week. Short sleepers represent 31% of school-aged children and 26% of adolescents. Long sleepers are rare (adolescents sleep ~1 h more at weekends compared to weekdays. Approximately 5% of the participants typically went to bed after midnight on weekdays and 31% did so at weekends; these proportions reached 11 and 45%, respectively, within 16-17-year-olds. In general, differences in sleep times between boys and girls are small and not clinically significant. In conclusion, almost one-third of Canadian children and adolescents sleep less than the recommended amount. Public health efforts should continue to monitor the sleep of Canadian children and adolescents and identify subgroups of the population more likely to be affected by insufficient sleep. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  13. Engendering migrant health: Canadian perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    .... Focusing on the context of Canadian policy and society, the contributors illuminate migrants' testimonies of struggle, resistance, and solidarity as they negotiate a place for themselves in a new country. Topics range from the difficulties of Francophone refugees and the changing roles of fathers, to the experiences of queer newcomers and the importance of social unity to communal and individual health."--pub. desc.

  14. Universal values of Canadian astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

    2012-11-01

    Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

  15. Seasonal variation in food pattern but not in energy and nutrient intakes of rural Beninese school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchikpe, C.E.S.; Dossa, R.A.M.; Ategbo, E.A.D.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Kok, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Inadequate energy and nutrient intakes are a major nutritional problem in developing countries. A recent study in Beninese school-aged children in different seasons revealed a high prevalence of stunting and poor iron status that might be related to the food pattern. Objective: To

  16. Peer Effects and Measurement Error: The Impact of Sampling Variation in School Survey Data (Evidence from PISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklewright, John; Schnepf, Sylke V.; Silva, Pedro N.

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of peer effects on achievement with sample survey data on schools may mean that only a random sample of the population of peers is observed for each individual. This generates measurement error in peer variables similar in form to the textbook case of errors-in-variables, resulting in the estimated peer group effects in an OLS…

  17. Seasonal variation of total particulate matter and children respiratory diseases at Lisbon primary schools using passive methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canha, N.; Almeida, M.; Do Carmo Freitas, M.; Almeida, S.M.; Wolterbeek, H.T.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, 14 primary schools of Lisbon city, Portugal, followed a questionnaire of the ISAAC - International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Program, in 2009/2010. The questionnaire contained questions to identify children with respiratory diseases (wheeze, asthma and rhinitis). Total

  18. Antimicrobial use on Canadian dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, V; McClure, J T; Léger, D; Dufour, S; Sheldon, A G; Scholl, D T; Barkema, H W

    2012-03-01

    Antimicrobial use (AMU) data are critical for formulating policies for containing antimicrobial resistance. The present study determined AMU on Canadian dairy farms and characterized variation in AMU based on herd-level factors such as milk production, somatic cell count, herd size, geographic region and housing type. Drug use data were collected on 89 dairy herds in 4 regions of Canada, Alberta, Ontario, Québec, and the Maritime provinces (Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia) for an average of 540 d per herd. Dairy producers and farm personnel were asked to deposit empty drug containers into specially provided receptacles. Antimicrobial use was measured as antimicrobial drug use rate (ADUR), with the unit being number of animal defined-daily doses (ADD)/1,000 cow-days. Antimicrobial drug use rates were determined at farm, region, and national level. Combined ADUR of all antimicrobial classes was 14.35 ADD/1,000 cow-days nationally. National level ADUR of the 6 most commonly used antimicrobial drug classes, cephalosporins, penicillins, penicillin combinations, tetracyclines, trimethoprim-sulfonamide combinations, and lincosamides were 3.05, 2.56, 2.20, 1.83, 0.87, and 0.84 ADD/1,000 cow-days, respectively. Dairy herds in Ontario were higher users of third-generation cephalosporins (ceftiofur) than in Québec. Alberta dairy herds were higher users of tetracyclines in comparison to Maritimes. Antimicrobial drug use rate was higher via systemic route as compared with intramammary and other routes of administration (topical, oral, and intrauterine). The ADUR of antimicrobials used intramammarily was higher for clinical mastitis treatment than dry cow therapy. For dry cow therapy, penicillin ADUR was greater than ADUR of first-generation cephalosporins. For clinical mastitis treatment, ADUR of intramammary penicillin combinations was greater than ADUR of cephapirin. Herd-level milk production was positively associated with overall ADUR, ADUR of

  19. Seasonal variation in musculoskeletal extremity injuries in school children aged 6-12 followed prospectively over 2.5 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Eva; Holst, René; Franz, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    The type and level of physical activity in children vary over seasons and might thus influence the injury patterns. However, very little information is available on the distribution of injuries over the calendar year. This study aims to describe and analyse the seasonal variation in extremity inj...

  20. Language Variation and Theory of Mind in Typical Development: An Exploratory Study of School-Age African American Narrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Monique T; Fox, Monica

    2016-08-01

    The intent of this study was to explore the relation between language variation and theory of mind (ToM) in African American child narrators. Fifty children produced a narrative on the basis of the wordless book, Frog, Where Are You? ToM was assessed by children's internal-state words and false-belief mentioning in the book's narratives as well as their performance on the Reading the Eyes in the Mind Test (Baron-Cohen, Joliffe, Mortimore, & Robertson, 1997). Correlation and linear regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between narrative language ability and ToM indices. Relationships between language variation, ToM indices, and socioeconomic status were also explored. There was no correlation between language variation and the 3 ToM indicators. False-belief mentioning accounted for the most variance in children's narrative language. Language variation scores and ToM performance were both unrelated to children's socioeconomic backgrounds. ToM indicators, such as false-belief mentioning, provide information about African American children's narrative ability and appear to be dialect-neutral.

  1. Canadian dental students' perceptions of stress and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, V; Locker, D

    2008-08-01

    This study explored the relationship between dental school stress and social support reported by undergraduate students in a Canadian dental school. Students completed questionnaires comprised of Dental Environment Scale stress items, social support measures evaluating perceived contact and two proxy measures of social support (marital status and living arrangement). Sixty-two per cent of undergraduate students in all four academic years participated in the study conducted in March--April 2005. Second-year students living with parents had significantly higher adjusted total stress scores (P stress scores (P = 0.008). Social support systems utilised by students included teacher, parental, student and relationship support. Students who received more support from teachers and from students inside and outside dental school had lower adjusted total stress scores. Multiple regression analysis assessing the effect of social support on total adjusted stress scores identified two significant variables after adjustment: second-year students living with parents (P stress in Canadian dental students. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of social support and proxy measures as potential dental school stress alleviators.

  2. The Canadian safeguards support program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeffe, R. [Atomic Energy Control Board, Canadian Safeguards Support Program, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    Canada supports international safeguards as a means by which the proliferation of nuclear weapons can be discouraged. Canada recognizes that,to meet that the IAEA must have effective safeguards techniques and the active cooperation of Member States. Therefore the Canadian Government decided in 1976 to initiate a program in support of IAEA safeguards, known as the Canadian Safeguards Support Program (CSSP). The CSSP is funded and administered by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The CSSP is a co-ordinated program for the development and the application of safeguards instruments and techniques for nuclear facilities and materials on behalf of the IAEA and also in support of Canada's own national nuclear material safeguards system, implemented by the AECB. (author)

  3. Canadian safeguards - an historical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ironside, A.M. (Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Smith, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper summarizes safeguards activities and programs undertaken in Canada. In 1970, Canada, in collaboration with the IAEA, began a study of procedures and equipment required for the application of safeguards to on-line-fueled reactors. In 1977, this assistance was substantially increased and formalized into the Canadian Safeguards Support Program (CSSP). To date, Canada has spent in excess of $35 million Canadian on this program. The CSSP provides support to the IAEA safeguards effort for areas in which Canada has expertise and has been primarily engaged in developing safeguards procedures and equipment for the CANDU power reactors in Canada and throughout the world. Work, projects, and equipment development undertaken by CANDU CSSP are highlighted.

  4. Canadian prostate brachytherapy in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Mira; Crook, Juanita; Morris, W. James; Morton, Gerard; Pickles, Tom; Usmani, Nawaid; Vigneault, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Prostate brachytherapy can be used as a monotherapy for low- and intermediate-risk patients or in combination with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) as a form of dose escalation for selected intermediate- and high-risk patients. Prostate brachytherapy with either permanent implants (low dose rate [LDR]) or temporary implants (high dose rate [HDR]) is emerging as the most effective radiation treatment for prostate cancer. Several large Canadian brachytherapy programs were established in the mid- to late-1990s. Prostate brachytherapy is offered in British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick. We anticipate the need for brachytherapy services in Canada will significantly increase in the near future. In this review, we summarize brachytherapy programs across Canada, contemporary eligibility criteria for the procedure, toxicity and prostate-specific antigen recurrence free survival (PRFS), as published from Canadian institutions for both LDR and HDR brachytherapy. PMID:23671495

  5. Mathematical Modeling of Space-Time Variations in Acoustic Transmission and Scattering from Schools of Swim Bladder Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    transmission and scattering from schools of swim bladder fish Christopher Feuillade Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Avenida...bladder fish (FY15 Final Report) Christopher Feuillade Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Instituto de Fı́sica Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860...Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile); Assistant: Maria Paz Raveau - Civil Engineer in Sound and Acoustics - INACAP, Chile, 2009. (Doctoral student

  6. Reframing the Canadian Oil Sands

    OpenAIRE

    Patchett, Merle M; Lozowy, A

    2012-01-01

    Reframing the Canadian Oil Sands” is a collaborative exchange between photographer Andriko Lozowy and cultural geographer Merle Patchett that engages photography and photographic theory to evoke a more critical and politically meaningful visual engagement with the world’s largest capital oil project. Since the appearance of Edward Burtynsky’s aerial and abstracted photographic-mappings of the region, capturing the scale of the Oil Sands from ‘on high’ has become the dominant visual imaginary....

  7. Variation of BMI and anthropometric indicators of abdominal obesity in Brazilian adolescents from public schools, 2003-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Erica G; Pereira, Rosangela A; Sichieri, Rosely; da Veiga, Gloria V

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare BMI and anthropometric indicators of abdominal obesity in Brazilian adolescents from public schools between 2003 and 2008. A comparison of anthropometric indicators in adolescents was done based on two cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2003 (n 530) and in 2008 (n 498). BMI (= weight/height2), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were evaluated. The age-adjusted means were compared between the two studies by linear regression and the percentile values were compared by quantile regression. A P value public schools. There was a decrease in boys' mean WC (72·9 cm v. 70·9 cm, P = 0·01) and an increase in girls' mean BMI (21·1 kg/m2 v. 22·0 kg/m2, P = 0·03). Among boys, the WC, HC and WHtR percentiles were lower whereas the WHR percentiles were higher in 2008 than in 2003. Among girls, the percentiles of all measures were higher in 2008, except for WHR. Anthropometric measures among boys tended to decrease, while among girls there was a tendency to increase from 2003 to 2008, indicating an important gender effect and a higher morbidity risk associated with excess body fat in girls. The school setting offers opportunities for interventions to address this situation.

  8. Nutritional risk among older Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramage-Morin, Pamela L; Garriguet, Didier

    2013-03-01

    Nutritional risk screening is typically done in clinical settings to identify individuals at risk of malnourishment. This article presents the first population-level assessment of nutritional risk based on a large national sample representative of Canadian householders aged 65 or older. Data from the 2008/2009 Canadian Community Health Survey-Healthy Aging were used to estimate the prevalence of nutritional risk by selected characteristics. Factors associated with nutritional risk were examined with restricted and full logistic models. The distribution of responses on the SCREEN II-AB nutritional risk instrument is reported. Based on the results of the 2008/2009 survey, 34% of Canadians aged 65 or older were at nutritional risk. Women were more likely than men to be at risk. Among people with depression, 62% were at nutritional risk, compared with 33% of people without depression. Level of disability, poor oral health, and medication use were associated with nutritional risk, as were living alone, low social support, infrequent social participation, and not driving on a regular basis. Lower income and education were also associated with nutritional risk. Nutritional risk is common among seniors living in private households in Canada. The characteristics of people most likely to be at nutritional risk provide evidence for targeted screening and assessment.

  9. Manitoba's School Psychology, Circa 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallin, Barry; Bednarczyk, George; Hanson, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    While the geographic landscape of Manitoba has changed very little since the last review of school psychology in Manitoba was published 15 years ago, the school psychology landscape here has changed considerably, and we continue to be alive, well, and flourishing. Two previous articles in the "Canadian Journal of School Psychology"…

  10. Seasonal variations of outdoor air pollution and factors driving them in the school environment in rural Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangchuk, Tenzin; He, Congrong; Dudzinska, Marzenna R.; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-07-01

    A quantitative understanding of outdoor air quality in school environments is crucial given that air pollution levels inside classrooms are significantly influenced by outdoor pollution sources. To date, only a handful of studies have been conducted on this important topic in developing countries. The aim of this study was to quantify pollutant levels in the outdoor environment of a school in Bhutan and assess the factors driving them. Measurements were conducted for 16 weeks, spanning the wet and dry seasons, in a rural school in Bhutan. PM10, PM2.5, particle number (PN) and CO were measured daily using real-time instruments, while weekly samples for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbonyls and NO2 were collected using a passive sampling method. Overall mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations (μg/m3) were 27 and 13 for the wet, and 36 and 29 for the dry season, respectively. Only wet season data were available for PN concentrations, with a mean of 2.56 × 103 particles/cm3. Mean CO concentrations were below the detection limit of the instrumentation for the entire measurement period. Only low levels of eight VOCs were detected in both the wet and dry seasons, which presented different seasonal patterns in terms of the concentration of different compounds. The notable carbonyls were formaldehyde and hexaldehyde, with mean concentrations (μg/m3) of 2.37 and 2.41 for the wet, and 6.22 and 0.34 for the dry season, respectively. Mean NO2 concentration for the dry season was 1.7 μg/m3, while it was below the detection limit of the instrumentation for the wet season. The pollutant concentrations were associated with a number of factors, such as cleaning and combustion activities in and around the school. A comparison with other school studies showed comparable results with a few of the studies, but in general, we found lower pollutant concentrations in the present study.

  11. Provincial Variations in Divorce Rates: A Canadian Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makabe, Tomoko

    1980-01-01

    Examines differentials in divorce rates in Canada. Provinces with higher population turnover are characterized by lower degrees of social integration and lower social costs attached to divorce, reflected in higher divorce rates. The hypothesis that divorce rates are higher where more economic opportunities are available for women is explored.…

  12. Professional Legitimation for Education in Canadian Universities: "The Canadian Journal of Education", 1976-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Donald

    2017-01-01

    In this commentary, Donald Fisher reports on the history of the "The Canadian Journal of Education" as part of this 40th anniversary issue. Fisher states that the history of the Canadian Society for the Study of Education (CSSE) has been profoundly influenced by changes in the role of the Canadian State. The 1960s and 1970s were a time…

  13. Social class variations in schoolchildren's self-reported outcome of the health dialogue with the school health nurse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Ina; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2004-01-01

    of the health dialogue and to examine the effect of social class on this response controlled for the effect of other relevant social factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study is a survey. The population were all pupils in the fifth, seventh and ninth grade (11, 13 and 15 years old) in a random sample of schools......INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE: School health services is an important element in many countries' health promotion activities but little is known about the pupils' acceptance and perception of these services and their effects. The objective of this paper was to examine the pupils' self-reported outcome...... the nurse's advice, 77% had made their own autonomous decisions based on the health dialogue, and 11% had returned to the nurse for further advice. Pupils from the lower social classes had more often followed the nurse's advice (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.99-1.37) and returned to the nurse (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1...

  14. Canadian Council for Area Studies Learned Societies - 2007-2008 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CCASLS) provides a shared secretariat for four area studies associations: the Canadian Association of African Studies (CAAS); the Canadian Asian Studies Association (CASA): the Canadian Association of Latin American and Caribbean Studies ...

  15. Interprofessional Education in Canadian Nursing Programs and Implications for Continuing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Emily; Lightfoot, Nancy; Carter, Lorraine; MacEwan, Leigh

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the Canadian Association of Schools of Nursing, the accrediting body for nursing programs in Canada, became part of the Accreditation of Interprofessional Health Education initiative. In turn, interprofessional education (IPE) is now a requirement in nursing curricula. Although the requirement is formally in place, how it is achieved…

  16. Socioemotional Competence, Self-Perceptions, and Receptive Vocabulary in Shy Canadian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosacki, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Given existing gendered stereotypic assumptions regarding shyness and children's school competencies, this study explored relations among socioemotional competencies, self-perceptions, and receptive vocabulary in shy children. Ninety-one Canadian children (52 girls, 39 boys; 5-8 years) were classified as shy (n = 26) based on teachers' behavioural…

  17. Quality in Family Child Care: A Focus Group Study with Canadian Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    A substantial proportion of American, Canadian and English preschoolers regularly participate in family child care making its quality of vital importance for the children concerned, their parents, the school system and the society in which they live. This article discusses the seven key caregiver behaviors and physical space characteristics…

  18. Canadian Children from Single-Parent Families: Are They an Overlooked Minority?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hett, Geoffrey G.

    Although the divorce rate in Canada is growing, little Canadian research has studied the effects of family separation on children. To examine the effects of family separation on children in school-related areas, data were collected on 1241 students in kindergarten through seventh grade. Teachers completed an 11-item questionnaire for each student…

  19. Social Support and Exclusive Breast feeding among Canadian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugen, Chris M; Islam, Nazrul; Janssen, Patricia A

    2016-09-01

    The World Health Organization recommendation for exclusive breast feeding for 6 months has been endorsed by Health Canada, the Canadian Pediatric Society, Dietitians of Canada, and the Breastfeeding Committee for Canada as of 2012. This study examines whether social support is associated with exclusive breast feeding up to 6 months among Canadian mothers. We utilised data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and limited our sample to mothers who gave birth in the 5 years prior to the 2009-2010 survey (n = 2133). Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between exclusive breast feeding and four dimensions of social support: (i) tangible, (ii) affectionate, (iii) positive social interaction, and (iv) emotional and informational, based on the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Scale. Absolute and relative differences in the probability of breast feeding exclusively and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated. In adjusted models, differences in the probability of exclusive breast feeding for 6 months were not different among women with high vs. low social support. The association between social support and breastfeeding exclusively was modified by education level, with significantly higher probability of breast feeding exclusively among women with lower education and high vs. low levels of tangible and affectionate support. Among women with education below a high school level, high tangible and affectionate support significantly increased probability of exclusive breast feeding for 6 months in this study. Efforts to encourage exclusive breast feeding need to address social support for mothers, especially those with lower education. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Baselining Fugitive and Vented Emissions Across Canadian Energy Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, L.; Risk, D. A.; Fougère, C. R.; Lavoie, M.; Atherton, E. E.; Baillie, J.; MacKay, K.; Marshall, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    A recent trilateral accord between North American governments pledges to cut energy sector methane emissions 40-45 per cent below 2012 levels by 2025. Effective methane-reduction policy relies on accurate and spatially extensive emissions data. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of bottom-up data collection for Canadian energy developments, using vehicle-based emission screening and volumetric measurement, combined with forward looking infrared (FLIR) detection for pinpointing source. We analyzed trends across many Canadian developments using an 80,000 km survey campaign conducted in 2015-16 in which CO2, CH4, H2S, and δ13CH4 were measured in proximity to over ten thousand well pads. We found that emissions varied according to infrastructure age, operator size, product, and extraction style. Using these data, we conducted an analysis across several variables to evaluate the potential success of non-exhaustive campaigns for capturing trends, and super-emitters, across the Canadian industry. We found that campaigns would be fiscally feasible, and could be statistically significant depending on scale. However, success was very sensitive to the degree of variation amongst operators and developments, for which we suggest a Monte-Carlo type optimization approach that balances survey coverage with attention to specific localized threats. Similar analyses should be conducted in other accord countries because effective and harmonized oversight could help accelerate emissions reductions.

  1. The Canadian mobile satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertenyi, Elemer

    1992-07-01

    Plans to upgrade Canadian mobile data services by introducing a full, two way mobile voice and data service, using a large geostationary satellite which is scheduled to be launched in 1994, are reported. This Mobile Satellite (MSAT) will offer customers the ability to communicate, using mobile or transportable terminals, from the most remote parts of the continent, to any other point within North America, and indeed the whole world. Currently planned MSAT services are reviewed, the main features of the overall system are outlined, and the configuration and key performance parameters of the MSAT satellite are presented. The communications subsystem is detailed, and a summary of the spacecraft service module is given.

  2. Canadian Cardiovascular Society and Canadian Thoracic Society Position Statement on Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Langleben

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Cardiovascular Society and the Canadian Thoracic Society requested a position statement on pulmonary arterial hypertension from leading Canadian experts. The present document is intended to act as an update for the clinician, to provide a template for the initial evaluation of patients, to enable the understanding of current therapeutic paradigms based on approved indications for Canada, to highlight new therapies on the horizon, and to state the positions of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society and the Canadian Thoracic Society on resource management for pulmonary arterial hypertension in Canada.

  3. CASID and Canadian Journal of Development Studies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CASID and Canadian Journal of Development Studies : Organizational Strengthening 2007-2010. The Canadian Association for the Study of International Development (CASID) is a national, bilingual, multidisciplinary and pluralistic association devoted to the study of international development in all parts of the world.

  4. Guide to Canadian Aerospace Related Industries,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    fabrication, PWC assembly & test, automatic backplane wiring, computerized wire History : AEI, an established Canadian company for over 55...production of Automatic Number Identification (ANI) systems and 911 Emergency History : Aeo Machining Ltd is a small machining company Reporting Systems for...Aircraft, DeHavilland, Grumman Aircraft, and Canadian Digital Radar Data Processing - Contract with Fundacao Vickers Ltd. Educacional de Bauru, Brazil

  5. 47 CFR 90.121 - Canadian registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Canadian registration. 90.121 Section 90.121 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations § 90.121 Canadian registration. Form 410 shall be...

  6. Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

  7. Genetic variation associated with differential educational attainment in adults has anticipated associations with school performance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Mary E; McMahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Evans, David M; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Benjamin, Daniel J; Koellinger, Philipp D; Cesarini, David; Davey Smith, George; Timpson, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association study results have yielded evidence for the association of common genetic variants with crude measures of completed educational attainment in adults. Whilst informative, these results do not inform as to the mechanism of these effects or their presence at earlier ages and where educational performance is more routinely and more precisely assessed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms exhibiting genome-wide significant associations with adult educational attainment were combined to derive an unweighted allele score in 5,979 and 6,145 young participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children with key stage 3 national curriculum test results (SATS results) available at age 13 to 14 years in English and mathematics respectively. Standardised (z-scored) results for English and mathematics showed an expected relationship with sex, with girls exhibiting an advantage over boys in English (0.433 SD (95%CI 0.395, 0.470), peducational attainment increasing allele was associated with 0.041 SD (95%CI 0.020, 0.063), p = 1.79×10(-04) and 0.028 SD (95%CI 0.007, 0.050), p = 0.01 increases in standardised SATS score for English and mathematics respectively. Educational attainment is a complex multifactorial behavioural trait which has not had heritable contributions to it fully characterised. We were able to apply the results from a large study of adult educational attainment to a study of child exam performance marking events in the process of learning rather than realised adult end product. Our results support evidence for common, small genetic contributions to educational attainment, but also emphasise the likely lifecourse nature of this genetic effect. Results here also, by an alternative route, suggest that existing methods for child examination are able to recognise early life variation likely to be related to ultimate educational attainment.

  8. Stress levels experienced by parents of children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during the back-to-school period: results of a European and Canadian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Otero, Isabel; Doddamani, Lakshman; Dutray, Benoit; Gagliano, Antonella; Haertling, Fabian; Bloomfield, Ralph; Ramnath, Gracita

    2015-03-01

    The back-to-school stress survey was designed to compare stress in parents of children/ adolescents with/without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in six European countries and Canada when children prepare to return to school. Parents of children/adolescents (6-17 years) with/without ADHD were recruited and interviewed by a consumer research organization. Parents rated potentially stress-causing situations (both standard and specifically related to the return to school) on a scale from 1 (low stress) to 10 (high stress). Mean scores were compared using Student's t-test. In Europe, 613/693 (mean [SD] age: 40.7 [7.0]/40.1 [6.9] years) and in Canada, 102/150 (mean [SD] age: 44.4 [8.1]/44.1 [7.2] years) parents of children with/without ADHD, respectively, participated in the survey. Children with ADHD (mean [SD] age: 11.2 [3.2]/12.6 [3.2] years in Europe/Canada) had generally similar characteristics in both samples. Parents in the ADHD group showed higher stress levels than parents in the non-ADHD group in all situations (p school was considered one of the most stressful events during the year. In Europe and Canada, ADHD has a significant impact on parental stress, particularly during the back-to-school period. This can have important implications as parental stress can affect presentation of ADHD symptoms.

  9. Making Schools Safe and Inclusive: Gay-Straight Alliances and School Climate in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Julian; Bellini, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Gay-straight alliances (GSAs) have become widespread in Ontario schools and, starting in 2012, all schools are required to permit students to form GSAs. While American research suggests that GSAs have a positive impact on school safety and inclusion, there is little research on the impact of GSAs in Canadian schools. This study, based on a survey…

  10. Cost-Effectiveness of Comprehensive School Reform in Low Achieving Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, John A.; Scott, Garth; Sibbald, Tim M.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of Struggling Schools, a user-generated approach to Comprehensive School Reform implemented in 100 low achieving schools serving disadvantaged students in a Canadian province. The results show that while Struggling Schools had a statistically significant positive effect on Grade 3 Reading achievement, d = 0.48…

  11. Genetic variation associated with differential educational attainment in adults has anticipated associations with school performance in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E Ward

    early life variation likely to be related to ultimate educational attainment.

  12. Neighbourhood crime and adolescent cannabis use in Canadian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Looze, Margaretha; Janssen, Ian; Elgar, Frank J; Craig, Wendy; Pickett, William

    2015-01-01

    Although neighbourhood factors have been proposed as determinants of adolescent behaviour, few studies document their relative etiological importance. We investigated the relationship between neighbourhood crime and cannabis use in a nationally representative sample of Canadian adolescents. Data from the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey (n=9134 14- and 15-year-olds) were combined with area-level data on crime and socioeconomic status of the neighbourhood surrounding the schools (n=218). Multilevel logistic regression analyses showed that after individual and contextual differences were held constant, neighbourhood crime related to cannabis use (OR 1.29, CI 1.12-1.47 per 1.0 SD increase in crime). This association was not moderated by parental support nor having cannabis-using friends. The amount of explained variance at the neighbourhood level was 19%. Neighbourhood crime is an important factor to consider when designing interventions aimed at reducing adolescent cannabis use. Interventional research should examine the effectiveness of community-based interventions that target adolescents through parents and peers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors affecting food selection in Canadian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ree, M; Riediger, N; Moghadasian, M H

    2008-11-01

    To establish health-related reasons behind Canadian food choices, and how variables such as education, income, gender, ethnicity and age may affect food selection. Approximately 98 733 Canadians responded to the 12 questions regarding food choices in the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) cycle 2.1, conducted by the Canadian Government in 2003. These included 13 727 adolescents (12-19 years), 19 089 young adults (20-34 years), 31 039 middle-aged adults (35-54 years), 25 338 older adults (55-74 years) and 9580 elderly (75+ years). Approximately 70% of Canadian adolescents in the sample indicated that their food choices were independent of health concerns. Body weight management was a major concern for food selection by adolescents and adults, while the elderly stated heart disease as their main concern. Among all participants, females, and individuals with high levels of education and income reported the highest response to choosing or avoiding foods due to health concerns and food content. Our data indicate that several factors significantly affect food choices for health-related reasons in the Canadian population. Among them, age- and gender-related gaps, particularly between adolescents and adults, are profound. This observation may urge authorities to implement effective strategies to educate Canadians, especially adolescents, that selection of appropriate foods may prevent chronic diseases.

  14. Realization of entry-to-practice milestones by Canadians who studied medicine abroad and other international medical graduates: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Maria; Kandar, Rima; Slade, Steve; Yi, Yanqing; Beardall, Sue; Bourgeault, Ivy

    2017-06-19

    International medical graduates must realize a series of milestones to obtain full licensure. We examined the realization of milestones by Canadian and non-Canadian graduates of Western or Caribbean medical schools, and Canadian and non-Canadian graduates from other medical schools. Using the National IMG Database (data available for 2005-2011), we created 2 cohorts: 1) international medical graduates who had passed the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination Part I between 2005 and 2010 and 2) those who had first entered a family medicine postgraduate program between 2005 and 2009, or had first entered a specialty postgraduate program in 2005 or 2006. We examined 3 entry-to-practice milestones; obtaining a postgraduate position, passing the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination Part II and obtaining a specialty designation. Of the 6925 eligible graduates in cohort 1, 2144 (31.0%) had obtained a postgraduate position. Of the 1214 eligible graduates in cohort 2, 1126 (92.8%) had passed the Qualifying Examination Part II, and 889 (73.2%) had obtained a specialty designation. In multivariate analyses, Canadian graduates of Western or Caribbean medical schools (odds ratio [OR] 4.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.82-5.71) and Canadian graduates of other medical schools (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.31-1.70) were more likely to obtain a postgraduate position than non-Canadian graduates of other (not Western or Caribbean) medical schools. There was no difference among the groups in passing the Qualifying Examination Part II or obtaining a specialty designation. Canadians who studied abroad were more likely than other international medical graduates to obtain a postgraduate position; there were no differences among the groups in realizing milestones once in a postgraduate program. These findings support policies that do not distinguish postgraduate applicants by citizenship or permanent residency status before medical school. Copyright 2017, Joule Inc. or its

  15. Exploring Perceptions and Experiences of Food Allergy among New Canadians from Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Stephanie K; Elliott, Susan J; Clarke, Ann E

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. In Canada, perceived prevalence of food allergy surpasses systematic estimates. Canadian immigrants have been found more likely to rate the risk of food allergy as "high" compared to nonimmigrants. Methods. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 3 key informants and 18 allergic individuals of East and Southeast Asian descent in order to capture their lived experience with food allergies. Results. Participants found food allergies to be more common in Canada than in Asia. Participants also agreed that having a food allergy is more manageable in Canada as a result of the policy environment (e.g., food labelling and school policies). In addition, participants had dealt with skepticism and disbelief about their food allergy in Asia, resulting in social exclusion and impacting quality of life. Discussion. Findings demonstrate the need to recognize the varied impacts and experiences of food allergy among new Canadians, given that immigrants represent a large and growing proportion of the Canadian population.

  16. Exploring Perceptions and Experiences of Food Allergy among New Canadians from Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K. Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In Canada, perceived prevalence of food allergy surpasses systematic estimates. Canadian immigrants have been found more likely to rate the risk of food allergy as “high” compared to nonimmigrants. Methods. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 3 key informants and 18 allergic individuals of East and Southeast Asian descent in order to capture their lived experience with food allergies. Results. Participants found food allergies to be more common in Canada than in Asia. Participants also agreed that having a food allergy is more manageable in Canada as a result of the policy environment (e.g., food labelling and school policies. In addition, participants had dealt with skepticism and disbelief about their food allergy in Asia, resulting in social exclusion and impacting quality of life. Discussion. Findings demonstrate the need to recognize the varied impacts and experiences of food allergy among new Canadians, given that immigrants represent a large and growing proportion of the Canadian population.

  17. Reaching Rural Canadian Communities in the Yukon and Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laerhoven, Christa L.

    2016-10-01

    Canada is very large geographically, so many rural communities are very far from major centers. People in such communities are at a severe disadvantage when it comes to in-person interaction with science or scientists because resources tend to be directed at large population centers, where more people can be reached for the same amount of effort. While this geographic distance can be mitigated by doing outreach over the internet, there is at some level no substitute for showing up in person with e.g. meteorites in hand. Due to where various members of my family are located, I have occasion to visit Whitehorse, YT and Andrew, AB (~1.5 hour drive north-east of Edmonton) and have taken advantage of trips to these locations to do astronomy outreach in both schools and public libraries. I will discuss how I arranged school and library visits and general observations from my experience doing outreach in rural Canadian communities.

  18. Nuclear communications : A Canadian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macpherson, John A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ottawa (Canada)

    1994-04-15

    Times have changed since the early days of nuclear energy when it was a symbol of a brave new world, Public information strategies have evolved to meet increasing public concerns, and have shifted from being a largely unfocused attempt at publicity to being more concerned with managing issues and solving problems. This paper describes some of the salient features of the Canadian experience in nuclear communications and examines four key aspects: opinion and attitude research; media relations; coeducation; and advertising. It also addresses the challenge of responding to the allegations and tactics of those who are actively hostile to nuclear energy, and recommends that the principles of Total Quality Management and of organizational effectiveness be applied more thorough and more consistently to the public affairs function.

  19. Tritium technology. A Canadian overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmings, R.L. [Canatom NPM (Canada)

    2002-10-01

    An overview of the various tritium research and operational activities in Canada is presented. These activities encompass tritium processing and recovery, tritium interactions with materials, and tritium health and safety. Many of these on-going activities form a sound basis for the tritium use and handling aspects of the ITER project. Tritium management within the CANDU heavy water reactor, associated detritiation facilities, research and development facilities, and commercial industry and improving the understanding of tritium behaviour in humans and the environment remain the focus of a long-standing Canadian interest in tritium. While there have been changes in the application of this knowledge and experience over time, the operating experience and the supporting research and development continue to provide for improved plant and facility operations, an improved understanding of tritium safety issues, and improved products and tools that facilitate tritium management. (author)

  20. Canadian orthodontist Internet user profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Neal G; Yacyshyn, James R; Northcott, Herbert C; Nebbe, Brian; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Major, Paul W

    2006-01-01

    An anonymous, self-administered, mail-out survey of Canadian Orthodontists was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of orthodontic Internet use. The response rate was 45.6% (304 of 667). A total of 76.6% of orthodontists reported having Internet access at work, and an additional 12.4% reported having Internet access from a different location. Statistically significant associations between Internet usage and office staff size (P < .001) and years of practice (P = .046) were observed. Offices with larger staffs had greater Internet access. Number of staffs and number of case starts were positively correlated (P < .001, r = 0.498). The odds ratio for having Internet access on the basis of increased case starts from the less than 100 to 300-399 categories was 5.67. Although not statistically significant, there was a trend for greater Internet access by younger practitioners.

  1. Canadian Civil Society Organizations and Human Rights and Global ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to strengthen the capacity of Canadian civil society organizations (CSOs) to inform Canadian policy on human rights and global justice. The Canadian Council for International Co-operation (CCIC) receives core funding from the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). This grant will provide ...

  2. A perspective on Canadian shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Mike; Davidson, Jim; Mortensen, Paul

    2010-09-15

    In a relatively new development over just the past few years, shale formations are being targeted for natural gas production. Based on initial results, there may be significant potential for shale gas in various regions of Canada, not only in traditional areas of conventional production but also non-traditional areas. However, there is much uncertainty because most Canadian shale gas production is currently in experimental or early developmental stages. Thus, its full potential will not be known for some time. If exploitation proves to be successful, Canadian shale gas may partially offset projected long-term declines in Canadian conventional natural gas production.

  3. Factors associated with lack of awareness and uncontrolled high blood pressure among Canadian adults with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Marianne E; Bienek, Asako; McAlister, Finlay A; Robitaille, Cynthia; Joffres, Michel; Tremblay, Mark S; Johansen, Helen; Campbell, Norm R C

    2012-05-01

    Approximately 17% of Canadians with high blood pressure were unaware of their condition, and of Canadians aware of having the condition, approximately 1 in 5 have uncontrolled high blood pressure despite high rates of pharmacotherapy. The objectives of the current study are to estimate the prevalence of resistant hypertension and examine factors associated with (1) lack of awareness and (2) uncontrolled hypertension despite pharmacotherapy. Using the 2007-2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey (N = 3473, aged 20-79 years) and logistic regression, we quantified relationships between characteristics and (1) presence of hypertension, (2) lack of awareness (among those with hypertension), and (3) uncontrolled high blood pressure (among those treated for hypertension). Older age, lowest income, and less than high school education were associated with presence of hypertension. Men (odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.2) and adults high blood pressure (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.1-5.2) despite treatment. Elevated systolic blood pressure was the issue in over 90% of women and 80% of men with uncontrolled hypertension. Depending on the definition employed, 4.4% (95% CI, 2.4-6.4) to 7.8% (95% CI, 6.0-9.6) of the population with hypertension had resistant hypertension. Messaging or interventions encouraging screening may be helpful for all younger Canadian adults and men; programs encouraging blood pressure control may help older women. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Skin-Color Preferences and Body Satisfaction among South Asian-Canadian and European-Canadian Female University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Sarita; Piran, Niva

    1997-01-01

    Examines skin-color preferences and body satisfaction among South Asian-Canadian and European-Canadian female university students. Hypothesizes that South Asian-Canadians would display a greater wish to be lighter in skin color than would European-Canadians and that the discrepancy would be greater the darker their skin color. Reports that the…

  5. Dysplastic Nevus: Management by Canadian Dermatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapra, Priya; Rosen, Cheryl; Siddha, Sanjay; Lynde, Charles W

    2015-01-01

    The management of dysplastic nevi is controversial. No studies have collected data regarding management of the lesion amongst Canadian dermatologists. To provide a comprehensive review of what the prevailing opinions are, regarding treatment and terminology of dysplastic nevi, amongst Canadian dermatologists. An online survey of 25 questions was e-mailed to 613 members of the Canadian Dermatology Association, in French and English. A total of 179 responses were received. Varying numbers of participants completed each question. The majority of participants think that the term dysplastic nevus should not be abandoned, and they indicated that they never reexcise lesions with mild to moderate atypia even when the margins are positive. The majority of Canadian dermatologists retain the use of the term dysplastic nevus and do not reexcise lesions with mild to moderate atypia even when the margins are positive. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Freezing at sea: a Canadian opportunity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bollivar, D.R; Cadegan, E; Demone, E.H; Matthew, P; Nicholson, P.J; Shannon, C.P; Stirling, R.C

    This report was prepared for the Nova Scotia Fish Packers Association in an effort to set out as clearly as possible the issues relating to introduction of freezing at sea technology to the Canadian...

  7. The Canadian Forces Recruitment/Attrition Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wait, Tracey

    1998-01-01

    ...), as part of its mandate to provide analysis of potential impacts of trends and change on defense and defense related issues, has designed a prototype model of recruitment and attrition of the Canadian Forces (C F...

  8. Canadian shellfish sanitation program: manual of operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    This manual outlines the authorities (acts and regulations), policies and procedures which apply to the Canadian program and which will be used to evaluate regional activities associated with the shellfish Sanitation Program...

  9. Canadian Multiculturalism, Same as it ever Was?

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen Hoyos

    2014-01-01

    After the Second World War ended, Canada was no longer mainly composed of its two dominant ethnocultural groups, French and English, but rather constituted by polyethnicity; meaning, Canadian culture was made up of many different ethnic groups. Since then, Canada has actively embraced multiculturalism and on 12 July 1988, the House of Commons passed Bill C-93, ‘An Act for the preservation and enhancement of multiculturalism in Canada’. The Canadian multicultural experience has been much portr...

  10. Factors affecting recruitment into psychiatry: a canadian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Timothy; Zamani, Delara; Lee, Elliott Kyung; Asli, Khashayar D; Gill, Jasbir; Brager, Nancy; Hawa, Raed; Song, Wei-Yi; Gill, Eunice; Fitzpatrick, Renee; Menezes, Natasja M; Pham, Vu H; Douglass, Alan Bruce; Allain, Suzanne; Meterissian, Greg B; Gagnon, Nadine; Toeg, Hadi; Murphy, Cheryl

    2015-06-01

    There is a projected shortage of psychiatrists in Canada in forthcoming years. This study assessed factors in medical school education that are associated with students selecting psychiatry first and matching as a discipline. The Canadian Organization of Undergraduate Psychiatry Educators (COUPE) conducted telephone interviews and sent e-mail questionnaires to the 17 medical schools across Canada; all schools provided data for 2012. Relevant data were obtained from the Canadian Resident Matching Service. Statistics were performed using v12 STATA program, and significance was set at a p value of psychiatry as their first choice for residency. Final match results yielded similar numbers at 5.0 ± 0.6 %. Ten out of 17 programs filled all psychiatry residency positions, whereas the remaining 7 programs had vacancy rates from 5 to 100 % (mean = 43.4 ± 15.1 %). Medical students were exposed to an average of 2.8 ± 0.5 pre-clerkship psychiatry weeks and 6.2 ± 0.3 clerkship weeks. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that the percentage of graduating medical students entering a psychiatry residency program could be predicted from the number of weeks of pre-clerkship exposure (p = 0.01; R(2) = 0.36) but not from the number of clerkship weeks (p = 0.74). This study indicates that the duration of pre-clerkship exposure to psychiatry predicts the number of students selecting psychiatry as their first choice as a discipline. Thus, increasing the duration of pre-clerkship exposure may increase the enrollment of medical students into psychiatry.

  11. Violence on canadian television networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Guy

    2004-02-01

    Over the past twenty years, the question of the effects of violence on television has figured prominently in public opinion and hundreds of studies have been devoted to this subject. Many researchers have determined that violence has a negative impact on behavior. The public, broadcasters and political figures all support the idea of reducing the total amount of violence on television - in particular in shows for children. A thousand programs aired between 1993 and 2001 on major non-specialty television networks in Canada were analyzed: TVA, TQS, as well as CTV and Global, private French and English networks, as well as the English CBC Radio and French Radio-Canada for the public networks. The methodology consists of a classic analysis of content where an act of violence constitutes a unit of analysis. The data collected revealed that the amount of violence has increased regularly since 1993 despite the stated willingness on the part of broadcasters to produce programs with less violence. The total number of violent acts, as well as the number of violent acts per hour, is increasing. Private networks deliver three times more violence than public networks. Researchers have also noted that a high proportion of violence occurs in programs airing before 21:00 hours, thereby exposing a large number of children to this violence. Psychological violence is taking on a more significant role in Canadian Television.

  12. The Canadian mobile satellite program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, P. M.; Breithaupt, R. W.; McNally, J. L.

    The progressions and selection of design features for the Canadian segment of a mobile satellite (MSAT) communications system are traced. The feasibility study for a satellite-based public and government mobile communications service to underserved areas was carried out between 1980-82. The results covered the market demand, commercial viability, user cost-benefit, and spacecraft concepts. A subsequent 2 yr study was initiated to proceed with project definition. A market of 1.1 million users was identified in all of Canada, with MSAT replacing other systems for 50 percent of the market. Operations would be in the 806-890 MHz range. Traffic will be routed through gateway links functioning in the 8/7 GHz SHF band while the mobile units will be connected through an 821-825 MHz up link and an 866-870 MH downlink. New technologies will be needed for a central control station, the gateway stations, and the base stations for the mobile radio service, the mobile user terminals, and data collection platforms.

  13. Medical cannabis - the Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gordon D; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol - the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. Despite this, barriers exist to use from both the patient perspective (cost, addiction, social stigma, lack of understanding regarding safe administration) and the physician perspective (credibility, criminality, clinical evidence, patient addiction, and policy from the governing medical colleges). This review addresses these barriers and draws attention to key concerns in the Canadian medical system, providing updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic medication use, and enhanced quality of life. This review also includes case studies demonstrating the use of medical marijuana by patients with neuropathic low-back pain, neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. While significant preclinical data have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis for treating pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, further studies are needed with randomized controlled trials and larger study populations to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts.

  14. Theorizing Gender in Contemporary Canadian Citizenship: Lessons Learned from the CBC's "Greatest Canadian" Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubas, Kaela

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I have used the 2004 Greatest Canadian contest as an example of media's educational function. Contrary to mainstream discourse of gender-neutral citizenship, this contest reiterates a notion of Canadian citizenship as masculinized, classed, and raced. Gramsci's concepts of "hegemony," "ideology", and…

  15. Canadian guidelines for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide a clinical summary of the Canadian clinical practice guidelines for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) that includes relevant considerations for family physicians. Quality of evidence Guideline authors performed a systematic literature search and drafted recommendations. Recommendations received both strength of evidence and strength of recommendation ratings. Input from external content experts was sought, as was endorsement from Canadian medical societies (Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada, Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Canadian Society of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians, and the Family Physicians Airways Group of Canada). Main message Diagnosis of ABRS is based on the presence of specific symptoms and their duration; imaging or culture are not needed in uncomplicated cases. Treatment is dependent on symptom severity, with intranasal corticosteroids (INCSs) recommended as monotherapy for mild and moderate cases, although the benefit might be modest. Use of INCSs plus antibiotics is reserved for patients who fail to respond to INCSs after 72 hours, and for initial treatment of patients with severe symptoms. Antibiotic selection must account for the suspected pathogen, the risk of resistance, comorbid conditions, and local antimicrobial resistance trends. Adjunct therapies such as nasal saline irrigation are recommended. Failure to respond to treatment, recurrent episodes, and signs of complications should prompt referral to an otolaryngologist. The guidelines address situations unique to the Canadian health care environment, including actions to take during prolonged wait periods for specialist referral or imaging. Conclusion The Canadian guidelines provide up-to-date recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of ABRS that reflect an evolving understanding of the disease. In addition, the guidelines offer useful tools to help

  16. Defensive medicine in neurosurgery: the Canadian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy R; Hulou, M Maher; Yan, Sandra C; Cote, David J; Nahed, Brian V; Babu, Maya A; Das, Sunit; Gormley, William B; Rutka, James T; Laws, Edward R; Heary, Robert F

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT Recent studies have examined the impact of perceived medicolegal risk and compared how this perception impacts defensive practices within the US. To date, there have been no published data on the practice of defensive medicine among neurosurgeons in Canada. METHODS An online survey containing 44 questions was sent to 170 Canadian neurosurgeons and used to measure Canadian neurosurgeons' perception of liability risk and their practice of defensive medicine. The survey included questions on the following domains: surgeon demographics, patient characteristics, type of physician practice, surgeon liability profile, policy coverage, defensive behaviors, and perception of the liability environment. Survey responses were analyzed and summarized using counts and percentages. RESULTS A total of 75 neurosurgeons completed the survey, achieving an overall response rate of 44.1%. Over one-third (36.5%) of Canadian neurosurgeons paid less than $5000 for insurance annually. The majority (87%) of Canadian neurosurgeons felt confident with their insurance coverage, and 60% reported that they rarely felt the need to practice defensive medicine. The majority of the respondents reported that the perceived medicolegal risk environment has no bearing on their preferred practice location. Only 1 in 5 respondent Canadian neurosurgeons (21.8%) reported viewing patients as a potential lawsuit. Only 4.9% of respondents would have selected a different career based on current medicolegal risk factors, and only 4.1% view the cost of annual malpractice insurance as a major burden. CONCLUSIONS Canadian neurosurgeons perceive their medicolegal risk environment as more favorable and their patients as less likely to sue than their counterparts in the US do. Overall, Canadian neurosurgeons engage in fewer defensive medical behaviors than previously reported in the US.

  17. Educational Administrators' Perceptions of Racism in Diverse School Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, James

    2003-01-01

    Examined how Canadian school principals perceived racism in their schools, noting the extent to which they believed racism existed in their schools and how they understood it. Interview and survey data indicated that principals were reluctant to acknowledge racism in their schools, and those who acknowledged it emphasized its insignificance.…

  18. Socioeconomic gradients in cardiovascular risk in Canadian children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Shi

    2016-02-01

    systolic BP, HDL and LDL cholesterol. Further studies with large samples are needed to confirm these findings. Conclusion : This study identified important sex difference and socioeconomic gradients in adiposity, aerobic fitness and physiological markers of CVD risk in Canadian school-aged children. Population health interventions to reduce socioeconomic gradients in CVD risk should start in childhood, with a particular focus on preventing obesity in young boys of all SES and girls of low SES, promoting physical fitness especially in girls and in all ages of youth in low-SES groups, and increasing parental awareness, especially those with low educational attainment, of early CVD risks in their children.

  19. In Canada, Business Schools Lead Push for Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewington, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    At Canadian universities, business schools are light-years ahead of the rest of the campus in raising their global profile. Intensive foreign-student-recruitment efforts, friendly Canadian immigration rules, mandatory study-abroad requirements, and, in some cases, the option to pursue programs in multiple languages have combined to pack a punch in…

  20. Portrayal of youth suicide in canadian news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easson, Amanda; Agarwal, Arnav; Duda, Stephanie; Bennett, Kathryn

    2014-09-01

    Responsible media reporting of youth suicide may reduce the risk of contagion and increase help-seeking behaviour. Accordingly, we conducted a content analysis of Canadian youth suicide newspaper articles to assess quality and summarize content (themes, age groups, populations and use of scientific evidence). The Canadian Periodical Index Quarterly (CPI.Q) was searched (2008-2012) for full-text Canadian newspaper articles using the keywords "youth" and "suicide." The top five most relevant articles as judged by CPI.Q were selected sequentially for each year (n=25). Quality was assessed using World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for responsible media reporting. Content analysis was completed in duplicate by two reviewers. All articles addressed youth suicide generally rather than reporting exclusively on a specific death by suicide. Alignment of articles with individual WHO guideline items ranged from 16 to 60%. The most common content theme was prevention (80%). No article was judged to glamorize suicide. Help seeking was addressed in 52% of articles, but only 20% provided information on where to obtain help. Statistics were referenced more frequently than scientific research (76% vs. 28%). Our review suggests that Canadian media presents youth suicide as an issue for which hope and help exist. While the majority of reports aim to educate the public about suicide, increased use of scientific evidence about risk factors and prevention is recommended to facilitate the translation of rigorous scientific knowledge into improved mental health and reduced suicide risk among Canadian youth.

  1. The Health Services Use Among Older Canadians in Rural and Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Conde; James Ted McDonald

    2007-01-01

    Even though universal health care is one of the fundamental pillars of Canadian society, the rising cost of all services has resulted in the relocation and redistribution of funding and services between rural and urban areas. While most econometric analyses of health service use in Canada include broad controls by province and rural/urban status, there has been relatively little econometric work that has focused specifically on geographical variation in health service use. Using the 2002-03 w...

  2. Cognitive aspects of sexual functioning: differences between East Asian-Canadian and Euro-Canadian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Heather; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the sexual beliefs of female undergraduates, as well as the thoughts they experience during sexual experiences. The study aimed to determine potential differences in these variables between East Asian-Canadians and Euro-Canadians, as well as the influence of acculturation on these variables. In addition, the relationships between sexual beliefs, automatic thoughts, and specific aspects of sexual functioning were examined. Euro-Canadian (n = 77) and East Asian-Canadian (n = 123) undergraduate women completed the Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire, the Sexual Modes Questionnaire, the Female Sexual Function Index, and the Vancouver Index of Acculturation. East Asian women endorsed almost all sexual beliefs assessed in this study more than did Euro-Canadian women, and endorsement of these beliefs was associated with acculturation. In addition, East Asian-Canadian and Euro-Canadian women differed in the frequency of experiencing negative automatic thoughts. Results also revealed associations between difficulties in sexual functioning, and both sexual beliefs and automatic thoughts. Together, these results provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that differences in cognitive aspects of sexuality may underlie the differences in sexual functioning previously observed between these two groups.

  3. The importance of nature to Canadians: survey highlights

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DuWors, E

    1999-01-01

    .... The 1996 Survey on the Importance of Nature to Canadians (the Nature Survey) also tells us that Canadians commit large amounts of their leisure time to activities that depend on natural areas and wildlife...

  4. Joshua N Haldeman, DC: the Canadian Years, 1926-1950

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Joseph C; Haldeman, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Born in 1902 to the earliest chiropractor known to practice in Canada, Joshua Norman Haldeman would develop national and international stature as a political economist, provincial and national professional leader, and sportsman/adventurer. A 1926 graduate of the Palmer School of Chiropractic, he would maintain a lifelong friendship with B.J. Palmer, and served in the late 1940s as Canada’s representative to the Board of Control of the International Chiropractors’ Association. Yet, he would also maintain strong alliances with broad-scope leaders in Canada and the United States, including the administrators of the National and Lincoln chiropractic schools. Haldeman, who would practice chiropractic in Regina for at least 15 years, was instrumental in obtaining, and is credited with composing the wording of, Saskatchewan’s 1943 Chiropractic Act. He served on the province’s first board of examiners and the provincial society’s first executive board. The following year Dr. Haldeman represented Saskatchewan in the deliberations organized by Walter Sturdy, D.C. that gave rise to the Dominion Council of Canadian Chiropractors, forerunner of today’s Canadian Chiropractic Association. As a member of the Dominion Council he fought for inclusion of chiropractors as commissioned officers during World War II, and participated in the formation of the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College, which he subsequently served as a member of the first board of directors. Dr. Haldeman also earned a place in the political history of Canada, owing to his service as research director for Technocracy, Inc. of Canada, his national chairmanship of the Social Credit Party during the second world war, and his unsuccessful bid for the national parliament. His vocal opposition to Communism during the war briefly landed him in jail. His 1950 relocation of his family and practice to Pretoria, South Africa would open a new page in his career: once again as professional pioneer, but also as

  5. Statistics in action a Canadian outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Lawless, Jerald F

    2014-01-01

    Commissioned by the Statistical Society of Canada (SSC), Statistics in Action: A Canadian Outlook helps both general readers and users of statistics better appreciate the scope and importance of statistics. It presents the ways in which statistics is used while highlighting key contributions that Canadian statisticians are making to science, technology, business, government, and other areas. The book emphasizes the role and impact of computing in statistical modeling and analysis, including the issues involved with the huge amounts of data being generated by automated processes.The first two c

  6. Canadian Petroleum Products Institute: Annual report 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Annual report of the Institute, which represents the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry on environmental, health, safety, and business issues affecting the industry and Canadian society. The report describes the Institute; gives highlights for the year; describes the recipient of the first CPPI Chairman's Award, Dr. Linton Kulak; provides a general policy and guiding principles for environment, health, and safety; describes the environmental achievements and challenges of the Canadian petroleum industry; and describes industry economics and operations. A list of 1991 publications is also included.

  7. [Canadian Petroleum Products Institute]: Annual review, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-01-01

    The CPPI was created as a non-profit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. The Institute represents a membership of Canadian companies involved in refining, transporting and marketing of petroleum products. These companies supply domestic and industrial consumers with products ranging from gasoline and diesel fuel to asphalt. The Institute conducts research to develop industry policy on environmental, health, safety and business issues. This report covers industry operations, industry economics and financial performance, environmental protection and safety, awards, and publications.

  8. Canadian Petroleum Products Institute: Annual report 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The CPPI was created as a non-profit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. The Institute represents a membership of Canadian companies involved in refining, transporting and marketing of petroleum products. These companies supply domestic and industrial consumers with products ranging from gasoline and diesel fuel to asphalt. The Institute conducts research to develop industry policy on environmental, health, safety and business issues. This report covers industry operations, industry economics and financial performance, environmental protection and safety, awards, and publications.

  9. Trends in Canadian Respiratory Clinical Trials from 2001 to 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Claire Elizabeth Tacon; Hina Abbas; Shiyuan Zhang; Barbara Nicholls; Glenn Crater; Zhen Su

    2014-01-01

    Clinical research bridges patients’ unmet medical need with innovative medicines, increases knowledge acquisition by clinicians, and creates solutions to improve the sustainability and quality of the Canadian health care system and economy. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Canadian Lung Association have recently raised concerns over declining research activities within the Canadian respiratory community. While there are currently >3000 ongoing clinical trials in Canada, the ...

  10. The Influence of Canadian Intellectuals’ Ideological Views on the Political Culture in Canada at the Beginning of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOKOV I.A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the political views of Canadian intellectuals which had influence on the formation of Canadian political culture at the turn of the 20th century. The author confirms that the Canadian intellectual thought was the main ideological factor in the conditions of the formation of Canadian statehood, undeveloped party and political system, the lack of deep traditions of the parliamentary system, insufficient political practice and the lack of distinct ideology of basic political parties in the process of forming the Canadian nation. On the basis of studied Canadian sources, the author makes conclusion that the most of Canadian intellectuals did not participate directly in the political process and they considered themselves its bystanders. Besides, the Canadian intellectuals promoted the British political culture of the Victorian epoch. Although all of them were familiar wih the British socialistic thought – Fabianism, they insisted that the social transformation in the Canadian society is possible only through the improvement of moral system, the education of lower social classes and the maintenance of elite monarch traditions. The American influence on Canadian political culture was peripheral at the beginning of the 20th century. The ideas of the Chicago Sociological School and the European continental thought were not used. The Victorian intellectuals understood their time as the social crisis and their political discussions were often devoted to the problems of imperialism, religion, education and feminism. They undoubtedly influenced the Canadian political elite in the matter of further development of the Canadian nation and state, but they expressed their own unique views on the contemporary society in academic press and in elite clubs discussions. They did not share the opinion of publicity about contemporary social processes, because their position was far from the direct party policy. Though some of them participated as

  11. The Canadian International Medical Graduate Bottleneck: A New Problem for New Doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Watts

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A growing population of Canadian students are travelling outside of Canada for medical training. The purpose of this study is to assess the opportunity for Canadians studying medicine abroad (CSAs to secure post-graduate medical residency positions as International medical graduates (IMGs in Canada. Methods: Current statistics on IMG applicants into the Canadian Residency Matching Service (CaRMS will be compared to the number of CSAs applying to return to Canada. Results: In 2010, 75% (1232 of IMG applicants were unmatched following application to CaRMS, despite a doubling in positions reserved for IMGs from 2003. An estimated 3750 CSAs are currently attending over 55 medical schools globally; a six-fold increase since first reports in 2006. Between 2012 and 2014, it is estimated that 72.8% of CSAs will graduate, with 90.4% hoping to return to Canada for post-graduate residency training.   Discussion: The increasing population of CSAs poses a significant risk for future IMGs attempting to secure postgraduate training positions in Canada. From this perspective, we have coined the term ‘Canadian IMG Bottleneck’ – which describes the funnelling effect that has been created by the growing number of CSAs and the limited number of IMG residency positions available in Canada.

  12. Providing for the sexual health needs of Canadian immigrants: the experience of immigrants from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Shirpak, Khosro Refaie; Chinichian, Maryam

    2007-01-01

    Sexual health is increasingly understood as an integral part of health. In Canada, education for sexual health is delivered predominantly in middle and secondary school. What of adults who immigrate to Canada from countries where sex education is not delivered to youth? This paper explores the needs and experiences of one such group of Canadian immigrants: those from Iran. Ten married male and 10 married female immigrants from Iran living in a mid-sized Canadian city were recruited using snowball sampling and participated in qualitative interviews. The sample varied in age, education level, duration of marriage, and stay in Canada. Participants addressed three themes: experiences accessing information and health services, necessary content of information, and preferred ways of providing sexual health information and services. Key barriers to accessing and using sexual health services, experienced by all interviewees, regardless of the length of time they were in Canada, included language, cultural misunderstandings, embarrassment, long waits, and limited time that physicians spent with patients. Examples were provided of misunderstandings and inappropriate or even offensive questions or suggestions made by health practitioners who were unfamiliar with patients' cultural norms related to sexuality. Participants believed their needs and questions were different from their Canadian counterparts and wanted a confidential, linguistically and culturally friendly source of information such as a website in the Farsi language. More attention needs to be paid to developing public health and medical services related to sexual health that take account of the cultural diversities represented in the Canadian population.

  13. The Lived Experiences of Canadian-Born and Foreign-Born Chinese Canadian Post-Secondary Students in Northern Ontario

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fei Wang

    2016-01-01

    ... and (d) the effect of Canadian education on career options. The study revealed that Canadian-born Chinese students differed from their foreign-born counterparts in their viewpoints on ethnic identity...

  14. Transnational Education -- An Opportunity and a Canadian Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Transnational education is a huge growth industry and a potential source of considerable income for Canadian educational institutions. Canadian educational establishments seem to be missing out on this, and this seems short sighted. Canada has a very good reputation globally; this could be utilized when selling Canadian educational institutions in…

  15. Next-generation models for Canadian collaboration in international ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Through this project, the Canadian Council for International Cooperation (CCIC), in partnership with the Canadian Association for the Study of International Development, will identify and promote new ways for Canadian practitioners, academics, and public policymakers to work together in international development.

  16. The Canadian Association for the Study of International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Canadian Association for the Study of International Development (CASID) was founded in 1989 to provide a forum for Canadian scholars, policymakers, and civil society to meet and exchange views. It is the only Canadian learned society devoted to the study of international development. The Association's journal, the ...

  17. N-CDAD in Canada: Results of the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program 1997 N-CDAD Prevalence Surveillance Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghen Hyland

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A 1996 preproject survey among Canadian Hospital Epidemiology Committee (CHEC sites revealed variations in the prevention, detection, management and surveillance of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD. Facilities wanted to establish national rates of nosocomially acquired CDAD (N-CDAD to understand the impact of control or prevention measures, and the burden of N-CDAD on health care resources. The CHEC, in collaboration with the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control (Health Canada and under the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program, undertook a prevalence surveillance project among selected hospitals throughout Canada.

  18. Assessment of Morphological Variations and its Specific Location on the Surface of Adult Human Liver in Ethiopian Cadavers University of Gondar, Bahir Dar University, Addis Ababa University, St. Paulos Medical School and Hawassa University, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsegaye Mehare

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liver is the second largest organ next to skin and located in right hypochondrium, epigastrium and may extend to left hypochondrium in upper abdominal cavity. It accounts 2% to 3% of total body weight of individual. Land marking for interpreting different diagnostic image and localizing lesions in the liver is commonly done by major fissures. Sound knowledge about different morphological variations which are found on the surface of liver is mandatory to have safe surgical outcome. Segments of liver were extensively researched but there are only few studies dealt with the surface variation of the liver. Therefore, this study aims to assess morphological variations and its specific location on the surface of adult human liver in Ethiopian cadaver. Methodology: Institutional based cross sectional descriptive study design was conducted in 33 formalin fixed Ethiopian cadaveric livers in the Anatomy department of University of Gondar, Bahir Dar University, Addis Ababa University, St. Paulos Medical School and Hawassa University. Results: 45.45% of the liver was normal but 54.55% showed one or more variations. Additional fissures and very small left lobe with deep costal impressions were seen 27.27% and 21.21% cases respectively. Pons hepatis connecting left lobe with quadrate lobe and very deep renal impression with corset constriction were noted in 9.09% cases each. Additional lobes and absence of quadrate lobes were found in 6.06% cases each. Conclusion and Recommendation: Morphological variations on the liver surface were accessory fissure, very small left lobe with deep costal impressions, pons hepatis, shape variation and absence of quadrate lobe. The most common one among the variations was accessory fissure on the visceral and diaphragmatic surface.

  19. Canadian Association of Gastroenterology and the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation: Guidelines on Colon Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond Leddin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent cancer affecting both men and women in Canada. Many of these cancers are preventable, and the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG and the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation (CDHF strongly support the establishment of screening programs for colorectal cancer. These guidelines discuss a number of screening options, listing the advantages and disadvantages of each. Ultimately, the test that is used for screening should be determined by patient preference, current evidence and local resources.

  20. Canadian contributions to high temperature superconductivity research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlinsky, A.J.

    This paper presents a review of contributions from Canadian researchers to the field of investigating superconductivity in the range of 35/sup 0/K and up. Research projects since January 1987 are described or mentioned, including investigation of superconducting materials, theories of superconducting behavior, measurements of local magnetic fields in superconductors, and the production and modification of new oxide superconductors.

  1. Highlight: Canadian and Caribbean parliamentarians discuss open ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... Toward open parliaments. Open parliaments were also on the agenda in a session moderated by Senator David Smith, in the Centre Block of the Canadian Parliament Buildings. Increased information about legislative activities and greater opportunities for dialogue between citizens and their parliaments ...

  2. Canadian Adult Education: Still a Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbit, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Writing recently in this journal, two of Canada's veteran adult educators contemplated the "death" of the Canadian adult education movement. I disagree and argue that adult education in Canada is as vital an activity as ever and one that still fully justifies being called a movement. Specifically, Selman and Selman (2009) list five…

  3. Computer Language Settings and Canadian Spellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleworth, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The language settings used on personal computers interact with the spell-checker in Microsoft Word, which directly affects the flagging of spellings that are deemed incorrect. This study examined the language settings of personal computers owned by a group of Canadian university students. Of 21 computers examined, only eight had their Windows…

  4. Family Business Training: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, A. B.; Soufani, K.; Lam, Jose

    2003-01-01

    Family firms play an important role in the working of the Canadian economy; despite their importance to the economic activities and job creation it is observed that family businesses have lower survival rates than non-family firms, some argue that this can possibly be attributed (amongst other factors) to the lack of training. Most of the training…

  5. Opportunity potential matrix for Atlantic Canadians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Danchuk; Ed Thomson

    1992-01-01

    Opportunity for provision of Parks Service benefit to Atlantic Canadians was investigated by mapping travel behaviour into a matrix in terms of origin, season, purpose, distance, time, and destination. Findings identified potential for benefit in several activity areas, particularly within residents' own province.

  6. Theoretical Analysis of Canadian Lifelong Education Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Natalia; Barabash, Olena; Busko, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the article, the problem of Canadian lifelong education development has been studied. The main objectives of the article are defined as theoretical analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature which highlights different aspects of the research problem; periods of lifelong education development; and determination of lifelong learning role…

  7. Update on Canadian Government Documents in Microform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbe, Mary

    1988-01-01

    Reviews recent developments in Canadian government documents available in microform, including: (1) Statistics Canada titles, including the 1986 census; (2) publications of the federal Atomic Energy Control Board and other federal technical reports; (3) provincial government publications; and (4) commercial publications of Micromedia. (seven…

  8. Recent Canadian Government Publications in Microform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbe, Mary

    1983-01-01

    This biennial survey of microformatted Canadian government publications highlights the diverse publications of Micromedia Ltd., the National Library of Canada, Public Archives of Canada, and Statistics Canada. Technical reports of a federal government department--Fisheries and Oceans--patent literature, and archival materials are noted. Eight…

  9. The Handbook of Canadian Film. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Eleanor

    The core of this book consists of 131 short entries on individual Canadian filmmakers, arranged in alphabetical order, with filmographies and suggestions for further reading. The majority of the filmmakers who are described are directors; other members of the film community--producers, sound engineers, camera operators, and so on--are discussed in…

  10. Experiencing Online Pedagogy: A Canadian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Heather E.; Barnett, John

    2010-01-01

    This case study explored the educational experiences of Canadian preservice teachers in a course designed to teach about online teaching. Students gained experience in course design and delivery, and safe and ethical behavior related to technology. Findings indicated that projects in which students actively applied their knowledge were more…

  11. Research Awards: Canadian Partnerships Program Deadline: 12 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jean-Claude Dumais

    2012-09-12

    Sep 12, 2012 ... This award provides young and upcoming professionals with a unique opportunity to strengthen their research skills and gain a fresh perspective on the Canadian community – both in universities and civil society organizations (CSOs) – that is actively engaged in creating, sharing, and using knowledge to ...

  12. Adult Literacy Education on the Canadian Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Canada's Frontier College began in 1899 to bring literacy and citizenship education to immigrant men; in the 1920s it offered university education. However, its early history embodied a legacy of nativism, anticommunism, racism, and sexism as it attempted to assimilate adult literacy learners into Anglo-Canadian sociocultural norms. (Contains 19…

  13. Reducing dietary sodium intake: the Canadian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Susan I

    2010-02-01

    Sodium is a required nutrient; Adequate Intakes for adults range from 1200 to 1500 mg*day(-1), depending on age. The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for sodium is 2300 mg*day(-1) for adults, based on the relationship between sodium intake and increased blood pressure. Elevated blood pressure, which is prevalent among Canadians, is, in turn, a major risk factor for stroke, cardiovascular disease, and renal disease. Sodium intake is not the only determinant of blood pressure; other modifiable risk factors include relative mass, physical activity, overall dietary quality, and alcohol consumption. However, because >90% of adult Canadian men and two thirds of Canadian women have sodium intakes above the UL, Health Canada's Working Group on Dietary Sodium Reduction has been charged with developing, implementing, and overseeing a strategy to reduce Canadians' sodium intakes. It is estimated that approximately 75% of dietary sodium is added during food processing; in addition to taste and palatability, sodium also has functional roles in food manufacturing and preservation, although the amounts used often exceed those required. Because of the central role of processed foods in sodium intake, the strategy proposed by Health Canada's Working Group includes voluntary reduction of sodium in processed foods and foods sold in food service establishments. It will also include an education and awareness campaign, and research and surveillance. Initiatives to reduce sodium in other parts of the world have demonstrated that it will be challenging to reduce sodium intake to the recommended range and will likely require many years to accomplish.

  14. Indigenous populations health protection: A Canadian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Katya L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The disproportionate effects of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on many Canadian Aboriginal communities have drawn attention to the vulnerability of these communities in terms of health outcomes in the face of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Exploring the particular challenges facing these communities is essential to improving public health planning. In alignment with the objectives of the Pandemic Influenza Outbreak Research Modelling (Pan-InfORM team, a Canadian public health workshop was held at the Centre for Disease Modelling (CDM to: (i evaluate post-pandemic research findings; (ii identify existing gaps in knowledge that have yet to be addressed through ongoing research and collaborative activities; and (iii build upon existing partnerships within the research community to forge new collaborative links with Aboriginal health organizations. The workshop achieved its objectives in identifying main research findings and emerging information post pandemic, and highlighting key challenges that pose significant impediments to the health protection and promotion of Canadian Aboriginal populations. The health challenges faced by Canadian indigenous populations are unique and complex, and can only be addressed through active engagement with affected communities. The academic research community will need to develop a new interdisciplinary framework, building upon concepts from ‘Communities of Practice’, to ensure that the research priorities are identified and targeted, and the outcomes are translated into the context of community health to improve policy and practice.

  15. Labour Law in Canadian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnetson, Bob

    2006-01-01

    The legislative framework for academic and nonacademic unionization and collective bargaining in Canadian public colleges, universities and technical institutes is set out and compared with mainstream labour law. Significant deviations affecting academic staff in the province of Alberta are explored to understand their effect and the factors which…

  16. Foraging ecology of ringed seals (Pusa hispida, beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas and narwhals (Monodon monoceros in the Canadian High Arctic determined by stomach content and stable isotope analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan K. Matley

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Stomach content and stable isotope analysis (δ13C and δ15N from liver and muscle were used to identify habitat and seasonal prey selection by ringed seals (Pusa hispida; n=21, beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas; n=13 and narwhals (Monodon monoceros; n=3 in the eastern Canadian Arctic. Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida was the main prey item of all three species. Diet reconstruction from otoliths and stable isotope analysis revealed that while ringed seal size influenced prey selection patterns, it was variable. Prey-size selection and on-site observations found that ringed seals foraged on smaller, non-schooling cod whereas belugas and narwhals consumed larger individuals in schools. Further interspecific differences were demonstrated by δ13C and δ15N values and indicated that ringed seals consumed inshore Arctic cod compared to belugas and narwhals, which foraged to a greater extent offshore. This study investigated habitat variability and interseasonal variation in the diet of Arctic marine mammals at a local scale and adds to the sparse data sets available in the Arctic. Overall, these findings further demonstrate the critical importance of Arctic cod to Arctic food webs.

  17. School Violence: Preventative, Restorative, and Educative Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickmore, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    Recently in many Canadian schools, escalated violence presents an evident threat. Rates of severe youth violence are considerably lower than sensational media coverage would have people believe, but at the same time, many young people, as well as adults, do not feel safe, respected, or constructively engaged as they should be. While schools cannot…

  18. “History is a Verb: We Learn it Best When We are Doing it!”: French and English Canadian Prospective Teachers and History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Lévesque

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a Canadian study of prospective history teachers conducted in 2012-2013. Using an online questionnaire to assess a broad range of questions pertaining to their knowledge of history, their trust in historical sources, their experiences in high school and university classes, and their views about school history, it offers new empirical evidence on how the growing generation of Canadian teachers are prepared for the teaching profession. Implications of this study for teacher education and practice teaching are also presented.

  19. Electrocardiography teaching in Canadian family medicine residency programs: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Baldeep; Baranchuk, Adrian

    2011-04-01

    Electrocardiography (ECG) interpretation is an essential skill for a family physician. Teaching and learning electrocardiography is a difficult task, in part due to the erosion of knowledge when interpretation is not part of a daily activity. The objective of this study was to assess the current status of electrocardiography teaching in Canadian family medicine residency programs. A national survey was designed to specifically address the status of the ECG teaching curricula. This national survey was electronically sent to the family medicine program directors of all 17 Canadian accredited medical schools. Approximately 75% of the schools responded to the survey. There was a great variance among Canadian family medicine residency programs with respect to the time allotment, ECG training location, training faculty, and teaching methods utilized. The goals of each respective program are also quite wide-ranging. Family medicine residency programs across Canada are quite diverse regarding ECG training curricula and its goals. The need for a homogeneous way of teaching and evaluating has been identified.

  20. QUALITY STANDARDS FOR DISTANCE LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CANADIAN AND RUSSIAN PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Buhanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to perform comparative analysis of the quality assessment and policies of quality assurance in postsecondary education in Canada and Russian Federation.Methods. The theoretical methods involve comparative analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, extrapolation and modelling.Results. Russia and Canada have different policies on quality assurance in the distance learning and are at different stages of implementation of distance learning into postsecondary curricula. The Canadian system of postsecondary education is regulated not by the State but by professional societies, licensing organisations, and experts. Canadian postsecondary institutions have efficient systems of quality assurance, quality standards and accreditation. Blended learning is widely used in Canadian medical schools and is mandatory for continuous professional development. In Russia, the system of quality assurance for distance learning is regulated by the State. At present, Russia has developed policies on distance learning but unified quality standards in this field are absent. Blended learning is used in the medical schools but its implementation has just begun as continuous professional development.Scientific novelty. For the first time, the results of comparative analysis of the policies on quality assurance in distance learning in Russia and Canada are described.Practical significance. This research has showed the needs of the development of the system of quality standards and the policy on quality assurance of distance learning in the Russia postsecondary education.

  1. Quality of Care for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Development of Canadian Cardiovascular Society Quality Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quraishi, Ata Ur Rehman; Lambert, Laurie J; Madan, Mina; Gong, Yanyan; Forsey, Anne; Galbraith, Diane; Gill, Neala; Oakes, Garth H; Lavoie, Andrea; Carere, Ronald G; Welsh, Robert C

    2016-12-01

    Currently there are more than 40 centres in Canada that perform more than 65,000 percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) in a year. Considering the high volume of procedures and number of operators, the potential for variation in processes of care is high, and might lead to variation in the quality of care. As part of its quality initiative, the Canadian Cardiovascular Society convened a working group to develop a set of PCI Quality Indicators (QIs) that would be relevant, scientifically acceptable, and feasible to measure and report. The working group was comprised of clinical experts from across Canada and members of provincial and federal organizations involved in promoting the quality of health care. Using the Canadian Cardiovascular Society "Best Practices for Developing Cardiovascular Quality Indicators" methodology, a total of 23 QIs were proposed. Subsequent ranking and discussion led to the selection of 8 QIs. The selection and ranking of QIs were on the basis of clinical importance and relevance, scientific acceptability, and feasibility of their operationalization at a national level. The data definitions and technical notes of the QIs were refined after feasibility testing and Web consultation. Feasibility testing indicated that standardization and enhancements of knowledge infrastructure are essential to provide the comprehensive patient data necessary to evaluate the quality of PCI across Canada. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of Taiwanese and Canadian Students' Metacognitive Awareness of Science Reading, Text, and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Ru; Chen, Shin-Feng; Fang, I.; Chou, Ching-Ting

    2014-03-01

    This study used a Chinese-language version of the Index of Science Reading Awareness to explore the science reading metacognition and comprehension of Taiwanese students. Structural equation modelling results confirmed the underlying model comprised three clusters of metacognitive knowledge: beliefs and confidence in science reading, knowledge of structure of science text, and knowledge of science reading strategies. The main contribution of the current research was to provide evidence about the relationship between metacognitive awareness and comprehension of science text. In addition, data comparisons to Canadian (British Columbia) benchmarks from the original development revealed that metacognitive awareness of science reading deteriorated from elementary to middle school in both countries, and there were no significant differences of metacognitive awareness of science reading between Canadian and Taiwanese students. Instructional suggestions for raising students' metacognitive awareness on science reading were discussed.

  3. The Housing Careers of Older Canadians: An Investigation Using Cycle 16 of the General Social Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Haan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use the Aging and Social Support Survey (GSS16 and the theoretical conception of a ‘housing career’ to identify the correlates of housing tenure (rent vs. own among Canadians age 45 and over. We draw on primarily US literature to isolate three general explanatory clusters (social support, health, and economic characteristics. Based on analyses using logistic regression, the results indicate that the majority of variation in housing tenure exists due to standard demographic and household characteristics. In fact, of the three focal explanatory clusters, only social support characteristics significantly enhance model fit beyond the baseline model, suggesting that the housing tenure of older Canadians hinges heavily on fairly standard characteristics.

  4. Health behaviours and health-care utilization in Canadian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Sara F L; Kuhle, Stefan; Ohinmaa, Arto; Veugelers, Paul J

    2013-02-01

    Poor nutritional habits and physical inactivity are two health behaviours believed to be linked with increasing rates of overweight and obesity in children. The objective of the present study was to determine whether children who reported healthier behaviours, specifically in relation to nutrition and physical activity, also had lower health-care utilization. Population-based cross-sectional study, linking survey data from the 2003 Children's Lifestyle and School Performance Study (CLASS) with Nova Scotia administrative health data. Health-care utilization was defined as both (i) the total physician costs and (ii) the number of physician visits, for each child from 2001 to 2006. Exposures were two indices of healthy eating, the Diet Quality Index and the Healthy Eating Index, and self-reported physical activity and screen time behaviours. Elementary schools in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. Grade 5 students and their parents; of the 5200 students who participated in CLASS and completed surveys, 4380 (84 %) could be linked with information in the administrative data sets. The study found a relationship between both indices of healthy eating and a borderline significant trend towards lower health-care utilization in this population sample of children. No statistically significant relationships were seen for physical activity or screen time. Both measures of diet quality produced similar results. The study suggests that healthy eating habits established in childhood may be associated with lower health-care utilization, although further research over a longer time frame is needed to demonstrate statistical significance.

  5. A longitudinal pilot study of resilience in Canadian military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudom, Kerry A; Lee, Jennifer E C; Zamorski, Mark A

    2014-12-01

    Research on psychological resilience is important for occupations involving routine exposure to trauma or critical events. Such research can allow for the identification of factors to target in training, education and intervention programs, as well as groups that may be at higher risk for mental health problems. Although efforts have been made to determine the individual characteristics that contribute to positive outcomes under stress, little is known about whether such characteristics are stable over time or how stressful events can impact psychological resilience in high-risk occupations such as military service. Following a review of the evidence on variations in resilience over time, results of a pilot study of Canadian Armed Forces personnel are presented in which differences in resilience characteristics were examined from military recruitment to several years after enrollment. While there was little change in resilience characteristics over time on average, there was considerable individual variation, with some individuals showing marked improvement and others showing marked deterioration in resilience characteristics. At both time points, individuals who had been deployed showed greater resilience characteristics than those who had never been deployed. Implications for the promotion of psychological resilience in military populations and personnel employed in other high-risk occupations are discussed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Cyberbullying in Schools: Nature and Extent of Canadian Adolescents' Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing

    2005-01-01

    This study is an exploration of the cyberbullying issue. The primary focus is on the examination of the nature and extent of adolescents' cyberbullying experiences. Particularly, the following research questions guide this exploration: (1) To what extent do adolescents experience cyberbullying? (2) What are the characteristics of cyberbullying?…

  7. School-Based Practices for Asperger Syndrome: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrimmon, Adam W.; Altomare, Alyssa A.; Matchullis, Ryan L.; Jitlina, Katia

    2012-01-01

    Educators face increasing demands to provide quality education in their classrooms, particularly to students with exceptional needs. Students with Asperger syndrome (AS) represent a population experiencing significant nonacademic barriers to learning (e.g., social, emotional, and behavioural needs). However, educational policies that identify and…

  8. Whether or wither some specialties: a survey of Canadian medical student career interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenneis Fraser R

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the looming shortage of physicians in Canada, we wished to determine how closely the career preference of students entering Canadian medical schools was aligned with the current physician mix in Canada. Methods Career choice information was collected from a survey of 2,896 Canadian medical students upon their entry to medical school. The distribution of career choices of survey respondents was compared to the current physician speciality mix in Canada. Results We show that there is a clear mismatch between student career choice at medical school entry and the current specialty mix of physicians in Canada. This mismatch is greatest in Urban Family Medicine with far fewer students interested in this career at medical school entry compared to the current proportion of practicing physicians. There are also fewer students interested in Psychiatry than the current proportion of practicing physicians. Conclusion This mismatch between the student interest and the current proportion of practicing physicians in the various specialities in Canada is particularly disturbing in the face of the current sub-optimal distribution of physicians. If nothing is done to correct this mismatch of student interest in certain specialities, shortages and misdistributions of physicians will be further amplified. Studies such as this can give a window into the future health human resources challenges for a nation.

  9. Webpages on copyright in Canadian academic libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony G Horava

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Academic libraries value the web as being a vital channel for communicating information and policies to their user community. Designing a webpage on copyright is a challenging task that requires a consideration of the medium and the message. This article proposes a conceptual model and proactive approach for integrating policy objective and goals into the development of a copyright webpage, based on key elements of the library’s involvement in academia. To complement this theoretical approach, an analysis of Canadian academic library websites was conducted in order to gage the effectiveness of copyright webpages, in the Canadian legal context, according to the model as well as related design issues of visibility and access.

  10. Asbestos in drinking water: a Canadian view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, P.; Meek, M.E.

    1983-11-01

    Because of the widespread occurrence of chrysotile asbestos in drinking water supplies in Canada, public health professionals have been faced with evaluating the potential hazards associated with the ingestion of asbestos in food and drinking water. The results of available Canadian monitoring and epidemiologic studies of asbestos in drinking water are reviewed and discussed in light of other published work. The Canadian studies provide no consistent, convincing evidence of increased cancer risks attributable to the ingestion of drinking water contaminated by asbestos, even though the observed asbestos concentrations were relatively high in several communities. Only one study, conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area, has shown evidence of increased cancer incidence associated with the ingestion of asbestos in drinking water. 6 references.

  11. Canadian petroleum history bibliography. Release update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2010-01-07

    The petroleum history bibliography was created over several years as a record dedicated to preserving the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. It comprises a list of more than 5000 publications, including books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles and stories of the many companies that have come and gone. It aims to include all publications and audio visual products from the Social Sciences and Humanities on company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry and humour. An author index is included. Most government documents are excluded as they are accessible through Library and Archives Canada. This bibliography is an ongoing piece of work, and welcomes any additions relating to the study and preservation of Canadian petroleum industry history.

  12. Committing Canadian sociology: developing a Canadian sociology and a sociology of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Ralph

    2014-05-01

    This paper is a slightly revised version of the author's "Outstanding Career Award Lecture" presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Sociological Association in Victoria, British Columbia on June 6, 2013. The paper distinguishes between Canadian Sociology and the Sociology of Canada. The former involves the explanatory stance that one takes to understanding Canada. The latter addresses the significant social dimensions that underlie Canadian social organization, culture, and behavior. I make a case for a Canadian Sociology that focuses on the unique features of Canadian society rather than adopting a comparative perspective. I also argue that there is a continuing need within the Sociology of Canada to address the issues of staples development. However, I argue that "new" staples analysis must have a directional change from that of the past, in that social processes now largely determine the pattern of staples development. Moreover, new staples analysis must include issues that were never part of earlier staples analysis, such as issues of environmental impacts and of staples depletion under conditions, such as climate change. The paper concludes by analyzing four factors that provide the dominant social contexts for analyzing modern staples development: (1) the rise of neoliberal government, (2) the implementation of globalization and its social consequences, (3) the assumption of aboriginal rights and entitlement, and (4) the rise of environmentalism. These factors were generally not considered in earlier staples approaches. They are critical to understanding the role of staples development and its impact on Canada in the present time.

  13. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E.; Ooi, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer...

  14. 2003 Canadian Asthma Consensus Guidelines Executive Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Allan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma have been published over the last 15 years; however, there has been little focus on issues relating to asthma in childhood. Since the last revision of the 1999 Canadian Asthma Consensus Report, important new studies, particularly in children, have highlighted the need to incorporate new information into the asthma guidelines. The objectives of this article are to review the literature on asthma published between January 2000 and June 2003 and to evaluate the influence of new evidence on the recommendations made in the 1999 Canadian Asthma Consensus Report and its 2001 update, with a major focus on pediatric issues. Methods The diagnosis of asthma in young children and prevention strategies, pharmacotherapy, inhalation devices, immunotherapy, and asthma education were selected for review by small expert resource groups. The reviews were discussed in June 2003 at a meeting under the auspices of the Canadian Network For Asthma Care and the Canadian Thoracic Society. Data published through December 2004 were subsequently reviewed by the individual expert resource groups. Results This report evaluates early-life prevention strategies and focuses on treatment of asthma in children, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis and preventive therapy, the benefits of additional therapy, and the essential role of asthma education. Conclusion We generally support previous recommendations and focus on new issues, particularly those relevant to children and their families. This document is a guide for asthma management based on the best available published data and the opinion of health care professionals, including asthma experts and educators.

  15. Asbestos in drinking water: a Canadian view.

    OpenAIRE

    Toft, P; Meek, M E

    1983-01-01

    For several years now, public health professionals have been faced with evaluating the potential hazards associated with the ingestion of asbestos in food and drinking water. In Canada, this is a subject of particular concern, because of the widespread occurrence of chrysotile asbestos in drinking water supplies. The results of available Canadian monitoring and epidemiologic studies of asbestos in drinking water are reviewed and discussed in light of other published work. It is concluded that...

  16. Guide to Canadian Aerospace-Related Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    ATR42 , Saab 340, Fokker HISTORY. Calian Communications Systems (CCS) is a wholly Canadian- F-28, Fokker F-50, Fokker F- 100, CL-600, and Citation 500...rough field usage, advanced material applications, and crash - systems and black boxes. This is typified by the microprocessor- worthiness features for...Avionics; Beacons; Build- To-Print Cockpit Displays; Communications; Crash Position Indicator; CONTACT- John Wandell, Senior Vice President of Sales- Digital

  17. Canadian Multiculturalism, Same as it ever Was?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Hoyos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available After the Second World War ended, Canada was no longer mainly composed of its two dominant ethnocultural groups, French and English, but rather constituted by polyethnicity; meaning, Canadian culture was made up of many different ethnic groups. Since then, Canada has actively embraced multiculturalism and on 12 July 1988, the House of Commons passed Bill C-93, ‘An Act for the preservation and enhancement of multiculturalism in Canada’. The Canadian multicultural experience has been much portrayed as a celebration of ethnicity where different cultural groups share their customs and learn from each other. However, it is recently being rumoured that the multiculturalism hype is not all it is cut out to be and segregates communities rather than integrate. According to Canadian authors Keith Banting and Will Kymlicka, “in much of the world and particularly in Europe, there is a widespread perception that multiculturalism has failed” (44. In this paper, I examine some recent common issues of concern, especially, racism and discrimination, through the literary expression of Canadian playwrights and writers such as George F. Walker, Cecil Foster, and Mordecai Richler. These writers are not meant to represent any ethnic group as a whole, but rather try to project a general feeling about the nation in individual ways. I will finally explore the idea of how perhaps multiculturalism in Canada is evolving into another state since migratory patterns and the social circumstances that Canada is facing in the 21st century have changed. Today, the idea of celebrating different ethnicities and customs is no longer as important as celebrating the transcultural or “transnational” aspects of relations between individuals and groups of immigrants.

  18. Guide to Canadian Aerospace Related Industries,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    color-coded to alert the pilot to dangerous ions and to provide easy readability, thus improving safety and reducing pilot workload. Digital readouts...Biogradiometer - a biomagnetic sensor/dewar combination designed to detect the third spatial gradient with a high sensitivity only to very near...34 Research on preconcentration for ion mobility spectrometer relating to detection of explosive vapors in air at trace levels (Canadian Department of

  19. The Canadian Assessment of Physical literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Claire E; Longmuir, Patricia E; Boyer, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy (CAPL) was conceptualized as a tool to monitor children's physical literacy. The original model (fitness, activity behavior, knowledge, motor skill) required revision and relative weights for calculating/interpreting scores were required...... opinions remained regarding the inclusion of sleep time, assessment/scoring of the obstacle course assessment of motor skill, and the need for an overall physical literacy classification. Conclusions: The revised CAPL model (overlapping domains of physical competence, motivation, and knowledge, encompassed...

  20. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. In 1991, the Atlantic Petroleum Association, the Quebec Petroleum Association, the Ontario Petroleum Association, the Canada West Petroleum Association, and the Petroleum Association for Conservation of the Canadian Environment (PACE) were integrated into the CPPI. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. A report is presented of the year's activities arranged by regional division. Major developments include a used oil management plan, creation of two new oil spill response centers in Nova Scotia and Quebec, CPPI's intervention in the Public Review Panel on Tanker Safety and Marine Spill Response, participation in the federal government's Green Plan, and member reviews of a number of operational issues such as lowering benzene emission levels, reducing sulfur content of diesel fuel, and minimizing pollutant levels at fuel transfer sites. Lists of CPPI publications, standing committees, and officers are also included.

  1. Case Studies of School Community and Climate: Success Narratives of Schools in Challenging Circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Darlene Ciuffetelli; Grenville, Heather; Flessa, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a Canadian qualitative case study project funded by the Elementary Teachers' Federation of Ontario. The paper describes success stories of students and communities affected by poverty from a diverse sample of eleven elementary schools throughout the province of Ontario. Over the period of one school year (2007-2008) and…

  2. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1991. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. , rapport annuel 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. In 1991, the Atlantic Petroleum Association, the Quebec Petroleum Association, the Ontario Petroleum Association, the Canada West Petroleum Association, and the Petroleum Association for Conservation of the Canadian Environment (PACE) were integrated into the CPPI. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. An industry overview is provided, as well as highlights of environmental achievements and challenges, and economics and operations for the year. Lists of CPPI publications, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs.

  3. The Canadian elder standard - pricing the cost of basic needs for the Canadian elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Bonnie-Jeanne; Andrews, Doug; Brown, Robert L

    2010-03-01

    We determined the after-tax income required to finance basic needs for Canadian elders living with different circumstances in terms of age, gender, city of residence, household size, homeowner or renter status, means of transportation, and health status. Using 2001 as our base year, we priced the typical expenses for food, shelter, medical, transportation, miscellaneous basic living items and home-based long-term care for elders living in five Canadian cities. This is the first Canadian study of basic living expenses tailored to elders instead of adults in general, prepared on an absolute rather than a relative basis. We also accounted for an individual's unique life circumstances and established the varying effect that they have on the cost of basic expenses, particularly for home care. We found that the maximum Guaranteed Income Supplement and Old Age Security benefit did not meet the cost of basic needs for an elder living in poor circumstances.

  4. Understanding clusters of risk factors across different environmental and social contexts for the prediction of injuries among Canadian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, K; Davison, C; King, N; Pike, I; Pickett, W

    2016-05-01

    Among Canadian youth, injury is the most common reason for presentation to the emergency department. Youth who commonly engage in multiple risk-taking behaviours are at greater risk for injury, but is it unknown if this phenomenon is more pronounced in different contexts. We aimed to study relationships between risk-taking behaviours and injury, and variations in such relationships between different environmental and social contexts, among youth in Canada. Risk-taking behaviour and injury outcome data were collected from grade 9 to 10 students using the 2009-2010 (Cycle 6) of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Survey (n=10,429). Principal components analysis was used to identify clusters of risk-taking behaviours. Within each identified cluster, the degree of risk-taking was categorized into quartiles from lowest to highest engagement in the behaviours. Risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine the association between the risk of any injury and the degree of risk-taking behaviour specific to the cluster. Clusters were then examined across home, school, neighbourhood and sport contexts. Four clusters of risk-taking behaviour were identified which were labelled as "gateway substance use", "hard drugs and weapons", "overt risk-taking", and "physical activity". Each cluster was related to injury occurrence in a graded fashion. Clusters of risk behaviour were most strongly associated with injuries sustained in neighbourhood settings, and expectedly, increasing physical activity behaviours were associated with increased risk of sport injuries and injuries occurring at school. This study furthers understanding of clustered risk-taking phenomena that put youth at increasing levels of injury risk. Higher risks for injury and associated gradients were observed in less structured contexts such as neighbourhoods. In contrast, clustered physical activity behaviours were most related to school injury or sport injury and were more likely to

  5. Experiencing variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, Sofie; Berge, Maria; Grout, Brian William Wilson

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes towards a better understanding of learning dynamics in doctoral supervision by analysing how learning opportunities are created in the interaction between supervisors and PhD students, using the notion of experiencing variation as a key to learning. Empirically, we have bas...... were discussed, created more complex patterns of variation. Both PhD students and supervisors can learn from this. Understanding of this mechanism that creates learning opportunities can help supervisors develop their competences in supervisory pedagogy....

  6. Alberta's Pluriform School System: Beyond the "Public-Secular" versus "Private-Religious" Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, John

    2017-01-01

    The Canadian province of Alberta runs a unique school system that offers ten options for school plurality and choice, nine of which provide some form of faith-based schooling. This article argues that Alberta has created a pragmatic version of a "pluriform school system." This system breaks with the assumption, shared by many Christian…

  7. Nation, Genre and Female Performance in Canadian Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Akser

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a theory of sytle and performance in Canadian film based on geography, gender and genre. It is possible to form a theory of Canadian cinema based on theme-genre (strong women, nature as oppressor in dysfunctional family melodramas in which female characters, as well as their personas, interact with both a physical geography and a social space to define a Canadian identity.

  8. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Driving: A Canadian Thoracic Society and Canadian Sleep Society Position Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najib Ayas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA experience sleep fragmentation and poor sleep quality that results in daytime sleepiness, which impairs performance during driving and leads to an increased risk for collisions. Not surprisingly, observational studies have shown that patients with OSA experience a two- to 10-fold higher risk for collision compared with healthy controls. Although treatment would clearly mitigate these risks, there is no current Canadian position on driving and OSA. This article, the first Canadian position statement addressing the issue, provides an overview of provincial regulations and proposes recommendations with regard to driving in patients with OSA.

  9. Public Opinion on Canadian Arctic Sovereignty and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mathieu Landriault

    2016-01-01

    .... An examination of 18 opinion polls conducted between 2006 and 2015 that questioned respondents directly or indirectly on circumpolar affairs concluded that Canadians do not prioritize the Arctic...

  10. Consensus statement: the development of a national Canadian Migraine Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, W J; Christie, S N; Mackie, G; Cooper, P

    2010-07-01

    Migraine is a significant cause of suffering and disability in the Canadian population, and imposes a major cost on Canadian Society. Based on current medical science, much more could be done to provide better comprehensive medical care to the millions of individuals with migraine in Canada. To propose and design a national Canadian Migraine Strategy which could be implemented to reduce migraine related disability in Canada. A multidisciplinary task force of the Canadian Headache Society met for a Canadian Migraine Summit Meeting in Halifax, Nova Scotia in June, 2009. Pertinent literature was reviewed and a consensus document was produced based upon the round table discussion at the meeting. The outline of a national Canadian Migraine Strategy was created. This strategy is based on the chronic disease management model, and would include: an outline of what constitutes appropriate migraine care for Canadians, educational programs (for health care professionals, individuals with migraine, and the general public), research programs, and the development of the necessary organizations and partnerships to develop further and implement the Canadian Migraine Strategy. Based upon the medical literature and expert discussion at the meeting, a national Canadian Migraine Strategy with a patient self-management focus has the potential to improve patient care and reduce headache related disability in Canada.

  11. Contesting Family in Finnish and Canadian Immigration and Refugee Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lippert, Randy K; Pyykkönen, Miikka

    2012-01-01

    Adopting a governmentality perspective, this article explores the multi-conceptuality of family in Finnish and Canadian immigration and refugee policy domains by analyzing official and political discourse...

  12. Women's health promotion in the rural church: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunkett, Robyn; Leipert, Beverly D

    2013-09-01

    The rural church may be an effective health resource for rural Canadian women who have compromised access to health resources. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relevance of the Christian church and faith community nurses in promoting the health of rural Canadian women in the evolving rural context. The findings from an extensive literature search reveal that religion and spirituality often influence the health beliefs, behaviors, and decisions of rural Canadian women. The church and faith community nurses may therefore be a significant health resource for rural Canadian women, although this phenomenon has been significantly understudied.

  13. Students in Nova Scotia Schools Without Teacher-Librarians are not Achieving Department of Education Expectations for Information Literacy Skills. A review of: Gunn, Holly, and Gary Hepburn. “Seeking Information for School Purposes on the Internet.” Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology 29.1 (Winter 2003: 67‐88. 24 May 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Bogel

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This study investigated whether the expectations for Internet searching strategies outlined in provincial curriculumg oals are being met in Nova Scotia Schools. Twelfth-grade students in representative schools were surveyed as to their Internet information seeking strategies and their perceptions of the effectiveness of those strategies. The results are presented as six themes based on the survey questions.Design – Survey questionnaire consisting of yes/no, multiple-choice, Likert style, and open‐ended responses.Setting – Twelfth‐grade students from four high schools in one district in Nova Scotia. Total participants: 198.Subjects – Questionnaires were analyzed from 243 general practitioners, practice nurses, and practice managers in four Nottingham primary care trusts as well as practices in the Rotherham Health Authority area.Methods – Four research questions guided this study: 1. What strategies and techniques do students use that are helpful for information‐seeking on the Internet? 2. What knowledge do students have of the different World Wide Web search engines? 3. How do students perceive their ability to locate information for school purposes on the Internet? 4. How do students learn how to seek information on the Internet for school related assignments? The survey was developed through a literature review of previous research. Each survey item reflected a theme and one of the four research questions. The survey was field tested in a pilot study with two twelfth‐grade students, and two twelfth grade English classes.The sample was assembled by asking principals at the four schools to identify two classes in each of their schools that represented mixed academic abilities. Three schools chose English classes, and one school chose math classes participate in the study. All students had agreed to be a part of the study and only students present in class on the day the questionnaire was given were represented. No

  14. Is a pan-Canadian early child development system possible? Yes, when we redress what ails Canadian culture

    OpenAIRE

    Kershaw, Paul; Anderson, Lynell

    2009-01-01

    Canada lags behind other countries when it comes to investing in families with children. Canada, therefore, fails to promote health by not optimizing early development. The authors diagnose the Canadian failure. The problem is not research or fiscal capacity, but rather a sickness in Canadian culture. Four ailments are identified: Canadians are convinced they cannot afford new social investments, tend to treat illness rather than promote health, ignore that good family policy requires gender ...

  15. Examining the Link between Education Related Outcomes and Student Health Risk Behaviours among Canadian Youth: Data from the 2006 National Youth Smoking Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathammavong, Ratsamy; Leatherdale, Scott T.; Ahmed, Rashid; Griffith, Jane; Nowatzki, Janet; Manske, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether student tobacco, alcohol, marijuana use, and sedentary behaviour were associated with the educational outcomes of health-related absenteeism, truancy, and academic motivation in a nationally representative sample of Canadian youth. Descriptive analyses indicate a high proportion of students missed school due to health,…

  16. Geomagnetic Field Variability in the Western Canadian Arctic Since the Last Deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, G.; Lise-Pronovost, A.; Barletta, F.; Channell, J. E.; Brachfeld, S. A.; Polyak, L. V.; Darby, D. A.; Rochon, A.; Scott, D. B.

    2009-12-01

    Several piston cores (HLY0501-05JPC, -06JPC, -08JPC and 2004-804-803, -124, -250, -650, -750) were recently collected in the western Canadian Arctic and Arctic Alaskan margin as part of major international scientific programs such as CASES (Canadian Arctic Shelf Exchange Study), ArcticNet and HOTRAX (Healy-Oden Trans Arctic Expedition). Due to the seafloor imaging and subbottom profiling capabilities of the deployed ice-breakers (CCGS Amundsen and USCCG Healy), the coring sites were carefully selected for high sediment accumulation areas not affected by mass wasting events nor by ice scouring. The sedimentological, physical and magnetic properties of these piston cores in conjunction with AMS-14C dating reveal that these cores span the last deglaciation to the present with sedimentation rates as high as 350 cm/ka. Here we highlight key paleomagnetic secular variations and relative paleointensity findings from selected cores collected off the Arctic Alaskan margin, the Mackenzie delta and in the Amundsen Gulf in order to synthesize geomagnetic field variability in the western Canadian Arctic since the last deglaciation.

  17. Influence of North Pacific decadal variability on the western Canadian Arctic over the past 700 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, François; Francus, Pierre; Lamoureux, Scott F.; Vuille, Mathias; Jenny, Jean-Philippe; Bradley, Raymond S.; Massa, Charly

    2017-04-01

    Understanding how internal climate variability influences arctic regions is required to better forecast future global climate variations. This paper investigates an annually-laminated (varved) record from the western Canadian Arctic and finds that the varves are negatively correlated with both the instrumental Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) during the past century and also with reconstructed PDO over the past 700 years, suggesting drier Arctic conditions during high-PDO phases, and vice versa. These results are in agreement with known regional teleconnections, whereby the PDO is negatively and positively correlated with summer precipitation and mean sea level pressure respectively. This pattern is also evident during the positive phase of the North Pacific Index (NPI) in autumn. Reduced sea-ice cover during summer-autumn is observed in the region during PDO- (NPI+) and is associated with low-level southerly winds that originate from the northernmost Pacific across the Bering Strait and can reach as far as the western Canadian Arctic. These climate anomalies are associated with the PDO- (NPI+) phase and are key factors in enhancing evaporation and subsequent precipitation in this region of the Arctic. Collectively, the sedimentary evidence suggests that North Pacific climate variability has been a persistent regulator of the regional climate in the western Canadian Arctic. Since projected sea-ice loss will contribute to enhanced future warming in the Arctic, future negative phases of the PDO (or NPI+) will likely act to amplify this positive feedback.

  18. Surface mold brachytherapy for nonmelanoma skin cancer: Canadian patterns of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jim N; McLaughlin, Pierre-Yves; Hanna, Timothy P; D'Souza, David; Sur, Ranjan; Falkson, Conrad B

    2014-01-01

    We sought to describe the use of surface mold brachytherapy (SMBT) for nonmelanoma skin cancer in Canada. A list of Canadian Association of Radiation Oncologists membership and provincial registries were used for a preliminary survey to identify radiation oncologists and physicists involved in the practice of SMBT. A detailed survey was sent electronically to individuals involved in treating with SMBT. Of 41 centers in Canada, 39 responded, with 7 centers indicating use of SMBT. Seven radiation oncologists and 5 physicists from 6 of 7 treating centers responded to the detailed survey, with an overall 75% individual response rate (12/16). General agreement was found regarding indications for SMBT which included irregular or curved surfaces, avoidance of deep structures, and requirement for small fields. There was consensus regarding some contraindications for SMBT such as tumor depth and size. Hypofractionated schedules were used in 5 of 6 centers and doses ranged from 50 Gy in 5 fractions once per week to 30 Gy in 10 fractions twice a day over 5 days. The most common dosimetric parameters for plan evaluation included D90, D95, D100, and maximum skin dose. A minority of Canadian centers practice SMBT. In centers practicing SMBT, general agreement exists on general indications for its use. Given the wide variation in dose and fractionation used and the rarity of the indication a phase 2 Canadian protocol would be invaluable.

  19. A Survey of Rounding Practices in Canadian Adult Intensive Care Units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessalyn K Holodinsky

    Full Text Available To describe rounding practices in Canadian adult Intensive Care Units (ICU and identify opportunities for improvement.Mixed methods design. Cross sectional survey of Canadian Adult ICUs (n = 180 with purposefully sampled follow-up interviews (n = 7.Medical directors representing 111 ICUs (62% participated in the survey. Rounding practices varied across ICUs with the majority reporting the use of interprofessional rounds (81% that employed an open (94% and collaborative (86% approach, occurred at the patient's bedside (82%, and started at a standard time (79% and standard location (56%. Most participants reported that patients (83% and family members (67% were welcome to attend rounds. Approximately half of ICUs (48% used tools to facilitate rounds. Interruptions during rounds were reported to be common (i.e., ≥ 1 interruption for ≥ 50% of patients in 46% of ICUs. Four themes were identified from qualitative analysis of participant responses to open-ended survey questions and interviews: multidisciplinarity, patient and family involvement, factors influencing productivity, and teaching and learning.There is considerable variation in current rounding practices in Canadian medical/surgical ICUs. Opportunities exist to improve ICU rounds including ensuring the engagement of essential participants, clearly defining participant roles, establishing a standardized approach to the rounding process, minimizing interruptions, modifying the role of teaching, utilizing a structured rounding tool, and developing a metric for measuring rounding quality.

  20. A wind-driven nonseasonal barotropic fluctuation of the Canadian inland seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Piecuch

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A wind-driven, spatially coherent mode of nonseasonal, depth-independent variability in the Canadian inland seas (i.e., the collective of Hudson Bay, James Bay, and Foxe Basin is identified based on Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE retrievals, a tide-gauge record, and a barotropic model over 2003–2013. This dominant mode of nonseasonal variability is correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation and is associated with net flows into and out of the Canadian inland seas; the anomalous inflows and outflows, which are reflected in mean sea level and bottom pressure changes, are driven by wind stress anomalies over Hudson Strait, probably related to wind setup, as well as over the northern North Atlantic Ocean, possibly mediated by various wave mechanisms. The mode is also associated with mass redistribution within the Canadian inland seas, reflecting linear response to local wind stress variations under the combined influences of rotation, gravity, and variable bottom topography. Results exemplify the usefulness of GRACE for studying regional ocean circulation and climate.

  1. Beyond nutrition: hunger and its impact on the health of young Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, William; Michaelson, Valerie; Davison, Colleen

    2015-07-01

    In a large Canadian study, we examined: (1) the prevalence of hunger due to an inadequate food supply at home; (2) relations between this hunger and a range of health outcomes, and; (3) contextual explanations for any observed associations. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of 25,912 students aged 11-15 years from 436 Canadian schools. Analyses were descriptive and also involved hierarchical logistic regression models. Hunger was reported by 25 % of participants, with 4 % reporting this experience "often" or "always". Its prevalence was associated with socio-economic disadvantage and family-related factors, but not with whether or not a student had access to school-based food and nutrition programs. The consistency of hunger's associations with the health outcomes was remarkable. Relations between hunger and health were partially explained when models controlled for family practices, but not the socio-economic or school measures. Societal responses to hunger certainly require the provision of food, but may also consider family contexts and basic essential elements of care that children need to thrive.

  2. Career development of McMaster University medical graduates and its implications for Canadian medical manpower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, C A; Ferrier, B M

    1982-09-15

    A study was undertaken of the career paths and decisions, and the factors influencing the decisions, of the first six graduating classes of McMaster University's medical school. Climate and geography, preference for urban or rural living and influence of spouse were the factors that most influenced the location of practice, although the graduates who moved to the United States considered economic factors important too. Nearly one third of the specialists were practising in the United States. Personal challenge and positive clinical experience in the field were the major influences on choice of medical field. Graduates entering a specialty were more likely than those entering primary care to consider encouragement of others, a positive example set by medical school faculty members, working hours and research experience in the field as important influences on their choice of medical field. Data are needed on the career decisions, and the factors affecting them, of the graduates of all Canadian medical schools if Canadian medical manpower planning is to be realistic.

  3. Variational analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rockafellar, R Tyrrell

    1998-01-01

    From its origins in the minimization of integral functionals, the notion of 'variations' has evolved greatly in connection with applications in optimization, equilibrium, and control. It refers not only to constrained movement away from a point, but also to modes of perturbation and approximation that are best describable by 'set convergence', variational convergence of functions and the like. This book develops a unified framework and, in finite dimension, provides a detailed exposition of variational geometry and subdifferential calculus in their current forms beyond classical and convex analysis. Also covered are set-convergence, set-valued mappings, epi-convergence, duality, maximal monotone mappings, second-order subderivatives, measurable selections and normal integrands. The changes in this 3rd printing mainly concern various typographical corrections, and reference omissions that came to light in the previous printings. Many of these reached the authors' notice through their own re-reading, that of th...

  4. A survey of senior medical students' attitudes and awareness toward teaching and participation in a formal clinical teaching elective: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Hughes, J D; Azzi, Elise; Rose, Gregory Walter; Ramnanan, Christopher J; Khamisa, Karima

    2017-01-01

    To prepare for careers in medicine, medical trainees must develop clinical teaching skills. It is unclear if Canadian medical students need or want to develop such skills. We sought to assess Canadian students' perceptions of clinical teaching, and their desire to pursue clinical teaching skills development via a clinical teaching elective (CTE) in their final year of medical school. We designed a descriptive cross-sectional study of Canadian senior medical students, using an online survey to gauge teaching experience, career goals, perceived areas of confidence, and interest in a CTE. Students at 13 of 17 Canadian medical schools were invited to participate in the survey (4154 students). We collected 321 responses (7.8%). Most (75%) respondents expressed confidence in giving presentations, but fewer were confident providing bedside teaching (47%), teaching sensitive issues (42%), and presenting at journal clubs (42%). A total of 240 respondents (75%) expressed interest in participating in a CTE. The majority (61%) favored a two week elective, and preferred topics included bedside teaching (85%), teaching physical examination skills (71%), moderation of small group learning (63%), and mentorship in medicine (60%). Our study demonstrates that a large number of Canadian medical students are interested in teaching in a clinical setting, but lack confidence in skills specific to clinical teaching. Our respondents signaled interest in participating in an elective in clinical teaching, particularly if it is offered in a two-week format.

  5. Variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2004-01-01

    This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha

  6. Canadian Pediatric Weight Management Registry (CANPWR): baseline descriptive statistics and comparison to Canadian norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Feng, Min; Garriguet, Didier; Ball, Geoff D C; Buchholz, Annick; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre; Lambert, Marie; Morrison, Katherine M

    2015-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of establishing a multi-site CANadian Pediatric Weight management Registry (CANPWR) containing individual, family and weight management program information. Standardized baseline data were collected to characterize CANPWR participants (n = 310) in comparison to a sample of age-matched Canadian children measured in the nationally representative Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS; n = 3,788). This study compared demographic, anthropometric, cardiometabolic and lifestyle characteristics of participants (aged 6-17 years) in the CANPWR pilot study with those from the CHMS. Compared to CHMS respondents, CANPWR participants had higher BMI z-score, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and fasting glucose, and lower HDL cholesterol. They reported lower sugared drink consumption, were more likely to be non-white and had parents with lower education. The CANPWR cohort represents a group that has biological and behavioral profiles that place them at increased health risk and who differ significantly from typical Canadians of the same age.

  7. The Canadian Niagara Power Company story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, N.R. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2005-07-01

    This book chronicles the history and contributions of the Canadian Niagara Power Company and its employees toward the establishment of electricity generation and distribution in Niagara Falls and Fort Erie, Ontario, dating back to its founding in 1892. Through historical photographs, maps and drawings, the book demonstrates the impact of electricity on the Niagara region. It emphasizes the many skills and jobs required to run the company that generated electricity and maintained a complete system to deliver power, metering, and billing services through the depression, wars, and postwar booms, even during lightning, snow and ice storms. The company began producing power in 1905 with what had been the world's largest-capacity turbines and generators that supplied power to both sides of the Niagara River. Initially, most of the electricity was exported to New York State. The company eventually expanded its Canadian customer service area from Niagara Falls, Ontario, to Fort Erie, Bridgeburg, Amigari, Ridgeway, Stevensville, Crystal Beach and Point Abino. Throughout its history, the Canadian Niagara Power Company provided power at a lower cost than its neighbouring competitors. The William Birch Rankine Generating Station became an important tourist attraction, showcasing the latest electrical appliances of the time in an effort to promote the use of electricity in homes and offices. Today, the station remains a tribute to the fact that natural beauty can coincide with industry. The book also chronicles the difficult business challenges caused by restructuring in the electric power industry in the 1990s, repairing aging equipment and applying the latest in automation and remote sensing technology. Today, the company as FortisOntario is expanding to other communities around Ontario. refs., tabs., figs.

  8. 2007: A Canadian Corporate Ownership Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsan, Calin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study documents a decline in the levels of corporate ownership concentration between 1996 and 2007. When compared to previous studies, the incidence of ownership stakes of 20% or larger has decreased form 60% to 41% of the total population of publicly listed Canadian firms. Regional disparities among provinces remain important. Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia have the most widely-held firms, while Quebec and Atlantic Canada show the most concentrated corporate ownership patterns. The interpretation of these results requires a complex understanding of historical, demographic, cultural, political and institutional factors.

  9. The Changing Health of Canadian Grandparents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Margolis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fertility postponement and mortality decline are shifting the demography of the grandparent population in Canada. The ways in which the aging of the grandparent population affects families depends in large part on the health of grandparents. In this article, we document the aging of Canadian grandparents between 1985 and 2011. However, despite being older, grandparents are healthier, signaling that the compression of morbidity is outpacing the postponement of grandparenthood. This shift is partly due to the higher educational attainment of this population and partly due to secular improvements in health over time. The improved health of grandparents in Canada has important implications for intergenerational transfers and relationships.

  10. Inequalities in the spiritual health of young Canadians: a national, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelson, Valerie; Freeman, John; King, Nathan; Ascough, Hannah; Davison, Colleen; Trothen, Tracy; Phillips, Sian; Pickett, William

    2016-11-28

    Spiritual health, along with physical, emotional, and social aspects, is one of four domains of health. Assessment in this field of research is challenging methodologically. No contemporary population-based studies have profiled the spiritual health of adolescent Canadians with a focus on health inequalities. In a 2014 nationally representative sample of Canadians aged 11-15 years we therefore: (1) psychometrically evaluated a series of items used to assess the perceived importance of spiritual health and its four potential sub-domains (connections with: self, others, nature and the natural environment, and the transcendent) to adolescents; (2) described potential inequalities in spiritual health within adolescent populations, overall and by spiritual health sub-domain, by key socio-demographic factors. Cross-sectional analysis of survey reports from the 2014 (Cycle 7) of the Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (weighted n = 25,036). Principal components analysis followed by confirmatory factor analysis were used to explore the psychometric properties of the spiritual health items and the associated composite scale describing perceived importance of spiritual health. Associations among this composite scale, its individual sub-domains, and key socio-demographic factors were then explored. The principal components analysis best supported a four-factor structure where the eight scale items loaded highly according to the original four domains. This was also supported in confirmatory factor analyses. We then combined the eight items into composite spiritual health score as supported by theory, principal components analysis findings, and acceptable tests of reliability. Further confirmatory factor analysis suggested the need for additional refinements to this scale. Based upon exploratory cross-sectional analyses, strong socio-demographic inequalities were observed in the spiritual health measures by age, gender, relative material wealth

  11. The national question: political economy and the Canadian working class: Marxism or nationalist reformism?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Murray E

    2000-01-01

    Despite its occasionally Marxist verbiage, the New Canadian Political Economy has always been more indebted to the Canadian political economy tradition associated with Harold Innis and to "dependency...

  12. Family dinners, communication, and mental health in Canadian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgar, Frank J; Craig, Wendy; Trites, Stephen J

    2013-04-01

    To examine the association between the frequency of family dinners and positive and negative dimensions of mental health in adolescents and to determine whether this association is explained by the quality of communication between adolescents and parents. A community sample of 26,069 adolescents (aged 11 to 15 years) participated in the 2010 Canadian Health Behaviour of School-aged Children study. Adolescents gave self-report data on the weekly frequency of family dinners, ease of parent-adolescent communication, and five dimensions of mental health (internalizing and externalizing problems, emotional well-being, prosocial behavior, and life satisfaction). Regression analyses tested relations between family dinners, parent-adolescent communication, and mental health. The frequency of family dinners negatively related to internalizing and externalizing symptoms and positively related to emotional well-being, prosocial behavior, and life satisfaction. These associations did not interact with differences in gender, grade level, or family affluence. However, hierarchical regression analyses found that these associations were partially mediated by differences in parent-adolescent communication, which explained 13% to 30% of the effect of family dinners on mental health, depending on the outcome. These findings, though correlational, revealed a dose-response association between the frequency of family dinners and positive and negative dimensions of adolescent mental health. The ease of communication between parents and adolescents accounted for some of this association. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. Adherence to Dietary Recommendations Supports Canadian Children's Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Erin L; Montemurro, Genevieve; Storey, Kate E; Veugelers, Paul J

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to determine if adherence to established Canadian, American, and WHO-developed nutrition recommendations supported children's academic achievement. Data from a health survey of 1595 grade 5 students in Alberta, Canada, was used. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Adherence to recommendations for food group servings, saturated fat intake, and free sugars intake was assessed. Survey data were linked to grade 6 standardized exam results. Multivariable mixed effects linear regression models were employed to assess the association between adherence to recommendations and academic achievement. Boys who met current recommendations for free sugars scored on average 5.67% better on exams (β: 5.67; 95% CI: 3.14, 8.29). Boys who met recommendations for milk and alternatives scored 3.45% better on exams (β: 3.45; 95% CI: 0.67, 6.23). Though results indicated that adhering to dietary recommendations was beneficial for girls' academic achievement, no result was statistically significant. Adherence to current dietary recommendations has benefits for children's academic achievement. This evidence may be used to inform continued development and promotion of dietary recommendations and to support school-based nutrition initiatives.

  14. Mantle transition zone structure beneath the Canadian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. A.; Helffrich, G. R.; Bastow, I. D.; Kendall, J. M.; Wookey, J.; Eaton, D. W.; Snyder, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    The Canadian Shield is underlain by one of the deepest and most laterally extensive continental roots on the planet. Seismological constraints on the mantle structure beneath the region are presently lacking due to the paucity of stations in this remote area. Presented here is a receiver function study on transition zone structure using data from recently deployed seismic networks from the Hudson Bay region. High resolution images based on high signal-to-noise ratio data show clear arrivals from the 410 km and 660 km discontinuities, revealing remarkably little variation in transition zone structure. Transition zone thickness is close to the global average (averaging 245 km across the study area), and any deviations in Pds arrival time from reference Earth models can be readily explained by upper-mantle velocity structure. The 520 km discontinuity is not a ubiquitous feature, and is only weakly observed in localised areas. These results imply that the Laurentian root is likely confined to the upper-mantle and if any mantle downwelling exists, possibly explaining the existence of Hudson Bay, it is also confined to the upper 400 km. Any thermal perturbations at transition zone depths associated with the existence of the root, whether they be cold downwellings or elevated temperatures due to the insulating effect of the root, are thus either non-existent or below the resolution of the study.

  15. Attitudes Toward Oral Contraception Among Canadian University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardis, Panos D.

    The author conducted a cross-cultural survey of attitudes toward the pill among university students, part of this international sample being a group of young Canadians. The subjects were students from a southwestern Canadian university and were stratified as to sex and amount of education. The author employed his Pill Scale, a 25-item Likert type…

  16. From Republicans to Hacktivists: Recent Inclusion Initiatives in Canadian Theatre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kirsty

    2017-01-01

    Could targeted inclusion initiatives press Canada's professional theatre community to tap the vast reserve of disabled people disenfranchised by its current practices? In 2015/2016, several long-standing professional institutions dedicated to fostering Canadian theatre joined with Canadian disability theatre artists in order to mark and understand…

  17. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault in Canadian Sports and Courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Margery; Moriarty, Richard

    Sexual harassment is deemed a violation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms which provides protection from discrimination based on sex. Provincial jurisdictions may offer legislation more stringent than that reflected in the Canadian code. Recourse for acts of sexual harassment through the courts is sought by alleging discrimination.…

  18. African-Canadian Educators' Perspectives: Critical Factors for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the perspectives of African-Canadian educators on critical factors for success in their educational careers. Interviews were conducted and life histories were constructed to analyze the complex and multifaceted nature of the experiences of ten African-Canadian educators. These data indicate that family and community…

  19. Bridging Grant : Building Canadian Support for Global Health ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Canadian Coalition for Global Health Research (CCGHR) is a not-for-profit organization dedicated to supporting research for global health equity. The CCGHR provides a networking and action platform for the Canadian global health research community and partners in low- and middle-income countries. This grant will ...

  20. On the Autonomy and Homogeneity of Canadian English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollinger, Stefan; Clarke, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This introduction to the symposium approaches the themes of autonomy and homogeneity in Canadian English from a historical perspective. We trace the debates on these topics back to the late 19th century and relate them to changing public attitudes toward Canadian linguistic autonomy over time. We review the scholarly evidence on autonomy and…

  1. Indigenous knowledge in Canadian science curricula: cases from Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijung

    2017-09-01

    To enhance Aboriginal students' educational opportunities in sciences, culturally relevant science curriculum has been examined and practiced in Western Canadian science classrooms. This article shares some examples of inclusion of indigenous knowledge in science curricula and discusses the improvement and challenges of culturally relevant science curricula in Canadian contexts.

  2. Aspects sociolinguistiques du bilinguisme canadien (Aspects of Canadian Bilingualism).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Jacques, Bernard

    The Canadian government opted for a politics of bilingualism according to the "personal solution" whereby the Canadian citizen, whether English or French, can demand the protection of his language regardless of the section of the country in which he lives. In a "territorial solution," an individual can claim official status for…

  3. Planning and Evaluation by Canadian Civil Society Organizations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Planning and Evaluation by Canadian Civil Society Organizations : Bridging Gaps between Methodologies. In the current global context, Canadian civil society organizations (CSOs) are finding it increasingly difficult to assess their efficiency and effectiveness, and report to external stakeholders, both donor agencies and ...

  4. How Canadian Universities Use Social Media to Brand Themselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Charles H.; Bali, Suchita; Longden, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores social media marketing strategies applied by Canadian universities as a tool for institutional branding, recruitment and engagement of home and international students. The target sample involves the total population of Canadian university-status institutions ("N" = 106). Qualitative data were collected from two major…

  5. "In Canada Even History Divides": Unique Features of Canadian Citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Alan

    1997-01-01

    Explores the unique features of Canadian history and society that influence the conception of Canadian citizenship. These include the historical development of Canada as a frontier crown territory, the search for an elusive national identity, the decentralized political structure, and the proximity to the United States. (MJP)

  6. Denials of Racism in Canadian English Language Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliver, Trevor; Thurrell, Kristy

    2016-01-01

    This critical discourse analysis examines denials of racism in descriptions of Canada and Canadians from English language textbooks. Denials of racism often accompany racist and nationalist discourse, preempting observations of racism. The study finds that in representations of Canada or Canadians, English language texts minimize and downplay…

  7. Canadian Autonomous Landing and Lunar Exploration Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, R.; Tripp, J.; Mukherji, R.; Ghafoor, N.; Sallaberger, C.

    In coming decades planetary exploration will change its focus from remote observation to robotic in situ exploration sample-return missions and eventually human missions Two Canadian companies have combined 30 years of heritage in terrestrial and space technologies to provide new capabilities in space including autonomous landing and exploration technologies for lunar exploration MDA is the world leader in space robotics a key element of the Canadian Space Program for the last two decades with over 2-billion CDN of total investment Robotic arms designed and built by MDA are used on virtually all flights of the Space Shuttle and the three robotic systems comprising the Mobile Servicing System - SSRMS MBS and SPDM - have been designed and built for the International Space Station Optech is the world leader in terrestrial lidar systems with 30 years of technology heritage A strategic partnership of MDA and Optech was formed in 2002 to provide unique space lidar solutions for space operations and planetary exploration Now as robotic exploration moves in earnest beyond Earth orbit strategic technologies are being developed by Optech and MDA that will allow Canada to expand its world leading position in space sensors and robotics to become a dominant provider of robotic exploration systems and missions targeted at the Moon Mars asteroids and beyond The key requirements for successful planetary exploration in topographically diverse areas include a spacecraft capable of precision landing and hazard avoidance Since 2001 Optech and MDA

  8. Canadian tourist and Dominican Republic sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, E S

    1992-01-01

    The Dominican Republic is a popular tourist destination for Canadians. The country's sex industry for tourists developed markedly in the 1980s. The Puerto Plata/Sosua area is currently one of the most popular tourist sites and claimed the highest incidence of AIDS in 1989 at 23.2 cases/100,000 people. Two pilot phases of the Dominican Sex Workers and Canadian Tourists Study have been conducted to obtain methodological and empirical data to use in developing a major study of sex and tourism. First phase interviews were held only with beachboys who make money by having relations with female tourists, while phase two interviews were held with beachboys, female sex workers, and female and male tourists. Results indicate that female tourists consider their relations with male sex workers to be primarily social, while male tourists see their relations with female sex workers as more casual, sexual, and monetarily based. Further, women are more likely than men to continue their relationships with sex workers after returning to Canada; many help their men to immigrate and some get married. To learn more about the dynamics of tourism, sex, and AIDS prevention, the author proposes individual studies exploring the characteristics of each of the following four populations: male and female sex workers and male and female tourists.

  9. Diet composition and obesity among Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Kellie; Garriguet, Didier; Findlay, Leanne

    2009-12-01

    The contribution of specific nutrients to obesity has not been definitively established. The objective of this study was to determine if an association exists between obesity and the relative percentages of fats, carbohydrates, protein and fibre in the diets of Canadians. The data are from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey--Nutrition. The analysis pertains to 6454 respondents aged 18 or older who provided valid 24-hour dietary recall information and measured height and weight, and whose reported energy intake was considered plausible based on their predicted energy expenditure. Logistic regression models with obesity status as the main outcome were conducted, controlling for potential confounders. All analyses were based on weighted estimates. When the effect of the control variables was taken into account, total kilocalories consumed increased the odds of obesity in men, and fibre intake decreased the odds. Among women, only total kilocalories consumed was significantly associated with increased odds of obesity. Higher consumption of kilocalories increased the odds of obesity, but the relative amounts of fats, carbohydrates and protein were generally not significant. The sole exception was an association between higher fibre intake and lower rates of obesity among men.

  10. Exploring Canadian Echinoderm Diversity through DNA Barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    DNA barcoding has proven an effective tool for species identification in varied groups of marine invertebrates including crustaceans, molluscs, polychaetes and echinoderms. In this study, we further validate its utility by analyzing almost half of the 300 species of Echinodermata known from Canadian waters. COI sequences from 999 specimens were assigned to 145 BINs. In most cases, species discrimination was straightforward due to the large difference (25-fold) between mean intra- (0.48%) and inter- (12.0%) specific divergence. Six species were flagged for further taxonomic investigation because specimens assigned to them fell into two or three discrete sequence clusters. The potential influence of larval dispersal capacity and glacial events on patterns of genetic diversity is discussed for 19 trans-oceanic species. Although additional research is needed to clarify biogeographic patterns and resolve taxonomic questions, this study represents an important step in the assembly of a DNA barcode library for all Canadian echinoderms, a valuable resource for future biosurveillance programs. PMID:27870868

  11. Exploring Canadian Echinoderm Diversity through DNA Barcodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara K S Layton

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding has proven an effective tool for species identification in varied groups of marine invertebrates including crustaceans, molluscs, polychaetes and echinoderms. In this study, we further validate its utility by analyzing almost half of the 300 species of Echinodermata known from Canadian waters. COI sequences from 999 specimens were assigned to 145 BINs. In most cases, species discrimination was straightforward due to the large difference (25-fold between mean intra- (0.48% and inter- (12.0% specific divergence. Six species were flagged for further taxonomic investigation because specimens assigned to them fell into two or three discrete sequence clusters. The potential influence of larval dispersal capacity and glacial events on patterns of genetic diversity is discussed for 19 trans-oceanic species. Although additional research is needed to clarify biogeographic patterns and resolve taxonomic questions, this study represents an important step in the assembly of a DNA barcode library for all Canadian echinoderms, a valuable resource for future biosurveillance programs.

  12. Canadian Petroleum Products Institute 1996 annual review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) is an association of Canadian companies involved in the downstream sector of the petroleum industry which includes refining, distributing and marketing of petroleum products. CPPI`s mandate includes: (1) establishing environmental policies, (2) establishing working relationships with governments to develop public policy, (3) developing guidelines for the safe handling of petroleum products, and (4) providing information about the petroleum industry to the public. Canada`s 19 refineries processed an average of 1.5 million barrels of crude oil per day in 1996. Domestic sources of crude made up 61 per cent of crude oil processed in 1996. Total exports during the year amounted to 105 million barrels. Some of the issues that the CPPI focused on during 1996 included the controversy over the future of the octane enhancing fuel additive MMT, fuel quality standards for transportation fuels and reformulated fuels, gasoline pricing, air quality and workplace safety. CPPI members` participation in the Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) program towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions was also discussed. The industry was also actively involved in seeking to improve its refinery wastewater discharges.

  13. Cognitive enhancement in Canadian medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudlow, Paul A; Naylor, Karline Treurnicht; Xie, Bin; McIntyre, Roger S

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive enhancing agents are substances that may augment functions such as memory, attention, concentration, wakefulness, and intelligence. An anonymous, online survey containing a series of questions on the actual and hypothetical use of cognitive enhancers was sent via email to 647 medical students across all four years in one Canadian MD program. The response rate was 50% (326/647). Overall, 49 (15%, 95% CI: 11% to 19%) students admitted to non-medical and/or off-label use of one or more pharmaceutical stimulants, of whom 14 (4%, 95% CI: 2% to 6%) had used stimulants within the last year. Senior medical students reported recent use more often than junior students (8% vs. 2%, P = 0.04). Class seniority and male gender were both associated with positive attitudes towards use of these agents; favorable attitudes were associated with recent use of pharmaceutical stimulant and high-caffeine products. A substantial proportion of Canadian medical students have engaged at some point in non-medical and/or off-label use of stimulants for purposes of cognitive enhancement. Male students and those in upper years of the MD program were more likely to have used pharmaceutical stimulants in the last year, and have favorable attitudes concerning use of cognitive-enhancing agents.

  14. Impacting Canadian public health nurses' job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Karen R; Davies, Barbara L; Woodend, A Kirsten; Simpson, Jane; Mantha, Shannon L

    2011-01-01

    Workforce recruitment and retention challenges are being experienced in public health as in other Canadian health sectors. While there are many nurses working in public health, little research has been done about their job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is linked to recruitment, retention and positive client outcomes. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationships between three modifiable work environment factors (autonomy, control-over-practice, and workload) and Canadian public health nurses' (PHNs) job satisfaction. Data were from the 2005 National Survey of the Work and Health of Nurses (response rate, 79.7%; 18,676 nurses). Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used for this secondary analysis. Findings were discussed with practicing PHNs, policy-makers and researchers from across Canada at a knowledge translation (KT) 'Think-Tank'. Among the 271 PHNs, 53.5% reported being 'very satisfied' with their jobs. The interaction between autonomy and workload was a significant predictor of PHNs' job satisfaction, (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.96-0.99, p multi-generational workforce.

  15. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-05-24

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups.

  16. An inventory of undiscovered Canadian mineral resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labovitz, M. L.; Griffiths, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Unit regional value (URV) and unit regional weight are area standardized measures of the expected value and quantity, respectively, of the mineral resources of a region. Estimation and manipulation of the URV statistic is the basis of an approach to mineral resource evaluation. Estimates of the kind and value of exploitable mineral resources yet to be discovered in the provinces of Canada are used as an illustration of the procedure. The URV statistic is set within a previously developed model wherein geology, as measured by point counting geologic maps, is related to the historical record of mineral resource production of well-developed regions of the world, such as the 50 states of the U.S.A.; these may be considered the training set. The Canadian provinces are related to this training set using geological information obtained in the same way from geologic maps of the provinces. The desired predictions of yet to be discovered mineral resources in the Canadian provinces arise as a consequence. The implicit assumption is that regions of similar geology, if equally well developed, will produce similar weights and values of mineral resources.

  17. Diet and Blood Pressure Control in Chinese Canadians: Cultural Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ping

    2017-04-01

    Hypertension is highly prevalent in Chinese Canadians and diet has been identified as an important modifiable risk factor for hypertension. The current anti-hypertensive dietary recommendations in hypertension care guidelines lack examination of cultural factors, are not culturally sensitive to ethnic populations, and cannot be translated to Chinese Canadian populations without cultural considerations. Guided by Leininger's Sunrise Model of culture care theory, this paper investigates how cultural factors impact Chinese Canadians' dietary practice. It is proposed that English language proficiency, health literacy, traditional Chinese diet, migration and acculturation, and Traditional Chinese Medicine influence Chinese Canadians' dietary practices. A culturally congruent nursing intervention should be established and tailored according to related cultural factors to facilitate Chinese Canadians' blood pressure control. In addition, further study is needed to test the model adapted from Sunrise Model and understand its mechanism.

  18. Leadership Practices and School Choice. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravens, Xiu; Goldring, Ellen; Penaloza, Roberto V.

    2011-01-01

    As part of a larger study on school choice, researchers at the National Center on School Choice examined variation in leadership practices across school types, relying on a convenience matched sample of schools that included charter, magnet, private, and traditional public schools. A total of 284 schools agreed to participate in the study--116…

  19. The relative influence of available resources during the residency match: a national survey of canadian medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blissett, Sarah; Law, Christine; Morra, Dante; Ginsburg, Shiphra

    2011-12-01

    Many medical students find choosing a residency challenging. There are several steps involved, including determining one's own priorities, arranging electives, choosing a training program and site, and preparing an in-depth application and a rank order list. Many resources are available to assist students, including the Canadian Resident Matching Service website, program websites, career counselors, career information sessions, mentors, peers, family/friends, and the Canadian Medical Residency Guide. Our study explored the relative impact of these resources on the career decision-making process. We invited medical students in their final year at 12 Canadian medical schools to complete an online survey. Questions included identifying the relative utility of resources in the context of each component of the decision-making process. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The response rate was 71% (1076 of 1518). Overall, mentors, family/friends, and peers had the most impact on students' decision making. Career counselors, websites, and the Canadian Medical Residency Guide had much less impact. Family/friends were most frequently cited as essential to the process; however, family/friends and peers were equal in having some impact. Our findings suggest that students are most influenced by family, friends, and peers, who are not involved in the formal residency selection effort. Appreciating the impact of these influences on students' decision making is important to understanding how they decide on their future careers. The study supports continuation of mentorship programs. Future work could focus on qualitative research to further characterize resource use.

  20. Daily smoking and lower back pain in adult Canadians: the Canadian Community Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Alkherayf

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Fahad Alkherayf1,2,3, Eugene K Wai4,5,6, Eve C Tsai1,3,4,6, Charles Agbi1,3,41University of Ottawa, Division of Neurosurgery, Ottawa, Ontario; 2University of Ottawa, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Ottawa, Ontario; 3The Ottawa Hospital, Civic campus, Division of Neurosurgery, Ottawa, Ontario; 4The Ottawa Hospital, Civic Campus, Spine Unit Ottawa, Ontario; 5The Ottawa Hospital, Civic Campus, Division of Orthopedic Surgery, Ottawa, Ontario; 6The Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, CanadaBackground: Lower back pain (LBP is one of the primary causes of disability in the Canadian community. However, only a limited number of studies have addressed the association between daily smoking and LBP in Canada. Of the studies that have explored this association, many had small sample sizes and failed to control for confounders.Objective: The primary objective of the study was to determine if daily smoking is associated with an increased risk of having LBP. The secondary objectives were to assess the risk for LBP among occasional smokers and to determine the prevalence of LBP in relation to different covariates.Data and study design: Using the Canadian Community Health Survey (cycle 3.1 data, 73,507 Canadians between the ages of 20 and 59 years were identified. LBP status, smoking level, sex, age, body mass index (BMI, level of activity and level of education were assessed in these subjects.Methods: Stratified analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to detect effect modifications and to adjust for covariates. Population weight and design were taken into consideration.Results: The prevalence of LBP was 23.3% among daily smokers and 15.7% among non-smokers. Age and sex were found to be effect modifiers. The association between LBP and daily smoking was statistically significant in all ages and genders; this association was stronger for younger age groups. The adjusted odds ratio for male daily smokers aged 20 to 29 was 1.87 (95

  1. Toward a common understanding: supporting and promoting education scholarship for medical school faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Melle, Elaine; Lockyer, Jocelyn; Curran, Vernon; Lieff, Susan; St Onge, Christina; Goldszmidt, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Education scholarship (ES) is integral to the transformation of medical education. Faculty members who engage in ES need encouragement and recognition of this work. Beginning with the definition of ES as 'an umbrella term which can encompass both research and innovation in health professions education', and which as such represents an activity that is separate and distinct from teaching and leadership, the purpose of our study was to explore how promotion policies and processes are used in Canadian medical schools to support and promote ES. We conducted an analysis of the promotion policies of 17 Canadian medical schools and interviews with a key informant at each institution. We drew on an interpretive approach to policy analysis to analyse the data and to understand explicit messages about how ES was represented and supported. Of the 17 schools' promotion documents, only nine contained specific reference to ES. There was wide variation in focus and level of detail. All key informants indicated that ES is recognised and considered for academic promotion. Barriers to the support and recognition of ES included a lack of understanding of ES and its relationship to teaching and leadership. This was manifest in the variability in promotion policies and processes, support systems, and career planning and pathways for ES. This lack of clarity may make it challenging for medical school faculty members to make sense of how they might successfully align ES within an academic career. There is a need therefore to better articulate ES in promotion policies and support systems. Creating a common understanding of ES, developing guidelines to assess the impact of all forms of ES, developing an informed leadership and system of mentors, and creating explicit role descriptions and guidelines are identified as potential strategies to ensure that ES is appropriately valued. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. High School Employment, School Performance, and College Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chanyoung; Orazem, Peter F.

    2010-01-01

    The proportion of U.S. high school students working during the school year ranges from 23% in the freshman year to 75% in the senior year. This study estimates how cumulative work histories during the high school years affect probability of dropout, high school academic performance, and the probability of attending college. Variations in…

  3. Inter-tester reproducibility and inter-method agreement of two variations of the Beighton test for determining Generalised Joint Hypermobility in primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Tina; Jespersen, Eva; Wedderkopp, Niels; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    2013-12-21

    The assessment of Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH) is usually based on the Beighton tests, which consist of a series of nine tests. Possible methodological shortcomings can arise, as the tests do not include detailed descriptions of performance, interpretation nor classification of GJH. The purpose of this study was, among children aged 7-8 and 10-12 years, to evaluate: 1) the inter-tester reproducibility of the tests and criteria for classification of GJH for 2 variations of the Beighton test battery (Methods A and B) with a variation in starting positions and benchmarks between methods, and 2) the inter-method agreement for the two batteries. A standardised three-phase protocol for clinical reproducibility studies was followed including a training phase, an overall agreement phase and a study phase. The number of participants in the three phases was 10, 70 and 39 respectively. For the inter-method study a total of 103 children participated. Two testers judged each test battery. A score of ≥ 5 was set as the cut-off level for GJH. Cohen's kappa statistics and McNemar's test were used to test for agreement and significant differences. Kappa values for GJH (≥ 5) were 0.64 (Method A, prevalence 0.42) and 0.59 (Method B, prevalence 0.46), with no difference between testers in Method A (p = 0.45) and B (p = 0.29). Prevalence of GJH in the inter-method study was 31% (A) and 35% (B) with no difference between methods (p = 0.54). Inter-tester reproducibility of Methods A and B was moderate to substantial, when following a standardised study protocol. Both test batteries can be used in the same children population, as there was no difference in prevalence of GJH at cut point 5, when applying method A and B. However, both methods need to be tested for their predictive validity at higher cut-off levels, e.g. ≥ 6 and ≥ 7.

  4. Normative Considerations in the Aftermath of Gun Violence in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gereluk, Dianne T.; Donlevy, J. Kent; Thompson, Merlin B.

    2015-01-01

    Gun violence in American and Canadian schools is an ongoing tragedy that goes substantially beyond its roots in the interlocking emotional and behavioral issues of mental health and bullying. In light of the need for effective policy development, Dianne T. Gereluk, J. Kent Donlevy, and Merlin B. Thompson examine gun violence in schools from…

  5. Educating Professional Musicians: Lessons Learned from School Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Glen

    2008-01-01

    Music in Canadian schools at one time focused on skills development. Building on talent, aptitude, prior learning and physical coordination, students would become better at singing or playing an instrument by studying it at school. Over time, new approaches to music teaching and learning opened the umbrella to a more comprehensive range of…

  6. Gendered Harassment in Secondary Schools: Understanding Teachers' (Non) Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Elizabeth J.

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of teachers' perceptions of and responses to gendered harassment in Canadian secondary schools based on in-depth interviews with six teachers in one urban school district. Gendered harassment includes any behaviour that polices and reinforces traditional heterosexual gender norms such as (hetero)sexual harassment,…

  7. Seeking Election: Evaluating a Campaign for Public School Board Trusteeship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Canadian public school board trustees are generally chosen by way of public ballot in civic elections. A comparison of board governance literature to a local narrative account of public school board elections exposes several gaps between espoused democratic ideals and the realities of public engagement in trustee selection. I investigate the…

  8. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1992. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. , rapport annuel 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. CPPI conducts research to develop industry policy on a wide variety of environmental, health, safety and business issues. Key activities include: developing guidelines for the safe handling of petroleum products, establishing environmental policies, managing a national environmental protection network of over 100 centers across Canada; providing information on industry activities to the public; and developing working partnerships with government and public interest groups to address issues of common concern. An overview is provided of industry operations, economics and financial performance, and environmental protection and safety. Lists of CPPI publications, awards, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs.

  9. Exit competencies in pathology and laboratory medicine for graduating medical students: the Canadian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jason; Pambrun, Chantale

    2015-05-01

    Physicians in every medical and surgical field must be able to use pathology concepts and skills in their practice: for example, they must order and interpret the correct laboratory tests, they must use their understanding of pathogenesis to diagnose and treat, and they must work with the laboratory to care for their patients. These important concepts and skills may be ignored by medical schools and even national/international organizations setting graduation expectations for medical students. There is an evolving international consensus about the importance of exit competencies for medical school graduates, which define the measurable or observable behaviors each graduate must be able to demonstrate. The Canadian Association of Pathologists (CAP) Education Group set out to establish the basic competencies in pathology and laboratory medicine which should be expected of every medical graduate: not competencies for pathologists, but for medical graduates who intend to enter any residency program. We defined 4 targets for pathology and laboratory medicine exit competencies: that they represent only measurable behaviors, that they be clinically focused, that they be generalizable to every medical graduate, and that the final competency document be user-friendly. A set of competencies was developed iteratively and underwent final revision at the 2012 CAP annual meeting. These competencies were subsequently endorsed by the CAP executive and the Canadian Leadership Council on Laboratory Medicine. This clinically focused consensus document provides the first comprehensive list of exit competencies in pathology and laboratory medicine for undergraduate medical education. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Acute management and outcomes of patients with diabetes mellitus presenting to Canadian emergency departments with hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Brian H; Singh, Mira; Villa-Roel, Cristina; Leiter, Lawrence A; Hramiak, Irene; Edmonds, Marcia L; Lang, Eddy; Sivilotti, Marco; Scheuermeyer, Frank; Worster, Andrew; Riley, Jennifer; Afilalo, Marc; Stiell, Ian; Yale, Jean-Francois; Woo, Vincent C; Campbell, Samuel

    2015-02-01

    This retrospective chart audit examined the demographics, investigations, management and outcomes of adult patients with diabetes mellitus presenting to Canadian emergency departments (EDs). All sites conducted a search of their electronic medical records using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, codes to identify ED visits for hypoglycemia between 2008 and 2010. Patient characteristics, demographics, ED management, ED resources and outcome are reported. A total of 1039 patients over the age of 17 years were included in the study; 347 (33.4%) were classified as type 1 diabetes and 692 (66.6%) were classified as type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes patients were significantly older (73 vs. 49 years; pdiabetes required admission (30.3 vs. 8.8%). Discharge instructions were documented in only 55.5% of patients, and referral to diabetes services occurred in fewer than 20% of cases. Considerable variation existed in the management of hypoglycemia across EDs. Patients with diabetes presenting to an ED with hypoglycemia consume considerable healthcare resources, and practice variation exists. Emergency departments should develop protocols for the management of hypoglycemia, with attention to discharge planning to reduce recurrence. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. School Smoking Policy Characteristics and Individual Perceptions of the School Tobacco Context: Are They Linked to Students' Smoking Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiston, Catherine M.; Lovato, Chris Y.; Ahmed, Rashid; Pullman, Allison W.; Hadd, Valerie; Campbell, H. Sharon; Nykiforuk, Candace; Brown, K. Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore individual- and school-level policy characteristics on student smoking behavior using an ecological perspective. Participants were 24,213 (51% female) Grade 10-11 students from 81 schools in five Canadian provinces. Data were collected using student self-report surveys, written policies collected from…

  12. School Breakfast-Club Program Changes and Youth Eating Breakfast during the School Week in the COMPASS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherdale, Scott T.; Stefanczyk, Jennifer M.; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the importance of breakfast consumption, breakfast skipping is common among Canadian youth. This study examines how changes to school-based breakfast programs are associated with breakfast-skipping behavior. Methods: Using school-level longitudinal data from Year 1 (Y[subscript 1]: 2012-2013) and Year 2 (Y[subscript 2]:…

  13. The View From the Bottom: Relative Deprivation and Bullying Victimization in Canadian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoletano, Anthony; Elgar, Frank J; Saul, Grace; Dirks, Melanie; Craig, Wendy

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the relation between relative deprivation (RD)-disparity in affluence between adolescents and their more affluent schoolmates-and involvement in bullying among 23,383 students (aged 9-19) in 413 schools that participated in the 2010 Canadian Health Behavior in School-Aged Children survey. Students reported family affluence and frequency of bullying victimization and perpetration during the previous 2 months. Using the Yitzhaki index of RD and multinomial logistic regression analysis, we found that RD positively related to three types of bullying victimization (physical, relational, and cyberbullying) and to two types of perpetration (relational and cyberbullying) after differences in absolute affluence were held constant. These findings suggest that RD uniquely contributes to risk of bullying involvement. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Canadian Quality Circle pilot project in osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, George; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Thabane, Lehana; Gafni, Amiram; Hodsman, Anthony; Kvern, Brent; Johnstone, Dan; Plumley, Nathalie; Baldwin, Alanna; Doupe, M.; Katz, Alan; Salach, Lena; Adachi, Jonathan D.

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM ADDRESSED Family physicians are not adequately following the 2002 Osteoporosis Canada guidelines for providing optimal care to patients with osteoporosis. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM The Canadian Quality Circle (CQC) pilot project was developed to assess the feasibility of the CQC project design and to gather informationfor implementing a national study of quality circles (QCs). The national study would assess whether use ofQCs could improve family physicians’ adherence to the osteoporosis guidelines. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The pilot project enrolled 52 family physicians and involved 7 QCs. The project had 3 phases: training and baseline data collection, educational intervention and follow-up data collection, and sessions on implementing strategies for care. CONCLUSION Findings from the pilot study showed that the CQC project was well designed and well received. Use of QCs appeared to be feasible for transferring knowledge and giving physicians an opportunity to analyze work-related problems and develop solutions to them. PMID:17934033

  15. Norman Bethune, Canadian surgeon: his Chinese connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, G V

    1983-07-01

    Norman Bethune, a Canadian thoracic surgeon who dabbled in painting, poetry, criticism, teaching and invention, was a member of the Communist Party of Canada. He became involved in two civil wars on opposite sides of the world and amassed both criticism and respect from colleagues and national leaders. The author describes Bethune's time in China, during which he developed front line field hospitals for Mao Tse-tung and his guerrillas in their struggle against the Japanese during 1938 and 1939. His efforts in China on behalf of the wounded brought him into contact with the primitive military medicine of the country and the poverty of its people; it earned for him a local reputation as saviour and benefactor and gave him an honoured place in Chinese military history.

  16. British view of Canadian general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, G N

    1971-02-06

    The Canadian general practitioner is remunerated by an item-of-service system of payment which encourages servicing demands rather than needs, discourages delegation of work to paramedical workers, and involves his staff in a massive amount of paper work. He has an excellent hospital attachment, which unfortunately is overdone. His community facilities are piecemeal and his office organization is rudimentary. There are few incentives for good general practice in the community. He spends an inordinate amount of time examining well people. The university departments of general practice are extremely good and much should be heard from them very quickly. The patient's attitude towards his doctor is quite different from the one prevailing currently in Britain.I returned happily to British general practice.

  17. The Canadian Penning Trap spectrometer at Argonne

    CERN Document Server

    Savard, G; Boudreau, C; Buchinger, F; Caggiano, J; Clark, J; Crawford, J E; Fukutani, H; Gulick, S; Hardy, J C; Heinz, A; Lee, J K P; Moore, R B; Sharma, K S; Schwartz, J; Seweryniak, D; Sprouse, G D; Vaz, J

    2001-01-01

    The Canadian Penning Trap (CPT) mass spectrometer is a device used for high-precision mass measurements on short-lived isotopes. It is located at the ATLAS superconducting heavy-ion linac facility where a novel injection system, the RF gas cooler, allows fast reaction products to be decelerated, thermalized and bunched for rapid and efficient injection into the CPT. The CPT spectrometer and its injection system will be described in detail and its unique capabilities with respect to its initial physics program, concentrating on isotopes around the N=Z line with particular emphasis on isotopes of interest to low-energy tests of the electroweak interaction and the rp-process, will be highlighted. (6 refs).

  18. Brewer spectrophotometer measurements in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, J. B.; Evans, W. F. J.

    1988-01-01

    In the winters of 1987 and 1988 measurements were conducted with the Brewer Spectrophotometer at Alert (82.5 N) and Resolute (74.5 N). The measurements were conducted as part of our Canadian Program to search for an Arctic Ozone Hole (CANOZE). Ozone measurements were conducted in the months of December, January and February using the moon as a light source. The total ozone measurements will be compared with ozonesonde profiles, from ECC sondes, flown once per week from Alert and Resolute. A modified Brewer Spectrophotometer was used in a special study to search for chlorine dioxide at Alert in March 1987. Ground based observations at Saskatoon in February and at Alert in March 1987 failed to detect any measureable chlorine dioxide. Interference from another absorbing gas, which we speculate may be nitrous acid, prevented the measurements at the low levels of chlorine dioxide detected in the Southern Hemisphere by Solomon et al.

  19. Battered woman syndrome defense in Canadian courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, C; Glancy, G

    1995-04-01

    As a result of a 1990 Supreme Court of Canada decision, battered woman syndrome defense is now accepted as a legitimate extension of self-defense in Canadian courts. This defense hinges on the expert testimony that a battered woman who is accused of murder or aggravated assault suffers from the psychological sequelae of abuse and that this psychological distress contributes to her apprehension of danger and ultimately her apprehension of death during a particular battering episode. The authors present a brief overview of the history of battered woman syndrome defense, the role of the expert in assessing the applicability of this defense in any particular situation, and the pitfalls of using battered woman syndrome defense.

  20. Canadian Activities in Space Debris Mitigation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikanpour, Darius; Jiang, Xin Xiang; Goroshin, Samuel; Haddad, Emile; Kruzelecky, Roman; Hoa, Suong; Merle, Philippe; Kleiman, Jacob; Gendron, Stephane; Higgins, Andrew; Jamroz, Wes

    The space environment, and in particular the Low Earth Orbit (LEO), is becoming increasingly populated with space debris which include fragments of dysfunctional spacecraft parts and materials traveling at speeds up to 15 km per second. These pose an escalating potential threat to LEO spacecraft, the international space station, and manned missions. This paper presents the Canadian activities to address the concerns over space debris in terms of debris mitigation measures and technologies; these include novel spacecraft demise technologies to safely decommission the spacecraft at the end of the mission, integrated self-healing material technologies for spacecraft structures to facilitate self-repair and help maintain the spacecraft structural and thermal performance, hypervelocity ground test capability to predict the impact of space debris on spacecraft performance, and ways of raising awareness within the space community through participation in targeted Science and Technology conferences and international forums.

  1. Contraceptive sterilization among Canadians, 1984-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Krishnan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior to early 1970s, traditional methods were the principal means of controlling the number and spacing of births. Today, an estimated 57 per cent of the world’s married women use contraceptives and half use modern methods such as medical sterilizations. Recent statistics suggest that Canada has the highest sterilization rate in the Western world. This paper presents findings of research examining sterilization trends in Canada with respect to changing patterns in the use of modern contraceptives, using data from the 1984 Canadian Fertility Survey (CFS and the 1995 General Social Survey (GSS. The main finding is that there is a decrease in the use of tubal ligation and an increase in the use of hysterectomy over the period 1984-1995. Less educated women are more likely to be in the forefront of modern methods of contraception.

  2. A Canadian Indian Health Status Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connop, P J

    1983-01-01

    Health care services for registered "band" Indians in Ontario are provided primarily by the Canadian Federal Government. Complex management methods preclude the direct involvement of Indian people in the decisions for their health resource allocation. Health indicators, need, and health status indexes are reviewed. The biostatistics of mortality and demography of the Indian and reference populations are aggregated with hospitalization/morbidity experience as the Chen G'1 Index, as an indicator of normative and comparative need. This is weighted by linear measurements of perceived need for preventive medicine programs, as ranked and scaled values of priorities, Zj. These were determined by community survey on 11 Indian reserves using a non-probabilistic psychometric method of "pair comparisons," based upon "Thurstone's Law of Comparative Judgement.," The calculation of the aggregate single unit Indian Health Status Index [Log.G'1].Zj and its potential application in a "zero-base" budget is described.

  3. The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rachel E.; Boulos, David; Garber, Bryan G.; Jetly, Rakesh; Sareen, Jitender

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) collected detailed information on mental health problems, their impacts, occupational and nonoccupational determinants of mental health, and the use of mental health services from a random sample of 8200 serving personnel. The objective of this article is to provide a firm scientific foundation for understanding and interpreting the CFMHS findings. Methods: This narrative review first provides a snapshot of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), focusing on 2 key determinants of mental health: the deployment of more than 40,000 personnel in support of the mission in Afghanistan and the extensive renewal of the CAF mental health system. The findings of recent population-based CAF mental health research are reviewed, with a focus on findings from the very similar mental health survey done in 2002. Finally, key aspects of the methods of the 2013 CFMHS are presented. Results: The findings of 20 peer-reviewed publications using the 2002 mental health survey data are reviewed, along with those of 25 publications from other major CAF mental health research projects executed over the past decade. Conclusions: More than a decade of population-based mental health research in the CAF has provided a detailed picture of its mental health and use of mental health services. This knowledge base and the homology of the 2013 survey with the 2002 CAF survey and general population surveys in 2002 and 2012 will provide an unusual opportunity to use the CFMHS to situate mental health in the CAF in a historical and societal perspective. PMID:27270738

  4. Canadian consumer battery baseline study : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    This report provided information about the estimated number of consumer and household batteries sold, re-used, stored, recycled, and disposed each year in Canada. The report discussed the ways in which different batteries posed risks to human health and the environment, and legislative trends were also reviewed. Data used in the report were obtained from a literature review as well as through a series of interviews. The study showed that alkaline batteries are the most common primary batteries used by Canadians, followed by zinc carbon batteries. However, lithium primary batteries are gaining in popularity, and silver oxide and zinc air button cell batteries are also used in applications requiring a flat voltage and high energy. Secondary batteries used in laptop computers, and cell phones are often made of nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal-hydroxide, and lithium ion. Small sealed lead batteries are also commonly used in emergency lighting and alarm systems. Annual consumption statistics for all types of batteries were provided. Results of the study showed that the primary battery market is expected to decline. Total units of secondary batteries are expected to increase to 38.6 million units by 2010. The report also used a spreadsheet model to estimate the flow of consumer batteries through the Canadian waste management system. An estimated 347 million consumer batteries were discarded in 2004. By 2010, it is expected that an estimated 494 million units will be discarded by consumers. The study also considered issues related to lead, cadmium, mercury, and nickel disposal and the potential for groundwater contamination. It was concluded that neither Canada nor its provinces or territories have initiated legislative or producer responsibility programs targeting primary or secondary consumer batteries. 79 refs., 37 tabs., 1 fig.

  5. Vietnamese Students in the Public School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    The purpose of this booklet is to familiarize teachers and administrators with the background of Vietnamese immigrant students in Canadian public schools. A historical and cultural overview is provided which briefly describes Vietnamese customs, attitudes, roles of family members, and religion. The need for supporting and enhancing the self esteem…

  6. Freedom of Conscience and Catholic Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlevy, J. K.; Gereluk, D.; Patterson, P.; Brandon, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper's purpose is to extensively review the historical understanding of conscience and the current juridical interpretation of freedom of conscience under section 2(a) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (1982). It then briefly notes that given the challenge faced by Ontario's Catholic schools in providing for inclusionary…

  7. Do Longer School Days Improve Student Achievement? Evidence from Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Hincapie, Diana

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of longer school days on student achievement in Colombia. To identify the impact of longer schools days, this study exploits plausibly exogenous within school variation in the length of the school day. Using test score data from 5th and 9th graders in 2002, 2005, and 2009, along with school administrative data, this research uses school fixed effects models to estimate variation in average test scores across cohorts for schools that switched from a half school d...

  8. CanWEA Pan-Canadian wind integration study paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, Martin [GL Garrad Hassan Canada Inc, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Gardner, Paul [GL Garrad Hassan and Partners, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Price, Doug; Le, Don [GL Garrad Hassan America, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    GL Garrad Hassan has been contracted by CanWEA to undertake a scoping study for a future Pan-Canadian Wide-Scale Wind Integration Study. The scoping study provides the methodology and the rationale on which the actual wind integration study and request for proposals will be based on. Major system operators and owners of each Canadian Province along with experts involved in major US wind integration studies have been consulted and contributed to the decisional process. This paper provides a summary of the factors considered in the study and outline the actual methodology that was adopted for the future Pan-Canadian wind integration study. (orig.)

  9. Knowledge synthesis and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Ian D

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR is Canada's premier health-research funding agency. We fund nearly 14,000 researchers and trainees in four theme areas: biomedical, clinical, health services, and population and public-health research. Our mandate is 'to excel according to international standards of scientific excellence, in the creation of new knowledge and its translation into improved health for Canadians, more effective health services and products and a strengthened Canadian health care system'. Knowledge synthesis is a key element of the knowledge-translation objectives of CIHR, as outlined in our definition of knowledge-translation.

  10. Human trafficking: an evaluation of Canadian medical students' awareness and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Janice C; Hong, Jonathan; Leung, Pearl; Yin, Penny; Stewart, Donna E

    2011-04-01

    Human trafficking is a human rights violation prevalent globally. Current guidelines highlight healthcare professionals' key role in responding to human trafficking, emphasizing the importance of medical education in raising awareness of trafficking. To assess pre-clerkship medical students' awareness of human trafficking and attitudes towards learning about trafficking in the medical curriculum at Canada's largest medical school. An anonymous, classroom-based questionnaire was designed, piloted and administered to first- and second-year medical students at one large Canadian medical school with a diverse student population. The questionnaire sought demographic data and information on students' self-perceived awareness of human trafficking and interest in learning about trafficking and other community health issues. 262 medical students completed the questionnaire (70.0% response). Most participants reported that they were not knowledgeable (48.5%) or only somewhat knowledgeable (45.4%) about human trafficking. 88.9% of participants were not familiar with signs and symptoms of trafficked persons. While students' responses indicated that they prioritized other social issues, a majority of participants (76.0%) thought that trafficking was important to learn about in medical school, especially identifying trafficked persons and their health needs. These medical students of one Canadian medical school demonstrated limited familiarity with the issue of human trafficking but largely felt that they should be taught more about this issue during their medical education. This assessment of early medical students' awareness of human trafficking is relevant to medical educators and the organizations that could develop the required educational curricula and resources.

  11. Deriving relativistic Bohmian quantum potential using variational ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deriving relativistic Bohmian quantum potential using variational method and conformal transformations ... We obtain this potential by using variational method. Then ... Department of Physics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Azadi Sq., Mashhad, Iran; School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Science (IPM), ...

  12. Canadian Contraception Consensus (Part 2 of 4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Amanda; Guilbert, Edith; Costescu, Dustin; Dunn, Sheila; Fisher, William; Kives, Sari; Mirosh, Melissa; Norman, Wendy V; Pymar, Helen; Reid, Robert; Roy, Geneviève; Varto, Hannah; Waddington, Ashley; Wagner, Marie-Soleil; Whelan, Anne Marie; Ferguson, Carrie; Fortin, Claude; Kielly, Maria; Mansouri, Shireen; Todd, Nicole

    2015-11-01

    To provide guidelines for health care providers on the use of contraceptive methods to prevent pregnancy and on the promotion of healthy sexuality. Guidance for Canadian practitioners on overall effectiveness, mechanism of action, indications, contraindications, non-contraceptive benefits, side effects and risks, and initiation of cited contraceptive methods; family planning in the context of sexual health and general well-being; contraceptive counselling methods; and access to, and availability of, cited contraceptive methods in Canada. Published literature was retrieved through searches of Medline and The Cochrane Database from January 1994 to January 2015 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., contraception, sexuality, sexual health) and key words (e.g., contraception, family planning, hormonal contraception, emergency contraception). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies published in English from January 1994 to January 2015. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to June 2015. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of the evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table). Chapter 1: Contraception in Canada Summary Statements  1. Canadian women spend a significant portion of their lives at risk of an unintended pregnancy. (II-2)  2. Effective contraceptive methods are underutilized in Canada, particularly among vulnerable populations. (II-2)  3. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods, including contraceptive implants and intrauterine contraception (copper-releasing and levonorgestrel

  13. Canadian Contraception Consensus (Part 1 of 4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Amanda; Guilbert, Edith; Costescu, Dustin; Dunn, Sheila; Fisher, William; Kives, Sari; Mirosh, Melissa; Norman, Wendy V; Pymar, Helen; Reid, Robert; Roy, Geneviève; Varto, Hannah; Waddington, Ashley; Wagner, Marie-Soleil; Whelan, Anne Marie; Ferguson, Carrie; Fortin, Claude; Kielly, Maria; Mansouri, Shireen; Todd, Nicole

    2015-10-01

    To provide guidelines for health care providers on the use of contraceptive methods to prevent pregnancy and on the promotion of healthy sexuality. Guidance for Canadian practitioners on overall effectiveness, mechanism of action, indications, contraindications, non-contraceptive benefits, side effects and risks, and initiation of cited contraceptive methods; family planning in the context of sexual health and general well-being; contraceptive counselling methods; and access to, and availability of, cited contraceptive methods in Canada. Published literature was retrieved through searches of Medline and The Cochrane Database from January 1994 to January 2015 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., contraception, sexuality, sexual health) and key words (e.g., contraception, family planning, hormonal contraception, emergency contraception). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies published in English from January 1994 to January 2015. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to June 2015. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of the evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table). Chapter 1: Contraception in Canada Summary Statements 1. Canadian women spend a significant portion of their lives at risk of an unintended pregnancy. (II-2) 2. Effective contraceptive methods are underutilized in Canada, particularly among vulnerable populations. (II-2) 3. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods, including contraceptive implants and intrauterine contraception (copper-releasing and levonorgestrel

  14. Guidelines for Evaluation of Canadian Forces Indoor Firing Ranges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Severs, Y

    1999-01-01

    Indoor Firing Ranges (IFR) within DND are typically used by Canadian Forces (CF) personnel, Cadets, RCMP, and civilian organizations for firing small bore weapons in support of both operational/ occupational and recreational requirements...

  15. Building Canadian Support for Global Health Research - Phase III ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008. Key activities will include mobilizing Canadian investment in global health research, building global health research capacity in Canada and LMICs, translating research into action, nurturing partnerships between researchers in Canada ...

  16. Canadian women opting for less effective birth control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lauren Vogel

    2017-01-01

    More Canadian women are relying on less effective methods of birth control and are using them less consistently than they did a decade ago, according to the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC...

  17. Endoscopy training in Canadian general surgery residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Nori L; Bazzerelli, Amy; Lim, Jenny; Wu Chao Ying, Valerie; Steigerwald, Sarah; Strickland, Matt

    2015-06-01

    Currently, general surgeons provide about 50% of endoscopy services across Canada and an even greater proportion outside large urban centres. It is essential that endoscopy remain a core component of general surgery practice and a core competency of general surgery residency training. The Canadian Association of General Surgeons Residents Committee supports the position that quality endoscopy training for all Canadian general surgery residents is in the best interest of the Canadian public. However, the means by which quality endoscopy training is achieved has not been defined at a national level. Endoscopy training in Canadian general surgery residency programs requires standardization across the country and improved measurement to ensure that competency and basic credentialing requirements are met.

  18. Interculturalism and Theatrefront: Shifting Meanings in Canadian Collective Creation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ratsoy, Ginny

    2013-01-01

    .... The intercultural work Ubuntu (The Cape Town Project) expressionistically performs the stories of two generations of a South African family and a Canadian family as their complex associations are revealed against the backdrop of a Toronto university...

  19. Technical Communication Programs at Canadian Post-secondary Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Roger; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a survey identifying the location, extent, and focus of technical writing programs at Canadian colleges and universities. Describes representative programs in some detail. Discusses the focus of these programs and the need for more programs. (SR)

  20. Latin American geo-political struggles in Canadian documentaries production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Reich Corseuil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2009n56p137 This paper analyzes two contemporary Canadian documentaries about Latin American history, specifically the ways in which the films provide an aesthetics of resistance to stereotypical and homogeneous representations of Latin American countries. Canadian documentaries on the history and the people of third world countries not only document Latin American countries but also criticize the conflicting relationships and forms of representation involved in the making of the documentary, revealing the documentary as a narrative form in its making of Latin American subjects and histories. Within this theoretical context, the study here proposed analyses two documentaries about Latin-American geopolitical conflicts. The World is Watching: Inside the News (1988, a British-Canadian production directed by Jim Munro and Peter Raymond, and a Place Called Chiapas, a Canadian production, directed by Nettie Wild (1998.

  1. Toxic effects of skin-lightening products in Canadian immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Nisha; Shapero, Jonathan; Kundu, Roopal V; Shapero, Harvey

    2011-01-01

    The cultural practice of skin bleaching is highly prevalent in Africa. Most reported cases of toxic effects of skin-lightening products occur in this region. To describe cases of misuse of over-the-counter (OTC) cosmetic skin-lightening products occurring in Canadian immigrants. Two cases of Canadian immigrants with severe complications from OTC skin-bleaching agents were identified in a community-based dermatology practice in Toronto. The case histories were reviewed and analyzed. A 28-year-old African-Canadian woman developed extensive striae from long-term use of a topical cream containing clobetasol that she had purchased in a Caribbean health food store. A 55-year-old African-Canadian woman developed exogenous ochronosis from the use of a topical bleaching agent she had purchased in Ghana. Cosmetic skin lightening with unregulated topical products occurs in Canada. Dermatologists working in Canada need to be aware of this practice to provide appropriate directive care.

  2. 22 CFR 123.19 - Canadian and Mexican border shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.19 Canadian and Mexican border shipments. A shipment originating in Canada or Mexico which incidentally transits the United States en route to a delivery point in...

  3. Canadian Forces Experience with Turbofan HCF - Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kinart, Corey; Theriault, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) cracking of a Canadian Forces (CF) turbofan engine fuel tube resulted in a six year, multinational effort to identify the root cause and to ultimately develop and implement a solution...

  4. Household Income, Food Insecurity and Nutrition in Canadian Youth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sean Mark; Marie Lambert; Jennifer O'Loughlin; Katherine Gray-Donald

    2012-01-01

    .... The objective of this study was to examine the influence of income and the conjoint influence of low income and food insecurity on several dietary indicators in a representative sample of Canadian youth. Methods...

  5. Thinking Globally, Acting Locally: Preparing the Canadian Foreign ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , strengthen the foreign policy community in the national capital region, and include younger professionals in ongoing work. This grant from IDRC will help the National Capital Branch of the Canadian International Council (CIC-NCB) create a ...

  6. AUCC-IDRC Partnership Grant 2013-2016: Canadian University ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will identify promising practices in Canadian universities' student mobility programs, which are designed to advance the institutions' internationalization strategies. Researchers will examine program partnerships between developing- and developed-countries, along with the success factors behind them.

  7. 'Stereotypes are reality': addressing stereotyping in Canadian Aboriginal medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Anh; Crowshoe, Lynden

    2015-06-01

    Efforts are underway in many parts of the world to develop medical education curricula that address the health care issues of indigenous populations. The topic of stereotypes and their impact on such peoples' health, however, has received little attention. An examination of stereotypes will shed light on dominant cultural attitudes toward Aboriginal people that can affect quality of care and health outcomes in Aboriginal patients. This study examines the views of undergraduate medical students regarding Canadian Aboriginal stereotypes and how they potentially affect Aboriginal people's health. The goal of this study was to gain insight into how medical learners perceive issues related to racism, discrimination and social stereotypes and to draw attention to gaps in Aboriginal health curricula. This study involved a convenience sample of medical learners drawn from one undergraduate medical programme in western Canada. Using a semi-structured interview guide, we conducted a total of seven focus group interviews with 38 first- and second-year undergraduate medical students. Data were analysed using a thematic content analysis approach. Medical students recognise that stereotypes are closely related to processes of racism and discrimination. However, they generally feel that stereotypes of Aboriginal people are rooted in reality. Students also identified medical school as one of the environments in which they are commonly exposed to negative views of Aboriginal people. Student responses suggest they see the cultural gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people as being both a cause and a consequence of discrimination against Aboriginal people. The results of this study suggest that teaching medical students about the realities and impacts of stereotypes on Aboriginal peoples is a good starting point from which to address issues of racism and health inequities affecting the health of Aboriginal people. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Health risks from acid rain: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, C A; Burnett, R T; Paolini, R J; Raizenne, M E

    1985-11-01

    Acidic deposition, commonly referred to as acid rain, is causing serious environmental damage in eastern Canada. The revenues from forest products, tourism and sport fishing are estimated to account for about 8% of the gross national product. The impact on human health is not as clearcut and a multi-department program on the Long-Range Transport of Airborne Pollutants (LRTAP) was approved by the federal government in June 1980. The objectives of the LRTAP program are to reduce wet sulfate deposition to less than 20 kg/ha per year in order to protect moderately sensitive areas. This will require a 50% reduction in Canadian SO2 emissions east of the Saskatchewan/Manitoba border and concomitant reductions in the eastern U.S.A. The objectives of the health sector of the program are to assess the risk to health posed by airborne pollutants which are subjected to long-range transport and to monitor the influence of abatement programs. Two major epidemiology studies were undertaken in 1983, one in which the health effects related to acute exposure to transported air pollutants were studied in asthmatic and nonasthmatic children, and another in which the effects of chronic exposure to these pollutants were studied in school children living in towns with high and low levels of pollutants. Preliminary analysis of the data do not indicate major health effects, but definitive conclusions must await final analysis. Studies on the indirect effects of acid deposition on water quality have shown that acidified lake water left standing in the plumbing system can adversely affect water quality and that federally set guidelines for copper and lead are exceeded. Flushing of the system before using the water rectifies the situation. Additional studies are planned to further delineate the magnitude of the health effects of acidified lake water.

  9. Active transportation and adolescents' health: the Canadian Health Measures Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larouche, Richard; Faulkner, Guy E J; Fortier, Michelle; Tremblay, Mark S

    2014-05-01

    Active transportation (AT; e.g., walking and cycling) is increasingly promoted to increase youth physical activity (PA). Most previous research focused solely on school trips, and associations among AT and cardiovascular risk factors have seldom been examined in adolescents. To address these important research gaps using data from the nationally representative 2007-2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey. A total of 1,016 adolescents aged 12-19 years reported their weekly time spent utilitarian walking and cycling, and wore an Actical accelerometer for 7 days. They underwent a series of physical tests (measures of fitness, body composition, blood pressure, and blood sampling) following standardized protocols. In 2013, differences in PA and health-related outcomes across levels of walking and cycling were assessed with ANCOVA analyses adjusted for age, gender, parental education, and usual daily PA. Greater walking and cycling time was associated with higher moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Compared to adolescents reporting walking 1-5 hours/week, those reporting 5 hours/week had better grip strength, lower total cholesterol, and total cholesterol/HDL ratio. Compared to adolescents reporting no cycling, those reporting ≥1 hour/week accumulated more light PA, had greater aerobic fitness, and lower BMI, waist circumference, and total cholesterol/HDL ratio; those who reported cycling <1 hour/week had lower total cholesterol. Utilitarian walking and cycling were associated with higher daily MVPA in youth. Cycling was associated with a more consistent pattern of health benefits than walking. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Canadian advanced life support capacities and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamsey, M.; Graham, T.; Stasiak, M.; Berinstain, A.; Scott, A.; Vuk, T. Rondeau; Dixon, M.

    2009-07-01

    Canada began research on space-relevant biological life support systems in the early 1990s. Since that time Canadian capabilities have grown tremendously, placing Canada among the emerging leaders in biological life support systems. The rapid growth of Canadian expertise has been the result of several factors including a large and technically sophisticated greenhouse sector which successfully operates under challenging climatic conditions, well planned technology transfer strategies between the academic and industrial sectors, and a strong emphasis on international research collaborations. Recent activities such as Canada's contribution of the Higher Plant Compartment of the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant and the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic continue to demonstrate Canadian capabilities with direct applicability to advanced life support systems. There is also a significant latent potential within Canadian institutions and organizations with respect to directly applicable advanced life support technologies. These directly applicable research interests include such areas as horticultural management strategies (for candidate crops), growth media, food processing, water management, atmosphere management, energy management, waste management, imaging, environment sensors, thermal control, lighting systems, robotics, command and data handling, communications systems, structures, in-situ resource utilization, space analogues and mission operations. With this background and in collaboration with the Canadian aerospace industry sector, a roadmap for future life support contributions is presented here. This roadmap targets an objective of at least 50% food closure by 2050 (providing greater closure in oxygen, water recycling and carbon dioxide uptake). The Canadian advanced life support community has chosen to focus on lunar surface infrastructure and not low Earth orbit or transit systems (i.e. microgravity

  11. Active transportation and bullying in Canadian schoolchildren: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozma, Ioana; Kukaswadia, Atif; Janssen, Ian; Craig, Wendy; Pickett, William

    2015-02-07

    Bullying is a recognized social problem within child populations. Engagement in childhood bullying often occurs in settings that are away from adult supervision, such as en route to and from school. Bullying episodes may also have a negative impact on school childrens' decisions to engage in active transportation. Using a cross-sectional design, we analyzed reports from the 2009/10 cycle of the Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study. Records from this general health survey were obtained for 3,997 urban students in grades 6-10 who lived in close proximity of their school and were hence ineligible for school bussing. Students who indicated walking or bicycling to school were classified as engaged in active transportation. Victims and perpetrators of bullying were defined using standard measures and a frequency cut-off of at least 2-3 times per month. Analyses focused on relations between bullying and active transportation, as well as barriers to active transportation as perceived by young people. 27% of young people indicated being victimized, and 12% indicated that they engaged in bullying. Girls were more likely to be victimized than boys, and younger students were more likely to be victimized than older students. Engagement in active transportation was reported by 63% of respondents, of these, 68% indicated that worrying about bullying on the way to school was an impediment to such transportation methods. Victimization by bullying (adjusted OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.59) was reported more frequently by children who used active transportation. Health promotion efforts to promote engagement in active transportation of students to school have obvious value. The potential for modest increases in exposure to bullying should be considered in the planning of such initiatives.

  12. Mini Citizens' Assemblies on the Future of Canadian Federalism

    OpenAIRE

    Reuchamps, Min

    2008-01-01

    Canadian federalism and its future are undeniably a frequent and important topic of debate. Many people have their own opinions on the topic but they rarely have the opportunity to discuss it with fellow Canadians, experts and politicians in a setting conducive to learning and debate. With this in mind, three small citizens' assemblies on the future of federalism in Canada were held in the spring of 2008, two in Montreal and one in Kingston. For over four hours, participants had the opportuni...

  13. Association between Body Composition and Sport Injury in Canadian Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Ezzat, Allison M.; Schneeberg, Amy; Koehoorn, Mieke; Emery, Carolyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the association between overweight or obesity and sport injury in a population-based sample of Canadian adolescents. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses were performed using the Canadian Community Health Survey (2009?2010), a nationally representative sample (n=12,407) of adolescents aged 12?19 years. Body composition was quantified using BMI, grouping participants into healthy weight, overweight, or obese. The outcome of interest was acute or repetitive strain injury sustai...

  14. Open Access and Canadian Libraries: Taking a Position

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Heather; Waller, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The co-convenors of the Canadian Library Association (CLA) Task Force on Open Access report on the work of the Task Force. CLA has adopted strong policies on open access to CLA's own publications, most of which have been implemented. CLA has contributed to consultations on open access. On May 21, 2008, CLA approved a Position Statement on Open Access for Canadian Libraries. The Position Statement reinforces access to information as one of librarianship's key values. Libraries are encoura...

  15. Sleeping with the Elephant: A Canadian Strategic Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    the Canadian Forces Do Not Campaign,” in The Operational Art: Canadian Perspectives, Context and Concepts, ed. Allan English , Daniel Gosselin...armies. As he wrote in 1838: Nations with powerful imaginations are particularly liable to panics; and nothing short of strong institutions and skillful ...assumptions derived from common experiences and accepted narratives (both oral and written), that shape collective identity and relationships to

  16. Financial Situation and Performance of Canadian Farms 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Niekamp, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This publication is a resource book of statistics on farm income in Canada. Farm income is a complex issue because of the diversity of Canadian farms and agricultural production in Canada. This resource book focuses on both income and the opportunities and challenges facing Canadian producers to provide a better understanding of the financial conditions of farms and farm families in Canada. Charts, figures and tables with brief accompanying text are used to summarize information and to provid...

  17. Self-Perceived Eating Habits and Food Skills of Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Joyce J; Mudryj, Adriana N

    2016-01-01

    This study identified and described Canadians' self-perceived eating habits and food skills through the use of population-based data. Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 2013 Rapid Response on Food Skills was used to examine the eating quality and patterns of Canadians. Data were collected from all provinces in January and February 2013. Respondent variables (sex, age, Aboriginal/immigrant status) were examined to assess differentiations between socio-demographic groupings (family structure, marital status, education, and income). Logistic regression was used to determine whether demographic variables increased the likelihood of certain responses. Forty-six percent of Canadians believe they have excellent/very good eating habits, with 51% categorizing their habits as good or fair. Similarly, the majority report having good food skills. Sex and age were significantly associated with food skills, with women rating their cooking skill proficiency higher than men (72% vs 55%), and older Canadians reporting higher food skill knowledge than their younger counterparts. Results indicate that while portions of the Canadian population have adequate food skills, others are lacking, which may negatively impact their diet. Findings from this study have implications for education and health promotion programs focusing on foods skills, particularly among vulnerable target groups. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The representations of work-life balance in Canadian newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Katherine T; Davis, Jane A; Polatajko, Helene J

    2009-01-01

    Work-life balance has become a topic of increasing interest in the media as well as a concern among working Canadians. Since print media discourse can both reflect and shape societal values, cultural norms and ideals of workers in this country, it is important to understand this representation and its potential influence on the occupational engagement and life transitions of Canadian workers. Articles from four major Canadian newspapers published between 2003 and 2005 were used as data sources to examine the media construction of "work-life balance". Thematic analysis of 100 articles was performed using a modified affinity diagramming process. Representations within the Canadian print media conveyed both themes pertaining to the perceived experiences of imbalance and balance, as well as, a process of life balance. Obtaining balance was portrayed as an ongoing process during which an individual negotiates and sacrifices in an attempt to achieve his or her ideal level of balance. Environmental expectations and individual practices and perceptions were conveyed as reasons for the success or derailment of balance. The representations of work-life balance found in the Canadian print media were predominantly of professionals, focused on the demands of work and family, and did not appear to be a broad representation of the multiple realities that all Canadians face.

  19. Canadian plans for participation in GSETT 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. North

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC is making preparations for Canadian participation in GSETT 3 but will be unable to make a formal commitment until the necessary resources have been secured. As Canada is expected to provide at least four alpha stations, and a significant number of beta stations, the financial resources that will be needed are substantial, even though in many respccts the GSC is, with the recent modernization of the Yellowknife array and the ongoing installation of the Canadian National Seismograph Network (CNSN, well positioned to make a significant contribution to GSETT 3. The CNSN currently (October 1993 consists of 17 broad band stations and will grow to 23 and 33 such stations by December 1993 and December 1994 respectively. Some 40 50 short period stations will complete the network. Data from all sites are continuously telemetered in real time to network acquisition centres in Ottawa and Sidney, British Columbia, archived to optical disk, and kept on line in a 72 h ring buffer. Most of the broadband sites could serve as either alpha or beta stations once the necessary software for continuous data transfer, or on request provision, of data from the selected sites has been completed. This software wili be configured so that changes in station selection are easy to implement, and this will provide considerable flexibility to the GSETT 3 planning and operations working groups in selecting the optimum network. Backup stations can be designated in the case of station failures, and the network centre in British Columbia will serve, at least for beta stations, as a backup NDC to that in Ottawa. Data from. the Yellowknife array are collected in Yellowknife and forwarded in ten minute files to Ottawa, where processing is completed and the results archived. This arrangement would not meet the deadlines for receipt of alpha station data at the IDC and new hardware and software will be needed to forward the data more immediately from

  20. Word Segmentation in Monolingual Infants Acquiring Canadian English and Canadian French: Native Language, Cross-Dialect, and Cross-Language Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polka, Linda; Sundara, Megha

    2012-01-01

    In five experiments, we tested segmentation of word forms from natural speech materials by 8-month-old monolingual infants who are acquiring Canadian French or Canadian English. These two languages belong to different rhythm classes; Canadian French is syllable-timed and Canada English is stress-timed. Findings of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 show that…

  1. Adaptation of the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) into French-Canadian and English-Canadian

    OpenAIRE

    Donna Coffin; Karine Duval; Simon Martel; John Granton; Marie-Claude Lefebvre; Meads, David M.; James Twiss; McKenna, Stephen P.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) is the first disease-specific instrument for assessing patient-reported symptoms, functioning and quality of life (QoL) in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH).OBJECTIVES: To create and validate French-Canadian (FC) and English-Canadian (EC) language versions of the CAMPHOR.METHODS: A translation panel (for the FC version) and lay panels (for both versions) were convened to adapt the questionnaires (dual-panel methodol...

  2. Soil weathering rates in 21 catchments of the Canadian Shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Houle

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil mineral weathering represents an essential source of nutrient base cation (Ca, Mg and K for forest growth in addition to provide a buffering power against precipitation acidity for soils and surface waters. Weathering rates of base cations were obtained for 21 catchments located within the temperate and the boreal forest of the Canadian Shield with the geochemical model PROFILE. Weathering rates ranged from 0.58 to 4.46 kmolc ha−1 yr−1 and their spatial variation within the studied area was mostly in agreement with spatial variations in soil mineralogy. Weathering rates of Ca and Mg were significantly correlated (r = 0.80 and 0.64 with their respective lake concentrations. Weathering rates of K and Na did not correlate with lake concentrations of K and Na. The modeled weathering rates for each catchment were also compared with estimations of net catchment exportations. The result show that modeled weathering rates of Ca were not significantly different than the net catchment exportations while modeled weathering rates of Mg were higher by 51%. Larger differences were observed for K and Na weathering rates that were significantly different than net catchment exportations being 6.9 and 2.2 times higher than net exportations, respectively. The results for K were expected given its high reactivity with biotic compartments and suggest that most of the K produced by weathering reactions was retained within soil catchments and/or above ground biomass. This explanation does not apply to Na, however, which is a conservative element in forest ecosystems because of the insignificant needs of Na for soil microorganisms and above ground vegetations. It raises concern about the liability of the PROFILE model to provide reliable values of Na weathering rates. Overall, we concluded that the PROFILE model is powerful enough to reproduce spatial geographical gradients in weathering rates for relatively large areas

  3. Oncology education in Canadian undergraduate and postgraduate medical programs: a survey of educators and learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, V C; Berry, S; Hsu, T; North, S; Neville, A; Chan, K; Verma, S

    2014-02-01

    The oncology education framework currently in use in Canadian medical training programs is unknown, and the needs of learners have not been fully assessed to determine whether they are adequately prepared to manage patients with cancer. To assess the oncology education framework currently in use at Canadian medical schools and residency training programs for family (fm) and internal medicine (im), and to evaluate opinions about the content and utility of standard oncology education objectives, a Web survey was designed and sent to educators and learners. The survey recipients included undergraduate medical education curriculum committee members (umeccms), directors of fm and im programs, oncologists, medical students, and fm and im residents. Survey responses were received from 677 educators and learners. Oncology education was felt to be inadequate in their respective programs by 58% of umeccms, 57% of fm program directors, and 50% of im program directors. For learners, oncology education was thought to be inadequate by 67% of medical students, 86% of fm residents, and 63% of im residents. When comparing teaching of medical subspecialty-related diseases, all groups agreed that their trainees were least prepared to manage patients with cancer. A standard set of oncology objectives was thought to be possibly or definitely useful for undergraduate learners by 59% of respondents overall and by 61% of postgraduate learners. Oncology education in Canadian undergraduate and postgraduate fm and im training programs are currently thought to be inadequate by a majority of educators and learners. Developing a standard set of oncology objectives might address the needs of learners.

  4. Oncology education in Canadian undergraduate and postgraduate medical programs: a survey of educators and learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, V.C.; Berry, S.; Hsu, T.; North, S.; Neville, A.; Chan, K.; Verma, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The oncology education framework currently in use in Canadian medical training programs is unknown, and the needs of learners have not been fully assessed to determine whether they are adequately prepared to manage patients with cancer. Methods To assess the oncology education framework currently in use at Canadian medical schools and residency training programs for family (fm) and internal medicine (im), and to evaluate opinions about the content and utility of standard oncology education objectives, a Web survey was designed and sent to educators and learners. The survey recipients included undergraduate medical education curriculum committee members (umeccms), directors of fm and im programs, oncologists, medical students, and fm and im residents. Results Survey responses were received from 677 educators and learners. Oncology education was felt to be inadequate in their respective programs by 58% of umeccms, 57% of fm program directors, and 50% of im program directors. For learners, oncology education was thought to be inadequate by 67% of medical students, 86% of fm residents, and 63% of im residents. When comparing teaching of medical subspecialty–related diseases, all groups agreed that their trainees were least prepared to manage patients with cancer. A standard set of oncology objectives was thought to be possibly or definitely useful for undergraduate learners by 59% of respondents overall and by 61% of postgraduate learners. Conclusions Oncology education in Canadian undergraduate and postgraduate fm and im training programs are currently thought to be inadequate by a majority of educators and learners. Developing a standard set of oncology objectives might address the needs of learners. PMID:24523624

  5. Linear parameter-varying modeling and control of the steam temperature in a Canadian SCWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Peiwei, E-mail: sunpeiwei@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Jianmin; Su, Guanghui

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Nonlinearity of Canadian SCWR is analyzed based on step responses and Nyquist plots. • LPV model is derived through Jacobian linearization and curve fitting. • An output feedback H{sub ∞} controller is synthesized for the steam temperature. • The control performance is evaluated by step disturbances and wide range operation. • The controller can stabilize the system and reject the reactor power disturbance. - Abstract: The Canadian direct-cycle Supercritical Water-cooled Reactor (SCWR) is a pressure-tube type SCWR under development in Canada. The dynamics of the steam temperature have a high degree of nonlinearity and are highly sensitive to reactor power disturbances. Traditional gain scheduling control cannot theoretically guarantee stability for all operating regions. The control performance can also be deteriorated when the controllers are switched. In this paper, a linear parameter-varying (LPV) strategy is proposed to solve such problems. Jacobian linearization and curve fitting are applied to derive the LPV model, which is verified using a nonlinear dynamic model and determined to be sufficiently accurate for control studies. An output feedback H{sub ∞} controller is synthesized to stabilize the steam temperature system and reject reactor power disturbances. The LPV steam temperature controller is implemented using a nonlinear dynamic model, and step changes in the setpoints and typical load patterns are carried out in the testing process. It is demonstrated through numerical simulation that the LPV controller not only stabilizes the steam temperature under different disturbances but also efficiently rejects reactor power disturbances and suppresses the steam temperature variation at different power levels. The LPV approach is effective in solving control problems of the steam temperature in the Canadian SCWR.

  6. Eating patterns and composition of meals and snacks in elite Canadian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, Kelly Anne; Tunnicliffe, Jasmine; Lun, Victor M; Reimer, Raylene A

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the meal- and snack-eating frequency and the nutritional composition of each eating occasion of Canadian high-performance athletes during training. Athletes from 8 Canadian Sport Centres prospectively completed 3-d dietary records including all food, fluid, and supplements consumed. The time of consumption and whether the consumption was a meal or snack were also identified. The dietary records were analyzed for energy (kcal) and macronutrient intake (carbohydrate, protein, and fat) and compared based on gender, age, meal vs. snack, and training vs. rest days. Three hundred twenty-four athletic subjects (64% female and 36% male) completed the study. On average, the athletes ate 4.8 ± 0.8 times daily. Nearly all athletes consumed 3 daily meals of breakfast (98.9%), lunch (97.9%), and dinner (98.7%), with few having snacks: 57%, 71.6%, and 58.1% of athletes consumed an a.m., p.m., and evening snack, respectively. Training-day meal frequency did not differ from that during rest days; however, fewer snacks were consumed on rest days. A.m. and p.m. snacks were consumed significantly more often on training days than rest days. Overall, snacks contributed 24.3% of total daily energy intake. Few dietary variations were discovered between genders, while the youngest athletes (athletes. In conclusion, Canadian high-performance athletes self-adjusted their energy intakes on training vs. rest days primarily by snacking less and reducing their carbohydrate and protein intakes on rest days, yet they consistently ate regular meals.

  7. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E; Ooi, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services.

  8. Canadian survey on pandemic flu preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy CS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of pandemic influenza creates public health challenges. An ethical framework, 'Stand on Guard for Thee: ethical considerations in pandemic influenza preparedness' that served as a template for the World Health Organization's global consultation on pandemic planning, was transformed into a survey administered to a random sample of 500 Canadians to obtain opinions on key ethical issues in pandemic preparedness planning. Methods All framework authors and additional investigators created items that were pilot-tested with volunteers of both sexes and all socioeconomic strata. Surveys were telephone administered with random sampling achieved via random digit dialing (RDD. Eligible participants were adults, 18 years or older, with per province stratification equaling provincial percent of national population. Descriptive results were tabulated and logistic regression analyses were used to assess whether demographic factors were significantly associated with outcomes. Results 5464 calls identified 559 eligible participants of whom 88.5% completed surveys. Over 90% of subjects agreed the most important goal of pandemic influenza preparations was saving lives, with 41% endorsing saving lives solely in Canada and 50% endorsing saving lives globally as the highest priority. Older age (OR = 8.51, p Conclusions Results suggest trust in public health officials to make difficult decisions, providing emphasis on reciprocity and respect for individual rights.

  9. The Olympus program: A Canadian opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, G. H.; Hayes, E. J.; Mamen, R.; Olsen, R. L.; Tsang, E. K.

    Canada was involved in the European Space Agency's Olympus satellite program since the beginning. Canadian industry was responsible for the design and manufacture of the large solar array system, intermediate frequency amplifiers, and microwave components as well as playing an important role in the assembly, integration, and test of the satellite and test models which were largely conducted at the Department of Communications' David Florida Laboratory (DFL). This paper describes the salient features of the satellite, special aspects of the testing at the DFL that were driven by the Olympus program, and Canada's part in the post-launch trials and demonstration program which provides Canada with an early opportunity to experiment in the next frequency band to be exploited commercially. The Olympus satellite is a multipurpose three axis stabilized bus capable of carrying a variety of payloads. It has a flexible solar array capable of generating 3.5 kW of power. The multielement payload of the first Olympus satellite includes the following: a two channel, high power television broadcast payload, a four channel 12/14 GHz payload for business services, a 20/30 GHz communications payload primarily aimed at video conferencing and communications systems, and 12/30/30 GHz beacon which will be used to gather propagation information. Testing at the DFL included thermal, vibration, and mass properties measurements and radio frequency testing.

  10. Canadian regulatory perspectives on genome engineered crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J

    2017-01-02

    New breeding techniques in plant agriculture exploded upon the scene about two years ago, in 2014. While these innovative plant breeding techniques, soon to be led by CRISPR/Cas9, initially appear to hold tremendous promise for plant breeding, if not a revolution for the industry, the question of how the products of these technologies will be regulated is rapidly becoming a key aspect of the technology's future potential. Regulation of innovative technologies and products has always lagged that of the science, but in the past decade, regulatory systems in many jurisdictions have become gridlocked as they try to regulate genetically modified (GM) crops. This regulatory incapability to efficiently assess and approve innovative new agricultural products is particularly important for new plant breeding techniques as if these techniques are classified as genetically modified breeding techniques, then their acceptance and future will diminish considerably as they will be rejected by the European Union. Conversely, if the techniques are accepted as conventional plant breeding, then the future is blindingly bright. This article examines the international debate about the regulation of new plant breeding techniques and then assesses how the Canadian regulatory system has approached the regulation of these technologies through two more public product approvals, GM apples and GM potatoes, then discusses other crop variety approval and those in the regulatory pipeline.

  11. Canadian cardiac surgeons' perspectives on biomedical innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyman, Gretchen; Tucker, Joseph E L; Cimini, Massimo; Narine, Kishan; Fedak, Paul W M

    2012-01-01

    Barriers to successful innovation can be identified and potentially addressed by exploring the perspectives of key stakeholders in the innovation process. Cardiac surgeons in Canada were surveyed for personal perspectives on biomedical innovation. Quantitative data was obtained by questionnaire and qualitative data via interviews with selected survey participants. Surgeons were asked to self-identify into 1 of 3 categories: "innovator," "early adopter," or "late adopter," and data were compared between groups. Most surgeons viewed innovation favourably and this effect was consistent irrespective of perceived level of innovativeness. Key barriers to the innovation pathway were identified: (1) support from colleagues and institutions; (2) Canada's health system; (3) sufficient investment capital; and (4) the culture of innovation within the local environment. Knowledge of the innovation process was perceived differently based on self-reported innovativeness. The majority of surgeons did not perceive themselves as having the necessary knowledge and skills to effectively translate innovative ideas to clinical practice. In general, responses indicate support for implementation of leadership and training programs focusing on the innovation process in an effort to prepare surgeons and enhance their ability to successfully innovate and translate new therapies. The perspectives of cardiac surgeons provide an intriguing portal into the challenges and opportunities for healthcare innovation in Canada. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Specialization in services: a Canadian example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Simmons

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In modern urban systems the economic growth of cities is largely driven by services. In many regions employment growth in primary and secondary activities is close to zero, or even negative. Growth depends on the ability to attract jobs in the services. This study explores the pattern of specialization in various service activities for 159 Canadian urban areas in 1996, as the basis for a series of maps for the Atlas of Canada. The hierarchical specialization is evaluated for each service sector by computing a regression model of ser-vice employment as a function of urban population and income per capita. The rapidly growing business and financial services are the most strongly oriented to larger cities. The horizontal specialization is measured as residuals from the regressions. Strong regional differences contrast the central place roles of agricultural communities with the more loca-lized markets of resource and manufacturing centres. Public sector decisions about the loca-tion of major health and education facilities complement the choices of the private sector.

  13. Medical cannabis – the Canadian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gordon D; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol – the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. Despite this, barriers exist to use from both the patient perspective (cost, addiction, social stigma, lack of understanding regarding safe administration) and the physician perspective (credibility, criminality, clinical evidence, patient addiction, and policy from the governing medical colleges). This review addresses these barriers and draws attention to key concerns in the Canadian medical system, providing updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic medication use, and enhanced quality of life. This review also includes case studies demonstrating the use of medical marijuana by patients with neuropathic low-back pain, neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. While significant preclinical data have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis for treating pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, further studies are needed with randomized controlled trials and larger study populations to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts. PMID:27757048

  14. Canadian pediatric gastroenterology workforce: Current status, concerns and future projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinville, Véronique; Drouin, Éric; Lévesque, Dominique; Espinosa, Victor M; Jacobson, Kevan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is concern that the Canadian pediatric gastroenterology workforce is inadequate to meet health care demands of the pediatric population. The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Pediatric Committee performed a survey to determine characteristics and future plans of the Canadian pediatric gastroenterology workforce and trainees. METHODS: Estimates of total and pediatric populations were obtained from the 2001 Census of Population, Statistics Canada (with estimates to July 1, 2005). Data on Canadian pediatric gastroenterologists, including clinical full-time equivalents, sex, work interests, opinions on workforce adequacy, retirement plans, fellowship training programs and future employment plans of fellows, were gathered through e-mail surveys and telephone correspondence in 2005 and 2006. RESULTS: Canada had an estimated population of 32,270,507 in 2005 (6,967,853 people aged zero to 17 years). The pediatric gastroenterology workforce was estimated at 9.2 specialists per million children. Women accounted for 50% of the workforce. Physician to pediatric population ratios varied, with Alberta demonstrating the highest and Saskatchewan the lowest ratios (1:69,404 versus 1:240,950, respectively). Between 1998 and 2005, Canadian pediatric gastroenterology fellowship programs trained 65 fellows (65% international trainees). Twenty-two fellows (34%) entered the Canadian workforce. CONCLUSIONS: The survey highlights the variable and overall low numbers of pediatric gastroenterologists across Canada, an increasingly female workforce, a greater percentage of part-time physicians and a small cohort of Canadian trainees. In conjunction with high projected retirement rates, greater demands on the work-force and desires to partake in nonclinical activities, there is concern for an increasing shortage of pediatric gastroenterologists in Canada in future years. PMID:17948136

  15. Improving School Accountability Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas J. Kane; Douglas O. Staiger

    2001-01-01

    A growing number of states are using annual school-level test scores as part of their school accountability systems. We highlight an under-appreciated weakness of that approach the imprecision of school-level test score means -- and propose a method for better discerning signal from noise in annual school report cards. For an elementary school of average size in North Carolina, we estimate that 28 percent of the variance in 5th grade reading scores is due to sampling variation and about 10 pe...

  16. Prescriptive medicine: the importance of preparing Canadian medical students to counsel patients toward physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Victor; Irwin, Jennifer D

    2013-08-01

    Physical activity (PA) is powerful for preventing and treating many chronic diseases. Physicians' own PA behaviors are correlated with their likelihood to counsel patients regarding PA. Medical students' PA-related attitudes and behaviors reflect what can be expected from our future physicians. A 27-item online survey was used to determine the percentage of Canadian medical students meeting the Canadian physical activity recommendations, and their self-reported perception of relevance and frequency of exercise counseling during patient encounters. We generated cross-tabulations with the independent covariates and our statistical comparison was based on the generalized estimating equation (GEE) algorithm to adjust for schools (clusters). While 64% (969/1510) of medical students met the MVPA recommendation, only 25% discussed PA counseling with patients. Most (80% and 90%, respectfully) believed physicians should adhere to a healthy lifestyle to effectively encourage their patients to do so, and that their credibility increased if they stayed fit themselves. Medical students are interested in and receptive to the importance of PA. However, not only is there improvement needed for the more than one-third of medical students who are insufficiently active themselves, but substantial change is needed regarding the vast majority of students' current counseling behaviors.

  17. Cancer beliefs and prevention policies: comparing Canadian decision-maker and general population views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Wild, T Cameron; Raine, Kim D

    2014-12-01

    The knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of key policy influencers and the general public can support or hinder the development of public policies that support cancer prevention. To address gaps in knowledge concerning healthy public policy development, views on cancer causation and endorsement of policy alternatives for cancer prevention among government influencers (elected members of legislative assemblies and senior ministry bureaucrats), non-governmental influencers (school board chairs and superintendents, print media editors and reporters, and workplace presidents and senior human resource managers), and the general public were compared. Two structured surveys, one administered to a convenience sample of policy influencers (government and non-governmental) and the other to a randomly selected sample of the general public, were used. The aim of these surveys was to understand knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding health promotion principles and the priority and acceptability of policy actions to prevent four behavioral risk factors for cancer (tobacco use, alcohol misuse, unhealthy eating, and physical inactivity). Surveys were administered in Alberta and Manitoba, two comparable Canadian provinces. Although all groups demonstrated higher levels of support for individualistic policies (e.g., health education campaigns) than for fiscal and legislative measures, the general public expressed consistently greater support than policy influencers for using evidence-based policies (e.g., tax incentives or subsidies for healthy behaviors). These results suggest that Canadian policy influencers may be less open that the general public to adopt healthy public policies for cancer prevention, with potential detriment to cancer rates.

  18. Persistent Albuminuria in Children with Type 2 Diabetes: A Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Elizabeth A C; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Amed, Shazhan; Dart, Allison B; Dyck, Roland F; Hamilton, Jill; Langlois, Valerie; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina; Dean, Heather J

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and the clinical features associated with persistent albuminuria in Canadian children aged albuminuria in children with type 2 diabetes were reported during a 24-month period from 2010 to 2012. Persistent albuminuria was defined as an elevated albumin-to-creatinine ratio in a minimum of 2 out of 3 urine samples obtained at least 1 month apart over 3-6 months and confirmed with a first morning sample. Descriptive statistics were used to illustrate demographic and clinical features of the population. The prevalence of persistent albumuria was estimated using data from a previous national surveillence study of type 2 diabetes in children. Fifty cases were reported over the 24-month study period. The estimated prevalence of persistent albuminuria in children with type 2 diabetes in Canada was 5.1%. The median duration of diabetes at the time of diagnosis of albuminuria was 21 days (IQR, 0-241 days). Almost two-thirds (64%) were female, 80% were of Canadian First Nations heritage, and 76% were from Manitoba. Exposure to gestational or pregestational diabetes in utero occurred in 65%, and 48% had a family history of diabetes-related renal disease. Structural anomalies of the kidney were found in 37%. Persistent albuminuria occurs in youths with type 2 diabetes in the first year after diagnosis, demonstrates regional variation, and is associated with First Nations heritage and exposure to maternal diabetes during pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The use of mechanical ventilation protocols in Canadian neonatal intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalish, Wissam; Anna, Guilherme Mendes Sant'

    2015-05-01

    To identify the proportion of Canadian neonatal intensive care units with existing mechanical ventilation protocols and to determine the characteristics and respiratory care practices of units that have adopted such protocols. A structured survey including 36 questions about mechanical ventilation protocols and respiratory care practices was mailed to the medical directors of all tertiary care neonatal units in Canada and circulated between December 2012 and March 2013. Twenty-four of 32 units responded to the survey (75%). Of the respondents, 91% were medical directors and 71% worked in university hospitals. Nine units (38%) had at least one type of mechanical ventilation protocol, most commonly for the acute and weaning phases. Units with pre-existing protocols were more commonly university-affiliated and had higher ratios of ventilated patients to physicians or respiratory therapists, although this did not reach statistical significance. The presence of a mechanical ventilation protocol was highly correlated with the coexistence of a protocol for noninvasive ventilation (Punits. However, units with mechanical ventilation protocols were significantly more likely to extubate neonates from the assist control mode (P=0.039, OR 8.25 [95% CI 1.2 to 59]). Despite the lack of compelling evidence to support their use in neonates, a considerable number of Canadian neonatal intensive care units have adopted mechanical ventilation protocols. More research is needed to better understand their role in reducing unnecessary variations in practice and improving short- and long-term outcomes.

  20. Prolonged mechanical ventilation in Canadian intensive care units: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Louise; Fowler, Robert A; Fan, Eddy; Fraser, Ian; Leasa, David; Mawdsley, Cathy; Pedersen, Cheryl; Rubenfeld, Gordon

    2015-02-01

    We sought to describe prevalence and care practices for patients experiencing prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV), defined as ventilation for 21 or more consecutive days and medical stability. We provided the survey to eligible units via secure Web link to a nominated unit champion from April to November 2012. Weekly telephone and e-mail reminders were sent for 6 weeks. Response rate was 215 (90%) of 238 units identifying 308 patients requiring PMV on the survey day occupying 11% of all Canadian ventilator-capable beds. Most units (81%) used individualized plans for both weaning and mobilization. Weaning and mobilization protocols were available in 48% and 38% of units, respectively. Of those units with protocols, only 25% reported weaning guidance specific to PMV, and 11% reported mobilization content for PMV. Only 30% of units used specialized mobility equipment. Most units referred to speech language pathologists (88%); use of communication technology was infrequent (11%). Only 29% routinely referred to psychiatry/psychology, and 17% had formal discharge follow-up services. Prolonged mechanical ventilation patients occupied 11% of Canadian acute care ventilator bed capacity. Most units preferred an individualized approach to weaning and mobilization with considerable variation in weaning methods, protocol availability, access to specialized rehabilitation equipment, communication technology, psychiatry, and discharge follow-up. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.