WorldWideScience

Sample records for canadian schools variations

  1. Canadian Business Schools: Going out of Business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobni, Dawn; Dobni, Brooke

    1996-01-01

    Using Porter's five-forces model (potential entrants, suppliers, buyers, rivalry, substitutes) to analyze competition in Canadian university business schools, the authors conclude that schools are becoming increasingly vulnerable to competitive pressures and that strategic reorientation is necessary. (SK)

  2. Refugees and education in Canadian schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaprielian-Churchill, Isabel

    1996-07-01

    This article summarizes some of the findings and recommendations of a research project focusing on the nature and needs of refugee students in Canadian schools. The school performance of refugee students is examined under the following headings: immigration regulations; initial identification, assessment, placement and monitoring; unaccompanied youngsters; "at risk" students; academic needs; the conflict of cultures. In particular, the article discusses the changing role of the school in the light of recent immigration trends. Many of the findings are applicable to other national settings.

  3. School Autonomy and 21st Century Learning: The Canadian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Paul; da Costa, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the policy and practice contexts for school autonomy and twenty-first century learning in Canadian provinces. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reports on an analysis of policies in Canadian provinces (particularly the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan). The authors review policies…

  4. Global Education in Canadian Elementary Schools: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Karen; Manion, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on the implementation of global education in Canadian elementary schools. Curriculum analysis and 76 interviews at school, ministry, and district levels revealed limited coordination among ministry, district and NGO efforts and little support for curriculum development and teacher training. In schools, fund-raising for…

  5. Canadian Indian Children Who Had Never Attended School

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    Wilson, Lolita

    1973-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the performance on selected intelligence tests of a group of Canadian Indian children who had never been to school with the performance of a similar group of children who were attending school regularly. (Author/RK)

  6. Canadian Law Schools: In Search of Excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakman, Leon E.

    1980-01-01

    Academically, Canadian education is at the crossroads between formalism and functionalism, with the latter prevailing in recent years. There now arises a demand for a more integrated approach, linking legal theory with legal practice. (MSE)

  7. Patterns of DNA barcode variation in Canadian marine molluscs.

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    Kara K S Layton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molluscs are the most diverse marine phylum and this high diversity has resulted in considerable taxonomic problems. Because the number of species in Canadian oceans remains uncertain, there is a need to incorporate molecular methods into species identifications. A 648 base pair segment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene has proven useful for the identification and discovery of species in many animal lineages. While the utility of DNA barcoding in molluscs has been demonstrated in other studies, this is the first effort to construct a DNA barcode registry for marine molluscs across such a large geographic area. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study examines patterns of DNA barcode variation in 227 species of Canadian marine molluscs. Intraspecific sequence divergences ranged from 0-26.4% and a barcode gap existed for most taxa. Eleven cases of relatively deep (>2% intraspecific divergence were detected, suggesting the possible presence of overlooked species. Structural variation was detected in COI with indels found in 37 species, mostly bivalves. Some indels were present in divergent lineages, primarily in the region of the first external loop, suggesting certain areas are hotspots for change. Lastly, mean GC content varied substantially among orders (24.5%-46.5%, and showed a significant positive correlation with nearest neighbour distances. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: DNA barcoding is an effective tool for the identification of Canadian marine molluscs and for revealing possible cases of overlooked species. Some species with deep intraspecific divergence showed a biogeographic partition between lineages on the Atlantic, Arctic and Pacific coasts, suggesting the role of Pleistocene glaciations in the subdivision of their populations. Indels were prevalent in the barcode region of the COI gene in bivalves and gastropods. This study highlights the efficacy of DNA barcoding for providing insights into sequence variation

  8. Stages Of Gender Education In Canadian Secondary Schools

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    Zhukovskyi Vasyl

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of educational preconditions of gender education formation and development in Canadian secondary schools. On the basis of conducted scientific and pedagogical literature analysis it has been determined that gender education has undergone three main stages and is currently developing during its fourth, modern period.

  9. Ethical Leadership in Canadian School Organizations: Tensions and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Lyse; Lapointe, Claire

    2007-01-01

    This study, which was sponsored by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, was conducted in French-language minority schools in seven Canadian provinces: British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia. Using an open-ended interview guide, 47 principals were asked about the…

  10. Community engagement in US and Canadian medical schools

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Adam O.; Rachel Sobel Bearman

    2011-01-01

    Adam O Goldstein, Rachel Sobel BearmanDepartment of Family Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USAIntroduction: This study examines the integration of community engagement and community-engaged scholarship at all accredited US and Canadian medical schools in order to better understand and assess their current state of engagement.Methods: A 32-question data abstraction instrument measured the role of community engagement and community-engaged scholarship...

  11. Community engagement in US and Canadian medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam O Goldstein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adam O Goldstein, Rachel Sobel BearmanDepartment of Family Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USAIntroduction: This study examines the integration of community engagement and community-engaged scholarship at all accredited US and Canadian medical schools in order to better understand and assess their current state of engagement.Methods: A 32-question data abstraction instrument measured the role of community engagement and community-engaged scholarship as represented on the Web sites of all accredited US and Canadian medical schools. The instrument targeted a medical school's mission and vision statements, institutional structure, student and faculty awards and honors, and faculty tenure and promotion guidelines.Results: Medical school Web sites demonstrate little evidence that schools incorporate community engagement in their mission or vision statements or their promotion and tenure guidelines. The majority of medical schools do not include community service terms and/or descriptive language in their mission statements, and only 8.5% of medical schools incorporate community service and engagement as a primary or major criterion in promotion and tenure guidelines.Discussion: This research highlights significant gaps in the integration of community engagement or community-engaged scholarship into medical school mission and vision statements, promotion and tenure guidelines, and service administrative structures.Keywords: medical school, education, community service, mission, tenure, engagement

  12. Canadian Content in School Texts and the Changing Goals of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpwood, Graham

    1980-01-01

    The lack of "Canadian content" in Canadian public school textbooks can be more easily explained by changing national educational goals than by foreign ownership of the publishing industry. Science textbooks are used to illustrate. (SB)

  13. Research Use by Leaders in Canadian School Districts

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    Amanda Cooper

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, part of a larger study, investigates the ways research is used by leaders in Canadian schools and districts, an area in which there is relatively little empirical evidence. The paper analyzes survey results from 188 education leaders in 11 school districts across Canada about school and district practices related to the use of research. Results indicate a growing awareness in districts of the importance of research use, reported district capacity, and many kinds of support available for research-related activities; however, actual research use remains modest. Districts appear to have relatively weak processes and systems for finding, sharing, and using relevant research.

  14. Comprehensive School Mental Health: An Integrated "School-Based Pathway to Care" Model for Canadian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yifeng; Kutcher, Stan; Szumilas, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for the promotion of mental health and the treatment of mental disorders. Schools are well-positioned to address adolescent mental health. This paper describes a school mental health model, "School-Based Pathway to Care," for Canadian secondary schools that links schools with primary care providers and…

  15. School Leadership and Equity: Canadian Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, J. Tim; Hart, Angela C.

    2007-01-01

    There are great movements of people taking place around the world and our societies are becoming more diverse and multiethnic in nature, especially in the urban environments of the larger cities. In most countries, schools still represent the "status quo" and most principals are from the "majority culture". There is little empirical evidence…

  16. English Language Learners in Canadian Schools: Emerging Directions for School-Based Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Jim; Mirza, Rania; Stille, Saskia

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to provide ESL teachers, school administrators, and policymakers with a concise overview of what matters in promoting academic success among learners of English in Canadian schools. We review research focused on bilingual and biliteracy development, the nature of academic language, and the roles of societal power relations…

  17. Creating a Culture of Innovation in Canadian Schools

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    David C. Dibbon

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its inception in 1996, the GrassRoots Program has been instrumental in facilitating the integration of information and communication technologies (ICT into the classrooms of Canadian schools. By linking the GrassRoots Program to the school curriculum and providing incentives for teachers to engage students in the process of co-creating electronic curriculum resources for the Internet, it has been influential in transforming classrooms into authentic centres of learning. There is overwhelming evidence supporting the concept that the GrassRoots Program is a powerful connector between ICT and new teaching theories. This paper provides an overview of innovation, a background to some of the challenges associated with large-scale innovation in the Canadian K-12 school system and the findings from a collection of 16 case studies conducted in innovative schools in Canada. An analysis of the data contained in the case studies indicates that the GrassRoots Program is having a positive impact on the diffusion of ICT in the classrooms of schools that are members of the Network of Innovation (NIS, and it is making a significant contribution to the development of a culture of innovation. The existence of GrassRoots projects has also increased the capacity for innovation by empowering and enabling the schools and teachers to work on multiple innovations simultaneously. Also, there is sufficient evidence to show that GrassRoots has had a major impact on: teacher professional learning; teacher technology skill development; student technology skill development, student employability skill development; access to teaching resources; leadership opportunities; and school growth and development.

  18. Physics in canadian secondary schools: Intentions, perceptions, and achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegold, Menahem; Raphael, Dennis

    This article examines secondary-school physics teaching with respect to three levels of curriculum. These are the curriculum as designed by educational authorities and intended for school guidance, as perceived by teachers and translated into classroom practice, and as internalized by students and expressed by achievement on physics tests. In keeping with international usage we refer to these levels of curriculum as the intended, the translated and the achieved. The article is based upon the analysis of curriculum documents and guidelines, teacher assessments of opportunity provided students to learn, and student achievement on a comprehensive physics test. The context for analysis is provided by an ongoing international study of science education in which some 30 participating countries analyze the three curriculum levels and attempt to draw conclusions concerning possible relationships among them. The article reports limited but nevertheless significant relationships found among intentions, translations, and achievement in the teaching of physics in Canadian secondary schools.

  19. Multilingualism in Canadian schools: Myths, realities and possibilities

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    Patricia A. Duff

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bilingualism and multiculturalism have for four decades been official ideologies and policies in Canada but, as is often the case, the implementation and outcomes of such government policies nationally are less impressive than the rhetoric would suggest. This article reviews the political, theoretical and demographic contexts justifying support for the learning and use of additional languages in contemporary Canadian society and schools, and summarizes research demonstrating that bilingualism and multilingualism are indeed cognitively, socially, and linguistically advantageous for children (and adults, as well as for society. The five studies in this special issue are then previewed with respect to the following themes that run across them: (1 the potential for bilingual synergies and transformations in language awareness activities and crosslinguistic knowledge construction; (2 the role of multiliteracies and multimodality in mediated learning; and (3 the interplay of positioning, identity, and agency in language learning by immigrant youth. The article concludes that more Canadian schools and educators must, like the researchers in this volume, find ways to embrace and build upon students’ prior knowledge, their creativity, their collaborative problem-solving skills, their potential for mastering and manipulating multiple, multilingual semiotic tools, and their desire for inclusion and integration in productive, engaging learning communities.

  20. Canadian Innovation: A Brief History of Canada's First Online School Psychology Graduate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drefs, Michelle A.; Schroeder, Meadow; Hiebert, Bryan; Panayotidis, E. Lisa; Winters, Katherine; Kerr, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a brief historical review and survey of the current landscape of online graduate psychology programs within the Canadian context. Specific focus is given to outlining the establishment and evolution of the first Canadian online professional specialization program in school psychology. The article argues that given the virtual…

  1. Joining the Canadian Tribe: Building a Pluralistic Community in a B.C. School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, Tony; Kibblewhite, John

    2002-01-01

    Immigrants often comprise most of the student body in urban Canadian schools. An elementary school in suburban Vancouver (British Columbia) provides sheltered classes and bilingual student partners for beginning English language learners. A school-based friendship club fosters intercultural understanding and a welcoming atmosphere for students and…

  2. Polish Post-Secondary Vocational Schools vs. Canadian Community Colleges: A Comparison of Information Accessibility and Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Norman L.; Smith, Catherine; Davidson, Barry S.; Tanner, Tyrone; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2008-01-01

    Recent reforms in Polish education, Canadian interest in cooperative education, and differences in government involvement in Polish vs. Canadian education motivate the current comparative study of Polish post-secondary vocational schools (PVSs) and Canadian community colleges (CCs). While PVSs and CCs may initially appear equivalent (e.g., both…

  3. Beyond the Dialectics and Polemics: Canadian Catholic Schools Addressing LGBT Youth Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liboro, Renato M.; Travers, Robb; St. John, Alex

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Canadian media coverage on Bill 13--an Ontario legislative proposal to require all publicly funded schools to support Gay-Straight Alliances as a means of addressing issues concerning bullied lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students--instigated a divisive exchange among representatives of the Ontario Catholic school sector.…

  4. School Experiences Influence Personal Health and Interpersonal Relationships of Adolescents: The Canadian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin

    2007-01-01

    Canadian data from the 1998 Cross-National Survey on Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children were analyzed to examine the effects of school experiences on personal health (physical health, mental health, self-esteem, helplessness, and body image) and interpersonal relationships (number of close friends and making friends) among adolescents.…

  5. Assessing School Effects on Dental Hygiene and Nutrition Behaviors of Canadian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin

    2007-01-01

    This study examines what school experiences influence dental hygiene and nutrition behaviors of Canadian adolescents from the 1998 Cross-national Survey on Health Behaviors in School-aged Children (HBSC). Multilevel analyses highlight the rare use of dental floss among adolescents. Females are more likely to brush and floss teeth than males.…

  6. Unveiled Sentiments: Gendered Islamophobia and Experiences of Veiling among Muslim Girls in a Canadian Islamic School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zine, Jasmin

    2006-01-01

    The practice of veiling has made Muslim women subject to dual oppressions--racism and Islamophobia--in society at large and patriarchal oppression and sexism from within their communities. Based on a narrative analysis of the politics of veiling in schools and society, the voices of young Muslim women attending a Canadian Islamic school speak to…

  7. Providing a Safe Learning Environment for Queer Students in Canadian Schools: A Legal Analysis of Homophobic Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews Canadian administrative law regarding homophobic bullying and school board decision making. Depending on the provincial legislation, school boards either have a mandatory or a discretionary duty to provide queer students with a safe learning environment. However, Canadian case law has arguably limited that discretion. Recent…

  8. Proximity of public elementary schools to major roads in Canadian urban areas

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    Amram Ofer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic studies have linked exposure to traffic-generated air and noise pollution with a wide range of adverse health effects in children. Children spend a large portion of time at school, and both air pollution and noise are elevated in close proximity to roads, so school location may be an important determinant of exposure. No studies have yet examined the proximity of schools to major roads in Canadian cities. Methods Data on public elementary schools in Canada's 10 most populous cities were obtained from online databases. School addresses were geocoded and proximity to the nearest major road, defined using a standardized national road classification scheme, was calculated for each school. Based on measurements of nitrogen oxide concentrations, ultrafine particle counts, and noise levels in three Canadian cities we conservatively defined distances Results Addresses were obtained for 1,556 public elementary schools, 95% of which were successfully geocoded. Across all 10 cities, 16.3% of schools were located within 75 m of a major road, with wide variability between cities. Schools in neighborhoods with higher median income were less likely to be near major roads (OR per $20,000 increase: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.00, while schools in densely populated neighborhoods were more frequently close to major roads (OR per 1,000 dwellings/km2: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.16. Over 22% of schools in the lowest neighborhood income quintile were close to major roads, compared to 13% of schools in the highest income quintile. Conclusions A substantial fraction of students at public elementary schools in Canada, particularly students attending schools in low income neighborhoods, may be exposed to elevated levels of air pollution and noise while at school. As a result, the locations of schools may negatively impact the healthy development and academic performance of a large number of Canadian children.

  9. Improving the social responsiveness of medical schools: lessons from the Canadian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappon, P; Watson, D

    1999-08-01

    The recent Canadian experience in promoting social accountability and social responsiveness of medical schools has been one of steady improvement in certain institutions, against a background lacking overall national policy direction. Canada has several distinct advantages in trying to devise means of enhancing social accountability of medical training and health services, including a strong national system of publicly supported and financed health care of high quality, a network of excellent academic medical centers, and well-established accreditation bodies. A review of the literature, complemented by a new survey of Canadian medical schools, confirms that some of the centers, conscious of the need to promote social responsiveness, are developing innovative programs to do so. Future progress toward the goal of social responsiveness of medical schools on a pan-Canadian basis will require a more cohesive approach involving systematic sharing of best practices among academic health centers, effective alliances with other health professionals to promote these objectives, and support by federal and provincial ministries of health. Canadian awareness of an international movement tending to similar objectives would support the efforts of Canadian health professionals engaged in practices of enhanced accountability.

  10. Too few, too weak: conflict of interest policies at Canadian medical schools.

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    Adrienne Shnier

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The education of medical students should be based on the best clinical information available, rather than on commercial interests. Previous research looking at university-wide conflict of interest (COI policies used in Canadian medical schools has shown very poor regulation. An analysis of COI policies was undertaken to document the current policy environment in all 17 Canadian medical schools. METHODS: A web search was used to initially locate COI policies supplemented by additional information from the deans of each medical school. Strength of policies was rated on a scale of 0 to 2 in 12 categories and also on the presence of enforcement measures. For each school, we report scores for all 12 categories, enforcement measures, and summative scores. RESULTS: COI policies received summative scores that ranged from 0 to 19, with 0 the lowest possible score obtainable and 24 the maximum. The highest mean scores per category were for disclosure and ghostwriting (0.9 and for gifts and scholarships (0.8. DISCUSSION: This study provides the first comprehensive evaluation of all 17 Canadian medical school-specific COI policies. Our results suggest that the COI policy environment at Canadian medical schools is generally permissive. Policy development is a dynamic process. We therefore encourage all Canadian medical schools to develop restrictive COI policies to ensure that their medical students are educated based on the best clinical evidence available, free of industry biases and COI relationships that may influence the future medical thinking and prescribing practices of medical students in Canada once they graduate.

  11. The Role and Status of Food and Nutrition Literacy in Canadian School Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Heather; Falkenberg, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The obesity epidemic in North America has given greater attention to food and nutrition literacy in Canadian schools. However, the review of relevant literature on food and nutrition literacy reveals quite a range of understandings of what such literacy means. This raises the question of what understanding of food and nutrition literacy is…

  12. Gay-Straight Alliance (GSA) Members' Engagement with Sex Education in Canadian High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers an examination of gay-straight alliance (GSA) members' engagement with sex education, sexual health, and prejudice and discrimination in Canadian public high schools. It explores how five students' (four straight and one gay-identifying) participation in GSAs served as a springboard for learning about and challenging…

  13. Pre-Service Teachers and Muslim Parents: Exploring Religious Diversity in Canadian Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan

    2015-01-01

    This study explores how a group of Caucasian pre-service teachers responded to Muslim immigrant parents' accounts of the marginalization of their faith practices in Canadian public schools. Data were collected through interviews with parents, dialogues between parents and pre-service teachers, online reflections, and focus groups among pre-service…

  14. From Command to Constructivism: Canadian Secondary School Physical Education Curriculum and "Teaching Games for Understanding"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Canadian physical educators have fought long and hard to be recognized as legitimate contributors to school curricula. In claiming alliances with discourses of medicine and morality, science and psychology, proponents of physical education have sought to be recognized and validated within the educational milieu. These claims have fundamentally…

  15. "Nutritional Wastelands": Vending Machines, Fast Food Outlets, and the Fight over Junk Food in Canadian Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidney, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    In light of a growing obesity crisis among children and concern about junk food in schools, this article investigates the attempt by food and beverage companies to gain entry into Canadian schools. Focusing in particular on the introduction of fast-food franchises in cafeterias and on school boards' secret exclusivity deals with soft drink manufacturers in the 1990s, it examines how and why this process occurred, public reactions to it, and government responses. Placing this phenomenon within a larger pattern of commercialization in North American schools, it argues that long-lasting reforms require government intervention and enforcement.

  16. Exploring Canadian Identity through Canadian Children's Literature.

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    Pantaleo, Sylvia

    2001-01-01

    Considers what commonplaces of culture and identity are being, could be, transmitted through the use of children's literature in classrooms. Explores what is Canadian about Canadian children's literature. Describes a study which involved Canadian elementary school children who read Canadian children's books. Concludes that literature plays a…

  17. Student Achievement Outcomes Comprehensive School Reform: A Canadian Case Study

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    Ross, John A.; Scott, Garth; Sibbald, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a third-party study of the student achievement effects of Struggling Schools, a user-generated approach to Comprehensive School Reform (CSR). The design was a quasiexperimental, pre-post matched sample (N = 180) with school as unit of analysis, drawing on 3 years of achievement data from standardized external assessments.…

  18. School variation in asthma: compositional or contextual?

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    Tracy K Richmond

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma prevalence and morbidity have been shown to vary by neighborhood. Less is known about between-school variation in asthma prevalence and whether it exists beyond what one might expect due to students at higher risk of asthma clustering within different schools. Our objective was to determine whether between-school variation in asthma prevalence exists and if so, if it is related to the differential distribution of individual risk factors for and correlates of asthma or to contextual influences of schools. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of 16,640 teens in grades 7-12 in Wave 1 (data collected in 1994-5 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Outcome was current diagnosis of asthma as reported by respondents' parents. Two-level random effects models were used to assess the contribution of schools to the variance in asthma prevalence before and after controlling for individual attributes. RESULTS: The highest quartile schools had mean asthma prevalence of 21.9% compared to the lowest quartile schools with mean asthma prevalence of 7.1%. In our null model, the school contributed significantly to the variance in asthma (sigma(u0(2 = 0.27, CI: 0.20, 0.35. Controlling for individual, school and neighborhood attributes reduced the between-school variance modestly (sigma(u0(2 = 0.19 CI: 0.13-0.29. CONCLUSION: Significant between-school variation in current asthma prevalence exists even after controlling for the individual, school and neighborhood factors. This provides evidence for school level contextual influences on asthma. Further research is needed to determine potential mechanisms through which schools may influence asthma outcomes.

  19. Immigrant Students Navigating Canadian Schools: A Longitudinal View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Lee; D'Silva, Reginald Arthur; Odo, Dennis Murphy

    2012-01-01

    Findings are presented from studies of the academic and language achievement of 1,307 young immigrant students whose educational history was traced from their arrival in Canada and entry into primary education in the early 1990s until their graduation from secondary schools. Five major findings are reported: school mobility, disappearance and…

  20. Patterns of cross-continental variation in tree seed mass in the Canadian Boreal Forest.

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    Liu, Jushan; Bai, Yuguang; Lamb, Eric G; Simpson, Dale; Liu, Guofang; Wei, Yongsheng; Wang, Deli; McKenney, Daniel W; Papadopol, Pia

    2013-01-01

    Seed mass is an adaptive trait affecting species distribution, population dynamics and community structure. In widely distributed species, variation in seed mass may reflect both genetic adaptation to local environments and adaptive phenotypic plasticity. Acknowledging the difficulty in separating these two aspects, we examined the causal relationships determining seed mass variation to better understand adaptability and/or plasticity of selected tree species to spatial/climatic variation. A total of 504, 481 and 454 seed collections of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.), white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb) across the Canadian Boreal Forest, respectively, were selected. Correlation analyses were used to determine how seed mass vary with latitude, longitude, and altitude. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine how geographic and climatic variables influence seed mass. Climatic factors explained a large portion of the variation in seed mass (34, 14 and 29%, for black spruce, white spruce and jack pine, respectively), indicating species-specific adaptation to long term climate conditions. Higher annual mean temperature and winter precipitation caused greater seed mass in black spruce, but annual precipitation was the controlling factor for white spruce. The combination of factors such as growing season temperature and evapotranspiration, temperature seasonality and annual precipitation together determined seed mass of jack pine. Overall, sites with higher winter temperatures were correlated with larger seeds. Thus, long-term climatic conditions, at least in part, determined spatial variation in seed mass. Black spruce and Jack pine, species with relatively more specific habitat requirements and less plasticity, had more variation in seed mass explained by climate than did the more plastic species white spruce. As traits such as seed mass are related to seedling growth and survival, they potentially

  1. Patterns of cross-continental variation in tree seed mass in the Canadian Boreal Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jushan Liu

    Full Text Available Seed mass is an adaptive trait affecting species distribution, population dynamics and community structure. In widely distributed species, variation in seed mass may reflect both genetic adaptation to local environments and adaptive phenotypic plasticity. Acknowledging the difficulty in separating these two aspects, we examined the causal relationships determining seed mass variation to better understand adaptability and/or plasticity of selected tree species to spatial/climatic variation. A total of 504, 481 and 454 seed collections of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P., white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench Voss and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb across the Canadian Boreal Forest, respectively, were selected. Correlation analyses were used to determine how seed mass vary with latitude, longitude, and altitude. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine how geographic and climatic variables influence seed mass. Climatic factors explained a large portion of the variation in seed mass (34, 14 and 29%, for black spruce, white spruce and jack pine, respectively, indicating species-specific adaptation to long term climate conditions. Higher annual mean temperature and winter precipitation caused greater seed mass in black spruce, but annual precipitation was the controlling factor for white spruce. The combination of factors such as growing season temperature and evapotranspiration, temperature seasonality and annual precipitation together determined seed mass of jack pine. Overall, sites with higher winter temperatures were correlated with larger seeds. Thus, long-term climatic conditions, at least in part, determined spatial variation in seed mass. Black spruce and Jack pine, species with relatively more specific habitat requirements and less plasticity, had more variation in seed mass explained by climate than did the more plastic species white spruce. As traits such as seed mass are related to seedling growth and survival, they

  2. CAD/CAM: Practical and Persuasive in Canadian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willms, Ed

    2007-01-01

    Chances are that many high school students would not know how to use drafting instruments, but some might want to gain competence in computer-assisted design (CAD) and possibly computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM). These students are often attracted to tech courses by the availability of CAD/CAM instructions, and many go on to impress employers…

  3. Polish Post-Secondary Vocational Schools and Canadian Community Colleges: A Comparison Using the School as an Organization and Social Institution as a Conceptual Framework

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    Butler, Norman L.; Davidson, Barry S.; Pachocinski, Ryszard; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Kritsonis, Wiilliam Allan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare Polish post-secondary vocational institutions with Canadian community colleges. The research concentrates upon programs in tourism and information technology delivered by the two following Polish schools: "Policealne Studium Zawodowe" (Cracow, Poland), Cracow School of Information Technology; and three Canadian…

  4. Active transportation to school in Canadian youth: should injury be a concern?

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    Gropp, Kathleen; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William

    2013-02-01

    Active transportation to school provides a means for youth to incorporate physical activity into their daily routines, and this has obvious benefits for child health. Studies of active transportation have rarely focused on the negative health effects in terms of injury. This cross-sectional study is based on the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey. A sample of children aged 11-15 years (n=20 076) was studied. Multi-level logistic regression was used to examine associations between walking or bicycling to school and related injury. Regular active transportation to school at larger distances (approximately >1.6 km; 1.0 miles) was associated with higher relative odds of active transportation injury (OR: 1.52; 95% CI 1.08 to 2.15), with a suggestion of a dose-response relationship between longer travel distances and injury (p=0.02). Physical activity interventions for youth should encourage participation in active transportation to school, while also recognising the potential for unintentional injury.

  5. "We are not aliens, we're people, and we have rights." Canadian human rights discourse and high school climate for LGBTQ students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine; Peter, Tracey

    2011-08-01

    Canadian law protects people from discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation, but our public schools do not fulfill their ethical and legal obligations where sexual and gender minority youth are concerned. This article reports on a national survey study on homophobia and transphobia in Canadian high schools. Participants (n = 3,607) were questioned about school climate, harassment, school attachment, and institutional interventions. We found that schools were neither safe nor respectful for sexual and gender minority students, and we argue that ongoing exposure to this situation undermines students' respect for the Charter of Rights and their faith in adults.

  6. CANLIT (Canadian Literature) Teachers' Crash Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CANLIT, Toronto (Ontario).

    As a result of a study of the situation of Canadian literature in Canadian high schools and universities, this course was developed to provide teachers with useful information about Canadian literature. Included in this kit are sections on Canadian literature (the great debate about the importance of Canadian content), history and sources…

  7. A queer day in Canada: examining Canadian high school students' experiences with school-based homophobia in two large-scale studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Tracey; Taylor, Catherine; Chamberland, Line

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study is to examine how location (nationally, compared to Canadian regions) is related to indicators of a hostile school environment for sexual minority youth, particularly when physical abuse is used as the outcome variable. Data representing 5,766 Canadian students were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate techniques. Results from the multivariate analyses showed that non-physical abuse was the most significant predictor of homophobically based physical abuse, for both LGBQ and non-LGBQ students. Findings reiterate the importance of considering the progression of harmful events as an escalation of violence as well as the need to view homophobic bullying as having a significant impact on all students. Finally, while the presence of homophobia is prevalent across all Canadian regions, there are, nevertheless, many regional differences, which could be used to inform region-specific action plans.

  8. Performance Appraisals of School Administrators in One Canadian School District: A Contemporary Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normore, Anthony H.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that a sound performance appraisal process for school administrators contains key mechanisms that manifest themselves through dimensions of effective planning, assessment, and evaluation; effective use of resources; and communicating clear expectations. This article documents the development of a contemporary model of…

  9. Engaging Canadian youth in conversations: Using knowledge exchange in school-based health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Murnaghan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The voice of youth is crucial to advancing solutions that contribute to effective strategies to improve youth health outcomes. The problem, however, is that youth/student voices are often overlooked, and stakeholders typically engage in decision-making without involving youth. The burden of chronic disease is increasing worldwide, and in Canada chronic disease accounts for 89 per cent of deaths. However, currently, youth spend less time being physically active while engaging in more unhealthy eating behaviours than ever before. High rates of unhealthy behaviours such as physical inactivity, unhealthy eating and tobacco use are putting Canadian youth at risk of health problems such as increased levels of overweight and obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Focus group methodology was utilised to conduct 7 focus groups with 50 students in grades 7–12 from schools in Prince Edward Island, Canada. The key themes that emerged included: (1 youth health issues such as lack of opportunities to be physically active, cost and quality of healthy food options, and bullying; (2 facilitators and barriers to health promotion, including positive peer and adult role models, positive relationships with adults and competitiveness of school sports; and (3 lack of student voice. Our findings suggest that actively engaging youth provides opportunities to understand youth perspectives on how to encourage them to make healthy choices and engage in healthy behaviours. Attention needs to be paid to inclusive knowledge exchange practices that value and integrate youth perspectives and ideas as a basis for building health promotion actions and interventions. Keywords: knowledge exchange, youth health, youth engagement

  10. The Sea Stacks Project: Enhancing the Use of Regional Literature in Atlantic Canadian Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Howard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research over the past two decades has amply demonstrated the importance of literature to the formation of both regional and national cultural identity, particularly in the face of mass market globalization of children’s book publishing in the 21st century as well as the predominance of non-Canadian content from television, movies, books, magazines and internet media. However, Canadian children appear to have only very limited exposure to Canadian authors and illustrators. In Atlantic Canada, regional Atlantic Canadian authors and illustrators for children receive very limited critical attention, and resources for the study and teaching of Atlantic Canadian children’s literature are few. Print and digital information sources on regional children’s books, publishing, authors and illustrators are scattered and inconsistent in quality and currency. This research project directly addresses these key concerns by summarizing the findings of a survey of Atlantic Canadian teachers on their use of regional books. In response to survey findings, the paper concludes by describing the creation of the Sea Stacks Project an authoritative web-delivered information resource devoted to contemporary Atlantic Canadian literature for children and teens.

  11. Modeling historical tuberculosis epidemics among Canadian First Nations: effects of malnutrition and genetic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah F. Ackley

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Late 19th century epidemics of tuberculosis (TB in Western Canadian First Nations resulted in peak TB mortality rates more than six times the highest rates recorded in Europe. Using a mathematical modeling approach and historical TB mortality time series, we investigate potential causes of high TB mortality and rapid epidemic decline in First Nations from 1885 to 1940. We explore two potential causes of dramatic epidemic dynamics observed in this setting: first, we explore effects of famine prior to 1900 on both TB and population dynamics. Malnutrition is recognized as an individual-level risk factor for TB progression and mortality; its population-level effects on TB epidemics have not been explored previously. Second, we explore effects of heterogeneity in susceptibility to TB in two ways: modeling heterogeneity in susceptibility to infection, and heterogeneity in risk of developing disease once infected. Our results indicate that models lacking famine-related changes in TB parameters or heterogeneity result in an implausibly poor fit to both the TB mortality time series and census data; the inclusion of these features allows for the characteristic decline and rise in population observed in First Nations during this time period and confers improved fits to TB mortality data.

  12. Indoor air quality : Tools for schools action kits for Canadian schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    Few people realize that indoor air pollution can contribute to health effects like asthma. Several agencies, notably the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), have indicated that levels of indoor pollutants can be significantly higher than those found outside. As such, poor indoor air quality (IAQ) could impact the health of students and staff, as well as the educational process and costs. Many factors can influence IAQ, including building materials, furnishings, cleaning agents, pesticides, printing and copying devices, and more. Reduction in IAQ can also result from tighter buildings and reduced ventilation. This kit was developed by Health Canada in collaboration with the Indoor Air Quality Working Group of the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Committee on Environmental and Occupational Health (CEOH) to provide school officials with the tools to prevent, identify, assess, and address most indoor air problems while minimizing cost and involvement. It was suggested that trained professionals should perform the limited and well-defined set of operations and maintenance activities described in the kit.

  13. Teaching Canadian Literature: An Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, W. John

    1984-01-01

    Suggests granting greater recognition to the artistic integrity of Canadian literature by removing it from the broader context of Canadian studies. Indicates that understanding and appreciation of Canadian literature as a representation of reality filtered through the perception of an author should be focus of literature in schools. (NEC)

  14. Development of inquiry-based planetary science resources for Canadian schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, G. R.; Gilbert, A.; Brown, P.

    2011-12-01

    abilities) outline the independent variables, and design an experiment. This is conducted in groups after the proposed experiment is approved by the teacher. (4) Students draw conclusions on their experiment, and present results in the lab hand out and to their peers. Learning outcomes based on the Ontario curriculum have been pre-identified allowing the teachers to know what portion of the curriculum is being taught. Future activities include increasing the number of activity-based learning themes and modules available, implementing more Teacher Training Courses and workshops, increasing the number of schools that participate to the programme and continuing to participate in the annual Science Teacher's Association of Ontario Conference. Acknowledgements: Funding from the Canadian Space Agency's Space Awaremess and Learning program and an Interdisciplinary Development Initiative award from Western has made this program possible. Melissa Battler, Anna Chanou, Heather Henry, Emily McCullough, Alexandra Pontefract, and Alaura Singleton are thanked for their participation in this program.

  15. Mapping the Future: Towards Oncology Curriculum Reform in Undergraduate Medical Education at a Canadian Medical School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, Jennifer Y.Y. [School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Nyhof-Young, Joyce [Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Catton, Pamela [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Giuliani, Meredith E., E-mail: Meredith.Giuliani@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Methods and Materials: Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. Results: The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). Conclusions: The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health

  16. Democratic Social Cohesion (Assimilation)? Representations of Social Conflict in Canadian Public School Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickmore, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the representation of conflict, diversity, peace, and justice issues in selected mandated curriculum guidelines, grades 1-10, for three Canadian provinces. These curricula, grounded in prevailing assumptions, reflect political will and influence resource availability for teaching. Prominent among them is a neutral discourse…

  17. Perspectives of Immigrant Muslim Parents: Advocating for Religious Diversity in Canadian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Immigration is now the primary source of population growth in Canada. For the year 2006, the Canadian Census reported that almost 20 percent of the population was born outside of Canada (Statistics Canada, 2007). Between the years 1991 and 2001 specifically, the number of non-Christians, such as Muslims, Buddhists, Sikhs, and Hindus, had more than…

  18. Seasonal and spatial variations of source and drinking water quality in small municipal systems of two Canadian regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheili, A; Rodriguez, M J; Sadiq, R

    2015-03-01

    A one-year sampling program covering twenty-five small municipal systems was carried out in two Canadian regions to improve our understanding of the variability of water quality in small systems from water source to the end of the distribution system (DS). The database obtained was used to develop a global portrait of physical, chemical and microbiological water quality parameters. More precisely, the temporal and the spatial variability of these parameters were investigated. We observed that the levels of natural organic matter (NOM) were variable during different seasons, with maxima in the fall for both provinces. In the regions under study, the highest trihalomethane (THM) and haloacetic acid (HAA) levels were achieved in warmer seasons (summer, fall), as observed in previous studies involving large systems. Observed THM and HAA levels were three times higher in systems in the province of Newfoundland & Labrador than in the province of Quebec. Taste and odor indicators were detected during the summer and fall, and higher heterotrophic plate count (HPC) levels were associated with lower free chlorine levels. To determine spatial variations, stepwise statistical analysis was used to identify parameters and locations in the DS that act as indicators of drinking water quality. As observed for medium and large systems, free chlorine consumption, THM and HAA levels were dependent on their location in the DS. We also observed that the degradation of HAAs is more important in small systems than in medium or large DS reported in the literature, and this degradation can occur from the beginning of the DS. The results of this research may contribute to providing precious information on drinking water quality to small system operators and pave the way for several opportunities to improve water quality management.

  19. Knowledge Transfer or Social Competence? A Comparison of German and Canadian Adolescent Students on Their Socio-Motivational Relationships in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoferichter, Frances; Raufelder, Diana; Eid, Michael; Bukowski, William M.

    2014-01-01

    This cross-national study investigates the perception of the impact of students' relationships towards teachers and peers on scholastic motivation in a total sample of 1477 seventh and eighth grade German (N?=?1088) and Canadian (N?=?389) secondary school students. By applying Multigroup Confirmatory Latent Class Analysis in Mplus we confirmed…

  20. Canadian Children's Literature: An Alberta Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Carbonaro, Mike; Green, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the findings of an online survey administered to Alberta elementary school teachers in 2000-2001. The survey explored the teachers' knowledge and use of Canadian children's literature and their thoughts about the role of Canadian literature in elementary school classrooms. Canadian children's trade books espouse particular…

  1. A Survey of Digital Rectal Examination Training in Canadian Medical Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alysha Nensi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The digital rectal examination (DRE is important for the diagnosis of a variety of gastrointestinal, urological and gynecological disorders. However, it appears that Canadian medical students may not be adequately taught nor provided the opportunity to practice their skills often enough. The present study was an analysis of the current practices in DRE teaching and evaluation in undergraduate medicine programs across Canada.

  2. Building a Generation of Physician Advocates: The Case for Including Mandatory Training in Advocacy in Canadian Medical School Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, Tahara D; Loh, Lawrence C

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing focus on the social accountability of physicians as individuals, and of medicine itself. This has led to increasing emphasis on physician advocacy from a wide variety of institutions. The physician advocacy concept is now part of the Health Advocacy competency mandated by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. Despite its growing prominence, physician advocacy remains poorly integrated into current medical undergraduate curricula. The authors recommend how and why curricular reform should proceed; they focus on Canadian medical education, although they hope their views will be useful in other countries as well.The authors discuss conflicting definitions of physician advocacy, which have previously hampered curriculum development efforts, and suggest a way of reconciling the conflicts. They review current gaps in advocacy-related curricula, suggest that these can be addressed by incorporating practice-based and skills acquisition elements into current didactic teaching, and offer several strategies by which an advocacy curriculum could be implemented, ranging from small modifications to current curriculum to developing new competencies in medical education nationally.The authors present a case for making an advocacy curriculum mandatory for every Canadian medical trainee; they argue that teaching trainees how to fulfill their professional responsibility to advocate may also help them meet the social accountability mandate of medical school education. Finally, the authors explain why making the development and implementation of a mandatory, skill-based curriculum in advocacy should be a priority.

  3. Self-Ingroup Relationships: Their Variations among Canadian Pre-Adolescents of English, French, and Italian Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortie-Lussier, Monique; Fellers, Gloria L.

    1991-01-01

    Value orientations of 116 Canadian children (60 males and 56 females) ranging from 10 to 12.5 years old (40 of Anglo-Celt, 40 of French, and 36 of Italian origin) indicate similar concepts of ideal self and self-esteem but gender and ethnic differences with respect to peer relations. (SLD)

  4. Losing Sleep over It: Daily Variation in Sleep Quantity and Quality in Canadian Students' First Semester of University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Dalton, Andrea L.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Daily covariation of sleep quantity and quality with affective, stressful, academic, and social experiences were observed in a sample of Canadian 17-19-year-olds in their first year of university. Participants (N = 191) completed web-based checklists for 14 consecutive days during their first semester. Multilevel models predicting sleep quantity…

  5. Junior High School Students' Career Plans for the Future: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardick, Angela D.; Bernes, Kerry B.; Magnusson, Kris C.; Witko, Kim D.

    2006-01-01

    This study uses the Comprehensive Career Needs Survey to assess the career plans of junior high school students in Southern Alberta, Canada. Junior high students are asked (a) what they plan to do after they leave high school; (b) their confidence in finding an occupation they enjoy, obtaining training or education, and finding work in their…

  6. Beyond the Barriers: Marking the Place for Marijuana Use at a Canadian High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joy L.; Moffat, Barbara; Bottorff, Joan; Shoveller, Jean; Fischer, Benedikt; Haines, Rebecca J.

    2008-01-01

    This ethnographic study aimed at developing a richer understanding of how youth, their schools, and the communities in which they are emplaced coincide to generate a set of local social processes that affect marijuana use. We trace the interplay between high school staff and students with regards to marijuana use in the proximity of a local high…

  7. The Pasternak Case and American Gender Equity Policy: Implications for Canadian High School Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaubier, Dean M.; Gadbois, Shannon A.; Stick, Sheldon L.

    2011-01-01

    In 2004 twin sisters Amy and Jesse Pasternak competed for the prospect of playing high school hockey, vying for the boys' team rather than the girls'. The sisters' opportunities were negated by the Manitoba High School Athletic Association (MHSAA). This paper examines the 2006 decision by the Manitoba Human Rights Commission and a 2008 judgment by…

  8. Associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among Canadian schoolchildren.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues Sampasa-Kanyinga

    Full Text Available The negative effects of peer aggression on mental health are key issues for public health. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization with suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle and high school students, and to test whether these relationships were mediated by reports of depression.Data for this study are from the 2011 Eastern Ontario Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, which is a cross-sectional regional school-based survey that was conducted among students in selected Grade 7 to 12 classes (1658 girls, 1341 boys; mean ± SD age: 14.3 ± 1.8 years.Victims of cyberbullying and school bullying incurred a significantly higher risk of suicidal ideation (cyberbullying: crude odds ratio, 95% confidence interval  = 3.31, 2.16-5.07; school bullying: 3.48, 2.48-4.89, plans (cyberbullying: 2.79, 1.63-4.77; school bullying: 2.76, 2.20-3.45 and attempts (cyberbullying: 1.73, 1.26-2.38; school bullying: 1.64, 1.18-2.27 compared to those who had not encountered such threats. Results were similar when adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, and sedentary activities. Mediation analyses indicated that depression fully mediated the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and each of the outcomes of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. Depression also fully mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and suicide attempts, but partially mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and both suicidal ideation and plans.These findings support an association between both cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and risk of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. The mediating role of depression on these links justifies the need for addressing depression among victims of both forms of bullying to prevent the risk of subsequent suicidal behaviours.

  9. Associations between Cyberbullying and School Bullying Victimization and Suicidal Ideation, Plans and Attempts among Canadian Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Roumeliotis, Paul; Xu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The negative effects of peer aggression on mental health are key issues for public health. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization with suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle and high school students, and to test whether these relationships were mediated by reports of depression. Methods Data for this study are from the 2011 Eastern Ontario Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, which is a cross-sectional regional school-based survey that was conducted among students in selected Grade 7 to 12 classes (1658 girls, 1341 boys; mean±SD age: 14.3±1.8 years). Results Victims of cyberbullying and school bullying incurred a significantly higher risk of suicidal ideation (cyberbullying: crude odds ratio, 95% confidence interval  = 3.31, 2.16–5.07; school bullying: 3.48, 2.48–4.89), plans (cyberbullying: 2.79, 1.63–4.77; school bullying: 2.76, 2.20–3.45) and attempts (cyberbullying: 1.73, 1.26–2.38; school bullying: 1.64, 1.18–2.27) compared to those who had not encountered such threats. Results were similar when adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, and sedentary activities. Mediation analyses indicated that depression fully mediated the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and each of the outcomes of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. Depression also fully mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and suicide attempts, but partially mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and both suicidal ideation and plans. Conclusion These findings support an association between both cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and risk of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. The mediating role of depression on these links justifies the need for addressing depression among victims of both forms of bullying to prevent the risk of subsequent suicidal behaviours. PMID:25076490

  10. Modeling Monthly Variation of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae Abundance and West Nile Virus Infection Rate in the Canadian Prairies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip S. Curry

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian prairie provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba have generally reported the highest human incidence of West Nile virus (WNV in Canada. In this study, environmental and biotic factors were used to predict numbers of Culex tarsalis Coquillett, which is the primary mosquito vector of WNV in this region, and prevalence of WNV infection in Cx. tarsalis in the Canadian prairies. The results showed that higher mean temperature and elevated time lagged mean temperature were associated with increased numbers of Cx. tarsalis and higher WNV infection rates. However, increasing precipitation was associated with higher abundance of Cx. tarsalis and lower WNV infection rate. In addition, this study found that increased temperature fluctuation and wetland land cover were associated with decreased infection rate in the Cx. tarsalis population. The resulting monthly models can be used to inform public health interventions by improving the predictions of population abundance of Cx. tarsalis and the transmission intensity of WNV in the Canadian prairies. Furthermore, these models can also be used to examine the potential effects of climate change on the vector population abundance and the distribution of WNV.

  11. Modeling monthly variation of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) abundance and West Nile Virus infection rate in the Canadian Prairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Chih; Epp, Tasha; Jenkins, Emily; Waldner, Cheryl; Curry, Philip S; Soos, Catherine

    2013-07-22

    The Canadian prairie provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba have generally reported the highest human incidence of West Nile virus (WNV) in Canada. In this study, environmental and biotic factors were used to predict numbers of Culex tarsalis Coquillett, which is the primary mosquito vector of WNV in this region, and prevalence of WNV infection in Cx. tarsalis in the Canadian prairies. The results showed that higher mean temperature and elevated time lagged mean temperature were associated with increased numbers of Cx. tarsalis and higher WNV infection rates. However, increasing precipitation was associated with higher abundance of Cx. tarsalis and lower WNV infection rate. In addition, this study found that increased temperature fluctuation and wetland land cover were associated with decreased infection rate in the Cx. tarsalis population. The resulting monthly models can be used to inform public health interventions by improving the predictions of population abundance of Cx. tarsalis and the transmission intensity of WNV in the Canadian prairies. Furthermore, these models can also be used to examine the potential effects of climate change on the vector population abundance and the distribution of WNV.

  12. Predicting weekly variation of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) West Nile virus infection in a newly endemic region, the Canadian prairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Chih; Epp, Tasha; Jenkins, Emily; Waldner, Cheryl; Curry, Philip S; Soos, Catherine

    2012-09-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) spread across most of North America within a short time period after its incursion into the Western Hemisphere. The Canadian prairies had the highest human incidence of WNV disease in Canada, particularly in 2007. Statistical modeling and geographic information systems can be used to develop a predictive model and facilitate the mobilization of targeted disease management strategies. Using data collected between 2005 and 2008, we constructed models integrating abiotic and biotic factors to predict the WNV infection rate in female Culex tarsalis Coquillett, the primary vector of WNV in the Canadian prairies. During the study period, the highest mean Cx. tarsalis infection rate was during week 34 (late August). The Cx. tarsalis infection rate increased with increasing Cx. tarsalis abundance and mean temperature lagged from 1 to 8 wk, but decreased with increasing mean precipitation lagged from 2 to 6 wk. Furthermore, precipitation was a 'distorter variable' that altered the association between Cx. tarsalis abundance and the WNV infection rate. Our model clarified how weather influenced the Cx. tarsalis infection rate in the Canadian prairies, a newly and highly WNV endemic region of North America. An understanding of the role of lagged weather variables was essential for providing sufficient lead time to predict WNV occurrence, and for implementing disease control and prevention strategies. Furthermore, it is a useful tool for assessing the potential effects of future climate change on WNV in areas near its northern distributional limit.

  13. Associations between Cyberbullying and School Bullying Victimization and Suicidal Ideation, Plans and Attempts among Canadian Schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Hugues Sampasa-Kanyinga; Paul Roumeliotis; Hao Xu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The negative effects of peer aggression on mental health are key issues for public health. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization with suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle and high school students, and to test whether these relationships were mediated by reports of depression. Methods Data for this study are from the 2011 Eastern Ontario Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, which is a cross-sectional regi...

  14. Students' Conceptions of the Nature of Science: Perspectives from Canadian and Korean Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeran; Nielsen, Wendy; Woodruff, Earl

    2014-05-01

    This study examined and compared students' understanding of nature of science (NOS) with 521 Grade 8 Canadian and Korean students using a mixed methods approach. The concepts of NOS were measured using a survey that had both quantitative and qualitative elements. Descriptive statistics and one-way multivariate analysis of variances examined the quantitative data while a conceptually clustered matrix classified the open-ended responses. The country effect could explain 3-12 % of the variances of subjectivity, empirical testability and diverse methods, but it was not significant for the concepts of tentativeness and socio-cultural embeddedness of science. The open-ended responses showed that students believed scientific theories change due to errors or discoveries. Students regarded empirical evidence as undeniable and objective although they acknowledged experiments depend on theories or scientists' knowledge. The open responses revealed that national situations and curriculum content affected their views. For our future democratic citizens to gain scientific literacy, science curricula should include currently acknowledged NOS concepts and should be situated within societal and cultural perspectives.

  15. The importance of being marginal: Norma Ford Walker and a Canadian school of medical genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Fiona

    2002-08-30

    This study reviews the development of a medical genetics research tradition in Toronto, Canada. This research tradition, what I call the "Ford Walker school," was forged in the 1930s in an iconoclastic mold. It was female-dominated in an era when leading-edge science was definitely not "women's work." It emerged in a leading research university, but in a country that lagged in the sciences. These social relations of gender and nation symbolized and sustained a marginality that was reinforced by the substantive concerns of members of this research school. They adopted a service orientation toward medicine, were sympathetic to heterodox approaches to genetic and medical science, and were principally reliant on a marginal research tool-dermatoglyphics. Despite this marginality, Norma Ford Walker was among the founding members of the institutions of human and medical genetics in North America in the postwar period. She forged a research tradition that served as the basis for further developments in medical genetics in Toronto and educated a generation of students, many of them women, who went on to populate and then institutionalize the growing science and practice of medical genetics in Canada. The heterodox approach of the early Ford Walker school was displaced as the field grew in the postwar period. Yet many members of the research school retained dermatoglyphic technique and used it to contribute to progress in medical cytogenetics. In this article, I explore why the history of this marginal research school is important.

  16. Faculty and student perceptions of academic integrity at U.S. and Canadian dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Kenneth G; Smith, Linda A; Henzi, David; Demps, Elaine

    2007-08-01

    The issues of cheating and plagiarism in educational settings have received a large amount of attention in recent years. The purpose of this study was to assess the degree to which academic integrity issues currently exist in the dental schools throughout the United States and Canada. An online survey was developed to gather data pertaining to this topic from two key groups in dental education: faculty and students. Responses were obtained from 1,153 students and 423 faculty members. The results of the survey clearly reveal that cheating is a significant problem in dental schools and that significant differences exist between students' and faculty members' perceptions of academic integrity. The challenge for dental schools is to identify effective strategies to prevent cheating opportunities and to implement and enforce effective means of dealing with specific examples of cheating.

  17. Academic Support Services in U.S. and Canadian Medical Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma S. Saks, EdD

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Academic support services play a critical but largely undocumented role in helping medical students meet the challenges of the curriculum. Purpose: To determine the prevalence of academic support programs in medical schools, and to find out how these are conceptualized and implemented. Methods: Questionnaires were sent to medical schools in the US and Canada. Questions addressed specific services, providers, and funding. Results: The survey was returned by 86 of the 135 (67.7% schools. Almost all (95.3% provide academic support in the first two years, and a large majority in third (82.6% and fourth (79% year. Great variability exists in the infrastructure and funding of the programs, and in the training of the providers. Conclusions: Academic support is common, but has broad interpretation; services are varied. Programs are conceptualized differently, some to provide specific assistance to pass courses, and others for skill development, to enhance self-directed, life-long learning.

  18. Soil 4 Youth: Charting New Territory in Canadian High School Soil Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzic, Maja; Wilson, Julie; Basiliko, Nathan; Bedard-Haughn, Angela; Humphreys, Elyn; Dyanatkar, Saeed; Hazlett, Paul; Strivelli, Rachel; Crowley, Chris; Dampier, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    As global issues continue to place increasing demands on soil resources, the need to provide soil science education to the next generation of soil scientists and the general public is becoming more imminent. In many countries around the world, including Canada, soil is either not included in the high school curriculum or it is not covered in…

  19. Everyday Racism in Canadian Schools: Ideologies of Language and Culture among Korean Transnational Students in Toronto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyunjung

    2015-01-01

    Drawing from a 2.4-year ethnography with Korean Early Study Abroad (ESA, pre-college-aged study abroad) students in Toronto high schools, I examine the intersections among race, class, language, culture and citizenship (including immigrant status) in the identity construction and language learning of these students. Conceptualising race as a…

  20. Periodontal-systemic disease education in U.S. and Canadian dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Rebecca S; Iacopino, Anthony M; Feldman, Cecile A; Guthmiller, Janet; Linfante, Jeffrey; Lavigne, Salme; Paquette, David

    2009-01-01

    Research has proliferated in recent years regarding the relationship of oral disease to systemic conditions. Specifically, periodontal disease has been studied as a potential risk factor for multiple conditions such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and adverse pregnancy outcomes, while other research focuses on exposures or behaviors associated with oral disease. However, few articles have been published reporting how this information is integrated into schools of dentistry, both in the classroom and clinical curriculum. For our study, a thirty-three-item survey and cover letter were electronically mailed to academic deans at sixty-five accredited dental schools in the United States and Canada in the fall of 2007. The response rate was 77 percent. According to the responses to this survey, the primary topics covered in the didactic curriculum regarding periodontal oral-systemic disease are aging, CVD, diabetes, and tobacco use. Eighty-eight percent of the respondents reported that their students are knowledgeable about the role of inflammation and its impact on oral-systemic conditions. Forty-eight percent of the respondents said they provide formal training for their students in how to discuss or communicate aspects of periodontal oral-systemic disease with patients. Only seven schools reported teaching didactic content to dental students intermixed with other health professions students, and only two schools reported conducting joint projects. Only 9 percent of the respondents said they think nurses and physicians are knowledgeable about oral-systemic disease. The findings indicate that dental schools are confident about the knowledge of their students regarding oral-systemic content. However, much work is needed to educate dental students to work in a collaborative fashion with other health care providers to co-manage patients at risk for oral-systemic conditions.

  1. Influences on adolescent self-esteem in multicultural Canadian secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanlou, Nazilla

    2004-01-01

    Abstract This study examined the global and current self-esteem levels of adolescents in a community sample of 550 secondary school students in Canada. A cross-sectional design and the survey method were used. Respondents' individual (age and gender) and environmental (cultural background, acculturating group, family circumstances, and perception of support) attributes were considered. Influences that promoted or challenged their current self-esteem were examined. Eighteen percent of respondents and 43.4% of respondents' parents were immigrants. When the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale was used, 27.6% of respondents had the highest global self-esteem level; when the Current Self-Esteem scale was used, 12.7% had the highest current self-esteem level. A significant gender difference was found, with male adolescents having higher self-esteem. The results indicate that, although self-esteem promotion can benefit from lifestyle-oriented activities, its growth takes place in the larger context of adolescents' relationships, school-related experiences, achievements, and attitudes toward themselves. The study findings can contribute to mental health promotion strategies in multicultural and immigrant-receiving community settings.

  2. Between-school variation in physical activity, aerobic fitness, and organized sports participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter L; Olesen, Line G; Ried-Larsen, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A large proportion of a child's day is spent at school interacting with certain physical surroundings, teachers, and school friends. Thus, schools could have a marked impact on establishing physical activity habits. The aim of the present study was to assess between-school variation...... between-school variation in physical activity provides information about the extent to which children adjust their physical activity habits according to the social and environmental circumstances that they share, and helps to plan future school-based physical activity studies, especially in terms...

  3. Drinking Water Quality Guidelines across Canadian provinces and territories: jurisdictional variation in the context of decentralized water governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Gemma; Bakker, Karen; Harris, Leila

    2014-04-25

    This article presents the first comprehensive review and analysis of the uptake of the Canadian Drinking Water Quality Guidelines (CDWQG) across Canada's 13 provinces and territories. This review is significant given that Canada's approach to drinking water governance is: (i) highly decentralized and (ii) discretionary. Canada is (along with Australia) only one of two Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member states that does not comply with the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendation that all countries have national, legally binding drinking water quality standards. Our review identifies key differences in the regulatory approaches to drinking water quality across Canada's 13 jurisdictions. Only 16 of the 94 CDWQG are consistently applied across all 13 jurisdictions; five jurisdictions use voluntary guidelines, whereas eight use mandatory standards. The analysis explores three questions of central importance for water managers and public health officials: (i) should standards be uniform or variable; (ii) should compliance be voluntary or legally binding; and (iii) should regulation and oversight be harmonized or delegated? We conclude with recommendations for further research, with particular reference to the relevance of our findings given the high degree of variability in drinking water management and oversight capacity between urban and rural areas in Canada.

  4. Exploring the use of lesson study with six Canadian middle-school science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Terry James

    This qualitative case study explores the use of lesson study over a ten-week period with six Ontario middle school science teachers. The research questions guiding this study were: (1) How does participation in science-based lesson study influence these teachers': (a) science subject matter knowledge (science SMK), (b) science pedagogical content knowledge (science PCK), and (c) confidence in teaching science?, and (2) What benefits and challenges do they associate with lesson study? Data sources for this study were: teacher questionnaires, surveys, reflections, pre- and post- interviews, and follow-up emails; researcher field notes and reflections; pre- and post- administration of the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument; and audio recordings of group meetings. The teachers demonstrated limited gains in science SMK. There was evidence for an overall improvement in teacher knowledge of forces and simple machines, and two teachers demonstrated improvement in over half of the five scenarios assessing teacher science SMK. Modest gains in teacher science PCK were found. One teacher expressed more accurate understanding of students' knowledge of forces and a better knowledge of effective science teaching strategies. The majority of teachers reported that they would be using three-part lessons and hands-on activities more in their science teaching. Gains in teacher pedagogical knowledge (PK) were found in four areas: greater emphasis on anticipation of student thinking and responses, recognition of the importance of observing students, more intentional teaching, and anticipated future use of student video data. Most teachers reported feeling more confident in teaching structures and mechanisms, and attributed this increase in confidence to collaboration and seeing evidence of student learning and engagement during the lesson teachings. Teacher benefits included: learning how to increase student engagement and collaboration, observing students, including video data

  5. Variation in recruitment across sites in a consent-based clinical data registry: lessons from the Canadian Stroke Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richards Janice A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In earlier work, we found important selection biases when we tried to obtain consent for participation in a national stroke registry. Recognizing that not all registries will be exempt from requiring consent for participation, we examine here in greater depth the reasons for the poor accrual of patients from a systems perspective with a view to obtaining as representative sample as possible. Methods We determined the percent of eligible patients who were approached to participate and, among those approached, the percent who actually consented to participate. In addition we examined the reasons why people were not approached or did not consent and the variation across sites in the percent of patients approached and consented. We also considered site variation in restrictions on the accrual and data collection process imposed by either the local research ethics board or the hospital. Results Seventy percent of stroke patients were approached, with wide variations in approach rates across sites (from: 41% to 86%, and considerable inter-site variation in hospital policies governing patient accrual. Chief reasons for not approaching were discharge or death before being approached for consent. Seventeen percent of those approached refused to participate (range: 5% to 75%. Finally, 11% of those approached did not participate due to language or communication difficulties. Conclusion We found wide variation in approach and agree rates across sites that were accounted for, in part, by different approaches to accrual and idiosyncratic policies of the hospitals. This wide variation in approach and agree rates raises important challenges for research ethics boards and data protection authorities in determining when to waive consent requirements, when to press for increased quality control, when to permit local adaptation of the consent process, and when to permit alternatives to individual express consent. We offer several suggestions for

  6. Variations in Reading Achievement across 14 Southern African School Systems: Which Factors Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungi, Njora; Thuku, Florence W.

    2010-01-01

    In this study the authors employed a multilevel analysis procedure in order to examine the pupil and school levels factors that contributed to variation in reading achievement among Grade 6 primary school pupils in 14 southern African school systems (Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa,…

  7. Schooling and Variation in the "COMT" Gene: The Devil Is in the Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Daniel; Bick, Johanna; Yrigollen, Carolyn M.; Lee, Maria; Joseph, Antony; Chang, Joseph T.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Schooling is considered one of the major contributors to the development of intelligence within societies and individuals. Genetic variation might modulate the impact of schooling and explain, at least partially, the presence of individual differences in classrooms. Method: We studied a sample of 1,502 children (mean age = 11.7 years)…

  8. I Am Canadian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Joe

    2011-01-01

    "I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness......."I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness....

  9. Variation in School Health Policies and Programs by Demographic Characteristics of US Schools, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Alexandra B.; Brener, Nancy D.; McManus, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Background: To identify whether school health policies and programs vary by demographic characteristics of schools, using data from the School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) 2006. This study updates a similar study conducted with SHPPS 2000 data and assesses several additional policies and programs measured for the first time in SHPPS…

  10. The Association between Health Behaviours and Academic Performance in Canadian Elementary School Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie-Lee D. McIsaac

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Establishing early healthy eating and physical activity behaviours is critical in supporting children’s long-term health and well-being. The objective of the current paper was to examine the association between health behaviours and academic performance in elementary school students in a school board in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods: Our population-based study included students in grades 4–6 across 18 schools in a rural school board. Diet and physical activity were assessed through validated instruments. Academic performance measures were obtained from the school board for Mathematics and English Language Arts (ELA. Associations between health behaviours and academic performance were assessed using multilevel logistic regression. Results: Students with unhealthy lifestyle behaviours were more likely to have poor academic performance for both ELA and Mathematics compared to students with healthy lifestyle behaviours; associations were statistically significant for diet quality, physical activity, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption for ELA; and breakfast skipping, not being physically active at morning recess, and not being physically active after school for Mathematics. The effects of diet and physical activity were independent of each other and there was no interaction between the two exposures. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that support for healthy behaviours may help to improve academic outcomes of students.

  11. Methane Gas Hydrate Stability Models on Continental Shelves in Response to Glacio-Eustatic Sea Level Variations: Examples from Canadian Oceanic Margins

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    We model numerically regions of the Canadian continental shelves during successive glacio-eustatic cycles to illustrate past, current and future marine gas hydrate (GH) stability and instability. These models indicated that the marine GH resource has dynamic features and the formation age and resource volumes depend on the dynamics of the ocean-atmosphere system as it responds to both natural (glacial-interglacial) and anthropogenic (climate change) forcing. Our models focus on the interval b...

  12. Spatial and temporal variations in traffic-related particulate matter at New York City high schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Molini M.; Chillrud, Steven N.; Correa, Juan C.; Feinberg, Marian; Hazi, Yair; Deepti, K. C.; Prakash, Swati; Ross, James M.; Levy, Diane; Kinney, Patrick L.

    Relatively little is known about exposures to traffic-related particulate matter at schools located in dense urban areas. The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of diesel traffic proximity and intensity on ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) and black carbon (BC), an indicator of diesel exhaust particles, at New York City (NYC) high schools. Outdoor PM 2.5 and BC were monitored continuously for 4-6 weeks at each of 3 NYC schools and 1 suburban school located 40 km upwind of the city. Traffic count data were obtained using an automated traffic counter or video camera. BC concentrations were 2-3 fold higher at urban schools compared with the suburban school, and among the 3 urban schools, BC concentrations were higher at schools located adjacent to highways. PM 2.5 concentrations were significantly higher at urban schools than at the suburban school, but concentrations did not vary significantly among urban schools. Both hourly average counts of trucks and buses and meteorological factors such as wind direction, wind speed, and humidity were significantly associated with hourly average ambient BC and PM 2.5 concentrations in multivariate regression models. An increase of 443 trucks/buses per hour was associated with a 0.62 μg/m 3 increase in hourly average BC at an NYC school located adjacent to a major interstate highway. Car traffic counts were not associated with BC. The results suggest that local diesel vehicle traffic may be important sources of airborne fine particles in dense urban areas and consequently may contribute to local variations in PM 2.5 concentrations. In urban areas with higher levels of diesel traffic, local, neighborhood-scale monitoring of pollutants such as BC, which compared to PM 2.5, is a more specific indicator of diesel exhaust particles, may more accurately represent population exposures.

  13. What information is provided in transcripts and Medical Student Performance Records from Canadian Medical Schools? A retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A. Robins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resident selection committees must rely on information provided by medical schools in order to evaluate candidates. However, this information varies between institutions, limiting its value in comparing individuals and fairly assessing their quality. This study investigates what is included in candidates’ documentation, the heterogeneity therein, as well as its objective data. Methods: Samples of recent transcripts and Medical Student Performance Records were anonymised prior to evaluation. Data were then extracted by two independent reviewers blinded to the submitting university, assessing for the presence of pre-selected criteria; disagreement was resolved through consensus. The data were subsequently analysed in multiple subgroups. Results: Inter-rater agreement equalled 92%. Inclusion of important criteria varied by school, ranging from 22.2% inclusion to 70.4%; the mean equalled 47.4%. The frequency of specific criteria was highly variable as well. Only 17.7% of schools provided any basis for comparison of academic performance; the majority detailed only status regarding pass or fail, without any further qualification. Conclusions: Considerable heterogeneity exists in the information provided in official medical school documentation, as well as markedly little objective data. Standardization may be necessary in order to facilitate fair comparison of graduates from different institutions. Implementation of objective data may allow more effective intra- and inter-scholastic comparison.

  14. Canadian Perspectives on Equity in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowlby, Brenda; Komlen, Mile

    2000-01-01

    Canadian school board administrators are increasingly expected to meet the needs of disabled or other students requiring specific types of accommodation. The duty to accommodate arises when otherwise legitimate school rules or policies affect the customs and observances of nonmajoritarian religions. (Contains 12 references.) (MLH)

  15. Examining Variations in Fourth-Grade Children's Participation in School Breakfast and Lunch Programs by Student and Program Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Caroline H.; Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Finney, Christopher J.; Hitchcock, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Analyses were conducted to examine variations in fourth-grade children's participation in school-breakfast and school-lunch programs by weekday, month, socioeconomic status, absenteeism, gender, and school-breakfast location. Methods: Fourth-grade children were participants in a dietary-reporting validation study during either…

  16. The "Canadian" in Canadian Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Wolodko, Brenda

    2001-01-01

    Notes that a rich body of Canadian children's literature exists that reflects the country's literary and socio-cultural values, beliefs, themes and images, including those of geography, history, language and identity. Discusses how Canadians tend to identify themselves first by region or province and then by nation. (SG)

  17. The more it changes; the more it remains the same: a Foucauldian analysis of Canadian policy documents relevant to student selection for medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razack, Saleem; Lessard, David; Hodges, Brian D; Maguire, Mary H; Steinert, Yvonne

    2014-05-01

    Calls to increase the demographic representativeness of medical classes to better reflect the diversity of society are part of a growing international trend. Despite this, entry into medical school remains highly competitive and exclusive of marginalized groups. To address these questions, we conducted a Foucauldian discourse analysis of 15 publically available policy documents from the websites of Canadian medical education regulatory bodies, using the concepts of "excellence" (institutional or in an applicant), "diversity," and "equity" to frame the analysis. In most documents, there were appeals to broaden definitions of institutional excellence to include concerns for greater social accountability. Equity concerns tended to be represented as needing to be dealt with by people in positions of authority in order to counter a "hidden curriculum." Diversity was represented as an object of value, situated within a discontinuous history. As a rhetorical strategy, documents invoked complex societal shifts to promote change toward a more humanistic medical education system and profession. "Social accountability" was reified as an all-encompassing solution to most issues of representation. Although the policy documents proclaimed rootedness in an ethos of improving the societal responsiveness of the medical profession, our analysis takes a more critical stance towards the discourses identified. On the basis of our research findings, we question whether these calls may contribute to the maintenance of the specific power relations they seek to address. These conclusions lead us to consider the possibility that the discourses represented in the documents might be reframed to take into account issues of power distribution and its productive and reproductive features. A reframing of discourses could potentially generate greater inclusiveness in policy development processes, and afford disadvantaged and marginalized groups more participatory roles in the discussion.

  18. Canadian Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Libraries in Canada, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Includes 15 articles that relate to Canadian children's literature, including the power of literature; using Canadian literature in Canada; the principal's role in promoting literacy; Canadian Children's Book Centre; the National Library of Canada's children's literature collection; book promotion; selection guide; publisher's perspective; and…

  19. Anthropometric Indices Associated with Variation in Cardiovascular Parameters among Primary School Pupils in Ile-Ife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiodun, Adedeji G; Egwu, Michael O; Adedoyin, Rufus A

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. This study investigated the anthropometric indices associated with variations in cardiovascular parameters among primary school pupils in Ile-Ife. Method. One thousand and twenty-six pupils (age range 6-14 years, mean age 10.12 years) from ten schools were recruited with parents' informed consent. Anthropometric (Height (Ht), Weight (Wt), Abdominal Circumference (AC)) and cardiovascular (Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP), Heart Rate (HR)) parameters were measured using standard instruments and procedures. Blood pressure (BP) was measured after ten minutes of quiet sitting. Body Mass Index (BMI), Rate Pressure Product (RPP) and Pulse Pressure (PP) were estimated. Results. Age, Ht, Wt, BMI, and AC correlated significantly (P < .01) with BP and PP. AC and BMI were predictors of BP, HR, RPP, and PP. Conclusion. Significant correlations exist between age, Ht, Wt, BMI, AC, and BP with weight being a more viable predictor of SBP and age a more viable predictor of DBP.

  20. Short communication: Variation of total immunoglobulin G and β-lactoglobulin concentrations in colostrum and milk from Canadian Holsteins classified as high, average, or low immune responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, K; Thompson-Crispi, K A; Hodgins, D C; Miglior, F; Corredig, M; Mallard, B A

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate IgG and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) concentrations in colostrum and milk of Canadian Holsteins (n=108) classified as high (H), average (A), or low (L) for antibody-mediated (AMIR) or cell-mediated immune responses (CMIR) based on estimated breeding values. It was hypothesized that H-AMIR and H-CMIR cows produce colostrum (first milking) and milk (d 5 postcalving) with higher concentrations of IgG and β-LG. Data for IgG and β-LG in colostrum and milk were analyzed independently using mixed linear models. Least squares means were compared using Tukey's test. Cows classified as H-AMIR had higher IgG and β-LG concentrations in colostrum compared with A- and L-AMIR cows; 84% of H-AMIR, 69% of A-AMIR, and 68% of L-AMIR cows had over 5,000 mg/dL IgG in colostrum. No differences in IgG and β-LG concentrations in colostrum were noted among cows ranked on CMIR or in milk of cows ranked on AMIR. β-Lactoglobulin and IgG concentrations were positively correlated in colostrum. Breeding cows for H-AMIR status may reduce failure of passive transfer of IgG in their calves; β-LG may play a role in bovine immune defenses. Colostrum from H-AMIR cows may serve as a more economical feedstock source for manufacturing natural health products.

  1. Canadian Art Partnership Program in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketovuori, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    This article is about a multidisciplinary R&D project in which a Canadian Learning Through The Arts (LTTA) program was imported to Finland in 2003-2004. Cultural differences in arts education in Finland and Canada are discussed. While Finland has a national school curriculum with all the arts included. Canada relies more on partnerships to…

  2. "The School of Life": Differences in U.S. and Canadian Settlement Policies and Their Effect on Individual Haitian Immigrants' Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguay, Annie Laurie

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that language proficiency in the main language of the destination country is one of the most significant factors in the integration of immigrants. This study examines the overall differences in U.S. and Canadian settlement policy, using the provision of language courses as a specific example of the ways in…

  3. Variations in the NBN/NBS1 gene and the risk of breast cancer in non-BRCA1/2 French Canadian families with high risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desjardins Sylvie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome is a chromosomal instability disorder characterized by microcephaly, growth retardation, immunodeficiency, and increased frequency of cancers. Familial studies on relatives of these patients indicated that they also appear to be at increased risk of cancer. Methods In a candidate gene study aiming at identifying genetic determinants of breast cancer susceptibility, we undertook the full sequencing of the NBN gene in our cohort of 97 high-risk non-BRCA1 and -BRCA2 breast cancer families, along with 74 healthy unrelated controls, also from the French Canadian population. In silico programs (ESEfinder, NNSplice, Splice Site Finder and MatInspector were used to assess the putative impact of the variants identified. The effect of the promoter variant was further studied by luciferase gene reporter assay in MCF-7, HEK293, HeLa and LNCaP cell lines. Results Twenty-four variants were identified in our case series and their frequency was further evaluated in healthy controls. The potentially deleterious p.Ile171Val variant was observed in one case only. The p.Arg215Trp variant, suggested to impair NBN binding to histone γ-H2AX, was observed in one breast cancer case and one healthy control. A promoter variant c.-242-110delAGTA displayed a significant variation in frequency between both sample sets. Luciferase reporter gene assay of the promoter construct bearing this variant did not suggest a variation of expression in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, but indicated a reduction of luciferase expression in both the HEK293 and LNCaP cell lines. Conclusion Our analysis of NBN sequence variations indicated that potential NBN alterations are present, albeit at a low frequency, in our cohort of high-risk breast cancer cases. Further analyses will be needed to fully ascertain the exact impact of those variants on breast cancer susceptibility, in particular for variants located in NBN promoter region.

  4. Conceptual Variation in the Depiction of Gene Function in Upper Secondary School Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, Niklas Markus; Hagberg, Mariana

    2010-10-01

    This paper explores conceptual variation in the depiction of gene function in upper secondary school textbooks. Historically, concepts in genetics have developed in various scientific frameworks, which has led to a level of incommensurability as concepts have changed over time within their respective frameworks. Since students may have difficulties in understanding concepts where there is implicit variation in descriptions of the same phenomena, we have developed a concept mapping instrument and applied it to study the gene function concepts in biology and chemistry textbooks that are widely used in Sweden, and others used in a selection of English speaking countries. The data were then further examined using content analysis. In the present paper we describe the conceptual variation of gene function as it is presented in the textbooks, and analyze the ways in which students’ understanding may be influenced. We conclude that it may be difficult for students to gain a modern, process-oriented understanding of gene function if textbooks are used as foundations for the planning and execution of lessons.

  5. Methane Gas Hydrate Stability Models on Continental Shelves in Response to Glacio-Eustatic Sea Level Variations: Examples from Canadian Oceanic Margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Safanda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We model numerically regions of the Canadian continental shelves during successive glacio-eustatic cycles to illustrate past, current and future marine gas hydrate (GH stability and instability. These models indicated that the marine GH resource has dynamic features and the formation age and resource volumes depend on the dynamics of the ocean-atmosphere system as it responds to both natural (glacial-interglacial and anthropogenic (climate change forcing. Our models focus on the interval beginning three million years ago (i.e., Late Pliocene-Holocene. They continue through the current interglacial and they are projected to its anticipated natural end. During the current interglacial the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ thickness in each region responded uniquely as a function of changes in water depth and sea bottom temperature influenced by ocean currents. In general, the GHSZ in the deeper parts of the Pacific and Atlantic margins (≥1316 m thinned primarily due to increased water bottom temperatures. The GHSZ is highly variable in the shallower settings on the same margins (~400–500 m. On the Pacific Margin shallow GH dissociated completely prior to nine thousand years ago but the effects of subsequent sea level rise reestablished a persistent, thin GHSZ. On the Atlantic Margin Scotian Shelf the warm Gulf Stream caused GHSZ to disappear completely, whereas in shallow water depths offshore Labrador the combination of the cool Labrador Current and sea level rise increased the GHSZ. If future ocean bottom temperatures remain constant, these general characteristics will persist until the current interglacial ends. If the sea bottom warms, possibly in response to global climate change, there could be a significant reduction to complete loss of GH stability, especially on the shallow parts of the continental shelf. The interglacial GH thinning rates constrain rates at which carbon can be transferred between the GH reservoir and the atmosphere

  6. Harvey Cushing's Canadian connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feindel, William

    2003-01-01

    During his surgical career between 1896 and 1934, Harvey Cushing made eight visits to Canada. He had a broad impact on Canadian medicine and neurosurgery. Cushing's students Wilder Penfield and Kenneth McKenzie became outstanding leaders of the two major centers in Canada for neurosurgical treatment and training. On his first trip to Canada, shortly after completing his surgical internship in August 1896, Cushing traveled with members of his family through the Maritime Provinces and visited hospitals in Quebec and Montreal. Eight years later, in February 1904, as a successful young neurosurgeon at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, he reported to the Montreal Medico-Chirurgical Society on his surgical experience in 20 cases of removal of the trigeminal ganglion for neuralgia. In 1922, as the Charles Mickle Lecturer at the University of Toronto, Cushing assigned his honorarium of $1000 to support a neurosurgical fellowship at Harvard. This was awarded to McKenzie, then a general practitioner, for a year's training with Cushing in 1922-1923. McKenzie returned to initiate the neurosurgical services at the Toronto General Hospital, where he developed into a master surgeon and teacher. On Cushing's second visit to McGill University in October 1922, he and Sir Charles Sherrington inaugurated the new Biology Building of McGill's Medical School, marking the first stage of a Rockefeller-McGill program of modernization. In May 1929, Cushing attended the dedication of the Osler Library at McGill. In September 1934, responding to the invitation of Penfield, Cushing presented a Foundation Lecture-one of his finest addresses on the philosophy of neurosurgery-at the opening of the Montreal Neurological Institute. On that same trip, Cushing's revisit to McGill's Osler Library convinced him to turn over his own treasure of historical books to Yale University.

  7. Factors Affecting Canadian Teachers' Willingness to Teach Sexual Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jacqueline N.; Byers, E. Sandra; Sears, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-specialist teachers in Canada are increasingly required to teach sexual health topics. However, research suggests that they do not always do so willingly. This study examined the associations between the characteristics of non-specialist elementary and middle school teachers (n = 294) in Canadian schools and their willingness to provide sexual…

  8. The Study of Canadian Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Eli

    1971-01-01

    Discussed are Canadian novels, short stories, poems and a film which revolve around man's confrontation with nature, the depression, the problem of isolation, realism in Canadian literature. (Author/AF)

  9. Variation by Gender in Abu Dhabi High School Students' Interests in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Masood; Mazroui, Karima Al; Al Rashedi, Asma; Yang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Abu Dhabi high school students' interest in physics in different contexts was investigated with a survey conducted in connection with the international project, The Relevance of Science Education (ROSE). The sample consisted of 2248 students in public and private schools. Means of most items that belong to the school physics context for both girls…

  10. Active transportation safety features around schools in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, Bryn; Rosu, Andrei; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William

    2013-10-31

    The purpose of this study was to describe the presence and quality of active transportation safety features in Canadian school environments that relate to pedestrian and bicycle safety. Variations in these features and associated traffic concerns as perceived by school administrators were examined by geographic status and school type. The study was based on schools that participated in 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey. ArcGIS software version 10 and Google Earth were used to assess the presence and quality of ten different active transportation safety features. Findings suggest that there are crosswalks and good sidewalk coverage in the environments surrounding most Canadian schools, but a dearth of bicycle lanes and other traffic calming measures (e.g., speed bumps, traffic chokers). Significant urban/rural inequities exist with a greater prevalence of sidewalk coverage, crosswalks, traffic medians, and speed bumps in urban areas. With the exception of bicycle lanes, the active transportation safety features that were present were generally rated as high quality. Traffic was more of a concern to administrators in urban areas. This study provides novel information about active transportation safety features in Canadian school environments. This information could help guide public health efforts aimed at increasing active transportation levels while simultaneously decreasing active transportation injuries.

  11. Active Transportation Safety Features around Schools in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryn Pinkerton

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the presence and quality of active transportation safety features in Canadian school environments that relate to pedestrian and bicycle safety. Variations in these features and associated traffic concerns as perceived by school administrators were examined by geographic status and school type. The study was based on schools that participated in 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC survey. ArcGIS software version 10 and Google Earth were used to assess the presence and quality of ten different active transportation safety features. Findings suggest that there are crosswalks and good sidewalk coverage in the environments surrounding most Canadian schools, but a dearth of bicycle lanes and other traffic calming measures (e.g., speed bumps, traffic chokers. Significant urban/rural inequities exist with a greater prevalence of sidewalk coverage, crosswalks, traffic medians, and speed bumps in urban areas. With the exception of bicycle lanes, the active transportation safety features that were present were generally rated as high quality. Traffic was more of a concern to administrators in urban areas. This study provides novel information about active transportation safety features in Canadian school environments. This information could help guide public health efforts aimed at increasing active transportation levels while simultaneously decreasing active transportation injuries.

  12. School-Based Racial and Gender Discrimination among African American Adolescents: Exploring Gender Variation in Frequency and Implications for Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Cogburn, Courtney D.; Chavous, Tabbye M.; Tiffany M. Griffin

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined school-based racial and gender discrimination experiences among African American adolescents in Grade 8 (n = 204 girls; n = 209 boys). A primary goal was exploring gender variation in frequency of both types of discrimination and associations of discrimination with academic and psychological functioning among girls and boys. Girls and boys did not vary in reported racial discrimination frequency, but boys reported more gender discrimination experiences. Multiple reg...

  13. Banal Race Thinking: Ties of Blood, Canadian History Textbooks and Ethnic Nationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines how the idea of "race" is represented in high school Canadian history textbooks. It looks at textbooks authorized by the Province of Ontario between 1940 and 1960 and those authorized after 2000. It is argued in this paper that even though historical racisms have increasingly made their way into Canadian history…

  14. Twitter and Canadian Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Max

    2012-01-01

    An emerging group of leaders in Canadian education has attracted thousands of followers. They've made Twitter an extension of their lives, delivering twenty or more tweets a day that can include, for example, links to media articles, research, new ideas from education bloggers, or to their own, or simply a personal thought. At their best,…

  15. Canadian Adult Basic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, W. Michael, Comp.

    "Trends," a publication of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, is a collection of abstracts on selected subjects affecting adult education; this issue is on adult basic education (ABE). It covers teachers and teacher training, psychological factors relating to the ABE teacher and students, manuals for teachers, instructional…

  16. Socio-motivational moderators – Two sides of the same coin?Testing the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships on achievement drive and test anxiety among German and Canadian secondary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances eHoferichter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The current cross-national study investigates the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships for the association of achievement drive and test anxiety in secondary school students from Canada and Germany. One thousand eighty-eight students (54% girls, Mage = 13.71, SD = .53, age span 12–15 years from the state of Brandenburg and 389 students from Quebéc (55.9% girls, Mage = 13.43, SD = .82, age span 12–16 years were asked about their socio-motivational relationships with their teachers and peers, their drive for achievement, and test anxiety. Multigroup latent moderated structural equations (MGLMS were conducted to test for the moderator role of socio-motivational relationships that would buffer feelings of test anxiety related to the drive for achievement. The analyses revealed the two-sided role socio-motivational relationships can have for students with different levels of achievement drive; intensifying or mitigating feelings of test anxiety. Thereby, the results of this study extend the buffering hypothesis by Cohen and Wills (1985. Cross-national differences between Canada and Germany were found concerning the studied moderators on the association of achievement drive and test anxiety: While for German students teacher-student relationships acted as moderator, for Canadian students student-student relationships and teachers acting as positive motivators displayed a moderator role.

  17. Canadian Mathematical Congress

    CERN Document Server

    1977-01-01

    For two weeks in August, 1975 more than 140 mathematicians and other scientists gathered at the Universite de Sherbrooke. The occasion was the 15th Biennial Seminar of the Canadian Mathematical Congress, entitled Mathematics and the Life Sciences. Participants in this inter­ disciplinary gathering included researchers and graduate students in mathematics, seven different areas of biological science, physics, chemistry and medical science. Geographically, those present came from the United States and the United Kingdom as well as from academic departments and government agencies scattered across Canada. In choosing this particular interdisciplinary topic the programme committee had two chief objectives. These were to promote Canadian research in mathematical problems of the life sciences, and to encourage co-operation and exchanges between mathematical scientists" biologists and medical re­ searchers. To accomplish these objective the committee assembled a stim­ ulating programme of lectures and talks. Six ...

  18. Canadian identity: Implications for international social work by Canadians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2011-01-01

    This paper is in response to recent calls to conceptualize and articulate Canadian perspectives and experiences in international social work, given that the Canadian standpoint has been lacking in international social work literature. This paper contends that it is imperative, first of all......, to critically examine and unpack our ‘Canadian’ identity in order to practice international work that is socially just and anti-imperialist. Drawing on the work of post-colonial authors, critical race theorists, and those who study national myth-making, this essay revisits Canadian identity because...... it is this identity that Canadian social workers often carry into their international work....

  19. Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon H Hoeppner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic tuberculosis (TB was almost certainly present in Canadian aboriginal people (aboriginal Canadians denotes status Indians, Inuit, nonstatus Indians and metis as reported by Statistics Canada before the Old World traders arrived. However, the social changes that resulted from contact with these traders created the conditions that converted endemic TB into epidemic TB. The incidence of TB varied inversely with the time interval from this cultural collision, which began on the east coast in the 16th century and ended in the Northern Territories in the 20th century. This relatively recent epidemic explains why the disease is more frequent in aboriginal children than in Canadian-born nonaboriginal people. Treatment plans must account for the socioeconomic conditions and cultural characteristics of the aboriginal people, especially healing models and language. Prevention includes bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and chemoprophylaxis, and must account for community conditions, such as rates of suicide, which have exceeded the rate of TB. The control of TB requires a centralized program with specifically directed funding. It must include a program that works in partnership with aboriginal communities.

  20. Culture and Parenting: Psychological Adjustment among Chinese Canadian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Cynthia S. M.; Miller, Lynn D.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between adolescents' cultural identification, perceptions of maternal and paternal parenting, and psychological adjustment with a sample of 192 Chinese Canadian adolescents. Participants were recruited from public urban high schools and completed 4 self-report questionnaires. Data were analyzed using…

  1. Graduate Writing Assignments across Faculties in a Canadian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ling; Dong, Yanning

    2015-01-01

    This study examines 143 graduate assignments across 12 faculties or schools in a Canadian university in order to identify types of writing tasks. Based on the descriptions provided by the instructors, we identified nine types of assignments, with scholarly essay being the most common, followed by summary and response, literature review, project,…

  2. Variations of sitting posture and physical activity in different types of school furniture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, I

    1997-12-01

    Inadequate school furniture is frequently taken to be the reason of severe posture problems in adulthood. Therefore, chairs and desks used by children for considerable periods of time need to be evaluated carefully. In this study we investigated the postures and movement patterns of schoolchildren sitting on two distinctly different types of school furniture. The analysis of our observations and records showed numerous differences of movement patterns with respect to sex, age, and type of furniture. These results include overall movement frequencies, the possibility of choosing extreme postures in order to interrupt monotonous permanent positions, and freedom of movements for the legs. In general, the ordinary standardized school furniture under investigation turned out to meet the ergonomic demands better than a second type of furniture, which had been advertised to be especially "ergonomic". It can be concluded that the analysis of movement patterns offers additional criteria for the evaluation of the quality and suitability of school furniture.

  3. A Canadian Investigation of the Psychometric Properties of the Student Motivation and Learning Strategies Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Troy; Cormier, Damien C.; Hetherington, Jay; Mrazik, Martin; Mousavi, Amin

    2015-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Student Motivation and Learning Strategies Inventory (SMALSI) were examined using a sample of 404 Grade 6 students from an urban Canadian school system. Students completed the SMALSI and school factors included final school grades, attendance records, and language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies…

  4. 30th International School of Mathematics "G Stampacchia" : Equilibrium Problems and Variational Models "Ettore Majorana"

    CERN Document Server

    Giannessi, Franco; Maugeri, Antonino; Equilibrium Problems and Variational Models

    2000-01-01

    The volume, devoted to variational analysis and its applications, collects selected and refereed contributions, which provide an outline of the field. The meeting of the title "Equilibrium Problems and Variational Models", which was held in Erice (Sicily) in the period June 23 - July 2 2000, was the occasion of the presentation of some of these papers; other results are a consequence of a fruitful and constructive atmosphere created during the meeting. New results, which enlarge the field of application of variational analysis, are presented in the book; they deal with the vectorial analysis, time dependent variational analysis, exact penalization, high order deriva­ tives, geometric aspects, distance functions and log-quadratic proximal methodology. The new theoretical results allow one to improve in a remarkable way the study of significant problems arising from the applied sciences, as continuum model of transportation, unilateral problems, multicriteria spatial price models, network equilibrium...

  5. VARIATIVE EDUCATION IN THE CHANGING WORLD: SOCIO-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE OF THE PRIMARY SCHOOL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Asmolov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reflects the ideas of the author (one of the new educational standard developers concerning the prospects of primary school evolution, published in the Educational Policy journal in 2011, being still relevant due to the introduction of the Federal Act on Education from September 1, 2013.In author's opinion, a successful accomplishment and implementation of the given act and standards can be achieved through careful explanation of their content and essence to the interested people, and justification of the related benefit for the society and teachers alike. The alteration of educational concepts is regarded as a challenging task, education being the most conservative sphere of human activity. As a solution to the primary school problem, the paper emphasizes several referent points including teachers' motivation, strengthening and updating of their professional skills and knowledge, etc. The primary school appears to be the most important basis for children’s personal socialization. And therefore, it should transform into the school of understanding, cultural dialog, game and project didactics, variant education, and foundation for the universal learning activities and value formation. The primary school should teach productive cooperation with adults and advanced peers, help in solving complicated life tasks, and raise children’s confidence in personal strength and capability. 

  6. VARIATIVE EDUCATION IN THE CHANGING WORLD: SOCIO-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE OF THE PRIMARY SCHOOL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Asmolov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper reflects the ideas of the author (one of the new educational standard developers concerning the prospects of primary school evolution, published in the Educational Policy journal in 2011, being still relevant due to the introduction of the Federal Act on Education from September 1, 2013.In author's opinion, a successful accomplishment and implementation of the given act and standards can be achieved through careful explanation of their content and essence to the interested people, and justification of the related benefit for the society and teachers alike. The alteration of educational concepts is regarded as a challenging task, education being the most conservative sphere of human activity. As a solution to the primary school problem, the paper emphasizes several referent points including teachers' motivation, strengthening and updating of their professional skills and knowledge, etc. The primary school appears to be the most important basis for children’s personal socialization. And therefore, it should transform into the school of understanding, cultural dialog, game and project didactics, variant education, and foundation for the universal learning activities and value formation. The primary school should teach productive cooperation with adults and advanced peers, help in solving complicated life tasks, and raise children’s confidence in personal strength and capability. 

  7. Variation by Gender in Abu Dhabi High School Students' Interests in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Masood; Mazroui, Karima Al; Al Rashedi, Asma; Yang, Guang

    2016-04-01

    Abu Dhabi high school students' interest in physics in different contexts was investigated with a survey conducted in connection with the international project, The Relevance of Science Education (ROSE). The sample consisted of 2248 students in public and private schools. Means of most items that belong to the school physics context for both girls and boys were below the score of (3.0). The most interesting topics for both genders were connected with fantasy items. The least interesting items (particularly for girls) were connected with artifacts and technological processes. Girls assigned the highest scores for "why we dream" and "life and death." Boys assigned the highest scores for "inventions and discoveries" and "life outside of earth." The main message of the study is that new curricular approaches and textbooks can be developed through combining technological and human contexts. The implications for curriculum development, teacher professional development programs, and other education strategies in Abu Dhabi are discussed in light of the ROSE survey.

  8. Enacting Change: A Study of the Implementation of e-Readers and an Online Library in two Canadian High School Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serina Patterson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors discuss their interdisciplinary pilot project entitled ‘Teaching for the 21st Century: A Pilot Project on E-Reading with SD62’ that engaged in the development and implementation of a customized and purpose-specific online library for two selected high school classrooms at a time when such systems did not exist for this purpose. This project combined (1 information literacy issues, (2 pedagogy and e-pedagogy, and (3 computational modeling activities founded on a productive confluence of these perspectives all situated at the intersection of pertinent theories and practices pertaining to each. The result of the research project was a functional online library environment that worked in the classrooms to support born-digital students' engagement with e-readers and findings of the way in which these both worked in the context of multiliteracies classrooms.

  9. On Realities of Canadian Multiculturalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦辰

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a multicultural country which was mainly established by immigrants. Just because of that, Canadian govern⁃ment has carried out the policy of multiculturalism since1970s. However, it has encountered many problems such as policy con⁃flicts, national identity, democracy-inquiry and racial discrimination, etc. Hence the Canadian multiculturalism has been in a di⁃lemma.

  10. School Reforms in England, Japan, Korea and the U.S.: Policy Variation and Educational Convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaekyung

    Education reform during the last 2 decades has been shaped by the forces of growing public distrust of educational bureaucracies in a climate of rapid political change and growing international competition in the context of a global economy. Major school reforms in four selected industrial countries that differ significantly in terms of…

  11. Could Teacher Grading Practices Account for Unexplained Variation in School Achievements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montmarquette, Claude; Mahseredjian, Sophie

    1989-01-01

    In the educational economics literature, input substitutions have been identified as the major difficulty in assessing school and teacher effectiveness. This paper uses Correa and Gruver's teacher-student interaction model to enhance the econometric specification of students' academic achievement equations by introducing a teacher grading…

  12. School District Responses to Variations in the Cost of Purchasing Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensemer, Bruce L.

    1981-01-01

    Regression analysis on cost and expenditure data from 616 Ohio school districts indicates that districts in high wage areas respond to higher resource costs by reducing salaries and student-teacher ratios and by raising tax rates. State and federal aid does not fully offset the higher resource costs. (Author/RW)

  13. Variations in Star Excursion Balance Test Performance Between High School and Collegiate Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Ryan S; Kosik, Kyle B; Beard, Megan Q; Terada, Masafumi; Pietrosimone, Brian G; Gribble, Phillip A

    2015-10-01

    The Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) is a reliable inexpensive tool used to assess dynamic postural control deficits and efficacy in the prediction of musculoskeletal injuries, but with little previous consideration for performance differences across age and skill levels. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in SEBT scores between high school and collegiate football players. Three-hundred eighteen high school football players and 180 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate football players volunteered to participate. Star Excursion Balance Test scores were obtained bilaterally for anterior (ANT), posterolateral (PL), and posteromedial (PM) directions, and for an overall composite (COMP) score. The mean of 3 trials from each leg was normalized to stance leg length and presented as a percentage score. Bilaterally averaged scores were compared between high school and collegiate football players using separate independent t-tests. A multiple linear backward regression determined the amount of variance in SEBT scores explained by age, mass, and height. Compared with collegiate athletes, high school athletes had lower PL (72.8 ± 11.4% vs. 77.1 ± 10.2%; p football players.

  14. Canadian construction industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, M.

    2001-07-01

    The principal sectors of the Canadian construction industry - commercial, industrial, institutional and residential - are examined with regard to their technical considerations concerning the subject of sustainability. Apart from the different needs of each of the sectors of the industry there are also regional differences caused by population distribution, and differences in climate, that have to be identified and accommodated in considering attitudes to recycling and sustainable development. Some indications that there is growing awareness of recycling and reuse are: the increasing frequency of life cycle costing in the commercial and institutional sectors, the use of recycled or otherwise waste materials in concrete, examples of using steel supporting structures and roof joists salvaged from previous uncompleted projects in the industrial sector, improved building envelope and indoor air quality concerns, collective ground source heating, and new basement and framing technologies and construction materials in the residential sector. These improvements notwithstanding, there remains much to be done. The new objective-based National Building Code, for which comments are now being solicited across the country, is expected to identify new and innovative solutions and to kick-start serious efforts to come up with solutions towards increasing overall sustainability in all sectors of the Canadian construction industry.

  15. Developing the notions of variation and covariation through patterns : An institutional analysis of primary school textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Mamas Mavoungou, Eudes Libert; González-Martín, Alejandro,

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We examine how pattern-based activities presented in textbooks for primary education allow developing the notions of variation and covariation, using the conceptual tool of institutional relationship of Chevallard (2003). Our sample is formed by the textbooks currently approved by the Quebec Ministry of Education. Ours results reveal a didactic void in the textbooks.

  16. Recent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Substance Use Variations between Rural and Urban Middle and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jacob C.; Smalley, K. Bryant; Barefoot, K. Nikki

    2017-01-01

    The use of addictive substances by adolescents is a major public health concern; however, rural versus urban variations are poorly understood. The purpose of the current study was to examine rural-urban differences in the prevalence of recent use of 11 substances in grades 6 through 12 in a statewide sample of students from the Georgia Student…

  17. Grade 3 Students Explore the Question, "What's Canadian about Canadian Children's Literature?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleo, Sylvia

    2000-01-01

    Explores third graders' responses to the question "What's Canadian about Canadian Children's Literature?" Describes 6 picture books and summarizes students' responses to each. Finds students mentioned geographical aspects as characteristic of Canadian literature, and they felt Canadian children's literature should reflect Canadian "experiences."…

  18. Enhancing Contextualized Curriculum: Integrated Identity in Young Shi'i Muslim Arabic-Canadian Students' Social Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fartousi, May

    2016-01-01

    This research explored 10 young female Shi'i Muslim Arabic-Canadian students' experiences associated with wearing the Hijab (headscarf) within their home, community, and predominantly White Canadian public elementary school environments. The in-depth case study sought to address the dearth of information about Shi'is' experiences in schools…

  19. Going down the Rabbit-Hole: Teachers' Engagements with "Dialectical Images" in Canadian Children's Literature on Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong-Wilson, Teresa; Yoder, Amarou; Phipps, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the attraction of Canadian elementary teachers to children's stories that narrate trauma, particularly the trauma associated with First Nations peoples' experiences in Canadian residential schools as told by Indigenous authors. The teachers' responses to these texts are conceived of as occurring within a "contact…

  20. Problems in the Study of Canadian Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Barry

    1980-01-01

    Considers reasons for studying Canadian literature. Notes the relative infancy of Canadian literature and the need for maintaining objectivity in the study of Canadian literature. Proposes that teachers of Canadian literature focus on individual, contemporary works, examining language, form, and craftsmanship. (RL)

  1. [Canadian Literature. "Featuring: CanLit."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycock, Ken, Ed.; Haycock, Carol-Ann, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    The feature articles in this journal issue deal with various aspects of Canadian literature. The articles include: (1) a discussion of who's who and what's what in Canadian literature; (2) reviews of worthwhile but overlooked Canadian children's literature; (3) a list of resource guides to Canadian literature and a short quiz over famous first…

  2. Parent Academic Involvement as Related to School Behavior, Achievement, and Aspirations: Demographic Variations Across Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Nancy E.; Castellino, Domini R.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Nowlin, Patrick; Dodge, Kenneth A.; BATES, JOHN E.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2004-01-01

    A longitudinal model of parent academic involvement, behavioral problems, achievement, and aspirations was examined for 463 adolescents, followed from 7th (approximately 12 years old) through 11th (approximately 16 years old) grades. Parent academic involvement in 7th grade was negatively related to 8th-grade behavioral problems and positively related to 11th-grade aspirations. There were variations across parental education levels and ethnicity: Among the higher parental education group, par...

  3. Canadian National Vegetation Classification (CNVC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The mandate of the CNVC is to comprehensively classify and describe natural and semi-natural Canadian vegetation in an ecologically meaningful manner. The...

  4. Canadian Literature Is Comparative Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, E. D.

    1988-01-01

    Argues that the way out of worn out analogies of Canadian literature is found not only by acquiring knowledge of other cultures, but also by abandoning the deceptive parallelisms that overcome differences only by hiding them. (RAE)

  5. School Effectiveness and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, I. I.; Oakley, W. F.

    1992-01-01

    Fiedler's contingency theory relates school effectiveness to a combination of principals' leadership style and situational favorability for the principal. Data from teacher questionnaires on school climate and effectiveness and measures of principal's leadership in 176 Canadian elementary schools did not support Fiedler's model. Contains 54…

  6. Home Economics/Family Studies Education in Canadian Schools: A Position Paper = L'enseignement de l'economie familiale/etudes familiales dans les ecoles canadiennes: Expose de principes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Home Economics Journal, 1996

    1996-01-01

    English and French versions of the Canadian Home Economics Association's position paper describe the place of home economics/family studies (HEFS) in education and worldwide trends indicating the need for HEFS. Suggests it is the only subject with the primary focus on preparing students for everyday life in an increasingly complex global society.…

  7. Understanding Public Perceptions of the HPV Vaccination Based on Online Comments to Canadian News Articles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Feinberg

    Full Text Available Given the variation in human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine coverage across Canada, and debate regarding delivery of HPV vaccines in Catholic schools, we studied online comments on Canadian news websites to understand public perceptions of HPV and HPV vaccine.We searched English- and French-language Canadian news websites for 2012 articles that contained the terms "HPV" or "human papillomavirus." Articles about HPV vaccinations that contained at least one comment were included. Two researchers independently coded comments, analyzing them for emerging themes.We identified 3073 comments from 1198 individuals in response to 71 news articles; 630 (52.6% individuals expressed positive sentiments about HPV vaccination (2.5 comments/individual, 404 (33.7% were negative (3.0 comments/individual, 34 (2.8% were mixed (1.5 comments/individual and 130 (10.8% were neutral (1.6 comments/individual. Vaccine-supportive commenters believed the vaccine is safe and effective. Common themes in negative comments included concerns regarding HPV vaccine safety and efficacy, distrust of pharmaceutical companies and government, and belief that school-age children are too young for HPV vaccine. Many comments focused on whether the Catholic Church has the right to inform health policy for students, and discussion often evolved into debates regarding HPV and sexual behaviour. We noted that many individuals doubted the credibility of vaccine safety information.The majority of commenters do not appear to be against HPV vaccination, but public health messaging that focuses on both the vaccine's safety profile, and its use as a means to prevent cancer rather than sexually transmitted HPV infection may facilitate its acceptance.

  8. How Should Canadian Literature Be Taught?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colborne, Garnet

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the rationale for and several approaches to teaching Canadian literature, including a cultural and regional approach to Canadian literature, a comparative approach, and a language study approach. (HTH)

  9. Responsible Canadian energy progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents oil and gas companies throughout Canada; its members produce over 90% of Canada's natural gas and crude oil output. The aim of the Association is to improve the economics of the Canadian upstream petroleum sector in an environmentally and socially responsible way. The aim of this Responsible Canadian Energy report is to present the performance data of CAPP's members for the year 2009. Data, trends, and performance analyses are provided throughout the document. This analysis makes it possible to determine where progress has been made and where performance improvement is necessary. It also presents success stories and best practices so that other companies can learn from them how to improve their own performance. This paper provides useful information on the performance of the upstream petroleum industry in Canada and highlights where the focus should be for further improvement in its performance.

  10. Birth of the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Ivan T.

    2004-01-01

    The Canadian Digestive Disease Foundation, renamed the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation -- Fondation canadienne pour la promotion de la santé digestive -- in December 2001, is the culmination of ongoing efforts by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology to establish an independent charitable organization. In February 2001, it was officially endorsed as the Foundation for the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology. The initial efforts to establish this Foundation, led by Dr Richa...

  11. A Topography for Canadian Curriculum Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Cynthia

    1999-01-01

    Presents challenges to Canadian curriculum theorists: (1) to create curriculum languages and genres that represent all of Canada; (2) to use Canadian scholars and indigenous languages to find these curriculum languages and genres; (3) to seek interpretive tools to understand what it means to be Canadian; and (4) to create curriculum theory that…

  12. The Ideological Orientations of Canadian University Professors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhaie, M. Reza; Brym, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the ideological orientations of Canadian university professors based on a unique 2000 study of a representative sample of Canadian academics (n=3,318). After summarizing methodological problems with extant research on this subject, and tentatively comparing the political views of Canadian and American academics, the paper…

  13. Transnational archives: the Canadian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Creet

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the concept of the transnational archive as a counterpoint to the idea that a national archive is necessarily a locus of a static idea of nation. The Canadian national archives is used as a case study of an archives that was transnational in its inception, and one that has continued to change in its mandate and materials as a response to patterns in migration and changing notions of multiculturalism as a Canadian federal policy. It introduces the most recent formation of the transnational archive and its denizens: the genealogical archive inhabited by family historians.

  14. Canadian contributions studies for the WFIRST instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, J.-F.; Rowlands, N.; Grandmont, F. J.; Lafrenière, D.; Marois, C.; Daigle, O.; Thibault, S.; Schade, D.; Artigau, É.; Brousseau, D.; Maire, J.; Cretot-Richert, G.; Ducharme, M.-È.; Levesque, L. E.; Laurin, D.; Dupuis, J.

    2016-07-01

    WFIRST-AFTA is the NASA's highest ranked astrophysics mission for the next decade that was identified in the New World, New Horizon survey. The mission scientific drivers correspond to some of the deep questions identified in the Canadian LRP2010, and are also of great interest for the Canadian scientists. Given that there is also a great interest in having an international collaboration in this mission, the Canadian Space Agency awarded two contracts to study a Canadian participation in the mission, one related to each instrument. This paper presents a summary of the technical contributions that were considered for a Canadian contribution to the coronagraph and wide field instruments.

  15. The 1998 Canadian Contraception Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William A.; Boroditsky, Richard; Bridges, Martha L.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the 1998 Canadian Contraception Study, a mailed survey which asked women about contraceptive practices past, present, and future (including use of oral contraceptives, condoms, and sterilization); familiarity with and opinion about different contraception methods; and general sexual and reproductive health. The paper also examines…

  16. Universal values of Canadian astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

    2012-11-01

    Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

  17. Canadian Government Electronic Information Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Kirsti

    1993-01-01

    Examines development and evolution of Canadian government information policy in response to issues of preservation of data, information industry involvement in government data development and marketing, role of Crown copyright, and public access to government information in electronic formats. Six key information policy instruments are also…

  18. Canadian Literature in American Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A. Robert

    1973-01-01

    Acquisition of Canadian literature by American libraries was investigated in three ways: questionnaires were sent to selected large libraries, titles were checked against the National Union Catalog'' and published literature describing major collections was examined. With the exception of the Library of Congress, American libraries purchase…

  19. Manitoba's School Psychology, Circa 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallin, Barry; Bednarczyk, George; Hanson, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    While the geographic landscape of Manitoba has changed very little since the last review of school psychology in Manitoba was published 15 years ago, the school psychology landscape here has changed considerably, and we continue to be alive, well, and flourishing. Two previous articles in the "Canadian Journal of School Psychology"…

  20. Canadian Content in Video Games

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Leonard

    2005-01-01

    THEME: Internationalism: Worlds at Play Topics: Internationalism, Identity in Gaming and Learning to Play Abstract: How does Canada fit into the global cultural context of video games? This paper investigates the culture being reflected in video games being produced in Canada as Canada is one of the world's leading producers of video games. It examines the how Canadian culture is represented in current new media artistic output against the culture, or lack of culture, being represented in vid...

  1. Educational Progression in Ghana: Gender and Spatial Variations in Longitudinal Trajectories of Junior High School Completion Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansong, David; Alhassan, Mustapha

    2016-01-01

    Completion of junior high school is a critical milestone in every Ghanaian child's educational trajectory and a critical step toward the transition to higher education. However, the rate of children completing junior high school still lags behind most educational indicators in Ghana. Far more attention is paid to ensuring that students enroll in…

  2. Context Matters for Social-Emotional Learning: Examining Variation in Program Impact by Dimensions of School Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Meghan P; Cappella, Elise; O'Connor, Erin E; McClowry, Sandee G

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines whether three dimensions of school climate-leadership, accountability, and safety/respect-moderated the impacts of the INSIGHTS program on students' social-emotional, behavioral, and academic outcomes. Twenty-two urban schools and N = 435 low-income racial/ethnic minority students were enrolled in the study and received intervention services across the course of 2 years, in both kindergarten and first grade. Intervention effects on math and reading achievement were larger for students enrolled in schools with lower overall levels of leadership, accountability, and safety/respect at baseline. Program impacts on disruptive behaviors were greater in schools with lower levels of accountability at baseline; impacts on sustained attention were greater in schools with lower levels of safety/respect at baseline. Implications for Social-Emotional Learning program implementation, replication, and scale-up are discussed.

  3. Contexts for Ethnic Identity of Japanese Canadians

    OpenAIRE

    浦田, 葉子; Yoko, URATA

    1997-01-01

    In this paper I reviewed the literature in order to gain a broad understanding of the contexts for ethnic identity of Japanese Canadians guided by the premise that ethnic identity is a situational as well as a primordial phenomenon. Two main areas were reviewed - the pattern of distribution of resources in Canadian society and the particular situation in which Japanese Canadians are placed. In the distribution of material resources, individual meritocracy for mass and social closure for elite...

  4. "Sodom and Gomorrah were Lovers": The Case for Teaching the Bible in Canadian English Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, Muriel W.

    1968-01-01

    The current neglect of the study of the Bible in Canadian high school English programs has deprived students of a rich cultural resource of language and literature. The Bible ought to be considered as an unrivaled collection of all types of literature, whose characters are frequently rooted in historical fact and whose themes have relevance today.…

  5. Who Stays and for How Long: Examining Attrition in Canadian Graduate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeClou, Lindsay

    2016-01-01

    Attrition from Canadian graduate programs is a point of concern on a societal, institutional, and individual level. To improve retention in graduate school, a better understanding of what leads to withdrawal needs to be reached. This paper uses logistic regression and discrete-time survival analysis with time-varying covariates to analyze data…

  6. The Impact of Canadian Social Discourses on L2 Writing Pedagogy in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalan, Amir

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to illustrate the impact of Canadian social, political, and academic discourses on second language writing pedagogy in Ontario schools. Building upon the views that regard teacher knowledge as teachers' sociocultural interactions and lived experiences, and not merely intellectual capabilities gained within teacher preparation,…

  7. Young People's Attitudes toward the World of Work in Three Canadian Labour Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Maurice C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined attitudes of 923 high school students from 3 economic settings toward work in 3 Canadian labor markets. Found significant differences for both group and gender on the variables attitude toward training for new technology, belief in work, and job security. For self-efficacy and locus of control, significant gender differences were found.…

  8. Integrated Library Systems in Canadian Public, Academic and Special Libraries: The Sixth Annual Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merilees, Bobbie

    1992-01-01

    Reports results of a survey of vendors of large and microcomputer-based integrated library systems. Data presented on Canadian installations include total systems installed, comparisons with earlier years, market segments, and installations by type of library (excluding school). International sales and automation requirements for music are…

  9. Parents and Communities as Partners in Teaching Writing in Canadian Middle Grades Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClay, Jill Kedersha; Peterson, Shelley Stagg; Nixon, Rhonda

    2012-01-01

    Educators have long recognized that parental and community supports are important underpinnings for children's success in school. With respect to the teaching of writing, however, little research has been conducted to provide evidence of effective practices teachers use to involve parents and communities. As part of a national Canadian study of…

  10. Interprofessional Education in Canadian Nursing Programs and Implications for Continuing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Emily; Lightfoot, Nancy; Carter, Lorraine; MacEwan, Leigh

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the Canadian Association of Schools of Nursing, the accrediting body for nursing programs in Canada, became part of the Accreditation of Interprofessional Health Education initiative. In turn, interprofessional education (IPE) is now a requirement in nursing curricula. Although the requirement is formally in place, how it is achieved…

  11. Variations in students' perceived reasons for, sources of, and forms of in-school discrimination: A latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Christy M; Carter Andrews, Dorinda J

    2016-08-01

    Although there exists a healthy body of literature related to discrimination in schools, this research has primarily focused on racial or ethnic discrimination as perceived and experienced by students of color. Few studies examine students' perceptions of discrimination from a variety of sources, such as adults and peers, their descriptions of the discrimination, or the frequency of discrimination in the learning environment. Middle and high school students in a Midwestern school district (N=1468) completed surveys identifying whether they experienced discrimination from seven sources (e.g., peers, teachers, administrators), for seven reasons (e.g., gender, race/ethnicity, religion), and in eight forms (e.g., punished more frequently, called names, excluded from social groups). The sample was 52% White, 15% Black/African American, 14% Multiracial, and 17% Other. Latent class analysis was used to cluster individuals based on reported sources of, reasons for, and forms of discrimination. Four clusters were found, and ANOVAs were used to test for differences between clusters on perceptions of school climate, relationships with teachers, perceptions that the school was a "good school," and engagement. The Low Discrimination cluster experienced the best outcomes, whereas an intersectional cluster experienced the most discrimination and the worst outcomes. The results confirm existing research on the negative effects of discrimination. Additionally, the paper adds to the literature by highlighting the importance of an intersectional approach to examining students' perceptions of in-school discrimination.

  12. The Canadian Astronomy Education and Public Outreach Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, J. R.

    2002-05-01

    In Canada, astronomers do not have access to science and mathematics education funding such as NSF and NASA provide in the USA. Nevertheless, the Canadian astronomical community has always been very active in education and public outreach (EPO) at the local, provincial, and national level, thanks to the initiative of astronomers -- both professional and amateur -- and their institutions and associations. In 2001, the Canadian astronomical community embarked on a major EPO initiative, led by the Canadian Astronomical Society (CAS) in partnership with the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada (RASC) and other organizations. The initiative was motivated by a new long-range plan for astronomy in Canada, by the availability of modest funding for EPO, by the appearance of astronomy in the school science curriculum in several provinces, and by a heightened national interest in science education and literacy. As Chair of the CAS Education Committee, and coordinator of the EPO initiative, I shall describe its origin, funding, goals and strategies, organization, partnerships, programs, and projects. Supported by a PromoScience grant from NSERC Canada.

  13. Variation in Educational Outcomes and Policies across Countries and of Schools within Countries. NBER Working Paper No. 16293

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Richard B.; Machin, Stephen; Viarengo, Martina

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the variation in educational outcomes across and within countries using the TIMSS mathematics tests. It documents the wide cross-country variation in the level and dispersion of test scores. Countries with the highest test scores are those with the least inequality in scores, which suggests a "virtuous" equity-efficiency…

  14. Canadian inter-laboratory organically bound tritium (OBT) analysis exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S B; Olfert, J; Baglan, N; St-Amant, N; Carter, B; Clark, I; Bucur, C

    2015-12-01

    Tritium emissions are one of the main concerns with regard to CANDU reactors and Canadian nuclear facilities. After the Fukushima accident, the Canadian Nuclear Regulatory Commission suggested that models used in risk assessment of Canadian nuclear facilities be firmly based on measured data. Procedures for measurement of tritium as HTO (tritiated water) are well established, but there are no standard methods and certified reference materials for measurement of organically bound tritium (OBT) in environmental samples. This paper describes and discusses an inter-laboratory comparison study in which OBT in three different dried environmental samples (fish, Swiss chard and potato) was measured to evaluate OBT analysis methods currently used by CANDU Owners Group (COG) members. The variations in the measured OBT activity concentrations between all laboratories were less than approximately 20%, with a total uncertainty between 11 and 17%. Based on the results using the dried samples, the current OBT analysis methods for combustion, distillation and counting are generally acceptable. However, a complete consensus OBT analysis methodology with respect to freeze-drying, rinsing, combustion, distillation and counting is required. Also, an exercise using low-level tritium samples (less than 100 Bq/L or 20 Bq/kg-fresh) would be useful in the near future to more fully evaluate the current OBT analysis methods.

  15. A Cross-Sectional Study to Compare Caregiver Distress Among Korean Canadian, Chinese Canadian, and Other Canadian Home Care Clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Wook Chang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the health of elderly Korean Canadians in home care and investigates the risk factors for caregiver distress of families caring for their elderly relatives. Korean Canadians, Chinese Canadians, and other Canadian home care clients were compared using the Resident Assessment Instrument–Home Care (RAI-HC. The assessments were done as a part of normal clinical practice between January 2002 and December 2010 within Ontario. A sample of 58,557 home care clients was analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis at the bivariate level and multiple logistic regression models. The major finding of the present study is that Korean clients had higher physical impairments and higher prevalence of major chronic diseases, but they were less likely to receive personal support or nursing services. Moreover, the results provide clear evidence of the importance of language barriers for all linguistic minorities, including Korean Canadians.

  16. Changing climate and landuse effects of surface and groundwater use in the Canadian River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The extreme drought that occurred on the Southern High Plains in 2011 demonstrated that the ground and surface resources in the Canadian River watershed in Texas and New Mexico were unable to supply sufficient water for the region’s water needs. Variations in precipitation parameters (annual rainfal...

  17. Medication use among Canadian seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Mark; Ji, Hong; Hunt, Jordan; Ranger, Rob; Gula, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    As they age, many seniors develop a progressively more complex mix of health conditions. Multiple prescription medications are often required to help manage these conditions and control symptoms, with the goal of maintaining seniors' health for as long as possible. This article explores trends in the number and types of medications used by seniors on public drug programs in Canada. Our findings suggest that a high proportion of Canadian seniors are taking several medications, highlighting the need for medication management systems focusing on this population.

  18. REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADIAN ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Modern English is an international language inthe world.Besides Great Britain,English is spokenas first language in 39 countries.These countries arelocated in different regions with different naturalfeatures,history development and cultural character-istics.Thus,English used in these different regionscarries its own regional character—forming Englishregional varieties.The main English regional varieties are:BritishEnglish,American English,Canadian English andSouth African English.Canada is a rich country inNorth America with its own characteristics,which of

  19. Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

  20. DATA MINING IN CANADIAN LYNX TIME SERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Karnaboopathy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper sums up the applications of Statistical model such as ARIMA family timeseries models in Canadian lynx data time series analysis and introduces the method of datamining combined with Statistical knowledge to analysis Canadian lynx data series.

  1. A Boost for Sino-Canadian Ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU XUECHENG

    2010-01-01

    @@ If Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper's visit to China last December led to a thaw in the frozen Sino-Canadian relations in recent years, Chinese President Hu Jintao's latest trip to Ottawa appeared to usher in yet another warm period for these deep-rooted relations.

  2. Canadian Library Integrated Systems: Second Annual Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merilees, Bobbie

    1988-01-01

    Reports the results of a survey of the Canadian integrated library systems market. The analysis includes comparisons of large versus microcomputer-based installations by type of library and across all libraries, foreign sales by Canadian vendors, and trends in the library systems market. (CLB)

  3. Making Schools Safe and Inclusive: Gay-Straight Alliances and School Climate in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Julian; Bellini, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Gay-straight alliances (GSAs) have become widespread in Ontario schools and, starting in 2012, all schools are required to permit students to form GSAs. While American research suggests that GSAs have a positive impact on school safety and inclusion, there is little research on the impact of GSAs in Canadian schools. This study, based on a survey…

  4. Exploring Perceptions and Experiences of Food Allergy among New Canadians from Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K. Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In Canada, perceived prevalence of food allergy surpasses systematic estimates. Canadian immigrants have been found more likely to rate the risk of food allergy as “high” compared to nonimmigrants. Methods. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 3 key informants and 18 allergic individuals of East and Southeast Asian descent in order to capture their lived experience with food allergies. Results. Participants found food allergies to be more common in Canada than in Asia. Participants also agreed that having a food allergy is more manageable in Canada as a result of the policy environment (e.g., food labelling and school policies. In addition, participants had dealt with skepticism and disbelief about their food allergy in Asia, resulting in social exclusion and impacting quality of life. Discussion. Findings demonstrate the need to recognize the varied impacts and experiences of food allergy among new Canadians, given that immigrants represent a large and growing proportion of the Canadian population.

  5. William Fulton Gillespie, 1891-1949: transitional figure in western Canadian academic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macbeth, R A

    1998-01-01

    The professional life of William Fulton Gillespie, third professor of surgery at the University of Alberta (1939-49) and tenth president of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (1947-49), exemplifies a critical transitional period in Canadian postgraduate surgical training and in western Canadian academic surgery. This article explores the background, the training, the professional career, and the personal character of a surgical scholar and student of the humanities and arts, a man who was thrust into the professorship of surgery in a maturing western Canadian medical school following the financial restraints of the Great Depression and during the challenges faced as a result of the World War II.

  6. Variations on a Theme: Characteristics of Out-of-School Time Science Programs Offered by Distinct Organization Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Sandra L.; Thiry, Heather; Archie, Tim; Crane, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    The out-of-school time (OST) domain offers a promising resource for enriching young people's experience of science, technology, and engineering. Belief is widespread that OST programs are ideal locations in which to learn science and that youth participation may increase access to science for underrepresented groups, such as girls or minorities,…

  7. Factors influencing teacher decisions on school, classroom, and curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Robert K.; Banfield, Helen

    This article describes a study designed to explore sources of influence on the judgments made by science teachers on school characteristics, classroom features, and properties of a science curriculum. The study had its theoretical basis in the concept that members of a social organization operate under certain functional paradigms, which govern their approach to events within the organization, and particularly to the implementation of innovations. Empirically, the study formed part of the Canadian contribution to the Second International Science Study, and was based on a survey of some 2000 Canadian teachers. The survey used an adaptation of policy capturing methodology, in which teachers were presented with variations in a hypothetical scenario designed to simulate a decision-making situation. Results suggest that teachers' judgments center around a number of factors, the primary ones being concern for student ability and interest, teaching methods, and school spirit and morale. On the other hand, variations in the scientific basis of a curriculum appear to exert little influence. The results are interpreted as indicators of the major elements of teacher functional paradigms.

  8. Social Workers' Role in the Canadian Mental Health Care System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Ashley M.; Schwartz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Using Canadian survey data this research provides social workers in Canada with a better understanding of their role in the Canadian mental health care system. Methods: By analyzing data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 Mental Health and Well-being, the role of social workers in the Canadian mental health system was…

  9. Reaching Rural Canadian Communities in the Yukon and Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laerhoven, Christa L.

    2016-10-01

    Canada is very large geographically, so many rural communities are very far from major centers. People in such communities are at a severe disadvantage when it comes to in-person interaction with science or scientists because resources tend to be directed at large population centers, where more people can be reached for the same amount of effort. While this geographic distance can be mitigated by doing outreach over the internet, there is at some level no substitute for showing up in person with e.g. meteorites in hand. Due to where various members of my family are located, I have occasion to visit Whitehorse, YT and Andrew, AB (~1.5 hour drive north-east of Edmonton) and have taken advantage of trips to these locations to do astronomy outreach in both schools and public libraries. I will discuss how I arranged school and library visits and general observations from my experience doing outreach in rural Canadian communities.

  10. Seasonal variation in musculoskeletal extremity injuries in school children aged 6-12 followed prospectively over 2.5 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Eva; Holst, René; Franz, Claudia;

    2014-01-01

    The type and level of physical activity in children vary over seasons and might thus influence the injury patterns. However, very little information is available on the distribution of injuries over the calendar year. This study aims to describe and analyse the seasonal variation in extremity...

  11. Quality of life in multiple sclerosis: translation in French Canadian of the MSQoL-54

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lafortune Louise

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple Sclerosis (MS is a neurodegenerative disease which runs its course for the remainder of the patient's life frequently causing disability of varying degrees. Negative effects on Health-related quality of life (HRQOL are well documented and a subject of clinical study. The Multiple Sclerosis QOL 54 (MSQOL-54 questionnaire was developed to measure HRQOL in patients with MS. It is composed of 54 items, and is a combination of the SF-36 and 18 disease-specific items. Objective The objective of this project was to translate the MSQOL-54 into French Canadian, and to make it available to the Canadian scientific community for clinical research and clinical practice. Methods Across all French speaking regions, there are occurrences of variation. They include the pronunciation, sentence structure, and the lexicon, where the differences are most marked. For this reason, it was decided to translate the US original MSQOL-54 into French Canadian instead of adapting the existing French version. The SF-36 has been previously validated and published in French Canadian, therefore the translation work was performed solely on the 18 MS specific items. The translation followed an internationally accepted methodology into 3 steps: forward translation, backward translation, and patients' cognitive debriefing. Results Instructions and Items 38, 43, 45 and 49 were the most debated. Problematic issues mainly resided in the field of semantics. Patients' testing (n = 5 did not reveal conceptual problems. The questionnaire was well accepted, with an average time for completion of 19 minutes. Conclusion The French Canadian MSQOL-54 is now available to the Canadian scientific community and will be a useful tool for health-care providers to assess HRQOL of patients with MS as a routine part of clinical practice. The next step in the cultural adaptation of the MSQOL-54 in French Canadian will be the evaluation of its psychometric properties.

  12. A perspective on Canadian shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Mike; Davidson, Jim; Mortensen, Paul

    2010-09-15

    In a relatively new development over just the past few years, shale formations are being targeted for natural gas production. Based on initial results, there may be significant potential for shale gas in various regions of Canada, not only in traditional areas of conventional production but also non-traditional areas. However, there is much uncertainty because most Canadian shale gas production is currently in experimental or early developmental stages. Thus, its full potential will not be known for some time. If exploitation proves to be successful, Canadian shale gas may partially offset projected long-term declines in Canadian conventional natural gas production.

  13. Chinese Feelings Cherished By Canadians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On March 30, "The Chinese Feelings Across the Pacific-The Century Exhibition of the Old Photos Treasured by the Canadians" was open in the Lu Xun Museum in Beijing. The exhibition lasted for one week. At the exhibition some old photos taken in the early 20th century were on display, showing James G. Endicott, envoy of world peace, together with Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai; the family of O. L. Kilborn, one of the founders of West China Union University, together with Chinese women with bound feet: O. L. Kilborn treating the wounded soldiers during the Revolution of 1911; Leslie Earl Willmott in Chinese tunic suit and his wife reluctant to bid farewell to China, as well as photos of Ashley Woodward Lindesay, founder of China’s modern

  14. THE CANADIAN POLITICAL BUSINESS CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Libby

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss the existence of a Canadian Political Business Cycle (PBC during the period 1946-1989. Logit analysis was used to determine if changes in the unemployment rate, growth of real GNE and the rate of inflation are significantly different in the period before an election than during the rest of the electoral term. It was found that the rate of growth in the unemployment rate declines and the rate of growth of real GNP increases in the four quarters before an election. The behavior of these variables reverses in the period after an election. These findings are consistent with a political business cycle. Policy variables, under a majority government, also behave in a manner associated with a PBC, with the government stimulating the economy approximately two years into its term so that good economic news will occur before it has to call an election. Minority governments tend to simulate the economy immediately after taking office.

  15. Cost and cost-effectiveness of nationwide school-based helminth control in Uganda: intra-country variation and effects of scaling-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Simon; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Fleming, Fiona; Devlin, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of cost and cost-effectiveness are typically based on a limited number of small-scale studies with no investigation of the existence of economies to scale or intra-country variation in cost and cost-effectiveness. This information gap hinders the efficient allocation of health care resources and the ability to generalize estimates to other settings. The current study investigates the intra-country variation in the cost and cost-effectiveness of nationwide school-based treatment of helminth (worm) infection in Uganda. Programme cost data were collected through semi-structured interviews with district officials and from accounting records in six of the 23 intervention districts. Both financial and economic costs were assessed. Costs were estimated on the basis of cost in US$ per schoolchild treated, and an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (cost in US$ per case of anaemia averted) was used to evaluate programme cost-effectiveness. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the effect of discount rate and drug price. The overall economic cost per child treated in the six districts was US$0.54 and the cost-effectiveness was US$3.19 per case of anaemia averted. Analysis indicated that estimates of both cost and cost-effectiveness differ markedly with the total number of children who received treatment, indicating economies of scale. There was also substantial variation between districts in the cost per individual treated (US$0.41-0.91) and cost per anaemia case averted (US$1.70-9.51). Independent variables were shown to be statistically associated with both sets of estimates. This study highlights the potential bias in transferring data across settings without understanding the nature of observed variations.

  16. Canadian national nuclear forensics capability project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, J.; Dimayuga, I., E-mail: joanne.ball@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Summerell, I. [Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Totland, M. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Jonkmans, G. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Whitlock, J. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); El-jaby, A. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Inrig, E. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Following the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit, Canada expanded its existing capability for nuclear forensics by establishing a national nuclear forensics laboratory network, which would include a capability to perform forensic analysis on nuclear and other radioactive material, as well as on traditional evidence contaminated with radioactive material. At the same time, the need for a national nuclear forensics library of signatures of nuclear and radioactive materials under Canadian regulatory control was recognized. The Canadian Safety and Security Program, administered by Defence Research and Development Canada's Centre for Security Science (DRDC CSS), funds science and technology initiatives to enhance Canada's preparedness for prevention of and response to potential threats. DRDC CSS, with assistance from Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, formerly Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, is leading the Canadian National Nuclear Forensics Capability Project to develop a coordinated, comprehensive, and timely national nuclear forensics capability. (author)

  17. Facts about Canadian musk-oxen

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses the historical and current status of the Canadian musk-oxen. The musk-oxen's distribution, social structure, food and range, and breeding...

  18. Canadian National Identity and Anti-Americanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭万宏

    2015-01-01

    Canadian national identity is closely related to antiAmericanism and for Canadians,comparing with America has become the main way to identify themselves.So some scholars argue that Canada lacks a real national identity and this is the main reason of its anti-American tradition.However,the author remarks Canada has its national identity.In this paper,the author will present three reasons to support her view.

  19. Canadian National Identity and Anti-Americanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭万宏

    2015-01-01

    Canadian national identity is closely related to anti-Americanism and for Canadians,comparing with America has become the main way to identify themselves.So some scholars argue that Canada lacks a real national identity and this is the main reason of its anti-American tradition.However,the author remarks Canada has its national identity.In this paper,the author will present three reasons to support her view.

  20. Social class variations in schoolchildren's self-reported outcome of the health dialogue with the school health nurse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Ina; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2004-01-01

    in Denmark, response rate 87%, n = 5205. Data were collected by questionnaires. RESULTS: The majority of the pupils had reflected about the content of the last health dialogue with the school health nurse (54%), had discussed the content with their mother (62%) and with friends (54%); 62% had followed...... the nurse's advice, 77% had made their own autonomous decisions based on the health dialogue, and 11% had returned to the nurse for further advice. Pupils from the lower social classes had more often followed the nurse's advice (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.99-1.37) and returned to the nurse (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.......12-1.90). Pupils from the middle and lower social classes had more often made their own autonomous decisions (middle social classes: OR =1.23, 95% CI: 1.08-1.39, lower social classes: OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.95-1.34). CONCLUSION: Most pupils reported an outcome of the health dialogue with the school health nurse...

  1. Self-regulation, motivation, and math achievement in middle school: variations across grade level and math context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Timothy J; Chen, Peggy P

    2009-10-01

    The current study examined grade level, achievement group, and math-course-type differences in student self-regulation and motivation in a sample of 880 suburban middle-school students. Analysis of variance was utilized to assess group differences in student self-regulation and motivation, and linear regression analysis was used to identify variables that best predicted students' use of regulatory strategies. A key finding was that although seventh graders exhibited a more maladaptive self-regulation and motivation profile than sixth graders, achievement groups in seventh grade (high, moderate, low) were more clearly differentiated across both self-regulation and motivation than achievement groups in sixth grade. The pattern of achievement group differences also varied across math course type, as self-regulation and motivation processes more consistently differentiated achievement groups in advanced classes than regular math courses. Finally, task interest was shown to be the primary motivational predictor of students' use of regulatory strategies during math learning. The study highlights the importance of identifying shifting student motivation and self-regulation during the early middle school years and the potential role that context may have on these processes.

  2. Canadian suppliers of mining goods and services: Links between Canadian mining companies and selected sectors of the Canadian economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemieux, A. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Economic links between Canada's minerals and metals industry and Canadian suppliers of mining goods and services are examined to provide an insight into the interdependencies of these two key resource-related components of Canada's economy. The impact of globalization of the mining industry, estimates of its economic potential and the potential for exporting goods and services in conjunction with Canadian mining projects abroad are also assessed. The study concludes that the links between Canadian mining companies and the rest of the economy are difficult to quantify, due to the absence of statistical data that would differentiate supplier transactions with mining companies from those with other areas of the economy. At best, the approaches used in this study give but an imperfect understanding of the complex relationships between mining companies and their suppliers. It is clear, however, that as much of the demand for mining products is global, so is the supply, therefore, globalization of the mining industry, while creating unprecedented opportunities for Canadian suppliers to provide expertise, goods and services to Canadian and other customers offshore, the fact remains that mining multinationals buy a lot of their supplies locally. As a result, only some of the opportunities created by mining companies based in Canada and elsewhere will translate into sales for Canadian suppliers. Nevertheless, Canadian suppliers appear to have considerable depth in products related to underground mining, environment protection, exploration, feasibility studies, mineral processing, and mine automation. There appear to be considerable opportunities to derive further benefits from these areas of expertise. Appendices contain information about methodological aspects of the survey. 8 tabs., 32 figs., 6 appendices.

  3. Musculoskeletal Extremity Injuries in School-aged Children with special focus on overuse injuries, seasonal variation and body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Eva

    Ph.d. afhandlingen “Musculoskeletal Extremity Injuries in School-aged Children” er en undersøgelse af forekomsten af skader i arme og ben relateret til fysisk aktivitet. Baggrunden for studiet er, at på trods af de mange gavnlige effekter af at børn er fysisk aktive, så kan ’bivirkningen’ være...... risikoen var højest ved sportsdeltagelse i fritiden (1.57 per 1000 deltagelse i sport). Mest udtalt var risikoen i boldsports grene (især fodbold og håndbold) og til springgymnastik. Resultaterne har tilføjet en bredere indsigt i skadesbilledet i en gruppe af 6-12 årige skolebørn. De generelle fund fra...

  4. In Canada, Business Schools Lead Push for Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewington, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    At Canadian universities, business schools are light-years ahead of the rest of the campus in raising their global profile. Intensive foreign-student-recruitment efforts, friendly Canadian immigration rules, mandatory study-abroad requirements, and, in some cases, the option to pursue programs in multiple languages have combined to pack a punch in…

  5. Theorizing Gender in Contemporary Canadian Citizenship: Lessons Learned from the CBC's "Greatest Canadian" Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubas, Kaela

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I have used the 2004 Greatest Canadian contest as an example of media's educational function. Contrary to mainstream discourse of gender-neutral citizenship, this contest reiterates a notion of Canadian citizenship as masculinized, classed, and raced. Gramsci's concepts of "hegemony," "ideology", and…

  6. Environment in the Science Curriculum: The Politics of Change in the Pan-Canadian Science Curriculum Development Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Draws on the experience of the Pan-Canadian science curriculum development process as an example of the more general problem of integrating science and environmental education. Transforming structures and processes of school science to enable different teacher and student roles involves closing the gap between curriculum development and…

  7. A Critical Review of the Canadian Empirical Literature: Documenting Generation 1.5's K-16 Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Little empirical research has ever systematically documented the academic trajectories of Generation 1.5 in Canadian schools. Indeed, this label has not even been used to define the population of interest in the studies reviewed here. Nonetheless, some earlier work, along with more current studies made possible by recent availability of data, has…

  8. Medical cannabis - the Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gordon D; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol - the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. Despite this, barriers exist to use from both the patient perspective (cost, addiction, social stigma, lack of understanding regarding safe administration) and the physician perspective (credibility, criminality, clinical evidence, patient addiction, and policy from the governing medical colleges). This review addresses these barriers and draws attention to key concerns in the Canadian medical system, providing updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic medication use, and enhanced quality of life. This review also includes case studies demonstrating the use of medical marijuana by patients with neuropathic low-back pain, neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. While significant preclinical data have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis for treating pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, further studies are needed with randomized controlled trials and larger study populations to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts.

  9. Servant leadership: a case study of a Canadian health care innovator

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Tim H VanderpylSchool of Global Leadership, Regent University, Virginia Beach, VA, USAAbstract: Both servant leadership and innovation are easier to theorize than to actually implement in practice. This article presents a case study of a Canadian health care executive who led a remarkable turnaround of St Michael's Health Centre, a floundering and almost bankrupt nursing home. In less than 7 years, Kevin Cowan turned around the finances and changed numerous broken relationships into s...

  10. JUDGING SELECTION: APPOINTING CANADIAN JUDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McCormick

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s, the appointment of trial judges in Canada has generally involved an arms-length committee of professionals, although the structure of these committees and their role in the process has varied from province to province, as well as evolving over time. Yet these “new” structures and “new” processes did not prevent a major judicial appointment scandal in the province of Quebec in 2010, culminating in the formation of the Bastarache Committee to recommend changes. This paper summarizes the forty-year history of Canadian judicial appointment committees, identifies the major challenges that face those committees, and suggests the basic values toward which reforms to the appointment process might be directed. Depuis les années 1970, la nomination des juges de première instance au Canada a généralement mis à contribution un comité de professionnels indépendants, bien que la structure de ce comité et son rôle dans le processus de nomination aient varié d’une province à l’autre et évolué avec le temps. Ces « nouvelles » structures et « nouveaux » processus n’ont certes pas empêché l’éclatement du scandale sur la nomination des juges au Québec en 2010. Ce scandale a donné lieu à la formation de la Commission Bastarache qui avait notamment le mandat de recommander des changements. La présent document résume les quarante ans d’histoire des comités canadiens de nomination des juges, recense les principaux défis que ces comités doivent relever, et propose les valeurs fondamentales qui devraient inspirer les réformes du processus de nomination.

  11. Socioeconomic variation in the growth status of urban school children 6-13 years in Oaxaca, Mexico, in 1972 and 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Robert M; Reyes, Maria Eugenia Peña; Little, Bertis B

    2009-01-01

    Socioeconomic variation in the growth status of urban school children 6-13 years of age in 1972 and 2000 was compared. The children were resident in the city of Oaxaca and were students in the same primary school in each year. Socioeconomic status (SES) was based on parental occupation. Height, sitting height, estimated leg length, weight, and the body mass index in 218 boys and 191 girls in 1972 and 173 boys and 166 girls in 2000 were compared. Sex-specific MANCOVA was used to evaluate SES differences within each year, while sex- and SES-specific MANCOVA was used to evaluate differences between years. The prevalence of stunting, overweight and obesity was estimated. There were no SES differences among boys and girls in 1972 and boys in 2000; low-middle and middle SES girls were significantly taller and heavier with longer legs than low SES girls in 2000. Within each SES group, children in 2000 were significantly larger in body size and segment lengths except for sitting height in low SES children of both sexes. Estimated secular gains increased from low to low-middle to middle SES in both sexes. Inequitable gains by SES contributed to an increase in the magnitude of differences between SES groups, especially between low SES children on one hand and low-middle and middle SES children on the other hand. The prevalence of stunting declined while the prevalence of overweight and to a lesser extent in obesity increased from 1972 to 2000, more so in low-middle and middle SES than in low SES children.

  12. A Roadmap for Canadian Submillimetre Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Tracy; Di Francesco, James; Matthews, Brenda; Murray, Norm; Scott, Douglas; Wilson, Christine

    2013-01-01

    We survey the present landscape in submillimetre astronomy for Canada and describe a plan for continued engagement in observational facilities to ~2020. Building on Canada's decadal Long Range Plan process, we emphasize that continued involvement in a large, single-dish facility is crucial given Canada's substantial investment in ALMA and numerous PI-led submillimetre experiments. In particular, we recommend: i) an extension of Canadian participation in the JCMT until at least the unique JCMT Legacy Survey program is able to realize the full scientific potential provided by the world-leading SCUBA-2 instrument; and ii) involvement of the entire Canadian community in CCAT, with a large enough share in the partnership for Canadian astronomers to participate at all levels of the facility. We further recommend continued participation in ALMA development, involvement in many focused PI-led submillimetre experiments, and partnership in SPICA.

  13. Birth of the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Ivan T

    2004-01-01

    The Canadian Digestive Disease Foundation, renamed the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation--Fondation canadienne pour la promotion de la santé digestive--in December 2001, is the culmination of ongoing efforts by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology to establish an independent charitable organization. In February 2001, it was officially endorsed as the Foundation for the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology. The initial efforts to establish this Foundation, led by Dr Richard McKenna in 1963, were unsuccessful. In 1991, Glaxo Canada (now GlaxoSmithKline) became a founding donor, and with the four founding physicians--Drs Ivan T Beck, Richard H Hunt, Suzanne E Lemire and Alan BR Thomson--the expenses to establish the Foundation were met. A charitable number was obtained in 1995 (0997427-11). The second founding donor was Janssen Canada (now Janssen-Ortho), and public education support came from Astra Canada (now AstraZeneca Canada). The Foundation initially relied on corporate donors, but now approaches physicians, patients and the general public. The objectives of the Foundation are to advance the science of gastroenterology and to provide knowledge of digestive diseases and nutrition to the general public, to enhance the quality of life of persons who are afflicted with these disorders. The major achievements of the Foundation are the provision of one-year operating grants to new investigators, which have allowed them to accumulate early data and subsequently obtain support from other major granting organizations. It also provides Fellowships and studentship support grants, in conjunction with the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the pharmaceutical industry. The education committee found that there was little research support in this field, considering the large economic burden of digestive disease and the amount of outstanding work done by Canadian researchers. A bilingual Web site, a web-based specialist's discussion program and bilingual

  14. A Course in Canadian Film for U.S. Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenko, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Canadian Film will be a new course in the Communications Studies department at the University of Missouri at Kansas City particularly designed for non-Canadian Midwestern US students. It will not only introduce students to the richness and significance of Canadian film as both art and entertainment (which is virtually unrecognized around here),…

  15. 47 CFR 101.1423 - Canadian and Mexican coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Canadian and Mexican coordination. 101.1423... GHz Band § 101.1423 Canadian and Mexican coordination. Pursuant to § 2.301 of this chapter, MVDDS systems in the United States within 56 km (35 miles) of the Canadian and Mexican border will be...

  16. School Smoking Policy Characteristics and Individual Perceptions of the School Tobacco Context: Are They Linked to Students’ Smoking Status?

    OpenAIRE

    Sabiston, Catherine M.; Lovato, Chris Y.; Ahmed, Rashid; Pullman, Allison W.; Hadd, Valerie; Campbell, H. Sharon; Nykiforuk, Candace; Brown, K. Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore individual- and school-level policy characteristics on student smoking behavior using an ecological perspective. Participants were 24,213 (51% female) Grade 10–11 students from 81 schools in five Canadian provinces. Data were collected using student self-report surveys, written policies collected from schools, interviews with school administrators, and school property observations to assess multiple dimensions of the school tobacco policy. The multi-le...

  17. Management of hereditary angioedema: 2010 Canadian approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowen Tom

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract C1-inhibitor (C1-INH deficiency is a rare blood disorder resulting in angioedema attacks that are debilitating and may be life-threatening. Prophylaxis and therapy of events has changed since our first Canadian Consensus Conference on the diagnosis, therapy and management of HAE. We have formed the Canadian Hereditary Angioedema Network (CHAEN/Réseau Canadien d'Angioédème Héréditaire (RCAH - http://www.haecanada.com to advance care of patients with this disorder in Canada. We here present a review of management of HAE in Canada.

  18. Statistics in action a Canadian outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Lawless, Jerald F

    2014-01-01

    Commissioned by the Statistical Society of Canada (SSC), Statistics in Action: A Canadian Outlook helps both general readers and users of statistics better appreciate the scope and importance of statistics. It presents the ways in which statistics is used while highlighting key contributions that Canadian statisticians are making to science, technology, business, government, and other areas. The book emphasizes the role and impact of computing in statistical modeling and analysis, including the issues involved with the huge amounts of data being generated by automated processes.The first two c

  19. Do Private Schools Provide Competition for Public Schools?

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Minter Hoxby

    1994-01-01

    Arguments in favor of school choice depend on the idea that competition between schools improves the quality of education. However, we have almost no empirical evidence on whether competition actually affects school quality. In this study, I examine the effects of inter-school competition on public schools by using exogenous variation in the availability and costs of private school alternatives to public schools. Because low public school quality raises the demand for private schools as subst...

  20. N-CDAD in Canada: Results of the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program 1997 N-CDAD Prevalence Surveillance Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghen Hyland

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A 1996 preproject survey among Canadian Hospital Epidemiology Committee (CHEC sites revealed variations in the prevention, detection, management and surveillance of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD. Facilities wanted to establish national rates of nosocomially acquired CDAD (N-CDAD to understand the impact of control or prevention measures, and the burden of N-CDAD on health care resources. The CHEC, in collaboration with the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control (Health Canada and under the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program, undertook a prevalence surveillance project among selected hospitals throughout Canada.

  1. A matter of prior knowledge: Canadian young children’s conceptions about the future in the global community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottilia CHAREKA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Young Canadian boys and girls aged nine to eleven were asked to consider their personal futures, the future of their community and the future of the world. Mixed methods were employed for data collection and analysis. Responses were compared with those given bychildren in eight countries and the discussion focused on the importance prior knowledge, in this case, prior knowledge of global issues, holds for effective teaching and learning about global issues. Canadian children were optimistic about the future for themselves and their community but less so for the globe. More so than other children, Canadian children were concerned with issues of social justice, issues such as discrimination and racism, and withimproving the environment, which might be attributed to the emphasis that is placed on these issues in their school curriculum. Assessing prior knowledge should be a priority for those considering development and implementation of global education curricula.

  2. “History is a Verb: We Learn it Best When We are Doing it!”: French and English Canadian Prospective Teachers and History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Lévesque

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a Canadian study of prospective history teachers conducted in 2012-2013. Using an online questionnaire to assess a broad range of questions pertaining to their knowledge of history, their trust in historical sources, their experiences in high school and university classes, and their views about school history, it offers new empirical evidence on how the growing generation of Canadian teachers are prepared for the teaching profession. Implications of this study for teacher education and practice teaching are also presented.

  3. Canadian Association of Gastroenterology and the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation: Guidelines on Colon Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond Leddin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent cancer affecting both men and women in Canada. Many of these cancers are preventable, and the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG and the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation (CDHF strongly support the establishment of screening programs for colorectal cancer. These guidelines discuss a number of screening options, listing the advantages and disadvantages of each. Ultimately, the test that is used for screening should be determined by patient preference, current evidence and local resources.

  4. The Canadian Hypertension Education Program – a unique Canadian knowledge translation program

    OpenAIRE

    Tobe, Sheldon W; Touyz, Rhian M.; Campbell, Norm RC

    2007-01-01

    The Canadian Hypertension Education Program annually appraises data from hypertension research and updates clinical practice recommendation for the diagnosis and management of hypertension. Enormous effort is devoted to disseminating these recommendations to target groups throughout the country and, through the use of institutional databases, to evaluating their effectiveness in improving the health of Canadians by lowering blood pressure in people with hypertension. The mission of the Canadi...

  5. Indigenous populations health protection: A Canadian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Katya L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The disproportionate effects of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on many Canadian Aboriginal communities have drawn attention to the vulnerability of these communities in terms of health outcomes in the face of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Exploring the particular challenges facing these communities is essential to improving public health planning. In alignment with the objectives of the Pandemic Influenza Outbreak Research Modelling (Pan-InfORM team, a Canadian public health workshop was held at the Centre for Disease Modelling (CDM to: (i evaluate post-pandemic research findings; (ii identify existing gaps in knowledge that have yet to be addressed through ongoing research and collaborative activities; and (iii build upon existing partnerships within the research community to forge new collaborative links with Aboriginal health organizations. The workshop achieved its objectives in identifying main research findings and emerging information post pandemic, and highlighting key challenges that pose significant impediments to the health protection and promotion of Canadian Aboriginal populations. The health challenges faced by Canadian indigenous populations are unique and complex, and can only be addressed through active engagement with affected communities. The academic research community will need to develop a new interdisciplinary framework, building upon concepts from ‘Communities of Practice’, to ensure that the research priorities are identified and targeted, and the outcomes are translated into the context of community health to improve policy and practice.

  6. Canadian Ethnohistory: A Source for Social Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickwire, Wendy

    1998-01-01

    Presents an overview of ethnohistory, a relatively new area of historical investigation that draws on anthropology, geography, and linguistics, as well as history, to document the pasts of predominantly indigenous peoples. Encourages social studies teachers to take notice of a major body of work being produced by Canadian ethnohistorians. (DSK)

  7. Who Are the Players in Canadian Curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Geoffrey

    1987-01-01

    Labels range of persons advocating different theoretical positions of Canadian curriculum as "players." Describes players as "managers,""predictors,""transformers,""sleuths,""analysts." Values varied viewpoints for attention to language regarding curriculum, critical review of ideas/concepts, examination of current policies, awareness of history…

  8. International surgery: definition, principles and Canadian practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, Ronald

    2003-10-01

    This article is dedicated to the Canadian international surgeon, Norman Bethune (1890-1939). International surgery is defined as a humanitarian branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of bodily injuries or disorders by incision or manipulations, emphasizing cooperation and understanding among nations and involving education, research, development and advocacy. In this article I review the colonial past, the dark ages following the Declaration of Alma-Ata, the progress made and the present challenges in international surgery. I present a definition of international surgery that recognizes the current era of surgical humanitarianism, validates a global understanding of surgical issues and promotes cooperation among nations. Included are the principles of international surgery: education, research, infrastructure development and advocacy. International surgical projects are classified according to type (clinical, relief, developmental) and integration strategy (vertical or horizontal). Also reviewed are the Canadian practice of international surgery by nongovernmental, professional and academic organizations and the requirements of international and Canadian funding agencies, the development concepts basic to all projects, including results-based management and the cross-cutting themes of gender equity, environmental protection and human safety. I recommend formalizing international surgery into a discipline as a means of promoting surgical care in low-income countries. If international surgery is to be sustained in Canada, infrastructure and support from Canadian surgeons is particularly important. An understanding of the history, definition and classification of international surgery should promote surgical care in low-income countries.

  9. Canadian Adult Education: Still a Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbit, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Writing recently in this journal, two of Canada's veteran adult educators contemplated the "death" of the Canadian adult education movement. I disagree and argue that adult education in Canada is as vital an activity as ever and one that still fully justifies being called a movement. Specifically, Selman and Selman (2009) list five…

  10. Canadian Adult Education: Still a Movement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In this journal's Fall 2009 issue, the Forum section included an article by Gordon Selman and Mark Selman arguing that although Canadian adult education had existed as a social movement in the middle part of the 20th century, it is no longer a social movement. They also speculated about the causes of this change. In the Spring 2011 issue, Tom…

  11. Canadian Children's Perceptions of Spirituality: Diverse Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kelsey; Talwar, Victoria; Bosacki, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Few researchers have explored children's understandings of spirituality. Thus, Canadian children from different religious, spiritual and cultural backgrounds were asked open-ended questions concerning their spiritual thoughts, beliefs and experiences. Parents of participants completed a demographic questionnaire and reported children's religious…

  12. Asian and Pacific Migration: The Canadian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, T. John

    1994-01-01

    Examines the characteristics of landed immigrants (permanent settlers) from Asia, and explores their settlement, adaptation, and integration experience in Canada. It suggests that access to Canadian land does not always translate into equal opportunity in the economy and society, but notes that Canada may be more successful at assimilating Asian…

  13. Heat exposure in the Canadian workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Ollie; Kenny, Glen P

    2010-08-01

    Exposure to excessive heat is a physical hazard that threatens Canadian workers. As patterns of global climate change suggest an increased frequency of heat waves, the potential impact of these extreme climate events on the health and well-being of the Canadian workforce is a new and growing challenge. Increasingly, industries rely on available technology and information to ensure the safety of their workers. Current Canadian labor codes in all provinces employ the guidelines recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) that are Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) based upon Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT). The TLVs are set so that core body temperature of the workers supposedly does not exceed 38.0 degrees C. Legislation in most Canadian provinces also requires employers to install engineering and administrative controls to reduce the heat stress risk of their working environment should it exceed the levels permissible under the WBGT system. There are however severe limitations using the WGBT system because it only directly evaluates the environmental parameters and merely incorporates personal factors such as clothing insulation and metabolic heat production through simple correction factors for broadly generalized groups. An improved awareness of the strengths and limitations of TLVs and the WGBT index can minimize preventable measurement errors and improve their utilization in workplaces. Work is on-going, particularly in the European Union to develop an improved individualized heat stress risk assessment tool. More work is required to improve the predictive capacity of these indices.

  14. Family Business Training: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, A. B.; Soufani, K.; Lam, Jose

    2003-01-01

    Family firms play an important role in the working of the Canadian economy; despite their importance to the economic activities and job creation it is observed that family businesses have lower survival rates than non-family firms, some argue that this can possibly be attributed (amongst other factors) to the lack of training. Most of the training…

  15. Canadian suicide mortality rates: first-generation immigrants versus Canadian-born.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, J; Johansen, H; Nair, C; Nargundkar, M

    1990-01-01

    This article examines suicide mortality rates and trends in Canada for first-generation immigrants and the Canadian-born population. Data are analyzed by age, sex and country of birth. Since 1950, suicide rates worldwide for both men and women have been increasing. In North America and most of Europe, suicide has been one of the major causes of death for many years. In Canada, suicide rates are also rising. However, this increase is due entirely to a rise in the rate for men; the rate for women has remained relatively stable. Several differences are apparent between the rates for the Canadian-born population and those for first-generation immigrants. For example, three times as many Canadian-born men as women commit suicide. For first-generation immigrants, the ratio is two to one. Suicide mortality rates for the Canadian-born are higher than those for first-generation immigrants in every age group except for the 65 and over groups. Canadian born males have higher ASMR than first generation immigrant males. The rates for women show that first-generation immigrant women have higher suicide mortality rates than their Canadian-born counterparts, and that the highest rate for all women is for immigrants born in Asia.

  16. Ethnic and gender differences in perceptions of mortality risk in a Canadian urban centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilat L Grunau

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Gilat L Grunau1, Pamela A Ratner1,2, Shahadut Hossain11NEXUS; 2School of Nursing, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; University of British Columbia, Vancouver, CanadaBackground: Women reportedly do not perceive heart disease (HD as a major threat to their health; however, men’s perceptions are rarely studied.Purpose: We explored gender and ethnic differences in risk perception of HD mortality.Methods: The survey was completed by 976 people 40+ years of age, in metropolitan Vancouver, Canada.Results: Men, compared with women, were more likely not to know the answer to a question about whether HD is the most common cause of death for women; however, women were more likely not to know the answer to a question about whether HD is the most common cause of death for men. Chinese-Canadian and South Asian-Canadian participants were more likely than participants of other ethnic groups not to know the answer to either question, and the Chinese-Canadian participants were more likely to disagree that HD is the most common cause of death for women.Conclusion: There is a need to educate the Chinese-Canadian and South Asian-Canadian communities about HD as a first step in promoting health behavior change. Men and women must be educated about the other gender’s risk of HD because all adults play integral roles in making decisions about the prevention of and early intervention for HD.Keywords: risk assessment, heart disease, mortality, gender, ethnic groups

  17. CANADIAN INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL OF BEIJING --Example of Sino-Canadian Educational Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    ‘We are not here just to celebrate the completion of a building. We are here to celebrate the creation of a solid, lasting network across China that will help our respective societies to prosper as friends and as strategic partners," said Philip Calvert,

  18. School Dropout: A Review Assessing the Place of Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Anne; Fortin, Laurier; Joly, Jacques; Royer, Egide

    2005-01-01

    School dropout is a complex social problem. In 1999, more boys (15 %) than girls (9 %) dropped out of Canadian schools prior to graduation (Bowlby and McMullen, 2002). In the United States, Kaufman et al. (2000) evaluated that 5 % more boys than girls dropped out of school. This literature review focuses on the place given to gender within studies…

  19. Canadian Society of Nephrology Commentary on the 2012 KDIGO clinical practice guideline for glomerulonephritis: management of glomerulonephritis in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybulsky, Andrey V; Walsh, Michael; Knoll, Greg; Hladunewich, Michelle; Bargman, Joanne; Reich, Heather; Humar, Atul; Samuel, Susan; Bitzan, Martin; Zappitelli, Michael; Dart, Allison; Mammen, Cherry; Pinsk, Maury; Muirhead, Norman

    2014-03-01

    The KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) clinical practice guideline for management of glomerulonephritis was recently released. The Canadian Society of Nephrology convened a working group to review the recommendations and comment on their relevancy and applicability to the Canadian context. A subgroup of adult nephrologists reviewed the guideline statements for management of glomerular disease in adults and agreed with most of the guideline statements developed by KDIGO. This commentary highlights areas for which there is lack of evidence and areas in need of translation of evidence into clinical practice. Areas of controversy or uncertainty, including the choice of second-line agents, are discussed in more detail. Existing practice variation also is addressed. The relevance of treatment recommendations to the Canadian practitioner is discussed.

  20. Comparison of Taiwanese and Canadian Students' Metacognitive Awareness of Science Reading, Text, and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Ru; Chen, Shin-Feng; Fang, I.; Chou, Ching-Ting

    2014-03-01

    This study used a Chinese-language version of the Index of Science Reading Awareness to explore the science reading metacognition and comprehension of Taiwanese students. Structural equation modelling results confirmed the underlying model comprised three clusters of metacognitive knowledge: beliefs and confidence in science reading, knowledge of structure of science text, and knowledge of science reading strategies. The main contribution of the current research was to provide evidence about the relationship between metacognitive awareness and comprehension of science text. In addition, data comparisons to Canadian (British Columbia) benchmarks from the original development revealed that metacognitive awareness of science reading deteriorated from elementary to middle school in both countries, and there were no significant differences of metacognitive awareness of science reading between Canadian and Taiwanese students. Instructional suggestions for raising students' metacognitive awareness on science reading were discussed.

  1. Seeing Oneself in a Book: The Changing Face of Canadian Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Fayjean, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Takes a look at children's literature over time, and its recent emergence as a respected body of literary work. Discusses what is Canadian about Canadian children's literature. Annotates six picture books. Notes that Canadian literature reflects the diversity of the Canadian population, the vast differences in the Canadian landscape, and the…

  2. Committing Canadian sociology: developing a Canadian sociology and a sociology of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Ralph

    2014-05-01

    This paper is a slightly revised version of the author's "Outstanding Career Award Lecture" presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Sociological Association in Victoria, British Columbia on June 6, 2013. The paper distinguishes between Canadian Sociology and the Sociology of Canada. The former involves the explanatory stance that one takes to understanding Canada. The latter addresses the significant social dimensions that underlie Canadian social organization, culture, and behavior. I make a case for a Canadian Sociology that focuses on the unique features of Canadian society rather than adopting a comparative perspective. I also argue that there is a continuing need within the Sociology of Canada to address the issues of staples development. However, I argue that "new" staples analysis must have a directional change from that of the past, in that social processes now largely determine the pattern of staples development. Moreover, new staples analysis must include issues that were never part of earlier staples analysis, such as issues of environmental impacts and of staples depletion under conditions, such as climate change. The paper concludes by analyzing four factors that provide the dominant social contexts for analyzing modern staples development: (1) the rise of neoliberal government, (2) the implementation of globalization and its social consequences, (3) the assumption of aboriginal rights and entitlement, and (4) the rise of environmentalism. These factors were generally not considered in earlier staples approaches. They are critical to understanding the role of staples development and its impact on Canada in the present time.

  3. Canadian petroleum history bibliography. Release update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2010-01-07

    The petroleum history bibliography was created over several years as a record dedicated to preserving the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. It comprises a list of more than 5000 publications, including books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles and stories of the many companies that have come and gone. It aims to include all publications and audio visual products from the Social Sciences and Humanities on company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry and humour. An author index is included. Most government documents are excluded as they are accessible through Library and Archives Canada. This bibliography is an ongoing piece of work, and welcomes any additions relating to the study and preservation of Canadian petroleum industry history.

  4. Webpages on copyright in Canadian academic libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony G Horava

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Academic libraries value the web as being a vital channel for communicating information and policies to their user community. Designing a webpage on copyright is a challenging task that requires a consideration of the medium and the message. This article proposes a conceptual model and proactive approach for integrating policy objective and goals into the development of a copyright webpage, based on key elements of the library’s involvement in academia. To complement this theoretical approach, an analysis of Canadian academic library websites was conducted in order to gage the effectiveness of copyright webpages, in the Canadian legal context, according to the model as well as related design issues of visibility and access.

  5. Educational Finance and School Choice in the United States and Canada. Occasional Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Stephen B.

    Both the United States and Canadian provinces have moved to enhance educational choice within their educational systems to improve educational productivity. In spite of this similarity of purpose and means, the two nations are taking very different approaches. Most Canadian provinces have moved to full provincial financing of schools and to the…

  6. 2003 Canadian Asthma Consensus Guidelines Executive Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Allan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma have been published over the last 15 years; however, there has been little focus on issues relating to asthma in childhood. Since the last revision of the 1999 Canadian Asthma Consensus Report, important new studies, particularly in children, have highlighted the need to incorporate new information into the asthma guidelines. The objectives of this article are to review the literature on asthma published between January 2000 and June 2003 and to evaluate the influence of new evidence on the recommendations made in the 1999 Canadian Asthma Consensus Report and its 2001 update, with a major focus on pediatric issues. Methods The diagnosis of asthma in young children and prevention strategies, pharmacotherapy, inhalation devices, immunotherapy, and asthma education were selected for review by small expert resource groups. The reviews were discussed in June 2003 at a meeting under the auspices of the Canadian Network For Asthma Care and the Canadian Thoracic Society. Data published through December 2004 were subsequently reviewed by the individual expert resource groups. Results This report evaluates early-life prevention strategies and focuses on treatment of asthma in children, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis and preventive therapy, the benefits of additional therapy, and the essential role of asthma education. Conclusion We generally support previous recommendations and focus on new issues, particularly those relevant to children and their families. This document is a guide for asthma management based on the best available published data and the opinion of health care professionals, including asthma experts and educators.

  7. Morbidity Experiences and Disability Among Canadian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesMeules, Marie; Turner, Linda; Cho, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Health Issue Women are more frequently affected by chronic conditions and disability than men. Although some of these sex differences have been in part attributed to biological susceptibility, social determinants of health and other factors, these gaps have not been fully explained in the current literature. This chapter presents comparisons of hospitalization rates, and the prevalence of chronic conditions and physical disability between Canadian women and men and between various subgroups of women, adjusting for selected risk factors. The Canadian Hospital Morbidity Database (2000–2001) and Canadian Community Health Survey (2000–2001) were used to examine inpatient hospital morbidity, prevalence of chronic conditions and disability. Key Findings Hospitalization rates were 20% higher among women than men. This was due to the large number of hospitalizations for pregnancies and childbirth. When "normal" deliveries were excluded, hospitalization rates remained higher among women. Women had slightly lower rates of hospitalizations for ambulatory-care sensitive conditions than men. Prevalence of activity limitation (mild and severe) was higher among women than men, and differences remained after adjusting for age, chronic conditions, socio-economic status, and smoking. Women who reported a disability were less likely than men to be in a partnered relationship, have less tangible social support, and have lower income and employment rates. Data Gaps and Recommendations The impact of morbidity and disability on Canadian women is substantial. These results identify areas for interventions among more vulnerable subgroups, and point to the need for further research in the area of risk factors for the prevention of morbidity and disability in the population. PMID:15345073

  8. Canadian mercury inventories: the missing pieces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagreen, L.A.; Lourie, B.A. [Summerhill Group, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Research was conducted to determine the significance of the deliberate use of mercury in products in Canada and the associated releases from these sources. Through a combination of literature review and new calculations, the reservoir, flux, and releases of mercury from eight product sources were calculated, and these results compared to historical Canadian inventories. Mercury contributions from the waste sector were also assessed and compared to total Canadian mercury releases and to mercury releases from coal-fired generating stations. Results suggest the use and release of mercury associated with its use in products is 4.5 times what previous inventories indicate. Including dental amalgam and sewage sludge, the total releases of mercury to all environmental compartments in Canada totals 20 tonnes per year. This accounts for less than one-half of the 44 tonnes per year of mercury released from mercury waste disposal each year in Canada. Waste mercury contributions from hazardous waste imports, unknown product sources, and incomplete information on the use of mercury in known products may account for this discrepancy. Waste-related mercury releases and transfers for disposal and recycling are 11 times greater than that of electricity generation in Canada. Results indicate that Canadian inventories have underestimated the significance of mercury use and release associated with products, calling into question the current priorities for mercury management. This paper was developed as part of a panel session at the International Joint Commission 'Mercury in the Ecosystem' workshop, February 26-27, 2003, Windsor, ON, Canada, as a complement to the information on Canadian Inventories presented by Luke Trip (Senes Consulting, Ottawa, ON, Canada).

  9. Canadian Multiculturalism, Same as it ever Was?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Hoyos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available After the Second World War ended, Canada was no longer mainly composed of its two dominant ethnocultural groups, French and English, but rather constituted by polyethnicity; meaning, Canadian culture was made up of many different ethnic groups. Since then, Canada has actively embraced multiculturalism and on 12 July 1988, the House of Commons passed Bill C-93, ‘An Act for the preservation and enhancement of multiculturalism in Canada’. The Canadian multicultural experience has been much portrayed as a celebration of ethnicity where different cultural groups share their customs and learn from each other. However, it is recently being rumoured that the multiculturalism hype is not all it is cut out to be and segregates communities rather than integrate. According to Canadian authors Keith Banting and Will Kymlicka, “in much of the world and particularly in Europe, there is a widespread perception that multiculturalism has failed” (44. In this paper, I examine some recent common issues of concern, especially, racism and discrimination, through the literary expression of Canadian playwrights and writers such as George F. Walker, Cecil Foster, and Mordecai Richler. These writers are not meant to represent any ethnic group as a whole, but rather try to project a general feeling about the nation in individual ways. I will finally explore the idea of how perhaps multiculturalism in Canada is evolving into another state since migratory patterns and the social circumstances that Canada is facing in the 21st century have changed. Today, the idea of celebrating different ethnicities and customs is no longer as important as celebrating the transcultural or “transnational” aspects of relations between individuals and groups of immigrants.

  10. The Canadian Assessment of Physical literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Claire E; Longmuir, Patricia E; Boyer, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy (CAPL) was conceptualized as a tool to monitor children's physical literacy. The original model (fitness, activity behavior, knowledge, motor skill) required revision and relative weights for calculating/interpreting scores were required....... Methods: Nineteen childhood physical activity/fitness experts completed a 3-round Delphi process. Round 1 was open-ended questions. Subsequent rounds rated statements using a 5-point Likert scale. Recommendations were sought regarding protocol inclusion, relative importance within composite scores...

  11. Canadian Light Infantry in Adaptive Dispersed Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    Sources Bercuson, David . Significant Incident: Canada’s Army, the Airborne and the murder in Somalia. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1996. Bernier...36 David Bercuson, Significant Incident: Canada’s Army, the Airborne and the Murder in Somalia...Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1996), 54-58. 37 Bernd Horn and M. Wyczynski, Hook-up! The Canadian Airborne Compendium (St.Catharines: Vanwell

  12. Science Traverses in the Canadian High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Marie-Claude

    2012-01-01

    The presentation is divided into three parts. Part I is an overview of early expeditions to the High Arctic, and their political consequences at the time. The focus then shifts to the Geological Survey of Canada s mapping program in the North (Operation Franklin), and to the Polar Continental Shelf Project (PCSP), a unique organization that resides within the Government of Canada s Department of Natural Resources, and supports mapping projects and science investigations. PCSP is highlighted throughout the presentation so a description of mandate, budgets, and support infrastructure is warranted. In Part II, the presenter describes the planning required in advance of scientific deployments carried out in the Canadian High Arctic from the perspective of government and university investigators. Field operations and challenges encountered while leading arctic field teams in fly camps are also described in this part of the presentation, with particular emphasis on the 2008 field season. Part III is a summary of preliminary results obtained from a Polar Survey questionnaire sent out to members of the Arctic research community in anticipation of the workshop. The last part of the talk is an update on the analog program at the Canadian Space Agency, specifically, the Canadian Analog Research Network (CARN) and current activities related to Analog missions, 2009-2010.

  13. Canadian oil and gas survey 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberge, R.B. [ed.

    1998-11-01

    The year 1997 brought record levels of financing for the Canadian oil and gas industry which led to record levels of capital spending and unprecedented merger and acquisition activity. Production records were achieved, but soft commodity prices in the fourth quarter resulted in a significant downturn in the equity markets. El Nino reduced demand for natural gas and heating oil, resulting in increased storage levels for both commodities. Record drilling and capital spending fueled the Canadian oilfield service industry as total market capitalization rose to $10 billion. As for the 1998 outlook, the industry has turned to natural gas as the favoured commodity, as indicated by the conclusion of the Alliance pipeline hearings and the Nova/TCPL merger. This survey presents a review of crude oil and natural gas production, prices, and capital spending for development and exploratory wells, and the financial and operating results for fiscal year 1997 of selected oil and gas companies and income trusts. All listed companies are Canadian public companies, or publicly traded income trusts, traded on one of the country`s four major stock exchanges. They are ranked according to gross oil and gas production revenue only (before royalties). Syncrude and oil sands production is also included. The remaining data in the financial statistics tables includes all business segments of each company included. The survey excluded companies that were wholly-owned subsidiaries, divisions or U.S. subsidiaries and private companies. tabs., figs.

  14. School-Based Practices for Asperger Syndrome: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrimmon, Adam W.; Altomare, Alyssa A.; Matchullis, Ryan L.; Jitlina, Katia

    2012-01-01

    Educators face increasing demands to provide quality education in their classrooms, particularly to students with exceptional needs. Students with Asperger syndrome (AS) represent a population experiencing significant nonacademic barriers to learning (e.g., social, emotional, and behavioural needs). However, educational policies that identify and…

  15. Installation of the Canadian Muon Cargo Inspection System at CRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Installation of the Canadian Muon Cargo Inspection System at CRL Prepared by: Guy Jonkmans Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Chalk River ON...INSTALLATION OF THE CANADIAN MUON CARGO INSPECTION SYSTEM AT CRL 153-30100-REPT-001 Revision 0 2013/02/19 UNRESTRICTED 2013/02/19 ILLIMITÉ 153...30100-REPT-001 2013/02/19 Report, General Installation of the Canadian Muon Cargo Inspection System at CRL Research and Development 153-30100

  16. Should investors prefer Canadian hedge funds or stocks?

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xiao Yan; Zhou, Weihui

    2007-01-01

    This paper updates Brulhart and Klein (2006) by comparing the magnitude of extreme returns from Tremont, HFRI hedge fund indices with stock indices. It also compares the magnitude of extreme returns from Canadian hedge fund indices with stock indices. We found that the results from Brulhart and Klein hold for the updated US data. However, the results do not hold for the Canadian hedge fund indices. The magnitude of extreme returns from Canadian hedge fund indices is lower than the magnitude o...

  17. Examining the Link between Education Related Outcomes and Student Health Risk Behaviours among Canadian Youth: Data from the 2006 National Youth Smoking Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathammavong, Ratsamy; Leatherdale, Scott T.; Ahmed, Rashid; Griffith, Jane; Nowatzki, Janet; Manske, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether student tobacco, alcohol, marijuana use, and sedentary behaviour were associated with the educational outcomes of health-related absenteeism, truancy, and academic motivation in a nationally representative sample of Canadian youth. Descriptive analyses indicate a high proportion of students missed school due to health,…

  18. Cross-language acoustic similarity predicts perceptual assimilation of Canadian English and Canadian French vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Paola; Vasiliev, Polina

    2011-11-01

    Monolingual Peruvian Spanish listeners identified natural tokens of the Canadian French (CF) and Canadian English (CE) /ɛ/ and /æ/, produced in five consonantal contexts. The results demonstrate that while the CF vowels were mapped to two different native vowels, /e/ and /a/, in all consonantal contexts, the CE contrast was mapped to the single native vowel /a/ in four out of five contexts. Linear discriminant analysis revealed that acoustic similarity between native and target language vowels was a very good predictor of context-specific perceptual mappings. Predictions are made for Spanish learners of the /ɛ/-/æ/ contrast in CF and CE.

  19. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Driving: A Canadian Thoracic Society and Canadian Sleep Society Position Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najib Ayas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA experience sleep fragmentation and poor sleep quality that results in daytime sleepiness, which impairs performance during driving and leads to an increased risk for collisions. Not surprisingly, observational studies have shown that patients with OSA experience a two- to 10-fold higher risk for collision compared with healthy controls. Although treatment would clearly mitigate these risks, there is no current Canadian position on driving and OSA. This article, the first Canadian position statement addressing the issue, provides an overview of provincial regulations and proposes recommendations with regard to driving in patients with OSA.

  20. A survey of senior medical students’ attitudes and awareness toward teaching and participation in a formal clinical teaching elective: a Canadian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Hughes, J. D.; Azzi, Elise; Rose, Gregory Walter; Ramnanan, Christopher J.; Khamisa, Karima

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: To prepare for careers in medicine, medical trainees must develop clinical teaching skills. It is unclear if Canadian medical students need or want to develop such skills. We sought to assess Canadian students’ perceptions of clinical teaching, and their desire to pursue clinical teaching skills development via a clinical teaching elective (CTE) in their final year of medical school. Methods: We designed a descriptive cross-sectional study of Canadian senior medical students, using an online survey to gauge teaching experience, career goals, perceived areas of confidence, and interest in a CTE. Results: Students at 13 of 17 Canadian medical schools were invited to participate in the survey (4154 students). We collected 321 responses (7.8%). Most (75%) respondents expressed confidence in giving presentations, but fewer were confident providing bedside teaching (47%), teaching sensitive issues (42%), and presenting at journal clubs (42%). A total of 240 respondents (75%) expressed interest in participating in a CTE. The majority (61%) favored a two week elective, and preferred topics included bedside teaching (85%), teaching physical examination skills (71%), moderation of small group learning (63%), and mentorship in medicine (60%). Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that a large number of Canadian medical students are interested in teaching in a clinical setting, but lack confidence in skills specific to clinical teaching. Our respondents signaled interest in participating in an elective in clinical teaching, particularly if it is offered in a two-week format. PMID:28178914

  1. The New England Collaborative Data Management Curriculum Pilot at the University of Manitoba: A Canadian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayu Ishida

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Canada’s federal funding agencies are following the directions of funding agencies in the United States and United Kingdom, and will soon require a data management plan in grant applications. The University of Manitoba Libraries in Canada has started planning and implementing research data services, and education is seen as a key component. In June 2014, the New England Collaborative Data Management Curriculum (NECDMC (Lamar Soutter Library, University of Massachusetts Medical School 2014 was piloted and used to provide data management training for a group of subject librarians at the University of Manitoba Libraries, in combination with information about data-related policies of the Canadian funding agencies and the University of Manitoba. The seven NECDMC modules were delivered in a seminar style, with emphasis on group discussions and Canadian content. The benefits of NECDMC – adaptability and flexible framework – should be weighed against the challenges experienced in the pilot, mainly the significant amount of time needed to create local content and complement the existing curriculum. Overall, the pilot showed that NECDMC is a good, thorough introduction to data management, and that it is possible to adapt NECDMC to the local and Canadian settings in an effective way.

  2. Second-generation youth's belief in the myth of Canadian multiculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mehrunnisa Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    Second-generation youth in Toronto, growing up in low-income neighbourhoods, interact primarily with other racialized and ethnicized people. Within this environment they do not experience racial prejudice or discrimination, appreciate the cultural diversity around them, and attribute it to Canada's ideology of multiculturalism. However, they are beginning to realize their own subjectivity in relation to the power of White people and institutions. These confident, ambitious, and globally connected young people are likely to get deeply disappointed as they uncover the myths of Canada's multiculturalism in the world beyond their ethnically concentrated schools and neighbourhoods. Acknowledging and addressing their marginality is critical to their inclusion in Canadian society.

  3. Knowledge Mobilization in Canadian Educational Research: Identifying Current Developments and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezana Ratkovic

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this special issue of Brock Education: Journal for Educational Research and Practice, we build on the knowledge mobilization (KMb discourses initiated by the Ontario Ministry of Education (MOE, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC, Knowledge Network for Applied Education Research (KNAER, Canadian Society for the Study of Education (CSSE, and School District-University Research Exchange (SURE network. We feature five journal articles and a book review addressing the three main KMb questions: How to assess KMb efforts across educational systems?  To what extent do educators use research to inform their praxis? How to make KMb work?

  4. Geomagnetic Field Variability in the Western Canadian Arctic Since the Last Deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, G.; Lise-Pronovost, A.; Barletta, F.; Channell, J. E.; Brachfeld, S. A.; Polyak, L. V.; Darby, D. A.; Rochon, A.; Scott, D. B.

    2009-12-01

    Several piston cores (HLY0501-05JPC, -06JPC, -08JPC and 2004-804-803, -124, -250, -650, -750) were recently collected in the western Canadian Arctic and Arctic Alaskan margin as part of major international scientific programs such as CASES (Canadian Arctic Shelf Exchange Study), ArcticNet and HOTRAX (Healy-Oden Trans Arctic Expedition). Due to the seafloor imaging and subbottom profiling capabilities of the deployed ice-breakers (CCGS Amundsen and USCCG Healy), the coring sites were carefully selected for high sediment accumulation areas not affected by mass wasting events nor by ice scouring. The sedimentological, physical and magnetic properties of these piston cores in conjunction with AMS-14C dating reveal that these cores span the last deglaciation to the present with sedimentation rates as high as 350 cm/ka. Here we highlight key paleomagnetic secular variations and relative paleointensity findings from selected cores collected off the Arctic Alaskan margin, the Mackenzie delta and in the Amundsen Gulf in order to synthesize geomagnetic field variability in the western Canadian Arctic since the last deglaciation.

  5. A wind-driven nonseasonal barotropic fluctuation of the Canadian Inland Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Piecuch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A wind-driven, spatially coherent mode of nonseasonal, depth-independent variability in the Canadian Inland Seas (i.e., the collective of Hudson Bay, James Bay, and Foxe Basin is identified based on Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE retrievals, a tide-gauge record, and a barotropic model over 2003–2013. This dominant mode of nonseasonal variability is partly related to the North Atlantic Oscillation and is associated with net flows into and out of the Canadian Inland Seas; the anomalous inflows and outflows, which are reflected in mean sea level and bottom pressure changes, are driven by wind stress anomalies over Hudson Strait, possibly related to wind setup, as well as over the northern North Atlantic Ocean, potentially mediated by various wave mechanisms. The mode is also associated with mass redistribution within the Canadian Inland Seas, reflecting linear response to local wind stress variations under the combined influences of rotation, gravity, and variable bottom topography. Results exemplify the usefulness of GRACE for studying regional ocean circulation and climate.

  6. The Canadian Teaching Commons: The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Canadian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuetherick, Brad; Yu, Stan

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reports on a national study exploring the current state of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) and assessing the perceptions of Canadian SoTL scholars at the micro (individual), meso (departmental), macro (institutional), and mega (disciplinary) contexts.

  7. Students in Nova Scotia Schools Without Teacher-Librarians are not Achieving Department of Education Expectations for Information Literacy Skills. A review of: Gunn, Holly, and Gary Hepburn. “Seeking Information for School Purposes on the Internet.” Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology 29.1 (Winter 2003: 67‐88. 24 May 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Bogel

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This study investigated whether the expectations for Internet searching strategies outlined in provincial curriculumg oals are being met in Nova Scotia Schools. Twelfth-grade students in representative schools were surveyed as to their Internet information seeking strategies and their perceptions of the effectiveness of those strategies. The results are presented as six themes based on the survey questions.Design – Survey questionnaire consisting of yes/no, multiple-choice, Likert style, and open‐ended responses.Setting – Twelfth‐grade students from four high schools in one district in Nova Scotia. Total participants: 198.Subjects – Questionnaires were analyzed from 243 general practitioners, practice nurses, and practice managers in four Nottingham primary care trusts as well as practices in the Rotherham Health Authority area.Methods – Four research questions guided this study: 1. What strategies and techniques do students use that are helpful for information‐seeking on the Internet? 2. What knowledge do students have of the different World Wide Web search engines? 3. How do students perceive their ability to locate information for school purposes on the Internet? 4. How do students learn how to seek information on the Internet for school related assignments? The survey was developed through a literature review of previous research. Each survey item reflected a theme and one of the four research questions. The survey was field tested in a pilot study with two twelfth‐grade students, and two twelfth grade English classes.The sample was assembled by asking principals at the four schools to identify two classes in each of their schools that represented mixed academic abilities. Three schools chose English classes, and one school chose math classes participate in the study. All students had agreed to be a part of the study and only students present in class on the day the questionnaire was given were represented. No

  8. The Canadian Niagara Power Company story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, N.R. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2005-07-01

    This book chronicles the history and contributions of the Canadian Niagara Power Company and its employees toward the establishment of electricity generation and distribution in Niagara Falls and Fort Erie, Ontario, dating back to its founding in 1892. Through historical photographs, maps and drawings, the book demonstrates the impact of electricity on the Niagara region. It emphasizes the many skills and jobs required to run the company that generated electricity and maintained a complete system to deliver power, metering, and billing services through the depression, wars, and postwar booms, even during lightning, snow and ice storms. The company began producing power in 1905 with what had been the world's largest-capacity turbines and generators that supplied power to both sides of the Niagara River. Initially, most of the electricity was exported to New York State. The company eventually expanded its Canadian customer service area from Niagara Falls, Ontario, to Fort Erie, Bridgeburg, Amigari, Ridgeway, Stevensville, Crystal Beach and Point Abino. Throughout its history, the Canadian Niagara Power Company provided power at a lower cost than its neighbouring competitors. The William Birch Rankine Generating Station became an important tourist attraction, showcasing the latest electrical appliances of the time in an effort to promote the use of electricity in homes and offices. Today, the station remains a tribute to the fact that natural beauty can coincide with industry. The book also chronicles the difficult business challenges caused by restructuring in the electric power industry in the 1990s, repairing aging equipment and applying the latest in automation and remote sensing technology. Today, the company as FortisOntario is expanding to other communities around Ontario. refs., tabs., figs.

  9. Transition and Skills Development through Education, Training and Work Experiences: A Follow-up Study, Seven Oaks School Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lynn; Simpson, Wayne; McClure, Karen; Graham, Barbara; Levin, Benjamin

    A Canadian study of the school-to-work transition followed students enrolled in grade 11 in 1990 (n=177), 1992 (n=172), and 1994 (n=347) in Seven Oaks School Division's three high schools. Based largely on questions from the Statistics Canada (SC) School Leavers Survey and SC Graduates Study (1997), the telephone survey focused on these elements:…

  10. Chinese Oil Giants Eye Canadian Oil Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Bin

    2005-01-01

    @@ SinoCanada, a subsidiary of Sinopec International Petroleum Exploration and Development Corporation, and Canada-based Synenco Energy Inc announced on May 31 that they have inked a series of agreements to launch a joint venture for common development of the oil sand project located in Athabasca region of Northeast Canada's Alberta Province. Based on the agreements, Sinopec will pay 105 million Canadian dollars (US$84 million) for a stake in Canada's Northern Lights oil sands project while Synenco owns the remaining 60 percent share,and will operate the project as the managing partner.

  11. 2007: A Canadian Corporate Ownership Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsan, Calin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study documents a decline in the levels of corporate ownership concentration between 1996 and 2007. When compared to previous studies, the incidence of ownership stakes of 20% or larger has decreased form 60% to 41% of the total population of publicly listed Canadian firms. Regional disparities among provinces remain important. Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia have the most widely-held firms, while Quebec and Atlantic Canada show the most concentrated corporate ownership patterns. The interpretation of these results requires a complex understanding of historical, demographic, cultural, political and institutional factors.

  12. Reinventing an industry at Western Canadian Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.

    2006-09-15

    Western Canadian Coal is applying lessons learned from past disruptions to coal production operations in British Columbia in order to build a low cost, long term production operation. Northeast British Columbia has huge coal deposits and an established infrastructure that includes the town of Tumbler Ridge, rail facilities, and access to Port Rupert. The company is developing 50,000 hectares of coal-bearing property. Production commenced in 2004, and it is planned to produce four million tonnes of coal per year by the end of 2007, increasing to 10 million tonnes by 2012. Equipment, staffing, and activities at the Dillon, Wolverine, and Brule mines are described. 2 photos.

  13. 47 CFR 101.1527 - Canadian and Mexican coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Canadian and Mexican coordination. 101.1527 Section 101.1527 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Canadian and Mexican coordination. (a) A licensee of bands 71.0-76.0, 81.0-86.0, 92-94 GHz and 94.1-95...

  14. International Disputes and Cultural Ideas in the Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Danita Catherine

    of the Canadian-Arctic relationship. Using Canada as the focus for the analysis, the purpose of this project is to contribute to the existing Arctic studies and international relations literature by examining how interests and disputes in the Canadian Arctic region have been affected by domestic cultural...

  15. The Canadian Context: Monolingual Education in an "Officially" Multilingual Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Julia E.

    2011-01-01

    This article will examine the sociopolitical language contexts that exist in institutions of Canadian post-secondary education, through investigating how government policies affect the consumption and teaching of language in writing classrooms. A survey of Canadian multiculturalist policy, multilingualism, and post-secondary education in terms of…

  16. Attitudes Toward Oral Contraception Among Canadian University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardis, Panos D.

    The author conducted a cross-cultural survey of attitudes toward the pill among university students, part of this international sample being a group of young Canadians. The subjects were students from a southwestern Canadian university and were stratified as to sex and amount of education. The author employed his Pill Scale, a 25-item Likert type…

  17. Characters with Exceptionalities Portrayed in Contemporary Canadian Children's Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerson, Jean; Brenna, Beverley

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which exceptionality is addressed in Canadian children's literature, offering critical literacy as an avenue toward social justice. A content analysis (Berg, 2009) of 134 Canadian children's books offers a wide scope of contemporary titles to include in classrooms. We developed conceptual categories to explore…

  18. Pediatric Clinical Pharmacology and Child Health:A Canadian Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stuart Macleod

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction Canadian academic centres and children's hospitals have had a longstanding interest in the improvement of drug therapy for children through research conducted across the four pillars of activity identified as being of critical importance by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research(viz,basic research,clinical research,population health research,applied health and policy research)[1].

  19. Indigenous knowledge in Canadian science curricula: cases from Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijung

    2016-09-01

    To enhance Aboriginal students' educational opportunities in sciences, culturally relevant science curriculum has been examined and practiced in Western Canadian science classrooms. This article shares some examples of inclusion of indigenous knowledge in science curricula and discusses the improvement and challenges of culturally relevant science curricula in Canadian contexts.

  20. Seeking Internationalization: The State of Canadian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the internationalization of Canadian universities, with a focus on the rise of foreign postsecondary students in Canada, the economic impacts, and the various benefits, challenges, and adjustments that have been influenced by the continuing demographic shifts on Canadian campuses since 2000. Rooted in recent global and…

  1. How Canadian Universities Use Social Media to Brand Themselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Charles H.; Bali, Suchita; Longden, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores social media marketing strategies applied by Canadian universities as a tool for institutional branding, recruitment and engagement of home and international students. The target sample involves the total population of Canadian university-status institutions ("N" = 106). Qualitative data were collected from two major…

  2. Educating Professional Musicians: Lessons Learned from School Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Glen

    2008-01-01

    Music in Canadian schools at one time focused on skills development. Building on talent, aptitude, prior learning and physical coordination, students would become better at singing or playing an instrument by studying it at school. Over time, new approaches to music teaching and learning opened the umbrella to a more comprehensive range of…

  3. Normative Considerations in the Aftermath of Gun Violence in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gereluk, Dianne T.; Donlevy, J. Kent; Thompson, Merlin B.

    2015-01-01

    Gun violence in American and Canadian schools is an ongoing tragedy that goes substantially beyond its roots in the interlocking emotional and behavioral issues of mental health and bullying. In light of the need for effective policy development, Dianne T. Gereluk, J. Kent Donlevy, and Merlin B. Thompson examine gun violence in schools from…

  4. Seeking Election: Evaluating a Campaign for Public School Board Trusteeship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Canadian public school board trustees are generally chosen by way of public ballot in civic elections. A comparison of board governance literature to a local narrative account of public school board elections exposes several gaps between espoused democratic ideals and the realities of public engagement in trustee selection. I investigate the…

  5. Canadian Asthma Consensus Conference Summary of Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Ernst

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The Asthma Committee of the Canadian Thoracic Society invited a group of Canadian physicians with a particular interest in asthma to meet in Montebello, Quebec, March 9-12, 1995 to arrive at a consensus statement on the optimal approach to the management of asthma in the pediatric and adult ambulatory care settings. The societies and associations represented are listed in the appendix with the names of the contributors to this document. The objectives of the Montebello conference were: 1. To review the current ambulatory care management of asthma in Canada; 2. To develop guidelines with the participation of family physicians and specialists; 3. To develop guidelines which are evidence-based; 4. In creating evidence-based guidelines to focus attention on aspects of asthma management that are currently not supported by randomized controlled trials; 5. To develop strategies that allow for the implementation of rational guidelines at a local level. Recommendations were based on a critical review of the scientific literature by small groups prior to the meeting and are categorized according to the strength of the scientific evidence supporting each recommendation (Table 1.

  6. Exploring Canadian Echinoderm Diversity through DNA Barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    DNA barcoding has proven an effective tool for species identification in varied groups of marine invertebrates including crustaceans, molluscs, polychaetes and echinoderms. In this study, we further validate its utility by analyzing almost half of the 300 species of Echinodermata known from Canadian waters. COI sequences from 999 specimens were assigned to 145 BINs. In most cases, species discrimination was straightforward due to the large difference (25-fold) between mean intra- (0.48%) and inter- (12.0%) specific divergence. Six species were flagged for further taxonomic investigation because specimens assigned to them fell into two or three discrete sequence clusters. The potential influence of larval dispersal capacity and glacial events on patterns of genetic diversity is discussed for 19 trans-oceanic species. Although additional research is needed to clarify biogeographic patterns and resolve taxonomic questions, this study represents an important step in the assembly of a DNA barcode library for all Canadian echinoderms, a valuable resource for future biosurveillance programs. PMID:27870868

  7. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-05-24

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups.

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions from Canadian prairie agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellert, B.H.; Janzen, H.H. [Agriculture and Agri-food Canada Research Centre, Lethbridge, AB, (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    There is a close relationship between soil and air quality, on the one hand, and the exchange of greenhouse gases between the earth and atmosphere, on the other. International efforts by people such as soil conservationists and climatologists to control emissions of these gases and negotiations surrounding the Kyoto Protocol have increased the debate regarding the role of agricultural activities. From evaluation of both data available before global change became important and recent research efforts, much information on greenhouse gas emissions from Canadian agriculture has been gained. A summary is included of the contribution of Canadian prairie agriculture to emissions of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane gas. A stress is placed on the subject of the carbon cycle and on how land management practices could influence soil carbon storage capacity. The potential for increasing this carbon storage capacity is described in relation to land use, historical changes in agricultural land, and recent observations on the influence of agricultural parctices, and obstacles to estimating changes in soil carbon dioxide emissions and carbon storage, and extending the estimates to large land areas are examined. Emissions of nitrous oxide and methane gas are considered in relation to the influence of agricultural management practices. (Abstract only)

  9. School Smoking Policy Characteristics and Individual Perceptions of the School Tobacco Context: Are They Linked to Students' Smoking Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiston, Catherine M.; Lovato, Chris Y.; Ahmed, Rashid; Pullman, Allison W.; Hadd, Valerie; Campbell, H. Sharon; Nykiforuk, Candace; Brown, K. Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore individual- and school-level policy characteristics on student smoking behavior using an ecological perspective. Participants were 24,213 (51% female) Grade 10-11 students from 81 schools in five Canadian provinces. Data were collected using student self-report surveys, written policies collected from…

  10. Exit competencies in pathology and laboratory medicine for graduating medical students: the Canadian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jason; Pambrun, Chantale

    2015-05-01

    Physicians in every medical and surgical field must be able to use pathology concepts and skills in their practice: for example, they must order and interpret the correct laboratory tests, they must use their understanding of pathogenesis to diagnose and treat, and they must work with the laboratory to care for their patients. These important concepts and skills may be ignored by medical schools and even national/international organizations setting graduation expectations for medical students. There is an evolving international consensus about the importance of exit competencies for medical school graduates, which define the measurable or observable behaviors each graduate must be able to demonstrate. The Canadian Association of Pathologists (CAP) Education Group set out to establish the basic competencies in pathology and laboratory medicine which should be expected of every medical graduate: not competencies for pathologists, but for medical graduates who intend to enter any residency program. We defined 4 targets for pathology and laboratory medicine exit competencies: that they represent only measurable behaviors, that they be clinically focused, that they be generalizable to every medical graduate, and that the final competency document be user-friendly. A set of competencies was developed iteratively and underwent final revision at the 2012 CAP annual meeting. These competencies were subsequently endorsed by the CAP executive and the Canadian Leadership Council on Laboratory Medicine. This clinically focused consensus document provides the first comprehensive list of exit competencies in pathology and laboratory medicine for undergraduate medical education.

  11. Discipline for Democracy? School Districts' Management of Conflict and Social Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickmore, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    An examination of six urban Canadian school districts' policies and co-curricular programs for safe and inclusive schools shows contrasting implicit patterns of citizenship education. Peacekeeping-oriented districts relied heavily on standardized control and exclusion to achieve school safety and allocated few resources to affirming diversity.…

  12. Creating Culturally Responsive Environments: Ethnic Minority Teachers' Constructs of Cultural Diversity in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Ming-tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges facing Hong Kong schools is the growing cultural diversity of the student population that is a result of the growing number of ethnic minority students in the schools. This study uses semi-structured interviews with 12 American, Canadian, Indian, Nepalese and Pakistani teachers working in three secondary schools in the public…

  13. An Diachronic Rsearch of Social Variation' Constraint on Linguistic Variation——Set Labov's Variation School's Research of (r) in New York City as an Example%社会变量对语言变量制约的历时研究——以拉氏变异学派纽约市(r)音变量调查为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马雪

    2015-01-01

    This paper sets Labov ' s variation school ' s reserch of ( r) in New York City as an example , giving a diachronic analysis of social variation's constraint on linguistic variation .It found that besides social stratification and stylistic style have influence on linguis -tic variation, sociolinguists also add the social variation of age , gender and ethnicity , and their influence on linguistic variation from a new angle.This paper found that young people , female and Chinese speakers are more inclined to pronounce (r).These findings dem-onstrate that the change toward rhoticity in New York City English has accelerated and is no longer restricted to formal speech , and its register is gradually expanding .%本文以拉氏变异学派纽约市( r)音变量为例,用历时研究分析了社会变量对语言变量的制约,发现除了社会阶层和语体风格的社会变量对语言变量有影响外,社会语言学家还增加了年龄、性别、种族等社会变量,从新的角度阐释了社会变量对语言变量的制约. 本文发现年轻人、女性、华人更倾向于发( r)音,并且( r)音的变化趋势虽然增加较慢,但是呈增加趋势,( r)音也不仅仅局限于正式语体中,其使用语域正逐渐扩大.

  14. 22 CFR 41.33 - Nonresident alien Canadian border crossing identification card (BCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... identification card (BCC). 41.33 Section 41.33 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION... Nonresident alien Canadian border crossing identification card (BCC). (a) Validity of Canadian BCC. A Canadian BCC or the BCC portion of a Canadian B-1/B-2 Visa/BCC issued to a permanent resident of...

  15. The View From the Bottom: Relative Deprivation and Bullying Victimization in Canadian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoletano, Anthony; Elgar, Frank J; Saul, Grace; Dirks, Melanie; Craig, Wendy

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the relation between relative deprivation (RD)-disparity in affluence between adolescents and their more affluent schoolmates-and involvement in bullying among 23,383 students (aged 9-19) in 413 schools that participated in the 2010 Canadian Health Behavior in School-Aged Children survey. Students reported family affluence and frequency of bullying victimization and perpetration during the previous 2 months. Using the Yitzhaki index of RD and multinomial logistic regression analysis, we found that RD positively related to three types of bullying victimization (physical, relational, and cyberbullying) and to two types of perpetration (relational and cyberbullying) after differences in absolute affluence were held constant. These findings suggest that RD uniquely contributes to risk of bullying involvement.

  16. Freedom of Conscience and Catholic Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlevy, J. K.; Gereluk, D.; Patterson, P.; Brandon, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper's purpose is to extensively review the historical understanding of conscience and the current juridical interpretation of freedom of conscience under section 2(a) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (1982). It then briefly notes that given the challenge faced by Ontario's Catholic schools in providing for inclusionary…

  17. Rural Schools and Technology: Connecting for Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Placed within the context of rural teaching and learning and the use of new technologies, this paper presents a comparative study of three technological approaches to the presentation of curriculum in schools. Supported by three different research projects in one Canadian province, it highlights three areas of e-learning: the use of video…

  18. Mathematical Modeling of Space-time Variations in Acoustic Transmission and Scattering from Schools of Swim Bladder Fish (FY14 Annual Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report ( SAR ) 18. NUMBER OF...arbitrary orientation with respect to the fish school, and for any bistatic angle with respect to the acoustic source, including both back and forward

  19. Mathematical Modeling of Space-Time Variations in Acoustic Transmission and Scattering from Schools of Swim Bladder Fish (FY13 Annual Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report ( SAR ) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 8 19a. NAME OF...using coherent summation. This can be done for a receiver placed at any arbitrary orientation with respect to the fish school, and for any bistatic

  20. The Canadian National Dairy Study 2015-Adoption of milking practices in Canadian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belage, E; Dufour, S; Bauman, C; Jones-Bitton, A; Kelton, D F

    2017-03-16

    Several studies have investigated which management practices have the greatest effect on udder health, but little information is available on how broadly the recommended milking practices are adopted across Canada. The National Dairy Study 2015 was designed to gather dairy cattle health and management data on dairy farms across Canada. The objectives of the present study were to describe the current proportions of adoption of milking practices on Canadian dairy farms, and identify factors associated with their use on farms. A bilingual questionnaire measuring use of various practices, including an udder health-specific section, was developed and sent to all Canadian dairy farms. The questions in the udder health section of the questionnaire were adapted from a bilingual questionnaire previously validated and containing questions regarding general milking hygiene and routine, and on-farm mastitis management. Chi-squared tests were used to investigate simple associations between adoption of practices and various explanatory variables including region, milking system, herd size, and bulk tank somatic cell count. In total, 1,373 dairy producers completed the survey. The regional distribution of the participants was representative of the Canadian dairy farm population, and milk quality was, on average, similar to nonparticipants. Overall, Canadian dairy producers followed the recommendations for milking procedures, but some were more extensively used than others. Fore-stripping, cleaning teats, wiping teats dry, using single-cow towels, and use of postmilking teat disinfectant were widely adopted. Use of gloves and glove hygiene, use of a premilking teat disinfectant, and use of automatic takeoffs were not as extensively implemented. Adoption percentages for several practices, including use of gloves, use of a premilking teat disinfectant, teat drying methods, and use of automatic takeoffs were significantly associated with milking system, herd size, and region. It

  1. The Canadian war on drugs: structural violence and unequal treatment of Black Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khenti, Akwatu

    2014-03-01

    This paper examines the impact of Canada's war on drugs on segments of the Black community, specifically with respect to the impact of structural violence, over-policing, and high incarceration rates. It offers evidence of the systemic nature of these dynamics by examining the early context of the war, growing stigma against Blacks, globalizing influences, and the punitive focus of funding and policy. The paper also explores how Black men have been identified as the main enemy and how drug control efforts have served to diminish the health, well-being, and self-image of Black men via discriminatory and inequitable treatment before the law. The current high rates of imprisonment of Black men are an indicator of systematic deprivation of significant social capital, which will perpetuate socioeconomic harm and cycles of violence. This commentary calls for an immediate dissolution of policies regulating the war on drugs as the first step in remedying the injustices experienced by Black Canadians. Due to the lack of Canadian data in this important area, the paper also emphasizes the critical need for more research to shed more light on the Canadian-specific complexities.

  2. Knowledge synthesis and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Ian D

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR is Canada's premier health-research funding agency. We fund nearly 14,000 researchers and trainees in four theme areas: biomedical, clinical, health services, and population and public-health research. Our mandate is 'to excel according to international standards of scientific excellence, in the creation of new knowledge and its translation into improved health for Canadians, more effective health services and products and a strengthened Canadian health care system'. Knowledge synthesis is a key element of the knowledge-translation objectives of CIHR, as outlined in our definition of knowledge-translation.

  3. CanWEA Pan-Canadian wind integration study paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, Martin [GL Garrad Hassan Canada Inc, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Gardner, Paul [GL Garrad Hassan and Partners, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Price, Doug; Le, Don [GL Garrad Hassan America, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    GL Garrad Hassan has been contracted by CanWEA to undertake a scoping study for a future Pan-Canadian Wide-Scale Wind Integration Study. The scoping study provides the methodology and the rationale on which the actual wind integration study and request for proposals will be based on. Major system operators and owners of each Canadian Province along with experts involved in major US wind integration studies have been consulted and contributed to the decisional process. This paper provides a summary of the factors considered in the study and outline the actual methodology that was adopted for the future Pan-Canadian wind integration study. (orig.)

  4. Knowledge synthesis and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ian D

    2012-02-09

    The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) is Canada's premier health-research funding agency. We fund nearly 14,000 researchers and trainees in four theme areas: biomedical, clinical, health services, and population and public-health research. Our mandate is 'to excel according to international standards of scientific excellence, in the creation of new knowledge and its translation into improved health for Canadians, more effective health services and products and a strengthened Canadian health care system'. Knowledge synthesis is a key element of the knowledge-translation objectives of CIHR, as outlined in our definition of knowledge-translation.

  5. Pulsus Group, the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology and CDDW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available At the recent Canadian Digestive Diseases Week in Banff, Alberta, the third annual Dr ABR Thomson - Dr CN Williams Award was presented to Dr Krikor Kichian. This Award was initiated in 2002 by Pulsus Group in honour of Drs Alan Thomson and Noel Williams, the founding Co- Editors-in-Chief of The Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, who served from 1987 to 2000. Robert Kalina, publisher of The Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, invited Dr Williams to present the award to Dr Kichian.

  6. A Canadian paradox: Tommy Douglas and eugenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Tommy Douglas is an icon of Canadian 20th Century political history and is considered by many as the "Father" of Medicare, a key component of our national identity. Throughout his career, he was associated at both the provincial and federal levels with progressive causes concerning disadvantaged populations. In his sociology Master's thesis written in the early 1930's, Douglas endorsed eugenic oriented solutions such as segregation and sterilization to address what was perceived to be an endemic and biologically determined problem. At first glance, this endorsement of eugenics appears to be paradoxical, but careful analysis revealed that this paradox has multiple roots in religion, political belief, historical exposure and our own desire to view our collective history in a favourable light.

  7. Feminist Approaches to Journalism Studies: Canadian Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrude J. Robinson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the orthodoxies of communication scholarship is that much of the gender-based differences between males and females with regard to experiences in newsrooms can be attributed to demographics. The discussion presented in this paper challenges this claim by comparing the findings of two national surveys that measured the professional progress of Canadian press and television journalists. The first survey was undertaken in 1975, and the second in 1995. While the historical evidence points to reductions in gender-based structural inequalities over time, it also identifies the continued presence of gender-based assumptions about how work and family obligations should be combined. Such assumptions, it is argued, help to foster and reproduce systemic biases in the newsroom culture that still resonate today in the journalism profession and which can be best understood as a manifestation of the meaning of gender at three levels: as a classifying system, as a structuring structure, and as an ideology.

  8. Economic security in an aging Canadian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert L

    2011-09-01

    Recent research indicates that today's retirees are doing very well in terms of their replacement ratios and that Canadian poverty rates among the elderly are low relative to other Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. Government-sponsored plans have been strengthened either through explicit expansion - for example, the Guaranteed Income Supplement (GIS) - or through the reform of the Canada/Quebec Pension Plans (C/QPP). Also important is the maturation of employer-sponsored pension plans, although coverage rates are down. Future generations of retirees may not achieve the standard of living that exists today, however, which is a concern. The author argues that today's economic security programs are affordable and that their costs could be stabilized if the retirement age were raised.

  9. Review of Canadian literature to estimate risks associated with Salmonella in broilers from retail to consumption in Canadian homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadi, Hanan; Sargeant, Jan M

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to review the literature related to the risk of salmonellosis from chicken consumed in private homes in Canada. The pathway of concern was retail-to-consumption at private homes due to the direct link between this pathway and public health. A qualitative review was conducted by searching Canadian governmental agencies' webpages, published peer-reviewed journals, and by contacting experts in the field. Overall, with the data available, estimating risk from Salmonella in chicken breasts using only Canadian information was limited. Enumeration data for Salmonella in retail raw chicken at different regions across Canada are needed to be able to generalize the risk of salmonellosis in the Canadian population. Few Canadian surveys were found to describe consumers' food safety behaviors at Canadians' private homes. Observational designs to study food safety practices and Canadian consumers' behavior in private kitchens are needed to ensure that consumer behavior is consistent with consumer perceptions of their behavior. The results of such studies will give valuable input for designing educational programs needed to increase awareness of safe food handling practices by Canadian consumers when preparing food at their homes.

  10. Survive Bravely——Main Features of Contemporary Canadian Literature Themes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Fang

    2015-01-01

    The classic works in Canadian Literatures that advantageously elaborated the characteristics of sublimation under the background for Canada’s particular history,geograph y,climate,religion,demographic factors,generation,development and continuous construction of Canadian literatures.The greatest masterpieces can highlight powerfully the certain mindset of Canadian and the permanent theme for Canadian Literature:keep working hard for survival and love bravely.Meanwhile,modern people will learn a lot from reading Canadian classic literary works.

  11. Survive Bravely——Main Features of Contemporary Canadian Literature Themes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳

    2015-01-01

    The classic works in Canadian Literatures that advantageously elaborated the characteristics of sublimation under the background for Canada's particular history,geograph y,climate,religion,demographic factors,generation,development and continuous construction of Canadian literatures.The greatest masterpieces can highlight powerfully the certain mindset of Canadian and the permanent theme for Canadian Literature:keep working hard for survival and love bravely.Meanwhile,modern people will learn a lot from reading Canadian classic literary works.

  12. The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rachel E.; Boulos, David; Garber, Bryan G.; Jetly, Rakesh; Sareen, Jitender

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) collected detailed information on mental health problems, their impacts, occupational and nonoccupational determinants of mental health, and the use of mental health services from a random sample of 8200 serving personnel. The objective of this article is to provide a firm scientific foundation for understanding and interpreting the CFMHS findings. Methods: This narrative review first provides a snapshot of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), focusing on 2 key determinants of mental health: the deployment of more than 40,000 personnel in support of the mission in Afghanistan and the extensive renewal of the CAF mental health system. The findings of recent population-based CAF mental health research are reviewed, with a focus on findings from the very similar mental health survey done in 2002. Finally, key aspects of the methods of the 2013 CFMHS are presented. Results: The findings of 20 peer-reviewed publications using the 2002 mental health survey data are reviewed, along with those of 25 publications from other major CAF mental health research projects executed over the past decade. Conclusions: More than a decade of population-based mental health research in the CAF has provided a detailed picture of its mental health and use of mental health services. This knowledge base and the homology of the 2013 survey with the 2002 CAF survey and general population surveys in 2002 and 2012 will provide an unusual opportunity to use the CFMHS to situate mental health in the CAF in a historical and societal perspective. PMID:27270738

  13. The isotope crisis - a Canadian viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    From the fall of 2007 the summer of 2010 there were repeated cries in the media of North America and Europe of an -isotope crisis-. This concerned the on-going shortage of the isotope Molybdenum 99 and more specifically of its daughter product Technetium Mo 99. The latter is used in about 80 percent of medical imagining procedures in North America, Europe, Japan and a number of other countries. Both isotopes are short-lived and can not be stock-piled. Mo 99 is produced in only a handful of reactors around the world. The fifty-year old Nru reactor in Canada and the equally old Hfr reactor in the Netherlands have each traditionally supplied about a third of the world's supply. In late 2007 the Canadian nuclear regulator ordered the owner and operator of Nru, to shut down the reactor over a matter that was not a clear licence condition. Sensing the impending shortage of Mo 99, the nuclear medicine community raised a major concern sufficient to convince the Canadian government to overrule the regulator. Then in early 2009 a major leak was observed in the Nru reactor vessel. Although it did not present a safety concern it was decided to shut down the reactor to conduct an inspection. This proved to be extremely difficult since the leaks were near the bottom of the 10 metre tall vessel and the only access was through a 20 cm diameter hole at the top of the vessel. The reactor was finally restarted in August 2010, just as the Hfr reactor was shut down for a lengthy overhaul. The paper provides a background on Canada's pioneering involvement in the production and use of radioactive isotopes for medical purposes, a brief account of the Nru repair and an overview of Mo 99 production. (Author)

  14. High School Employment, School Performance, and College Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chanyoung; Orazem, Peter F.

    2010-01-01

    The proportion of U.S. high school students working during the school year ranges from 23% in the freshman year to 75% in the senior year. This study estimates how cumulative work histories during the high school years affect probability of dropout, high school academic performance, and the probability of attending college. Variations in…

  15. English for Academic Purposes through Canadian Literature and History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lynne; O'Brien, Trudy

    1979-01-01

    Describes a program designed to improve English skills in university students learning English as a second language through a Canadian literature and history component. Reading lists are appended. (AM)

  16. Interpreting Critical Resource Issues in US and Canadian National Parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, Michael E.

    1995-01-01

    A wide range of examples gathered in U.S. and Canadian national park service areas during several years of field study reinforce the value of matching issues and messages with interpretive techniques and audiences. (LZ)

  17. Canadian Society of Nephrology Commentary on the 2012 KDIGO clinical practice guideline for glomerulonephritis: management of nephrotic syndrome in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Susan; Bitzan, Martin; Zappitelli, Michael; Dart, Allison; Mammen, Cherry; Pinsk, Maury; Cybulsky, Andrey V; Walsh, Michael; Knoll, Greg; Hladunewich, Michelle; Bargman, Joanne; Reich, Heather; Humar, Atul; Muirhead, Norman

    2014-03-01

    The KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) clinical practice guideline for management of glomerulonephritis was recently released. The Canadian Society of Nephrology convened a working group to review the recommendations and comment on their relevancy and applicability to the Canadian context. A subgroup of pediatric nephrologists reviewed the guideline statements for management of childhood nephrotic syndrome and agreed with most of the guideline statements developed by KDIGO. This commentary highlights areas in which there is lack of evidence and areas in need of translation of evidence into clinical practice. Areas of controversy or uncertainty, including the length of corticosteroid therapy for the initial presentation and relapses, definitions of steroid resistance, and choice of second-line agents, are discussed in more detail. Existing practice variation is also addressed.

  18. Canadian advanced life support capacities and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamsey, M.; Graham, T.; Stasiak, M.; Berinstain, A.; Scott, A.; Vuk, T. Rondeau; Dixon, M.

    2009-07-01

    Canada began research on space-relevant biological life support systems in the early 1990s. Since that time Canadian capabilities have grown tremendously, placing Canada among the emerging leaders in biological life support systems. The rapid growth of Canadian expertise has been the result of several factors including a large and technically sophisticated greenhouse sector which successfully operates under challenging climatic conditions, well planned technology transfer strategies between the academic and industrial sectors, and a strong emphasis on international research collaborations. Recent activities such as Canada's contribution of the Higher Plant Compartment of the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant and the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic continue to demonstrate Canadian capabilities with direct applicability to advanced life support systems. There is also a significant latent potential within Canadian institutions and organizations with respect to directly applicable advanced life support technologies. These directly applicable research interests include such areas as horticultural management strategies (for candidate crops), growth media, food processing, water management, atmosphere management, energy management, waste management, imaging, environment sensors, thermal control, lighting systems, robotics, command and data handling, communications systems, structures, in-situ resource utilization, space analogues and mission operations. With this background and in collaboration with the Canadian aerospace industry sector, a roadmap for future life support contributions is presented here. This roadmap targets an objective of at least 50% food closure by 2050 (providing greater closure in oxygen, water recycling and carbon dioxide uptake). The Canadian advanced life support community has chosen to focus on lunar surface infrastructure and not low Earth orbit or transit systems (i.e. microgravity

  19. Antioxidant activity of selected wild Canadian prairie fruits

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background. Canadian prairies are a habitat for unique wild plants. The main object of the present study was to investigate phytochemicals content and antioxidant activity in seven wild Canadian prairie fruits. Material and methods. The presence of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity were identified in the extracts according to standard procedure. Results. Wild rose had the highest amounts of total phenolics and total flavonoids, whereas ...

  20. The evolution of PAs in the Canadian Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Jonathan; Descoteaux, Marc

    2017-01-01

    This study documents the growing role of the physician assistant (PA) in the Canadian Armed Forces. PAs have served as the backbone of the Royal Canadian Medical Services' frontline medical operations since 1984, on land, aboard ships and submarines, and domestically in garrison. Candidates begin as medical technicians and receive advanced training to become PAs at midcareer. The current rank of PAs as warrant officers is evolving and a commissioned status is under consideration.

  1. "Complicated Bearers of Cultural Difference" : Canadian Magazines and Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    McKend, Heather

    2006-01-01

    Describes the history of Canadian policy on magazines, policy designed primarily to protect Canadian culture in a market heavily dominated by U.S. magazines. Canada's traditional strategy has been to consider magazines as a "cultural exception" to trade regulations. In 2005, Canada was the country first to ratify the UNESCO Convention supporting the protection of cultural diversity as a “sovereign responsibility.”

  2. Canadian Impressions Title: Impresiones canadienses Title: Impressions canadiennes

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

    2011-01-01

    Canadian Impressions pays tribute to Canada and Calgary, Alberta, home of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors of the Inter-American Development Bank. Twelve Canadian artists who were selected in an open call, present a total of 34 prints in various techniques from etching to monotype. Among the participating artists are: Briar Craig, Delio Delgado, René Derouin, Katie Fife, Joscelyn Gardner, Michel Gautier, Vanessa Hall-Patch, Miriam Rudolph, Tracy Lynn Templeton, Todd Treme, Os...

  3. Word Segmentation in Monolingual Infants Acquiring Canadian English and Canadian French: Native Language, Cross-Dialect, and Cross-Language Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polka, Linda; Sundara, Megha

    2012-01-01

    In five experiments, we tested segmentation of word forms from natural speech materials by 8-month-old monolingual infants who are acquiring Canadian French or Canadian English. These two languages belong to different rhythm classes; Canadian French is syllable-timed and Canada English is stress-timed. Findings of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 show that…

  4. Fuel condition in Canadian CANDU 6 reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, R.H.; Macici, N [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gibb, R. [New Brunswick Power, Lepreau, NB (Canada); Purdy, P.L.; Manzer, A.M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Kohn, E. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    The cornerstone of the CANDU concept is its natural uranium fuel, and the success of its reactor operation hinges on the fuel condition in the reactor. Neutron economy, on power refuelling, and simple fuel design are among the unique characteristics of CANDU fuel. In Canadian CANDU 6 reactors (Gentilly 2 and Point Lepreau), the 37-element fuel has provided an enviable record of safe, economic and reliable plant operation for 29 reactor years to date. The fuelling cost is among the lowest in the world - a corollary of high neutron economy, simple fuel design, and judicial fuelling scheme. The reliability of fuel is high: only 21 of the 60000 bundles discharged from Gentilly 2 were confirmed defective and the five-year period from March 1992 to February 1997 saw no defect at all at Gentilly-2. Also, thanks to the inherent on-power refuelling capability and an effective defect detection and removal system, the primary coolant loops are kept extremely clean (very low activity level) - benefiting both maintenance and safety. Moreover, the inventories of fission products in the core and in the channel are maintained within the safety analysis envelope, due to on-power fuelling and sophisticated fuel management. In this paper, CANDU 6 fuel performance is reviewed against the feedback from post-irradiation examinations, and the findings from our ongoing R and D program. The results suggest that the fuel behavior m reactor are basically as originally anticipated, despite an evolutionary 3% increase in bundle uranium mass in the 1980's. For operating conditions within the CANDU 6 37-element experience, the average strains are typically 0.09%; and fission gas release, 2.7%. The UO{sub 2} fuel remains stoichiometric after irradiation. In-core measurements of pressure tube fitting are generally low. All these observations are consistent with the excellent fuel performance statistics coming out of the two Canadian CANDU 6 reactors. Additionally, this paper will briefly

  5. Identifying Canadian freshwater fishes through DNA barcodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Hubert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA barcoding aims to provide an efficient method for species-level identifications using an array of species specific molecular tags derived from the 5' region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene. The efficiency of the method hinges on the degree of sequence divergence among species and species-level identifications are relatively straightforward when the average genetic distance among individuals within a species does not exceed the average genetic distance between sister species. Fishes constitute a highly diverse group of vertebrates that exhibit deep phenotypic changes during development. In this context, the identification of fish species is challenging and DNA barcoding provide new perspectives in ecology and systematics of fishes. Here we examined the degree to which DNA barcoding discriminate freshwater fish species from the well-known Canadian fauna, which currently encompasses nearly 200 species, some which are of high economic value like salmons and sturgeons. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We bi-directionally sequenced the standard 652 bp "barcode" region of COI for 1360 individuals belonging to 190 of the 203 Canadian freshwater fish species (95%. Most species were represented by multiple individuals (7.6 on average, the majority of which were retained as voucher specimens. The average genetic distance was 27 fold higher between species than within species, as K2P distance estimates averaged 8.3% among congeners and only 0.3% among concpecifics. However, shared polymorphism between sister-species was detected in 15 species (8% of the cases. The distribution of K2P distance between individuals and species overlapped and identifications were only possible to species group using DNA barcodes in these cases. Conversely, deep hidden genetic divergence was revealed within two species, suggesting the presence of cryptic species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study evidenced that freshwater fish

  6. Canadian plans for participation in GSETT 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. North

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC is making preparations for Canadian participation in GSETT 3 but will be unable to make a formal commitment until the necessary resources have been secured. As Canada is expected to provide at least four alpha stations, and a significant number of beta stations, the financial resources that will be needed are substantial, even though in many respccts the GSC is, with the recent modernization of the Yellowknife array and the ongoing installation of the Canadian National Seismograph Network (CNSN, well positioned to make a significant contribution to GSETT 3. The CNSN currently (October 1993 consists of 17 broad band stations and will grow to 23 and 33 such stations by December 1993 and December 1994 respectively. Some 40 50 short period stations will complete the network. Data from all sites are continuously telemetered in real time to network acquisition centres in Ottawa and Sidney, British Columbia, archived to optical disk, and kept on line in a 72 h ring buffer. Most of the broadband sites could serve as either alpha or beta stations once the necessary software for continuous data transfer, or on request provision, of data from the selected sites has been completed. This software wili be configured so that changes in station selection are easy to implement, and this will provide considerable flexibility to the GSETT 3 planning and operations working groups in selecting the optimum network. Backup stations can be designated in the case of station failures, and the network centre in British Columbia will serve, at least for beta stations, as a backup NDC to that in Ottawa. Data from. the Yellowknife array are collected in Yellowknife and forwarded in ten minute files to Ottawa, where processing is completed and the results archived. This arrangement would not meet the deadlines for receipt of alpha station data at the IDC and new hardware and software will be needed to forward the data more immediately from

  7. Eating patterns and composition of meals and snacks in elite Canadian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, Kelly Anne; Tunnicliffe, Jasmine; Lun, Victor M; Reimer, Raylene A

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the meal- and snack-eating frequency and the nutritional composition of each eating occasion of Canadian high-performance athletes during training. Athletes from 8 Canadian Sport Centres prospectively completed 3-d dietary records including all food, fluid, and supplements consumed. The time of consumption and whether the consumption was a meal or snack were also identified. The dietary records were analyzed for energy (kcal) and macronutrient intake (carbohydrate, protein, and fat) and compared based on gender, age, meal vs. snack, and training vs. rest days. Three hundred twenty-four athletic subjects (64% female and 36% male) completed the study. On average, the athletes ate 4.8 ± 0.8 times daily. Nearly all athletes consumed 3 daily meals of breakfast (98.9%), lunch (97.9%), and dinner (98.7%), with few having snacks: 57%, 71.6%, and 58.1% of athletes consumed an a.m., p.m., and evening snack, respectively. Training-day meal frequency did not differ from that during rest days; however, fewer snacks were consumed on rest days. A.m. and p.m. snacks were consumed significantly more often on training days than rest days. Overall, snacks contributed 24.3% of total daily energy intake. Few dietary variations were discovered between genders, while the youngest athletes (athletes. In conclusion, Canadian high-performance athletes self-adjusted their energy intakes on training vs. rest days primarily by snacking less and reducing their carbohydrate and protein intakes on rest days, yet they consistently ate regular meals.

  8. Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) Pathfinder

    CERN Document Server

    Bandura, Kevin; Amiri, Mandana; Bond, J Richard; Campbell-Wilson, Duncan; Connor, Liam; Cliche, Jean-Francois; Davis, Greg; Deng, Meiling; Denman, Nolan; Dobbs, Matt; Fandino, Mateus; Gibbs, Kenneth; Gilbert, Adam; Halpern, Mark; Hanna, David; Hincks, Adam D; Hinshaw, Gary; Hofer, Carolin; Klages, Peter; Landecker, Tom L; Masui, Kiyoshi; Mena, Juan; Newburgh, Laura B; Pen, Ue-Li; Peterson, Jeffrey B; Recnik, Andre; Shaw, J Richard; Sigurdson, Kris; Sitwell, Michael; Smecher, Graeme; Smegal, Rick; Vanderlinde, Keith; Wiebe, Don

    2014-01-01

    A pathfinder version of CHIME (the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment) is currently being commissioned at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) in Penticton, BC. The instrument is a hybrid cylindrical interferometer designed to measure the large scale neutral hydrogen power spectrum across the redshift range 0.8 to 2.5. The power spectrum will be used to measure the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) scale across this poorly probed redshift range where dark energy becomes a significant contributor to the evolution of the Universe. The instrument revives the cylinder design in radio astronomy with a wide field survey as a primary goal. Modern low-noise amplifiers and digital processing remove the necessity for the analog beamforming that characterized previous designs. The Pathfinder consists of two cylinders 37\\,m long by 20\\,m wide oriented north-south for a total collecting area of 1,500 square meters. The cylinders are stationary with no moving parts, and form a transit instrument ...

  9. Canadian survey on pandemic flu preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy CS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of pandemic influenza creates public health challenges. An ethical framework, 'Stand on Guard for Thee: ethical considerations in pandemic influenza preparedness' that served as a template for the World Health Organization's global consultation on pandemic planning, was transformed into a survey administered to a random sample of 500 Canadians to obtain opinions on key ethical issues in pandemic preparedness planning. Methods All framework authors and additional investigators created items that were pilot-tested with volunteers of both sexes and all socioeconomic strata. Surveys were telephone administered with random sampling achieved via random digit dialing (RDD. Eligible participants were adults, 18 years or older, with per province stratification equaling provincial percent of national population. Descriptive results were tabulated and logistic regression analyses were used to assess whether demographic factors were significantly associated with outcomes. Results 5464 calls identified 559 eligible participants of whom 88.5% completed surveys. Over 90% of subjects agreed the most important goal of pandemic influenza preparations was saving lives, with 41% endorsing saving lives solely in Canada and 50% endorsing saving lives globally as the highest priority. Older age (OR = 8.51, p Conclusions Results suggest trust in public health officials to make difficult decisions, providing emphasis on reciprocity and respect for individual rights.

  10. The bituminous sands : a Canadian mirage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousse, D.R. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada). Dept. des Sciences Appliquees; Nasr, G.J. [Lebanese Univ., Roumieh (Lebanon). Faculty of Engineering; Turcotte, S.F. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Centre d' Etudes Internationales et Mondialisation; Salah, N.B. [Ecole Superieure des Sciences et Techniques De Tunis, Tunis (Tunisia). LMMP

    2009-07-01

    This paper examined the controversy about the potential role of a significant increase in Canadian oil sands production in order to bridge the upcoming gap between the world's increasing energy demand and the total recoverable oil supply. The paper presented the actual potential of different scenarios and considered the prediction cost forecasts. A brief overview of environmental impacts and the real return on investments were also provided. Environmental impacts that were considered included land degradation; water contamination; ecosystem damage; and air pollution. Nuclear energy was also presented as a possible solution. The paper demonstrated that even in a very optimistic scenario, Canada's oil sands accelerated production has a negligible effect on the aforementioned gap, has a considerable impact on environment that has yet to be accounted for. Energy ratios that were presented included energy return on energy investment; energy available on energy used; and energy payback. It was concluded that enhanced recovery techniques are clearly needed for future sustainable exploitation of these bituminous sands. 32 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Managing occupational HIV exposures: a Canadian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutter, L I; Northcott, H C

    1995-10-01

    The findings reported in this paper are part of a larger study that explored how nurses cope with the risk of acquiring HIV infection while caring for persons with AIDS (PWAs). The data were collected through in-depth interviews with 13 nurses who cared for PWAs in a large Western Canadian hospital. Seven of these nurses perceived that they had been exposed to HIV-infected blood or body fluids. This paper describes how these seven nurses coped with actual exposures to HIV-infected blood or body fluids. Data were analyzed using the methodology of grounded theory. Nurses' coping efforts after exposure were grouped into four categories: minimizing the effect of exposures, reducing a sense of vulnerability, selective disclosure to others, and assigning meaning. Nurses minimized the physical effects of exposure through measures such as 'bleeding' the needlestick injury and immersing the affected area in bleach solution. Nurses reduced their sense of vulnerability by assessing the possibility of harm, avoiding situations that aroused fear, and confronting the decision for HIV testing. Nurses limited their disclosures to co-workers to avoid rejection and to preserve professional self-esteem. Disclousre to significant others was influenced primarily by the support nurses perceived they would receive. Finally, nurses attempted to assign meaning to the exposure by determining why the event occurred and by evaluating the implications it has had on their lives. The article concludes with implications for nursing practice.

  12. Medical cannabis – the Canadian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gordon D; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol – the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. Despite this, barriers exist to use from both the patient perspective (cost, addiction, social stigma, lack of understanding regarding safe administration) and the physician perspective (credibility, criminality, clinical evidence, patient addiction, and policy from the governing medical colleges). This review addresses these barriers and draws attention to key concerns in the Canadian medical system, providing updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic medication use, and enhanced quality of life. This review also includes case studies demonstrating the use of medical marijuana by patients with neuropathic low-back pain, neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. While significant preclinical data have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis for treating pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, further studies are needed with randomized controlled trials and larger study populations to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts. PMID:27757048

  13. The strongest links : the Canadian coal chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, E.

    2008-09-15

    Issues related to the transportation of coal in Canada were discussed. Coal mines in Alberta and British Columbia are often required to transport their products over 1000 km for export at Pacific ports to countries in Asia or power plants in Ontario. The effectiveness of the supply chain is dependent on the inter-relationships between mine, rail, terminals, and ship transport. Coal customers are typically required to hire shipping companies and nominate vessels for terminals that have contracts with coal suppliers. Mines typically inform railway lines of the amounts of coal that will need to be transported each month. Many railways have increased the amounts of coal they are transporting by using lighter-weight aluminum train cars. Further efficiencies have been realized due to new braking and power distribution technologies in trains. Multiple locomotives are now also being used to provide improved control over the cars that carry the coal. Despite advances in rail technologies, coal deliveries are often delayed by harsh weather conditions and rain. It was concluded that the Canadian coal industry's success relies on its ability to transport large amounts of coal across long distances. 2 figs.

  14. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E; Ooi, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services.

  15. Discovery of herpesviruses in Canadian wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Chimoné S; van de Rakt, Karen; Fahlman, Åsa; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen; Neuhaus, Peter; Popko, Richard; Kutz, Susan; van der Meer, Frank

    2017-02-01

    Herpesviruses (HVs) have a wide range of hosts in the animal kingdom. The result of infection with HVs can vary from asymptomatic to fatal diseases depending on subtype, strain, and host. To date, little is known about HVs naturally circulating in wildlife species and the impact of these viruses on other species. In our study, we used genetic and comparative approaches to increase our understanding of circulating HVs in Canadian wildlife. Using nested polymerase chain reaction targeting a conserved region of the HV DNA polymerase gene, we analyzed material derived from wildlife of western and northern Canada collected between February 2009 and Sept 2014. For classification of new virus sequences, we compared our viral sequences with published sequences in GenBank to identify conserved residues and motifs that are unique to each subfamily, alongside phylogenetic analysis. All alphaherpesviruses shared a conserved tryptophan (W856) and tyrosine (Y880), betaherpesviruses all shared a serine (S836), and gammaherpesviruses had a conserved glutamic acid (E835). Most of our wildlife HV sequences grouped together with HVs from taxonomically related host species. From Martes americana, we detected previously uncharacterized alpha- and beta-herpesviruses.

  16. Effect of eprosartan-based antihypertensive therapy on coronary heart disease risk assessed by Framingham methodology in Canadian patients: results of the POWER survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrella RJ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Robert J Petrella,1 Guy Tremblay,2 Guy De Backer,3 Dawn P Gill,4,5,6 On behalf of the POWER survey Study Group 1Department of Family Medicine and Cardiology, Lawson Health Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, ON, Canada; 2Centre hospitalier universitaire de Québec, Hôpital du Saint-Sacrement, Sainte-Foy, Québec, QC, Canada; 3Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; 4Aging, Rehabilitation and Geriatric Care Research Centre, Lawson Health Research Institute, London, ON, Canada; 5School of Health Studies, Western University, London, ON, Canada; 6Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA Purpose/introduction: The Canadian Hypertension Education Program (CHEP has identified blood pressure (BP control as a key target for an overall reduction in cardiovascular disease risk. The POWER survey (Physicians’ Observational Work on Patient Education According to their Vascular Risk used Framingham methodology to investigate the impact of an angiotensin-receptor-blocker-based regimen on arterial BP and total coronary heart disease (CHD risk in a subset of patients recruited in Canada. Methods: 309 Canadian practices screened for patients with either newly diagnosed or uncontrolled mild/moderate hypertension (sitting systolic blood pressure [SBP] >140 mmHg with diastolic blood pressure [DBP] <110 mmHg. Treatment comprised eprosartan 600 mg/day with add-on antihypertensive therapy after 1 month if required. The primary efficacy variable was change in SBP at 6 months; the secondary variable was the absolute change in the Framingham 10-year CHD risk score. Results: 1,385 patients were identified, of whom 1,114 were included in the intention-to-treat (ITT cohort. Thirty-eight point four percent of ITT patients were managed with monotherapy at 6 months, versus 35.2% and 13.7% with two-drug or multiple-drug therapy, respectively. SBP in the ITT cohort declined 22.4 (standard deviation [SD] 14.8 mm

  17. Soil weathering rates in 21 catchments of the Canadian Shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Houle

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil mineral weathering represents an essential source of nutrient base cation (Ca, Mg and K for forest growth in addition to provide a buffering power against precipitation acidity for soils and surface waters. Weathering rates of base cations were obtained for 21 catchments located within the temperate and the boreal forest of the Canadian Shield with the geochemical model PROFILE. Weathering rates ranged from 0.58 to 4.46 kmolc ha−1 yr−1 and their spatial variation within the studied area was mostly in agreement with spatial variations in soil mineralogy. Weathering rates of Ca and Mg were significantly correlated (r = 0.80 and 0.64 with their respective lake concentrations. Weathering rates of K and Na did not correlate with lake concentrations of K and Na. The modeled weathering rates for each catchment were also compared with estimations of net catchment exportations. The result show that modeled weathering rates of Ca were not significantly different than the net catchment exportations while modeled weathering rates of Mg were higher by 51%. Larger differences were observed for K and Na weathering rates that were significantly different than net catchment exportations being 6.9 and 2.2 times higher than net exportations, respectively. The results for K were expected given its high reactivity with biotic compartments and suggest that most of the K produced by weathering reactions was retained within soil catchments and/or above ground biomass. This explanation does not apply to Na, however, which is a conservative element in forest ecosystems because of the insignificant needs of Na for soil microorganisms and above ground vegetations. It raises concern about the liability of the PROFILE model to provide reliable values of Na weathering rates. Overall, we concluded that the PROFILE model is powerful enough to reproduce spatial geographical gradients in weathering rates for relatively large areas

  18. Soil weathering rates in 21 catchments of the Canadian Shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Houle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil mineral weathering represents an essential source of nutrient base cation (Ca, Mg and K for forest growth in addition to provide a buffering power against precipitation acidity for soils and surface waters. Weathering rates of base cations were obtained for 21 catchments located within the temperate and the boreal forest of the Canadian Shield with the geochemical model PROFILE. Weathering rates ranged from 0.58 to 4.46 kmolc ha−1 yr−1 and their spatial variation within the studied area was mostly in agreement with spatial variations in soil mineralogy. Weathering rates of Ca and Mg were significantly correlated (r = 0.80 and 0.64 with their respective lake concentrations. Weathering rates of K and Na did not correlate with lake concentrations of K and Na. The modeled weathering rates for each catchment were also compared with estimations of net catchment exportations. The result show that modeled weathering rates of Ca were not significantly different than the net catchment exportations while modeled weathering rates of Mg were higher by 51 %. Larger differences were observed for K and Na weathering rates that were significantly different than net catchment exportations being 6.9 and 2.2 times higher than net exportations, respectively. The results for K were expected given its high reactivity with biotic compartments and suggest that most of the K produced by weathering reactions was retained within soil catchments and/or above ground biomass. This explanation does not apply to Na, however, which is a conservative element in forest ecosystems because of the insignificant needs of Na for soil microorganisms and above ground vegetations. It raises concern about the liability of the PROFILE model to provide reliable values of Na weathering rates. Overall, we concluded that the PROFILE model is powerful enough to reproduce spatial geographical gradients in weathering rates for relatively large areas

  19. Implementing E-Health through CHI: A Very Canadian Solution to a Very Canadian Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Daniels

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Canada Health Infoway (CHI was established as an arms-length body by the federal government in 2001 to provide funding to provinces for the development of interoperable e-health systems. CHI was established in response to a number of reports calling on the government to act to make use of technological advances to improve health care quality and provide more rigorous data. In addition to these explicit goals, through establishing CHI the federal government also sought to avoid potential criticism if the implementation of e-health failed, increase its own popularity ahead of the 2000 election and subtly redistribute wealth between the provinces. The paper suggests that the major influence behind the policy to establish CHI came from Canadian institutions and the fact that the federal government was hamstrung by the Canadian Constitution and Canada Health Act. Evaluation of the reform shows that progress has been made by CHI in implementing e-health solutions, but that Canada still lags behind other comparable health systems in the use of technologies. SWOT analysis of the CHI implementation highlights the criticism that CHI could stifle provincial innovation but recognizes that it also offers the opportunity for best practice dissemination across Canada and ensures that ring-fenced funding is available for e-health implementation across the provinces. In conclusion, the paper suggests that, because of constitutional constraints, the federal government was limited in options to implement e-health and that CHI represents a fair compromise.

  20. Implementing e-Health through CHI: A Very Canadian Solution to a Very Canadian Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Daniels

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Canada Health Infoway (CHI was established as an arms-length body by the federal government in 2001 to provide funding to provinces for the development of interoperable e-health systems. CHI was established in response to a number of reports calling on the government to act to make use of technological advances to improve health care quality and provide more rigorous data. In addition to these explicit goals, through establishing CHI the federal government also sought to avoid potential criticism if the implementation of e-health failed, increase its own popularity ahead of the 2000 election and subtly redistribute wealth between the provinces. The paper suggests that the major influence behind the policy to establish CHI came from Canadian institutions and the fact that the federal government was hamstrung by the Canadian Constitution and Canada Health Act. Evaluation of the reform shows that progress has been made by CHI in implementing e-health solutions, but that Canada still lags behind other comparable health systems in the use of technologies. SWOT analysis of the CHI implementation highlights the criticism that CHI could stifle provincial innovation but recognizes that it also offers the opportunity for best practice dissemination across Canada and ensures that ring-fenced funding is available for e-health implementation across the provinces. In conclusion, the paper suggests that, because of constitutional constraints, the federal government was limited in options to implement e-health and that CHI represents a fair compromise.

  1. Mining Legal and Business Resources on Canadian Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Johal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the distinct nature of the Canadian banking system, it is important for novice researchers to know which business and legal resources to consult in order to quickly find information that is particular to Canadian banking. However, there are very few articles or monographs in the library literature that describe how to find information sources exclusively on this subject from a Canadian perspective. Most available publications tend to specialize in sources for the US banking and Federal Reserve System with little attention to Canada. The paper begins with a brief introduction to Canadian banking. From there, the authors demonstrate where researchers can find primary sources such as legislation, regulations and case law. In addition, this article identifies and discusses the different types of information found on the websites of associations and government agencies such as the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions, which supervises and regulates various areas of Canada’s financial system. Also discussed are secondary sources such as industry research and reports that are available from reliable websites and subscription-based resources. This paper also explores the best business and legal databases for researchers. Based on results from searching in periodical directories and indexes, the paper additionally provides a description of the most pertinent academic, trade and general publications relevant to the Canadian banking system and where their contents are indexed.

  2. A scoping review of interprofessional education within Canadian nursing literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Rachel Elizabeth; Goldman, Joanne; LeGrow, Karen; MacMillan, Kathleen M; van Soeren, Mary; Kitto, Simon

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this scoping review is to examine the nature of the interprofessional education (IPE) discussion that the Canadian nursing profession is having within the Canadian peer-reviewed nursing literature. An electronic database search of CINAHL was conducted using a modified Arksey & O'Malley scoping review framework. Peer-reviewed, English-language articles published in Canadian nursing journals from January 1981 to February 2016 were retrieved. Articles were included if they discussed IPE, or described an educational activity that met our conceptual definition of IPE. A total of 88 articles were screened, and 11 articles were eligible for analysis. Analysis revealed that this body of literature does not seem to be purposefully engaging Canadian nurses in a critical discourse about the role of IPE. The majority of articles located were reflective or commentaries. At the time of this review, there was a paucity of theoretically informed empirical research articles on IPE in the nursing literature. While IPE may be viewed by some critical scholars as a means of shifting the control of healthcare delivery traditionally held by medicine to other professions, our results suggest that this may not be the case in the Canadian nursing profession.

  3. Developing palliative care competencies for the education of entry level baccalaureate prepared Canadian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacono, Brenda; Young, Lynne; Baker, Cynthia; Richardson, Holly R L; Cable-Williams, Beryl; Jewers, Heather; Lavoie, Mireille; Librach, Larry; Bidgood, Darcee; Mitchell, Mitzi Grace

    2011-08-15

    Educational preparation of health professionals for Palliative and End of Life Care (PEOLC) is inadequate, and nurses are no exception. In 2004, the Canadian Association of Schools of Nursing struck a Task Force to develop PEOLC competencies to address this issue. The development of national PEOLC nursing competencies involved a multi-step, emergent, interactive, and iterative process. An overarching principle guiding this process was building national consensus about the essential PEOLC specific competencies for nurses among experts in this field while simultaneously generating, revising, and refining them. There have been three stages in this iterative, multi-step process: 1) Generating a preliminary set of competencies, 2) Building a national consensus among educators and experts in the field on PEOLC specific competencies for nurses, and 3) Refining the consensus based competencies for curriculum development. Ongoing follow up work for this project is focusing on the integration of these competencies into nursing curricula.

  4. Canadian EdGEO National Workshop Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, L. A.; Haidl, F. M.; Hymers, L. A.; van der Flier-Keller, E.

    2009-05-01

    Established in the early 1970s, EdGEO supports locally driven geosciences workshops for Canadian teachers. Workshops are organized by geoscientists and teachers, and typically have field, laboratory and classroom components. Grants of up to $3000 per workshop are available from the National EdGEO Program. By providing educational opportunities for today's teachers and, through them, their students, EdGEO seeks to cultivate a heightened awareness of our planet. EdGEO workshops provide teachers with potential fieldtrip sites for their students and the knowledge, enthusiasm and materials to inspire their students to engage in geoscience. Networking opportunities with local experts promote the importance of the geoscience profession. The expected result is an improved capacity on the part of Canadians to understand the Earth and to make informed decisions, especially with regard to the use of mineral and energy resources, the maintenance and remediation of the environment, and response to geological hazards. There exists a critical need to provide teachers with training and resources to tackle their Earth science curricula. In 2008, EdGEO supported fourteen workshops, with an unprecedented 521 teachers attending. These teachers then used our resources to reach an estimated 14,000 students during that single academic year. EdGEO workshops are locally driven and are therefore very diverse. Workshops are strongly tied to the provincial curriculum, focus on a specific geoscience topic, or may be largely field-based to demonstrate and practice how field activities could be incorporated into Earth science teaching. Many strive to include all of these important components. Geoscientists and teachers work collaboratively to develop and deliver EdGEO workshops to ensure that the activities can be effectively used in the classroom. The length of these professional development opportunities range from two-hour sessions to several days, and can generally accommodate up to twenty

  5. From the Fur Trade to Acid Rain: A Study of Canadian Natural Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winans, Linda

    1988-01-01

    Presents a teaching module for upper elementary students that devotes eight class periods of study to Canadian resources. Includes study of the Canadian fur trade, fishing industry, forestry, and the problems caused by acid rain. Includes the unit evaluation. (DB)

  6. Project Canada West. Canadian Environmental Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Curriculum Project on Canada Studies, Edmonton (Alberta).

    The overall objective of the curriculum development project is to develop a general high school level interdisciplinary course on environment studies. This potential five to ten month course is outlined as follows: ecology, water pollution, air pollution, noise pollution, population, socioeconomic implications, and resource management. The general…

  7. An Analysis of Canadian Physical Education Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilborn, Michelle; Lorusso, Jenna; Francis, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    There has been much international concern about the present and future status of school physical education. Recent research has employed surveys or case studies to examine the status of physical education but there is a dearth of in-depth physical education curriculum document analysis. The aim of this study is to contribute to the international…

  8. Variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2004-01-01

    This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha

  9. Worksite health and wellness programs: Canadian achievements & prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Després, Jean-Pierre; Alméras, Natalie; Gauvin, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Canada has experienced a substantial reduction in mortality related to cardiovascular disease (CVD). There is a general consensus that more effective and widespread health promotion interventions may lead to further reductions in CVD risk factors and actual disease states. In this paper, we briefly outline the prevalence of selected risk factors for CVD in Canada, describe characteristics of the Canadian labor market and workforce, and depict what is known about health and wellness program delivery systems in Canadian workplaces. Our review indicates that there have been numerous and diverse relevant legislative and policy initiatives to create a context conducive to improve the healthfulness of Canadian workplaces. However, there is still a dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of the delivery system and the actual impact of workplace health and wellness programs in reducing CVD risk in Canada. Thus, while a promising model, more research is needed in this area.

  10. Internationalization at Canadian Universities: Where are we Now?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Weber

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Internationalization is powerfully impacting the missions, planning documents, and learning environments of Canadian universities. Internationalization within Canadian universities is viewed from a local as well as global context. Accounts of the composition of domestic students studying abroad and international students studying in Canada, and the implications of these statistics, are related. Emphasis is given to a discussion of the contribution that economic factors play in internationalization decisions. Economic factors have undeniably shaped the face of internationalization at Canadian universities. Complexities of the relationship between global context and educational goals are outlined and educators are challenged to responsibly interpret and implement university changes resulting from internationalization while prioritizing the learning needs of students.

  11. Political Ideology and Economic Freedom across Canadian Provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Potrafke, Niklas

    This paper examines how political ideology influenced economic freedom in the Canadian provinces. We analyze the dataset of economic freedom indicators compiled by the Fraser Institute in 10 Canadian provinces over the 1981-2005 period and introduce two different indices of political ideology: go...... leftist and rightwing governments concerning the role of government in the economy and (2) indicates that ideological polarization concerns governments but less parliamentary fractions in the Canadian provinces. ......: government and parliament ideology. The results suggest that government ideology influenced labor market reforms: market-oriented governments promoted liberalization of the labor market. Parliamentary ideology did not influence economic liberalization at all. This finding (1) identifies differences between...

  12. Residential water demand with endogenous pricing: The Canadian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Arnaud; Renzetti, Steven; Villeneuve, Michel

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, we show that the rate structure endogeneity may result in a misspecification of the residential water demand function. We propose to solve this endogeneity problem by estimating a probabilistic model describing how water rates are chosen by local communities. This model is estimated on a sample of Canadian local communities. We first show that the pricing structure choice reflects efficiency considerations, equity concerns, and, in some cases, a strategy of price discrimination across consumers by Canadian communities. Hence estimating the residential water demand without taking into account the pricing structures' endogeneity leads to a biased estimation of price and income elasticities. We also demonstrate that the pricing structure per se plays a significant role in influencing price responsiveness of Canadian residential consumers.

  13. Reference Values of Pulmonary Function Tests for Canadian Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gutierrez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A multicentre, cross-sectional study was carried out in six centres across Canada to establish a national standard for pulmonary function tests using healthy, lifetime nonsmokers, with each centre aiming to test 10 men and 10 women from each decade from 20 to 80 years of age. Data from each centre were used to derive prediction equations for each centre, and pooled data from all centres (total: 327 women and 300 men were used to derive Canadian predicted equations. The predictive models were compared with three widely used published models for selected tests. It was found that, in general, the equations modelled for each centre could be replaced by the models obtained when pooling all data (Canadian model. Comparisons with the published references showed good agreement and similar slopes for most tests. The results suggest that pulmonary function test results obtained from different centres in Canada were comparable and that standards currently used remain valid for Canadian Caucasians.

  14. The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Education Committee Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald J Bridges

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available I am pleased to provide an update regarding the activities and future directions of the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG Education Committee. The mandate of the CAG Education Committee is to facilitate, develop and promote excellence as it pertains to educational initiatives for the Canadian gastroenterology community. Professional education has long remained a priority of the CAG - a fact well recognized by the membership. The 2002 CAG Strategic Planning Survey showed that members rate Canadian Digestive Diseases Week (CDDW as the most important CAG service, on par with Digestive Diseases Week regarding its usefulness (1. CDDW 2004 offered delegates a variety of basic science and clinical symposia, the popular and well received 'Breakfast with the Expert' sessions and a comprehensive Postgraduate Course reviewing key developments in gastroenterology, nutrition and hepatology.

  15. Meetings without Dialogue: A Study of ESL Parent-Teacher Interactions at Secondary School Parents' Nights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan

    2010-01-01

    Research in home-school communication has incorporated little, to date, about participation by English as a second language (ESL) parents. This article examines the communication processes between recent Chinese immigrant parents and Canadian teachers at secondary school Parents' Nights. Drawing from observations of three annual Parents' Nights,…

  16. A Review of (Elementary) School Self-Assessment Processes: Ontario and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas G.; Telfer, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    This review draws attention to issues related to school self-assessment. This process has been similarly implemented in a variety of jurisdictions globally in the past decade hence their inclusion herein as an attempt to understand the school self-assessment process which has also been developed for use in local Ontario (Canadian) elementary…

  17. Inside the Digital Wild West: How School Leaders Both Access and Avoid Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Laurie; Robertson, Lorayne

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the roles of Canadian school leaders in response to the rising phenomenon of student use of social media which impacts school climate and safety. The use of social media has resulted in more online text and image-based communication to multiple users and less face-to-face communication with single users. Adolescent…

  18. Teaching Ethics and Religious Culture in Quebec High Schools: An Overview, Contextualization and Some Analytical Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymarz, Richard

    2012-01-01

    In 2008 Quebec introduced a new ethics and religious culture course. This marks a significant development in Canadian education as the mandated curriculum is intended for use in publically funded secular schools. In the past such courses have been in the domain of denominational schools. This new approach is examined in the context of the profound…

  19. Does Teaching Sequence Matter When Teaching High School Chemistry with Scientific Visualisations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Ian; Geelan, David; Mukherjee, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Five Canadian high school Chemistry classes in one school, taught by three different teachers, studied the concepts of dynamic chemical equilibria and Le Chatelier's Principle. Some students received traditional teacher-led explanations of the concept first and used an interactive scientific visualisation second, while others worked with the…

  20. Sunday School Revisited: An Alternative to Christian Education of the Church Today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Nam Soon

    2013-01-01

    This article attempts to demonstrate similarities between the socioeconomic, cultural, and religious contexts of 18th-century England and 21st-century Canada. Revisiting the Sunday School movement in 18th-century England provides insights for the development of renewed Sunday School models in the current Canadian context of transnational…

  1. Happiness in Motion: Emotions, Well-Being, and Active School Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Subha; O'Brien, Catherine; Faulkner, Guy; Stone, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Background: A pan-Canadian School Travel Planning intervention promoted active school travel (AST). A novel component was exploring emotion, well-being, and travel mode framed by the concept of "sustainable happiness." Relationships between travel mode and emotions, parent perceptions of their child's travel mode on well-being, and…

  2. Women's Health in the Dental School Curriculum: Report of a Survey & Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverton, Susan; Sinkford, Jeanne; Inglehart, Marita; Tedesco, Lisa; Valachovic, Richard

    This report presents the analytical results of a survey of U.S. and Canadian dental schools conducted during 1997 by the American Association of Dental Schools. It documents how women's health and oral health issues are addressed in the curriculum. It also presents an annotated bibliography of research involving oral and craniofacial health and…

  3. Implications and Challenges to Using Data Mining in Educational Research in the Canadian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElAtia, Samira; Ipperciel, Donald; Hammad, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Canadian institutions of higher education are major players on the international arena for educating future generations and producing leaders around the world in various fields. In the last decade, Canadian universities have seen an influx in their incoming international students, who contribute over $3.5 billion to the Canadian economy (Madgett…

  4. Official Portrait of STS-52 Canadian Payload Specialist Steve G. MacLean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-52 Canadian Payload Specialist Steven G. MacLean, wearing a launch and entry suit (LES), poses with a launch and entry helmet (LEH) and Canadian flag for his Official portrait. MacLean representing the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) will fly aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, for the STS-52 mission.

  5. The Contemporary Reality of Canadian Imperialism: Settler Colonialism and the Hybrid Colonial State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Adam J.

    2009-01-01

    The author's fundamental contention is this: Canadian society remains driven by the logic of imperialism and engages in concerted colonial action against Indigenous peoples whose claims to land and self-determination continue to undermine the legitimacy of Canadian authority and hegemony. The imperial ambitions of the Canadian state and its…

  6. Integrated Library Systems in Canadian Public, Academic and Special Libraries: Fifth Annual Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merilees, Bobbie

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the results of the fifth annual survey of integrated library systems in Canadian public, academic, and special libraries. Highlights include systems based on personal computers; bilingual systems; the use of consultants; differences between Canadian and U.S. markets; Canadian international sales; and vendor information. (LRW)

  7. The impact of El Niño-Southern Oscillation on the Canadian climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shabbar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The quasi-periodic El Niño -Southern Oscillation (ENSO phenomenon in the tropical Pacific Ocean produces the largest interannual variation in the cold season climate of Canada. The diabatic heating in the eastern tropical Pacific, associated with the warm phase of ENSO (El Niño, triggers Rossby waves which in turn gives rise to the Pacific-North American teleconnection (PNA over the North American sector. The strongest cell of the PNA pattern lies over western Canada. In most of southern Canada, mean winter temperature distribution is shifted towards warmer values, and precipitation is below normal. The presence of El Niño provides the best opportunity to make skillful long-range winter forecast for Canada. A strong El Niño event, while bringing respite from the otherwise cold winter in Canada, can be expected to cost the Canadian economy two to five billion dollars.

  8. Dynamics of a liquid helium I SRF cryostat at the Canadian Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Chris

    2012-06-01

    The Canadian Light Source (CLS) is a third-generation synchrotron located inSaskatoon, Canada. A superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity contained in a 4.43 Kliquid helium I cryostat is used at the CLS to replenish energy loss in the electron beam. Adynamic simulation of this cryostat has been generated to examine pressure and levelfluctuations due to variations in heat loading or other system parameters. This simulatorhas led to some interesting observations in system behavior, which have been shown tooccur in the actual system as well. For example, mass rates of vaporization appear to dropas heat loading increases under certain conditions. Also, the relationship between pressureand SRF tuning characteristics is examined, and the abilities and limitations of thesimulator are presented.

  9. Computers behind bars : Information technology in Canadian prison libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prange, Laurie

    This report is the result of an independent study undertaken with the Faculty of Information and Media Studies (FIMS) at The University of Western Ontario (UWO) and advised by Dr. Carole Farber, Professor. The focus of this study is upon the impact the increased popularity of electronic provision...... of information can have upon Canadian prison libraries. Gathered information is compared with the results of Canadian policy regarding the provision of information to inmates. The analysis of the collected facts can provide insight to help prison librarians deal with the increasing popularity of electronic...... provision of information in relation to legal constraints....

  10. Has Multiculturalism Really Failed? A Canadian Muslim Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljit Nagra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, claims that multiculturalism has created segregated communities, encouraged terrorism, and failed to foster shared national identities in western nations have gained popularity. In this paper, we use young Canadian Muslims’ lived experience of multiculturalism to reflect on this debate. Contrary to popular rhetoric, our interviews of 50 young Muslim adults show that many maintain a dual Canadian-Muslim identity by utilizing the ideology of multiculturalism, even though they are increasingly stigmatized for their religion. These findings lead us to problematize the discourse surrounding the ‘failure’ of multiculturalism and to highlight the contradictions within it.

  11. Assessing Canadian Bank Branch Operating Efficiency Using Data Envelopment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zijiang

    2009-10-01

    In today's economy and society, performance analyses in the services industries attract more and more attention. This paper presents an evaluation of 240 branches of one big Canadian bank in Greater Toronto Area using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Special emphasis was placed on how to present the DEA results to management so as to provide more guidance to them on what to manage and how to accomplish the changes. Finally the potential management uses of the DEA results were presented. All the findings are discussed in the context of the Canadian banking market.

  12. Social Problems in Canadian Ice Hockey: An Exploration Through Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogel Curtis A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While celebrated as a highly popular sport in Canada, there are many social problems existing within and around Canadian ice hockey. These problems are often overlooked and rarely depicted in academic and journalistic research on sport. These social problems include, but are not limited to: extreme violence resulting in injuries and death, hazing rituals, multiple types of sexual violence, drug abuse, financial corruption, as well as various forms of prejudice and discrimination. Prompted by pop-cultural depictions in films, this paper further identifies and explores social problems in Canadian ice hockey revealing the realism embedded within various seemingly fictional films.

  13. Advancing intercultural competency: Canadian engineering employers' experiences with immigrant engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Marcia; Ingram, Sandra

    2013-05-01

    This paper explores Canadian engineering employers' perceptions of and experiences with internationally educated engineers (recent immigrants to Canada) employed in their organisations for varying lengths of time. Qualitative data were collected from employers using focus group methodology. Findings reflected employers' observations of culturally different behaviours and characteristics in their internationally educated employees, employers' reactions to cultural differences ranging from negative attributions to tolerance, and the implementation of largely ad hoc intra-organisational strategies for managing cultural differences in employer-employee relationships. Findings exposed the lack of corporate intercultural competency in the Canadian engineering profession. Equity and gatekeeping implications are discussed.

  14. Writing on Boundaries: The Split Subject in Chinese Canadian Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Shaobo

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a conceptual grasp of the corpus of work produced by Chinese Canadian writers and a framework for analysing its tropes and interpreting their political resonance. It defines the Chinese Canadian work as a three-phase counterhegemonic discourse: Writing back into a forbidden past; negotiating into the present; writing on boundaries. For the ambivalent, split diasporic subject to negotiate into the present from the forbidden past is to reinscribe itself as a locus of crisis, a non-identity, a doubling, a third term. Writing on boundaries can be read as a strategy of decolonization deployed by the subaltern in striving for self-vindication and self-fulfilment.

  15. Pharmacology education in North American dental schools: the basic science survey series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Medha; Shaw, David H; Pate, Ted D; Lambert, H Wayne

    2013-08-01

    As part of the Basic Science Survey Series (BSSS) for Dentistry, members of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Physiology, Pharmacology, and Therapeutics Section surveyed course directors of basic pharmacology courses in North American dental schools. The survey was designed to assess, among other things, faculty affiliation and experience of course directors, teaching methods, general course content and emphasis, extent of interdisciplinary (shared) instruction, and impact of recent curricular changes. Responses were received from forty-nine of sixty-seven (73.1 percent) U.S. and Canadian dental schools. The findings suggest the following: 1) substantial variation exists in instructional hours, faculty affiliation, placement within curriculum, class size, and interdisciplinary nature of pharmacology courses; 2) pharmacology course content emphasis is similar among schools; 3) the number of contact hours in pharmacology has remained stable over the past three decades; 4) recent curricular changes were often directed towards enhancing the integrative and clinically relevant aspects of pharmacology instruction; and 5) a trend toward innovative content delivery, such as use of computer-assisted instruction applications, is evident. Data, derived from this study, may be useful to pharmacology course directors, curriculum committees, and other dental educators with an interest in integrative and interprofessional education.

  16. Quality assurance and risk management: a survey of dental schools and recommendations for integrated program management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredekind, Richard E; Cuny, Eve J; Nadershahi, Nader A

    2002-04-01

    Quality assurance (QA) and risk management (RM) programs are intended to improve patient care, meet accreditation standards, and ensure compliance with liability insurance policies. The purpose of this project was to obtain and disseminate information on whether dental schools integrate QA and RM and what mechanisms have been most effective in measuring accomplishments in these programs. All sixty-five U.S. and Canadian dental schools were sent a twenty-nine-item survey, and forty-six (71 percent) schools responded. The main findings are as follows: 66 percent had a written QA program combined with a QA committee; 95 percent received administrative support; there was wide variation in the makeup of the QA committee; many institutions reported significant changes resulting from the QA program; and over half of the respondents merged QA and RM in some fashion. To develop or maintain an effective QA/RM program, the authors propose the following: obtain active support from the dean; develop goals and mission/vision statements; include trained personnel on the committee; establish wide levels of involvement in the QA program; develop QA measurements to ensure compliance with institutionally developed standards of patient care; and establish continuous cycles of improvement.

  17. Physiology education in North American dental schools: the basic science survey series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Medha; Shaw, David H; Pate, Ted D; Lambert, H Wayne

    2014-06-01

    As part of the Basic Science Survey Series for Dentistry, members of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Physiology, Pharmacology, and Therapeutics Section surveyed directors of physiology courses in North American dental schools. The survey was designed to assess, among other things, faculty affiliation and experience of course directors, teaching methods, general course content and emphasis, extent of interdisciplinary (shared) instruction, and impact of recent curricular changes. Responses were received from forty-four of sixty-seven (65.7 percent) U.S. and Canadian dental schools. The findings suggest the following: substantial variation exists in instructional hours, faculty affiliation, class size, and interdisciplinary nature of physiology courses; physiology course content emphasis is similar between schools; student contact hours in physiology, which have remained relatively stable in the past fifteen years, are starting to be reduced; recent curricular changes have often been directed towards enhancing the integrative and clinically relevant aspects of physiology instruction; and a trend toward innovative content delivery, such as use of computer-assisted instruction, is evident. Data from this study may be useful to physiology course directors, curriculum committees, and other dental educators with an interest in integrative and interprofessional education.

  18. Circulating metals and persistent organic pollutant concentrations in Canadian and non-Canadian born primiparous women from five Canadian centres: Results of a pilot biomonitoring study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Warren G., E-mail: fosterw@mcmaster.ca [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Cheung, Anthony P. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Davis, Karelyn [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada (Canada); Graves, Gillian [Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Jarrell, John [University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Leblanc, Alain [Institut national de sante publique, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Liang, Chun Lei [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada (Canada); Leech, Tara [Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Walker, Mark [University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Weber, Jean Philippe [Institut national de sante publique, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Van Oostdam, Jay [Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-10-01

    The developing foetus is thought to be at increased risk from exposure to environmental contaminants; however, developmental exposure data is notably lacking for many contaminants. Moreover, potential regional differences or effect of place of birth on residue levels measured in pregnant women is also unknown. Therefore, as part of a multinational biomonitoring study, 125 primiparous pregnant Canadian women were recruited from five Canadian centres (Vancouver, Calgary, Hamilton, Ottawa, and Halifax). Metals in whole blood and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in plasma were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS), respectively. Of the 125 women recruited to this study, complete data sets were available for 123 of which 103 were Canadian born. Data were analysed by analysis of covariance and linear mixed models using age and body mass index as covariates. The metals cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and total mercury (Hg) were detected in more than 93% of the samples tested. {beta}-Hexachlorohexane ({beta}-HCH), oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p Prime -DDE), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (PBDE-153, PBDE-47), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (PCB-138, -153, and -180), and the dioxin-like PCB congener PCB-118 were quantified in greater than 70% of the samples tested. Significant differences in the concentrations of Cd, Ni, PCB-153, and p,p Prime -DDE were found between the centres studied. Furthermore, foreign-born pregnant women had significantly higher concentrations of Cd, {beta}-HCH, PBDE-47, PCB-138, -153, -180, and p,p Prime -DDE compared to Canadian born pregnant women. Taken together, the data suggest that there are potential regional differences in contaminant body burden and place of birth may also contribute to differences in maternal residue concentrations. -- Highlights: Black

  19. Literature on the periphery of capitalism: Brazilian theory, Canadian culture Literature on the periphery of capitalism: Brazilian theory, Canadian culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Szeman

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to get past the blind spots that have developed in contemporary postcolonial theory, it is essential to seek out complementarities and solidarities in different national situations and in different modernities. This essay undertakes this task by exploring the homologous situations faced in Brazil and Canada in their respective attempts to create genuine national cultures. As in many postcolonial situations, the problem of creating an authentic culture is directly related to the sense that postcolonial culture is necessarily imitative and belated. In Misplaced Ideas, Roberto Schwarz exposes the hidden class character of the problem of cultural authenticity in Brazil, and in so doing, shows that the trauma of national-cultural identity merely reflects the contradictory structural position of Brazil’s postcolonial elite. Using Schwarz’s insights to explore the Canadian situation, the author shows that the same forces are at work in Canada. Though the crisis of a lack of an authentic Canadian culture has recently been surmounted as a result of the apparent international success of Canadian culture (especially literary fiction, that author cautions that this “success” story hides the class basis of Canadian culture in both its belated and isochronic phases (the latter being the moment when cultural belatedness is overcome. Making use of Brazilian theory to examine problems in Canadian culture allows us to see that Canadian modernity, long thought to be simply a derivative of the UK and USA, has similarities with Brazilian modernity that are essential to understanding the space and place Canada occupies in globalization. In order to get past the blind spots that have developed in contemporary postcolonial theory, it is essential to seek out complementarities and solidarities in different national situations and in different modernities. This essay undertakes this task by exploring the homologous situations faced in Brazil

  20. Gut Microbiome of the Canadian Arctic Inuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromas, Nicolas; Amyot, Marc

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Diet is a major determinant of community composition in the human gut microbiome, and “traditional” diets have been associated with distinct and highly diverse communities, compared to Western diets. However, most traditional diets studied have been those of agrarians and hunter-gatherers consuming fiber-rich diets. In contrast, the Inuit of the Canadian Arctic have been consuming a traditional diet low in carbohydrates and rich in animal fats and protein for thousands of years. We hypothesized that the Inuit diet and lifestyle would be associated with a distinct microbiome. We used deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to compare the gut microbiomes of Montrealers with a Western diet to those of the Inuit consuming a range of traditional and Western diets. At the overall microbial community level, the gut microbiomes of Montrealers and Inuit were indistinguishable and contained similar levels of microbial diversity. However, we observed significant differences in the relative abundances of certain microbial taxa down to the subgenus level using oligotyping. For example, Prevotella spp., which have been previously associated with high-fiber diets, were enriched in Montrealers and among the Inuit consuming a Western diet. The gut microbiomes of Inuit consuming a traditional diet also had significantly less genetic diversity within the Prevotella genus, suggesting that a low-fiber diet might not only select against Prevotella but also reduce its diversity. Other microbes, such as Akkermansia, were associated with geography as well as diet, suggesting limited dispersal to the Arctic. Our report provides a snapshot of the Inuit microbiome as Western-like in overall community structure but distinct in the relative abundances and diversity of certain genera and strains. IMPORTANCE Non-Western populations have been shown to have distinct gut microbial communities shaped by traditional diets. The hitherto-uncharacterized microbiome of the Inuit may help us to

  1. STEM Outreach to the African Canadian Community - The Imhotep Legacy Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Kevin

    2012-02-01

    Like the African American community in the US, the African Canadian community is underrepresented in the Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields. To serve these communities two outreach organizations emerged in Canadian cities where there is a critical mass of learners of African Descent - Toronto and Halifax. I will describe the Imhotep's Legacy Academy, which began in the Physics labs of Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia and has grown to a province-wide program serving three-quarters of the school boards in the province with an annual budget that has grown to 400,000 in 2011-12. It follows the learner from the time they enter grade 7 to the time they graduate from university, through three programs: (a) Weekly After-School science enrichment for junior high learners, (b) Virtual High school tutoring program and (c) Summer student internships and research scholarships for post-secondary students. This year, the program was the beneficiary of funding from TD Bank to establish scholarships for program participants to enter Dalhousie university. Modeled on the Meyerhoff scholarships the program participants are identified at an early stage and are promised a subset of funding as they meet selected criteria during participation in the program. The program enjoys support from the Department of Education and the highest levels of government. A tri-mentoring system exists where faculty of African descent train mentors, who are science students of African descent at associated universities, to deliver hands-on enrichment activities to learners of African Descent. Evidence supporting the success of the program will be highlighted. Project outcomes measured include (i) recruitment; (ii) attendance; (iii) stakeholder relationships; (iv) programming; (v) staff training; (vi) perception of ILASP's value; (vii) academic performance. The end results are new lessons and best practices that are incorporated into a strategic plan for the new project

  2. Prevalence and Pedagogy: Understanding Substance Abuse in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salm, Twyla; Sevigny, Phil; Mulholland, Val; Greenberg, Hirsch

    2011-01-01

    This case study examines not only the prevalence of substance abuse in one rural, Canadian high school, but also how teachers understand teaching and learning in relation to substance abuse. Over one third of students reported that they had used marijuana (37%) and alcohol (38%) in the last seven days, a rate considerably higher than typical…

  3. Professional Development Schools: Preservice Candidates' Learning and Sources of Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquette, Cheryll; Cook, Sharon Anne

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 23 Canadian student teachers in conventional placements or professional-development schools (PDS) found that their practica had taught them about curriculum, pupils and pupil-teacher interactions, discipline and classroom management, and the teaching profession. Compared to others, PDS student teachers relied more on weekly seminars…

  4. The Secondary School Principalship: The Task and the Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, O. B.

    Inspired by Franz Kafka's predatory leopard anecdote, this speech explores the plight of Canadian secondary school principals trying to meet students' educational needs within the constraints imposed by politics and finance. A cross-country survey of 60 principals disclosed some typical problems. Principals must be reponsive to public opinion…

  5. Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-09-01

    For those who support U.S. oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands industry is often identified as a model the U.S. might emulate, yielding financial and energy security benefits. For opponents of domestic oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands experience illustrates the risks that opponents of development believe should deter domestic policymakers from incenting U.S. oil sands development. This report does not seek to evaluate the particular underpinnings of either side of this policy argument, but rather attempts to delve into the question of whether the Canadian experience has relevance as a foundational model for U.S. oil sands development. More specifically, this report seeks to assess whether and how the Canadian oil sands experience might be predictive or instructive in the context of fashioning a framework for a U.S. oil sands industry. In evaluating the implications of these underpinnings for a prospective U.S. oil sands industry, this report concentrates on prospective development of the oil sands deposits found in Utah.

  6. Return on Investment for Workplace Training: The Canadian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, Jennifer C.; Cozzarin, Brian P.; Formaneck, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    One of the central problems in managing technological change and maintaining a competitive advantage in business is improving the skills of the workforce through investment in human capital and a variety of training practices. This paper explores the evidence on the impact of training investment on productivity in 14 Canadian industries from 1999…

  7. Electronic Commerce: Canadian Community Colleges and Institutes of Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges.

    This paper reports on the Canadian college system's collaboration with industry and community services in the development and delivery of non-credit e-commerce courses offered through continuing education departments at community colleges and institutes of technology. The paper argues that, in today's changing economy, the accelerated need for…

  8. The Canadian Labour Market: Readings in Manpower Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, A.M., Ed.; Meltz, N.M., Ed.

    Canadian manpower problems were researched by a group of economists at the University of Toronto in areas of interest to manpower planners and students of the labor market. The dissatisfaction of policy makers with the present operation of the labor market is discussed in three areas: (1) inadequate output due to alleged labor shortages, (2)…

  9. Giving Canadian Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education an Independent Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Derek

    2015-01-01

    It is noted that the "Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education" (CJSMTE) was founded with the support of a donation of $1.0 million from the Imperial Oil Charitable Foundation. Four goals were uppermost in the thinking behind the journal: first, it should be bilingual; second, it should be cross-disciplinary;…

  10. Financial Management of Canadian Universities: Adaptive Strategies to Fiscal Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Darren; Sá, Creso M.

    2014-01-01

    Decreasing government funding and regulated tuition policies have created a financially constrained environment for Canada's universities. The conventional response to such conditions is to cut programme offerings and services in an attempt to lower costs throughout the institution. However, we argue that three Canadian universities have reacted…

  11. In their own words: describing Canadian physician leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Anita J; Dickson, Graham; Wirtzfeld, Debrah; Van Aerde, John

    2016-07-04

    Purpose This is the first study to compile statistical data to describe the functions and responsibilities of physicians in formal and informal leadership roles in the Canadian health system. This mixed-methods research study offers baseline data relative to this purpose, and also describes physician leaders' views on fundamental aspects of their leadership responsibility. Design/methodology/approach A survey with both quantitative and qualitative fields yielded 689 valid responses from physician leaders. Data from the survey were utilized in the development of a semi-structured interview guide; 15 physician leaders were interviewed. Findings A profile of Canadian physician leadership has been compiled, including demographics; an outline of roles, responsibilities, time commitments and related compensation; and personal factors that support, engage and deter physicians when considering taking on leadership roles. The role of health-care organizations in encouraging and supporting physician leadership is explicated. Practical implications The baseline data on Canadian physician leaders create the opportunity to determine potential steps for improving the state of physician leadership in Canada; and health-care organizations are provided with a wealth of information on how to encourage and support physician leaders. Using the data as a benchmark, comparisons can also be made with physician leadership as practiced in other nations. Originality/value There are no other research studies available that provide the depth and breadth of detail on Canadian physician leadership, and the embedded recommendations to health-care organizations are informed by this in-depth knowledge.

  12. Microplastics in aquatic environments: Implications for Canadian ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Julie C; Park, Bradley J; Palace, Vince P

    2016-11-01

    Microplastics have been increasingly detected and quantified in marine and freshwater environments, and there are growing concerns about potential effects in biota. A literature review was conducted to summarize the current state of knowledge of microplastics in Canadian aquatic environments; specifically, the sources, environmental fate, behaviour, abundance, and toxicological effects in aquatic organisms. While we found that research and publications on these topics have increased dramatically since 2010, relatively few studies have assessed the presence, fate, and effects of microplastics in Canadian water bodies. We suggest that efforts to determine aquatic receptors at greatest risk of detrimental effects due to microplastic exposure, and their associated contaminants, are particularly warranted. There is also a need to address the gaps identified, with a particular focus on the species and conditions found in Canadian aquatic systems. These gaps include characterization of the presence of microplastics in Canadian freshwater ecosystems, identifying key sources of microplastics to these systems, and evaluating the presence of microplastics in Arctic waters and biota.

  13. Baselines for the Pan-Canadian science curriculum framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiufeng

    2013-01-01

    Using a Canadian student achievement assessment database, the Science Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP), and employing the Rasch partial credit measurement model, this study estimated the difficulties of items corresponding to the learning outcomes in the Pan-Canadian science curriculum framework and the latent abilities of students of grades 7, 8, 10, 11, 12 and OAC (Ontario Academic Course). The above estimates serve as baselines for validating the Pan-Canadian science curriculum framework in terms of the learning progression of learning outcomes and expected mastery of learning outcomes by grades. It was found that there was no statistically significant progression in learning outcomes from grades 4-6 to grades 7-9, and from grades 7-9 to grades 10-12; the curriculum framework sets mastery expectation about 2 grades higher than students' potential abilities. In light of the above findings, this paper discusses theoretical issues related to deciding progression of learning outcomes and setting expectation of student mastery of learning outcomes, and highlights the importance of using national assessment data to establish baselines for the above purposes. This paper concludes with recommendations for further validating the Pan-Canadian science curriculum frameworks.

  14. Enhancing Canadian Teacher Education Using a Story Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    The "Accord on Initial Teacher Education" was created by the Canadian Deans of Education in 2006 to guide teacher educators across Canada. The "Story Model" (Drake et al., 1992) is aligned with the principles in the Accord and has proven useful in teacher education. Here it is explored as a framework for curriculum development…

  15. Intersectionality and the Canadian Museum for Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamoon, Rita Kaur; Hankivsky, Olena

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, the authors propose than an intersectionality perspective can transform understandings of the contentious content of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR). The use of an intersectionality perspective starts from the position that such discourses as racialization, gendering, capitalism, and ableism are mutually…

  16. Canadian Physicians’ Choices for Their Own Colon Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoon Raza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Compliance with colorectal cancer (CRC screening in Canada is low. The aim of the present survey was to determine whether Canadian physicians older than 50 years were pursuing colon cancer screening. Specifically, physicians were asked to identify their modality of choice and identify their barriers to screening.

  17. The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: A Canadian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réjeanne Gougeon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA is a clinical tool designed to facilitate implementation of therapeutic lifestyle recommendations for people with or at risk for type 2 diabetes. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPG recommendations is essential to address varied patient populations within and among diverse regions worldwide. The Canadian version of tDNA supports and targets behavioural changes to improve nutritional quality and to promote regular daily physical activity consistent with Canadian Diabetes Association CPG, as well as channelling the concomitant management of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and dysglycaemia in primary care. Assessing glycaemic index (GI (the ranking of foods by effects on postprandial blood glucose levels and glycaemic load (GL (the product of mean GI and the total carbohydrate content of a meal will be a central part of the Canadian tDNA and complement nutrition therapy by facilitating glycaemic control using specific food selections. This component can also enhance other metabolic interventions, such as reducing the need for antihyperglycaemic medication and improving the effectiveness of weight loss programs. This tDNA strategy will be adapted to the cultural specificities of the Canadian population and incorporated into the tDNA validation methodology.

  18. Children's Experiences of Cyberbullying: A Canadian National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Tanya; Mishna, Faye; McInroy, Lauren B.; Shariff, Shaheen

    2015-01-01

    This national study reports the prevalence of cyberbullying among youths in Canada according to demographic characteristics, its impact, and its relationship to six forms of victimization and perpetration. Cross-sectional data were obtained from a national household panel of families living in all Canadian provinces. The sample included 1,001…

  19. Assessing Patterns of Admixture and Ancestry in Canadian Honey Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canada has a large beekeeping industry comprised of 8483 beekeepers managing 672094 23 colonies. Canadian honey bees, like all honey bees in the New World, originate from centuries of importation of predominately European honey bees, but their precise ancestry remains unknown. There have been no i...

  20. Canadian Cultural Materialism: Personal Values and Television Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surlin, Stuart H.; Squire, Larry A.

    A study examined the relationship between social and material values and attitudes toward television advertising. Using the Rokeach Value Survey Form E, 157 Canadian college students ranked the 18 terminal and 18 instrumental values in order of their importance as guiding principles for life. The values were classified as either material, social,…

  1. Irreversible mass loss of Canadian Arctic Archipelago glaciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenaerts, J.T.M.; van Angelen, J.H.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Gardner, A.S.; Wouters, Bert; van Meijgaard, E.

    2013-01-01

    The Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) contains the largest volume of glacier ice on Earth outside of Antarctica and Greenland. In the absence of significant calving, CAA glacier mass balance is governed by the difference between surface snow accumulation and meltwater runoff—surface mass balance. He

  2. Canadian Community College Counselling Services--How Are They Staffed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, E. F.; Miles, F. A.

    1975-01-01

    Because little is known about counselling services in Canadian community colleges, the authors sent questionnaires to 179 post-secondary, non-university, educational institutions and received replies from 83. Data on numbers of counseling personnel, their educational level, salaries, counsellor-student ratios, support staff, and other relevant…

  3. A Blended Approach to Canadian First Nations Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacher, Martin; Sacher, Mavis; Vaughan, Norman

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to investigate if and how a blended approach to Canadian First Nations education could be used to foster student engagement and success. The study examined the SCcyber E-Learning Community program (2012) through the lens of the "Seven Principles of Effective Teaching" (Chickering & Gamson,…

  4. Un vocabulaire juridique bilingue canadien (A Canadian Bilingual Legal Vocabulary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauziere, Lucie

    1979-01-01

    Describes a project called JURIVOC which sought to deal with the problem of a duality of language and a duality in legal systems in Canada. The development of a bilingual lexicon is discussed, and an example is given of the classic language/legal system duality in Canadian law. (AM)

  5. The Role of Canadian Children's Literature in National Identity Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce M.

    2002-01-01

    Seeks to understand teachers' practices in relation to selecting children's literature for use in classrooms, and to understand the wider issues associated with book selection and in particular with Canadian children's literature. Supports a strong need for rethinking the implications of the literacy events that occur on an everyday basis in…

  6. The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievenpiper, John L.; Jenkins, David; Yale, Jean-François; Bell, Rhonda; Després, Jean-Pierre; Ransom, Thomas P. P.; Dupre, John; Kendall, Cyril; Hegazi, Refaat A.; Marchetti, Albert; Hamdy, Osama; Mechanick, Jeffrey I.

    2014-01-01

    The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA) is a clinical tool designed to facilitate implementation of therapeutic lifestyle recommendations for people with or at risk for type 2 diabetes. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPG) recommendations is essential to address varied patient populations within and among diverse regions worldwide. The Canadian version of tDNA supports and targets behavioural changes to improve nutritional quality and to promote regular daily physical activity consistent with Canadian Diabetes Association CPG, as well as channelling the concomitant management of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and dysglycaemia in primary care. Assessing glycaemic index (GI) (the ranking of foods by effects on postprandial blood glucose levels) and glycaemic load (GL) (the product of mean GI and the total carbohydrate content of a meal) will be a central part of the Canadian tDNA and complement nutrition therapy by facilitating glycaemic control using specific food selections. This component can also enhance other metabolic interventions, such as reducing the need for antihyperglycaemic medication and improving the effectiveness of weight loss programs. This tDNA strategy will be adapted to the cultural specificities of the Canadian population and incorporated into the tDNA validation methodology. PMID:24550982

  7. Religiosity and Music Copyright Theft among Canadian Baptist Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Bruce G.; Francis, Leslie J.; Henderson, Amanda J.; Robbins, Mandy; Linkletter, Jody

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the views of 706 Canadian Baptist youth (between the ages of 14 and 18 years) on the moral issue of music copyright theft, and explores the influence on these views of age, sex, Sunday church attendance, personal prayer, personal Bible reading, and conservative Bible believing. The participants were attending Springforth 2005…

  8. The Management of Retrenchment in Canadian Academic Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Laurent-G.; Auster, Ethel

    This exploratory study focuses on the management of decline as characterized by shrinking resources and substantial reductions in operating budgets (retrenchment) in academic research libraries in Canada. The first of four major sections of the report addresses the management of retrenchment in Canadian research libraries, including the design of…

  9. The Canadian Association of Nordic Ski Instructors: Instructor Certification Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Glenda

    Since its formation in 1976, the Canadian Association of Nordic Ski Instructors (CANSI) has certified over 2600 instructors across Canada. CANSI aims to provide a standard of excellence in certified nordic ski instruction by maintaining uniform and current nordic techniques, to encourage the skiing public to take advantage of the benefits of…

  10. Canadian Youth Volunteering Abroad: Rethinking Issues of Power and Privilege

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Mai

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of institutions in the ethical engagement of Canadian youth volunteers abroad. In recent years, researchers and practitioners in the international field have questioned the ethics of volunteering as part of development, with scrutiny on who actually benefits from volunteering initiatives. Since the 1960s, over 65,000…

  11. Knowledge Matters: Skills and Learning for Canadians. Canada's Innovation Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources Development Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This paper outlines the skills and learning challenges that Canada faces to ensure it meets its skills and learning requirements for the 21st century. It proposes a series of national goals and milestones against which progress can be measured over time and reported on regularly to Canadians. Following an introduction, Sections 2-5 discuss the…

  12. Canadian Space Launch: Exploiting Northern Latitudes For Efficient Space Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    AU/ACSC/KLEMEN, J/AY15 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY CANADIAN SPACE LAUNCH: EXPLOITING NORTHERN LATITUDES FOR EFFICIENT...large provincial wildlife park, the environmental impact posed by any development would be certain to draw extensive criticism. This site is also

  13. Canadian Women's Labor Force Behavior: A Forty Year Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Janet E.; Skrypnek, Berna J.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three dimensions of labor force behavior: participation, attachment, and commitment. Presents a picture of trends in Canadian women's labor force behavior over the last 40 years using existing data. Discusses the implications of these trends for family life and corporate and public policy. (JOW)

  14. Assessment of terrorist threats to the Canadian energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, A. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Norman Paterson School of International Affairs]|[Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Faculty of Law

    2006-03-15

    A critical terrorist threat assessment of Canadian energy systems was presented, as well as an analysis of integrated continental systems. Recent responses to heightened threat levels on the part of the Canadian government have ranged from information sharing to emergency preparedness and disaster mitigation strategies. This paper examined threats that the energy sector has traditionally encountered and argued that response capabilities do not match current threats posed by terrorism. The potential of a terrorist attack on the Canadian energy infrastructure is significant and has been referred to as a possible target by terrorist organizations. Actions taken by the Canadian government in response to heightened threat levels were examined. A review of energy industry security measures included outlines of: the natural gas industry, the electric sector, and nuclear reactors and waste. It was noted that not all elements of the critical energy infrastructure share the same level of risk. Recommendations included increased information sharing between government agencies and the private sector; resiliency standards in densely populated areas; and insulating the energy grid against a cascading blackout through the use of DC rather than AC lines. 59 refs.

  15. Entrepreneurship and Educational Leadership Development: Canadian and Australian Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Charles F.; Scott, Shelleyann

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the entrepreneurial activities of two university faculties, one Canadian and the other Australian, that were designed to meet the educational needs of students and to garner the resources necessary for program delivery. A conceptual framework for educational entrepreneurship, containing six dimensions, is proposed. The…

  16. Educational Goal-Setting in a Native-Canadian Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, H. Joseph

    A revitalization of Canadian Indian culture occurred as a result of the 1967 Hawthorn Report, which advocated the integration of Canada natives into white society. On the Eskasoni Indian Reserve, home of 1700 Micma Indians in Nova Scotia, the revitalization was shown in the results of two questionnaires about local education. On the first…

  17. Strategic Planning for Academic Research: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Creso M.; Tamtik, Merli

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on an empirical study of research planning in Canadian universities. Drawing on data compiled during interviews with senior administrators from 27 academic units in 10 universities, the paper analyses how strategic planning has been applied to the research mission over the past decade. Findings reveal variability in processes…

  18. Financial Management of Canadian Universities: Adaptive Strategies to Fiscal Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Darren; Sá, Creso M.

    2014-01-01

    Decreasing government funding and regulated tuition policies have created a financially constrained environment for Canada's universities. The conventional response to such conditions is to cut programme offerings and services in an attempt to lower costs throughout the institution. However, we argue that three Canadian universities have…

  19. Entrepreneurialism for Canadian Principals: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Shelleyann; Webber, Charles F.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the various elements of Canadian educational entrepreneurialism as manifested yesterday, today, and tomorrow and in relation to the social and political influences of the time. This discussion is informed by the findings of the International Study of the Preparation of Principals (ISPP) and represents an expansion of the…

  20. Marginalizing Significant Others: The Canadian Contribution to Educational Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlynka, Denis

    1994-01-01

    Considers Canadian contributions to the philosophical basis of educational technology which have helped shape the model shifts now occurring in the field. Four individuals are highlighted: Harold Innis and his work on media; Marshall McLuhan, who built on Innis' work; Ursula Franklin and her philosophical analysis of technology; and Arthur Kroker.…

  1. Canadian Decisions in a Shifting North American Security Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    who definitely piqued my interests in Canadian politics, if nothing else, just to be able to follow their satirical interpretation of the news. Now...naval exercises and operations outside of NATO. Now this planning has been transferred from JFCOM in Norfolk, Virginia , to NORTHCOM in Colorado

  2. Epidemiological and Economic Burden of Pneumococcal Disease in Canadian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Petit

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the arrival of a new conjugate pneumococcal vaccine, it is important to estimate the burden of pneumococcal diseases in Canadian children. The epidemiological data and the economic cost of these diseases are crucial elements in evaluating the relevance of a vaccination program.

  3. System architecture for the Canadian interim mobile satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariatmadar, M.; Gordon, K.; Skerry, B.; Eldamhougy, H.; Bossler, D.

    1988-05-01

    The system architecture for the Canadian Interim Mobile Satellite Service (IMSS) which is planned for commencement of commercial service in late 1989 is reviewed. The results of an associated field trial program which was carried out to determine the limits of coverage and the preliminary performance characteristics of the system are discussed.

  4. Research Integrity/Misconduct Policies of Canadian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenherr, Jordan; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2011-01-01

    In a context of increasing attention to issues of scientific integrity in university research, it is important to reflect on the governance mechanisms that universities use to shape the behaviour of students, researchers, and faculty. This paper presents the results of a study of 47 Canadian university research integrity/misconduct (RIM) policies:…

  5. A Glimpse of Canadian Education: 1990-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Mildred

    2000-01-01

    As for every aspect of Canadian life, duality of origins has defined and shaped education. French Catholic religious personnel created an elementary education system for fur traders, farmers, and native peoples; elites had a privately funded system. English Protestants oriented their systems toward extraction industries and trade. (Contains 41…

  6. Nomads, Pilgrims, Tourists: Women Teachers in the Canadian North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on notions of the modern pilgrim and postmodern tourist, this paper explores the discursive resources concerning women, travel, and transience as they apply to female teachers working in the Canadian north. In particular, it traces the discourses evident in the talk of twenty-five women teachers currently working in northern First Nations…

  7. University Supports for Open Access: A Canadian National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greyson, Devon; Vezina, Kumiko; Morrison, Heather; Taylor, Donald; Black, Charlyn

    2009-01-01

    The advent of policies at research-funding organizations requiring grantees to make their funded research openly accessible alters the life cycle of scholarly research. This survey-based study explores the approaches that libraries and research administration offices at the major Canadian universities are employing to support the…

  8. How Well Do Canadian Distance Education Students Understand Plagiarism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier, Cheryl Ann

    2014-01-01

    This project ascertains how well students taking online, distance education courses at a Canadian university recognize plagiarised material and how well they paraphrase. It also assesses the types of errors made. Slightly more than half of 420 psychology students correctly selected plagiarised phrases from four multiple choice questions. Only a…

  9. The Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure and health mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Sheng; Mioc, Darka; Yi, Xiaolun

    2008-01-01

    Due to the recent outbreak of SARS and the danger of pandemic Bird Flu, the ability to strengthen health surveillance and disease control is a growing need among governments. The development of the Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure (CGDI) has shown great potential in many industries...

  10. Association of Canadian Community Colleges Annual Report, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Established in 1972, the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC) is the national and international voice of Canada's colleges, institutes, cegeps, university colleges, and polytechnics. This report outlines highlights of the Association's activities over the 2009-2010 year. The auditors' report is also included. [For "Association of…

  11. The War's Positive Impact on the Canadian Astronomical Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Peter

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of WWI, the Canadian astronomical community was tiny and astrophysical research was just beginning. By the end of the war, the country had established the forerunner of its National Research Council and had the world's largest fully operational telescope, thanks to the late entry of the USA into the conflict. By 1918, Canada was on the verge of making significant contributions to science.In spite of the immense loss of life in this pointless war, I am aware of only one casualty affecting Canadian professional astronomers, and that was the indirect death of James Chant, son of University of Toronto's only professor of astronomy. Other Canadian astronomers, including Tom Parker, Bert Topham, and Harry Plaskett were on active service; each of their stories is unique.Among those engaged in scientific work during the war were two Canadians temporarily in England: John McLennan whose helium research for dirigibles led him to establish a cryogenic lab in Toronto where the green line in the spectrum of the aurora was identified in 1925, and Allie Douglas who worked as a statistician in the War Office. Later work with Eddington led her to become his biographer and to her distinction as the first person in Canada to earn a PhD in astronomy (in 1926).

  12. Canadian Cardiovascular Society/Canadian Society of Cardiac Surgeons/Canadian Society for Vascular Surgery Joint Position Statement on Open and Endovascular Surgery for Thoracic Aortic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appoo, Jehangir J; Bozinovski, John; Chu, Michael W A; El-Hamamsy, Ismail; Forbes, Thomas L; Moon, Michael; Ouzounian, Maral; Peterson, Mark D; Tittley, Jacques; Boodhwani, Munir

    2016-06-01

    In 2014, the Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) published a position statement on the management of thoracic aortic disease addressing size thresholds for surgery, imaging modalities, medical therapy, and genetics. It did not address issues related to surgical intervention. This joint Position Statement on behalf of the CCS, Canadian Society of Cardiac Surgeons, and the Canadian Society for Vascular Surgery provides recommendations about thoracic aortic disease interventions, including: aortic valve repair, perfusion strategies for arch repair, extended arch hybrid reconstruction for acute type A dissection, endovascular management of arch and descending aortic aneurysms, and type B dissection. The position statement is constructed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology, and has been approved by the primary panel, an international secondary panel, and the CCS Guidelines Committee. Advent of endovascular technology has improved aortic surgery safety and extended the indications of minimally invasive thoracic aortic surgery. The combination of safer open surgery with endovascular treatment has improved patient outcomes in this rapidly evolving subspecialty field of cardiovascular surgery.

  13. Beyond "medical tourism": Canadian companies marketing medical travel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Leigh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite having access to medically necessary care available through publicly funded provincial health care systems, some Canadians travel for treatment provided at international medical facilities as well as for-profit clinics found in several Canadian provinces. Canadians travel abroad for orthopaedic surgery, bariatric surgery, ophthalmologic surgery, stem cell injections, “Liberation therapy” for multiple sclerosis, and additional interventions. Both responding to public interest in medical travel and playing an important part in promoting the notion of a global marketplace for health services, many Canadian companies market medical travel. Methods Research began with the goal of locating all medical tourism companies based in Canada. Various strategies were used to find such businesses. During the search process it became apparent that many Canadian business promoting medical travel are not medical tourism companies. To the contrary, numerous types of businesses promote medical travel. Once businesses promoting medical travel were identified, content analysis was used to extract information from company websites. Company websites were analyzed to establish: 1 where in Canada these businesses are located; 2 the destination countries and health care facilities that they market; 3 the medical procedures they promote; 4 core marketing messages; and 5 whether businesses market air travel, hotel accommodations, and holiday tours in addition to medical procedures. Results Searches conducted from 2006 to 2011 resulted in identification of thirty-five Canadian businesses currently marketing various kinds of medical travel. The research project began with what seemed to be the straightforward goal of establishing how many medical tourism companies are based in Canada. Refinement of categories resulted in the identification of eighteen businesses fitting the category of what most researchers would identify as medical tourism

  14. Live And Love-Brave Theme Features In Canadian Classical Novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fang

    2015-01-01

    Canadian classical works are becoming more and more popular all over the world. People began to understand and mar⁃vel at the Canadian literatures that are quite life-meaningful and full of lessons and tips for lives. The classic works in Canadian Literatures that advantageously elaborated the characteristics of sublimation under the background for Canada's particular history, geography, climate, religion, demographic factors, generation, development and continuous construction of Canadian literatures. The greatest masterpieces can highlight powerfully the certain mindset of Canadian and the permanent theme for Canadian Litera⁃ture:keep working hard for survival and love bravely. Meanwhile, modern people will learn a lot from reading Canadian classic lit⁃erary works.

  15. Unravelling the mystery of reality : typical Canadian elements in the short stories of Alice Munro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kustec

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary Canadian short story has a specific place among literary genres in Canadian literature. It culminated in the sixties of this century, when the Canadians looked to their literature with greater interest. Canadian short story writers started to write in a different tone, and showed special interest for new themes. After 1960 authors, such as Henry Kreisel, Norman Levine, Anne Hebert, Mavis Gallant, Ethel Wilson, Joyce Marshall, Hugh Hood, Hugh Garner, Margaret Laurence, Audrey Callahan Thomas, Mordecai Richler, and Alice Munro, refused to use the traditional plot, and showed more interest for characterisation. By using a typical Canadian setting, their stories began to reflect social events of their time. A new awareness of identity stepped forward, and above all their stories became a reflection of the diversity of life in all Canadian provinces. The contemporary Canadian short story writers began to overstep the boundaries of their imagination.

  16. Cohort Working Life Tables for Older Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer, Byron G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWe construct cohort working life tables for Canadian men and women aged 50and older and, for comparison, corresponding period tables. The tables arederived using annual single-age time series of participation rates for 1976-2006from the master files of the Statistics Canada Labour Force Survey. The cohortcalculations are based on stochastic projections of mortality coupled withalternative assumptions about future participation rates. Separate tables areprovided for the years 1976, 1991, and 2006, thus spanning a period ofsubstantial gains in life expectancy and strong upward trends in femaleparticipation. Life expectancies based on the cohort tables are greater thanthose based on the period tables, for both men and women, and that is reflectedin increased retirement expectancies. For example, a male aged 50 in 1976could have expected to live three years longer and to have almost four moreyears in retirement, based on the male cohort table under medium assumptions,as compared with the corresponding period table.RésuméNous avons établis des tables de vie active par génération pour les Canadiens etCanadiennes âgés de 50 ans ou plus ainsi que des tables du momentcorrespondantes pour servir de comparaison. Les tables sont dérivées à l'aidede séries chronologiques annuelles d'un seul âge pour le taux d'activité pour lesannées 1976 à 2006 provenant des fichiers maîtres de l'Enquête sur lapopulation active de Statistique Canada. Les calculs par génération sont baséessur des projections stochastiques de mortalité et sur des suppositions quant àde futurs taux d'activité possibles. Des tables séparées ont été établies pour lesannées 1976, 1991 et 2006 ; ce qui représente une période qui a vu des gainssubstantiels en ce qui concerne l'espérance de vie et une forte hausse d'activitéchez les femmes. Les espérance de vie basées sur les tables par génération sontplus élevées que celles basées sur les tables du

  17. Making the Transition: The Impact of Moving from Elementary to Secondary School on Adolescents' Academic Achievement and Psychological Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Lipps, Garth

    2005-01-01

    Early adolescence is a time of rapid social, cognitive, and physical change. For some youth, these changes can make this period a vulnerable point in development. Adding to the stress, some students transfer from an elementary school to a middle school or to a comprehensive high school. While the impact on youth of moving to a higher level of schooling has been the focus of intense research and debate in the United States, surprisingly little research has been conducted examining how Canadian...

  18. Abstracts from the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society Quebec City, April 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Morin, S.; Finch, L.; Sara', A; Muir, Susan; Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Kennedy, C. C.; Giangregorio, L. M.; Adachi, J. D.; Morin, S.N.; Crilly, R G; Marr, S; Josse, R G; Matta, J.; Dionne, I.; Payette, H

    2012-01-01

    The opinions expressed in the abstracts are those of the authors and are not to be construed as the opinion of the publisher (Canadian Geriatrics Society) or the organizers of the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society. Although the publisher (Canadian Geriatrics Society) has made every effort to accurately reproduce the abstracts, the Canadian Geriatrics Society and the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society assumes no responsibility and/...

  19. The association between obesity, cardiometabolic disease biomarkers, and innate immunity-related inflammation in Canadian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Costa LA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Laura A Da Costa,1,2,*Paul Arora,2,3,* Bibiana García-Bailo,1,2 Mohamed Karmali,1,2 Ahmed El-Sohemy,1 Alaa Badawi2 1Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto; 2Office of Biotechnology and Population Health, Public Health Agency of Canada; 3Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada *These authors contributed equally to this article Introduction: Obesity is associated with a state of chronic inflammation, and increased cardiometabolic disease risk. The present study examined the relationship between body mass index (BMI and cardiometabolic and inflammatory biomarkers among normal weight, overweight, and obese Canadian adults.Methods: Subjects (n = 1805, aged 18 to 79 years from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS were examined for associations between BMI, cardiometabolic markers (apolipoprotein [Apo] A1, ApoB, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], total cholesterol, total cholesterol/HDL ratio [total:HDL-C ratio], triglycerides, and glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c], inflammatory factors (C-reactive protein [CRP], fibrinogen, and homocysteine, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD]. Bootstrap weights for variance and sampling weights for point estimates were applied to account for the complex survey design. Linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, physical activity, smoking status, and ethnicity (in addition to season of clinic visit, for vitamin D analyses only were used to examine the association between cardiometabolic markers, inflammatory factors, and BMI in Canadian adults.Results: All biomarkers were significantly associated with BMI (P ≤ 0.001. ApoA1 (β = −0.31, P < 0.0001, HDL-C (β = −0.61, P < 0.0001, and 25(OHD (β = −0.25, P < 0.0001 were inversely associated with BMI, while all other biomarkers showed positive linear associations. Distinct patterns of association were noted among normal weight, overweight

  20. THE VAXED PROJECT: An Assessment of Immunization Education in Canadian Health Professional Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baxendale Darlene M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge & attitudes of healthcare providers (HCP have significant impact on frequency with which vaccines are offered & accepted but many HCP are ill equipped to make informed recommendations about vaccine merits & risks. We performed an assessment of the educational needs of trainees regarding immunization and used the information thus ascertained to develop multi-faceted, evaluable, educational tools which can be integrated into formal education curricula. Methods (i A questionnaire was sent to all Canadian nursing, medical & pharmacy schools to assess immunization-related curriculum content (ii A 77-item web-based, validated questionnaire was emailed to final-year students in medicine, nursing, & pharmacy at two universities in Nova Scotia, Canada to assess knowledge, attitudes, & behaviors reflecting current immunization curriculum. Results The curriculum review yielded responses from 18%, 48%, & 56% of medical, nursing, & pharmacy schools, respectively. Time spent on immunization content varied substantially between & within disciplines from 50 hrs. Most schools reported some content regarding vaccine preventable diseases, immunization practice & clinical skills but there was considerable variability and fewer schools had learning objectives or formal evaluation in these areas. 74% of respondents didn't feel comfortable discussing vaccine side effects with parents/patients & only 21% felt they received adequate teaching regarding immunization during training. Conclusions Important gaps were identified in the knowledge of graduating nursing, medical, & pharmacy trainees regarding vaccine indications/contraindications, adverse events & safety. The national curriculum review revealed wide variability in immunization curriculum content & evaluation. There is clearly a need for educators to assess current curricula and adapt existing educational resources such as the Immunization Competencies for Health Professionals in

  1. Canadian tax policy and renewable energy : are the benefits illusory : a comparison of Canadian and US approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chant, A. [Ortech International, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Tax policies for targeted activities such as wind energy need to be efficient and effective in promoting activities that may not otherwise take place. An efficient tax policy will not have unintended consequences that may lead to tax leakage or benefits outside the targeted activity, and will be consistent with other incentives promoting the target activity. This presentation discussed Canadian tax policies related to wind power and then compared them to tax policies in the United States directed at promoting wind energy development. Benefits and subsidies available to Canadian wind energy producers include the ecoEnergy program, the Canadian Renewable and Conservation Expense (CRCE) program; and Class 43.2 directed at high efficiency and renewable energy generation equipment. The Canadian valuation methodology considers capacity factors; capital costs; leverage; interest rates; corporate tax rates; and required equity. While the ecoEnergy program is valuable as it removes the tax risk for the recipient, the CRCE may be more valuable as it does not expire and is not subject to limitations on amounts deductible. Class 43.2 is valuable but constrained by the limitations of a project's income. The United States has a production tax credit (PTC) for wind developers based on a tax credit of $15 per MWh subject to adjustment, and is available for a 10-year period, is transferable to taxable investors, and has a current value of $20. It was concluded that while Canadian subsidies are the equivalent of $7.15, US subsidies are the equivalent of $17. tabs., figs.

  2. High School Economic Composition and College Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Sunny X.; Tienda, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Using a longitudinal sample of Texas high school seniors of 2002 who enrolled in college within the calendar year of high school graduation, we examine variation in college persistence according to the economic composition of their high schools, which serves as a proxy for unmeasured high school attributes that are conductive to postsecondary…

  3. Developing Canadian oncology education goals and objectives for medical students: a national modified Delphi study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vincent C.; Ingledew, Paris-Ann; Berry, Scott; Verma, Sunil; Giuliani, Meredith E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that there is a deficiency in focused oncology teaching during medical school in Canada. This study aimed to develop oncology education goals and objectives for medical students through consensus of oncology educators from across Canada. Methods: In 2014 we created a comprehensive list of oncology education objectives using existing resources. Experts in oncology education and undergraduate medical education from all 17 Canadian medical schools were invited to participate in a 3-round modified Delphi process. In round 1, the participants scored the objectives on a 9-point Likert scale according to the degree to which they agreed an objective should be taught to medical students. Objectives with a mean score of 7.0 or greater were retained, those with a mean score of 1.0-3.9 were excluded, and those with a mean score of 4.0-6.9 were discussed at a round 2 Web meeting. In round 3, the participants voted on inclusion and exclusion of the round 2 objectives. Results: Thirty-four (92%) of the 37 invited oncology educators, representing 14 medical schools, participated in the study. They included oncologists, family physicians, members of undergraduate medical education curriculum committees and a psychologist. Of the 214 objectives reviewed in round 1, 146 received a mean score of 7.0 or greater, and 68 were scored 4.0-6.9; no objective received a mean score below 4.0. Nine new objectives were suggested. The main themes of participants' comments were to minimize the number of objectives and to aim objectives at the knowledge level required for family physicians. In round 2, the participants were able to combine 28 of the objectives with other existing objectives. In round 3, 7 of the 49 objectives received consensus of at least 75% for inclusion. The final Canadian Oncology Goals and Objectives for Medical Students contained 10 goals and 153 objectives. Interpretation: Through a systematic process, we created a comprehensive, consensus

  4. Alcohol Consumption and Injury among Canadian Adolescents: Variations by Urban-Rural Geographic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xuran; Li, Dongguang; Boyce, William; Pickett, William

    2008-01-01

    Context: The impact of alcohol consumption on risks for injury among rural adolescents is an important and understudied public health issue. Little is known about whether relationships between alcohol consumption and injury vary between rural and urban adolescents. Purpose: To examine associations between alcohol and medically attended injuries by…

  5. Variation in Outpatient Oral Antimicrobial Use Patterns among Canadian Provinces, 2000 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiona K Glass-Kaastra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The volume and patterns of antimicrobial drug use are key variables to consider when developing guidelines for prescribing, and programs to address stewardship and combat the increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistant pathogens. Because drug programs are regulated at the provincial level, there is an expectation that antibiotic use may vary among provinces.

  6. The Canadian Dollar versus the Collection: How Canadian University Libraries are Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Scott

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Through 2015 and into 2016, Canadian academic libraries’ collections budgets were severely strained due to the steady decline of the CAD/USD exchange rate. As most subscription fees for electronic resources (e-resources are billed in US dollars, the falling value of the Canadian dollar significantly reduced libraries’ purchasing power. This study is based on a survey of the English-speaking member institutions of the Canadian Research Knowledge Network (CRKN, a Canadian collections consortium, carried out to determine the impact of the poor exchange rate on collections development and how libraries are coping with new budgetary pressures. Librarians from 33 universities provided survey responses. Of these, 22 participated in telephone interviews to further discuss concerns and ideas regarding the current crisis. The study finds that all participant libraries have taken actions to address the budgetary shortfall, including cancelling serial and database subscriptions, negotiating lower costs with vendors, purchasing fewer monographs, and soliciting additional funding from their institutions. While the financial strain resulting from exchange rate fluctuations is indeed a significant problem for which solutions should be sought, several respondents stressed that it only exacerbates the ongoing inflation of e-resource subscriptions. This deeper and enduring issue, which is expected to outlast the present exchange rate crisis, is enabled by an inherently flawed scholarly publishing system. Thus, librarians engaged in discussions with their wider academic communities concerning collections budgets should not focus exclusively on the exchange rate but should leverage the opportunity to explore alternatives to the current scholarly communication model. If solutions exist, they will likely only be achieved through the support of faculty and university administrators, as well as cooperation among post-secondary institutions and library consortia. Au

  7. The Canadian Geoscience Education Network: a collaborative grassroots effort to support geoscience education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, C.; Halfkenny, B.; Hymers, L.; Clinton, L.; Heenan, S.; Jackson, D.; Nowlan, G.; Haidl, F.; Vodden, C.

    2009-12-01

    The Canadian Geoscience Education Network (CGEN) numbers over 300 members who are active in promoting geoscience to the general public and especially in schools. Our membership spreads from coast to coast to coast in Canada and represents the wide range of geosciences. Most members work in education, government, industry, academia, or not-for-profit organizations. Our common goals are to (1) provide resources to teachers for the K-12 curriculum, (2) encourage students to pursue higher education and a rewarding career in geoscience, and (3) lobby to effect change to the school curriculum. Our strength is grounded in a grassroots approach (eg, regional chapters), flexible organization, and emphasis on a cost-effective style. Together we have created and maintain resources for teachers; for example, EdGEO (local workshops for teachers), Geoscape (community-based posters and lesson plans), and EarthNet (virtual resource centre). A new website showcases careers in the Earth sciences. CGEN members ensure that these resources remain current, promote them at individual outreach activities, and see to it that they are maintained. Although we have limited funding we draw strength from the networks of our members and capitalize on partnerships between seemingly disparate organizations and groups to get experts involved in the education of future geoscientists. (Details about CGEN may be found at http://www.geoscience.ca/cgen/principal.html.)

  8. Student engagement and its relationship with early high school dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, Isabelle; Janosz, Michel; Fallu, Jean-Sébastien; Pagani, Linda S

    2009-06-01

    Although the concept of school engagement figures prominently in most school dropout theories, there has been little empirical research conducted on its nature and course and, more importantly, the association with dropout. Information on the natural development of school engagement would greatly benefit those interested in preventing student alienation during adolescence. Using a longitudinal sample of 11,827 French-Canadian high school students, we tested behavioral, affective, cognitive indices of engagement both separately and as a global construct. We then assessed their contribution as prospective predictors of school dropout using factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Global engagement reliably predicted school dropout. Among its three specific dimensions, only behavioral engagement made a significant contribution in the prediction equation. Our findings confirm the robustness of the overall multidimensional construct of school engagement, which reflects both cognitive and psychosocial characteristics, and underscore the importance attributed to basic participation and compliance issues in reliably estimating risk of not completing basic schooling during adolescence.

  9. The Architect, the Museum, and the School: Working Together to Incorporate Architecture and Built Environment Education into the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalas, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    This article documents an innovative project at the Canadian Centre for Architecture (CCA) that placed teaching architects in six underprivileged elementary schools in Montreal in an effort to both improve the status of architectural education in schools and support teachers with integrating museum learning into the classroom. Throughout the…

  10. "I Don't Want Him Hitting on Me": The Role of Masculinities in Creating a Chilly High School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolin, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on a qualitative analysis of data from interviews with 15 heterosexual males ages 16-18 in Canadian high schools. Findings indicate that gay male youth often occupy lower status positions in the school's social hierarchy. Heterosexual males did not typically want to associate with gay male peers for fear of being perceived as…

  11. Graduates of the New Learning Environment: A Follow-Up Study of High School Distance e-Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Dale; Sharpe, Dennis; Bourgeois, Monique; Greene, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    While web-based courses have had a growing presence in Canadian secondary schools since the mid-1990s, there has been very little study of the transition of high school distance e learners to further study at the post-secondary level. To address this area of deficit in distance education research this article reports on a study designed to examine…

  12. Dietary Sodium Intakes and Food Sources of Sodium in Canadian-Born and Asian-Born Individuals of Chinese Ethnicity at a Canadian University Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan Han; Farmer, Anna; Mager, Diana; Willows, Noreen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To document the sodium intake and food sources of sodium of Canadian-born Chinese (CBC) and Asian-born Chinese (ABC) individuals at a Canadian university campus. Participants: Healthy adults aged 18-58 years originating from Canada, China, Hong Kong, or Taiwan were recruited from the University of Alberta (n = 40 CBC, n = 41 ABC)…

  13. A tri-oceanic perspective: DNA barcoding reveals geographic structure and cryptic diversity in Canadian polychaetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Carr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although polychaetes are one of the dominant taxa in marine communities, their distributions and taxonomic diversity are poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that many species thought to have broad distributions are actually a complex of allied species. In Canada, 12% of polychaete species are thought to occur in Atlantic, Arctic, and Pacific Oceans, but the extent of gene flow among their populations has not been tested. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sequence variation in a segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene was employed to compare morphological versus molecular diversity estimates, to examine gene flow among populations of widespread species, and to explore connectivity patterns among Canada's three oceans. Analysis of 1876 specimens, representing 333 provisional species, revealed 40 times more sequence divergence between than within species (16.5% versus 0.38%. Genetic data suggest that one quarter of previously recognized species actually include two or more divergent lineages, indicating that richness in this region is currently underestimated. Few species with a tri-oceanic distribution showed genetic cohesion. Instead, large genetic breaks occur between Pacific and Atlantic-Arctic lineages, suggesting their long-term separation. High connectivity among Arctic and Atlantic regions and low connectivity with the Pacific further supports the conclusion that Canadian polychaetes are partitioned into two distinct faunas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results of this study confirm that COI sequences are an effective tool for species identification in polychaetes, and suggest that DNA barcoding will aid the recognition of species overlooked by the current taxonomic system. The consistent geographic structuring within presumed widespread species suggests that historical range fragmentation during the Pleistocene ultimately increased Canadian polychaete diversity and that the coastal British Columbia

  14. Lithospheric deformation in the Canadian Appalachians: evidence from shear wave splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Amy; Bastow, Ian D.; Watson, Emma; Darbyshire, Fiona A.; Levin, Vadim; Menke, William; Lane, Victoria; Hawthorn, David; Boyce, Alistair; Liddell, Mitchell V.; Petrescu, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Plate-scale deformation is expected to impart seismic anisotropic fabrics on the lithosphere. Determination of the fast shear wave orientation (φ) and the delay time between the fast and slow split shear waves (δt) via SKS splitting can help place spatial and temporal constraints on lithospheric deformation. The Canadian Appalachians experienced multiple episodes of deformation during the Phanerozoic: accretionary collisions during the Palaeozoic prior to the collision between Laurentia and Gondwana, and rifting related to the Mesozoic opening of the North Atlantic. However, the extent to which extensional events have overprinted older orogenic trends is uncertain. We address this issue through measurements of seismic anisotropy beneath the Canadian Appalachians, computing shear wave splitting parameters (φ, δt) for new and existing seismic stations in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Average δt values of 1.2 s, relatively short length scale (≥100 km) splitting parameter variations, and a lack of correlation with absolute plate motion direction and mantle flow models, demonstrate that fossil lithospheric anisotropic fabrics dominate our results. Most fast directions parallel Appalachian orogenic trends observed at the surface, while δt values point towards coherent deformation of the crust and mantle lithosphere. Mesozoic rifting had minimal impact on our study area, except locally within the Bay of Fundy and in southern Nova Scotia, where fast directions are subparallel to the opening direction of Mesozoic rifting; associated δt values of >1 s require an anisotropic layer that spans both the crust and mantle, meaning the formation of the Bay of Fundy was not merely a thin-skinned tectonic event.

  15. Influenza immunization among Canadian health care personnel: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, Sarah A.; Kwong, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Influenza immunization coverage among Canadian health care personnel remains below national targets. Targeting this group is of particular importance given their elevated risk of influenza infection, role in transmission and influence on patients' immunization status. We examined influenza immunization coverage in health care personnel in Canada, reasons for not being immunized and the impact of "vaccinate-or-mask" influenza prevention policies. Methods: In this national cross-sectional study, we pooled data from the 2007 to 2014 cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey and restricted it to respondents who reported a health care occupation. Using bootstrapped survey weights, we examined immunization coverage by occupation and by presence of vaccinate-or-mask policies, and reasons for not being immunized. We used modified Poisson regression to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) of influenza immunization for health care occupations compared with the general working population. Results: For all survey cycles combined, 50% of 18 446 health care personnel reported receiving seasonal influenza immunization during the previous 12 months, although this varied by occupation type (range 4%-72%). Compared with the general working population, family physicians and general practitioners were most likely to be immunized (PR 3.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.76-3.59), whereas chiropractors, midwives and practitioners of natural healing were least likely (PR 0.17, 95% CI 0.10-0.30). Among those who were not immunized, the most frequently cited reason was the belief that influenza immunization is unnecessary. Introduction of vaccinate-or-mask policies was associated with increased influenza immunization among health care personnel. Interpretation: Health care personnel are more likely to be immunized against influenza than the general working population, but coverage remains suboptimal overall, and we observed wide variation by occupation type. More efforts

  16. Practice patterns in venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in thoracic surgery: a comprehensive Canadian Delphi survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agzarian, John; Linkins, Lori-Ann; Schneider, Laura; Hanna, Waël C.; Finley, Christian J.; Schieman, Colin; De Perrot, Marc; Crowther, Mark; Douketis, James

    2017-01-01

    Background The incidence of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) after resection of thoracic malignancies can reach 15%, but prophylaxis guidelines are yet to be established. We aimed to survey Canadian practitioners regarding perioperative risk factors for VTE, impact of those factors on extended prophylaxis selection, type of preferred prophylaxis, and timing of initiation and duration of thromboprophylaxis. Methods A modified Delphi survey was undertaken over three rounds with thoracic surgeons, thoracic anesthesiologists and thrombosis experts across Canada. Participants were asked to rate each parameter on a ten-point scale. Agreement was determined a priori as an item reaching a coefficient of variation of ≤30% (0.3), with the item then discontinued from later rounds. Results In total, 72, 57 and 50 respondents participated in three consecutive rounds, respectively. Consensus was reached on previous VTE, age, cancer diagnosis, thrombophilia, poor mobilization, extended resections, and pre-operative chemotherapy as risk factors. Consensus on risk factors impacting extended prophylaxis decisions was achieved on cancer diagnosis, obesity, previous VTE and poor mobilization. With respect to perioperative prophylaxis, once daily low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) was the only parameter that demonstrated agreement as a common practice pattern. No agreement was achieved regarding the role of mechanical prophylaxis, unfractionated heparin (UFH) or timing of initiation of peri-operative treatment. VTE prophylaxis until discharge reached agreement but there was substantial variability regarding the role of extended prophylaxis. Conclusions There is agreement between Canadian clinicians treating patients with thoracic malignancies regarding most risk factors for VTE, but there is no agreement on timing of initiation of prophylaxis, the agents used or factors mandating usage of extended prophylaxis. PMID:28203409

  17. Targeting improved patient outcomes using innovative product listing agreements: a survey of Canadian and international key opinion leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Melissa Thompson,1 Chris Henshall,2 Louis P Garrison,3 Adrian D Griffin,4 Doug Coyle,2,5 Stephen Long,6 Zayna A Khayat,7 Dana L Anger,1 Rebecca Yu8 1Cornerstone Research Group Inc., Burlington, ON, Canada; 2Health Economics Research Group, Brunel University London, London UK; 3Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research and Policy Program, School of Pharmacy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 4Government Affairs & Policy, Johnson & Johnson, High Wycombe, UK; 5School of Epidemiology, Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 6Health and Life Sciences, Global Public Affairs, Calgary, AB, 7Health Systems Innovation at MaRS Discovery District, Toronto, ON, Canada; 8Strategic Health Technology Assessment, Government Affairs & Market Access, Janssen Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada Objectives: To address the uncertainty associated with procuring pharmaceutical products, product listing agreements (PLAs are increasingly being used to support responsible funding decisions in Canada and elsewhere. These agreements typically involve financial-based rebating initiatives or, less frequently, outcome-based contracts. A qualitative survey was conducted to improve the understanding of outcome-based and more innovative PLAs (IPLAs based on input from Canadian and international key opinion leaders in the areas of drug manufacturing and reimbursement. Methods: Results from a structured literature review were used to inform survey development. Potential participants were invited via email to partake in the survey, which was conducted over phone or in person. Responses were compiled anonymously for review and reporting. Results: Twenty-one individuals participated in the survey, including health technology ­assessment (HTA key opinion leaders (38%, pharmaceutical industry chief executive officers/vice presidents (29%, ex-payers (19%, and current payers/drug plan managers/HTA (14%. The participants suggested that ~80%–95% of

  18. Anaphylaxis across two Canadian pediatric centers: evaluating management disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee AYM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Alison YM Lee,1 Paul Enarson,2 Ann E Clarke,3 Sébastien La Vieille,4 Harley Eisman,5,6 Edmond S Chan,7 Christopher Mill,7 Lawrence Joseph,8 Moshe Ben-Shoshan9 1Pediatric Residency Program, Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, BC Children’s Hospital, 2Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, 3Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, 4Food Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON, 5Emergency Department, 6Department of Pediatrics, Montreal Children’s Hospital, Montreal, QC, 7Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, BC Children’s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, 8Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McGill University, 9Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Montreal Children’s Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada Background: There are no data on the percentage of visits due to anaphylaxis in the emergency department (ED, triggers, and management of anaphylaxis across different provinces in Canada. Objective: To compare the percentage of anaphylaxis cases among all ED visits, as well as the triggers and management of anaphylaxis between two Canadian pediatric EDs (PEDs. Methods: As part of the Cross-Canada Anaphylaxis Registry (C-CARE, children presenting to the British Columbia Children’s Hospital (BCCH and Montreal Children’s Hospital (MCH EDs with anaphylaxis were recruited. Characteristics, triggers, and management of anaphylaxis were documented using a standardized data entry form. Differences in demographics, triggers, and management were determined by comparing the difference of proportions and 95% confidence interval. Results: Between June 2014 and June 2016, there were 346 visits due to anaphylaxis among 93,730 PED visits at the BCCH ED and 631 anaphylaxis visits among 164,669 pediatric visits at

  19. Trends and variability in summer sea ice cover in the Canadian Arctic based on the Canadian Ice Service Digital Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, S.; Tivy, A. C.; Alt, B.; McCourt, S.; Chagnon, R.; Crocker, G.; Carrieres, T. G.; Yackel, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Canadian Ice Service Digital Archive (CISDA) is a compilation of weekly ice charts that cover Canadian Waters; the data set is continually updated and it extends back to the early 1960s. The ice charts are represent and integration of remotely sensed sea ice data, surface observations, airborne and ship reports, operational model results and the expertise of experience ice forecasters. Although the accuracy, type and detail of information far exceeds what is attainable from a single satellite source, errors and uncertainties in the data are non-uniform in both space and time. In part one of this study the main sources of uncertainty in the database are reviewed and the data are validated for use in climate studies. In part two, trends and variability in summer sea ice in the Canadian Arctic are investigated using CISDA. These data revealed that between 1968 and 2008, summer sea ice cover has decreased by 8.9% ± 3.1% per decade in Hudson Bay, 2.9% ± 1.2% per decade in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, 8.9% ± 3.1% per decade in Baffin Bay, and 5.2% ± 2.4% per decade in the Beaufort Sea. In general, these reductions in sea ice cover are linked to increases in early summer surface air temperature (SAT); significant increases in SAT were observed in every season and with the exception of the Hudson Bay region they are consistently greater than the pan-Arctic change by up to ~0.2oC per decade. Within the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and Baffin Bay, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index correlates well with multi-year ice coverage (positive correlation) and first-year ice coverage (negative correlation) suggesting that El Nino episodes precede summers with more multi-year ice and less first-year ice. Extending the trend calculations back to 1960 along the major shipping routes through the Canadian Arctic revealed significant decreases in summer sea ice coverage ranging between 11% and 15% per decade along the shipping route through Hudson Bay, the western

  20. The effect and expense of redemption reintegration services versus usual reintegration care for young African Canadians discharged from incarceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beausoleil, Victor; Renner, Chenowa; Dunn, Jody; Hinnewaah, Priscilla; Morris, Kofi; Hamilton, Akilah; Braithewaite, Star; Hunter, Nigel; Browne, Gina; Browne, Dillon T

    2017-03-01

    African Canadians comprise 2.5% of the population, but represent 9.5% of federal inmates - an increase of 80% since 2003-2004. Recidivism among federal inmates is high (about 40%). This paper outlines the findings, at 9 months after enrolment during 2011-2012, of a randomised controlled trial testing the effectiveness and cost of Redemption Reintegration Services (RRS), a culturally specific, multi-level intervention for young African Canadian former inmates. Retention at 9 months was 95% of those randomised (n = 115 per group) to RRS (n = 114) or usual reintegration services (n = 105) offered by the municipality. The primary outcomes were recidivism and service costs. Mediating and moderating measures were Personality Strengths, Developmental Assets, Meaning in Life, the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth, the Youth Behaviour Checklist and Neighbourhood Vitality. Compared with the usual care group, the RRS group showed significant improvements in: self-reported Personality Strengths, Developmental Assets, the presence and search for Meaning in Life, social and individual risk factors, behaviour, and life events such as obtaining stable housing and enrolling in school. At 9 months, RRS participants generated significantly lower per person per annum expenditures for law enforcement services, housing services and total direct costs. Among RRS participants, 3.5% reported being re-charged for offences in the previous 9 months compared with 45.7% of the usual care group. The 2010-2011 average annual cost per person for incarceration was $114,364. The 48 individuals in the usual care group and 4 in RRS would generate costs of $5,489,472 and $457,456, respectively - a $5 million difference. We conclude that, at 9 months, RRS is more effective and less expensive than usual reintegration services for young African Canadians.

  1. Age at menarche and current substance use among Canadian adolescent girls: results of a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Sahab Ban

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use is among the key public health threats that find its genesis during adolescence. Timing of puberty has been lately researched as a potential predictor of subsequent substance abuse. The present study, therefore, aims to assess the effect of age at menarche on current practices of smoking, alcohol drinking and drug use among 14-15 year old Canadian girls. Methods The analysis of the study was based on all female respondents aged 14 to 15 years during Cycle 4 (2000/2001 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children & Youth (NLSCY. The main independent variable was age at menarche assessed as the month and year of the occurrence of the first menstrual cycle. The dependent variables were current smoking, heavy alcohol drinking in the past 12 months and drug use in the past 12 months. Three logistic regression models were performed to investigate the association between age at menarche and each of the substance use outcomes, adjusting for possible confounders. Bootstrapping was performed to account for the complex sampling design. Results The total weighted sample included in the analysis represented 295,042 Canadian girls. The prevalence of current smokers, heavy drinkers (drunk in the past 12 months and drug users in the past 12 months was approximately 22%, 38% and 26%, respectively. After adjusting of all potential confounders, no association was found between age at menarche and any of the substance use outcomes. School performance and relationship with the father, however, stood out as the main variables to be associated with smoking, heavy drinking and drug use. Conclusions Qualitative studies understanding the social and psychological changes experienced by early maturing Canadian adolescents are warranted to identify other correlates or pathways to substance use in this higher risk population.

  2. Exporting a Canadian parenting education program to the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, John D; Leon, Tina; Haffey, Sue; Barker, Leslie A S

    2009-01-01

    The framework of a Canadian-developed parent education program, Nobody's Perfect, was used in the development of a new parent education program offered to parents attending a child nutrition rehabilitation program in the Dominican Republic. While key teaching elements of the original program were retained (e.g., encouraging active participation, emphasizing facilitation over didactic teaching, using experiential learning), locally relevant content was inserted (e.g., diarrhea prevention and treatment strategies). A Canadian team trained a group of Dominicans to deliver the new program to parents of children recovering from malnutrition. This paper describes the development, implementation, and resulting parenting program from this effort. This 8-week program may find use in other settings. In addition, the experience gained from this exportation endeavor may be useful for others undertaking similar initiatives.

  3. The influence of power in the Canadian healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seenandan-Sookdeo, Kendra-Ann I

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a review of the literature as it relates to the influence of the word power in the context of the Canadian healthcare system. The concept of power is used to explore issues of gender and the evolution of advanced nurse practice in the development of the Canadian healthcare system. Furthermore, issues related to the call for interprofessional collaboration are addressed. Healthcare workers, in particular nurses, are trusted in a society that seeks, promotes, and aspires for power and control. In addition, societal norms continue to shape our healthcare reform. As a consequence, the discussion centers on a call for true collaboration among our healthcare providers and concludes with implications for nursing.

  4. Gray whale sightings in the Canadian Beaufort Sea, September 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahara, Yuka; Fujiwara, Amane; Ito, Keizo; Miyashita, Kazushi; Mitani, Yoko

    2016-06-01

    Gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) are distributed within the productive neritic and estuarine waters of the North Pacific Ocean, the Bering Sea, and adjacent waters of the Arctic Ocean. They migrate to high-latitude feeding grounds each spring. Their main feeding grounds in the Arctic include the Chirikov Basin, the northeastern Chukchi Sea from Pt. Hope to Cape Lisburne and Pt. Lay to Pt. Barrow, and the northwestern Chukchi Sea along the Chukotka coast. Although sightings are rare in the Canadian Beaufort Sea, we observed three gray whales in two groups in this area in September 2014. A mud plume was observed near one of the whales, suggesting the animal had been feeding. In the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, large-scale monitoring of the distributions of marine mammals has been continuously conducted since 1979; however, there has been less monitoring in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. Therefore, it is necessary to record opportunistic sightings, such as those described here.

  5. Expressive freedom and tobacco advertising: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Christopher P

    2002-03-01

    In 1989, Canada enacted the Tobacco Products Control Act (TPCA), which prohibited tobacco advertising, required health warnings on tobacco packaging, and restricted promotional activities. Canada's tobacco companies challenged the TPCA's constitutionality, arguing that it infringed on freedom of expression. Although it seemed likely that the Canadian Supreme Court would uphold the legislation, in 1995 the court declared the impugned provisions to be unconstitutional. The decision is testimony to the constraining force of liberalism on tobacco regulation, but it is also evidence of the power of political will. While the Canadian government could have used the decision to justify withdrawing from further confrontations with powerful commercial interests, it chose instead to enact new tobacco control legislation in 1997.

  6. Canadian-Acquired Hydatid Disease: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al Saghier

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcal cysts are unusual in Canada, and most cases seen are in immigrants. In northern Canadian communities, Echinococcus granulosis infection occasionally is acquired from dogs that feed on the entrails of caribou or moose. Seventeen patients with Canadian-acquired hydatid cysts were seen over an 11-year period. One challenging case is described in detail. An 18-year-old aboriginal woman presented with jaundice, pain, lower extremity edema and coagulopathy from a 26 cm echinococcal hepatic cyst. She was successfully treated with a combination of oral albendazole, percutaneous drainage and surgery. One-year follow-up showed no recurrence of disease. The management options for echinococcal cysts are extensively reviewed.

  7. 1st Workshop of the Canadian Society for Virology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Craig; Grandvaux, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    The 1st Workshop of the Canadian Society for Virology (CSV2016) was a Special Workshop of the 35th Annual Meeting for the American Society for Virology, held on 18 June 2016 on the beautiful Virginia Tech campus in Blacksburg, Virginia. The workshop provided a forum for discussion of recent advances in the field, in an informal setting conducive to interaction with colleagues. CSV2016 featured two internationally-renowned Canadian keynote speakers who discussed translational virology research; American Society for Virology President Grant McFadden (then from University of Florida, now relocated to Arizona State University) who presented his studies of oncolytic poxviruses, while Matthew Miller (McMaster University) reviewed the prospects for a universal influenza vaccine. The workshop also featured a variety of trainee oral and poster presentations, and a panel discussion on the topic of the future of the CSV and virus research in Canada. PMID:28335511

  8. Consequences of BSE disease outbreaks in the Canadian beef industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Čechura

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines farm to wholesale prices spreads to measure the impact of the BSE disease outbreak on the Canadian beef industry. The study uses structure break tests developed by Gregory and Hansen (1996 and Hansen (1992 examine possible breaks within co integrating relationships. The study finds evidence that the industry began realignment as a result of the UK BSE disease outbreak, and the Canadian BSE disease outbreak was simply the largest realignment of the process beginning with the UK disease outbreak. However, the only statistically significant break was the BSE disease outbreak itself in May 2003. Stability was not restored until the border was reopened in 2005. Specific results indicated that the processing sector exploited the border closure in May 2003 to enhance its market power and that the system returned to a competitive one after the border re-opened in July 2005.

  9. Attitudes Toward Chiropractic: A Survey of Canadian Obstetricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Carol Ann; Stuber, Kent; Barrett, Jon; Greco, Alexandra; Kipershlak, Alexander; Glenn, Tierney; Desjardins, Ryan; Nash, Jennifer; Busse, Jason

    2016-04-01

    We assessed the attitudes of Canadian obstetricians toward chiropractic with a 38-item cross-sectional survey. Ninety-one obstetricians completed the survey, for a response rate of 14% (91 of 659). Overall, 30% of respondents held positive views toward chiropractic, 37% were neutral, and 33% reported negative views. Most (77%) reported that chiropractic care was effective for some musculoskeletal complaints, but 74% disagreed that chiropractic had a role in treatment of non-musculoskeletal conditions. Forty percent of respondents referred at least some patients for chiropractic care each year, and 56% were interested in learning more about chiropractic care. Written comments from respondents revealed concerns regarding safety of spinal manipulation and variability among chiropractors. Canadian obstetricians' attitudes toward chiropractic are diverse and referrals to chiropractic care for their patients who suffer from pregnancy-related low back pain are limited. Improved interprofessional relations may help optimize care of pregnant patients suffering from low back pain.

  10. Current issues in occupational health nursing. A Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, C

    1991-07-01

    The National Association of Occupational Health Nurses is still in its infancy and is striving to become an interest group under the umbrella of the Canadian Nurses Association. This will bring together the provincial associations in a common goal of promoting worker health and safety. The diversity of the country and the sheer magnitude of the various occupations of Canadians reflect the need for the occupational health nurse to be well educated and kept abreast of new developments. Changes in the worksite echo changes in health and safety legislation that will help to improve conditions in the workplace. Future challenges arise from changes in the work force and the nature of work and include: ergonomic issues, job stress, older workers, EAPs, and increased competition.

  11. The Use of Phallometric Evidence in Canadian Criminal Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Michael S; Chandler, Jennifer A; Fedoroff, J Paul

    2015-06-01

    The use of phallometric evidence by Canadian criminal courts has steadily increased since the early 1980s. Phallometry was initially considered by courts to be a potentially useful tool in the determination of accused persons' culpability; however, its contemporary use is limited to the postconviction contexts of sentencing and dangerous and long-term offender applications, as one of several means of diagnosing offenders, determining recidivism risk, and assessing treatment prospects. We provide an overview and assessment of the use of phallometric evidence by Canadian criminal courts and conclude that its contemporary application appears to be consistent with the expert psychiatric consensus on its proper role and function in the forensic context. We further identify potential difficulties associated with the adequacy of offenders' consent and the occasional divergence of expert opinion about the reliability and validity of phallometry for diagnosis and risk assessment.

  12. Ebooks Licensing and Canadian Copyright Legislation: A Few Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony G Horava

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ebooks have become increasingly common in collection development strategies. The availability and delivery of monographs in digital formats has gained significantly in popularity in many libraries, particularly in the academic sector. Licensing is the common method of acquiring ebooks, whether as a subscription or a purchase. Libraries have had to transform selection and workflow processes in order to acquire ebooks in an efficient manner. Little attention, however, has been paid to the interplay between licensing as a contractual arrangement and the statutory rights available under Canadian copyright law. Fair dealing is a concept of critical importance in Canadian copyright, as it provides the foundation for user rights in support of culture, learning, and innovation. There are other provisions of specific value for libraries, such as interlibrary loans and access by persons with perceptual disabilities. This article will examine these issues and proposes a few strategies that libraries can adopt to ensure that statutory rights are not eroded in licensing agreements

  13. Mercury in the Canadian Arctic terrestrial environment: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberg, Mary; Chételat, John; Poulain, Alexandre J; Zdanowicz, Christian; Zheng, Jiancheng

    2015-03-15

    Contaminants in the Canadian Arctic have been studied over the last twenty years under the guidance of the Northern Contaminants Program. This paper provides the current state of knowledge on mercury (Hg) in the Canadian Arctic terrestrial environment. Snow, ice, and soils on land are key reservoirs for atmospheric deposition and can become sources of Hg through the melting of terrestrial ice and snow and via soil erosion. In the Canadian Arctic, new data have been collected for snow and ice that provide more information on the net accumulation and storage of Hg in the cryosphere. Concentrations of total Hg (THg) in terrestrial snow are highly variable but on average, relatively low (Arctic glaciers are much lower than those reported on terrestrial lowlands or sea ice. Hg in snow may be affected by photochemical exchanges with the atmosphere mediated by marine aerosols and halogens, and by post-depositional redistribution within the snow pack. Regional accumulation rates of THg in Canadian Arctic glaciers varied little during the past century but show evidence of an increasing north-to-south gradient. Temporal trends of THg in glacier cores indicate an abrupt increase in the early 1990 s, possibly due to volcanic emissions, followed by more stable, but relatively elevated levels. Little information is available on Hg concentrations and processes in Arctic soils. Terrestrial Arctic wildlife typically have low levels of THg (<5 μg g(-1) dry weight) in their tissues, although caribou (Rangifer tarandus) can have higher Hg because they consume large amounts of lichen. THg concentrations in the Yukon's Porcupine caribou herd vary among years but there has been no significant increase or decrease over the last two decades.

  14. Abstracts of the 48. Canadian chemical engineering conference : technical program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The conference was organized into six concurrent sessions devoted to fluidized bed technology, multi-phase reactors, catalysis, environmental technology, new developments, and biotechnology. A total of 491 papers were presented. Papers of particular interest to energy technology emphasized new technologies and chemical engineering techniques involved in processing petroleum products. Fluidized beds for hydro-treatment and biochemical processing, conversion of biomass to bio-oils and strategies for reducing emissions from Canadian energy facilities were some of the topics addressed.

  15. Strategic Planning for Sustainability in Canadian Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Bieler; Marcia McKenzie

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews representations of sustainability in the strategic plans of Canadian higher education institutions (HEIs). A content analysis of the strategic plans of 50 HEIs was undertaken to determine the extent to which sustainability is included as a significant policy priority in the plans, including across the five domains of governance, education, campus operations, research, and community outreach. We found 41 strategic plans with some discussion of sustainability, and identified ...

  16. The use of neuroscientific evidence in Canadian criminal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Jennifer A

    2015-11-01

    This article addresses the question of how neuroscientific evidence is currently used in the Canadian criminal justice system, with a view to identifying the main contexts in which this evidence is raised, as well as to discern the impact of this evidence on judgements of responsibility, dangerousness, and treatability. The most general Canadian legal database was searched for cases in the five-year period between 2008 and 2012 in which neuroscientific evidence related to the responsibility and recidivism risk of criminal offenders was considered. Canadian courts consider neuroscientific evidence of many types, particularly evidence of prenatal alcohol exposure, traumatic brain injury, and neuropsychological testing. The majority of the cases are sentencing decisions, which is useful given that it offers an opportunity to observe how judges wrestle with the tension that evidence of diminished capacity due to brain damage tends to reduce moral blameworthiness, while it also tends to increase perceptions of risk and dangerousness. This so-called double-edged sword of the biological explanation of criminal behavior was reflected in this study, and raises questions about whether and when the pursuit of such evidence is advisable from the defense perspective.

  17. Attrition of Canadian Internet pharmacy websites: what are the implications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronin, Michael A; Clancy, Kristen M

    2013-01-01

    Background The unavailability of Internet pharmacy websites may impact a consumer’s drug purchases and health care. Objective To address the issue of attrition, a defined set of Canadian Internet pharmacy websites was examined at three separate time intervals. Methods In February to March 2006, 117 distinct, fully functional “Canadian Internet pharmacy” websites were located using the advanced search options of Google and the uniform resource locator (URL) for each website was recorded. To determine website attrition, each of the 117 websites obtained and recorded from the previous study was revisited at two later periods of time within a 4-year period. Results After approximately 4 years and 5 months, only 59 (50.4%) sites were found in the original state. Thirty-four sites (29.1%) had moved to a new URL address and were not functioning as the original Internet pharmacy. For 24 sites (20.5%) the viewer was redirected to another Canadian Internet pharmacy site. Conclusion Of concern for patients if Internet pharmacy sites were suddenly inaccessible would be the disruption of continuity of care. PMID:23983491

  18. Comparison between Canadian Canola Harvest and Export Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthet, Véronique J

    2016-07-20

    Parameters, such as oil, protein, glucosinolates, chlorophyll content and fatty acid composition, were determined using reference methods for both harvest survey samples and Canadian Canola exports. Canola harvest survey and export data were assessed to evaluate if canola harvest survey data can be extrapolated to predict the quality of the Canadian canola exports. There were some differences in some measured parameters between harvest and export data, while other parameters showed little difference. Protein content and fatty acid composition showed very similar data for harvest and export averages. Canadian export data showed lower oil content when compared to the oil content of harvest survey was mainly due to a diluting effect of dockage in the export cargoes which remained constant over the years (1.7% to 1.9%). Chlorophyll was the least predictable parameter; dockage quality as well as commingling of the other grades in Canola No. 1 Canada affected the chlorophyll content of the exports. Free fatty acids (FFA) were also different for the export and harvest survey. FFA levels are affected by storage conditions; they increase during the shipping season and, therefore, are difficult to predict from their harvest survey averages.

  19. Canadian R&D on oil-fired integrated systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, A.C.S.; Entchev, E. [CCRL/ERL/CANMET, Ottawa (Canada)

    1995-04-01

    This presentation will describe research and development presently being conducted on oil-fired space and water heating systems at the Combustion & Carbonization Research Laboratory (CCRL) in Ottawa, Canada. It will focus on R& D activities at CCRL in support of the Canadian Oil Heat Association (COHA); in particular, progress will be reported on activities to develop suitable oil-fired integrated systems to satisfy the low energy demands of new homes and to define outstanding issues and recommend solutions relating to sidewall venting, particularly in cold climates. Additional activities to be discussed relate to the development of appropriate seasonal efficiency standards for oil-fired combustion systems, in support of Canadian federal and provincial policy initiatives. The first activity in this standards area is a determination of the most appropriate measure of seasonal efficiency of complex integrated space/water heating systems. Performance of a range of existing and prototype integrated systems will be examined and their overall performances defined, using heat loss, heat balance and combined methods, for a wide range of cyclic operations and demands. The draft standard may be either a (slight or detailed) modification of the existing ASHRAE standard, or may be a new more appropriate test and analysis procedure, for the range of present and future systems suitable for Canadian applications in both new, low energy housing and in existing housing. The second standards activity is the development of an appropriate measure for the seasonal efficiency of sidewall vented oil-fired appliances.

  20. Comparison between Canadian Canola Harvest and Export Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique J. Barthet

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Parameters, such as oil, protein, glucosinolates, chlorophyll content and fatty acid composition, were determined using reference methods for both harvest survey samples and Canadian Canola exports. Canola harvest survey and export data were assessed to evaluate if canola harvest survey data can be extrapolated to predict the quality of the Canadian canola exports. There were some differences in some measured parameters between harvest and export data, while other parameters showed little difference. Protein content and fatty acid composition showed very similar data for harvest and export averages. Canadian export data showed lower oil content when compared to the oil content of harvest survey was mainly due to a diluting effect of dockage in the export cargoes which remained constant over the years (1.7% to 1.9%. Chlorophyll was the least predictable parameter; dockage quality as well as commingling of the other grades in Canola No. 1 Canada affected the chlorophyll content of the exports. Free fatty acids (FFA were also different for the export and harvest survey. FFA levels are affected by storage conditions; they increase during the shipping season and, therefore, are difficult to predict from their harvest survey averages.

  1. Antioxidant activity of selected wild Canadian prairie fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Klensporf-Pawlik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Canadian prairies are a habitat for unique wild plants. The main object of the present study was to investigate phytochemicals content and antioxidant activity in seven wild Canadian prairie fruits. Material and methods. The presence of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity were identified in the extracts according to standard procedure. Results. Wild rose had the highest amounts of total phenolics and total flavonoids, whereas elderberry ex- hibited the highest amount of anthocyanins. All extracts showed good scavenging activities towards DPPH radicals. The results showed a good linear relationship between oxygen radical absorbance capacity and total phenolics indicating that radicals are scavenged at a greater rate as the total phenolics content increases. Addi- tionally, all extracts when applied at concentration of 800 ppm, showed ability to inhibit oxidation of canola oil. In SOT test the best results were obtained when extract of American mountain ash was used. In general, wild rose followed by American mountain ash demonstrated the highest antioxidant activity among assessed Canadian prairie fruits. Conclusion. From the results it can be concluded that prairie fruit extracts are a rich source of phenolic compounds and poses a high antioxidant activity, confirmed by assessment with different type of radicals employed.

  2. A Pliocene chronostratigraphy for the Canadian western and high Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosse, John; Braschi, Lea; Rybczynski, Natalia; Lakeman, Thomas; Zimmerman, Susan; Finkel, Robert; Barendregt, Rene; Matthews, John

    2014-05-01

    The Beaufort Formation comprises an extensive (1200 km long, more than 1 km thick) clastic wedge that formed during the Pliocene along the western Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA). In the western Arctic, the Ballast Brook (BB) site on Banks Is. exposes more than 20 km of section through the sandy and pebble sandy braided stream deposits with detrital organic beds. Farther north, Beaufort Fm fluvial and estuarine facies have been examined on Meighen Is. In the high Arctic, high terrace gravels (450 m high surface) at the Fyles Leaf Bed (FLB) and Beaver Pond (BP) sites on Ellesmere Is. are not considered part of the Beaufort Fm but have similar paleoenvironmental records. Fossil plant and faunal material from these sediments is often very well preserved and provides evidence of a boreal-type forest and peatlands. The BP fossil site preserves the remains of fossil vertebrates including fish, frog, horse, beaver, deerlet, and black bear, consistent with a boreal type forest habitat. The FLB site has recently yielded the first fossil evidence for a High Arctic camel, identified with the help of collagen fingerprinting from a fragmentary limb bone (tibia). Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Ellesmere sites has yielded a Mean Annual Temperature of between 14 to 22 degrees Celsius warmer than today. Minimum cosmogenic nuclide burial ages of 3.4 and 3.8 Ma obtained for the BP and FLB sites, respectively, are consistent with vertebrate and floral biostratigraphic evidence. The paleoenvironmental records from the Beaufort Fm in the western CAA sites have revealed a similar ecosystem with noteworthy differences in MAT and perhaps seasonality. New burial ages from Meighen Is. indicate a maximum age of 6.1 Ma, consistent with yet much older than previous age estimates, but supportive of paleomagnetic and biostratigraphy at the same location. The age differences may account for some of the interpreted variations in paleoenvironments, in addition to spatial differences in

  3. Coalbed methane : Canadian potential : is it analogous to the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatens, M. [MGV Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    A historical review of coalbed methane (CBM) evolution in North America was presented with reference to development in Canada and recent advances in technology. The Canadian CBM resource is estimated at several hundred Tcf. It was noted that the characteristics of CBM development in Canada are unique. The issues faced in Canadian CBM basins are different from those in the United States. Non-technical issues, such as CBM ownership and environmental concerns in the United States are having a growing impact on the pace of Canadian CBM development. For example, the problem of handling produced water in the Powder River Basin is inhibiting Canadian CBM development. However, the author pointed out that there is no produced water in Canadian CBM development. The author emphasized that stakeholders should be educated in Canadian CBM facts to ensure that CBM development in Canada proceeds responsibly, without confusion of U.S. issues that are non-issues in Canada.

  4. Job displacement effects of Canadian immigrants by country of origin and occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A S

    1997-01-01

    "Some previous Canadian studies have shown that considering the labor market as a whole and also pooling all immigrants as a group, immigrants do not have any job displacement effects on the Canadian born. This study presents some new evidence. It disaggregates immigrants by country of origin and by occupation groups and provides an analysis of job displacement effects of immigrants on the native-born Canadians by these dimensions. The study finds that (1) U.S. immigrants and the Canadians are substitutes [for] competing groups in the labor market and the effect is quite significant; (2) Canadians and Europeans are competing groups in certain occupations, while they have complementary skills in others; and (3) immigrants from the Third World and the Canadians are slightly competing groups in certain occupations."

  5. Review of Canadian experience in precise gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, A.

    1978-01-01

    Results of gravity observations made in Canada from 1974 to 1978 reviewed, in order to estimate the true accuracy of present-day gravimetry and thereby assess the potential capability of the method for detecting crustal movements. The standard error of the mean of ties is 15-20 nm/s squared. Inter-instrument comparisons and other tests show, however, that a more realistic estimate of D meter accuracy is 30-40 nm/s squared. This accuracy can only be maintained over the long term where uncertainties in gravimeter calibration curves are minimized by resetting to the same dial reading on the resurveys. A further deterioration in accuracy to 40-50 nm/s squared occurs where reliance is placed on presently available D meter calibration curves. Despite the present accuracy limitations significant time variations in gravity of 100-150 nm/s squared are seen over spatial scales of 10-100 kilometers in Canada over a period of several months.

  6. The Canadian community health survey as a potential recruitment vehicle for the Canadian longitudinal study on aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Christina; Raina, Parminder S; Kirkland, Susan A; Pelletier, Amélie; Uniat, Jennifer; Furlini, Linda; Angus, Camille L; Strople, Geoff; Keshavarz, Homa; Szala-Meneok, Karen

    2009-09-01

    ABSTRACTThe goal of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) is to recruit 50,000 participants aged 45 to 85 years of age and follow them for at least 20 years. The sampling and recruitment processes for a study of this scope and magnitude present important challenges. Statistics Canada was approached to collaborate with the CLSA with the goal of determining whether the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) could be used as a recruitment vehicle for the CLSA. In this pilot study conducted in 2004, it was determined that 63.8 per cent and 75.8 per cent of the respondents agreed to share their contact information and their survey responses with the CLSA, respectively. The most commonly reported concerns were confidentiality/privacy issues, lack of interest, and commitment issues. This pilot study identified some challenges to the use of the CCHS as a recruitment vehicle for the CLSA.

  7. Management of small-cell lung cancer with radiotherapy—a pan-Canadian survey of radiation oncologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, J.; Wright, J.R.; Gabos, Z.; Swaminath, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The management of small-cell lung cancer (sclc) with radiotherapy (rt) varies, with many treatment regimens having been described in the literature. We created a survey to assess patterns of practice and clinical decision-making in the management of sclc by Canadian radiation oncologists (ros). Methods A 35-item survey was sent by e-mail to Canadian ros. The questions investigated the role of rt, the dose and timing of rt, target delineation, and use of prophylactic cranial irradiation (pci) in limited-stage (ls) and extensive-stage (es) sclc. Results Responses were received from 52 eligible ros. For ls-sclc, staging (98%) and simulation or dosimetric (96%) computed tomography imaging were key determinants of rt suitability. The most common dose and fractionation schedule was 40–45 Gy in 15 once-daily fractions (40%), with elective nodal irradiation performed by 31% of ros. Preferred management of clinical T1/2aN0 sclc favoured primary chemoradiotherapy (64%). For es-sclc, consolidative thoracic rt was frequently offered (88%), with a preferred dose and fractionation schedule of 30 Gy in 10 once-daily fractions (70%). Extrathoracic consolidative rt would not be offered by 23 ros (44%). Prophylactic cranial irradiation was generally offered in ls-sclc (100%) and es-sclc (98%) after response to initial treatment. Performance status, baseline cognition, and pre-pci brain imaging were important patient factors assessed before an offer of pci. Conclusions Canadian ros show practice variation in sclc management. Future clinical trials and national treatment guidelines might reduce variability in the treatment of early-stage disease, optimization of dose and targeting in ls-sclc, and definition of suitability for pci or consolidative rt. PMID:27330347

  8. What Makes a Leader: Identifying the Strengths of Canadian Physical Therapists

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Zachary; Bruxer, Ashley; Lee, Jonathan; Sims, Katelin; Wainwright, Matthew; Brooks, Dina; Desveaux, Laura

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify the personal strengths of Canadian physical therapists who hold leadership positions and compare them with the strengths of Canadian physical therapists who do not occupy positions of leadership. Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional online survey was distributed to registered Canadian physical therapists. We used the Clifton StrengthsFinder to evaluate 34 characteristics and determine which characteristics described a participant's strengths. Population demog...

  9. Canadian Space Agency Space Station Freedom utilization plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, James; Wilkinson, Ron

    Under the terms of the NASA/CSA Memorandum of Understanding, Canada will contribute the Mobile Servicing System and be entitled to use 3 percent of all Space Station utilization resources and user accommodations over the 30 year life of the Station. Equally importantly Canada, like NASA, can begin to exploit these benefits as soon as the Man-Tended Capability (MTC) phase begins, in early 1997. Canada has been preparing its scientific community to fully utilize the Space Station for the past five years; most specifically by encouraging, and providing funding, in the area of Materials Science and Applications, and in the area of Space Life Sciences. The goal has been to develop potential applications and an experienced and proficient Canadian community able to effectively utilize microgravity environment facilities such as Space Station Freedom. In addition, CSA is currently supporting four facilities; a Laser Test System, a Large Motion Isolation Mount, a Canadian Float Zone Furnace, and a Canadian Protein Crystallization Apparatus. In late April of this year CSA sent out a Solicitation of Interest (SOI) to potential Canadian user from universities, industry, and government. The intent of the SOI was to determine who was interested, and the type of payloads which the community at large intended to propose. The SOI will be followed by the release of an Announcement of Opportunity (AO) following governmental approval of the Long Term Space plan later this year, or early next year. Responses to the AO will be evaluated and prioritized in a fair and impartial payload selection process, within the guidelines set by our international partners and the Canadian Government. Payload selection is relatively simple compared to the development and qualification process. An end-to-end user support program is therefore also being defined. Much of this support will be provided at the new headquarters currently being built in St. Hubert, Quebec. It is recognized that utilizing the

  10. Intimate partner violence in the Canadian territorial north: perspectives from a literature review and a media watch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertice Moffitt

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Family violence is a complex, multidimensional and pervasive presence in many Aboriginal communities. Although practitioners acknowledge that intimate partner violence (IPV is a grave concern in the North, as in other jurisdictions in Canada, there is a paucity of literature about IPV and the local response to that violence. Objective. The purpose of this study is to report on a synthesis of Northern Territorial literature and a 3-year media watch conducted in the Canadian territories. Design. This review is part of a multidisciplinary 5-year study occurring in the Northwest Territories (NT and northern regions of the Prairie Provinces of Canada. The methods included a review of the literature through CINAHL, PubMed, Academic Search Complete, Social Sciences Index and JSTOR (1990–2012 combined with a media watch from 2009 to 2012. A thematic content analysis was completed. Results. Themes included: colonization; alcohol and substance use; effects of residential schooling; housing inadequacies; help-seeking behaviours; and gaps within the justice system. Identified themes from the media watch were: murders from IPV; reported assaults and criminal charges; emergency protection orders; and awareness campaigns and prevention measures. Conclusion. When synthesized, the results of the literature review and media surveillance depict a starting context and description of IPV in the Canadian territories. There are many questions left unanswered which build support for the necessity of the current research, outline the public outcry for action in local media and identify the current published knowledge about IPV.

  11. Forecasting cyanobacteria dominance in Canadian temperate lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Anurani D; Paterson, Andrew M; Dillon, Peter J; Winter, Jennifer G; Palmer, Michelle; Somers, Keith M

    2015-03-15

    Predictive models based on broad scale, spatial surveys typically identify nutrients and climate as the most important predictors of cyanobacteria abundance; however these models generally have low predictive power because at smaller geographic scales numerous other factors may be equally or more important. At the lake level, for example, the ability to forecast cyanobacteria dominance is of tremendous value to lake managers as they can use such models to communicate exposure risks associated with recreational and drinking water use, and possible exposure to algal toxins, in advance of bloom occurrence. We used detailed algal, limnological and meteorological data from two temperate lakes in south-central Ontario, Canada to determine the factors that are closely linked to cyanobacteria dominance, and to develop easy to use models to forecast cyanobacteria biovolume. For Brandy Lake (BL), the strongest and most parsimonious model for forecasting % cyanobacteria biovolume (% CB) included water column stability, hypolimnetic TP, and % cyanobacteria biovolume two weeks prior. For Three Mile Lake (TML), the best model for forecasting % CB included water column stability, hypolimnetic TP concentration, and 7-d mean wind speed. The models for forecasting % CB in BL and TML are fundamentally different in their lag periods (BL = lag 1 model and TML = lag 2 model) and in some predictor variables despite the close proximity of the study lakes. We speculate that three main factors (nutrient concentrations, water transparency and lake morphometry) may have contributed to differences in the models developed, and may account for variation observed in models derived from large spatial surveys. Our results illustrate that while forecast models can be developed to determine when cyanobacteria will dominate within two temperate lakes, the models require detailed, lake-specific calibration to be effective as risk-management tools.

  12. U. S. consumer perceptions of U. S. and Canadian beef quality grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, J L; Rodas-González, A; Garmyn, A J; Brooks, J C; Johnson, B J; Starkey, J D; Clark, G O; Derington, A J; Collins, J A; Miller, M F

    2014-08-01

    A U.S. consumer (n = 642) study (Baltimore, MD; Phoenix, AZ; and Lubbock, TX) was conducted to compare consumer sensory scores of U.S. beef (83 USDA Choice [Choice] and 96 USDA Select [Select]) and Canadian beef (77 AAA and 82 AA) strip loins. Strip loins (n = 338) were obtained from beef processors in Canada and the United States and were wet aged until 21 d postmortem at 2°C. Marbling scores were assigned at 21 d and loins were paired according to quality grades and marbling score. Strip loins were fabricated into 2.54-cm thick steaks; steaks were vacuum packaged and frozen until further evaluations. Proximate analysis was performed to compare fat, moisture, and protein. Choice and Canadian AAA had similar marbling scores and intramuscular fat. Both Choice and Canadian AAA had greater (P grades (P > 0.05). Consumers' opinions did not differ when comparing equivalent grades (Choice with Canadian AAA and Select with Canadian AA), but they rated Choice and Canadian AAA more palatable than Select and Canadian AA for all sensory attributes (P grade carcasses (Choice and Canadian AAA) than lower quality grade carcasses (Select and Canada AA). Additionally, consumers gave their opinion of Canadian beef, where its quality and safety were rated as "good" to "excellent" for both attributes (76.72% and 88.36%, respectively; P grades; however, strip loin steaks from higher quality grades were more palatable than lower quality grades according to consumer scores for eating quality traits.

  13. As Canadian as possible ... under what circumstances?: Public opinion on national identity in Canada outside Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    Public opinion on national identity in Canada is changing. Using data from the International Social Science Programme, this essay presents evidence that most Canadians have a strong national identity rooted in universal conceptions that everyone can share, such as citizenship. Data also show, however, that a growing number of Canadians define their national identity narrowly, such as through birthplace and religion. Drawing on research from social psychology, the essay suggests that theories of Canadian identity need to take into account the fact that many Canadians have strong national identities that do not fit cleanly into the civic/ethnic theoretical dichotomy.

  14. Antimicrobial Resistance among Salmonella and Shigella Isolates in Five Canadian Provinces (1997 to 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah J Martin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR among Salmonella and Shigella isolates reported in five Canadian provinces, focusing on clinically important antimicrobials.

  15. Noninvasive Ventilation Practice Patterns for Acute Respiratory Failure in Canadian Tertiary Care Centres: A Descriptive Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève C Digby

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The extent of noninvasive ventilation (NIV use for patients with acute respiratory failure in Canadian hospitals, indications for use and associated outcomes are unknown.

  16. The Housing Careers of Older Canadians: An Investigation Using Cycle 16 of the General Social Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perks, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishIn this paper we use the Aging and Social Support Survey (GSS16 and the theoretical conception of a ‘housing career’ to identify the correlates of housing tenure (rent vs.own among Canadians age 45 and over. We draw on primarily US literature to isolate three general explanatory clusters (social support, health, and economic characteristics.Based on analyses using logistic regression, the results indicate that the majority of variation in housing tenure exists due to standard demographic and household characteristics. In fact, of the three focal explanatory clusters, only social support characteristics significantly enhance model fit beyond the baseline model, suggesting that the housing tenure of older Canadians hinges heavily on fairly standard characteristics.FrenchDans cet article, nous nous sommes servis de l’enquête « Vieillissement et soutien social» (ESG16 et de la théorie du cycle de vie du logement pour identifier les corrélatsdes modes d’occupation (location vs. propriétariat chez les canadiens âgés de 45 ans etplus. Nous avons principalement puisé la littérature des États-Unis pour isoler trois groupesexplicatifs généraux (caractéristiques: de support social, de santé, et économiques.Les résultats, basés sur des analyses de régression logistique, indiquent que la majoritédes variations dans les modes d’occupation peuvent être attribuées à des caractéristiquesdémographiques et économiques de base. En effet, des trois groupes explicatifs focaux, cesont seulement les caractéristiques de support social qui ont fait monter l’ajustement dumodèle en delà du modèle de base, ce qui suggère que les modes d’occupation des logementspour les canadiens d’un certain âge dépend beaucoup des caractéristiques de base.Mots clés: Cycle de vie du logement, modes d’occupation de logements, adultes âgés

  17. Should the MCAT exam be used for medical school admissions in Canada?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskander, Antoine; Shandling, Maureen; Hanson, Mark D

    2013-05-01

    In light of the structural and content changes to the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) to be implemented in 2015 and the recent diversity- and social-accountability-based recommendations of the Future of Medical Education in Canada (FMEC) project, the authors review and reexamine the use of the MCAT exam in Canadian medical school admissions decisions.This Perspective article uses a point-counterpoint format to discuss three main advantages and disadvantages of using the MCAT exam in the medical school admissions process, from a Canadian perspective. The authors examine three questions regarding the FMEC recommendations and the revised MCAT exam: (1) Is the MCAT exam equal and useful in Canadian admissions? (2) Does the MCAT exam affect matriculant diversity? and (3) Is the MCAT exam a strong predictor of future performance? They present the most recent arguments and evidence for and against use of the MCAT exam, with the purpose of summarizing these different perspectives for readers.

  18. Power spectrum analysis of polarized emission from the Canadian galactic plane survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutz, R. A.; Rosolowsky, E. W. [University of British Columbia Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna BC, V1V 1V7 (Canada); Kothes, R.; Landecker, T. L. [National Research Council Canada, Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, Box 248, Penticton, BC, V2A 6J9 (Canada)

    2014-05-20

    Angular power spectra are calculated and presented for the entirety of the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey polarization data set at 1.4 GHz covering an area of 1060 deg{sup 2}. The data analyzed are a combination of data from the 100 m Effelsberg Telescope, the 26 m Telescope at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, and the Synthesis Telescope at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, allowing all scales to be sampled down to arcminute resolution. The resulting power spectra cover multipoles from ℓ ≈ 60 to ℓ ≈ 10{sup 4} and display both a power-law component at low multipoles and a flattening at high multipoles from point sources. We fit the power spectrum with a model that accounts for these components and instrumental effects. The resulting power-law indices are found to have a mode of 2.3, similar to previous results. However, there are significant regional variations in the index, defying attempts to characterize the emission with a single value. The power-law index is found to increase away from the Galactic plane. A transition from small-scale to large-scale structure is evident at b = 9°, associated with the disk-halo transition in a 15° region around l = 108°. Localized variations in the index are found toward H II regions and supernova remnants, but the interpretation of these variations is inconclusive. The power in the polarized emission is anticorrelated with bright thermal emission (traced by Hα emission) indicating that the thermal emission depolarizes background synchrotron emission.

  19. Chemical and structural composition of Atlantic Canadian moose (Alces alces) incisors with patterns of high breakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Cynthia S Kendall; Clough, Michael J; Broders, Hugh G; Tubrett, Mike

    2011-11-15

    Analysis of mammalian teeth can provide information regarding local environmental conditions. For example, a high incidence of breakage and wear within a population may indicate poor food quality. Individuals consuming a diet causing high mechanical stress on their teeth, and/or lacking the appropriate minerals for proper development, could experience degradation of tooth condition. Previously, we documented a high rate of incisor tooth breakage, with age, in two genetically distinct moose populations in Atlantic Canada. In this study, multi-element (11B, 63Cu, 64Zn, 75As, 85Rb, 88Sr, 111Cd, 118Sn, 137Ba, 208Pb, 232Th, and 238U) analyses using laser ablation ICP-MS were performed on moose incisors from multiple North American regions. The purpose was to determine whether the elemental composition of moose incisors varies among regions, and whether that variation is related to tooth degradation among Atlantic Canadian populations. A principal components analysis revealed that nearly 50% of the elemental variation in the inner enamel matrix of moose teeth was explained by three groupings of elements. The element groupings revealed differences among geographic regions, but did not explain the variation between incisors that were broken and those that were not. Regression models indicate that the elemental group which includes Cu, Pb, and Zn is related to decreases in incisal integrity. It is likely that other environmental factors contribute to the occurrence of increased incisor breakage in affected populations. The relationship between food resource quantity and quality, as a function of moose density, is hypothesized to explain loss of tooth integrity.

  20. Class I and Class II silver amalgam and resin composite posterior restorations: teaching approaches in Canadian faculties of dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComb, Dorothy

    2005-06-01

    A 10-question survey was mailed to the 10 Canadian faculties of dentistry to determine current approaches to teaching undergraduates about silver amalgam and resin composite for posterior restorations in adults and children. Responses were received from all 10 pedodontic programs and from 8 of the 10 operative and restorative programs. The use of silver amalgam and posterior composite for restorations of primary and permanent teeth is covered in the curricula of all dental schools, but the relative emphasis on the 2 materials varies. In the operative and restorative programs, curriculum time devoted to silver amalgam is either greater than or equal to that devoted to posterior composite. Five of the 8 schools reported greater educational emphasis on silver amalgam for the permanent dentition; however, course directors noted that the preference among patients seen in clinics is tending toward composite restorations. Curricula appear designed to educate students about the optimal use of both materials. Requirements for performance of restorations during training generally do not specify the type of material; these requirements range from 60 restorations to 250 surfaces. Five of the 8 schools conduct clinical competency tests with both materials. The responses from the pedodontic programs were more diverse. The proportion of curriculum time devoted to each type of material in these programs ranged from less than 25% to more than 75%. Five schools reported more emphasis on silver amalgam, 3 schools reported equal emphasis, and 2 schools reported more emphasis on posterior composite. No clinical requirements were specified in any of the undergraduate pedodontic programs. Within some of the faculties, there were differences between the operative and restorative program and the pedodontic program with respect to emphasis on different materials for the posterior dentition.