Full Text Available Michael A Veronin,1 Kristen M Clancy2 1Rangel College of Pharmacy, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Texas, USA; 2Christus Dubuis Health System, Texas, USA Background: The unavailability of Internet pharmacy websites may impact a consumer's drug purchases and health care. Objective: To address the issue of attrition, a defined set of Canadian Internet pharmacy websites was examined at three separate time intervals. Methods: In February to March 2006, 117 distinct, fully functional "Canadian Internet pharmacy" websites were located using the advanced search options of Google and the uniform resource locator (URL for each website was recorded. To determine website attrition, each of the 117 websites obtained and recorded from the previous study was revisited at two later periods of time within a 4-year period. Results: After approximately 4 years and 5 months, only 59 (50.4% sites were found in the original state. Thirty-four sites (29.1% had moved to a new URL address and were not functioning as the original Internet pharmacy. For 24 sites (20.5% the viewer was redirected to another Canadian Internet pharmacy site. Conclusion: Of concern for patients if Internet pharmacy sites were suddenly inaccessible would be the disruption of continuity of care. Keywords: Canadian Internet pharmacy, online pharmacy, website attrition, continuity of care
Voris, John C.; And Others
The attitudes of family practice residents toward ambulatory pharmacy services were compared with pharmacy students' predictions on what the residents' attitudes would be. The residents' perceptions of pharmacist behaviors rated significantly higher than how the pharmacy students thought they would respond. (Author/MLW)
Cates, Marshall E; Clark, Andraya; Woolley, Thomas W; Saunders, Amy
To determine the quality of sleep among pharmacy students in the didactic portion of the curriculum at one school of pharmacy. The study consisted of an anonymous, voluntary survey that included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a self-rated instrument that measures sleep habits for a month. The survey was completed by 253 students. Students in the lower grade point average (GPA) category had higher scores on 2 of 7 components of the PSQI and on the global score. Poor sleep quality, indicated by a global PSQI score of greater than 5, was reported by 140 students. The rate of poor sleeping was higher among students in the lower GPA category. Poor sleep quality was pervasive among surveyed pharmacy students in the didactic portion of the pharmacy school curriculum, especially among those with lower GPAs.
Van Winkle, Lon J.; Hojat, Mohammadreza
Objective. To validate the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Profession Students version (JSE-HPS) in pharmacy students. Methods. The JSE-HPS (20 items), adapted from the original Jefferson Scale of Empathy for use among students in the healthcare professions, was completed by 187 first-year pharmacy students at Midwestern University Chicago College of Pharmacy. Results. Two factors, “perspective-taking” and “compassionate care,” emerged from factor analysis in this study, accounting for 31% and 8% of the variance, respectively. These factors are similar to the prominent ones reported in previous research involving physicians and medical students, supporting the construct validity of this instrument for pharmacy students. In the current study, mean JSE-HPS score was comparable to those reported for medical students, and consistent with previous findings with medical students and physicians. Women scored significantly higher than men. Conclusions. Findings support the construct validity and reliability of the JSE-HPS for measuring empathy in pharmacy students. PMID:21931447
Flaherty, Anne Guerin
This study investigates the relationship between student engagement (as measured by the National Survey of Student Engagement benchmarks) and pharmacy student professionalism (as measured by the Pharmacy Professionalism Domain instrument) in first and third year pharmacy students at seven different schools of pharmacy. Engagement provides the…
Panthee, Suresh; Panthee, Bimala; Shakya, Sabin Raj; Panthee, Nirmal; Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Bell, J Simon
To determine Nepalese pharmacy students' perceptions of whether mental disorders impact performance in pharmacy school. All first- and third-year undergraduate pharmacy students (n=226) in Nepal were invited to complete a modified version of the Mental Illness Performance Scale. Among the 200 respondents (response rate 88.5%), 14% reported that they had a mental disorder. The majority (92%) of third-year students agreed or strongly agreed that depression would interfere with a student's academic performance. Almost half of first-year students agreed or strongly agreed that alcohol or drug abuse would be grounds for both rejecting an applicant from pharmacy school (49%) and dismissal of a student from pharmacy school (46%). Students perceived a high level of academic impairment associated with mental disorders, but the majority did not perceive that mental disorders were grounds for dismissal from or rejection of entry to pharmacy school. Students' attitudes may discourage them from seeking help or providing mental health support to others.
Dominick P Trombetta, Pharm.D
Full Text Available Chronic diseases are the main contributor to both health care costs and mortality in the United States, with medication non-adherence and lifestyle modifications being leading causes. To motivate patients with several co-morbidities, the longitudinal care class was used to educate on maintaining adherence to prescribed regimens. Twenty pharmacy students were trained in health coaching and motivational interviewing methods. Specifically, students were to provide patients with education sheets, apply the teach-back method, and motivate the patient to develop and reach SMART goals made with the pharmacy student over a course of one academic school year. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties. Type: Note
Doering, Paul L.; House, Michael L.
Student attitudes toward pharmacy faculty were measured. Areas of inquiry included faculty characteristics such as age, sex, academic rank, education, licensure, experience, teaching, research, service and credibility. Analysis of data involved a comparision of student answers for pharmacy practice and basic science faculty. (Author/MLW)
Conclusion: Fourth year students believed that pharmacy education and practice affect the health care system. Their favorite career areas were clinical pharmacy, industrial pharmacy, and hospital pharmacy. Personal interest was the most important factor involved in this selection. Most of them were interested in pharmacy-related research activities.
Prescott, Julie; Wilson, Sarah Ellen; Wan, Kai-Wai
To determine the level of importance pharmacy students placed on science and mathematics subjects for pursuing a career in pharmacy. Two hundred fifty-four students completed a survey instrument developed to investigate students' perceptions of the relevance of science and mathematics subjects to a career in pharmacy. Pharmacy students in all 4 years of a master of pharmacy (MPharm) degree program were invited to complete the survey instrument. Students viewed chemistry-based and biology-based subjects as relevant to a pharmacy career, whereas mathematics subjects such as physics, logarithms, statistics, and algebra were not viewed important to a career in pharmacy. Students' experience in pharmacy and year of study influenced their perceptions of subjects relevant to a pharmacy career. Pharmacy educators need to consider how they can help students recognize the importance of scientific knowledge earlier in the pharmacy curriculum.
Oliver, Wesley; McGuffey, Grant; Westrick, Salisa C.; Jungnickel, Paul W.; Correia, Christopher J.
Objective. To identify reasons for drinking, determine the patterns of alcohol abuse, and explore relationships between drinking motives and alcohol abuse patterns in pharmacy students. Methods. A cross-sectional anonymous, voluntary, self-administered paper survey instrument was administered to first-year (P1) through third-year (P3) pharmacy students as part of a professional seminar. Results. Survey instruments were completed by 349 pharmacy students (95.9% cooperation rate). Using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test criteria, 23.2% of students reported hazardous or harmful use and 67.2% of students reported consuming alcohol at hazardous levels during the past year. Students who were male (37.0%), single (25.3%), and attended the main campus (26.2%) were more likely than their counterparts to report hazardous or harmful alcohol use. Pharmacy students reported social motives as the most common reason for drinking; however, coping and enhancement motives were more predictive of harmful or hazardous alcohol use. Conclusion. Approximately 1 in 4 pharmacy students (23%) reported hazardous or harmful alcohol use. Education about the dangers of alcohol abuse and intervention programs from colleges and schools of pharmacy are recommended to help address this issue. PMID:24672063
Haight, Robert C; Kolar, Claire; Nelson, Michael H; Fierke, Kerry K; Sucher, Brandon J; Janke, Kristin K
Objective. To determine the frequency distribution of pharmacy students across Emotionally Intelligent Leadership Inventory (EILI) measures. Methods. The EILI was administered to 235 pharmacy students at two schools. The instrument was systematically compared to the 2013 CAPE Outcomes and analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis. Results. The EILI has primary connections with pharmacy competencies related to interprofessional communication and leadership. The three facets of the EILI were verified for internal consistency (Context, α=.78; Self, α=.74; Others, α=.79). Student scores were the highest for the consciousness of self facet, with a mean score of 31.4 out of 40. Conclusion. The EILI shows promise as an instrument for use in assessing pharmacy students' emotional intelligence and leadership skills.
Methods: A cross-sectional survey of pharmacy students and pharmacists (n = 523) to assess discriminatory attitudes towards PLWHA was conducted using a self completed questionnaire. Correlation and ... were contributory. Keywords: Discrimination, HIV/AIDS, Pharmacists, Perception, Professionalism, Stigmatization.
Pastakia, Sonak D; Vincent, William R; Manji, Imran; Kamau, Evelyn; Schellhase, Ellen M
To compare the clinical consultations provided by American and Kenyan pharmacy students in an acute care setting in a developing country. The documented pharmacy consultation recommendations made by American and Kenyan pharmacy students during patient care rounds on an advanced pharmacy practice experience at a referral hospital in Kenya were reviewed and classified according to type of intervention and therapeutic area. The Kenyan students documented more interventions than American students (16.7 vs. 12.0 interventions/day) and provided significantly more consultations regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and antibiotics. The top area of consultations provided by American students was cardiovascular diseases. American and Kenyan pharmacy students successfully providing clinical pharmacy consultations in a resource-constrained, acute-care practice setting suggests an important role for pharmacy students in the reconciliation of prescriber orders with medication administration records and in providing drug information.
1Dow College of Pharmacy, Dow University of Health Sciences, 2Faculty of Pharmacy, Zia uddin Medical University, 3Faculty of ... Purpose: To assess pharmacy students' knowledge of communicating medication errors in Karachi, ... Keywords: Communication, Medication error, Pharmacy students, Standardized training.
Kalari, Sirisha; Dormarunno, Matthew; Zvenigorodsky, Oleg; Mohan, Aparna
To assess US pharmacy students' knowledge and perceptions of adverse event reporting. To gauge pharmacy students' impressions of adverse event reporting, a 10-question survey instrument was administered that addressed student perceptions of the reporting procedures of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and pharmaceutical manufacturers, as well as student understanding of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and its relationship to adverse event reporting. Two hundred twenty-eight pharmacy students responded to the survey. The majority of respondents believed that the FDA is more likely than a pharmaceutical company to take action regarding an adverse event. There were misconceptions relating to the way adverse event reports are handled and the influence of HIPAA regulations on reporting. Communication between the FDA and pharmaceutical manufacturers regarding adverse event reports is not well understood by pharmacy students. Education about adverse event reporting should evolve so that by the time pharmacy students become practitioners, they are well acquainted with the relevance and importance of adverse event reporting.
Emmerton, Lynne; Jiang, Hai; McKauge, Leigh
To explore pharmacy students' recognition and interpretation of situations constituting breaches of academic integrity. A survey instrument comprising 10 hypothetical student(s) scenarios was completed by 852 students in the bachelor of pharmacy program at an Australian university. The scenarios were relevant to current modes of assessment and presented degrees of ambiguity around academic integrity. Identification of the hypothetical student(s) at fault, particularly in the deliberately ambiguous scenarios, was not related to the respondents' year of study or sex. Students with fewer years of postsecondary education were more definitive in their interpretation of contentious cases. Respondents from all 4 years of study reported witnessing many of these behaviors among their peers. This study provided novel insight into the ambiguity surrounding academic integrity and students' perceptions relating to the deliberate or inadvertent involvement of other parties.
Riffat Yasmin; Sadia Shakeel; Wajiha Iffat; Shaima Hasnat; Tehseen Quds
The objective of the present study was to evaluate awareness and significance of pictograms among pharmacy and non-pharmacy students. The study was conducted in two public and private sector institutes of Karachi during July to Oct 2013. Altogether 306 pharmacy and non pharmacy students participated in the study. A self administered questionnaire was used for this purpose. Nineteen pictograms from the USP-DI and corresponding set of 19 locally developed pictograms conveying the same medicatio...
Full Text Available During patient care rounds with the medical team, pharmacy students have made positive contributions for the benefit of the patient. However, very little has been documented regarding the impact these future healthcare professionals are making while on clinical rotations.The objective of this study was to assess the impact that clinical interventions made by 6th year pharmacy students had on overall patient outcome. Using a special program for a personal digital assistant (PDA, the students daily recorded the pharmacotherapeutic interventions they made. The interventions ranged from dosage adjustments to providing drug information. Data was collected over a 12-week period from various hospitals and clinics in the Jacksonville, Florida area.In total, there were 89 pharmaceutical interventions performed and recorded by the students. Fifty interventions involved drug modification and fifty-four interventions were in regards to drug information and consulting. Of the drug information and consulting interventions, 15 were drug modification.This study shows the impact pharmacy students make in identifying, recommending, and documenting clinical pharmacotherapeutic interventions. Similar to pharmacists, pharmacy students can also have a positive contribution towards patient care.
Svensberg, Karin; Brandlistuen, Ragnhild Eek; Björnsdottir, Ingunn; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark
Good communication skills are essential for pharmacy students to help patients with their medicines. Students' attitudes towards communication skills learning will influence their willingness to engage in communication training, and their skills when dealing with patients later on in their professional life. The aim of this study was to explore Nordic pharmacy students' attitudes to communication skills learning, and the associations between those attitudes and various student characteristics. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted in 11 Nordic pharmacy schools between April 2015 and January 2016. The overall response rate for the final study population was 77% (367 out of 479 students). Pharmacy students who had fulfilled all mandatory communication training and most of their pharmacy practical experience periods were included. The communication skills attitudes scale was the main outcome. Linear regression models were fitted with the outcome variable and various student characteristics as the predictors, using generalized estimating equations to account for clustering within pharmacy schools. Nordic pharmacy students in general have moderately positive attitudes towards learning communication skills. Positive attitudes towards learning communication skills among pharmacy students were associated with being female (β adjusted 0.42, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.63, p communication skills improvement (β adjusted 0.50, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.71, pcommunication skills are not the result of personality (β adjusted -0.24, 95% CI -0.44 to -0.04, p=0.017). The study provides important information for faculty members responsible for curriculum improvements and teachers to refine their teaching of communication skills. From this, the teaching can be better tailored to suit different students. The students' chances of being able to effectively help patients in the future will be increased by that. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Methods: A cross-sectional survey of pharmacy students and pharmacists (n = 523) to assess discriminatory ... assessing discriminatory attitudes among ..... saliva cause HIV?(No). 67.1 63. 5. 65. 1. 63. 6. 75. 2. 64. 7. 68. 8. 72. 9. 79. 4. 91. 2. 85. 2. 90. 0. 70.4. Note: Responses in parenthesis represent correct answers.
Objective: To evaluate pharmacy students' perception of the application of learning management system (LMS) in their education in a Doctor of Pharmacy program in Benin City. Method: In a special ICT class, 165 pharmacy students were introduced to LMS using an open source program, DoceboÓ after which a ...
Hidayat, Levita; Vansal, Sandeep; Kim, Esther; Sullivan, Maureen; Salbu, Rebecca
To assess the association of pharmacy students' personal characteristics with absenteeism and academic performance. A survey instrument was distributed to first- (P1) and second-year (P2) pharmacy students to gather characteristics including employment status, travel time to school, and primary source of educational funding. In addition, absences from specific courses and reasons for not attending classes were assessed. Participants were divided into "high" and "low" performers based on grade point average. One hundred sixty survey instruments were completed and 135 (84.3%) were included in the study analysis. Low performers were significantly more likely than high performers to have missed more than 8 hours in therapeutics courses. Low performers were significantly more likely than high performers to miss class when the class was held before or after an examination and low performers were significantly more likely to believe that participating in class did not benefit them. There was a negative association between the number of hours students' missed and their performance in specific courses. These findings provide further insight into the reasons for students' absenteeism in a college or school of pharmacy setting.
Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram; Fayyaz, Muhammad; Ashraf, Nida; Bhagavathula, Akshaya
The objective of this study was to assess the association of the constructs of theory of planned behaviour (behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs, control beliefs) and demographic variables with the intentions of pharmacy students to become pharmacy owner. A cross sectional study was conducted between October and November, 2014, using a pretested, self-administered questionnaire delivered to a sample of 350 pharmacy students at a private university of Pakistan. Behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs and control beliefs were assessed on four point Likert scale of agreement. The scores were summed and dichotomized based on an arbitrary 50% cut-off score to assess positive and negative beliefs. Binary logistic regression was used to analyse the data. A total of 313 participants (89.4%) responded to the questionnaire. Participants' behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs and control beliefs were negative towards pharmacy ownership with the mean scores of 13.90 ± 0.41 (score range: 6-24), 9.66 ± 0.49 (score range: 4-16) and 16.88 ± 0.40 (score range: 7-28) respectively. Professional year and family business were significantly associated with intentions of pharmacy students to own a pharmacy (p < 0.05). Behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs and control beliefs were negative towards pharmacy ownership. Implementation of entrepreneurship course in pharmacy school may transform the beliefs of pharmacy students towards pharmacy ownership.
Monkman, Helen; Kushniruk, Andre W
Prescription medication use is prevalent. When a new prescription medication is dispensed, Consumer Medication Information (CMI) is provided to communicate various important aspects of the medication (e.g., benefits, administration instructions, potential side effects). However, CMI is not regulated and differs from pharmacy to pharmacy. This study explores the similarities and differences between the CMI from three pharmacies (two paper print outs and one online source) for a single medication. The three CMI were assessed in terms of readability and utility. This evaluation revealed drastic differences in the length of the CMI (Range = 453 to 2 337 words). The online CMI was longer, described more topics and provided more detail than the print versions. Although online CMI has the advantage of interactivity to expedite navigation to specific topics of interest (e.g., heading links) and searching for key words, this CMI was not layered but rather presented as one long continuous page. Consumers with lower eHealth literacy skills may be deterred by the length of the document. As CMI makes the shift to online presentation an improved understanding of optimal information organization and media presentation will be needed.
Full Text Available Hazardous use of alcohol continues to be recognized as a problem at the university level. Knowledge regarding alcohol consumption in healthcare professional students is limited, especially in regards to pharmacy students. Much of the information available focuses on pharmacy student drinking patterns in specific geographic regions or is simply outdated.Objectives: This study was designed to assess levels of alcohol consumption and estimate the level of hazardous drinking among pharmacy students in a larger sample size that is representative of US pharmacy schools.Methods: An anonymous survey regarding alcohol usage was offered to students at nine school of pharmacy across the United States. The survey consisted of demographic questions, the World Health Organization Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT, and questions that assess particular alcohol-induced behaviorsResults: More than 25% of 1161 respondents had a total AUDIT score = 8, which indicates a risk of alcohol-related problems. Students that were male, in their first or second professional year of school, not married, and without children were statistically more likely to have AUDIT scores in the hazardous drinking range. Grade point average and student housing did not statistically affect student’s AUDIT scores.Conclusion: These results indicate that over one-fourth of pharmacy students surveyed have indicators of harmful alcohol use. Pharmacy schools should continue to address and confront hazardous alcohol use on campuses in order to curtail heavy alcohol consumption and reduce the risk of alcohol-related problems in pharmacy students.
Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Haughey, Sharon; Hughes, Carmel
Objective. To create, implement, and evaluate a workshop that teaches undergraduate pharmacy students about entrepreneurship. Design. Workshops with 3 hours of contact time and 2 hours of self-study time were developed for final-year students. Faculty members and students evaluated peer assessment, peer development, communication, critical evaluation, creative thinking, problem solving, and numeracy skills, as well as topic understanding. Student evaluation of the workshops was done primarily via a self-administered, 9-item questionnaire. Assessment. One hundred thirty-four students completed the workshops. The mean score was 50.9 out of 65. Scores ranged from 45.9 to 54.1. The questionnaire had a 100% response rate. Many students agreed that workshops about entrepreneurship were a useful teaching method and that key skills were fostered. Conclusion. Workshops effectively delivered course content about entrepreneurship and helped develop relevant skills. This work suggests students value instruction on entrepreneurship. PMID:27168619
Laverty, Garry; Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Haughey, Sharon; Hughes, Carmel
Objective. To create, implement, and evaluate a workshop that teaches undergraduate pharmacy students about entrepreneurship. Design. Workshops with 3 hours of contact time and 2 hours of self-study time were developed for final-year students. Faculty members and students evaluated peer assessment, peer development, communication, critical evaluation, creative thinking, problem solving, and numeracy skills, as well as topic understanding. Student evaluation of the workshops was done primarily via a self-administered, 9-item questionnaire. Assessment. One hundred thirty-four students completed the workshops. The mean score was 50.9 out of 65. Scores ranged from 45.9 to 54.1. The questionnaire had a 100% response rate. Many students agreed that workshops about entrepreneurship were a useful teaching method and that key skills were fostered. Conclusion. Workshops effectively delivered course content about entrepreneurship and helped develop relevant skills. This work suggests students value instruction on entrepreneurship.
Syed Abdul, Majid Mufaqam
Today's pharmacists are likely to encounter questions about nutritional products sold in the pharmacy. This is due, in part, to the increased number of pharmacies attached to grocery stores and the availability of pharmacists. Many pharmacists report they lack nutritional knowledge and believe the best time to educate pharmacists about nutrition is during pharmacy school. This study was conducted to determine if today's pharmacy students receive education in nutrition and if they realize the importance of nutrition education. Two hundred and twenty five students from India and ninety five students from the United States currently attending pharmacy school were surveyed. Results showed only 3.5% of students from India and 13.6% of students from the United States received nutrition education during their pharmacy degree curriculum. In addition, 81.8% of students from India and 82.9% of students from the United States who had taken a course in nutrition believed a nutrition course should be incorporated into the pharmacy degree curriculum. When pharmacy-related experience was taken into account, 92.9% of students from India and 73.3% of students from the United States also believed a nutrition course should be incorporated into the pharmacy degree curriculum. Overall, 88% of students from India and 70.5% of students from the United States believed nutrition education was important and should be included in the pharmacy degree curriculum. Results of this study suggest the majority of today's pharmacy students believe a nutrition course should be incorporated into the pharmacy degree curriculum regardless of past nutrition education or pharmacy-related experience.
Warner, Travis; Nishi, Cesilia; Checkowski, Ryan; Hall, Kevin W
Background: The 1996 Guidelines for Preparation of Sterile Products in Pharmacies of the Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists (CSHP) represent the current standard of practice for sterile compounding in Canada. However, these guidelines are practice recommendations, not enforceable standards. Previous surveys of sterile compounding practices have shown that actual practice deviates markedly from voluntary practice recommendations. In 2004, the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) published its “General Chapter Pharmaceutical Compounding—Sterile Preparations”, which set a more rigorous and enforceable standard for sterile compounding in the United States. Objectives: To assess sterile compounding practices in Canadian hospital pharmacies and to compare them with current CSHP recommendations and USP chapter standards. Methods: An online survey, based on previous studies of sterile compounding practices, the CSHP guidelines, and the chapter standards, was created and distributed to 193 Canadian hospital pharmacies. Results: A total of 133 pharmacies completed at least part of the survey, for a response rate of 68.9%. All respondents reported the preparation of sterile products. Various degrees of deviation from the practice recommendations were noted for virtually all areas of the CSHP guidelines and the USP standards. Low levels of compliance were most notable in the areas of facilities and equipment, process validation, and product testing. Availability in the central pharmacy of a clean room facility meeting or exceeding the criteria of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) class 8 is a requirement of the chapter standards, but more than 40% of responding pharmacies reported that they did not have such a facility. Higher levels of compliance were noted for policies and procedures, garbing requirements, aseptic technique, and handling of hazardous products. The survey methods for this study and results relating to policies, personnel, raw
Warner, Travis; Nishi, Cesilia; Checkowski, Ryan; Hall, Kevin W.
Background: The 1996 Guidelines for Preparation of Sterile Products in Pharmacies of the Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists (CSHP) represent the current standard of practice for sterile compounding in Canada. However, these guidelines are practice recommendations, not enforceable standards. Previous surveys of sterile compounding practices have shown that actual practice deviates markedly from voluntary practice recommendations. In 2004, the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) published its “General Chapter Pharmaceutical Compounding—Sterile Preparations”, which set a more rigorous and enforceable standard for sterile compounding in the United States. Objectives: To assess sterile compounding practices in Canadian hospital pharmacies and to compare them with current CSHP recommendations and USP chapter standards. Methods: An online survey, based on previous studies of sterile compounding practices, the CSHP guidelines, and the chapter standards, was created and distributed to 193 Canadian hospital pharmacies. Results: A total of 133 pharmacies completed at least part of the survey, for a response rate of 68.9%. All respondents reported the preparation of sterile products. Various degrees of deviation from the practice recommendations were noted for virtually all areas of the CSHP guidelines and the USP standards. Low levels of compliance were most notable in the areas of facilities and equipment, process validation, and product testing. Availability in the central pharmacy of a clean room facility meeting or exceeding the criteria of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) class 8 is a requirement of the chapter standards, but more than 40% of responding pharmacies reported that they did not have such a facility. Higher levels of compliance were noted for policies and procedures, garbing requirements, aseptic technique, and handling of hazardous products. Part 1 of this series reports the survey methods and results relating to policies
Muhammad Umair Khan
Full Text Available Purpose: In Pakistan, courses in pharmacy practice, which are an essential component of the PharmD curriculum, were launched with the aim of strengthening pharmacy practice overall and enabling pharmacy students to cope with the challenges involved in meeting real-world healthcare needs. Since very little research has assessed the efficacy of such courses, we aimed to evaluate students’ perceptions of pharmacy practice courses and their opinions about whether their current knowledge of the topics covered in pharmacy practice courses is adequate for future practice. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted over two months among the senior pharmacy students of two pharmacy colleges. A content- and face-validated questionnaire was used to collect data, which were then analysed using SPSS version 20. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were performed. Results: Research in pharmacy practice (30.2%, applied drug information (34.4%, health policy (38.1%, public health and epidemiology (39.5%, pharmacovigilance (45.6%, and pharmacoeconomics (47.9% were the major courses that were covered to the least extent in the PharmD curriculum. However, hospital pharmacy practice (94.4%, pharmacotherapeutics (88.8%, and community pharmacy practice (82.8% were covered well. Although 94% of students considered these courses important, only 37.2% considered themselves to be competent in the corresponding topics. Of the participants, 87.9% agreed that the pharmacy courses in the present curriculum should be redesigned. Conclusion: Our results showed that the pharmacy practice courses in the current PharmD curriculum do not encompass some important core subjects. A nationwide study is warranted to further establish the necessity for remodelling pharmacy practice courses in Pakistan.
Kennedy, Daniel R; Ginsburg, Diane B; Harnois, Nathan J; Spooner, Joshua J
Objective. To identify student government designs used by pharmacy programs and to examine their functions, duties, and relationships with other student organizations. Methods. A 21-question survey was developed and distributed to pharmacy deans, who were asked to forward the survey to the leader of their student government organization. Results were analyzed in aggregate. Results. Seventy-one programs responded (56%). Of respondents, 96% had a pharmacy student government association (PSGA). Programs officers generally consisted of a president (87%), secretary (81%), vice-president (79%), and treasurer (70%). Functions of the PSGAs included oversight of fundraisers (76%), on-campus events (69%), social events (61%), organizational meetings (59%), and off-campus events (57%). Approximately half (45%) of PSGAs were part of a larger, university-wide student government. Conclusion. While student government organizations are nearly universal in pharmacy programs, their oversight of other student organizations, as well as their involvement within a larger university-wide student government, varies greatly.
Holdford, David A.
Academic entitlement and student consumerism have been described as a cause for unprofessional behavior in higher education. Colleges and schools of pharmacy may inadvertently encourage student consumerism and academic entitlement by misunderstanding who is the primary customer of pharmacy education. Pharmacy colleges and schools who view students as the primary customer can unintentionally pressure faculty members to relax expectations for professionalism and academic performance and thereby...
Gharpure, Kunda; Thawani, Vijay; Sontakke, Smita; Chaudhari, Kiran; Bankar, Mangesh; Diwe, Rajendra
There is a growing indifference among the pharmacy practitioners towards their duty as information providers to the patients. The patients do not always get enough desired information about proper use of medicines from the prescribers also. This contributes to improper use of medicines by the patients. To bring about awareness about rational pharmacy practice in pharmacy students for better service to the patients. The final year students of Bachelor of Pharmacy (B. Pharm) from four colleges of Nagpur were enrolled for the study after informed consent. Their base knowledge was assessed through a written test which comprised of 27 objective questions related to rational pharmacy practice. This was followed by a series of seven articles on rational medicine use, published in leading local English news daily. The participants were reminded to read them on the day of publication of each article. As a backup, the articles were displayed on the notice board of respective colleges. Second intervention was a half day interactive session where series of six lectures were delivered to the participants on the right and wrong approaches in pharmacy practice. Posters about the do's and dont's of rational pharmacy practice were also displayed at the venue. The session was followed by a repeat test using the same pre-test to assess the change. Pre and post intervention data was compared using Fisher's Exact test. It was observed that the intervention did bring about a positive change in the attitude and knowledge of the final year Pharmacy students about rational pharmacy practice. The role of a pharmacist in health care provision is usually overlooked in India. Hence there is strong need for reinforcement in final year B. Pharm when most of the students go in for community service. Such interventions will be helpful in bringing about a positive change towards rational practice of pharmacy. This study showed that a properly timed and meticulously implemented intervention brings
Siracuse, Mark V; Schondelmeyer, Stephen W; Hadsall, Ronald S; Schommer, Jon C
To describe PharmD students' work experiences and activities; examine their attitudes towards their work; examine perceptions of preceptor pharmacists they worked with; and determine important issues associated with career preference. A written survey was administered to third-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students at 8 colleges and schools of pharmacy in the Midwest. Five hundred thirty-three students (response rate = 70.4%) completed the survey instrument. Nearly 100% of PharmD students reported working in a pharmacy by the time their advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) began. Seventy-eight percent reported working in a community pharmacy, and 67% had worked in a chain community pharmacy. For all practice settings, students reported spending 69% of their time on activities such as compounding, dispensing, and distribution of drug products. Most students are working in community pharmacy (mainly chain) positions where their primary function is traditional drug product dispensing and distribution. Having a controllable work schedule was the variable most strongly associated with career choice for all students.
Alam, Naznin; Saffoon, Nadia; Uddin, Riaz
This cross-sectional survey examined the pattern of self-medication and factors associated with this practice among medical and pharmacy students in context to Bangladesh. The study used a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 500; 250 medical and 250 pharmacy, students participated in the study. As it is a comparative analysis between the medical and pharmacy students, we used independent t test and Chi square test. The findings indicated that the impact of self-medication is almost similar in medical and pharmacy students. It was found that medical students were more careful about getting advice from a physician or seeking professional help from some healthcare personnel. About the safety of self-medication pharmacy students were more aware than medical students were. The study also showed that female and younger medical or pharmacy students were more aware about self-medication. The current study presents a comprehensive picture of self-medication in medical and pharmacy students in Bangladesh. It is clear from the findings that practice of self-medication is highly prevalent in medical and pharmacy students in the country. This may potentially increase misuse or irrational use of medicines.
Christensen, Søren Troels; Søndergaard, Birthe; Honoré, Per Hartvig; Bjerrum, Ole Jannik
Post-marketing safety studies of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) form an important part of pharmacovigilance. Countries having a formal pharmacovigilance system to a large extent rely on voluntary ADR reporting from health professionals through spontaneous report systems. The contribution of pharmacists in ADR reporting, although varies significantly among countries. Pharmacists in community pharmacies are in a unique position for detection of experienced ADRs by the drug users. The study reports from a study on community pharmacy internship students' proactive role in ADR detection through direct encountering and questioning with drug users. Pharmacy students undertaking internship in a community pharmacy were approached. Thirteen students from nine community pharmacies participated in the project as data collectors. Prior to the study students attended an educational seminar focusing on ADR detection and reporting in general. Ibuprofen was chosen as the drug of study. Pharmacy students approached recurrent drug users purchasing the drug. Participating users were asked about experienced ADRs linked to ibuprofen use. Reported ADRs were collected and analysed. Hundred and twenty eight ibuprofen users participated in the study out of who thirty three reported forty five ADRs possibly linked to ibuprofen use. The reported ADRs followed earlier reported patterns of distribution with gastric pain showing up as the most commonly reported symptom followed by heartburn, nausea, diarrhoea and constipation. Through adequate training community pharmacy internship students get competencies and are capable of detecting and reporting ADRs through direct questions to drug users. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Canales-Gonzales, Patricia L.; Kranz, Peter L.
This study evaluated stress levels experienced by students in a pharmacy curriculum. A survey was used to evaluate perceived levels of stress, factors that contribute to stress, and mechanisms used to cope with stress. Participants were first, second, and third year students enrolled in pharmacy school. Data were collected using an individual…
Purpose: To identify the prevalence as well as determine gender differences in overweight and obesity among undergraduate pharmacy students of the University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. Methods: Undergraduate pharmacy students (n = 172) of University of Benin, aged 18 years and above, were recruited for the study ...
Experiences of medical and pharmacy students' learning in a shared environment: A qualitative study. ... African Journal of Health Professions Education ... undergraduate learning environment, medical and pharmacy students have the opportunity to start working in a collaborative manner early on in their careers.
Purpose: To assess pharmacy students' knowledge of communicating medication errors in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: The study design was cross-sectional and conducted from February to May 2014. A previously validated questionnaire was adopted, modified and distributed to final year pharmacy students in four ...
Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Barry, Johanne; Donnelly, Ryan; Hughes, Fiona; Jones, David; Laverty, Garry; Parsons, Carole; Ryan, Cristin
To create, implement, and evaluate debate as a method of teaching pharmacy undergraduate students about ethical issues. Debate workshops with 5 hours of contact with student peers and facilitators and 5 hours of self-study were developed for second-year pharmacy students. Student development of various skills and understanding of the topic were assessed by staff members and student peers. One hundred fifty students completed the workshops. The mean score for debating was 25.9 out of 30, with scores ranging from 23.2 to 28.7. Seventy percent of students agreed that the debates were a useful teaching method in the degree program. A series of workshops using debates effectively delivered course content on ethical issues and resulted in pharmacy students developing skills such as teamwork, peer assessment, communication, and critical evaluation. These findings suggest that pharmacy students respond favorably to a program using debates as a teaching tool.
Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Barry, Johanne; Donnelly, Ryan; Hughes, Fiona; Jones, David; Laverty, Garry; Parsons, Carole; Ryan, Cristin
Objective. To create, implement, and evaluate debate as a method of teaching pharmacy undergraduate students about ethical issues. Design. Debate workshops with 5 hours of contact with student peers and facilitators and 5 hours of self-study were developed for second-year pharmacy students. Student development of various skills and understanding of the topic were assessed by staff members and student peers. Assessment. One hundred fifty students completed the workshops. The mean score for debating was 25.9 out of 30, with scores ranging from 23.2 to 28.7. Seventy percent of students agreed that the debates were a useful teaching method in the degree program. Conclusion. A series of workshops using debates effectively delivered course content on ethical issues and resulted in pharmacy students developing skills such as teamwork, peer assessment, communication, and critical evaluation. These findings suggest that pharmacy students respond favorably to a program using debates as a teaching tool. PMID:24761018
Warholak, Terri L; Queiruga, Caryn; Roush, Rebecca; Phan, Hanna
To assess and compare prescribing error-identification rates by health professional students. Medical, pharmacy, and nursing students were asked to complete a questionnaire on which they evaluated the accuracy of 3 prescriptions and indicated the type of error found, if any. The number of correctly identified prescribing errors and the number of correct types of errors identified were compared and error identification rates for each group were calculated. One hundred seventy-five questionnaires were returned (87% response rate). Pharmacy students had a significantly higher error-identification rate than medical and nursing students (p medical and nursing students (p = 0.88). Compared to medical students, pharmacy students more often were able to identify correctly the error type for each prescription (p error-identification rate, which may be associated with the greater number of pharmacology and pharmacotherapeutics course hours that pharmacy students complete.
Jeffres, Meghan N.; Barclay, Sean M.; Stolte, Scott K.
Objectives. To determine a measurable definition of academic entitlement, measure academic entitlement in graduating doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students, and compare the academic performance between students identified as more or less academically entitled.
Holdford, David A
Academic entitlement and student consumerism have been described as a cause for unprofessional behavior in higher education. Colleges and schools of pharmacy may inadvertently encourage student consumerism and academic entitlement by misunderstanding who is the primary customer of pharmacy education. Pharmacy colleges and schools who view students as the primary customer can unintentionally pressure faculty members to relax expectations for professionalism and academic performance and thereby cause a general downward spiral in the quality of pharmacy graduates. In contrast, this paper argues that the primary customer of pharmacy education is the patient. Placing the patient at the center of the educational process is consistent with the concepts of pharmaceutical care, medication therapy management, the patient-centered home, and the oath of the pharmacist. Emphasizing the patient as the primary customer discourages academic entitlement and student consumerism and encourages an emphasis on learning how to serve the medication-related needs of the patient.
Moeller, Karen E; Woods, Barbara
To determine pharmacy students' knowledge of and attitudes toward medical marijuana and to determine if pharmacy students need additional education on the topic. Pharmacy students were asked to complete a survey on medical marijuana that assessed their knowledge of, medical uses of, adverse effects with, and attitudes toward medical marijuana through 23 Likert-scale questions. Three hundred eleven students completed the survey. Fifty-eight percent of the students felt that medical marijuana should be legalized in all states. However, the majority of students did not feel comfortable answering consumers' questions regarding efficacy, safety, or drug interactions related to the substance. Accurate responses for diseases or conditions for permitted medical marijuana use was low, with only cancer (91%) and glaucoma (57%) identified by more than half the students. With an increasing number of states adopting medical marijuana use, pharmacy schools need to evaluate the adequacy of medical marijuana education in their curriculum.
Sobota, Kristen Finley; Barnes, Jeremiah; Fitzpatrick, Alyse; Sobota, Micah J
The Ohio Northern University American Society of Consultant Pharmacists chapter provides students the opportunity to apply classroom knowledge with learning through community service. One such program took place at the Lima Towers Apartment Community from September 18, 2014, to October 2, 2014, in Lima, Ohio. Three evening educational sessions focused on a different health topic: 1) mental health, 2) medication adherence/brown bag, and 3) healthy lifestyle choices/nutrition/smoking cessation. All three programs were structured identically, starting with dinner, followed by educational intervention, survey, blood pressure checks, and medication reviews. Two pharmacists and 16 pharmacy students implemented the program. Participants completed a total of 76 satisfaction surveys for the three programs, which were included in the data analysis. The average age of the participants was 65 years; 82% (n = 63) were female. Data demonstrated that 94% (n = 72) "learned something new," while 96% (n = 74) would "recommend the program to a friend/family member." The collected data showed the vast majority of participants from the surrounding community found value in the presentations performed by students, especially with regard to the new information they received and its perceived benefits. In light of such successes, we encourage other student chapters to implement similar community outreach events. ASCP student members can make a strong, positive impact in the community while learning in a nontraditional environment.
Englund, Claire; Gustafsson, Maria; Gallego, Gisselle
The objectives of this study were to explore pharmacy students' perceptions and experiences of three-dimensional virtual worlds (3DVWs) as an instructional tool for clinical pharmacy teaching. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with Master of Science in Pharmacy students who had participated in communicative exercises in a 3DVW. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. More than half of the students were positive to using 3DVWs for educational purposes and see the advantages of having a setting where communication can be practiced in an authentic but 'safe' environment available online. However, many students also reported technical difficulties in using the 3DVW which impacted negatively on the learning experience. Perceived ease of use and usefulness of 3DVWs appears to play an important role for students. The students' level of engagement relates to not only their computer skills, but also to the value they place on 3DVWs as an instructional tool.
Ma, Carolyn S; Nett, Blythe; Kishaba, Gregg; Gomez, Lara
A partnership was formed between the University of Hawai'i at Hilo Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy (DKICP) and the Department of Health to carry out the Hawai'i Asthma Friendly Pharmacy Project (HAFPP), which utilizes pharmacy students as a workforce to administer Asthma Control Tests™ (ACT), and provide Asthma Action Plans (AAP) and inhaler technique education. Evaluation of data from a pilot project in 2008 with first and second year students prompted more intensive training in therapeutics, inhaler medication training, and communication techniques. Data collection began when two classes of students were first and second year students and continued until the students became fourth year students in their advanced experiential ambulatory care clinic and retail community pharmacy rotations. Patients seen included pediatric (32%) and adult (68%) aged individuals. Hawai'i County was the most common geographic site (50%) and most sites were retail pharmacies (72%). Administered ACT surveys (N=96) yielded a mean score of 19.64 (SD +/-3.89). In addition, 12% of patients had received previous ACT, and 47% had previous AAPs. Approximately 83% of patients received an additional intervention of AAP and inhaler education with 73% of these patients able to demonstrate back proper inhaler technique. Project challenges included timing of student training, revising curriculum and logistics of scheduling students to ensure consistent access to patients.
Pharmacy as a health profession has major responsibilities and contributions in maintaining health of the society. Thus, pharmacists have to maintain professional behaviour and attitude that is worthy of the respect the public has for the profession. Studies on pharmacy students' attitude and career choice are important to ...
Department of Homeland Security — Pharmacies in the United States and Territories A pharmacy is a facility whose primary function is to store, prepare and legally dispense prescription drugs under...
Karen E Moeller; Barbara Woods
.... Pharmacy students were asked to complete a survey on medical marijuana that assessed their knowledge of, medical uses of, adverse effects with, and attitudes toward medical marijuana through 23 Likert-scale questions...
Owen, Chelsea; Breheny, Patrick; Ingram, Richard; Pfeifle, William; Cain, Jeff
Objectives. To examine the interest of pharmacy students in international study, the demographic factors and involvement characteristics associated with that interest, and the perceived advantages and barriers of engaging in international opportunities during pharmacy school. Methods. A self-administered electronic survey instrument was distributed to first-, second-, and third-year pharmacy students at the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy. Results. There were 192 total respondents, for a response rate of 50.9%. Seventy-two percent reported interest in international study. Previous international study experience (p=0.001), previous international travel experience (p=0.002), year in pharmacy school (p=0.03), level of academic involvement (pstudy interest. Positive influences to international study included desire to travel and availability of scholarships. Perceived barriers included an inability to pay expenses and lack of foreign language knowledge. Conclusions. The needs and interests of pharmacy students should be considered in the development and expansion of internationalization programs in order to effectively optimize global partnerships and available international experiences. Colleges and schools of pharmacy should engage students early in the curriculum when interest in study-abroad opportunities is highest and seek to alleviate concerns about expenses as a primary influence on study-abroad decisions through provision of financial assistance. PMID:23610472
Gustafsson, Maria; Mattsson, Sofia; Gallego, Gisselle
In response to the shortage of pharmacists in Northern Sweden, a web-based Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy program was established at Umeå University in 2003. In 2009, the Swedish pharmacy market was re-regulated from a state monopoly to an open market, but it is unknown what impact this has had on education satisfaction. The objectives of this study were to examine the level of satisfaction among graduates from a web-based pharmacy program and to describe what subjects and skills students would have liked more or less of in their education. A secondary objective was to compare the level of satisfaction before and after the Swedish pharmacy market was re-regulated. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2015 with all alumni who had graduated from the pharmacy program between 2006 and 2014 (n = 511), and responses to questions about graduates' satisfaction with the program were analyzed (n = 200). Most graduates (88%) agreed or strongly agreed that the knowledge and skills acquired during their education were useful in their current job. The graduates stated that they would have wanted more applied pharmacy practice and self-care counselling, and fewer social pharmacy and histology courses. Further, 82% stated that they would start the same degree program if they were to choose again today, and 92% agreed or strongly agreed that they would recommend the program to a prospective student. Graduates were more likely to recommend the program after the re-regulation (p = 0.007). In conclusion, pharmacy graduates were very satisfied with their education, and no negative effects of the re-regulation could be observed on program satisfaction.
Shane, Patricia; Sasaki-Hill, Debra; Yoshizuka, Keith; Chan, Paul; Vo, Thuy
Objective. To determine whether bullying is a significant factor in the clinical training of pharmacy students. Methods. The literature as well as the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) Standards and American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) surveys were reviewed for mention and/or measurement of bullying behaviors in the clinical training of pharmacy students. The authors used a Delphi process to define bullying behavior. The consensus definition was used to analyze 2,087 in-house student evaluations of preceptors for evidence of bullying behaviors. The authors mapped strings of text from in-house student comments to different, established categories of bullying behaviors. Results. The ACPE Standards and AACP surveys contained no mention or measures of bullying. The 2013 AACP survey data reported overwhelmingly positive preceptor ratings. Of the 2,087 student evaluations of preceptors, 119 (5.7%) had at least 1 low rating. Within those 119 survey instruments, 34 comments were found describing bullying behaviors. Students’ responses to the AACP survey were similar to data from the national cohort. Conclusions. Given the evidence that bullying behaviors occur in pharmacy education and that bullying has long-term and short-term damaging effects, more attention should be focused on this problem. Efforts should include addressing bullying in ACPE Standards and AACP survey tools developing a consensus definition for bullying and conducting more research into bullying in the clinical training of pharmacy students. PMID:25147389
Pittenger, Amy L; Starner, Catherine I; Thompson, Kaj; Gleason, Patrick P
New accreditation standards implemented in 2007 have required schools of pharmacy to evaluate their existing curricula. An issue frequently encountered is the limited amount of content in the pharmacy curriculum specific to managed care and the role and function of pharmacy benefit management companies (PBMs). To determine pharmacy student knowledge and opinions about managed care pharmacy, including the function of PBMs in the delivery of health care, in a college of pharmacy, and to explore tendencies in communication between pharmacy interns and patients in the community setting. Students from all 4 PharmD years (n = 663) in 1 college of pharmacy were invited to complete an online survey consisting of 19 questions on demographics, students' views and understanding of PBMs, and interest in working at a PBM in their career. Follow-up in-person and online focus group sessions with representatives from each pharmacy class year were conducted to collect information from students regarding views and understanding of managed care pharmacy. Focus group data were analyzed using a constant comparative method by 2 independent researchers. Of 374 respondents, 332 (88.8%) answered all of the survey questions and were included in the analysis. Most students (72.0%) indicated that they understand little or nothing about the functions of PBMs; 84.3% rated the amount that they had been taught about PBMs in pharmacy school as "inadequate" or "very inadequate;" and 45.2% indicated little or no interest in a PBM career. Yet, 34.7% (99 of 285) of students with past or current community pharmacy work experience rated the percentage of time that PBMs directly affected their practice worksite during a shift at 50% or greater. Focus group emerging themes confirmed survey data findings that students feel uninformed about managed care but regularly communicate with patients about managed care issues. Focus group findings also suggest that students may perceive managed care to be a
Shakeel, Sadia; Iffat, Wajiha; Khan, Madeeha
A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to August 2015 to assess the knowledge of pharmacy students towards Naegleria fowleri infection. A questionnaire was distributed to senior pharmacy students in different private and public sector universities of Karachi. Descriptive statistics were used to demonstrate students' demographic information and their responses to the questionnaire. Pearson chi-square test was adopted to assess the relationship between independent variables and responses of students. The study revealed that pharmacy students were having adequate awareness of Naegleria fowleri infection and considered it as a serious health issue that necessitates instantaneous steps by the government to prevent the general public from the fatal neurological infection. The students recommended that appropriate methods should be projected in the community from time to time that increases public awareness about the associated risk factors. PMID:26981318
Degeeter, Michelle; Harris, Kira; Kehr, Heather; Ford, Carolyn; Lane, Daniel C; Nuzum, Donald S; Compton, Cynthia; Gibson, Whitney
Objective. To determine if an educational intervention in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program increases pharmacy students' ability to identify plagiarism. Methods. First-year (P1), second-year (P2), and third-year (P3) pharmacy students attended an education session during which types of plagiarism and methods for avoiding plagiarism were reviewed. Students completed a preintervention assessment immediately prior to the session and a postintervention assessment the following semester to measure their ability. Results. Two hundred fifty-two students completed both preintervention and postintervention assessments. There was a 4% increase from preintervention to postintervention in assessment scores for the overall student sample (pplagiarism can significantly improve students' ability to identify plagiarism.
Bussières, Jean-François; Delicourt, Anais; Belaid, Nedjma; Quirion, Marie-Pierre; Desroches, Julien; Bégin, Josiane; Fragasso-Marquis, Anne-Marie; Lamarre, Diane
To evaluate the impact of a debate on pharmacy students' perceptions, using online pharmacy practice as the debate topic. This is a quasi-experimental interrupted time-series study. A 60 min debate was organized as a lunchtime meeting. A four-category Likert scale questionnaire (fully agree, partially agree, partially disagree, fully disagree) measured the debate participants' level of agreement with 25 statements (main issues associated with online pharmacy) in the pre-phase (before the debate), post-phase 1 (after the debate) and post-phase 2 (6 months after the debate). One hundred and seventy-seven students were recruited (response rate of 100% in the pre-phase and post-phase 1, 31% in post-phase 2). Four questions measured the perceptions of the students on this pedagogical technique. The overall proportion of respondents in favour of online pharmacy practice showed little variation among the three phases. However, on average (mean ± SD) 43 ± 8% of the respondents changed their opinion, 21 ± 7% reversed their opinion, 22 ± 4% nuanced their opinion and 1 ± 1% radically changed their opinion. Respectively 98% (post-phase 1) and 96% (post-phase 2) of the respondents were of the opinion that debate was a very useful teaching formula in their pharmacist training and 79 and 66% thought debate significantly changed their opinion of the issue. Few data have been collected on the use of debates as part of healthcare professional training. The impact of a debate on how pharmacy students feel about online pharmacy practice is described. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
To investigate Syrian pharmacy students' intentions and attitudes toward postgraduate study, and to determine and evaluate the factors that influence their preferences. A questionnaire was developed and used to collect data from final-year bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) students at Damascus University. Of the 265 students who responded to the survey, approximately 50% intended to work, 25% intended to pursue further study, and 25% were undecided. Personal fulfillment was the factor that most influenced students' intentions concerning future education. Men were more concerned over their financial future, while women's intentions were more influenced by scientific issues. The 3 most preferred pharmaceutical areas of further study were biochemistry and laboratory diagnosis, pharmaceutics and pharmaceutical industry, and clinical pharmacy. More students favored pursuing graduate school abroad rather than in Syria. The majority of those who intended to enroll in local graduate programs were interested in academic programs while less than a fifth favored residency programs. The graduate programs in Syria do not appear to satisfy pharmacy students' ambitions or have the capacity to accommodate the growing demand associated with the rapid increase in the number of pharmacy graduates in the country. Consequently, a majority of students prefer to pursue postgraduate study abroad.
Chen, Aleda M. H.; Yehle, Karen S.; Plake, Kimberly S.
Objective. To validate an empathy scale to measure empathy in pharmacy and nursing students. Methods. A 15-item instrument comprised of the cognitive and affective empathy domains, was created. Each item was rated using a 7-point Likert scale, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. Concurrent validity was demonstrated with the Jefferson Scale of Empathy – Health Professional Students (JSE-HPS). Results. Reliability analysis of data from 216 students (pharmacy, N=158; nursing, N=58) showed that scores on the empathy scale were positively associated with JSE-HPS scores (pscale for evaluating student empathy. Further testing of the scale at other universities is needed to establish validity. PMID:23788805
Crawford, Stephanie Y.; Alhreish, Suhail K.
Objectives. To compare dominant learning styles of pharmacy students and faculty members and between faculty members in different tracks. Methods. Gregorc Style Delineator (GSD) and Zubin’s Pharmacists’ Inventory of Learning Styles (PILS) were administered to students and faculty members at an urban, Midwestern college of pharmacy. Results. Based on responses from 299 students (classes of 2008, 2009, and 2010) and 59 faculty members, GSD styles were concrete sequential (48%), abstract sequential (18%), abstract random (13%), concrete random (13%), and multimodal (8%). With PILS, dominant styles were assimilator (47%) and converger (30%). There were no significant differences between faculty members and student learning styles nor across pharmacy student class years (p>0.05). Learning styles differed between men and women across both instruments (pstyles (p=0.01). Conclusion. Learning styles differed among respondents based on gender and faculty track. PMID:23275657
Crawford, Stephanie Y; Alhreish, Suhail K; Popovich, Nicholas G
To compare dominant learning styles of pharmacy students and faculty members and between faculty members in different tracks. Gregorc Style Delineator (GSD) and Zubin's Pharmacists' Inventory of Learning Styles (PILS) were administered to students and faculty members at an urban, Midwestern college of pharmacy. Based on responses from 299 students (classes of 2008, 2009, and 2010) and 59 faculty members, GSD styles were concrete sequential (48%), abstract sequential (18%), abstract random (13%), concrete random (13%), and multimodal (8%). With PILS, dominant styles were assimilator (47%) and converger (30%). There were no significant differences between faculty members and student learning styles nor across pharmacy student class years (p>0.05). Learning styles differed between men and women across both instruments (pstyles (p=0.01). Learning styles differed among respondents based on gender and faculty track.
Jeffres, Meghan N; Barclay, Sean M; Stolte, Scott K
To determine a measurable definition of academic entitlement, measure academic entitlement in graduating doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students, and compare the academic performance between students identified as more or less academically entitled. Graduating students at a private health sciences institution were asked to complete an electronic survey instrument that included demographic data, academic performance, and 2 validated academic entitlement instruments. One hundred forty-one of 243 students completed the survey instrument. Fourteen (10%) students scored greater than the median total points possible on 1 or both of the academic entitlement instruments and were categorized as more academically entitled. Less academically entitled students required fewer reassessments and less remediation than more academically entitled students. The highest scoring academic entitlement items related to student perception of what professors should do for them. Graduating pharmacy students with lower levels of academic entitlement were more academically successful than more academically entitled students. Moving from an expert opinion approach to evidence-based decision-making in the area of academic entitlement will allow pharmacy educators to identify interventions that will decrease academic entitlement and increase academic success in pharmacy students.
Barclay, Sean M.; Stolte, Scott K.
Objectives. To determine a measurable definition of academic entitlement, measure academic entitlement in graduating doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students, and compare the academic performance between students identified as more or less academically entitled. Methods. Graduating students at a private health sciences institution were asked to complete an electronic survey instrument that included demographic data, academic performance, and 2 validated academic entitlement instruments. Results. One hundred forty-one of 243 students completed the survey instrument. Fourteen (10%) students scored greater than the median total points possible on 1 or both of the academic entitlement instruments and were categorized as more academically entitled. Less academically entitled students required fewer reassessments and less remediation than more academically entitled students. The highest scoring academic entitlement items related to student perception of what professors should do for them. Conclusion. Graduating pharmacy students with lower levels of academic entitlement were more academically successful than more academically entitled students. Moving from an expert opinion approach to evidence-based decision-making in the area of academic entitlement will allow pharmacy educators to identify interventions that will decrease academic entitlement and increase academic success in pharmacy students. PMID:25147388
El Hajj MS
Full Text Available Maguy Saffouh El Hajj,1 Ayat S Hammad,1 Hebatalla M Afifi2 1College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; 2National Centre for Cancer Care and Research (NCCCR, Doha, Qatar Objectives: The study objectives were to investigate Qatar pharmacy students’ attitudes toward pharmaceutical care (PC, to identify the factors that influence their attitudes, and to recognize their perceived barriers for PC provision. Methods: A cross-sectional and online survey of Qatar pharmacy students was conducted. Results: Over 4 weeks, 46 surveys were submitted (88% response rate. All respondents agreed that the pharmacist’s primary responsibility is to prevent and resolve medication therapy problems. Most respondents believed that PC provision is professionally rewarding and that all pharmacists should provide PC (93% and 91% of respondents, respectively. Highly perceived barriers for PC provision included lack of access to patient information (76%, inadequate drug information sources (55%, and time constraints (53%. Professional year and practical experience duration were inversely significantly associated with four and five statements, respectively, out of the 13 Standard Pharmaceutical Care Attitudes Survey statements, including the statements related to the value of PC, and its benefit in improving patient health and pharmacy practitioners’ careers. Conclusion: Qatar pharmacy students had positive attitudes toward PC. Efforts should be exerted to overcome their perceived barriers. Keywords: Qatar, pharmaceutical care, pharmacy, student
Dr. Mohamed F. AlAjmi; Shakir Khan
the idea of this research is for the concern of Collaborative learning based mobile factors by applying via pharmacy students of the college. We focus on three features, computer mutual learning, learning process module, and student learning mode. In this paper, student-focused instruct module, student edge section, teacher interface section, learner section, solution problem section, curriculum section, control section, and diagnose section are planned. This system permits students to be sus...
Cain, Jeff; Campbell, Tom; Congdon, Heather Brennan; Hancock, Kim; Kaun, Megan; Lockman, Paul R; Evans, R Lee
To describe the current landscape within the profession of pharmacy regarding student tuition, indebtedness, salaries, and job potential. Pharmacy tuition and student debt data were obtained through the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Institutional Research website. Tuition was defined as average first-year tuition and fees for accredited schools. Debt was defined as the total average amount borrowed. Median salaries and numbers of jobs were obtained from the United States Department of Labor. In-state tuition at public schools rose an average of $1,211 ± 31 (r2 = 0.996), whereas out-of-state tuition at public schools rose significantly faster at $1,838 ± 80 per year (r2 = 0.988). The average tuition cost for pharmacy school has increased 54% in the last 8 years. The average pharmacist salary has risen from $75,000 to over $112,000 since 2002. The increase in salary has been nearly linear (r2 = 0.988) rising $4,409 ± $170 dollars per year. However, average salary in 2011 was $3,064 below the predicted value based upon a linear regression of salaries over 10 years. The number of pharmacist jobs in the United States has risen from 215,000 jobs in 2003 to 275,000 in 2010. However, there were 3,000 fewer positions in 2012 than in 2011. In 2011, average indebtedness for pharmacy students ($114,422) was greater than average first-year salary ($112,160). Rising tuition and student indebtedness is a multifaceted problem requiring attention from a number of parties including students, faculty members, universities, and accreditation and government entities.
Rivey, Michael P.; And Others
The University of Montana School of Pharmacy has included a miniexternship experience in a required introductory course. Goals of a survey of 67 first year students and 17 preceptors included students' demographic profile and prior exposure to pharmacy practice, assessment of the influence of the externship on career goals, etc. (MLW)
The aim was of the study to determine the perceptions and knowledge of University of Limpopo (UL), Medunsa Campus, undergraduate Pharmacy students regarding ATMs and their use in the health care system. A descriptive quantitative study was performed on 187 of the 245 enrolled BPharm students of 2013 using a ...
The purpose of this study was to design, develop, and administer an Objective, Structured Management Exam (OSME) on management skills for pharmacy students. Pharmacy preceptors for the University of Arizona College of Pharmacy participated in focus groups that identified business, management, and human resource skills needed by pharmacy graduates.…
Gallimore, Casey; George, Angela K; Brown, Michael C
To evaluate pharmacy students' preferences for various types of simulated patients. Second-professional year (P2) pharmacy students participated in 7 learning activities that used simulated patients including community volunteers, College administrative staff, course instructors, and student peers. Students ranked each simulated patient type according to believability, skill development, and preference using a 5-point Likert scale. One-hundred seven of 155 students (69%) completed the survey instrument. Students preferred community volunteers as simulated patients (mean rank 1.39), followed by peers (2.22), instructors (2.63), and staff members (2.81) (p volunteers receiving the highest ratings (p volunteers over staff members and their peers. Future scholarship should explore the relationship among simulated patient types and student learning outcomes.
Saulsbury, Marilyn D; Brown, Ulysses J; Heyliger, Simone O; Beale, Ruby L
To explore the relation between dispositional traits and pharmacy students' attitudes toward cheating in a university setting. A questionnaire was administered primarily to pharmacy students at a comprehensive university in the southeastern United States to assess self-esteem, self-efficacy, idealism, relativism, student attitudes toward cheating, tolerance for peer cheating, detachment from the university, Machiavellian behavior, and demographic information. Gender, degree of idealism, relativism, and Machiavellian traits were found to influence student attitudes toward cheating, while age, grade-point average (GPA), race, income, and marital status did not. Considered collectively, these data support the study model prediction that the major determinants of student attitudes toward cheating are based on the degree of idealism and relativism evident in the students' dispositional trait. Idealism was found to be inversely related to the likelihood of a student engaging in cheating or tolerating peer cheating.
Bruno, Christine B; Ip, Eric; Shah, Bijal; Linn, William D
To introduce pharmacy students to a patient-centered mnemonic to aid them in remembering the most important parameters when assessing a patient's drug therapy and to determine whether use of the device improved students' clinical examination scores. Second-year pharmacy students were randomized to an intervention group or a control group. A 30-minute presentation on the rationale of the mnemonic and how to apply it to clinical scenarios was given to the intervention group and then a case-based multiple-choice clinical examination was administered. Students in the control group completed the same examination first and then were given the mnemonic. Ninety-five students completed the examination. Examination scores of students in the intervention group were 6% higher than those of students in the control group (p = 0.04). A 6-question survey instrument was administered to both groups and the majority of students agreed that they would use the mnemonic when assessing patients during their upcoming practice experiences. One-hundred percent of the students stated that the mnemonic definitely or probably helped them (or would have helped them) think critically when assessing the patient cases. Pharmacy students who used a mnemonic device for pharmacotherapy assessment exhibited better decision-making skills and made fewer errors than students who did not use the mnemonic.
Full Text Available A pharmacy degree in Finland includes a six-month obligatory internship. The internship is integrated with theoretical studies and adds up to 30 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS credits of the BSc (Pharm degree. Learning is supported by reflective assignments from the university. The preceptors have an important role in organizing the internship and tutoring students successfully in community pharmacy settings. Objective: to assess whether the preceptors of University of Helsinki’s teaching pharmacies need pedagogic support in tutoring and if so, in which core pharmaceutical tasks or tutoring skills. Methods: The survey was sent to all preceptors of University of Helsinki´s teaching pharmacies (n=326 in 2011 (response rate 58%, n=190. The data was analyzed statistically using Excel (version 12.3.6. The open-ended questions were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. Results: The majority of preceptors found their skills in tutoring the students mainly good. However, assessment of learning (27% of the respondents, giving feedback (23% and organizing the learning situations supportive for learning (23% were the areas in which the preceptors mostly indicated a need for support. Teaching current care guidelines and pharmaceutical care (36% and multi-professional collaboration (28% were the areas in which the preceptors expressed that they needed to update their skills. Conclusions: The faculty should focus the support on the pedagogic skills of preceptors, particularly in improving their skills in assessment of learning and in reflective dialogue. In addition, their skills in teaching clinical and patient care aspects of pharmacy practice should be enhanced. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings
Bongartz, Jenny; Vang, Choua; Havrda, Dawn; Fravel, Michelle; McDanel, Deanna; Farris, Karen B
To describe the perceptions of student pharmacists, graduate students, and pharmacy residents regarding social situations involving students or residents and faculty members at public and private universities. Focus groups of student pharmacists, graduate students, and pharmacy residents were formed at 2 pharmacy schools. Given 3 scenarios, participants indicated if they thought any boundaries had been violated and why. Responses were grouped into similar categories and frequencies were determined. Compared with private university students or pharmacy residents, student pharmacists at a public university were more likely to think "friending" on Facebook violated a boundary. No participants considered reasonable consumption of alcohol in social settings a violation. "Tagging" faculty members in photos on Facebook was thought to be less problematic, but most participants stated they would be conscious of what they were posting. The social interactions between faculty members and students or residents, especially student pharmacists, should be kept professional. Students indicated that social networking may pose threats to maintaining professional boundaries.
Describes the results of survey of 1,100 grade 5, 8, and 11 students to determine their knowledge of and attitudes toward world affairs. Notes that age, sex, and class were the most important correlates and that children were only marginally more knowledgeable about domestic politics than international affairs. (SB)
Kudlow, Paul A; Naylor, Karline Treurnicht; Xie, Bin; McIntyre, Roger S
Cognitive enhancing agents are substances that may augment functions such as memory, attention, concentration, wakefulness, and intelligence. An anonymous, online survey containing a series of questions on the actual and hypothetical use of cognitive enhancers was sent via email to 647 medical students across all four years in one Canadian MD program. The response rate was 50% (326/647). Overall, 49 (15%, 95% CI: 11% to 19%) students admitted to non-medical and/or off-label use of one or more pharmaceutical stimulants, of whom 14 (4%, 95% CI: 2% to 6%) had used stimulants within the last year. Senior medical students reported recent use more often than junior students (8% vs. 2%, P = 0.04). Class seniority and male gender were both associated with positive attitudes towards use of these agents; favorable attitudes were associated with recent use of pharmaceutical stimulant and high-caffeine products. A substantial proportion of Canadian medical students have engaged at some point in non-medical and/or off-label use of stimulants for purposes of cognitive enhancement. Male students and those in upper years of the MD program were more likely to have used pharmaceutical stimulants in the last year, and have favorable attitudes concerning use of cognitive-enhancing agents.
Atkinson, Jeffrey; De Paepe, Kristien; Sánchez Pozo, Antonio; Rekkas, Dimitrios; Volmer, Daisy; Hirvonen, Jouni; Bozic, Borut; Skowron, Agnieska; Mircioiu, Constantin; Marcincal, Annie; Koster, Andries; Wilson, Keith; van Schravendijk, Chris; Hočevar, Sandra
European students (n = 370), academics (n = 241) and community pharmacists (n = 258) ranked 13 clusters of 68 personal and patient care competences for pharmacy practice. The results show that ranking profiles for all three groups as a rule were similar. This was especially true of the comparison
Bittoun, Renee; Saini, Bandana
Objective. To develop, implement, and evaluate a targeted educational intervention focusing on smoking cessation with final-year undergraduate pharmacy students. Design. A smoking-cessation educational workshop entitled Smoking Cessation in Pharmacy (SCIP) was designed on the principles of adult learning and implemented with a full cohort of final-year undergraduate pharmacy students at the University of Sydney. A previously validated questionnaire testing the knowledge and attitudes of respondents was administered both before and after implementation of the designed workshop to evaluate changes resulting from the intervention. Informal feedback was obtained from students. Assessment. Pre-course mean total knowledge and attitude scores calculated were 65.8±9.1 and 86.4±12.1, respectively. The post-course mean total knowledge score was 74.9±8.1, and the attitude score was 88.8±9.1 Improvement in knowledge and attitudes was significant (p<0.05). Conclusion. Educational interventions for pharmacy students designed with careful attention to pedagogic principles can improve knowledge about evidence-based smoking-cessation strategies and enhance positive attitudes to pharmacist roles in smoking cessation. PMID:24249860
St. Onge, Erin L.; Hoehn, Katie
Social media sites are widely used among professional students and may offer an alternative means of communication for professors to utilize within their courses. Social media site usage has been characterized within healthcare education, however, data is lacking on its use within pharmacy programs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate social…
Marie A Chisholm-Burns; Christina A Spivey; Melanie C Jaeger; Jennifer Williams
To assess graduating pharmacy students' attitudes toward debt and determine associations with stress, student loan debt, financial need, current employment, post-graduation plans, and expected length...
Awaisu, Ahmed; Mottram, David; Rahhal, Alaa; Alemrayat, Bayan; Ahmed,Afif; Stuart, Mark; Khalifa, Sherief
Objective. To assess pharmacy students’ knowledge and perceptions of doping and anti-doping in sports and to explore the curricular needs for undergraduate pharmacy in the field of sports pharmacy. Methods. A cross-sectional, descriptive, web-based survey of pharmacy students was conducted at Qatar University College of Pharmacy from March to May 2014. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results. Eighty respondents completed the online survey (80% response...
Poirier, Therese I; Gupchup, Gireesh V
To evaluate changes in professionalism across the curriculum among pharmacy students in different classes. A professionalism instrument was administered early in the first (P1) year, upon completing the introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPE) near the end of the second (P2) year, and upon completing the advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPE) at the end of the fourth (P4) year. The professionalism scale and its subscales were compared for the 3 time points for the class of 2009. Significant differences were noted in professionalism scores between the P1 and P4 years and for altruism, accountability, and honor/integrity subscale scores for the class of 2009. No significant differences were noted when the scores for 4 P1 classes, and 3 P2 classes were compared. An increase in professionalism scores and altruism, accountability, and honor/integrity scores was demonstrated, providing evidence that the curricular and co-curricular activities in the school of pharmacy helped develop professionalism in the class of 2009 students.
Full Text Available Background: Sleep is an essential element for adolescent mental and physical growth and development, but today′s young adolescents are deprived of this. Earlier studies in Europe and America showed pitiable sleep quality of young college students, which affect their academic growth. However, as per our literature search there is a lack of such studies in Indian context especially, within pharmacy education. Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the interrelation between the demographic characteristics, life-style, and academic progress with sleep quality and sleep problems along with daytime and nighttime habits in young female pharmacy students of India. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire on sleep and daytime habits (QS and DH was prepared. Our sample survey consists of 226 female pharmacy students of Banasthali University. QS and DH of multiple choice type, covered demographic characteristic (3 questions sleep and daytime habits (25 questions, life-style and academic progress (3 questions, and one question of course curriculum. Parameters were co-related by point scale method using the SPSS 16.0 software. Results: Data derived and analyze from survey illustrated that quality of sleep was as: Excellent - 20.4%, good - 38.5%, satisfactory - 35.8%, poor - 4%, and very poor - 1.3% of participants. Living condition (ρ=0.168, P =0.011, academic progress (ρ=0.151, P=0.023, leisure activity (ρ=0.133, P<0.05, and daytime naps (ρ=0.160, P=0.016 were significantly correlated with sleep quality. In addition, daytime sleepiness caused a significant problem for students and created a number of sleep disorders. Nevertheless, Sleep quality was not associated with age, body mass index, and coffee in the late evening. Conclusion: Study reported that sleep associated problems were common complaints in female pharmacy students.
Lee, Benjamin J; Rhodes, Nathaniel J; Scheetz, Marc H; McLaughlin, Milena M
Objective. To describe the implementation of a near-peer training model within a student research program. Methods. A near-peer training model was implemented in a pharmacy student research program to promote development of effective teaching skills and research competencies. Under the supervision of a research mentor, senior learners precepted junior learners in various aspects of translational research. A three-step teaching process was employed throughout the experience in which junior learners performed an assigned task, senior learners provided guidance and mentorship, and research mentors provided feedback for improvement. Results. A total of 43 pharmacy trainees have participated in the student research program; each year of involvement now averages 15 to 18 students. The program has been responsible for almost 100 poster presentations at national meetings and more than 20 manuscripts in peer-reviewed journals. Funding through intramural grants and scholarships to compensate for conference expenses and other functions has also been awarded. Conclusion. Near-peer teaching supports a tiered-research model under the supervision of a research mentor. For health care systems and colleges of pharmacy with established research programs or those seeking to implement new programs, near-peer teaching appears to be a promising strategy to promote the development of research competencies in pharmacist trainees.
Christensen, Søren Troels; Søndergaard, Birthe; Honoré, Per Hartvig
PURPOSE: Post-marketing safety studies of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) form an important part of pharmacovigilance. Countries having a formal pharmacovigilance system to a large extent rely on voluntary ADR reporting from health professionals through spontaneous report systems. The contribution...... focusing on ADR detection and reporting in general. Ibuprofen was chosen as the drug of study. Pharmacy students approached recurrent drug users purchasing the drug. Participating users were asked about experienced ADRs linked to ibuprofen use. Reported ADRs were collected and analysed. RESULTS: Hundred...
Loo, Jason S E; Lim, Shiao Wei; Ng, Yew Keong; Tiong, John J L
To identify factors influencing the decisions of Malaysian first-year pharmacy undergraduate students in private higher education when choosing to pursue a degree in pharmacy as well as their choice of private university. This cross-sectional study employed a validated, self-administered questionnaire which was administered to 543 first-year pharmacy students from nine different private universities. Factor analysis was utilised to extract key factors from the responses. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. Eight factors motivating students' decision to study pharmacy emerged from the responses, accounting for 63.8% of the variance observed. Students were primarily motivated by intrinsic interests, with work conditions and profession attributes also exerting significant influence. In terms of choice of private university, nine factors were identified, accounting for 73.8% of the variance observed. The image of the school and university were most influential factors in this context, followed by university safety, programme attributes and financial factors. First-year pharmacy students in the private higher education sector are motivated by intrinsic interest when choosing to study pharmacy over other courses, while their choice of private university is influenced primarily by the image of the school and university. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Bardis, Panos D.
The author conducted a cross-cultural survey of attitudes toward the pill among university students, part of this international sample being a group of young Canadians. The subjects were students from a southwestern Canadian university and were stratified as to sex and amount of education. The author employed his Pill Scale, a 25-item Likert type…
Miquel, Laia; Rodamilans, Miquel; Giménez, Rosa; Cambras, Trinitat; Canudas, Ana María; Gual, Antoni
Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent in university students. Early detection in future health professionals is important: their consumption might not only influence their own health but may determine how they deal with the implementation of preventive strategies in the future. The aim of this paper is to detect the prevalence of risky alcohol consumption in first- and last-degree year students and to compare their drinking patterns.Risky drinking in pharmacy students (n=434) was assessed and measured with the AUDIT questionnaire (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). A comparative analysis between college students from the first and fifth years of the degree in pharmacy, and that of a group of professors was carried to see differences in their alcohol intake patterns.Risky drinking was detected in 31.3% of students. The highest prevalence of risky drinkers, and the total score of the AUDIT test was found in students in their first academic year. Students in the first academic level taking morning classes had a two-fold risk of risky drinking (OR=1.9 (IC 95%1.1-3.1)) compared with students in the fifth level. The frequency of alcohol consumption increases with the academic level, whereas the number of alcohol beverages per drinking occasion falls.Risky drinking is high during the first year of university. As alcohol consumption might decrease with age, it is important to design preventive strategies that will strengthen this tendency.
Laverty, Garry; Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Haughey, Sharon; Hughes, Carmel
.... Faculty members and students evaluated peer assessment, peer development, communication, critical evaluation, creative thinking, problem solving, and numeracy skills, as well as topic understanding...
Sahay, Sarita; Piran, Niva
Examines skin-color preferences and body satisfaction among South Asian-Canadian and European-Canadian female university students. Hypothesizes that South Asian-Canadians would display a greater wish to be lighter in skin color than would European-Canadians and that the discrepancy would be greater the darker their skin color. Reports that the…
Chang, Huan Ying; Wong, Li Lian; Yap, Kai Zhen; Yap, Kevin Yi-Lwern
Serious games are becoming popular in various healthcare domains. However, they should be designed to cater toward learners' perspectives, needs, and specifications in order to be used to their full potential in education. This study investigated the gaming experiences, motivations, and preferences of pharmacy students. An anonymous self-administered survey obtained participant demographics, gaming experiences (enjoyment level of different game genres, years of experience, gaming frequency and duration, and motivations), and gaming preferences (on in-game rewards, settings, storylines, perspectives, and styles). Descriptive statistics, t tests, analysis of variance, chi-squared tests, and Fisher's exact tests were used for analysis. The response rate was 69.1 percent (465/673 undergraduates). Role-playing games (RPGs) (4.12 ± 1.07) and massively multiplayer online RPGs (MMORPGs) (3.81 ± 1.26) had the highest enjoyment ratings. Males enjoyed imagination games (e.g., RPGs, MMORPGs) more than females, whereas females enjoyed simulation games more. Top motivating factors for respondents were progressing to the next level (3.63 ± 1.19), excitement (3.33 ± 1.33), and a feeling of efficacy when playing (3.02 ± 1.16). Unlocking mechanisms (25.2 percent) and experience points (17.6 percent) were the most popular in-game reward systems. Most respondents preferred a fantasy/medieval/mythic setting (59.8 percent) and an adventurer storyline (41.3 percent), with similar proportions preferring competitive (35.3 percent), cooperative (33.3 percent), and collaborative (30.8 percent) game styles. Different groups of pharmacy students differ in their gaming experiences, motivating factors, and preferences. There is no "one size fits all" game that is suitable for all pharmacy education. Such differences should be considered when developing a pharmacy game in order to cater to the diverse student population.
Gillette, Chris; Rudolph, Michael; Rockich-Winston, Nicole; Stanton, Robert; Anderson, H Glenn
Objective. To examine whether standardized patient encounters led to an improvement in a student pharmacist-patient communication assessment compared to traditional active-learning activities within a classroom setting. Methods. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with second-year pharmacy students in a drug information and communication skills course. Student patient communication skills were assessed using high-stakes communication assessment. Results. Two hundred and twenty students' data were included. Students were significantly more likely to have higher scores on the communication assessment when they had higher undergraduate GPAs, were female, and taught using standardized patients. Similarly, students were significantly more likely to pass the assessment on the first attempt when they were female and when they were taught using standardized patients. Conclusion. Incorporating standardized patients within a communication course resulted in improved scores as well as first-time pass rates on a communication assessment than when using different methods of active learning.
Echeverri, Margarita; Brookover, Cecile; Kennedy, Kathleen
Pharmacists play an increasingly important role in medication therapy management, which requires communicating effectively with patients. Pharmacy students completed the Self-Assessment of Perceived Level of Cultural Competence (SAPLCC) questionnaire, and their results were used to identify patterns in self-assessment of cultural competence. In general, students rated their knowledge as less than their skills and attitudes. Important differences were found by race, comparing each group with its counterparts: African American students rated their perceived competencies regarding patient discrimination and barriers to health care at a significantly higher level; Asian American students rated their attitudes to engaging in self-reflection and their knowledge in multicultural issues at significantly lower level; and White students rated their awareness regarding racial dynamics at a significantly lower level. It is recommended to consider the students' cultural, racial, and ethnic backgrounds before developing curriculum in cultural competence and, perhaps, to develop targeted educational interventions for specific groups.
Moore, R Joel; Ginsburg, Diane B
Objective. To understand what motivates student pharmacists to seek a leadership position while in the professional pharmacy program and why these students choose to lead in a particular organization. Methods. A qualitative study was used to answer the research questions. Current student leaders were recruited to participate, and each completed a pre-interview questionnaire and a one-hour interview. All interviews were transcribed, and an interpretive phenomenological approach was used to describe, code, and analyze the experiences. Results. Student leaders were motivated to serve in a leadership position for four reasons: networking opportunities, belief in an organization's mission, ability to affect change, and legacy. Additionally, prior leadership experience and influence played major roles in these student leaders' pursuit of a position. Conclusion. Networking, belief in an organization's mission, ability to affect change, and legacy are the four primary motivating factors for student leadership while in the professional pharmacy program. Knowing these factors should help direct resources in organizational and college efforts to produce qualified and impactful pharmacist leaders.
Nguyen, Teresa; Rascati, Karen; Temple, Holli
Previous research at colleges and schools of pharmacy showed that simulation learning is an effective method to teach pharmacy students about the issues patients face when prescribed complicated medication regimens. The purpose of this analysis was to compare reported medication adherence rates, perceived barriers, and methods used to increase adherence between undergraduate students and pharmacy students based on a medication-taking simulation course activity. In spring semesters 2014 and 2015, students in both a pharmacy course and an undergraduate seminar course participated in a short simulation involving a complicated medication regimen. Within one week of participating in the simulation activity, the students answered survey questions about the assignment through an online course sharing platform. Almost all students enrolled in the courses (237/246 pharmacy students and 34/36 undergraduate students) completed the assignment (> 96% response rate). A large percentage of each group reported some non-adherence; 95% (225/237) of first-year pharmacy students and 82% (28/34) of undergraduate students. The top two barriers reported were 1) simply forgetting and 2) difficulty following the food- and/or alcohol-related restrictions associated with some of the simulated medications. The top two methods used to increase adherence were phone/electronic reminders and paper/spreadsheet reminders. A limitation to this study was the small sample size of undergraduate students. Even though the response rate was over 96%, the course was a small seminar-type course. Although it might be expected that pharmacy students would be more adherent since they may have had experience with non-adherence issues while working in a pharmacy, opposite results were found. Since the students were relatively young, most had not personally dealt with a complicated medication regimen. Pharmacy students reported lower adherence to a complicated medication regimen than undergraduate students. The
Cain, Jeff; Scott, Doneka R; Akers, Paige
To assess pharmacy students' Facebook activity and opinions regarding accountability and e-professionalism and determine effects of an e-professionalism education session on pharmacy students' posting behavior. A 21-item questionnaire was developed, pilot-tested, revised, and administered to 299 pharmacy students at 3 colleges of pharmacy. Following a presentation regarding potential e-professionalism issues with Facebook, pharmacy students with existing profiles answered an additional question concerning changes in online posting behavior. Incoming first-year pharmacy students' Facebook usage is consistent with that of the general college student population. Male students are opposed to authority figures' use of Facebook for character and professionalism judgments and are more likely to present information they would not want faculty members, future employers, or patients to see. More than half of the pharmacy students planned to make changes to their online posting behavior as a result of the e-professionalism presentation. There is high social media usage among pharmacy students and many do not fully comprehend the issues that arise from being overly transparent in online settings. Attitudes toward accountability for information supplied via social networking emphasize the need for e-professionalism training of incoming pharmacy students.
Scott, Doneka R.; Akers, Paige
Objective To assess pharmacy students' Facebook activity and opinions regarding accountability and e-professionalism and determine effects of an e-professionalism education session on pharmacy students' posting behavior. Methods A 21-item questionnaire was developed, pilot-tested, revised, and administered to 299 pharmacy students at 3 colleges of pharmacy. Following a presentation regarding potential e-professionalism issues with Facebook, pharmacy students with existing profiles answered an additional question concerning changes in online posting behavior. Results Incoming first-year pharmacy students' Facebook usage is consistent with that of the general college student population. Male students are opposed to authority figures' use of Facebook for character and professionalism judgments and are more likely to present information they would not want faculty members, future employers, or patients to see. More than half of the pharmacy students planned to make changes to their online posting behavior as a result of the e-professionalism presentation. Conclusions There is high social media usage among pharmacy students and many do not fully comprehend the issues that arise from being overly transparent in online settings. Attitudes toward accountability for information supplied via social networking emphasize the need for e-professionalism training of incoming pharmacy students. PMID:19885073
Chalmers, Robert K.
The focus of pharmacy education and the preparation of pharmacy students for today's practice needs are discussed. Purpose and essential elements of contemporary pharmacy services, barriers on the achievement of the purposes of contemporary pharmacy services, levels of student learning, etc., are discussed. (MLW)
Tara T Feller; William R Doucette; Matthew J Witry
To summarize student pharmacist leadership development opportunities delivered by pharmacy programs, to describe selected opportunities, and to assess how these opportunities meet leadership development competencies...
Pate, Adam; Bratberg, Jeffrey P; Robertson, Courtney; Smith, Gregory
Objective. To describe the implementation and effect of an emergency preparedness laboratory activity on student knowledge, willingness to participate in emergency preparedness training, current level of preparedness, and the importance of a pharmacist's role in disaster response. Design. Second-year pharmacy students in the infectious disease module participated in a laboratory activity based on a basic disaster response tabletop exercise format. Three case-based scenarios involving infectious diseases were created by participating faculty members. Assessment. Surveys before and after the laboratory were used to assess the activity's effect on student knowledge, willingness to participate in emergency preparedness training, current level of preparedness, and the importance of a pharmacist's role in disaster response. In addition, the postsurvey assessed student perceptions of the activity's success at accomplishing faculty-specified outcomes from Appendix B of the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education's (ACPE) Standards. Conclusion. Implementation of an emergency response laboratory activity may improve overall students' knowledge of, confidence in, and understanding of their role as pharmacists in an emergency response, while incorporating a variety of skills and knowledge outcomes.
Kiersma, Mary E.; Keib, Carrie N.; Cailor, Stephanie
Objective. To evaluate pharmacy and nursing student self-perceptions of interdisciplinary communication skills, faculty member perceptions of interdisciplinary communication skills, and changes in those skills after increasing the interdisciplinary education content. Design. Two cohorts of pharmacy and nursing (bachelors of science in nursing, BSN) students in respective, semester-long research courses engaged in active learning on interdisciplinary communication, with the second cohort receiving additional content on the topic. At semester completion, students presented a research project at an interdisciplinary poster session. Assessment. Self-, peer-, and faculty evaluations (4 items; 5-point Likert-type) assessing self-confidence and actual interdisciplinary communication skills were completed during the poster session. Overall, students responded they were “very confident” or “extremely confident” regarding the skills, with greater confidence reported by the second cohort. Faculty members agreed that students exhibited effective interdisciplinary communication skills, with stronger agreement for the second cohort. Conclusion. Including interdisciplinary education and experiences in a curriculum increases students’ interdisciplinary communication skills. Using multiple interdisciplinary experiences may result in greater increases in these skills. PMID:26430270
Miller, Christina Jarvis; And Others
A study of substance use and abuse habits and attitudes of pharmacy students in eight institutions found substances used, in descending order of frequency, were alcohol, marijuana, amphetamines, and then all other drugs. Except for tranquilizers and heroin, all substances were used less by pharmacy students than by other students. (Author/MSE)
Ellis, Robert A.; Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Goodyear, Peter
This article reports on research into the student experience of enquiry in two tasks in a university pharmacy course. Students were required to investigate through a field trip how a community pharmacy operated to meet customer needs and the requirements of the Health System in which it operated. Students were also required to investigate…
... and (d) the effect of Canadian education on career options. The study revealed that Canadian-born Chinese students differed from their foreign-born counterparts in their viewpoints on ethnic identity...
Hall, Maurice; Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Quinn, Siobhan
To investigate students' views on and satisfaction with faculty feedback on their academic performance. A 41-item survey instrument was developed based on a literature review relating to effective feedback. All pharmacy undergraduate students were invited via e-mail to complete the self-administered electronic questionnaire relating to their views on feedback, including faculty feedback received to date regarding their academic performance. A response rate of 61% (343/561) was obtained. Only 32.3% of students (107/331) agreed that they were satisfied with the feedback they received; dissatisfaction with examination feedback was particularly high. The provision of faculty feedback was perceived to be variable in terms of quality and quantity. There are some inconsistencies relating to provision of feedback within the MPharm degree program at Queen's University Belfast. Further work is needed to close the gap between student expectations and the faculty's delivery of feedback on academic performance.
Awaisu, Ahmed; Mottram, David; Rahhal, Alaa; Alemrayat, Bayan; Ahmed, Afif; Stuart, Mark; Khalifa, Sherief
Objective. To assess pharmacy students' knowledge and perceptions of doping and anti-doping in sports and to explore the curricular needs for undergraduate pharmacy in the field of sports pharmacy. Methods. A cross-sectional, descriptive, web-based survey of pharmacy students was conducted at Qatar University College of Pharmacy from March to May 2014. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results. Eighty respondents completed the online survey (80% response rate). Sixty percent were unaware of the World Anti-Doping Agency, and 85% were unaware of the International Pharmaceutical Federation's statement on the pharmacist's role in anti-doping. Students' knowledge score regarding the prohibited status of drugs that may be used by athletes was around 50%. Fourth-year pharmacy students had significantly higher knowledge scores than the other groups of students. Respondents acknowledged the important role of health care professionals, including pharmacists, as advisors on the safe and effective use of drugs in sports. Ninety percent of the students supported the inclusion of sports pharmacy in the curriculum. Conclusion. Pharmacy students indicated a strong desire to play a role in doping prevention and ensure safe and rational use of drugs among athletes. They suggested requiring an education and training strategy for sports pharmacy in undergraduate pharmacy curricula.
Wallman, A.; Lindblad, A.K.; Gustavsson, Maria; Ring, L
Objective. To identify individual and social factors associated with pharmacy students level of reflection in an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). Methods. A postal questionnaire, including a reflective assignment, was sent to all pharmacy interns (n=262) at Uppsala University, Sweden, for 4 semesters in 2005-2007. Results. In a univariate analysis, 7 factors were found to be associated with students level of reflection. After controlling for covariates, 3 social factors were foun...
Murtaza,G.; Khan,S.A.; Murtaza (Junior),G.; Javed,K.; Akram,F.; Hamid,A.A.; Hussain,I.
Food and Drug Administration delivers the black box warnings (BBW) which should appear on the leaflets of medicines for patient awareness and the prescription of drugs indicating its highly fatal adverse effects to human body. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of Pakistani pharmacy and medical students about BBW. A questionnaire containing contents about BBW was given to the 1st, 2nd and 3rd professional year pharmacy and medical students from different pharmacy and medical in...
Wehle, Sarah; Decker, Michael
Objective. To investigate German pharmacy students' attitudes toward the relevance of organic chemistry training in Julius Maximilian University (JMU) of Würzburg with regard to subsequent courses in the curricula and in later prospective career options. Methods. Surveys were conducted in the second-year organic chemistry course (50 participants) as well as during the third-year and fourth-year lecture cycle on medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry (66 participants) in 2014. Results. Students' attitudes were surprisingly consistent throughout the progress of the degree course. Students considered organic chemistry very relevant to the pharmacy study program (95% junior and 97% senior students), and of importance for their future pharmacy program (88% junior and 94% senior students). With regard to prospective career options, the perceived relevance was considerably lower and attitudes were less homogenous. Conclusions. German pharmacy students at JMU Würzburg consider organic chemistry of high relevance for medicinal chemistry and other courses in JMU's pharmacy program.
Loewen, Peter S; Jelescu-Bodos, Anca
To characterize and compare learning styles of pharmacy practice residents and their faculty preceptors, and identify teaching perspectives of faculty preceptors. Twenty-nine pharmacy residents and 306 pharmacy faculty members in British Columbia were invited to complete the Pharmacists' Inventory of Learning Styles (PILS). Faculty preceptors also were asked to complete the Teaching Perspectives Inventory (TPI). One hundred percent of residents and 61% of faculty members completed the PILS, and 31% of faculty members completed the TPI. The most common dominant learning style among residents and faculty preceptors was assimilator, and 93% were assimilators, convergers, or both. The distribution of dominant learning styles between residents and faculty members was not different (p=0.77). The most common dominant teaching perspective among faculty members was apprenticeship. Residents and preceptors mostly exhibited learning styles associated with abstract over concrete thinking or watching over doing. Residency programs should steer residents more toward active learning and doing, and maximize interactions with patients and other caregivers.
Sansgiry, Sujit S; Bhosle, Monali; Sail, Kavita
The objective of this study was to examine factors such as academic competence, test competence, time management, strategic studying, and test anxiety, and identify whether these factors could distinguish differences among students, based on academic performance and enrollment in the experiential program. A cross-sectional study design utilizing questionnaires measuring previously validated constructs was used to evaluate the effect of these factors on students with low and high cumulative grade point averages (GPAs). Pharmacy students (N = 198) enrolled at the University of Houston participated in the study. Academic performance was significantly associated with factors such as academic competence and test competence. Students with a cumulative GPA of 3.0 or greater significantly differed in their level of test competence than those with a GPA of less than 3.0. Students enrolled in their experiential year differed from students enrolled in their second year of curriculum on factors such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, and time management skills. Test competence was an important factor to distinguish students with low vs. high academic performance. Factors such as academic competence, test competence, test anxiety and time management improve as students' progress in their experiential year.
Rodis, Jennifer L; Ulbrich, Timothy R; Jennings, Brandon T; Elswick, Betsy M; McKinley, Rebekah Jackowski
To describe the impact on community pharmacy service development of a faculty-student-pharmacist collaborative program offered by five U.S. colleges. Colleges of pharmacy and community pharmacies in Arizona, Illinois, Ohio, Utah, and West Virginia. Partner for Promotion (PFP) is an elective, longitudinal advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) focused on enhancement of community pharmacy management skills, specifically the development and implementation of direct patient care services. This faculty-student-pharmacist collaborative model has been implemented in five U.S. colleges of pharmacy beyond the originating institution. Data on pharmacy demographics and the impact of PFP on service creation and longevity at these partnering schools were reported via annual online surveys completed by faculty directors at each partnering college of pharmacy. Over a 3-year period, 19 pharmacy teams across five states worked to create a total of 15 direct patient care services, 12 of which were still being offered to patients at the time of data collection (80% longevity). The PFP program guided 38 students through the process of developing and implementing a sustainable service at a community pharmacy. All participating faculty from partnering colleges of pharmacy (100%) indicated that PFP model materials were "very useful" (4-point Likert scale; 1, not useful, to 4, very useful), and all five colleges plan to continue offering the program moving forward. The PFP model of training and service development can have a positive impact on the pharmacy profession, serve as an avenue for training students in the development of clinical services, and be a catalyst for establishing the growth of community pharmacy as a patient-centered, service-oriented partner in the health care system.
Mottram, David; Rahhal, Alaa; Alemrayat, Bayan; Ahmed, Afif; Stuart, Mark; Khalifa, Sherief
Objective. To assess pharmacy students’ knowledge and perceptions of doping and anti-doping in sports and to explore the curricular needs for undergraduate pharmacy in the field of sports pharmacy. Methods. A cross-sectional, descriptive, web-based survey of pharmacy students was conducted at Qatar University College of Pharmacy from March to May 2014. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results. Eighty respondents completed the online survey (80% response rate). Sixty percent were unaware of the World Anti-Doping Agency, and 85% were unaware of the International Pharmaceutical Federation’s statement on the pharmacist’s role in anti-doping. Students’ knowledge score regarding the prohibited status of drugs that may be used by athletes was around 50%. Fourth-year pharmacy students had significantly higher knowledge scores than the other groups of students. Respondents acknowledged the important role of health care professionals, including pharmacists, as advisors on the safe and effective use of drugs in sports. Ninety percent of the students supported the inclusion of sports pharmacy in the curriculum. Conclusion. Pharmacy students indicated a strong desire to play a role in doping prevention and ensure safe and rational use of drugs among athletes. They suggested requiring an education and training strategy for sports pharmacy in undergraduate pharmacy curricula. PMID:26689844
Beggs, Ashton E; Karst, Allison C
To assess the effectiveness of pharmacy student-led education in adults experiencing homelessness. Five groups of pharmacy students each developed three Bingo games focused on a primary care health topic (asthma, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, smoking cessation). Each group delivered the content via a one-hour class offered to adults experiencing homelessness at a local outreach organization. Class participants completed a seven-question survey following each class. Thirty-seven surveys were completed. Results indicated the pharmacy student-led classes were effective in increasing knowledge for the health topic presented. All participants indicated they would attend a future class led by pharmacy students. Adults experiencing homelessness find learning from pharmacy students about health-related topics effective.
Full Text Available Background: In Australia, the profession of pharmacy has undergone many changes to adapt to the needs of the community. In recent years, concerns have been raised with evidence emerging of workforce saturation in traditional pharmacy practice sectors. It is not known how current final year pharmacy students’ perceive the different pharmacy career paths in this changing environment. Hence investigating students’ current experiences with their pharmacy course, interaction with the profession and developing an understanding of their career intentions would be an important step, as these students would make up a large proportion of future pharmacy workforce Objective: The objective of this study was thus to investigate final year students’ career perspectives and the reasons for choosing pharmacy, satisfaction with this choice of pharmacy as a tertiary course and a possible future career, factors affecting satisfaction and intention of future career paths. Methods: A quantitative cross sectional survey of final year students from 3 Australian universities followed by a qualitative semi-structured interview of a convenience sample of final year students from the University of Sydney. Results: ‘Interest in health and medicine’ was the most important reason for choosing pharmacy (n=238. The majority of students were ‘somewhat satisfied’ with the choice of pharmacy (35.7% as a course and possible future career. Positive associations were found between satisfaction and reasons for joining pharmacy such as ‘felt pharmacy is a good profession’ (p=0.003 while negative associations included ‘joined pharmacy as a gateway to medicine or dentistry’ (p=0.001. Quantitate and qualitative results showed the most frequent perception of community pharmacy was ‘changing’ while hospital and pharmaceutical industry was described as ‘competitive’ and ‘research’ respectively. The highest career intention was community followed by hospital
Shen, Grace; Fois, Romano; Nissen, Lisa; Saini, Bandana
Background In Australia, the profession of pharmacy has undergone many changes to adapt to the needs of the community. In recent years, concerns have been raised with evidence emerging of workforce saturation in traditional pharmacy practice sectors. It is not known how current final year pharmacy students’ perceive the different pharmacy career paths in this changing environment. Hence investigating students’ current experiences with their pharmacy course, interaction with the profession and developing an understanding of their career intentions would be an important step, as these students would make up a large proportion of future pharmacy workforce. Objective The objective of this study was thus to investigate final year students’ career perspectives and the reasons for choosing pharmacy, satisfaction with this choice of pharmacy as a tertiary course and a possible future career, factors affecting satisfaction and intention of future career paths. Methods A quantitative cross sectional survey of final year students from 3 Australian universities followed by a qualitative semi-structured interview of a convenience sample of final year students from the University of Sydney. Results ‘Interest in health and medicine’ was the most important reason for choosing pharmacy (n=238). The majority of students were ‘somewhat satisfied’ with the choice of pharmacy (35.7%) as a course and possible future career. Positive associations were found between satisfaction and reasons for joining pharmacy such as ‘felt pharmacy is a good profession’ (p=0.003) while negative associations included ‘joined pharmacy as a gateway to medicine or dentistry’ (p=0.001). Quantitate and qualitative results showed the most frequent perception of community pharmacy was ‘changing’ while hospital and pharmaceutical industry was described as ‘competitive’ and ‘research’ respectively. The highest career intention was community followed by hospital pharmacy
Wallman, Andy; Lindblad, Asa Kettis; Gustavsson, Maria; Ring, Lena
To identify individual and social factors associated with pharmacy students' level of reflection in an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). A postal questionnaire, including a reflective assignment, was sent to all pharmacy interns (n=262) at Uppsala University, Sweden, for 4 semesters in 2005-2007. In a univariate analysis, 7 factors were found to be associated with students' level of reflection. After controlling for covariates, 3 social factors were found to be independently associated with reflection: having a formal preceptor (OR=5.3), being at a small pharmacy (OR=19.8), and students' perception of the importance of discussing critical thinking with the preceptor (OR=1.2). No correlation could be observed between level of reflection and critical thinking, nor learning style. Social components seem to be of higher importance than individual components in students' reflective levels after pharmacy internship experience. Trained preceptors are important to foster reflection skills.
Bradley, Fay; Steven, Alison; Ashcroft, Darren M
To examine how hidden and informal curricula shaped pharmacy students' learning about patient safety. A preliminary study exploring planned patient safety content in pharmacy curricula at 3 UK schools of pharmacy was conducted. In-depth case studies were then carried out at 2 schools of pharmacy to examine patient safety education as delivered. Informal learning from teaching practitioners was assigned high levels of credibility by the students, indicating the importance of role models in practice. Students felt that the hidden lessons received in the form of voluntary work experience compensated for limited practice exposure and elements of patient safety not adequately addressed in the formal curriculum, such as learning about safe systems, errors, and professionalism. Patient safety is a multifaceted concept and the findings from this study highlight the importance of pharmacy students learning in a variety of settings to gain an appreciation of these different facets.
Lindblad, Åsa Kettis; Gustavsson, Maria; Ring, Lena
Objective To identify individual and social factors associated with pharmacy students' level of reflection in an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). Methods A postal questionnaire, including a reflective assignment, was sent to all pharmacy interns (n=262) at Uppsala University, Sweden, for 4 semesters in 2005-2007. Results In a univariate analysis, 7 factors were found to be associated with students' level of reflection. After controlling for covariates, 3 social factors were found to be independently associated with reflection: having a formal preceptor (OR=5.3), being at a small pharmacy (OR=19.8), and students' perception of the importance of discussing critical thinking with the preceptor (OR=1.2). No correlation could be observed between level of reflection and critical thinking, nor learning style. Conclusion Social components seem to be of higher importance than individual components in students' reflective levels after pharmacy internship experience. Trained preceptors are important to foster reflection skills. PMID:19885076
Dana A. Brown
Full Text Available The medical mission field is an innovative setting for training and evaluating health care professional students. The motivating factor of serving indigent populations as a means of a humanitarian, or oftentimes a spiritual act, makes medical missions an attractive option for student participation. At the Gregory School of Pharmacy, medical mission teams are an integral part of the pharmacy program, including the opportunity for students to earn elective credit during their fourth year. This commentary provides five key elements to consider when serving with, training and evaluating pharmacy students from the perspective of a team leader and preceptor.
Objective. To identify the experiential and demographic factors affecting the self-efficacy and self-esteem of third-year pharmacy (P3) students. Methods. A 25-item survey that included the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the General Self-Efficacy Scale, as well as types and length of pharmacy practice experiences and demographic information was administered to doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students from 5 schools of pharmacy in New England at the completion of their P3 year. Results. The survey response rate was approximately 50% of the total target population (399/820). Students with a grade point average (GPA)≥3.0 demonstrated a higher significant effect from unpaid introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) on their self-efficacy scores (pstudents with lower GPAs. Students who had completed more than the required amount of pharmacy experiences had higher levels of self-efficacy and self-esteem (pstudents’ levels of self-efficacy and self-esteem. Conclusion. Self-efficacy and self-esteem are two important factors in pharmacy practice. Colleges and schools of pharmacy should ensure that students complete enough practice experiences, beyond the minimum of 300 IPPE hours, as one way to improve their self-efficacy and self-esteem. PMID:25258439
Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Spivey, Christina A; Jaeger, Melanie C; Williams, Jennifer
Objective. To assess graduating pharmacy students' attitudes toward debt and determine associations with stress, student loan debt, financial need, current employment, post-graduation plans, and expected length of time to repay loans. Methods. Survey was conducted using an attitudes-toward-debt scale (sub-scales: tolerant attitudes toward debt; contemplation and knowledge about loans; fear of debt), Perceived Stress Scale, and questions concerning current employment, estimated total student loan debt, post-graduation plans, and expected length of time to repay loans. Federal loan data were collected using financial aid records. Independent samples t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson's r correlations were conducted. Results. There were 147 students (96.7%) who participated. The majority were female (59.2%), white (69.4%), and had federal student loans (90.5%). Mean total loan amount was $153,276 (SD $59,810), which included federal students loans accumulated before and during pharmacy school. No significant differences were noted on attitudes toward debt or stress based on whether respondents had federal student loans. Greater "fear of debt" was correlated with increased stress, estimated total student loan debt, total federal loan debt, and pharmacy school loan debt. Greater "contemplation and knowledge about loans" was correlated with lower estimated total student loan debt, total federal loan amount, and pharmacy school loan amount. Students with higher "contemplation and knowledge" scores expected to repay loans within a shorter time frame than students with lower scores. Conclusion. Increased fear of debt was related to greater perceived stress and higher student loan amounts borrowed, while increased contemplation and knowledge about loans was associated with lower amounts borrowed. Educational programming concerning loans, debt, and personal financial management may help reduce stress and amount borrowed.
Assaf, Areej M
Stress in health sciences students has been studied extensively. Nevertheless, only few studies have been conducted on pharmacy students and nothing was done to compare stress effects on the immune responses of Pharmacy and Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students. The aim of this pilot study was (1) to measure the self-reported perceived stresses, immune-related diseases and health outcomes of pharmacy and PharmD students, (2) to investigate the relationship between perceived stresses, health outcomes and immune-related diseases and (3) to compare stress induced changes in the health and immune system of pharmacy and PharmD students. The study represents a cross sectional survey using an interviewer administered questionnaire about stress and students' health states during the fall semester of 2009/2010. At commence of this study, 222 of pharmacy and PharmD participant students (113 and 109 respectively) from the third and uppermost levels of study were picked up randomly. They were found to perceive stress related to program intensity, lack of exercise and social activities, bad nutritional routines and accommodation. Effects of increased study loads on students' health and immune-related diseases were more pronounced on PharmD students, while showing significant changes on Pharmacy students. In general, more than 50% of students of each program got ill several times, mainly during the midterm period, had cold/flu, were under medical care and had problems in skin and/or hair. Also, PharmD students reported relatively higher levels of perceived stress and lower emotional and satisfaction quality of life compared to Pharmacy students. Results may help to increase the awareness of students to get prepared to what they might face, and may enable them to reduce the program's negative effects.
Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Hirt, Jessie; Sears, Alan
Examined attitudes toward homosexuals among 199 male and female students at a Canadian university. Attitudes toward gay men were more negative than attitudes toward lesbians. For male students, attitudes toward gay men improved with time spent at college, suggesting the influence of college in reducing antihomosexual prejudice. (SLD)
Nykamp, Diane; Murphy, John E; Marshall, Leisa L; Bell, Allison
To examine factors that influenced doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students to collaborate with faculty members, preceptors, or others on scholarly activities that resulted in publication of an article in a pharmacy journal, and whether this experience influenced their consideration of a career in academic pharmacy. A 17-question survey instrument was e-mailed to student authors of papers published between 2004 and 2008 in 6 pharmacy journals. Responses were analyzed to determine factors influencing student participation in research and whether the experience led them to consider a career in academic pharmacy. Factors about their participation in the scholarly activity that respondents found valuable included personal fulfillment and making a contribution to the literature. Respondents indicated they were more interested in a career in academic pharmacy after their participation in the scholarly experience (p Participation in scholarly activities and student authorship of a peer-reviewed journal manuscript during pharmacy school may lead to increased interest in a career in academic pharmacy.
Bilger, Rhonda; Chereson, Rasma
Objective. To determine the types of balances used in compounding pharmacies: torsion or digital. Methods. A survey was mailed to the pharmacist-in-charge at 698 pharmacies, representing 47% of the pharmacies in Missouri as of July 2013. The pharmacies were randomly selected and stratified by region into eight regions to ensure a representative sample. Information was gathered regarding the type and use of balances and pharmacists’ perspectives on the need to teach torsion balance technique to pharmacy students. Results. The response rate for the survey was 53.3%. Out of the total responses received, those pharmacies having a torsion balance, digital balance or both were 46.8%, 27.4% and 11.8%, respectively. About 68.3% of respondents compound prescriptions. The study showed that 52% of compounding pharmacies use torsion balances in their practice. Of those with a balance in their pharmacy, 65.6% favored continuation of torsion balance instruction. Conclusions. Digital balances have become increasingly popular and have replaced torsion balances in some pharmacies, especially those that compound a significant number of prescriptions. The results of this study indicate that torsion balances remain integral to compounding practice. Therefore, students should continue being taught torsion balance technique at the college. PMID:28720913
Bilger, Rhonda; Chereson, Rasma; Salama, Noha Nabil
Objective. To determine the types of balances used in compounding pharmacies: torsion or digital. Methods. A survey was mailed to the pharmacist-in-charge at 698 pharmacies, representing 47% of the pharmacies in Missouri as of July 2013. The pharmacies were randomly selected and stratified by region into eight regions to ensure a representative sample. Information was gathered regarding the type and use of balances and pharmacists' perspectives on the need to teach torsion balance technique to pharmacy students. Results. The response rate for the survey was 53.3%. Out of the total responses received, those pharmacies having a torsion balance, digital balance or both were 46.8%, 27.4% and 11.8%, respectively. About 68.3% of respondents compound prescriptions. The study showed that 52% of compounding pharmacies use torsion balances in their practice. Of those with a balance in their pharmacy, 65.6% favored continuation of torsion balance instruction. Conclusions. Digital balances have become increasingly popular and have replaced torsion balances in some pharmacies, especially those that compound a significant number of prescriptions. The results of this study indicate that torsion balances remain integral to compounding practice. Therefore, students should continue being taught torsion balance technique at the college.
Pace, Adam C.; Greene, Joy; Deweese, Joseph E.; Brown, Dana A.; Cameron, Ginger; Nesbit, James M.; Wensel, Terri
The objective of this study was to develop and validate an instrument to assess the attitude of student pharmacists toward prayer in general and in particular as it relates to their academic performance. To fulfill the study objective, faculty from seven colleges of pharmacy located at Christian universities collaboratively developed the Student…
Sandeep Sachdeva; Malik, Jagbir S; Ruchi Sachdeva; Sachdev, Tilak R.
Objective: To determine level of HIV/AIDS knowledge among first-year MBBS, nursing and pharmacy students of a health university. Materials and Methods: A pre-designed, pre-tested, anonymous self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire was circulated among available 129, 53 and 55 first-year MBBS, nursing and pharmacy students during Oct′ 09. Data entry, management and analysis were carried out using MS excel and software statistical package. Result: Out of the total 237 students, there we...
Opoku-Acheampong, Adomah; Kretchy, Irene A; Acheampong, Franklin; Afrane, Barima A; Ashong, Sharon; Tamakloe, Bernice; Nyarko, Alexander K.
Background Stress among pharmacy students could greatly affect their learning activities and general well-being. It is therefore necessary to investigate how stress relates with the quality of life of students to maintain and/or improve their personal satisfaction and academic performance. A school-based longitudinal study was used to investigate the relationship between stress and quality of life of undergraduate pharmacy students. The 10-item perceived stress scale and the shorter version o...
Mazen El-Hammadi; Bashar Hunien
This study aimed to assess pharmacy students’ knowledge about doping substances used in sport, explore their attitudes toward doping and investigate their misuse of doping drugs. A questionnaire was developed and employed to collect data from bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) students at the International University for Science and Technology (IUST). Two-hundred and eighty students participated in this self-administrated, paper-based survey. Around 90% of the students did not appear to know that ...
Yusuff, Kazeem B
.... To assess the impact of active pedagogic strategies such as self-reflection and peer assessment on pharmacy students' academic performance and metacognitive skills, and evaluate students' feedback...
Bloom, Timothy J; Smith, Jennifer D; Rich, Wesley
Objective. To determine the benefit of pharmacy work experience on the development of student pharmacists' professional identity. Methods. Students in all four professional years were surveyed using a validated Professional Self-identity Questionnaire (PSIQ). They were also asked about pharmacy experience prior to matriculation and their performance on Drug Information tests given midway through the P1 year and at the beginning of the P3 year. PSIQ responses and test results were compared based on pharmacy experience. Results. The PSIQ was completed by 293 student pharmacists, for a 67% response rate, with 76% of respondents reporting pharmacy experience prior to matriculation. Statistically higher scores on responses to 6 of the 9 PSIQ Likert-type items were observed from students in the first professional year for those with pharmacy experience; however, only one item in the second year showed differences with none in the third and fourth years. No impact of experience was observed on Top 100 or Top 300 grades. Conclusion. Pre-matriculation pharmacy experience may increase development of professional identity early in the student experience but may have little impact on academic readiness. Schools and colleges of pharmacy hoping to recruit students with an early sense of professional identity should consider adding such experience to their admissions requirements.
Rabi, Suzanne M; Patton, Lynn R; Fjortoft, Nancy; Zgarrick, David P
To ascertain background factors that influence pharmacy students' willingness to cheat, describe attitudes regarding methods of cheating, assess prevalence of cheating and determine atmospheres that may aid in preventing academic dishonesty. Third-professional year PharmD students at 4 institutions participated in a survey administered by a class representative. Of the 296 students who completed survey instruments, 16.3% admitted to cheating during pharmacy school. Approximately 74% admitted that either they or their classmates had worked on an individual assignment with a friend. Students who cheated during high school or in a prepharmacy program were more likely to cheat during pharmacy school (p Academic dishonesty is prevalent among pharmacy students. While few respondents directly admitted to cheating, many admitted to activities traditionally defined as dishonest.
Rabi, Suzanne M.; Patton, Lynn R.; Fjortoft, Nancy; Zgarrick, David P.
Objectives To ascertain background factors that influence pharmacy students' willingness to cheat, describe attitudes regarding methods of cheating, assess prevalence of cheating and determine atmospheres that may aid in preventing academic dishonesty. Methods Third-professional year PharmD students at 4 institutions participated in a survey administered by a class representative. Results Of the 296 students who completed survey instruments, 16.3% admitted to cheating during pharmacy school. Approximately 74% admitted that either they or their classmates had worked on an individual assignment with a friend. Students who cheated during high school or in a prepharmacy program were more likely to cheat during pharmacy school (p Academic dishonesty is prevalent among pharmacy students. While few respondents directly admitted to cheating, many admitted to activities traditionally defined as dishonest. PMID:17136192
Williams, Jennifer; Feild, Carinda; James, Kristina
To examine how students entering a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program used Facebook privacy settings before and after the college's social media policy was presented to them. The Facebook profiles of all entering first-year pharmacy students across 4 campuses of a college of pharmacy were evaluated. Ten dichotomous variables of interest were viewed and recorded for each student's Facebook account at 3 time points: before the start of the semester, after presentation of the college's social media policy, and at the end of the semester. Data on whether a profile could be found and what portions of the profile were viewable also were collected. After introduction of the policy, a significant number of students increased their security settings (made information not visible to the public) related to Facebook walls, information pages, and links. Making pharmacy students aware of a college's social media policy had a positive impact on their behaviors regarding online security and privacy.
Okubo, Masato; Takahashi, Yuka; Yamashita, Jun; Takahashi, Hideyo; Miyata, Okiko; Suzuki, Takaaki; Ishii, Itsuko
Pharmacy education comprises basic pharmacy (organic chemistry, biochemistry, and physical chemistry) and applied pharmacy (clinical pharmacy, pharm aceutics, and chemical hygiene). Students are expected to apply these subjects studied in pharmacy school during their practical pharmacy training. However, knowledge gained in university does not appear to be fully utilized in practice. We hypothesized that this is due to a lack of connection between pre-practical training education and actual practical training. Thus, we conducted a questionnaire study among pharmacy students to verify this hypothesis. We sent a questionnaire to 601 students in their sixth year of the pharmacy course at Chiba University, Teikyo University, or Kobe Pharmaceutical University who had undergone long-term practical training. The questionnaire asked about the utility of each subject of study and the reason for the judgement regarding the utility. Four hundred and forty-two students replied (response rate, 73.5%). A small proportion of students found the basic pharmacy subjects useful: physical chemistry, 5%; organic chemistry, 10%; and biochemistry, 24%. In contrast, more than half of the students found the clinical pharmacy subjects useful: pharmacology, 85%; pharmaceutics, 55%; pathophysiology, 75%; pharmacotherapeutics, 84%; and pharmaceutical regulations, 58%. Analysis of the comments left in the free-description section on the questionnaire revealed that most students did not have any opportunity to use their knowledge of the basic subjects during practical training, and furthermore, did not learn the processes involving the use of such subjects to solve clinical problems. Universities and pharmacists need to collaborate so that students can learn such processes.
Hansen, Daniel J; Mort, Jane R; Brandenburger, Thomas; Lempola, Allison
To examine the relationship between students' prepharmacy repeat course history and their academic difficulties early in a professional pharmacy program in conjunction with other prerequisite success variables known to predict academic difficulty. For students admitted to a pharmacy program in 2010 and 2011 (n=160), admission variables [eg, prepharmacy coursework, grade point average (GPA)] and pharmacy program academic difficulty data (ie, academic difficulty defined as a pharmacy GPA in the bottom quartile of the class after 3 semesters of pharmacy course work) were extracted. Regression analysis was employed to examine the relationship between admission variables and academic difficulty. Twenty-six percent of the students (n=42) repeated a course, and 50% of these students (n=21) repeated more than one course. All of the admissions variables studied were found to individually increase the odds of a student having academic difficulty early in the pharmacy program. Specifically, repeat of a prepharmacy course increased the odds of academic difficulty threefold. Repeating prepharmacy coursework appears to be a strong indicator of future academic difficulties early in a professional pharmacy program.
Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Bandari, Deepak Kumar; Tefera, Yonas Getaye; Jamshed, Shazia Qasim; Elnour, Asim Ahmed; Shehab, Abdulla
Aim: To assess the attitude of medical and pharmacy students in Asian and African universities towards scholarly research activities. Methods: An anonymous, cross-sectional, self-reported online survey questionnaire was administered to medical and pharmacy students studying in various Asian and African universities through social media between May and July 2016. A 68-item close-ended questionnaire consisting of Likert-scale options assessed the students' research-specific experiences, and their attitudes towards scholarly research publications. Results: A total of 512 questionnaires were completed, with a response rate of 92% from Asia and 94% from Africa. More pharmacy students (70.8%) participated than medical students (29.2%). Overall 52.2% of the pharmacy students and 40% of medical students believed that research activities provided a means of gaining respect from their faculty members. Lack of encouragement, paucity of time, gaps in research activities and practices, and lack of research funding were some of the most common barriers acknowledged by the students. A nonparametric Mann-Whitney test showed that a statistically significant difference was observed, in that more than 80% of the pharmacy students viewed scientific writing and research activities as valuable experiences ( p = 0.001) and would like to involve their co-students in scholarly research activities ( p = 0.002); whereas the majority of the medical students desired to be involved more in scholarly research publications ( p = 0.033). Conclusion: Pharmacy students had good attitudes towards research activities and a higher number of medical students desired to be involved more in research publications. Faculties may consider taking special research initiatives to address the barriers and improve the involvement of medical and pharmacy students in scholarly research activities.
Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula
Full Text Available Aim: To assess the attitude of medical and pharmacy students in Asian and African universities towards scholarly research activities. Methods: An anonymous, cross-sectional, self-reported online survey questionnaire was administered to medical and pharmacy students studying in various Asian and African universities through social media between May and July 2016. A 68-item close-ended questionnaire consisting of Likert-scale options assessed the students’ research-specific experiences, and their attitudes towards scholarly research publications. Results: A total of 512 questionnaires were completed, with a response rate of 92% from Asia and 94% from Africa. More pharmacy students (70.8% participated than medical students (29.2%. Overall 52.2% of the pharmacy students and 40% of medical students believed that research activities provided a means of gaining respect from their faculty members. Lack of encouragement, paucity of time, gaps in research activities and practices, and lack of research funding were some of the most common barriers acknowledged by the students. A nonparametric Mann-Whitney test showed that a statistically significant difference was observed, in that more than 80% of the pharmacy students viewed scientific writing and research activities as valuable experiences (p = 0.001 and would like to involve their co-students in scholarly research activities (p = 0.002; whereas the majority of the medical students desired to be involved more in scholarly research publications (p = 0.033. Conclusion: Pharmacy students had good attitudes towards research activities and a higher number of medical students desired to be involved more in research publications. Faculties may consider taking special research initiatives to address the barriers and improve the involvement of medical and pharmacy students in scholarly research activities.
Kanayo P Osemene; Margaret O Afolabi
...). However, in Nigeria, PV activities are largely misunderstood. Furthermore, there is a dearth of information on the knowledge and perceptions of pharmacy students on PV activities in relation to demographics...
Alrakaf, Saleh; Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville; Smith, Lorraine
Objectives. To compare the achievement goal orientations of first-year with those of third-year undergraduate Australian pharmacy students and to examine the relationship of goal orientations to academic achievement.
Shi Wei Lee
Conclusion: The findings highlight that pharmacy students needs a better understanding of the principles and concepts of bioavailability and bioequivalence if they are to contribute appropriately to generic medicine use.
Yorra, Mark L
To identify the experiential and demographic factors affecting the self-efficacy and self-esteem of third-year pharmacy (P3) students. A 25-item survey that included the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the General Self-Efficacy Scale, as well as types and length of pharmacy practice experiences and demographic information was administered to doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students from 5 schools of pharmacy in New England at the completion of their P3 year. The survey response rate was approximately 50% of the total target population (399/820). Students with a grade point average (GPA)≥3.0 demonstrated a higher significant effect from unpaid introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) on their self-efficacy scores (pself-esteem (pself-esteem. Self-efficacy and self-esteem are two important factors in pharmacy practice. Colleges and schools of pharmacy should ensure that students complete enough practice experiences, beyond the minimum of 300 IPPE hours, as one way to improve their self-efficacy and self-esteem.
Landi, Macayla; Springer, Sydney; Estus, Erica; Ward, Kristina
After attending an educational session on hosting journal clubs at the 2013 Annual Meeting & Exhibition, American Society of Consultant Pharmacists, Seattle, Washington, two third-year professional pharmacy students created a student-run journal club through the University of Rhode Island's ASCP student chapter. Three journal club sessions were held during the spring semester and were open to all pharmacy students. Students completed an anonymous pre- and post-survey to assess confidence in evaluating medical literature. Of the 18 participants, 5 were lost to follow-up. Significant improvements were found among all participants in their confidence in critically evaluating clinical research, interpreting statistical methods, and completing a journal club during Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience rotations. This activity can be replicated in academic settings as well as workplace environments where pharmacy students are involved.
Vogler, Carrie; Arnoldi, Jennifer; Moose, Helen; Hingle, Susan T
The transition of care from hospital to home is susceptible to clinical errors and adverse drug events. Despite this risk and the benefits of an interprofessional approach to patient care, medicine and pharmacy do not often collaborate during transitions of care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of an interprofessional education experience consisting of medical and pharmacy students performing transitions of care. A total of 88 students (13 pharmacy students and 75 medical students) participated and were surveyed before and after the experience, to evaluate their confidence in performing aspects of the transition of care process as well as their attitudes towards interprofessional care. Pharmacy students had higher baseline levels of confidence compared with the medical students, and both student groups revealed a significantly greater level of confidence in their abilities after the experience. The impact of the experience on students' attitudes towards interprofessional care varied, with medical students showing very little change from baseline and pharmacy students showing improved attitudes in several areas. The results of this study have positive implications for an interprofessional approach to transitions of care while highlighting potential future areas of study.
Cheryl Ann Kier
Full Text Available This project ascertains how well students taking online, distance education courses at a Canadian university recognize plagiarised material and how well they paraphrase. It also assesses the types of errors made. Slightly more than half of 420 psychology students correctly selected plagiarised phrases from four multiple choice questions. Only a minority was able to rewrite a phrase properly in their own words. A more diverse sample of university students also had difficulty recognizing plagiarised passages from multiple choice options. The poor ability of students to identify plagiarised passages may suggest poor understanding of the concept. Students may benefit from training to improve their understanding of plagiarism.
Osemene, Kanayo P; Afolabi, Margaret O
The use of the modified-prescription event monitoring technique has facilitated the understanding and reporting of pharmacovigilance (PV). However, in Nigeria, PV activities are largely misunderstood. Furthermore, there is a dearth of information on the knowledge and perceptions of pharmacy students on PV activities in relation to demographics. This study investigated and assessed the knowledge and perceptions of pharmacy students about pharmacovigilance as well as the demographic factors that are related to pharmacovigilance activities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among final year pharmacy students in three universities in months of January and February, 2016 with permission from the institutions and with written consents from 342 respondents. Pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit information on the study objectives. Data were analysed using appropriate descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. The study revealed that the mean score on knowledge of pharmacy students on pharmacovigilance activities was 4.3 ± 0.18 which was significant according to gender (P activities which was significant at P activities. Therefore, pharmacy student educators should enhance students' knowledge about PV through training, during clerkship, and lay more emphasis on relevant PV courses in the Pharmacy Curriculum.
Waskiewicz, Rhonda A
To measure third-year pharmacy students' level of motivation while completing the Pharmacy Curriculum Outcomes Assessment (PCOA) administered as a low-stakes test to better understand use of the PCOA as a measure of student content knowledge. Student motivation was manipulated through an incentive (ie, personal letter from the dean) and a process of statistical motivation filtering. Data were analyzed to determine any differences between the experimental and control groups in PCOA test performance, motivation to perform well, and test performance after filtering for low motivation-effort. Incentivizing students diminished the need for filtering PCOA scores for low effort. Where filtering was used, performance scores improved, providing a more realistic measure of aggregate student performance. To ensure that PCOA scores are an accurate reflection of student knowledge, incentivizing and/or filtering for low motivation-effort among pharmacy students should be considered fundamental best practice when the PCOA is administered as a low-stakes test.
Keijsers, Carolina J P W; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; de Wildt, Dick J; Custers, Eugene J F M; Ten Cate, Olle Th J; Hazen, Ankie C M; Jansen, Paul A F
Pharmacotherapy might be improved if future pharmacists and physicians receive a joint educational programme in pharmacology and pharmacotherapeutics. This study investigated whether there are differences in the pharmacology and pharmacotherapy knowledge and skills of pharmacy and medical students after their undergraduate training. Differences could serve as a starting point from which to develop joint interdisciplinary educational programmes for better prescribing. In a cross-sectional design, the knowledge and skills of advanced pharmacy and medical students were assessed, using a standardized test with three domains (basic pharmacology knowledge, clinical or applied pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills) and eight subdomains (pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, interactions and side-effects, Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification groups, prescribing, prescribing for special groups, drug information, regulations and laws, prescription writing). Four hundred and fifty-one medical and 151 pharmacy students were included between August 2010 and July 2012. The response rate was 81%. Pharmacy students had better knowledge of basic pharmacology than medical students (77.0% vs. 68.2% correct answers; P pharmacology (73.8% vs. 72.2%, P = 0.124, δ = 0.15). Pharmacy students have better knowledge of basic pharmacology, but not of the application of pharmacology knowledge, than medical students, whereas medical students are better at writing prescriptions. Professional differences in knowledge and skills therefore might well stem from their undergraduate education. Knowledge of these differences could be harnessed to develop a joint interdisciplinary education for both students and professionals. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.
Ness, Genevieve Lynn; Sheehan, Amy Heck; Snyder, Margie E; Jordan, Joseph; Cunningham, Jean E; Gettig, Jacob P
To determine the use patterns of social media among graduating pharmacy students, characterize students' views and opinions of professionalism on popular social media sites, and compare responses about social media behavior among students seeking different types of employment. All graduating pharmacy students (n=516) at Purdue University, The University of Findlay, Butler University, and Midwestern University were invited to complete a survey instrument during the fall semester of 2011. Of 212 (41%) students who responded to the survey, 93% (194/209) had a social media profile. Seventy-four percent (120/162) of participants felt they should edit their social media profiles prior to applying for a job. Many graduating pharmacy students use social media; however, there appears to be a growing awareness of the importance of presenting a more professional image online as they near graduation and begin seeking employment as pharmacists.
Alrakaf, Saleh; Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville; Smith, Lorraine
To investigate the relationships between pharmacy students' preferred teacher qualities and their academic achievement goal orientations. Participants completed an achievement goal questionnaire and a build-a-teacher task. For the latter, students were given a $20 hypothetical budget to purchase amounts of 9 widely valued teachers' qualities. Three hundred sixty-six students participated. Students spent most of their budget on the traits of enthusiasm, expertise, and clear presentation style, and the least amount of money on interactive teaching, reasonable workload, warm personality, and intellectually challenging. In relation to achievement goals, negative associations were found between avoidance goals and preferences for teachers who encourage rigorous thinking and self-direction. These novel findings provide a richer profile of the ways students respond to their learning environment. Understanding the relationships between teachers' characteristics and pharmacy students' achievement goal orientations will contribute to improving the quality of pharmacy learning and teaching environments.
Hess, Rick; Hagemeier, Nicholas E; Blackwelder, Reid; Rose, Daniel; Ansari, Nasar; Branham, Tandy
Objective. To evaluate the impact of an interprofessional blended learning course on medical and pharmacy students' patient-centered interpersonal communication skills and to compare precourse and postcourse communication skills across first-year medical and second-year pharmacy student cohorts. Methods. Students completed ten 1-hour online modules and participated in five 3-hour group sessions over one semester. Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) were administered before and after the course and were evaluated using the validated Common Ground Instrument. Nonparametric statistical tests were used to examine pre/postcourse domain scores within and across professions. Results. Performance in all communication skill domains increased significantly for all students. No additional significant pre/postcourse differences were noted across disciplines. Conclusion. Students' patient-centered interpersonal communication skills improved across multiple domains using a blended learning educational platform. Interview abilities were embodied similarly between medical and pharmacy students postcourse, suggesting both groups respond well to this form of instruction.
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the impact of a national immunization training certificate program on the perceived knowledge, skills and attitudes of pharmacy students toward pharmacy-based immunizations.Methods: The study design utilized a pre- and post-survey administered to pharmacy students before and after the American Pharmacists Association’s (APhA Pharmacy-Based Immunization Delivery program. The primary outcome explored was a change in the perceived knowledge, skills, and attitudes of the pharmacy students. A five-point Likert scale (i.e. strongly agree = 5, strongly disagree = 1 was used for measuring the main outcomes, which was summated by adding the individual item scores in each section to form a composite score for each outcome. Results: The certificate training program resulted in a significant improvement in knowledge (38.5% increase in score, p<0.001 and skills (34.5% increase in score, p<0.001, but not attitudes (1% increase in score, p=0.210.Conclusions: The national immunization training certificate program had a positive impact on the perceived knowledge and skills of pharmacy students. However, no change was observed regarding students’ perceived attitudes toward pharmacy-based immunizations.
Muirhead, V; Locker, D
This study explored the relationship between dental school stress and social support reported by undergraduate students in a Canadian dental school. Students completed questionnaires comprised of Dental Environment Scale stress items, social support measures evaluating perceived contact and two proxy measures of social support (marital status and living arrangement). Sixty-two per cent of undergraduate students in all four academic years participated in the study conducted in March--April 2005. Second-year students living with parents had significantly higher adjusted total stress scores (P stress scores (P = 0.008). Social support systems utilised by students included teacher, parental, student and relationship support. Students who received more support from teachers and from students inside and outside dental school had lower adjusted total stress scores. Multiple regression analysis assessing the effect of social support on total adjusted stress scores identified two significant variables after adjustment: second-year students living with parents (P stress in Canadian dental students. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of social support and proxy measures as potential dental school stress alleviators.
To promote graduate students' active learning, deep reading of high quality papers was done by graduate students enrolled in biochemistry and microbiology pharmacy curriculum offered by college of life science, Jiangxi Normal University from 2013 to 2015. The number of graduate students, who participated in the course in 2013, 2014, and 2015 were…
Feller, Tara T; Doucette, William R; Witry, Matthew J
Objective. To summarize student pharmacist leadership development opportunities delivered by pharmacy programs, to describe selected opportunities, and to assess how these opportunities meet leadership development competencies. Methods. A multi-method study was conducted that comprised a systematic content analysis of pharmacy education journals, pharmacy program websites, and telephone interviews with key informants, which included open-ended questions and scaled responses. Results. Review of six articles, 37 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) Annual Meeting abstracts, and 138 websites resulted in the identification of 191 leadership development opportunities. These consisted of courses, projects/programs, and events/speaker series. Interviews with 12 key informants detailed unique events that developed leadership competencies. Formal assessments of student leadership development were limited and primarily focused on informal feedback and course evaluations. Conclusion. Most US pharmacy programs offer their students an array of opportunities to develop leadership abilities. Pharmacy programs should consider expanding opportunities beyond elective courses, learn from the successes of others to implement new leadership development opportunities, and bolster the assessment of student leadership competencies and outcomes.
Hartman, Rhea; Blustein, Leona; Morel, Diane; Davis, Lisa
To design and implement 2 pharmaceutical industry elective courses and assess their impact on students' selection of advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) and pursuit of pharmaceutical industry fellowships. Two 2-credit-hour elective courses that explored careers within the prescription and nonprescription pharmaceutical drug industries were offered for second- and third-year pharmacy students in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program. The impact of the courses on pharmacy students' pursuit of a pharmaceutical industry fellowship was evaluated based on responses to annual graduating students' exit surveys. A greater percentage (17.9%) of students who had taken a pharmaceutical industry elective course pursued a pharmaceutical industry fellowship compared to all PharmD graduates (4.8%). Of the students who enrolled in pharmaceutical industry APPEs, 31% had taken 1 of the 2 elective courses. Exposure to a pharmaceutical industry elective course within a college or school of pharmacy curriculum may increase students' interest in pursuing pharmaceutical industry fellowships and enrolling in pharmaceutical industry APPEs.
Clauson, Kevin A; Singh-Franco, Devada; Sircar-Ramsewak, Feroza; Joseph, Shine; Sandars, John
Social media may offer a means to engage students, facilitate collaborative learning, and tailor educational delivery for diverse learning styles. The purpose of this study is to characterize social media awareness among pharmacy students and determine perceptions toward integrating these tools in education. A 23-item survey was administered to 1st-year students at a multicampus college of pharmacy. Students (95% response rate; N = 196) most commonly used wikis (97%), social networking (91%), and videosharing (84%). Tools reported as never used or unknown included social bookmarking (89%), collaborative writing (84%), and RSS readers (73%). Respondents indicated that educational integration of social media would impact their ability to learn in a positive/very positive manner (75%) and make them feel connected/very connected (68%). Selectively targeting social media for educational integration and instructing pharmacy students how to employ a subset of these tools may be useful in engaging them and encouraging lifelong learning.
Funk, Kylee A; Kolar, Claire; Schweiss, Sarah K; Tingen, Jeffrey M; Janke, Kristin K
The script concordance test (SCT) is used to assess clinical reasoning and was originally developed for medical learners. The Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) endorses the need for pharmacy students to develop clinical reasoning skills, but there is little documentation of use of the SCT for pharmacy learners. A script concordance test activity was designed for a diabetes and metabolic syndrome pharmacotherapy course. Twenty-five cases were created and evaluated by an expert panel of 20 practicing pharmacists. Ten cases were presented as a formative activity in class. The students, design team, teaching team, and expert panel evaluated the activity. The SCT was received positively from the students, design team, teaching team, and expert panel. The design team noted that case writing was different for this approach and that the inclusion of various perspectives from panelists was beneficial. Although the activity was formative in nature, the teaching team scored the students and this provided insight into areas where the students may struggle. This report provides information on the formative use of the SCT in the classroom, as well as categories of items suitable for pharmacy. The SCT provides an approach to illustrate clinical reasoning and clinical decision making among content experts and can be used to stimulate clinical discussions among student learners and content experts. The SCT could help incorporate clinical reasoning skills in a pharmacy curriculum to meet ACPE standards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Haines, Seena L; Dy-Boarman, Eliza A; Clifford, Kalin M; Summa, Maria A; Willson, Megan N; Boyle, Jaclyn A; Peeters, Michael J
Objective. To identify the methods used by US colleges and schools of pharmacy to prepare student pharmacists for academic careers. Method. An 18-item survey instrument was developed and distributed to US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Representatives were asked about faculty responsibilities, experiences in academia currently offered to student pharmacists, and representatives' perception of their student pharmacists' preparedness for careers in academia, including barriers in current programming. Results. Representatives from 96 colleges/schools responded. The vast majority (96%) provided academia-focused advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs), 40% provided didactic coursework in academia, 28% offered a longitudinal research track, and 42% offered academia-focused independent studies. Teaching methods and creating learning objectives were the most common pedagogical content, while assessment activities were diverse. Time was the most prevalent barrier to providing training for academic careers; however, degree of student pharmacist interest, faculty inexperience, and lack of leadership support were also commonly reported. Conclusions: Colleges and schools of pharmacy vary in the extent to which they prepare student pharmacists for careers in academia. Advanced pharmacy practice experiences were the most common method of training offered. Standardization of training for academia may better promote this career path to student pharmacists.
Japan's Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare published "the required function and the desired operating form of a pharmacy" and proposed that "a pharmacy should demonstrate a positive role for the promotion of self-medication". In the future, it will be indispensable to pharmacies that pharmacists play a role not only in dispensing medicine but also in serving a central health-station role in the community, including promoting the self-selection of proper OTC medications for the maintenance of health. My pharmacy in a traditional area in Tokyo carries OTC drugs, health and nursing care goods, medical supplies, etc. besides dispensing medicine by prescription. Moreover, a "sample measurement room" where a person can conduct a blood test by self-puncture was prepared in April of 2014. In addition, my pharmacy has held "health consultation meetings" for patients in collaboration with a registered dietitian, as well as "meetings for briefing sessions on how to better take or administer medicines" for parents of infants, etc. These activities have been useful to local residents in the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases and in promoting a better understanding of medicine. Moreover, on-site student trainees from schools of pharmacy are helping with planning, data collection, and explanation on the days of these meetings. For trainees from schools of pharmacy, participating in these activities is important to becoming a pharmacist trusted at the community level in the future.
Hagemeier, Nicholas E.; Blackwelder, Reid; Rose, Daniel; Ansari, Nasar; Branham, Tandy
Objective. To evaluate the impact of an interprofessional blended learning course on medical and pharmacy students’ patient-centered interpersonal communication skills and to compare precourse and postcourse communication skills across first-year medical and second-year pharmacy student cohorts. Methods. Students completed ten 1-hour online modules and participated in five 3-hour group sessions over one semester. Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) were administered before and after the course and were evaluated using the validated Common Ground Instrument. Nonparametric statistical tests were used to examine pre/postcourse domain scores within and across professions. Results. Performance in all communication skill domains increased significantly for all students. No additional significant pre/postcourse differences were noted across disciplines. Conclusion. Students’ patient-centered interpersonal communication skills improved across multiple domains using a blended learning educational platform. Interview abilities were embodied similarly between medical and pharmacy students postcourse, suggesting both groups respond well to this form of instruction. PMID:27293231
Kiersma, Mary E; Plake, Kimberly S; Mason, Holly L
To assess pharmacy student involvement in leadership and service roles and to evaluate the association between admissions data and student involvement. Doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students were invited to complete a 56-item online survey instrument containing questions regarding leadership and service involvement, work experiences, perceived contribution of involvement to skill development, and perceived importance of involvement. Responses were linked to admissions data to identify possible associations. Five hundred fourteen (82.4%) pharmacy students completed the survey instrument. Students with higher admissions application and interview scores were more likely to be involved in organizations and hold leadership roles, while students with higher admissions grade point averages were less likely to be involved in organizations and leadership roles. Assessing students' involvement in leadership and service roles can assist in the evaluation of students' leadership skills and lead to modification of curricular and co-curricular activities to provide development opportunities. Student involvement in extracurricular activities may encourage future involvement in and commitment to the pharmacy profession.
Tamayo, Cassandra A.; Rizkalla, Mireille N.; Henderson, Kyle K.
Introduction: Empathy is an essential trait for pharmacists and is recognized as a core competency that can be developed in the classroom. There is a growing body of data regarding levels of empathy in pharmacy students; however, these studies have not measured differences in behavioral, cognitive, and emotional empathy. The goal of this study was to parse the underlying components of empathy and correlate them to psychosocial attributes, with the overall goal of identifying curriculum modifications to enhance levels of empathy in pharmacy students. Methods: IRB approval was obtained to measure empathy levels in pharmacy students attending Midwestern University. An online, anonymous survey administered through a secure website (REDCap) was used. This survey utilized the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (Medical Student version) and included questions regarding demographics and personality traits. Empathy questions were sub-divided into behavioral, cognitive, and emotional categories. Data are presented as mean ± SEM with significance set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: Three hundred and four pharmacy students at Midwestern University participated in a fall survey with an overall response rate of 37%. The average empathy score was 110.4 ± 0.8 on a scale of 20–140; which is comparable to empathy scores found by Fjortoft et al. (2011) and Van Winkle et al. (2012b). Validating prior research, females scored significantly higher than males in empathy as well as behavioral, cognitive, and emotional subcomponents. For the entire population, emotional empathy was significantly higher than cognitive and behavioral empathy (P empathy were observed for self-serving behavior (R D 0.490, P empathy levels in pharmacy students are similar to prior studies with females scoring higher than males. Emotional empathy may play a greater role than cognitive and behavioral empathy in this group of students. Targeted programs that promote volunteerism and activities that foster responsiveness to
Kearney, Kevin R
To describe the design of a required service-learning course offered to first- year (P1) pharmacy students, and to assess student learning and the relevance of this learning in the pharmacy curriculum. A 14-week service-learning course was designed and community organizations were recruited to participate. All first-year students enrolled in the School completed the course. A post-course survey was administered to the students, inquiring about what they had learned from the course; supervisors at the students' service sites also completed a short survey. The course and the student survey instrument were completed by 195 students, and of these 190 gave permission for the information they provided to be used in the study. Notable learning outcomes were identified, especially in the areas of communication and the social and behavioral aspects of pharmacy. The survey administered at the conclusion of the course described in this article demonstrated that students in the course had achieved the desired learning outcomes. This shows that service-learning is a pedagogy that educators can employ to effect relevant learning in the pharmacy curriculum.
Fjortoft, Nancy; Hojat, Mohammadreza
Objective. To measure changes in pharmacy and medical students’ empathy scores after a 40-minute workshop during which students observed and discussed a theatrical performance about the challenges of aging. Methods. First-year pharmacy and medical students (n = 187 and n = 183, respectively) participating in the workshop observed and discussed a 10-minute performance in which students enacted problems and concerns faced by elderly patients. The Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE) was administered just prior to the workshop (pretest), immediately afterward (posttest 1), and 7 or 26 days afterward (posttest 2). Results. Empathy increased significantly from pretest to posttest 1 for students of each profession (p empathy scores declined by the time the JSE was readministered to pharmacy students 7 days later and to medical students 26 days later (posttest 2). Similar patterns of improved and declining empathy were found when the data were analyzed by gender and medical student specialty interest (ie, primary vs non-primary care specialties). Conclusion. Empathy scores increased but were not sustained for both pharmacy and medical students after a brief workshop on aging that required limited personnel resources. PMID:22412208
Shi, Ru; Shan, Shou-qin; Tian, Jian-quan
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was given to 264 students in an undergraduate Pharmacy course at a military medical university. Selected MBTI personality types were compared for achievement in the course using a t-test to compare total points earned. High grades were earned by students stronger in the traits of introversion (I) and judgment…
Volino, Lucio R.; Das, Rolee Pathak
The objectives of this study were to develop a student self-assessment activity of a video-recorded counseling session and evaluate its impact on student self-perceptions of specific communication skills. This activity was incorporated into a core-communications course within the third professional year of a Doctor of Pharmacy curriculum. Student…
Kaartinen-Koutaniemi, Minna; Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari
This study examines interdisciplinary differences in final-year psychology, pharmacy and theology students' academic thinking and personal epistemology. The semi-structured interviews (n = 52) were analysed using content analysis to assess students' individual perspectives of the cognitive process of thinking, knowing and reasoning. The three…
Luiz Adrian, Julie Ann; Zeszotarski, Paula; Ma, Carolyn
To evaluate the impact on pharmacy students of a communication course, which used role-playing to develop active-learning skills. Students role-playing pharmacists in patient care scenarios were critiqued by students and pharmacist faculty members. Grading was performed using the rubric inspired by Bruce Berger's Communication Skills for Pharmacists. Written skills were evaluated using student written critique questionnaires. Students completed precourse and postcourse self-assessment surveys. Preceptor evaluations were analyzed for course impact. Students demonstrated improvement in oral skills based on role-play scores (45.87/50) after practice sessions. The average score based on the student questionnaire was 9.31/10. Gain was demonstrated in all defined course objectives. Impact on introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) communication objectives was insignificant. Student evaluations for course and teaching strategy reflected a high average. Study results demonstrated improvement in oral and written communication skills that may help improve interprofessional teamwork between pharmacists and other health care providers.
Rickles, Nathaniel M; Furtek, Kari J; Malladi, Ruthvik; Ng, Eric; Zhou, Maria
Objective. To describe the extent to which pharmacy students hold negative attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and to determine whether background variables, student knowledge, and professional attitudes may affect willingness to care for PLWHA. Methods. An online survey tool was developed and administered to 150 pharmacy students in their third professional year. Descriptive and stepwise multivariate regressions were performed. Results. While descriptive results showed a majority of respondents had favorable professional attitudes towards caring for PLWHA, most pharmacy students expressed discomfort with specific attitudes about being in close physical contact and receiving selected services from PLWHA. Multivariate results revealed that: (1) being a minority predicted greater knowledge; (2) having received prior HIV instruction and greater HIV knowledge predicted more positive professional attitudes caring for PLWHA; (3) being more socially liberal, having more positive professional attitudes caring for PLWHA, and having greater empathy towards PLWHA predicted student willingness to provide services. Conclusion. Future educational interventions specifically targeted toward socially conservative whites may impact greater student willingness to care for PLWHA. Additional research should also explore the generalizability of the present findings and modeling to pharmacy students in other regions of the country.
Employing ANOVA, factorial experimental analysis, and the theory of error, reliability studies were conducted on the assessment of the drug product chloroquine phosphate tablets. The G–Study employed equal numbers of the factors for uniform control, and involved three analysts (randomly selected final year Pharmacy ...
Limpach, Aimee L; Bazrafshan, Parham; Turner, Paul D; Monaghan, Michael S
To evaluate the overall effectiveness of a human anatomy course taught to distance-based and campus-based pharmacy students. A retrospective analysis of students' grades and course evaluations from 2003 through 2006 was conducted. No significant differences in student performance by pathway were found for the 2003-2005 academic years (p > 0.05). However, distance-based students' percentage and letter grades were significantly higher in 2006 (p = 0.013 and p = 0.004 respectively). Comparison of course and instructor evaluations showed that students in the distance course held similar or more positive perceptions of the course than their campus peers. Similar performance by campus and distance students enrolled in a human anatomy suggests that a distance-based course can be used successfully to teach human anatomy to pharmacy students.
Antworth, Allen; Maffeo, Carrie
To assess the accuracy of pharmacy students' self-assessment of body mass index (BMI) and determine the relationship of this to comfort level in counseling patients regarding lifestyle modification. A prospective, observational, cohort study was conducted that included first-, second-, and third-year pharmacy students who had previously undergone training in BMI self-assessment. Data on students' weight and height were collected and a survey that contained questions on self-perception of body weight and comfort with lifestyle counseling was conducted. Perceived BMI categories (underweight, normal, overweight, and obese) were then compared to actual calculated BMI to determine the accuracy of the student's self-perception. At baseline, participants' accuracy in self-assessment of BMI was 74%, 73.3%, and 75.6% respectively, for first-, second-, and third-year students (p=0.911). Students accuracy increased but not significantly as they progressed through the curriculum (7.2% and 13.3%, respectively; p=0.470 and p=0.209). Neither accuracy in self-assessment of BMI nor students' actual BMI significantly affected students' comfort level with lifestyle modification counseling within healthy weight, overweight, or obese patient categories. However, as the patients' BMI category increased, comfort level differences were observed among students of normal and overweight categories. Patients' BMI category may be a significant barrier to pharmacy students' comfort level in providing lifestyle modification counseling. This finding suggests the need to implement curriculum changes to better prepare students for lifestyle modification counseling.
Aubert, Pascale; Daigle, Marc S; Daigle, Jean-Guy
Suicidality has been related to inwardly directed aggression. We compared convenience samples of 89 Canadian students of Chinese origin (CC) and 81 Canadian students from other backgrounds on measures of suicidality, hostility and aggression. The Chinese Canadian group reported higher levels of suicidality and hostility than the group of other Canadians. However, aggressive behaviors directed toward self or others were less frequent among Chinese Canadians. No differences were found between men and women. The results are interpreted by invoking the influence of Chinese culture on emotional restraint, particularly as regards aggressiveness.
Smith, Lorraine; Krass, Ines; Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville
To compare longitudinal data with previous cross-sectional data regarding Australian undergraduate pharmacy students' approaches to learning, and explore the differences in approaches to learning between undergraduate and postgraduate cohorts. Longitudinal, repeated measures design using a validated self-report survey instrument were used to gather data. Undergraduate students' preferences for meaning directed, undirected, and reproduction-directed approaches to learning displayed the same pattern across the 2 studies; however, application-directed scores increased significantly in the second half of the undergraduate degree program. Commencing postgraduate students' approaches to learning were similar to finishing undergraduate students, and this group was significantly more oriented towards meaning-directed learning compared to undergraduate students. Pharmacy students' maturation in approach to their learning was evident and this bodes well for pharmacists' engaging in life-long learning and capacity to work in increasingly complex health settings.
Pittenger, Amy L; Lounsbery, Jody L
To develop a formative assessment strategy for use in an online pharmacy orientation course that fosters student engagement with the course content and facilitates a manageable grading workload for the instructor. A formative assessment strategy involving student-generated, multiple-choice questions was developed for use in a high-enrollment, online course. Three primary outcomes were assessed: success of the assessment in effectively engaging students with the content, interrater reliability of the grading rubric, and instructor perception of grading workload. The project also evaluated whether this metacognitive strategy transferred to other aspects of the students' academic lives. The instructor perception was that the grading workload was manageable. Using student-generated multiple-choice questions is an effective approach to assessment in an online course introducing students to and informing them about the profession of pharmacy.
Canadian Bureau for International Education (CBIE) - Bureau canadien de l’éducation internationale (BCEI), 2015
From the perspective of international students themselves, this paper identifies both internal and external barriers that impede the formation of friendships between international students and their Canadian counterparts across Canada's post-secondary campuses. Shedding light on why international students do not make friends with Canadian students…
Full Text Available Background: There is little data on the preferences of pharmacy students as regards their future pharmacy job choices in Africa and this has created concerns amongst licensing bodies, employers and also the institutions they graduate from. Objectives: Career choices and factors that influence these choices of pre-registration pharmacists were assessed. Methods: Final and fourth year students from three schools of pharmacy were approached with a previously validated and employed questionnaire comprising questions on future job choices and reasons for that job choice. Data collected were subjected to descriptive and inferential analysis. Results: Four hundred and eighty eight students took part in the study (response rate 71.5%. Majority (78.8% was younger than 26 years and had a work experience (68.2%. Job flexibility was significantly more important to females, while younger students considered salary most important (p<0.05. Hospital and community practice were most preferred career choices. Other demographic factors (especially gender, marital status, previous degree and previous work experience significantly affected career choices. Conclusion: Age, gender, and previous work experience affect career choices of graduating pharmacy students. Patient-oriented practices (e.g. hospital and community remain the most preferred careers.
Full Text Available Objective: To promote first year (P1 pharmacy students’ awareness of medication error prevention and to support student learning in biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences. Innovation: A novel curricular activity was created and referred to as “Medication Errors and Sciences Applications (MESA”. The MESA activity encouraged discussions of patient safety among students and faculty to link medication errors to biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences, which ultimately reinforced student learning in P1 curricular topics. Critical Analysis: Three P1 cohorts implemented the MESA activity and approximately 75% of students from each cohort completed a reliable assessment instrument. Each P1 cohort had at least 14 student teams who generated professional reports analyzing authentic medication errors. The quantitative assessment results indicated that 70-85% of students believed that the MESA activity improved student learning in biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences. More than 95% of students agreed that the MESA activity introduced them to medication errors. Approximately 90% of students agreed that the MESA activity integrated the knowledge and skills they developed through the P1 curriculum, promoted active learning and critical thinking, and encouraged students to be self-directed learners. Furthermore, our data indicated that approximately 90% of students stated that the achievement of Bloom’s taxonomy's six learning objectives was promoted by completing the MESA activity. Next Steps: Pharmacy students’ awareness of medication errors is a critical component of pharmacy education, which pharmacy educators can integrate with biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences to enhance student learning in the P1 year. Treatment of Human Subjects: IRB exemption granted Type: Note License: CC BY
Spivey, Christina A.; Jaeger, Melanie C.; Williams, Jennifer
Objective. To assess graduating pharmacy students’ attitudes toward debt and determine associations with stress, student loan debt, financial need, current employment, post-graduation plans, and expected length of time to repay loans. Methods. Survey was conducted using an attitudes-toward-debt scale (sub-scales: tolerant attitudes toward debt; contemplation and knowledge about loans; fear of debt), Perceived Stress Scale, and questions concerning current employment, estimated total student loan debt, post-graduation plans, and expected length of time to repay loans. Federal loan data were collected using financial aid records. Independent samples t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson’s r correlations were conducted. Results. There were 147 students (96.7%) who participated. The majority were female (59.2%), white (69.4%), and had federal student loans (90.5%). Mean total loan amount was $153,276 (SD $59,810), which included federal students loans accumulated before and during pharmacy school. No significant differences were noted on attitudes toward debt or stress based on whether respondents had federal student loans. Greater “fear of debt” was correlated with increased stress, estimated total student loan debt, total federal loan debt, and pharmacy school loan debt. Greater “contemplation and knowledge about loans” was correlated with lower estimated total student loan debt, total federal loan amount, and pharmacy school loan amount. Students with higher “contemplation and knowledge” scores expected to repay loans within a shorter time frame than students with lower scores. Conclusion. Increased fear of debt was related to greater perceived stress and higher student loan amounts borrowed, while increased contemplation and knowledge about loans was associated with lower amounts borrowed. Educational programming concerning loans, debt, and personal financial management may help reduce stress and amount borrowed. PMID:29109558
Yuen Teng Choo
Full Text Available Aim: To assess the importance of compounding training in today’s pharmacy education in Singapore, this study examined the perception of final year National University of Singapore (NUS pharmacy undergraduates on compounding training in pharmacy education and their awareness of compounding services in Singapore in relation to compounding pharmacists’ perception, practice and role of pharmacy compounding in Singapore. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out between November 2013 and January 2014. It comprised of a questionnaire survey conducted on 134 final year pharmacy undergraduates, and face-to-face interviews conducted on 7 retail compounding pharmacists. Questionnaire responses were analysed using descriptive statistics, while the interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed by thematic coding. Results: Less than 40% of final year pharmacy undergraduates were aware of compounding activities and compounding pharmacies in Singapore. Nonetheless, majority agreed that compounding should be included in the pharmacy curriculum (83.6% as it is an important part of pharmacy education (78.3% and pharmacy profession (61.2%. All the interviewed compounding pharmacists felt that compounding in pharmacy education has provided them with the basics to build on knowledge and skills at work. Compounded medications were also viewed as necessary by 71.4% of the pharmacists in fulfilling the needs of certain patient populations. Conclusion: Compounding training is necessary in pharmacy education. Pharmacy compounding has evolved from its traditional role into a professional speciality of customizing medications to meet different patient needs today. Hence, knowledge and skills in pharmacy compounding remain a relevant foundation for practising pharmacists to enhance pharmaceutical care at work.
Ryan, Greg; Bonanno, Helen; Krass, Ines; Scouller, Karen; Smith, Lorraine
To assess undergraduate and postgraduate pharmacy students' perceptions of plagiarism and academic honesty. A questionnaire was administered to undergraduate and postgraduate pharmacy students to determine their levels of awareness of university policy concerning academic honesty; attitudes to plagiarism by rating the acceptability of a range of plagiarizing and cheating practices; and choice of appropriate penalties for a first and second occurrence. The choice of behaviors in response to a scenario about the preparation of a reading-based written assignment and the strategies that students would be prepared to use in order to submit the assignment on time were also assessed. Findings indicated widespread deficiencies in student knowledge of, and attitudes towards, plagiarism. Students did not perceive plagiarism as a serious issue and the use of inappropriate strategies for sourcing and acknowledging material was common. The study highlights the importance of achieving a balance among the 3 dimensions of plagiarism management: prevention, detection and penalty.
Bonanno, Helen; Krass, Ines; Scouller, Karen; Smith, Lorraine
Objectives To assess undergraduate and postgraduate pharmacy students' perceptions of plagiarism and academic honesty. Methods A questionnaire was administered to undergraduate and postgraduate pharmacy students to determine their levels of awareness of university policy concerning academic honesty; attitudes to plagiarism by rating the acceptability of a range of plagiarizing and cheating practices; and choice of appropriate penalties for a first and second occurrence. The choice of behaviors in response to a scenario about the preparation of a reading-based written assignment and the strategies that students would be prepared to use in order to submit the assignment on time were also assessed. Results Findings indicated widespread deficiencies in student knowledge of, and attitudes towards, plagiarism. Students did not perceive plagiarism as a serious issue and the use of inappropriate strategies for sourcing and acknowledging material was common. Conclusions The study highlights the importance of achieving a balance among the 3 dimensions of plagiarism management: prevention, detection and penalty. PMID:19885074
Konduri, Niranjan; Gupchup, Gireesh V.; Borrego, Matthew E.; Worley-Louis, Marcia
The purpose of this study was to test and assess the reliability and validity of a modified stress scale in a sample of pharmacy graduate students. The modified stress scale was used as part of a larger, nationwide, study whose aim was to investigate the association of stress, perceived academic success and health-related quality of life among…
Fierke, Kerry K.; Lepp, Gardner A.
The article shares the outcomes of a practice called Intention/Reflection (I/R) when applied to a group of ten students in a five-week course involving an international advanced pharmacy practice experience. Developed by the authors and founded on a combination of theoretical principles, this practice is unique because of the blend of formative…
Ford, Kentya C.; Olotu, Busuyi S.; Thach, Andrew V.; Roberts, Rochelle; Davis, Patrick
Objective: The purpose of this study was to report on perceived stress levels, identify its contributing factors, and evaluate the association between perceived stress and usage of university resources to cope with stress among a cross-section of Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students. Methods: Perceived stress was measured via a web-based survey of…
Bernardi, Vincent W.; McCook, William M.
The general attitudes consistently held by undergraduates in clinically-oriented curricula toward pharmacy continuing education tend to be more like nonparticipants than participants in continuing education. Participant-pharmacists have more favorable attitudes than those classified as student or nonparticipants. (Author/LBH)
Islam, Mohammed A; Gunaseelan, Simi; Khan, Seher A
To develop and implement a research elective course to enhance skills of pharmacy students on primary literature evaluation and evidence-based practice on dietary supplements and generate scholarly publications. A 2 credit hour independent research elective course was designed and implemented in the third-year doctor of pharmacy curriculum. The course involved student-led research activities that included formulating research project, reviewing of primary literature, collection and evaluation of data, and writing of review articles for publication in peer-reviewed journals. An online survey was administered to evaluate students' perceptions of the course. Students successfully completed the course. The course resulted in peer-reviewed publications through student-faculty collaboration. Pharmacy students enrolled in the elective course perceived that the course helped them enhance their analytical reasoning, critical thinking and drug-literature evaluation skills, gain evidence-based knowledge, and apply the knowledge into practice during their advanced pharmacy practice experiences community pharmacy rotations. The course provided opportunity to the pharmacy students to not only critically search and evaluate the literature but also publish in peer-reviewed journals. Other pharmacy schools/colleges can adopt this course model to create opportunities for student-faculty collaborations toward scholarly accomplishments. © The Author(s) 2014.
Hardigan, Patrick C.; Cohen, Stanley R.
This study compared personality traits of students in five health professions. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator was completed by 1,508 osteopathic students, 654 pharmacy students, 165 physical therapy students, 211 physician assistant students, and 70 occupational therapy students. Comparing the extrovert/introvert dimension revealed that pharmacy…
Dipaula, Bethany A; Qian, Jingjing; Mehdizadegan, Niki; Simoni-Wastila, Linda
To determine whether an elective course on mental health could reduce pharmacy students' social distance toward people with severe mental illness. Course activities included assigned readings, class discussions, student presentations, review of video and other media for examples of social distance, presentations by patients with mental illness, and visits to hospitalized patients in a variety of psychiatric settings. The Social Distance Scale (SDS) was administered at the beginning and end of the semester to students enrolled in the elective and to a comparator group of students not enrolled in the course. Pharmacy students who did not complete the elective had significantly higher SDS scores than students who completed the elective (18.7 vs. 15.6, p < 0.001). Students enrolled in the course had lower precourse SDS scores, were more likely than their peers to have a personal association with mental illness, and had a decrease in precourse to postcourse scores. A course designed to reduce stigma towards the mentally ill can reduce pharmacy students' social distance.
Chen, Judy T.; LaLopa, Joseph
Objective To determine the impact of the Patient Empathy Modeling pedagogy on students' empathy towards caring for the underserved during an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). Design Pharmacy students completing an APPE at 2 primary care clinics participated in a Patient Empathy Modeling assignment for 10 days. Each student “became the patient,” simulating the life of an actual patient with multiple chronic diseases who was coping with an economic, cultural, or communication barrier to optimal healthcare. Students completed the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) before and after completing the assignment, and wrote daily journal entries and a reflection paper. Assessment Twenty-six students completed the PEM exercises from 2005-2006. Scores on the JSPE improved. Students' comments in journals and reflection papers revealed 3 major themes: greater appreciation of the difficulty patients have with adherence to medication and treatment regimens, increased empathy for patients from different backgrounds and patients with medical and psychosocial challenges, and improved ability to apply the lessons learned in the course to their patient care roles. Conclusion A Patient Empathy Modeling assignment improved pharmacy students' empathy toward underserved populations. Integrating the assignment within an APPE allowed students to immediately begin applying the knowledge and insight gained from the exercise. PMID:18483606
Sachdeva, Sandeep; Malik, Jagbir S; Sachdeva, Ruchi; Sachdev, Tilak R
To determine level of HIV/AIDS knowledge among first-year MBBS, nursing and pharmacy students of a health university. A pre-designed, pre-tested, anonymous self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire was circulated among available 129, 53 and 55 first-year MBBS, nursing and pharmacy students during Oct' 09. Data entry, management and analysis were carried out using MS excel and software statistical package. Out of the total 237 students, there were 123 (51.9%) female and 103 (44.0%) students from rural native place. A majority of students were able to correctly write the full form of AIDS (95.8%) in comparison to HIV (72.6%) and the difference between two terminologies were known to 87.6%, 81.1% and 70.9% of MBBS, nursing and pharmacy students, respectively. All four common routes of transmission of infection and methods of prevention were known to majority of the lot. However, injecting drug users (IDU) and truck driver as a risk category was correctly reported by 67.5% and 55.3% students, whereas 35.9% incorrectly mentioned that smoking is a risk factor for acquiring infection. A statistically significant (P pharmacy students were aware that infection neither spreads by social activities like handshake/playing nor by mosquito bite. However, low level was ascertained with regard to items related to non-curability of infection (57.4%) and availability of anti-retro viral therapy (27.4%). Overall high level of knowledge was recorded in the present study with a difference noted among students in three professional streams.
Full Text Available Objective: To determine level of HIV/AIDS knowledge among first-year MBBS, nursing and pharmacy students of a health university. Materials and Methods: A pre-designed, pre-tested, anonymous self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire was circulated among available 129, 53 and 55 first-year MBBS, nursing and pharmacy students during Oct′ 09. Data entry, management and analysis were carried out using MS excel and software statistical package. Result: Out of the total 237 students, there were 123 (51.9% female and 103 (44.0% students from rural native place. A majority of students were able to correctly write the full form of AIDS (95.8% in comparison to HIV (72.6% and the difference between two terminologies were known to 87.6%, 81.1% and 70.9% of MBBS, nursing and pharmacy students, respectively. All four common routes of transmission of infection and methods of prevention were known to majority of the lot. However, injecting drug users (IDU and truck driver as a risk category was correctly reported by 67.5% and 55.3% students, whereas 35.9% incorrectly mentioned that smoking is a risk factor for acquiring infection. A statistically significant (P <0.05 proportion of MBBS followed by nursing and pharmacy students were aware that infection neither spreads by social activities like handshake/playing nor by mosquito bite. However, low level was ascertained with regard to items related to non-curability of infection (57.4% and availability of anti-retro viral therapy (27.4%. Conclusion: Overall high level of knowledge was recorded in the present study with a difference noted among students in three professional streams.
Full Text Available This study aimed to assess pharmacy students’ knowledge about doping substances used in sport, explore their attitudes toward doping and investigate their misuse of doping drugs. A questionnaire was developed and employed to collect data from bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm students at the International University for Science and Technology (IUST. Two-hundred and eighty students participated in this self-administrated, paper-based survey. Around 90% of the students did not appear to know that narcotics, β-blockers and diuretics were used in sport as doping agents. Additionally, proportions between 60% and 80% considered vitamins, energy drinks and amino acids as substances that possess performance-enhancing effects. The main reason for doping, based on students’ response, was to improve muscular body appearance. The vast majority of students agreed that pharmacists should play a major role in promoting awareness about risks of doping. While students showed negative attitudes toward doping, approximately 15% of them, primarily males, had already tried a doping drug or might do so in the future. More than 60% of the students believed that sports-mates and friends are the most influential in encouraging them to take a doping agent. The study highlights the need to provide pharmacy students with advanced theoretical background and practical training concerning doping. This can be achieved by adopting simple, but essential, changes to the current curricula.
Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Huey, Gwyneth
Objective. To investigate students' use and views on social networking sites and assess differences in attitudes between genders and years in the program. Methods. All pharmacy undergraduate students were invited via e-mail to complete an electronic questionnaire consisting of 21 questions relating to social networking. Results. Most (91.8%) of the 377 respondents reported using social networking Web sites, with 98.6% using Facebook and 33.7% using Twitter. Female students were more likely than male students to agree that they had been made sufficiently aware of the professional behavior expected of them when using social networking sites (76.6% vs 58.1% p=0.002) and to agree that students should have the same professional standards whether on placement or using social networking sites (76.3% vs 61.6%; pnetworking use and potentially inappropriate attitudes towards professionalism were found among pharmacy students. Further training may be useful to ensure pharmacy students are aware of how to apply codes of conduct when using social networking sites. PMID:23459621
Wu, Kimberly; Davison, Lindsay; Heck Sheehan, Amy
To assess pharmacy students' perceptions of and attitudes towards the use of peer assessment within a drug literature evaluation course. A 15-item, electronic survey instrument was sent to 158 second-year pharmacy students enrolled in a 2-credit required literature evaluation course at the Purdue University College of Pharmacy. One hundred fifty-two (96.2%) responses were received. Approximately 95% of students agreed that they had the necessary skills to assess their peers and 91.8% agreed that their peers possessed these skills as well. More students agreed they were comfortable receiving feedback from peers (95.7%) than agreed they were comfortable providing feedback to peers (80%). The majority of students (91.9%) agreed that peer assessment was a skill they will use in their career as a pharmacist. Students were more comfortable receiving feedback from peers than providing peer assessment. This skill is used by pharmacists throughout their career; therefore, students should become familiar and comfortable with the peer assessment process.
Hall, Maurice; Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Huey, Gwyneth
Objective. To investigate students' use and views on social networking sites and assess differences in attitudes between genders and years in the program.Methods. All pharmacy undergraduate students were invited via e-mail to complete an electronic questionnaire consisting of 21 questions relating to social networking.Results. Most (91.8%) of the 377 respondents reported using social networking Web sites, with 98.6% using Facebook and 33.7% using Twitter. Female students were more likely than male students to agree that they had been made sufficiently aware of the professional behavior expected of them when using social networking sites (76.6% vs 58.1% p=0.002) and to agree that students should have the same professional standards whether on placement or using social networking sites (76.3% vs 61.6%; pnetworking use and potentially inappropriate attitudes towards professionalism were found among pharmacy students. Further training may be useful to ensure pharmacy students are aware of how to apply codes of conduct when using social networking sites.
Janke, Kristin K.; Boyle, Cynthia J.; Gianutsos, Gerald; Lindsey, Cameron C.; Moczygemba, Leticia R.; Whalen, Karen
To identify characteristics and quality indicators of best practices for leadership and advocacy development in pharmacy education, a national task force on leadership development in pharmacy invited colleges and schools to complete a phone survey to characterize the courses, processes, and noteworthy practices for leadership and advocacy development at their institution. The literature was consulted to corroborate survey findings and identify additional best practices. Recommendations were derived from the survey results and literature review, as well as from the experience and expertise of task force members. Fifty-four institutions provided information about lecture-based and experiential curricular and noncurricular components of leadership and advocacy development. Successful programs have a supportive institutional culture, faculty and alumni role models, administrative and/or financial support, and a cocurricular thread of activities. Leadership and advocacy development for student pharmacists is increasingly important. The recommendations and suggestions provided can facilitate leadership and advocacy development at other colleges and schools of pharmacy. PMID:24371344
Ross, Leigh Ann; Janke, Kristin K; Boyle, Cynthia J; Gianutsos, Gerald; Lindsey, Cameron C; Moczygemba, Leticia R; Whalen, Karen
To identify characteristics and quality indicators of best practices for leadership and advocacy development in pharmacy education, a national task force on leadership development in pharmacy invited colleges and schools to complete a phone survey to characterize the courses, processes, and noteworthy practices for leadership and advocacy development at their institution. The literature was consulted to corroborate survey findings and identify additional best practices. Recommendations were derived from the survey results and literature review, as well as from the experience and expertise of task force members. Fifty-four institutions provided information about lecture-based and experiential curricular and noncurricular components of leadership and advocacy development. Successful programs have a supportive institutional culture, faculty and alumni role models, administrative and/or financial support, and a cocurricular thread of activities. Leadership and advocacy development for student pharmacists is increasingly important. The recommendations and suggestions provided can facilitate leadership and advocacy development at other colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Graudins, Linda V; Dooley, Michael J
Medication Safety has been an established pharmacy specialty in Australian hospitals since the early 2000s and is now one of the ten Australian hospital accreditation standards. Although advances have occurred, medication-related patient harm has not been eradicated. Victorian undergraduate pharmacy programs include some aspects of medication safety, however clinical pharmacy experience, along with interpersonal and project management skills, are required to prepare pharmacists to be confident medication safety practitioners. This article outlines the range of medication safety-related training offered at an Australian tertiary teaching hospital, including; on-site tutorial for undergraduate students, experiential placement for pharmacy interns, orientation for pharmacy staff and resources for credentialing pharmacists for extended roles. Improvements continue to be made, such as electronic medication management systems, which increase the safe use of medications and facilitate patient care. Implementation and evaluation of these systems require medication safety expertise. Patients' engaging in their own care is an acknowledged safety improvement strategy and is enhanced by pharmacist facilitation. Building educator skills and integrating experiential teaching with university curricula should ensure pharmacists have both the knowledge and experience early in their careers, in order to have a leading role in future medication management.
Linda V. Graudins
Full Text Available Medication Safety has been an established pharmacy specialty in Australian hospitals since the early 2000s and is now one of the ten Australian hospital accreditation standards. Although advances have occurred, medication-related patient harm has not been eradicated. Victorian undergraduate pharmacy programs include some aspects of medication safety, however clinical pharmacy experience, along with interpersonal and project management skills, are required to prepare pharmacists to be confident medication safety practitioners. This article outlines the range of medication safety-related training offered at an Australian tertiary teaching hospital, including; on-site tutorial for undergraduate students, experiential placement for pharmacy interns, orientation for pharmacy staff and resources for credentialing pharmacists for extended roles. Improvements continue to be made, such as electronic medication management systems, which increase the safe use of medications and facilitate patient care. Implementation and evaluation of these systems require medication safety expertise. Patients’ engaging in their own care is an acknowledged safety improvement strategy and is enhanced by pharmacist facilitation. Building educator skills and integrating experiential teaching with university curricula should ensure pharmacists have both the knowledge and experience early in their careers, in order to have a leading role in future medication management.
Rose, Tyler M
To develop and evaluate a board game designed to increase students' enjoyment of learning metabolic pathways; their familiarity with pathway reactions, intermediates, and regulation; and, their understanding of how pathways relate to one another and to selected biological conditions. The board game, entitled Race to Glucose, was created as a team activity for first-year pharmacy students in the biochemistry curriculum. A majority of respondents agreed that the game was helpful for learning regulation, intermediates, and interpathway relationships but not for learning reactions, formation of energetic molecules, or relationships, to biological conditions. There was a significant increase in students' scores on game-related examination questions (68.8% pretest vs. 81.3% posttest), but the improvement was no greater than that for examination questions not related to the game (12.5% vs. 10.9%). First-year pharmacy students considered Race to Glucose to be an enjoyable and helpful tool for learning intermediates, regulation, and interpathway relationships.
Yorra, Mark L.
This doctoral thesis contributes to the literature on self-efficacy and self-esteem and the relationship to a student's school, age, gender, ethnicity, GPA, paid and introductory pharmacy practice experiences in a Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) program. Graduates with a high level of self-efficacy and self-esteem are more desirable as pharmacists…
Dahiya, Sunita; Dahiya, Rajiv
Theory and practicals are two essential components of pharmacy course curriculum; but in addition to appearing and passing examination with good score grades, pharmacy post graduation (PG) pursuing students are essentially required to develop some professional skills which might not be attained solely by conventional class room programs. This…
Donnelly, Amy; Shah, Smita; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia
Objectives: The aim of this study was: (1) to investigate the feasibility of incorporating the Triple A programme into the undergraduate pharmacy curriculum; (2) to compare the effect of the Triple A programme versus problem-based learning methods on the asthma knowledge of final-year pharmacy students and their perceived confidence in dealing…
Palisoc, Adrian Jason L; Matsumoto, Rae R; Ho, Jackie; Perry, Paul J; Tang, Terrill T; Ip, Eric J
Objective. To determine if Grit-S scores correlate with academic success in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program, as well as the pursuit and attainment of pharmacy postgraduate (residency or fellowship) training. Methods. A 28-item survey was administered to third- and fourth-year (P3 and P4) pharmacy students. Variables queried included Grit-S score, demographics, pharmacy experience prior to the PharmD program, and factors that may affect academic performance during didactic coursework. Didactic coursework GPA was used as a surrogate for academic success. Information about pursuit and attainment of a postgraduate training position was also documented and used in the analyses. Results. There was no significant correlation between Grit-S scores and variables related to academic success. However, students were more likely to pursue postgraduate training with higher academic success and higher Grit-S. Lastly, students with higher Grit-S were also more likely to obtain a postgraduate training position. Conclusion. Grit-S scores correlated with the pursuit and successful attainment of postgraduate training, but not with academic success during the didactic years of a PharmD program.
Czepula, Alexandra I; Bottacin, Wallace E; Hipólito, Edson; Baptista, Deise R; Pontarolo, Roberto; Correr, Cassyano J
Learning styles are cognitive, emotional, and physiological traits, as well as indicators of how learners perceive, interact, and respond to their learning environments. According to Honey-Mumford, learning styles are classified as active, reflexive, theoretical, and pragmatic. The purpose of this study was to identify the predominant learning styles among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil. An observational, cross-sectional, and descriptive study was conducted using the Honey-Alonso Learning Style Questionnaire. Students in the Bachelor of Pharmacy program were invited to participate in this study. The questionnaire comprised 80 randomized questions, 20 for each of the four learning styles. The maximum possible score was 20 points for each learning style, and cumulative scores indicated the predominant learning styles among the participants. Honey-Mumford (1986) proposed five preference levels for each style (very low, low, moderate, high, and very high), called a general interpretation scale, to avoid student identification with one learning style and ignoring the characteristics of the other styles. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. This study included 297 students (70% of all pharmacy students at the time) with a median age of 21 years old. Women comprised 77.1% of participants. The predominant style among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná was the pragmatist, with a median of 14 (high preference). The pragmatist style prevails in people who are able to discover techniques related to their daily learning because such people are curious to discover new strategies and attempt to verify whether the strategies are efficient and valid. Because these people are direct and objective in their actions, pragmatists prefer to focus on practical issues that are validated and on problem situations. There was no statistically significant difference
Guo, Shibao; Chase, Mackie
Fuelled by globalisation, the internationalisation of higher education in Canada is happening at a rapid pace. One manifestation of internationalisation is the increasing enrolment of international graduate students in Canadian institutions. Many of these students face challenges and barriers in integrating into Canadian academic environments…
Chicorelli, Jennifer; Dennie, Anik; Heinrich, Christina; Hinchey, Blake; Honarparvar, Faraz; Jennings, Morgan; Keefe, Chad; Metro, Trisha Lee; Peel, Celeste; Snowdon, Cordelia; Tempelman, Justine; Wong, Melody Elise; Forbes, Susan L; Livingston, Lori A
The purpose of this article is to report on the outcomes of an interprofessional education (IPE) consensus-building exercise amongst student leaders enrolled in health science-related degree programs. The 12 participants included undergraduate and graduate students from eight different universities situated in five Canadian provinces. Their areas of study spanned a broad range of professions and disciplines including child and youth care, health promotion, nursing, kinesiology, medicine, physical education, psychology, and social work. A consensus statement regarding IPE and, more specifically, "what we know," "what we don't know," and "where do we go from here" is presented. These insights are unique, and a willingness to embrace them may be critical in building the next generation of improved IPE offerings across the country.
Collins, Andrea; Broeseker, Amy; Cunningham, Jill; Cortes, Cyndi; Beall, Jennifer; Bigham, Amy; Chang, Jongwha
Interprofessional education (IPE) continues to gain traction worldwide. Challenges integrating IPE into health profession programmes include finding convenient times, meeting spaces, and level-appropriate assignments for each profession. This article describes the implementation of a 21-month prospective cohort study pilot programme for the Master of Science in nursing family nurse practitioner (FNP) and doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students at a private university in the United States. This IPE experience utilised a blended approach for the learning activities; these students had initial and final sessions where they met face-to-face, with asynchronous online activities between these two sessions. The online assignments, discussions, and quizzes during the pilot programme involved topics such as antimicrobial stewardship, hormone replacement therapy, human papilloma virus vaccination, prenatal counselling, emergency contraception, and effects of the Affordable Care Act on practice. The results suggested that the FNP students held more favourable attitudes about online IPE and that the PharmD students reported having a clearer understanding of their own roles and those of the other participating healthcare students. However, the students also reported wanting more face-to-face interaction during their online IPE experience. Implications from this study suggest that effective online IPE can be supported by ensuring educational parity between students regarding the various topics discussed and a consistent approach of the required involvement for all student groups is needed. In addition, given the students desire for more face-to-face interaction, it may be beneficial to offer online IPE activities for a shorter time period. It is anticipated that this study may inform other programmes that are exploring innovative approaches to provide IPE to promote effective collaboration in patient care.
Cassandra A. Tamayo
Full Text Available Introduction: Empathy is an essential trait for pharmacists and is recognized as a core competency that can be developed in the classroom. There is a growing body of data regarding levels of empathy in pharmacy students; however, these studies have not measured differences in behavioral, cognitive, and emotional empathy. The goal of this study was to parse the underlying components of empathy and correlate them to psychosocial attributes, with the overall goal of identifying curriculum modifications to enhance levels of empathy in pharmacy students.Methods: IRB approval was obtained to measure empathy levels in pharmacy students attending Midwestern University. An online, anonymous survey administered through a secure website (REDCap was used. This survey utilized the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (Medical Student version and included questions regarding demographics and personality traits. Empathy questions were sub-divided into behavioral, cognitive, and emotional categories. Data are presented as mean ± SEM with significance set at P < 0.05.Results: Three hundred and four pharmacy students at Midwestern University participated in a fall survey with an overall response rate of 37%. The average empathy score was 110.4 ± 0.8 on a scale of 20-140; which is comparable to empathy scores found by Fjortoft et al. and Van Winkle et al. Validating prior research, females scored significantly higher than males in empathy as well as behavioral, cognitive, and emotional subcomponents. For the entire population, emotional empathy was significantly higher than cognitive and behavioral empathy (P < 0.05. Furthermore, negative correlations to empathy were observed for self-serving behavior (R = 0.490, P < 0.001, medical authoritarianism (R = 0.428, P < 0.001, and experience of coercion (R = 0.344, P < 0.001. Conclusion: Overall, empathy levels in pharmacy students are similar to prior studies with females scoring higher than males. Emotional empathy may play a
Conway, Jeannine M; Ahmed, Ghada F
To implement and assess the effectiveness of a capstone pharmacotherapy course designed to integrate in-class curriculum using patient cases and drug-information questions. The course was intended to improve third-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students' clinical documentation skills in preparation for beginning advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). This 2-credit, semester-long course consisted of 6 patient cases and 12 drug-information questions posted electronically on an Internet-based medical chart, a public health presentation, a knowledge examination, and an objective standardized performance assessment. In class, students engaged in active-learning exercises and clinical problem-solving. Students worked outside of class in small groups to retrieve and discuss assigned articles and review medication information in preparation for in-class discussions. A rubric was used to assess the patient cases and questions that students completed and submitted individually. Data for 4 consecutive course offerings (n=622) were then analyzed. A significant improvement was found in the "misplaced" but not the "missing" documentation ratings for both assessment and plan notes in the final assessment compared with baseline. In course evaluations, the majority of students agreed that the course integrated material across the curriculum (97%) and improved their clinical writing skills (80.5%). A capstone pharmacy course was successful in integrating and reviewing much of the material covered across the PharmD curriculum and in improving students' clinical documentation skills.
Awé, Clara; Gaither, Caroline A; Crawford, Stephanie Y; Tieman, Jami
Objective. To compare perceived levels of stress, stressors, and academic self-efficacy among students at two multicampus colleges of pharmacy. Methods. A survey instrument using previously validated items was developed and administered to first-year, second-year, and third-year pharmacy students at two universities with multiple campuses in spring 2013. Results. Eight hundred twenty students out of 1115 responded (73.5% response rate). Institutional differences were found in perceived student stress levels, self-efficacy, and stress-related causes. An interaction effect was demonstrated between institution and campus type (main or branch) for perceived stress and self-efficacy although campus type alone did not demonstrate a direct effect. Institutional and campus differences existed in awareness of campus counseling services, as did a few differences in coping methods. Conclusion. Stress measures were similar for pharmacy students at main or branch campuses. Institutional differences in student stress might be explained by instructional methods, campus support services, institutional climate, and nonuniversity factors.
Kalata, Lindsay R; Abate, Marie A
Objective. To evaluate pharmacy students' self-assessment skills with an electronic portfolio program using mentor evaluators. Design. First-year (P1) and second-year (P2) pharmacy students used online portfolios that required self-assessments of specific graded class assignments. Using a rubric, faculty and alumni mentors evaluated students' self-assessments and provided feedback. Assessment. Eighty-four P1 students, 74 P2 students, and 59 mentors participated in the portfolio program during 2010-2011. Both student groups performed well overall, with only a small number of resubmissions required. P1 students showed significant improvements across semesters for 2 of the self-assessment questions; P2 students' scores did not differ significantly. The P1 scores were significantly higher than P2 scores for 3 questions during spring 2011. Mentors and students had similar levels of agreement with the extent to which students put forth their best effort on the self-assessments. Conclusion. An electronic portfolio using mentors based inside and outside the school provided students with many opportunities to practice their self-assessment skills. This system represents a useful method of incorporating self-assessments into the curriculum that allows for feedback to be provided to the students.
Full Text Available Background: Learning styles are cognitive, emotional, and physiological traits, as well as indicators of how learners perceive, interact, and respond to their learning environments. According to Honey-Mumford, learning styles are classified as active, reflexive, theoretical, and pragmatic. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the predominant learning styles among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional, and descriptive study was conducted using the Honey-Alonso Learning Style Questionnaire. Students in the Bachelor of Pharmacy program were invited to participate in this study. The questionnaire comprised 80 randomized questions, 20 for each of the four learning styles. The maximum possible score was 20 points for each learning style, and cumulative scores indicated the predominant learning styles among the participants. Honey-Mumford (1986 proposed five preference levels for each style (very low, low, moderate, high, and very high, called a general interpretation scale, to avoid student identification with one learning style and ignoring the characteristics of the other styles. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0. Results: This study included 297 students (70% of all pharmacy students at the time with a median age of 21 years old. Women comprised 77.1% of participants. The predominant style among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná was the pragmatist, with a median of 14 (high preference. The pragmatist style prevails in people who are able to discover techniques related to their daily learning because such people are curious to discover new strategies and attempt to verify whether the strategies are efficient and valid. Because these people are direct and objective in their actions, pragmatists prefer to focus on practical issues that are validated and on problem situations
Czepula, Alexandra I.; Bottacin, Wallace E.; Hipólito, Edson; Baptista, Deise R.; Pontarolo, Roberto; Correr, Cassyano J.
Background: Learning styles are cognitive, emotional, and physiological traits, as well as indicators of how learners perceive, interact, and respond to their learning environments. According to Honey-Mumford, learning styles are classified as active, reflexive, theoretical, and pragmatic. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the predominant learning styles among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional, and descriptive study was conducted using the Honey-Alonso Learning Style Questionnaire. Students in the Bachelor of Pharmacy program were invited to participate in this study. The questionnaire comprised 80 randomized questions, 20 for each of the four learning styles. The maximum possible score was 20 points for each learning style, and cumulative scores indicated the predominant learning styles among the participants. Honey-Mumford (1986) proposed five preference levels for each style (very low, low, moderate, high, and very high), called a general interpretation scale, to avoid student identification with one learning style and ignoring the characteristics of the other styles. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Results: This study included 297 students (70% of all pharmacy students at the time) with a median age of 21 years old. Women comprised 77.1% of participants. The predominant style among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná was the pragmatist, with a median of 14 (high preference). The pragmatist style prevails in people who are able to discover techniques related to their daily learning because such people are curious to discover new strategies and attempt to verify whether the strategies are efficient and valid. Because these people are direct and objective in their actions, pragmatists prefer to focus on practical issues that are validated and on problem situations. There was no
Bradley, Courtney L; Khanova, Julia; Scolaro, Kelly L
Objectives. To determine if a teaching assistant (TA) program for third-year pharmacy students (PY3s) improves confidence in teaching abilities. Additionally, 3 assessment methods (faculty, student, and TA self-evaluations) were compared for similarities and correlations. Methods. An application and interview process was used to select 21 pharmacy students to serve as TAs for the Pharmaceutical Care Laboratory course for 2 semesters. Participants' self-perceived confidence in teaching abilities was assessed at the start, midpoint, and conclusion of the program. The relationships between the scores were analyzed using 3 assessment methods. Results. All 21 TAs agreed to participate in the study and completed the 2 teaching semesters. The TAs confidence in overall teaching abilities increased significantly (80.7 vs 91.4, pteaching abilities. The lack of correlation among the assessment methods highlights the importance of various forms of feedback.
Garber, Mathew C
Objective. To assess the coping mechanisms used by pharmacy students and their relationship to perceived stress. Methods. Data were gathered utilizing the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS10) and Brief COPE with the additional coping mechanisms of exercise and use of prescribed medications. Results. A survey that was sent to 368 students had an 81% response rate. Perceived stress was significantly higher than standard populations, but consistent with other pharmacy student populations. The most frequently reported coping mechanisms were the adaptive strategies of active coping, acceptance and planning. Maladaptive strategies of behavioral disengagement, venting and self-blame were significantly associated with higher perceived stress scores and the new addition of an exercise coping mechanism significantly associated with lower perceived stress scores. Use of prescribed medications was not significantly associated with perceived stress levels. Conclusion. Inclusion of exercise as a coping mechanism may be beneficial in similar populations.
Hobson, Eric H; Waite, Nancy M; Briceland, Laurie L
The range of writing tasks undertaken by students during doctor of pharmacy clerkship rotations was studied. Data collection involved a review between August and November 1998 of writing samples selected by postbaccalaureate Pharm. D. students at Albany College of Pharmacy for inclusion in their required writing portfolios. The first 200 samples (accounted for by 35 students each submitting two documents for each of three clerkship rotations) were reviewed. Of these, 198 were coded to identify the four rhetorical components of clerkship location, document type, intended audience, and rhetorical purpose. Institutional sites served as the clerkship location for 164 (82.8%) of the 198 documents analyzed. The documents were placed in 28 categories; 5 of these accounted for 126 (63.6%) of the documents: 45 inservice presentations, 32 summaries, 18 patient case write-ups, 16 formulary reviews, and 15 newsletters. Students wrote most frequently to health care providers (34.8%), other pharmacists (32.3%), and teachers (16.7%), with the most frequent rhetorical purposes being informing (73.2%) and demonstrating (14.6%). Analysis of writing samples prepared by pharmacy students during clerkship rotations revealed a variety of clerkship sites, document types, audiences, and rhetorical purposes.
Dopp, Anna Legreid; Dopp, John M.; Vardeny, Orly; Sims, J. Jason
Objectives To assess pharmacy students' retention of knowledge about appropriate automated external defibrillator use and counseling points following didactic training and simulated experience. Design Following a lecture on sudden cardiac arrest and automated external defibrillator use, second-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students were assessed on their ability to perform basic life support and deliver a shock at baseline, 3 weeks, and 4 months. Students completed a questionnaire to evaluate recall of counseling points for laypeople/the public. Assessment Mean time to shock delivery at baseline was 74 ± 25 seconds, which improved significantly at 3 weeks (50 ± 17 seconds, p defibrillator counseling points was diminished after 4 months. Conclusion Pharmacy students can use automated external defibrillators to quickly deliver a shock and are able to retain this ability after 4 months. Refresher training/courses will be required to improve students' retention of automated external defibrillator counseling points to ensure their ability to deliver appropriate patient education. PMID:21045951
Alrakaf, Saleh; Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville; Smith, Lorraine
To compare the achievement goal orientations of first-year with those of third-year undergraduate Australian pharmacy students and to examine the relationship of goal orientations to academic achievement. The Achievement Goal Questionnaire was administered to first-year and third-year students during class time. Students' grades were obtained from course coordinators. More first-year students adopted performance-approach and mastery-approach goals than did third-year students. Performance-approach goals were positively correlated with academic achievement in the first year. Chinese Australian students scored the highest in adopting performance-approach goals. Vietnamese Australian students adopted mastery-avoidance goals more than other ethnicities. First-year students were more strongly performance approach goal-oriented than third-year students. Adopting performance-approach goals was positively correlated with academic achievement, while adopting avoidance goals was not. Ethnicity has an effect on the adoption of achievement goals and academic achievement.
Hirsch, Adina C; Parihar, Harish S
To create a capstone course that provides a comprehensive and integrated review of the pharmacy curriculum with a broad range of assessment tools to evaluate student knowledge and skills as a final preparation prior to beginning fourth-year advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). The capstone course was a 4 credit-hour, case-based course. Eight comprehensive cases were assigned to students over the course of the term. The cases were designed to mimic complex clinical scenarios that students were likely to encounter during an APPE. Students were required to prepare a written and oral presentation for each case and were assessed on material covered during the cases. Faculty members presented weekly reviews on selected topics such as calculations, pharmacokinetics, and pharmaceutical compounding. At the end of the course, students took an observed structured clinical examination (OSCE), which simulated the Georgia Board of Pharmacy Practical Examination, and a comprehensive examination designed to mimic the NAPLEX (North American Pharmacy Licensure Examination). Evaluation of student outcomes was based on written and verbal presentations of the cases, multiple-choice examinations, a short-answer calculations examination, an "Errors and Omissions" examination, a standardized patient encounter, and pharmaceutical compounding examinations. Ninety-five percent of students successfully passed the course on their first attempt. Student feedback indicated satisfaction with the depth, breadth, and organization of material covered and felt that the course helped prepare them for APPEs. The culminating experience of the capstone course gave students a thorough review of practical, clinical, and communication skills and provided faculty members with feedback regarding the curriculum through robust assessment.
Baig Mirza R
Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent times the basic understanding, perceptions and CAM use among undergraduate health sciences students have become a topic of interest. This study was aimed to investigate the understanding, perceptions and self-use of CAM among pharmacy students in Malaysia. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 systematically sampled pharmacy students from two private and one public university. A validated, self-administered questionnaire comprised of seven sections was used to gather the data. A systematic sampling was applied to recruit the students. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were applied using SPSS® version 18. Results Overall, the students tend to disagree that complementary therapies (CM are a threat to public health (mean score = 3.6 and agreed that CMs include ideas and methods from which conventional medicine could benefit (mean score = 4.7. More than half (57.8% of the participants were currently using CAM while 77.6% had used it previously. Among the current CAM modalities used by the students, CM (21.9% was found to be the most frequently used CAM followed by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM (21%. Most of the students (74.8% believed that lack of scientific evidence is one of the most important barriers obstructing them to use CAM. More than half of the students perceived TCM (62.8% and music therapy (53.8% to be effective. Majority of them (69.3% asserted that CAM knowledge is necessary to be a well-rounded professional. Conclusions This study reveals a high-percentage of pharmacy students who were using or had previously used at least one type of CAM. Students of higher professional years tend to agree that CMs include ideas and methods from which conventional medicine could benefit.
Armaghan Eslami; Rezvan Hallaj; Niusha Didehvar; Leila Kouti; Kaveh Eslami
Background: This study sought to investigate the evaluation of academic achievement, academic motivation and hope for the future and life satisfaction of Pharmacy Students of the Medical Sciences University...
Braimoh Omoigberai Bashiru; Owoturo Enere Omotola
Objective: The objective of the study was to assess and compare the oral health knowledge, attitude, and behavior of medical, pharmacy, and nursing students at the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria...
Aspden, Trudi; Cooper, Rachel; Liu, Yue; Marowa, Munyaradzi; Rubio, Christine; Waterhouse, Elisabeth-Jane; Sheridan, Janie
To explore what career advisors at secondary schools (high schools) in New Zealand know about the pharmacy profession, how they obtain that knowledge, and what their potential influence is on students' decisions to study pharmacy. This study employed a cross sectional questionnaire design. A postal questionnaire was sent to 250 randomly selected secondary schools in New Zealand. The response rate was 112/248 (45%). Responding career advisors were familiar with many of the roles of pharmacists (mean knowledge score 11.5 out of 16). Over 90% of career advisors were familiar with the roles of pharmacists in the community setting; however, many had a poorer understanding of other pharmacist roles. One suggestion for improving the promotion of pharmacy within secondary schools was a greater involvement of pharmacists and pharmacy students in the promotion of pharmacy as a profession. Career advisors need a broader understanding of the potential roles of pharmacists. Increasing contact from practicing pharmacists and undergraduate pharmacy students are potential ways of increasing student interest in pharmacy.
Bamgbade, Benita A; Ford, Kentya H; Barner, Jamie C
Objective. To determine if exposure to an intervention course impacts pharmacy students' mental health stigma (MHS) and mental health knowledge (MHK). Methods. A one-group pre/posttest intervention study of third-year pharmacy students (N=120) was conducted. Dependent variables were subdomains of MHS (recovery, safety, disclosure, separation, comfort) which were measured on a 5-point Likert scale (1=strongly disagree; 5=strongly agree). Mental health knowledge was measured with 10 true/false questions. The 2.5-hour intervention included presentations, videos, discussions, and active-learning exercises. Pre/posttests were administered, and data were analyzed using paired t tests and McNemar's tests. Results. Among responding students (n=88; 73.3% response rate), the following stigma subdomains significantly decreased after the intervention for depression and schizophrenia: recovery, safety, separation, and comfort. Mental health knowledge scores significantly increased from 5.9 (1.5) to 6.8 (1.5). Conclusion. Pharmacy students' MHS and MHK related to depression and schizophrenia can be improved through a brief and interactive anti-stigma intervention.
Shelvey BM; Coulman SA; John DN
Bethany M Shelvey,1 Sion A Coulman,2 Dai N John2 1School of Medicine, 2School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, UK Background: The current literature on undergraduate interprofessional education (IPE) for pharmacy and medical students highlights a range of positive outcomes, although to date IPE has focused predominantly on student views and experiences of IPE sessions with these opinions being sought at the end of the sessions. This study aimed to e...
Ried, L Douglas; Nemire, Ruth; Doty, Randell; Brickler, Mildred P; Anderson, Holly H; Frenzel-Shepherd, Elizabeth; Larose-Pierre, Margareth; Dugan, Dee
To describe the development and preliminary outcomes of the System of Universal Clinical Competency Evaluation in the Sunshine State (SUCCESS) for preceptors to assess students' clinical performance in advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). An Internet-based APPE assessment tool was developed by faculty members from colleges of pharmacy in Florida and implemented. Numeric scores and grades derived from the SUCCESS algorithm were similar to preceptors' comparison grades. The average SUCCESS GPA was slightly higher compared to preceptors' scores (0.02 grade points). The SUCCESS program met its goals, including establishing a common set of forms, standardized assessment criteria, an objective document that is accessible on the Internet, and standardized grading, and reducing pressure on preceptors from students concerning their grades.
Urteaga, Elizabeth M; Attridge, Rebecca L; Tovar, John M; Witte, Amy P
Objective. To evaluate how effectively pharmacy students and practicing pharmacists communicate and apply knowledge to simulations of commonly encountered patient scenarios using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Design. Second-, third-, and fourth-year pharmacy students completed an OSCE as part of their required courses in 2012 and 2013. All students in both years completed identical OSCE cases. Licensed pharmacists were recruited to complete the OSCE and serve as controls in 2012. A survey assessed student perception and acceptance of the OSCE as well as student confidence in performance. Assessment. Licensed pharmacists had significantly higher clinical and communication skills scores than did pharmacy students. Student progression in communication and clinical skills improved significantly over time. Survey results indicated that students felt the OSCE was well-structured and assessed clinical skills taught in pharmacy school; 86% of students felt confident they could provide these skills. Conclusion. Objective structured clinical examinations can evaluate clinical competence and communication skills among professional students. Implementation of OSCEs may be an effective tool for assessment of the Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education domains.
Mylrea, Martina F; Sen Gupta, Tarun; Glass, Beverley D
Self-determination theory (SDT), which describes a continuum of motivation regulators, is proposed as an appropriate framework to study pharmacy student motivation. The aim was to develop a Pharmacy Motivation Scale (Pharm-S) to determine motivation regulators in undergraduate students and explore a possible link to professional identity development. The Pharm-S was adapted from the SDT-based, Sports Motivation Scale (SMS-II), and administered to undergraduate students in an Australian pharmacy course. Convergent validity was assessed by conducting a correlation analysis between the Pharm-S and MacLeod Clark Professional Identity Scale (MCPIS-9). Face, content and construct validity were established for the Pharm-S through the analysis of 327 survey responses. Factor analysis extracted four of the six theoretical subscales as proposed by SDT (variance explained: 65.7%). Support for the SDT structure was confirmed by high factor loadings in each of the subscales and acceptable reliability coefficients. Subscale correlations revealed a simplex pattern, supporting the presence of a motivation continuum, as described by SDT. A moderate positive correlation (0.64) between Pharm-S responses and the validated professional identity instrument, MCPIS-9, indicated a possible link between levels of motivation and professional identity. and conclusions: Content and structural validity and internal consistency of the Pharm-S confirmed the reliability of the Pharm-S as a valid tool to assess motivational regulators. Pharm-S and the MCPIS-9 were positively correlated, lending support to a link between motivation and professional identity. This suggests a potential role for the Pharm-S as a valid tool to measure pharmacy student professional identity development. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zlatic, Thomas D.
Scholarly discussion has recently been directed toward the negative effects of consumerism in pharmacy education. Frequently in these discussions, the metaphor of student-as-customer is cited as an indicator of such consumer mentality. However, the customer metaphor is more deeply entangled in the thinking on this matter than has been acknowledged, even for those who roundly criticize its use. A richer understanding of the power of metaphor and of the fiducial obligations that underlie profes...
Coppenrath, Valerie; Filosa, Lee Anne; Akselrod, Elizabeth; Carey, Katherine M
Objective. To adapt and validate an instrument assessing competence in evidence-based medicine (EBM) in Doctor of Pharmacy students. Methods. The Fresno test was validated in medical residents. We adapted it for use in pharmacy students. A total of 120 students and faculty comprised the validation set. Internal reliability, item difficulty, and item discrimination were assessed. Construct validity was assessed by comparing mean total scores of students to faculty, and comparing proportions of students and faculty who passed each item. Results. Cronbach's alpha was acceptable, and no items had a low item-total correlation. All of the point-biserial correlations were acceptable. Item difficulty ranged from 0% to 60%. Faculty had higher total scores and also scored higher than students on most items, and 8 of 11 of these differences were statistically significant. Conclusion. The Pharm Fresno is a reliable and valid instrument to assess competence in EBM in pharmacy students. Future research will focus on further refining the instrument.
Full Text Available Shazia Qasim Jamshed,1 Mohamad Izham Mohamad Ibrahim,2 Mohamad Azmi Hassali,3 Adheed Khalid Sharrad,4 Asrul Akmal Shafie,3 Zaheer-Ud-Din Babar5 1Pharmacy Practice, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan Campus, Pahang, Malaysia; 2College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; 3Discipline of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Penang, Malaysia; 4College of Pharmacy, University of Basra, Basra, Iraq; 5School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand General objective: To evaluate the understanding and perceptions of generic medicines among final-year Doctor of Pharmacy students in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: A 23-item survey instrument that included a question on the bioequivalence limits and Likert-type scale questions regarding the understanding and perceptions of generic medicines among the students was executed. Cronbach’s alpha was found to be 0.62. Results: Responses were obtained from 236 final-year Doctor of Pharmacy students (n=85 from a publicly funded institute; n=151 from a privately funded institute. When comparing a brand-name medicine to a generic medicine, pharmacy students scored poorly on bioequivalence limits. More than 80% of the students incorrectly answered that all the products that are rated as generic equivalents are therapeutically equivalent to each other (P<0.04. Half of the students agreed that a generic medicine is bioequivalent to the brand-name medicine (P<0.001. With regard to quality, effectiveness, and safety, more than 75% of the students disagreed that generic medicines are of inferior quality and are less effective than brand-name medicines (P<0.001. More than 50% of the students disagreed that generic medicines produce more side effects than brand-name medicines (P<0.001. Conclusion: The current study identified a positive perception toward generic medicines but also gaps in
Cooper, Rachel; Liu, Yue; Marowa, Munyaradzi; Rubio, Christine; Waterhouse, Elisabeth-Jane; Sheridan, Janie
Objective. To explore what career advisors at secondary schools (high schools) in New Zealand know about the pharmacy profession, how they obtain that knowledge, and what their potential influence is on students’ decisions to study pharmacy. Methods. This study employed a cross sectional questionnaire design. A postal questionnaire was sent to 250 randomly selected secondary schools in New Zealand. Results. The response rate was 112/248 (45%). Responding career advisors were familiar with many of the roles of pharmacists (mean knowledge score 11.5 out of 16). Over 90% of career advisors were familiar with the roles of pharmacists in the community setting; however, many had a poorer understanding of other pharmacist roles. One suggestion for improving the promotion of pharmacy within secondary schools was a greater involvement of pharmacists and pharmacy students in the promotion of pharmacy as a profession. Conclusion. Career advisors need a broader understanding of the potential roles of pharmacists. Increasing contact from practicing pharmacists and undergraduate pharmacy students are potential ways of increasing student interest in pharmacy. PMID:25741023
Shimizu, Tadashi; Ueda, Masahiro; Toyoyama, Mikoto; Ohmori, Shiho; Takagaki, Nobumasa
This study evaluated the effect of an evidence-based medicine (EBM) educational program on EBM-related knowledge and skills of pharmacists and pharmacy students. Our preliminary educational program included the following four sessions: 1) ice breaker, 2) formulation of answerable clinical questions from virtual clinical scenario using the PICO criteria, 3) critical appraisal of the literature using a checklist, and 4) critical appraisal of the results and integrating the evidence with experience and patients values. Change in knowledge and skills related to EBM were evaluated using pre- and post-seminar 4-point scale questionnaires comprising of 14 questions. A total of 23 pharmacists, 1 care manager, and 5 pharmacy students participated in our EBM educational seminar. Knowledge and skills related to several variables improved significantly post-seminar (pre-seminar 2.80 versus 3.26 post-seminar; p<0.001). Specifically, the skills of formulating answerable clinical questions from virtual clinical scenario and critical appraisal of the literature using a checklist improved. Our findings suggested that EBM educational program using problem-based learning was effective in improving EBM-related knowledge and skills of pharmacists and pharmacy students.
Muzoriana, Nyasha; Gavi, Samuel; Nembaware, Victoria; Dhoro, Milcah; Matimba, Alice
The potential of pharmacogenomics (PGx) to positively impact health outcomes and quality of healthcare is well-established. However, the application of available evidence into clinical practice is still limited due to limited knowledge among healthcare professionals, including pharmacists. As a start towards building capacity for PGx education, we assessed knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions about PGx among practising pharmacists and pharmacy students. A cross-sectional study was conducted among pharmacists and undergraduate pharmacy students selected using a convenient sampling method-a 37-question survey instrument was used to obtain information regarding PGx among the participants. Out of a total of 131 participants, 56% of respondents showed fair-to-good PGx knowledge. Respondents' self-reported assessment indicated that 88% had average and above knowledge scores in PGx. Practising pharmacists in Zimbabwe have positive attitudes towards PGx and would support its application to improve treatments. However, there were concerns about security and discrimination when genomics data is used by those who do not understand its meaning. Participants agreed that they would play a leading role in PGx testing if provided with appropriate training. The interest in PGx is challenged by their limited knowledge and understanding of genetics, suggesting a need to update curricula for pharmacy students and for continuing health education programmes.
Hoan Linh Banh
Full Text Available Purpose: Type 2 diabetes is a major condition impacting morbidity, mortality, and health care costs in Canada. Pharmacists are very accessible and are in an ideal position to promote public health education. The primary goal of this study was to incorporate public health promotion and education into a community pharmacy experiential education rotation for fourth year pharmacy students to screen for the risk of pre-diabetes/diabetes in adults. A secondary goal was to determine the frequency of common risk factors for pre-diabetes/diabetes in adults in the community setting. Method: Fourth year pharmacy students were invited to recruit all adults 25 years or older attending community pharmacies to complete a pre-diabetes/diabetes risk assessment questionnaire. If the participants were at risk, the participants were provided education about risk reduction for developing pre-diabetes/diabetes. Results: A total of 340 participants completed a risk assessment questionnaire. Over 90% of people approached agreed to complete a risk assessment questionnaire. The common risk factors were overweight (154/45%, hypertension (102/30%, taking medications for hypertension (102/30%, and having symptoms of diabetes (111/33%. The ethnic minorities have 2.56 (confidence interval = 1.48–44.1 times greater odds of having a family history of diabetes compared to non-minority subjects. Conclusion: Pharmacy students are able to screen community-based patients for pre-diabetes/diabetes risks. The most common risk factors presented were overweight, hypertension, and taking medications for hypertension.
Time management (3.00±0.71) had the least score. Academic performance was also significantly (p<0.05) associated with student's mode of entry into the University. Test anxiety distinguished students with high and low academic performance and was identified as a major factor determining academic success among ...
However, students struggle to see the importance and relevance of a management module in the final year of the BPharm curriculum and show low levels of motivation and engagement with regard to the module. A possible strategy to change students' perceptions of the importance of a management module is the inclusion ...
Longyhore, Daniel S
Objective. To evaluate whether a relationship exists between the degree of student state-anxiety and pass rates on moderate-to-high stakes objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE). Methods. Third-professional year (P3) students were assessed using the Speilberger State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI) three weeks prior to their first moderate-to-high stakes OSCEs. Students' OSCE station pass rates, individual station analytical scores, and the overall pass rate for the class were compared with student responses on STAI surveys to measure their association. Results. Seventy-three students (100%) provided consent to participate in the research; 64 (87%) sufficiently completed the STAI survey. Degree of student state-anxiety or train-anxiety was not associated with any of the outcomes assessed in this study. Overall pass rate, individual station pass rates, and station analytical checklist scores were not inversely correlated with state- or trait-anxiety scores. Conclusions. Efforts to assist students in OSCE performance should focus on means other than reducing associated anxiety. Future research in this area should focus on what interventions beyond instruction could be put in place to help students be more successful during OSCEs.
Poolokasingham, Gauthamie; Spanierman, Lisa B.; Kleiman, Sela; Houshmand, Sara
The present study sought to examine South Asian Canadian undergraduate students' (N = 7) experiences with racial microaggressions at a research-intensive Canadian university. Participants ranged in age from 19-23 years and comprised various ethnic groups (e.g., Indian, Bangladeshi, Sri Lankan, and Tamil). Data were collected during a…
Henning, Marcus A; Ram, Sanya; Malpas, Phillipa; Shulruf, Boaz; Kelly, Fiona; Hawken, Susan J
There is ample evidence to suggest that academic dishonesty remains an area of concern and interest for academic and professional bodies. There is also burgeoning research in the area of moral reasoning and its relevance to the teaching of pharmacy and medicine. To explore the associations between self-reported incidence of academic dishonesty and ethical reasoning in a professional student body. Responses were elicited from 433 pharmacy and medicine students. A questionnaire eliciting responses about academic dishonesty (copying, cheating, and collusion) and their decisions regarding an ethical dilemma was distributed. Multivariate analysis procedures were conducted. The findings suggested that copying and collusion may be linked to the way students make ethical decisions. Students more likely to suggest unlawful solutions to the ethical dilemma were more likely to disclose engagement in copying information and colluding with other students. These findings imply that students engaging in academic dishonesty may be using different ethical frameworks. Therefore, employing ethical dilemmas would likely create a useful learning framework for identifying students employing dishonest strategies when coping with their studies. Increasing understanding through dialog about engagement in academic honesty will likely construct positive learning outcomes in the university with implications for future practice.
Jennifer W. Beall
Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to examine perceived stress in doctor of pharmacy students during their first, second, and third years of their program in a fully implemented new curriculum. The secondary objectives were to determine if there is a relationship between perceived stress and certain demographic variables, to compare student pharmacist perceived stress to the perceived stress in the general population, and to examine student reported stressors during pharmacy school and coping strategies employed for those stressors. A previously validated survey (Perceived Stress Scale-10 was given to first, second, and third year student pharmacists. Females exhibited higher mean stress scores than males. The under 22 years and over 32 years age categories exhibited higher mean stress scores than the 22 to 26 year old student population. There was no significant difference in perceived stress scores between classes of the program. Only a portion of the variation in stress scores was predicted by gender, age, marital status, race, and year in curriculum. Stress scores among these student pharmacists are higher overall than those in previously published probability samples in the general population. Class assignments and completing electronic portfolios were the top stressors reported. Spending time with family and friends was the most frequent coping mechanism reported. Programming related to stress reduction (particularly among female and nontraditional age students appears warranted.
Beall, Jennifer W; DeHart, Renee M; Riggs, Robert M; Hensley, John
The primary purpose of this study was to examine perceived stress in doctor of pharmacy students during their first, second, and third years of their program in a fully implemented new curriculum. The secondary objectives were to determine if there is a relationship between perceived stress and certain demographic variables, to compare student pharmacist perceived stress to the perceived stress in the general population, and to examine student reported stressors during pharmacy school and coping strategies employed for those stressors. A previously validated survey (Perceived Stress Scale-10) was given to first, second, and third year student pharmacists. Females exhibited higher mean stress scores than males. The under 22 years and over 32 years age categories exhibited higher mean stress scores than the 22 to 26 year old student population. There was no significant difference in perceived stress scores between classes of the program. Only a portion of the variation in stress scores was predicted by gender, age, marital status, race, and year in curriculum. Stress scores among these student pharmacists are higher overall than those in previously published probability samples in the general population. Class assignments and completing electronic portfolios were the top stressors reported. Spending time with family and friends was the most frequent coping mechanism reported. Programming related to stress reduction (particularly among female and nontraditional age students) appears warranted.
Ohtani, Hisakazu; Mitsui, Rieko; Akiyoshi, Takeshi; Imaoka, Ayuko; Abe, Yoshihiro; Kanke, Motoko; Nakamura, Tomonori; Foster, Patrick; Mochizuki, Mayumi
Internationalization of pharmacists, as well as pharmacy students, in terms of both the knowledge to care for international patients and to have medical information literacy, is a current concern in Japan. Keio University Faculty of Pharmacy has developed an elective course for pharmacy students, based on written agreements with the United States and Thailand that establish a student clinical rotation exchange program. The exchange program lasts for four to six weeks and involves clinical rotations in hospitals abroad during the students' sixth year. Rotations follow a four-week didactic preparatory course. The course objectives are to acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitude needed to function as leading pharmacists with an international perspective. We asked students to complete a feedback survey inquiring about the usefulness of preparatory courses, self-evaluation pre- and post-rotation satisfaction with the program, and overall self-assessment. Twenty-four out of 41, i.e., 58.5% of the students replied with feedback. All respondents replied that the preparatory course was useful. They also replied that, based on their self-evaluation, they were satisfied with their level of English language skill improvement after the rotation. Pharmaceutical knowledge satisfaction, however, was slightly decreased. All respondents replied that this program was of a satisfactory nature, with 71%, 63%, and 92% of the respondents replying that they could acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitude program objectives respectively. It is possible to successfully develop an overseas clinical rotation program. Students were quite satisfied upon completion and achieved the expected objectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moultry, Aisha Morris
To develop a relationship between a pharmacy management course and a mass merchandiser and to determine whether involving pharmacy managers from the mass merchandiser in the course would enhance student skills in developing a business plan for medication therapy management services. The pharmacy managers from the mass merchandiser participated in lectures, provided panel discussions, and conducted a business plan competition. Learning was assessed by means of 4 examinations and 1 project (ie, the business plan). At the conclusion of the semester, surveys were administered to solicit student input and gain insight from pharmacy managers on the perceived value of this portion of the course. Students' average grade on the business plan assignment, which included the oral presentation, the peer assessment, and the written proposal, was 92.2%. Approximately 60% (n=53) of surveyed students agreed or strongly agreed that their management skills had improved because of the participation of pharmacy managers from the mass merchandiser. All of the managers enjoyed participating in the experience. The involvement of pharmacy managers from a mass merchandiser enhanced student learning in the classroom, and managers felt that their participation was an important contribution to the development of future pharmacists.
Linedecker, Sara J; Barner, Jamie; Ridings-Myhra, Jennifer; Garza, Aida; Lopez, Debra; McIntyre, William
The development and implementation of a pilot program requiring direct observation of procedural skills (DOPS) assessments of fourth-year pharmacy students during ambulatory care rotations are described. All fourth-year pharmacy students at the University of Texas at Austin College of Pharmacy who engaged in a required advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in ambulatory care during the period January-May 2015 participated in a DOPS pilot program. The DOPS process required students to select a patient for a medication-focused "workup," evaluate the selected patient case, present the results to a preceptor, and conduct a preceptor-supervised patient interview. Preceptors used a DOPS rubric to rate students' performance in 12 domains. At the time of submission of DOPS evaluation forms, program participants were invited to complete online surveys soliciting feedback on the effectiveness of the DOPS evaluation process and other aspects of the program. A total of 81 students and preceptors participated in the DOPS pilot program, with 47 DOPS evaluation forms submitted; the median ± S.D. score was 90.4% ± 29.7%. Results of the online surveys indicated that the overall perception of the DOPS program was positive, with majorities of both students and preceptors supporting DOPS incorporation into the curriculum for fourth-year pharmacy students. The DOPS rubric was a useful tool for evaluating clinical skills of APPE students on ambulatory care rotations. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
Langridge, Sarah M; Stensland, Sheri L; Warholak, Terri L; Mattingly, Lisa
To determine the effect of a 5-week Career Explorers Program (CEP) on high school students' perceptions of pharmacists' characteristics, duties, and training. A 16-item survey instrument with attitudinal, frequency, and relative quantity response options was completed by all CEP students on the first and last day of the program. The survey assessed students' attitudes concerning pharmacist characteristics, duties, and training. All students who participated in the CEP in 2003 completed the survey instrument (n = 50). Seventy percent of respondents' answers to the attitudinal subscale questions significantly changed from preassessment to postassessment. A 5-week CEP provided high school students with more realistic perceptions of pharmacists' roles, duties, and training before the students entered the pharmacy program.
Crawford, Stephanie Y
To develop and implement a seminar course for graduate students in the social and administrative pharmaceutical sciences to enhance knowledge and confidence with respect their abilities to demonstrate appropriate business etiquette. A 1-credit graduate seminar course was designed based on learner-centered constructivist theory and application of Fink's Taxonomy for Significant Learning.Assessment. Eleven students participated in the spring 2011 seminar course presentations and activities. Students completed pre- and post-assessment instruments, which included knowledge and attitudinal questions. Formative and summative assessments showed gains in student knowledge, perceived skills, and confidence based on observation and student-reported outcomes. Graduate student reaction to the course was overwhelmingly positive. The etiquette course has potential application in doctor of pharmacy education, other graduate disciplines, undergraduate education, and continuing professional development.
Opoku-Acheampong, Adomah; Kretchy, Irene A; Acheampong, Franklin; Afrane, Barima A; Ashong, Sharon; Tamakloe, Bernice; Nyarko, Alexander K
Stress among pharmacy students could greatly affect their learning activities and general well-being. It is therefore necessary to investigate how stress relates with the quality of life of students to maintain and/or improve their personal satisfaction and academic performance. A school-based longitudinal study was used to investigate the relationship between stress and quality of life of undergraduate pharmacy students. The 10-item perceived stress scale and the shorter version of the WHO quality of life scale were administered to the same participants at two time points i.e. Time 1 (4 weeks into the semester) and Time 2 (8 weeks afterwards). The correlations and differences between the study variables were tested using the Pearson's coefficient and independent sample t test. The mean stress scores were higher at Time 2 compared to Time 1 for the first and second years. However, there was no significant difference in stress for different year groups-Time 1 [F (3) = 0.410; p = 0.746] and Time 2 [F(3) = 0.909; p = 0.439]. Female students had higher stress scores at Time 2 compared to male students. The main stressors identified in the study were; large volume of material to be studied (88.2%), laboratory report writing (78.2%), constant pressure to maintain good grades (66.4%) and the lack of leisure time (46.4%). Even though most students employed positive stress management strategies such as time management (68.2%), other students resorted to emotional eating (9.1%) and alcohol/substance use (1.8%). At Time 2, perceived stress scores were significantly negatively correlated with social relationship (r = -0.40, p ≤ 0.0001), environmental health (r = -0.37, p ≤ 0.0001), physical health (r = -0.49, p ≤ 0.0001) and psychological health (r = -0.51, p ≤ 0.0001). The study reported significant correlations between stress and various domains of quality of life of undergraduate pharmacy students. It is thus necessary to institute some
Schellhase, Ellen M; Miller, Monica L; Ogallo, William; Pastakia, Sonak D
OBJECTIVE. To develop a prerequisite elective course to prepare students for an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in Kenya. DESIGN. The course addressed Kenyan culture, travel preparation, patient care, and disease-state management. Instructional formats used were small-group discussions and lectures, including some Web-based presentations by Kenyan pharmacists on disease states commonly treated in Kenya. Cultural activities include instruction in conversational and medical Kiswahili and reading of a novel related to global health programs. ASSESSMENT. Student performance was assessed using written care plans, quizzes, reflection papers, a formulary management exercise, and pre- and post-course assessments. Student feedback on course evaluations indicated that the course was well received and students felt prepared for the APPE. CONCLUSION. This course offered a unique opportunity for students to learn about pharmacy practice in global health and to apply previously acquired skills in a resource-constrained international setting. It prepares students to actively participate in clinical care activities during an international APPE.
Objectives To implement and assess the effectiveness of an exercise designed to develop pharmacy students' empathy toward patients regarding diabetes and obesity and encourage cultural and “economic” competence. Design Students in the Nutrition Journal and Diabetes Shopping Experience attended a nutrition and weight management lecture, monitored their own nutritional intake by maintaining an online nutrition and exercise journal, and grocery shopped based on an assigned patient scenario. Scenarios varied in terms of income, ethnicity, insurance coverage, family size, grocery store, and medication lists. Students completed written reflections and group discussions and completed pre- and post-assignment survey instruments. Assessment The activities improved student confidence levels regarding nutrition and weight-related patient counseling, and knowledge about general nutrition and weight management. The majority of students agreed that the activities improved their ability to empathize with overweight patients regarding the challenges of nutrition and lifestyle changes and enhanced their awareness of the impact that cultural and financial situations have on nutrition and lifestyle. Conclusion The Nutrition Journal and Diabetes Shopping Experience positively impacted the way pharmacy students view the challenges surrounding nutrition and healthy eating in patients with culturally and socioeconomically diverse backgrounds. PMID:19513175
Trujillo, Jennifer M; Hardy, Yolanda
To implement and assess the effectiveness of an exercise designed to develop pharmacy students' empathy toward patients regarding diabetes and obesity and encourage cultural and "economic" competence. Students in the Nutrition Journal and Diabetes Shopping Experience attended a nutrition and weight management lecture, monitored their own nutritional intake by maintaining an online nutrition and exercise journal, and grocery shopped based on an assigned patient scenario. Scenarios varied in terms of income, ethnicity, insurance coverage, family size, grocery store, and medication lists. Students completed written reflections and group discussions and completed pre- and post-assignment survey instruments. The activities improved student confidence levels regarding nutrition and weight-related patient counseling, and knowledge about general nutrition and weight management. The majority of students agreed that the activities improved their ability to empathize with overweight patients regarding the challenges of nutrition and lifestyle changes and enhanced their awareness of the impact that cultural and financial situations have on nutrition and lifestyle. The Nutrition Journal and Diabetes Shopping Experience positively impacted the way pharmacy students view the challenges surrounding nutrition and healthy eating in patients with culturally and socioeconomically diverse backgrounds.
Mohamed, Moataz Ehab; Mohy, Nagla; Salah, Sarah
The survey aimed to capture the perceptions of undergraduate pharmacy students towards plagiarism in three major public universities in Cairo, Egypt: Helwan, Ain-Shams, and Cairo Universities. This was a paper-based self-administrated survey study. The questionnaire was validated by both content and face validation. The final survey form captured the knowledge of the students on plagiarism in terms of definitions, attitudes, and practices. Four hundred and fourteen students, 320 females and 94 males, participated in the study. There was a significant difference between the students who knew the definition of plagiarism among the three universities with p-value = .01. More than half of the participants (67%) claimed that they had no previous education or training on plagiarism. However, after being informed about plagiarism, most of them agreed that plagiarism should be regarded as stealing and a punishment. Additionally, poor study skills and the ease of copying and pasting from the Internet were identified by the majority of the students to be the leading causes of plagiarism. Pharmacy students need to be more educated on plagiarism and its consequences on research and educational ethics. Finally, more strict policies should be incorporated to monitor and control plagiarism in undergraduate sections.
Hussainy, Safeera Yasmeen; Styles, Kim; Duncan, Greg
To develop communication skills in second-year pharmacy students using a virtual practice environment (VPE) and to assess students' and tutors' (instructors') experiences. A VPE capable of displaying life-sized photographic and video images and representing a pharmacy setting was constructed. Students viewed prescriptions and practiced role-playing with each other and explored the use of nonverbal communication in patient-pharmacist interactions. The VPE experiences were complemented with lectures, reflective journaling, language and learning support, and objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs). Most students believed the VPE was a useful teaching resource (87%) and agreed that the video component enabled them to contextualize patient problems (73%). While 45% of students questioned the usefulness of watching the role plays between students after they were video recorded, most (90%) identified improvement in their own communication as a result of participating in the tutorials. Most tutors felt comfortable using the technology. Focus group participants found the modified tutorials more engaging and aesthetically positive than in their previous experience. The VPE provided an effective context for communication skills development classes.
Wilbur, Kerry; Kelly, Isabelle
Medical care is increasingly complex and must draw upon the distinct, yet complementary skills of various health disciplines. Healthcare student integration through interprofessional education (IPE) activity is considered one way to promote early, and subsequently sustain, the principles of teamwork. However, It has been demonstrated that each profession has distinct profession-based subcultures, or common attitudes, beliefs and values, even among undergraduate students before commencing their training. We sought to evaluate if undergraduate pharmacy and nursing student in the Middle East had similarly formed attitudes and perceptions of each others' roles. Focus group and semi-structured interviews were conducted with undergraduate pharmacy and nursing students enrolled at Qatar University College of Pharmacy and University of Calgary - Qatar Nursing programs. An eight-question topic guide was developed following comprehensive literature review of reports of other interdisciplinary assessments (either quantitative and qualitative). Working theories were drawn by the two primary investigators based on relevant topic characteristics such as expressed roles and purposes for interacting with one other, patients, and physicians, to develop explanatory constructs for the findings and identify patterns in the data. Qualitative analysis of interviews were supported by NVivo10 (©) (QSR International 2013) software. One shared themes across both health professional groups evolved during data analysis: perceptions of collaborative roles. Discipline specific themes included pharmacist knowledge and visibility (nursing students) and nurses as informants and roles in total patient care (pharmacy students). As expected, students with little or no curricular-based structured experiential training yet largely drew upon personal experiences, whereas senior students, who did have some amount of professional context, often mirrored those that have been found in other studies
Zlatic, Thomas D
Scholarly discussion has recently been directed toward the negative effects of consumerism in pharmacy education. Frequently in these discussions, the metaphor of student-as-customer is cited as an indicator of such consumer mentality. However, the customer metaphor is more deeply entangled in the thinking on this matter than has been acknowledged, even for those who roundly criticize its use. A richer understanding of the power of metaphor and of the fiducial obligations that underlie professionalism can help to create educational paradigms more likely to meet the best interests of students, faculty members, and the general public.
Hall, Mark; Manns, Patricia; Poth, Cheryl; Beaupre, Lauren
Purpose: To gauge the need for a new assessment instrument for Canadian physiotherapy students on clinical placements. Methods: A national survey was developed and distributed to 18,110 Canadian physiotherapists. Results: A total of 3,148 physiotherapists from diverse practice settings responded to the survey. Of those who indicated that student evaluation was applicable to them (n=2,393), 70% stated that a new instrument was needed; of these, 78% felt that the new instrument should be based on Canadian practice standards and rated with an anchored visual analogue scale, and 73% said they would be comfortable completing the instrument online. Conclusion: The majority of physiotherapists surveyed perceive a need for a new clinical evaluation instrument based on Canadian practice standards. A shorter, Canadian-based instrument may help recruit more clinical instructors and build capacity for clinical placements.
Bullock, Katura C
The purpose of this article is to describe the utility of the Assessment, Development, Assurance: Pharmacist's Tool (ADAPT) during the design, delivery, and assessment of service-learning events by pharmacy students. The ADAPT instrument was used to develop a series of five service-learning events that featured a health promotion program delivered by 19 pharmacy students and attended by over 200 senior citizens at local senior centers. Student competence was assessed prior to participating in the service-learning activities and each student completed a reflection following the event. Senior center directors evaluated both the quality of the health promotion program as well as the interaction with the sponsoring college of pharmacy. Pharmacy students reported achievement of health promotion learning objectives based on self-evaluations. Responses to reflections also indicate that students gained insight to and appreciation for several of the public health essential services, which are the basis of the ADAPT instrument. Feedback from the senior center directors was consistently positive. Use of the ADAPT instrument helped to facilitate the delivery of a high-quality, comprehensive service-learning series at local senior centers that had a solid public health foundation. Colleges and schools of pharmacy should strongly consider consulting the tool prior to planning any future health promotion activities for students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kritikos, Vicky S; Woulfe, Jim; Sukkar, Maria B; Saini, Bandana
To develop, implement, and evaluate a process of intergroup peer assessment and feedback using problem-based learning (PBL) tutorials. A peer-assessment process was used in a PBL tutorial setting for an integrated pharmacy practice course in which small groups of students graded each others' PBL case presentations and provided feedback in conjunction with facilitator assessment. Students' quantitative and qualitative perceptions of the peer assessment process were triangulated with facilitator feedback. Students became more engaged, confident, and motivated, and developed a range of self-directed, life-long learning skills. Students had mixed views regarding the fairness of the process and grade descriptors. Facilitators strongly supported the peer assessment process. Peer assessment is an appropriate method to assess PBL skills and is endorsed by students as appropriate and useful.
To promote graduate students' active learning, deep reading of high quality papers was done by graduate students enrolled in biochemistry and microbiology pharmacy curriculum offered by college of life science, Jiangxi Normal University from 2013 to 2015. The number of graduate students, who participated in the course in 2013, 2014, and 2015 were eleven, thirteen and fifteen, respectively. Through deep reading of papers, presentation, and group discussion in the lecture, these graduate students have improved their academic performances effectively, such as literature search, PPT document production, presentation management, specialty document reading, academic inquiry, and analytical and comprehensive ability. The graduate students also have increased their understanding level of frontier research, scientific research methods, and experimental methods. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(4):305-312, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Congdon, Heather Brennan; Morgan, Jill A; Lebovitz, Lisa
To assess how students from 2 campuses spent their time during P1-P3 (first through third) years, and whether that time allocation impacted their APPE grades and NAPLEX performance. Data from 2 graduating classes were gathered, including baseline student demographics, academic performance, licensing examination scores and pass rates, and an annual internal student survey. For the survey, students were asked how much time they spent each week on class attendance, watching recorded lectures, studying and course-related activities, school-sponsored extracurricular activities, and work. Data was analyzed by campus for the 3 years (P1-P3) and then evaluated separately as individual academic years. There were statistical differences between campuses in attending class, watching recorded lectures, and participating in school activities. However, there was no statistical difference between the 2 campuses in APPE grades, NAPLEX scores, or pass rates. How students from these 2 campuses spent their time during pharmacy school was not predictive of academic success.
Shelvey, Bethany M; Coulman, Sion A; John, Dai N
The current literature on undergraduate interprofessional education (IPE) for pharmacy and medical students highlights a range of positive outcomes, although to date IPE has focused predominantly on student views and experiences of IPE sessions with these opinions being sought at the end of the sessions. This study aimed to evaluate medical students' experiences of therapeutics and prescribing IPE, with pharmacy students, 1 year following the session. Following ethics committee approval, 3rd year medical students at Cardiff University were invited to participate using non-probability sampling. Topic guide development was informed by the literature and research team discussions, including a review of the materials used in the IPE session. Semi-structured one-to-one interviews explored experiences, prior to, during, and after the IPE session. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically. Eighteen medical students were interviewed; 11 were females. Seven themes were identified, namely 1) refinement of pre-session preparation, 2) session value, 3) learning with a pharmacy student, 4) learning about a pharmacist, 5) learning from a pharmacy student, 6) importance and application of what was learnt into practice, and 7) suggestions for change. This study provides a valuable insight into medical students' experiences of a therapeutics and prescribing IPE session and emphasizes the value they placed on interaction with pharmacy students. Medical students were able to recall clear learning experiences from the IPE session that had taken place 12 months earlier, which itself is an indicator of the impact of the session on the students. Furthermore, they were able to describe how knowledge and skills learnt had been applied to subsequent learning activities. Those developing IPE sessions should consider the following: clarify professional roles in the session content, incorporate IPE as a series of activities, and use small groups of
Phillips, Jennifer; Gettig, Jacob; Goliak, Kristen; Allen, Sheila; Fjortoft, Nancy
The objective of this study was to gain an understanding of whether pharmacy students are using Facebook ® to create formal or informal workplace-based peer groups to learn from each other and share information while completing their advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Fourth-year pharmacy students from two colleges of pharmacy in the same geographical area were recruited by email to participate. Inclusion criteria were: completion of two or more APPEs, current assignment to an APPE rotation in the local area, and a Facebook ® profile. Two focus groups, of eight students each were conducted on each of the two colleges' campuses. An incentive to participate was provided. Thematic analysis was used to analyze responses. Students reported using Facebook ® to learn about rotation expectations, roles/responsibilities, and preceptors. However, frequency and depth of interactions varied among the participants. Most participants noted that they prefer more private methods of communication to learn about APPE experiences. Students found Facebook ® to be a good source of motivation and support during experiential learning. The use of social media sites like Facebook ® may help students form "virtual" workplace-based peer groups during APPEs. Pharmacy schools interested in providing support for formal workplace-based learning groups should consider using social media sites as one component of this program. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ise, Natsuko; Takechi, Kenshi; Miyamoto, Toshiko; Ishizawa, Keisuke; Yanagawa, Hiroaki
Clinical research plays a fundamental role in establishing new treatments. Clinical research coordinators are considered essential in clinical research, and medical professionals such as pharmacists often take on this role. Pharmacy students can be considered future candidates for this task. We used questionnaires to survey the knowledge of and attitudes toward registration trials and clinical research of pharmacy students at Tokushima University Hospital. All pharmacy students (103) to whom questionnaires were sent responded. Almost all respondents were aware of registration trials and clinical research. More than 90% were aware of the existence of clinical research coordinators, and about half (48.6%) understood their role. In clinical research terminology, most respondents were aware of informed consent and related issues, but fewer than 20% were aware of more practical things. In total, 29.1% and 40.8% of the respondents were willing to carry out and coordinate research. These findings suggest that pharmacy students have basic knowledge of clinical research and that many students are willing to carry out and coordinate clinical research. More practical exposure to clinical research may help to strengthen their future contribution. Further studies may help to determine how to provide education on registration trials and clinical research to pharmacy students.
Ahmad, Akram; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Kumar, Bandari Deepak; Kumar, Gogikar Sudhir; Rodriguez, Stephanie Perez; Patel, Isha
To assess the beliefs, attitudes and self-use of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy (AYUSH) medicines among senior pharmacy students. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among pharmacy students in four pharmacy schools located in Andhra Pradesh in South India. This study was conducted from the August to September 2014. The study population included all pharmacy students enrolled in Doctor of Pharmacy, Bachelor of Pharmacy and Diploma in Pharmacy programs in studied pharmacy schools. The pretested AYUSH survey had 8 questions on AYUSH related beliefs and 8 question on AYUSH related attitudes. The survey also asked participants about AYUSH related knowledge, frequency of use of AYUSH and the reason for using AYUSH. The data analysis was performed using SPSS Version 20. Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U-test were employed to study the association between the independent and dependent variables. A total of 428 pharmacy students participated in the survey. 32.2% of the study population was females and 32.5% of the population resided in rural areas. Males were more likely to have positive beliefs about AYUSH when compared to females (odd ratio [OR] = 4.62, confidence interval [CI] = 2.37-8.99, P < 0.001). Similarly, students living in hostels were more positive in their beliefs about AYUSH compared with students living at home (OR = 2.14, CI = 1.12-4.07, P < 0.05). Students living in hostel also had a positive attitude about AYUSH use (OR = 1.74, CI = 1.03-2.93, P < 0.05). Pharmacy students held favorable attitude and beliefs about AYUSH use. This baseline survey provides important information about the pharmacy student's perception about AYUSH. Further research is needed to explore the reasons that shape the pharmacy student's beliefs and attitudes about AYUSH.
Full Text Available Traditional medicine therapies are historically used worldwide for disease prevention and treatment purposes. Apitherapy is part of the traditional medicine based on bee product use. Complementary medicine practices which incorporate use of some traditional herbal, mineral, or animal kind substances very often are discussed with pharmacy professionals because these products are often sold in pharmacies as dietary supplements. This study is aimed at determining the attitude, knowledge, and practices of apitherapy among undergraduated pharmacy students (Master of Pharmacy who already have a pharmacy technician diploma and from 1 to 20 years of practice working in a community pharmacy as pharmacy assistants. A method of questionnaire was chosen. The questions about attitudes, experience, knowledge, and practices for disease prevention and treatment of different bee products, their safety, and informational sources were included. Respondents shared opinion that use of bee product is part of the traditional medicine. Most of them had experience on honey product use for treatment and disease prevention for themselves and their family members (62% although the need of more evidence based information was expressed. The most known bee products were honey, propolis, and royal jelly. They are widely used for enhancing the immune system and prevention of respiratory tract infection.
Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Spivey, Christina A; Jaeger, Melanie C; Williams, Jennifer; George, Christa
Objectives. To develop and validate a scale measuring pharmacy students' attitudes toward social media professionalism, and assess the impact of an educational presentation on social media professionalism. Methods. A social media professionalism scale was used in a pre- and post-survey to determine the effects of a social media professionalism presentation. The 26-item scale was administered to 197 first-year pharmacy (P1) students during orientation. Exploratory factor analysis was applied to determine the number of underlying factors responsible for covariation of the data. Principal components analysis was used as the extraction method. Varimax was selected as the rotation method. Cronbach's alpha was estimated. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare pre- and post-scores of each item, subscale, and total scale. Results. There were 187 (95%) students who participated. The final scale had five subscales and 15 items. Subscales were named according to the professionalism tenet they best represented. Scores of items addressing reading/posting to social media during class, an employer's use of social media when making hiring decisions, and a college/university's use of social media as a measure of professional conduct significantly increased from pre-test to post-test. The "honesty and integrity" subscale score also significantly increased. Conclusion. The social media professionalism scale measures five tenets of professionalism and exhibits satisfactory reliability. The presentation improved P1 students' attitudes regarding social media professionalism.
Ali, Fatima Ramzan; Hassan, Fouzia; Hasan, Sm Farid; Israr, Fouzia; Shafiq, Yusra; Arshad, Hafiz Muhammad
Use of technology in education has increased worldwide. Teaching methodologies are shifting from traditional classroom lectures to e-learning and computer-based learning. Pakistani students are also now fathoming necessity of acquiring tools for strengthening their knowledge and skills. The objective of present study was to analyze the shifting trends (perception and attitudes) of Pakistani Pharmacy students towards learning tools. A survey based study conducted on 296 students from various years of Pharmacy, studying in a state owned university, Karachi, Pakistan. This study was initially piloted and Cronbach's-alpha was computed for evaluation of internal consistency of questionnaire (for perception; 0.660, for attitude; 0.777 respectively). Data was computed by SPSS, version 16 (Crosstab) and Chisquare (P=0.05). Most of the students strongly agreed (53%; χ² =495;Plearning; books are reliable reading source (53%; χ² =437.23; Plearning. Other factors such as unavailability and expenditure of books influenced their ability to learn. This study might assist policy makers in developing policies that could improve learning.
Carvajal, M J; Hardigan, P
To identify and measure intergender and interethnic differences in preferences and expectations of pharmacy students. Two-part survey. One part addressed systematic variations in work-related expectations and preferences between the sexes and among ethnic minorities that may result from cumulative disadvantage or attitudinal traits; the other part focused on similarities and differences in expected sources of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. College of Pharmacy, Nova Southeastern University. 171 students enrolled in their final semester of didactic training (that is, immediately before rotations or internship). Not applicable. Significance of intergender and interethnic disparities was determined using t tests. No significant intergender disparities were detected in income expectations, anticipated level of job satisfaction, estimated time from graduation to passing the Board exam or working, or in preferred or expected sector of first job. African American students expected to earn lower levels of income, experience less satisfaction in their first job as a pharmacist, and work longer hours. Hispanic and Asian American students exhibited less confidence in their ability to pass the Board exam and in the allocative function of the job market. Salary and ability to help patients were the two sources of job satisfaction anticipated most frequently, whereas work overload ranked first among the anticipated sources of job dissatisfaction. The rapidly changing gender composition of the profession has altered traditional integender differences in outlook and attitudinal traits, contributing to the disappearance of intergender disparities identified in previous research. However, significant interethnic differences in preferences and expectations suggest the presence of cumulative disadvantage among minorities.
Happe, Laura E; Walker, Desiree'
To assess the impact of using "grey literature" (information internally produced in print or electronic format by agencies such as hospitals, government, businesses, etc) rather than a textbook in a course on healthcare delivery systems on students' perception of the relevance of healthcare delivery system topics and their ability to identify credible sources of this information. A reading from the grey literature was identified and assigned to the students for each topic in the course. Pre- and post-course survey instruments were used for the assessment. Students reported healthcare delivery systems topics to be moderately relevant to the profession of pharmacy on both the pre- and post-course survey instruments. Students' knowledge of current and credible sources of information on healthcare delivery system topics significantly improved based on self-reports and scores on objective assessments (pgrey literature in a course on healthcare delivery systems can be used to ensure that information in the pharmacy school curriculum is the most current and credible information available.
Ernst, Hardy; Colthorpe, Kay
To expand voluntary active-learning opportunities for bachelor of pharmacy students enrolled in a third-year human physiology and pharmacology course and determine whether the additional course components improved learning outcomes. Additional voluntary active-learning opportunities including a large-class tutorial, additional formative assessment, and an online discussion were added to the Respiratory Physiology Module of the course. Examination scores were compared with those from previous years. A questionnaire was administered to assess students' perception of the active-learning components. Mean examination scores increased from 69.3% +/- 24.4% in 2003 to 88.9% +/- 13.4% in 2004 and 86.9% +/- 17.6% in 2005, after the addition of the active-learning components. Students' overall perception of the value of the active-learning activities was positive. The addition of voluntary active-learning course components to a required pharmacy course resulted in improved student examination scores, and decreased failure rate, and were accomplished at low cost and with little additional staff time.
Nornoo, Adwoa O; Jackson, Jonathan; Axtell, Samantha
Objective. To determine whether there is a correlation between pharmacy students' scores on the Health Science Reasoning Test (HSRT) and their grade on a package insert assignment designed to assess critical thinking. Methods. The HSRT was administered to first-year pharmacy students during a critical-thinking course in the spring semester. In the same semester, a required package insert assignment was completed in a pharmacokinetics course. To determine whether there was a relationship between HSRT scores and grades on the assignment, a Spearman's rho correlation test was performed. Results. A very weak but significant positive correlation was found between students' grades on the assignment and their overall HSRT score (r=0.19, p thinking skills in pharmacy students.
Nelson, Michael H.; Bzowyckyj, Andrew S.; Fuentes, David G.; Rosenberg, Ettie; DiCenzo, Robert
The CAPE 2013 Outcomes answered the call for increased student leadership development (SLD) by identifying leadership as a desired curricular goal. To meet this outcome, colleges and schools of pharmacy are advised to first identify a set of SLD competencies aligned with their institution’s mission and goals and then organize these competencies into a SLD framework/model. Student leadership development should be integrated vertically and horizontally within the curriculum in a deliberate and longitudinal manner. It should include all student pharmacists, begin at the point of admission, and extend beyond extracurricular activities. The school’s assessment plan should be aligned with the identified SLD competencies so student learning related to leadership is assessed. To accomplish these recommendations, a positive environment for SLD should be cultivated within the school, including administrative backing and resources, as well as support among the broader faculty for integrating SLD into the curriculum. PMID:26941428
Janke, Kristin K; Nelson, Michael H; Bzowyckyj, Andrew S; Fuentes, David G; Rosenberg, Ettie; DiCenzo, Robert
The CAPE 2013 Outcomes answered the call for increased student leadership development (SLD) by identifying leadership as a desired curricular goal. To meet this outcome, colleges and schools of pharmacy are advised to first identify a set of SLD competencies aligned with their institution's mission and goals and then organize these competencies into a SLD framework/model. Student leadership development should be integrated vertically and horizontally within the curriculum in a deliberate and longitudinal manner. It should include all student pharmacists, begin at the point of admission, and extend beyond extracurricular activities. The school's assessment plan should be aligned with the identified SLD competencies so student learning related to leadership is assessed. To accomplish these recommendations, a positive environment for SLD should be cultivated within the school, including administrative backing and resources, as well as support among the broader faculty for integrating SLD into the curriculum.
McAlpine, Kristen; Steele, Stephen
The urogenital physical examination is an important aspect of patient encounters in various clinical settings. Introductory clinical skills sessions are intended to provide support and alleviate students' anxiety when learning this sensitive exam. The techniques each Canadian medical school uses to guide their students through the initial urogenital examination has not been previously reported. This study surveyed pre-clerkship clinical skills program directors at the main campus of English-speaking Canadian medical schools regarding the curriculum they use to teach the urogenital examination. A response rate of 100% was achieved, providing information on resources and faculty available to students, as well as the manner in which students were evaluated. Surprisingly, over one-third of the Canadian medical schools surveyed failed to provide a setting in which students perform a urogenital examination on a patient in their pre-clinical years. Additionally, there was no formal evaluation of this skill set reported by almost 50% of Canadian medical schools prior to clinical training years. To ensure medical students are confident and accurate in performing a urogenital examination, it is vital they be provided the proper resources, teaching, and training. As we progress towards a competency-based curriculum, it is essential that increased focus be placed on patient encounters in undergraduate training. Further research to quantify students' exposure to the urogenital examination during clinical years would be of interest. Without this commitment by Canadian medical schools, we are doing a disservice not only to the medical students, but also to our patient population.
Goldsmith, Carroll-Ann; Tran, Thao T; Tran, Linh
To develop and implement an active, hands-on program for underrepresented minority (URM) seventh grade students and to determine if participation in the program increased interest in health care careers and understanding of pharmacy and physician assistant (PA) professions. A hands-on educational program was developed in conjunction with local middle school administrators and staff for URM 7th grade students. The program was designed to be hands-on and focus on pharmacy and PA laboratory skills. A discussion component was included, allowing participants to interact personally with pharmacy and PA students and faculty members. Students' responses to survey questions about interest in health care careers and knowledge about health professions were compared before and after 2 separate offerings of the program. After the program, significant increases were seen in participants' understanding of the pharmacy and PA professions. An increased percentage of participants reported interest in health care careers after the program than before the program. Introducing middle school-aged URM students to the pharmacy and PA professions through a hands-on educational program increased interest in, and knowledge of, these professions.
Kokkinn, Beverley; Stupans, Ieva
The pilot project, described in this paper, targeted English as an additional language (EAL) students to facilitate their development of patient counselling communication skills. An interdisciplinary content-based model was developed drawing on an interactional sociolinguistic framework to map language use valued in pharmacy counselling. Evaluation included analysis of successive self-assessments and surveys of students, surveys of teaching staff and final test results. Evaluation indicated that the interdisciplinary model was highly successful in improving EAL students' competency in pharmacy counselling. The model may have possible wider application for education in health professional programmes. © 2011 The Authors. IJPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Lapidus, Mariana; Kostka-Rokosz, Maria D; Dvorkin-Camiel, Lana
Pharmacy schools across the United States expose students to literature searching and evaluation mostly during required didactic drug information courses. The majority of Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students do not utilize library-available electronic resources on a regular basis, and their didactic experience alone is not sufficient to make them successful in their advanced experiential drug information (DI) rotations. This pilot study demonstrates an improvement of students' perceptions regarding information searching and evaluating abilities as the result of their participation in a small group tutorial with a reference librarian, thus indicating effectiveness of the tutorial in refreshing and enhancing database knowledge skills.
Nakhaee, Akram; Ghassemi, Amir Reza; Torshizi, Zahra; Ebrahimi, Nazanin; Rostami, Najmeh; Karimzadeh, Zohreh; Sanjaripoor, Asieh; Sheibani, Vahid
Psychedelic drugs can cause one to get out of normal status and permanent cerebral defects, via affecting central nervous system. Consumption of theses drugs seems to be increasing nowadays especially among the youth and university educated population. We conducted a study to evaluate the awareness of medical science students of Kerman University of medical science who are going to be the future medical population. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 471 of students of medicine, dentistry and pharmacy which were in the first to forth year of their education about psychedelic drugs (Ecstasy, LSD, Ice, crack and Yaba). To evaluate the students' awareness of drugs we used questionnaire with reliability and validity proven via pilot study. Statistics analysis was performed using SPSS13 software. Average of their age was 3.2 ± 20.4. Overall among the students, 56.7% were in the low level of insight, 34.3% in medium and 6.9% in good level and 2.2% had best insight of the drugs. Also only 32.2% of students had the full information about the name of drug, 25.7 % had information about the form of them, 24% about the addiction with them, 7% about their complication and only 5% about the origin of drugs. The information about all psychedelic drugs was higher among pharmacy students, students of the third year and males. Our study showed a low insight about psychedelic drugs like Ecstasy, LSD, Ice, Crack, and Yaba among the students. According to this lack of information of these groups, it is suggested that educational courses about the complication, signs and symptoms of these drugs be held.
Cathy H Ficzere
Full Text Available Objectives: The project purpose was to evaluate pharmacy students’ reading levels using the Nelson-Denney Reading Test (NDRT and compare these results with the reading level of primary literature to investigate incongruities between student’s comprehension ability and the readability level of assigned reading in the curriculum. Methods: The NDRT was administered to first- through third-year student pharmacists to determine grade equivalents (GE for vocabulary and reading comprehension. Twenty articles previously identified as Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters (POEMs were analyzed to determine the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level and Gunning-Fog Score. Student demographics, information regarding language spoken, and reading habits, were also assessed. Pearson product moment correlations, t-tests, ANOVA, and descriptive statistics were used to assess relationships between demographic data and NDRT scores. Results: One hundred students participated. The mean NDRT total grade equivalent (±SD was 16.95 ± 2.1 (median = 17.3. NDRT grade equivalents were statistically different for students with different racial or ethnic backgrounds (t(98=3.74, p=0.026, English as a second language (ESL students (t(98=5.19, p=0.021, and students that read works of fiction for pleasure (t(98=4.31, p=0.002. The average Gunning-Fog Score for all primary literature articles was 11.48, with the introduction section being the most complex. The average Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level was 17.04, with the results section scoring the lowest average grade level. Implications: While the overall reading grade level of our pharmacy students suggests that they are capable of comprehending reading assigned in the pharmacy curriculum, minority students and students for whom English is a second language may struggle with comprehending complex text. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have
Full Text Available Background: This study sought to investigate the evaluation of academic achievement, academic motivation and hope for the future and life satisfaction of Pharmacy Students of the Medical Sciences University of Ahvaz and their relationship with the school years passed.Methods: The samples in this study were all pharmacy students studying in the College of Pharmacy, the Medical University of Ahvaz in the year 93-94. Moreover, standard questionnaires were used by this study for collecting data. In order to collect data with regard to hope, life satisfaction, motivation and academic satisfaction, the questionnaire of Snyder hope Scale (1991, Satisfaction with Life Scale questionnaire (SWLS, lepper motivation scale (2005 and Bahrani and Jokar questionnaire (1378 were used respectively.Moreover, data on Academic performance were acquired using the score of the students and the number of students dropping out in each entry and the data were analysed by using SPSS 20.Results: The results did not indicate any significant different in an investigation of five class of students and from four variables of hope, Academic motivation, academic achievement, life satisfaction. But contrast test for combined group showed that academic motivation and academic performance in freshmen students are significantly higher than the other four inputs.Third-year students possess less Academic motivation than other students.Senior students' Academic performance was also significantly lower than of students from other school years.Conclusion: freshmen students face challenges of the new environment, and this affects their academic performance. Besides in the third year of pharmacy school curriculum, pharmacy students pass the basic exam and the main pharmaceutical courses start for them, this might be the reason that their intrinsic motivation increase.
Mantzourani, Efi; Deslandes, Rhian; Ellis, Laura; Williams, Greg
Embedding opportunities for undergraduate pharmacy students to move between academic and practice environments is key to transform their perception of patient care and to facilitate learning of the skills required for the changing profession (Smith and Darracott, 2011). An approach adopted by many health care professions to prepare students for…
Gubbiyappa, Kumar Shiva; Barua, Ankur; Das, Biswadeep; Vasudeva Murthy, C R; Baloch, Hasnain Zafar
Flipped classroom (FC) is a pedagogical model to engage students in learning process by replacing the didactic lectures. Using technology, lectures are moved out of the classroom and delivered online as means to provide interaction and collaboration. Poll Everywhere is an audience response system (ARS) which can be used in an FC to make the activities more interesting, engaging, and interactive. This study aims to study the perception of undergraduate pharmacy students on FC activity using Poll Everywhere ARS and to study the effectiveness of FC activity as a teaching-learning tool for delivering complementary medicine module in the undergraduate pharmacy program. In this nonrandomized trial on interrupted time series study, flipped class was conducted on group of 112 students of bachelor of pharmacy semester V. The topic selected was popular herbal remedies of the complementary medicine module. Flipped class was conducted with audio and video presentation in the form of a quiz using ten one-best-answer type of multiple-choice questions covering the learning objectives. Audience response was captured using web-based interaction with Poll Everywhere. Feedback was obtained from participants at the end of FC activity and debriefing was done. Randomly selected 112 complete responses were included in the final analysis. There were 47 (42%) male and 65 (58%) female respondents. The overall Cronbach's alpha of feedback questionnaire was 0.912. The central tendencies and dispersions of items in the questionnaire indicated the effectiveness of FC. The low or middle achievers of quiz session (pretest) during the FC activity were three times (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-8.9) at the risk of providing neutral or negative feedback than high achievers ( P = 0.040). Those who gave neutral or negative feedback on FC activity were 3.9 times (95% CI = 1.3-11.8) at the risk of becoming low or middle achievers during the end of semester examination ( P = 0.013). The multivariate
Bati, Ayse Hilal; Ozer, Mehmet Asim; Govsa, Figen; Pinar, Yelda
Anatomy is the fundamental of medical and health professional education. Anatomic dissection enables the examination of the organs in the human cadavers systematically and topographically. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the first cadaver demonstration and the anxiety of medical, dental and pharmacy students. A questionnaire was distributed to 486 students in the same academic year (2009-2010) at Ege University. The review of anxiety reveals the circumstances such as exhaustion, stress, depression, anxiety, destructive life, deterioration of mental or physical quality or asthenia (over-fatigue), professionally having a serious effect on the students. 486 (85.3 %) students in total participated in this research carried out as based on voluntariness as 338 (93.9 %) students from the medical faculty, 78 (70.9 %) students from the faculty of dentistry and 70 (70 %) students from the faculty of pharmacy.A medium level of anxiety was detected in the students in their first encounter with the cadaver. The state anxiety score (SAS) average taken by all the students who took part in the research is 42.6 ± 5.60 and trait anxiety score average is 46.6 ± 5.0. No discrepancy was detected among the faculties with respect to anxiety score. While the SASs of the male students were higher than the girls, the trait anxiety scores of the girl students were detected to be higher than male students. While the characteristics and the cultural life of our society force the male students into stronger behavioral patterns, they may actually increase their anxiety level in distressed conditions. The fact that trait anxiety is high in both sexes, particularly in female students can be explained by the patient responsibility and the work load undertaken in the professions in the medical field as early as the period of education.Before the students' applied lessons with the cadavers start, a preparatory session must be planned for this education to decrease the
Bell, J S; Aaltonen, S E; Airaksinen, M S; Volmer, D; Gharat, M S; Muceniece, R; Vitola, A; Foulon, V; Desplenter, F A; Chen, T F
Healthcare professionals commonly exhibit negative attitudes toward people with mental disorders. Few international studies have sought to investigate the determinants of stigma. To conduct an international comparison of pharmacy students' stigma towards people with schizophrenia, and to determine whether stigma is consistently associated with stereotypical attributes of people with schizophrenia. Students (n = 649) at eight universities in Australia, Belgium, India, Finland, Estonia and Latvia completed a seven-item Social Distance Scale (SDS) and six items related to stereotypical attributes of people with schizophrenia. Mean SDS scores were 19.65 (+/- 3.97) in Australia, 19.61 (+/- 2.92) in Belgium, 18.75 (+/- 3.57) in India, 18.05 (+/- 3.12) in Finland, and 20.90 (+/- 4.04) in Estonia and Latvia. Unpredictability was most strongly associated with having a high social distance in Australia (beta = -1.285), the perception that people will never recover in India (beta = - 0.881), dangerousness in Finland (beta = -1.473) and the perception of being difficult to talk to in Estonia and Latvia (beta = -2.076). Unpredictability was associated with lower social distance in Belgium (beta = 0.839). The extent to which students held stigmatizing attitudes was similar in each country, however, the determinants of stigma were different. Pharmacy education may need to be tailored to address the determinants of stigma in each country.
Johnson Segun Showande
Full Text Available Adverse drug reaction (ADR is poorly reported globally but more in developing countries with poor participation by health professionals. Currently, there is no known literature on the Nigerian pharmacy students’ knowledge on ADR reporting. Hence the purpose of this study was to find out the level of knowledge of pharmacy students on the concept of pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reaction reporting and also to evaluate their opinions on the National Pharmacovigilance Centre guidelines on adverse drug reaction reporting. A pretested 34-item semi-structured questionnaire was administered among 69 pharmacy undergraduate students in their penultimate and final years that consented to take part in the study, in one of the universities in Nigeria. The study was carried out strictly adhering to the principles outlined in the Helsinki declaration of 1964, which was revised in 1975. The questionnaire used had four sections which included a section on biographical data, a section which evaluated the students knowledge on the concept of pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reaction reporting, a section on students personal experiences of adverse drug reactions and modes of reporting them and the final section of the questionnaire evaluated the students’ opinions on the National Pharmacovigilance Centre guidelines for reporting adverse drug reactions. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis statistical tests were used to analyze the data obtained. None of the participants knew the sequence of reporting ADR. More than half, 40(58.0% had heard about pharmacovigilance at symposiums, 7(10.1% during clinical clerkship program and 18(26.1% from media jingles. Twenty nine (42.0% agreed that pharmacovigilance was in their curriculum, however only 16(23.2% could define the term correctly. None of the participants had seen or used an ADR form prior to the study, but the students could easily identify and describe the type of ADR they had
Fuji, Kevin T; Galt, Kimberly A
To describe the development and assessment of an online elective health informatics course and determine its potential for universal integration into doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curricula. A 2-credit hour online elective course was developed and offered to all PharmD students; voiced-over Powerpoint lectures were used to deliver content. Assessment of student performance was measured using quantitative metrics via discussion questions, quizzes, written papers, and examinations. Qualitative findings were measured through discussion questions, a goal-setting classroom assessment technique, and an end-of-course reflection. Students report finding value in the course and recognizing how the knowledge gained could impact their future practice as pharmacists. An online course in health informatics can be an effective way to deliver content and provide a blueprint for continued integration of the content into curricula.
Mylrea, Martina F; Sen Gupta, Tarun; Glass, Beverley D
Professional identity development, seen as essential in the transition from student to professional, needs to be owned by the universities in order to ensure a workforce appropriately prepared to provide global health care in the future. The development of professional identity involves a focus on who the student is becoming, as well as what they know or can do, and requires authentic learning experiences such as practice exposure and interaction with pharmacist role models. This article examines conceptual frameworks aligned with professional identity development and will explore the role for self-determination theory (SDT) in pharmacy professional education. SDT explains the concepts of competence, relatedness and autonomy and the part they play in producing highly motivated individuals, leading to the development of one's sense of self. Providing support for students in these three critical areas may, in accordance with the tenets of SDT, have the potential to increase motivation levels and their sense of professional identity.
The purpose of this project is to empirically investigate several antecedents and consequences of student satisfaction (SS) with Canadian university music programmes as well as to measure students' level of programme satisfaction. For this, the American Customer Satisfaction Model was tested through a survey of 276 current Canadian music students.…
McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Griffin, LaToya M; Esserman, Denise A; Davidson, Christopher A; Glatt, Dylan M; Roth, Mary T; Gharkholonarehe, Nastaran; Mumper, Russell J
To determine whether "flipping" a traditional basic pharmaceutics course delivered synchronously to 2 satellite campuses would improve student academic performance, engagement, and perception. In 2012, the basic pharmaceutics course was flipped and delivered to 22 satellite students on 2 different campuses. Twenty-five condensed, recorded course lectures were placed on the course Web site for students to watch prior to class. Scheduled class periods were dedicated to participating in active-learning exercises. Students also completed 2 course projects, 3 midterm examinations, 8 graded quizzes, and a cumulative and comprehensive final examination. Results of a survey administered at the beginning and end of the flipped course in 2012 revealed an increase in students' support for learning content prior to class and using class time for more applied learning (p=0.01) and in the belief that learning key foundational content prior to coming to class greatly enhanced in-class learning (p=0.001). Significantly more students preferred the flipped classroom format after completing the course (89.5%) than before completing the course (34.6%). Course evaluation responses and final examination performance did not differ significantly for 2011 when the course was taught using a traditional format and the 2012 flipped-course format. Qualitative findings suggested that the flipped classroom promoted student empowerment, development, and engagement. The flipped pharmacy classroom can enhance the quality of satellite students' experiences in a basic pharmaceutics course through thoughtful course design, enriched dialogue, and promotion of learner autonomy.
Jane R. Mort
Full Text Available Objective: To describe a longitudinal leadership program involving all students and report the perceived impact. Design: The program included a first year Leadership Interview, a third year Report of Leadership, and a fourth year Professional Business Meeting Attendance. Activities involved guided reflection. Assessment: Students (n=138 indicated the activities helped them recognize the importance of leadership and their leadership potential (e.g., 72.5% and 62.3% of students due to meeting attendance, respectively. Students participated in leadership activities that they would not have pursued otherwise, either in response to the activity (27.7% due to interview or as a requirement of the activity (51.1% for leadership report. Students reported developing specific leadership skills through the activities. Most students planned to be involved in a district/regional (72.5%, state (84.1%, and national (51.4% meeting in the five years following graduation. Conclusion: Students reported a positive impact on leadership perceptions and participation. The report is a preliminary step in the development and assessment of a longitudinal curricular initiative involving all pharmacy students. Type: Case Study
Momary, Kathryn M; Lundquist, Lisa M
The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of formal primary literature evaluation (PLE) during advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) on student pharmacists' preparedness and knowledge related to literature evaluation. A perception of preparedness survey and knowledge assessment was given to student pharmacists pre- and post-APPEs. Student pharmacists were also asked to characterize their opportunities for formal PLE during APPEs. Literature evaluation experiences, knowledge base and preparedness data were compared between student pharmacists who completed two or more PLE on APPE and those who did not. A total of 211 student pharmacists completed 529 formal PLE during their APPE experiences. Quiz grades and average perception of preparedness increased significantly from pre- to post-APPE regardless of whether student pharmacists had the opportunity for formal PLE on APPE. Student pharmacists who completed two or more PLE on APPE stated they felt more confident in evaluating primary literature after APPE, had greater post-APPE preparedness scores and a trend towards higher post-APPE quiz scores. APPEs provide an important opportunity for student pharmacists to improve their PLE knowledge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cone, Catherine; Godwin, Donald; Salazar, Krista; Bond, Rucha; Thompson, Megan; Myers, Orrin
Objective. The Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT) is a validated instrument to assess critical-thinking skills. The objective of this study was to determine if HSRT results improved in second-year student pharmacists after exposure to an explicit curriculum designed to develop critical-thinking skills. Methods. In December 2012, the HSRT was administered to students who were in their first year of pharmacy school. Starting in August 2013, students attended a 16-week laboratory curriculum using simulation, formative feedback, and clinical reasoning to teach critical-thinking skills. Following completion of this course, the HSRT was readministered to the same cohort of students. Results. All students enrolled in the course (83) took the HSRT, and following exclusion criteria, 90% of the scores were included in the statistical analysis. Exclusion criteria included students who did not finish more than 60% of the questions or who took less than 15 minutes to complete the test. Significant changes in the HSRT occurred in overall scores and in the subdomains of deduction, evaluation, and inference after students completed the critical-thinking curriculum. Conclusions. Significant improvement in HSRT scores occurred following student immersion in an explicit critical-thinking curriculum. The HSRT was useful in detecting these changes, showing that critical-thinking skills can be learned and then assessed over a relatively short period using a standardized, validated assessment tool like the HSRT.
Spivey, Christina A.; Jaeger, Melanie C.; Williams, Jennifer; George, Christa
Objectives. To develop and validate a scale measuring pharmacy students’ attitudes toward social media professionalism, and assess the impact of an educational presentation on social media professionalism. Methods. A social media professionalism scale was used in a pre- and post-survey to determine the effects of a social media professionalism presentation. The 26-item scale was administered to 197 first-year pharmacy (P1) students during orientation. Exploratory factor analysis was applied to determine the number of underlying factors responsible for covariation of the data. Principal components analysis was used as the extraction method. Varimax was selected as the rotation method. Cronbach’s alpha was estimated. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare pre- and post-scores of each item, subscale, and total scale. Results. There were 187 (95%) students who participated. The final scale had five subscales and 15 items. Subscales were named according to the professionalism tenet they best represented. Scores of items addressing reading/posting to social media during class, an employer’s use of social media when making hiring decisions, and a college/university’s use of social media as a measure of professional conduct significantly increased from pre-test to post-test. The “honesty and integrity” subscale score also significantly increased. Conclusion. The social media professionalism scale measures five tenets of professionalism and exhibits satisfactory reliability. The presentation improved P1 students’ attitudes regarding social media professionalism. PMID:28630506
Hagemeier, Nicholas E; Hess, Rick; Hagen, Kyle S; Sorah, Emily L
To describe an interprofessional communication course in an academic health sciences center and to evaluate and compare interpersonal and interprofessional communication self-efficacy beliefs of medical, nursing, and pharmacy students before and after course participation, using Bandura's self-efficacy theory as a guiding framework. First-year nursing (n=36), first-year medical (n=73), and second-year pharmacy students (n=83) enrolled in an interprofessional communication skills development course voluntarily completed a 33-item survey instrument based on Interprofessional Education Collaborative (IPEC) core competencies prior to and upon completion of the course during the fall semester of 2012. Nursing students entered the course with higher interpersonal and interprofessional communication self-efficacy beliefs compared to medical and pharmacy students. Pharmacy students, in particular, noted significant improvements in communication self-efficacy beliefs across multiple domains postcourse. Completion of an interprofessional communications course was associated with a positive impact on health professions students' interpersonal and interprofessional communication self-efficacy beliefs.
Basson, Mariëtta J; Rothmann, Sebastiaan
Self-determination theory (SDT) provides a model to improve pharmacy students' well-being or functioning in their study context. According to SDT, students need a context that satisfies their needs for autonomy, relatedness and competence in order to function optimally. Contextual factors that could have an impact on a student's functioning are lecturers, family, peers and workload. To investigate whether there is a difference between the contributions family, lecturers, peers and workload make towards the satisfaction of pharmacy students' basic psychological needs within a university context. An electronic survey was administered amongst students registered with the North-West University's School of Pharmacy. Registered pharmacy students, 779, completed said electronic survey comprised of a questionnaire on demographics, BMPN (Balanced Measure of Psychological Needs) and self-developed ANPNS (Antecedents of Psychological Need-satisfaction Scale). Data derived from the afore-going was analysed with the aid of structural equation modelling (SEM). Structural equation modelling explained 46%, 25% and 30% respectively of the total group's variances in autonomy, competence and relatedness satisfaction, and 26% of the variance in psychological need frustration. Peers and family played a significant role in the satisfaction of students' need for autonomy, relatedness and competence, whilst workload seemingly hampered satisfaction with regards to relatedness and autonomy. Workload contributed towards frustration with regards to psychological need satisfaction. The role played by lecturers in satisfying pharmacy students' need for autonomy, relatedness and competence will also be highlighted. This study added to the body of knowledge regarding contextual factors and the impact those factors have on pharmacy students' need satisfaction by illustrating that not all factors (family, lecturers, peers and workload) can be considered equal. Lecturers ought to recognise the
Patten Scott B
Full Text Available Abstract Background A strategy for reducing mental illness-related stigma in health-profession students is to include contact-based sessions in their educational curricula. In such sessions students are able to interact socially with a person that has a mental illness. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of this strategy in a multi-centre study of pharmacy students. Methods The study was a randomized controlled trial conducted at three sites. Because it was necessary that all students receive the contact-based sessions, the students were randomized either to an early or late intervention, with the late intervention group not having participated in the contact-based education at the time when the primary outcome was assessed. The primary outcome, stigma, was assessed using an attitudes scale called the Opening Minds Survey for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC. Results We initially confirmed that outcomes were homogeneous across study centres, centre by group interaction, p = 0.76. The results were pooled across the three study centres. A significant reduction in stigma was observed in association with the contact-based sessions (mean change 4.3 versus 1.5, t=2.1, p=0.04. The effect size (Cohen’s d was 0.45. A similar reduction was seen in the control group when they later received the intervention. Conclusions Contact-based education is an effective method of reducing stigma during pharmacy education. These results add to a growing literature confirming the effectiveness of contact-based strategies for stigma reduction in health profession trainees.
Hawboldt, John; Nash, Rose; FitzPatrick, Beverly
International standards of pharmacy curricula are necessary to ensure student readiness for international placements. This paper explores whether curricula from two pharmacy programs, in Australia and Canada, are congruent with international standards and if students feel prepared for international placements. Nationally prescribed educational standards for the two schools were compared to each other and then against the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) Global Competency Framework. Written student reflections complemented this analysis. Mapping results suggested substantial agreement between the FIP framework and Australia and Canada, with two gaps being identified. Moreover, the students felt their programs prepared them for their international placements. Despite differences in countries, pharmacy programs, and health-systems all students acclimatized to their new practice sites. Implications are that if pharmacy programs align well with FIP, pharmacists should be able to integrate and practise in other jurisdictions that also align with the FIP. This has implications for the mobility of pharmacy practitioners to countries not of their origin of training.
Alkhatatbeh, Mohammad J; Alefan, Qais; Alqudah, Mohammad A Y
To assess self-medication practices and to evaluate the impact of obtaining medical knowledge on self-medication among medical and pharmacy students at Jordan University of Science and Technology. This was a cross-sectional study. A well-validated questionnaire that included 3 sections about self-medication was administered to the subjects after introducing the term "self-medication" verbally. 1,317 students had participated in the study and were subgrouped according to their academic level into seniors and juniors. Compared to the general population rate of 42.5%, self-medication practice was reported by (1,034, 78.5%) of the students and most common amongst pharmacy students (n = 369, 82.9%) compared to Pharm.D. (n = 357, 77.9%) and medical students (n = 308, 74.4%) (p = 0.009). There was no significant difference between juniors and seniors (557, 79.1% vs. 477, 77.8%, p = 0.59, respectively). Headache (71.2%) and common cold (56.5%) were frequent ailments that provoked self-medication. Analgesics (79.9%) and antibiotics (59.8%) were frequently used to self-treat these aliments. Reasons for self-medication included previous disease experience (55.7%); minor aliments (55.3%); and having enough medical knowledge (32.1%). Medicines were used according to instructions obtained mainly from the leaflet (28.8%); pharmacist (20.7%); and university courses (19.7%). Senior students were more aware of the risk of self-medication than junior students. The majority of students frequently advise other people about self-medication (83.6%). Self-medication was common among students irrespective to their level of medical knowledge. Obtaining medical knowledge increased the students' awareness of the risk of self-medication which may result in practicing responsible self-medication. However, medical teaching institutions need to educate students about the proper use of medicines as a therapeutic tool.
Guo, Yan; Guo, Shibao
The internationalization of higher education in Canada is happening at a rapid pace. One manifestation of internationalization is the increasing enrolment of international students in Canadian institutions. There is little research on international undergraduate students' experiences from their own perspectives as they adapt to a new educational…
Chambers, Tony; Bolton, Melissa; Sukhai, Mahadeo A.
This study examined the education-related debt, sources of debt, and the process of acquiring accommodations for students with non-apparent (such as learning disabilities and mental health disabilities) and apparent disabilities in Canadian postsecondary education. A third group emerged during analyses, students with medical disabilities, which…
Eukel, Heidi N; Frenzel, Jeanne E; Cernusca, Dan
Objective. To design an educational game that will increase third-year professional pharmacy students' knowledge of diabetes mellitus disease management and to evaluate their perceived value of the game. Methods. Faculty members created an innovative educational game, the diabetes escape room. An authentic escape room gaming environment was established through the use of a locked room, an escape time limit, and game rules within which student teams completed complex puzzles focused on diabetes disease management. To evaluate the impact, students completed a pre-test and post-test to measure the knowledge they've gained and a perception survey to identify moderating factors that could help instructors improve the game's effectiveness and utility. Results. Students showed statistically significant increases in knowledge after completion of the game. A one-sample t-test indicated that students' mean perception was statistically significantly higher than the mean value of the evaluation scale. This statically significant result proved that this gaming act offers a potential instructional benefit beyond its novelty. Conclusion. The diabetes escape room proved to be a valuable educational game that increased students' knowledge of diabetes mellitus disease management and showed a positive perceived overall value by student participants.
Barnes, Kelli D; Maguire, Michelle; Bennett, Marialice S
Objective. To determine the impact of an elective course on students' perception of opportunities and of their preparedness for patient care in community and ambulatory pharmacy settings. Design. Each course meeting included a lecture and discussion to introduce concepts and active-learning activities to apply concepts to patient care or practice development in a community or ambulatory pharmacy setting. Assessment. A survey was administered to students before and after the course. Descriptive statistics were used to assess student responses to survey questions, and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to analyze the improvement in student responses with an alpha level set at 0.05. Students felt more prepared to provide patient care, develop or improve a clinical service, and effectively communicate recommendations to other health care providers after course completion. Conclusion. This elective course equipped students with the skills necessary to increase their confidence in providing patient care services in community and ambulatory settings.
Higuchi, Yuji; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Koyama, Toshihiro; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Sendo, Toshiaki; Fujimori, Maiko; Kataoka, Hitomi; Hayashibara, Chinatsu; Uchitomi, Yosuke; Yamada, Norihito
Objective. To measure whether Emotional intelligence (EI) would minimize the negative association between autistic-like traits (ALT) and empathic behavior and enhance the positive association between ALT and psychological distress. Methods. Our sample population included 823 hospital pharmacists belonging to a district society, and 378 pharmacy students. Analyses were performed to examine relationships between scores on the Emotional Intelligence Scale (EQS), Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE), and General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ). Results. Complete answers were obtained from 373 pharmacists, and 341 students. EQS partially intervened the associations between AQ and JSE and between AQ and GHQ. Conclusion. EI partially intervened the relationships between ALT and empathy, and between ALT and mental health, both of which are necessary for optimal pharmaceutical practice.
Whitley, Heather P; Parton, Jason M
To adapt a classroom assessment technique (CAT) from an anthropology course to a diabetes module in a clinical pharmacy skills laboratory and to determine student knowledge retention from baseline. Diabetes item stems, focused on module objectives, replaced anthropology terms. Answer choices, coded to Bloom's Taxonomy, were expanded to include higher-order thinking. Students completed the online 5-item probe 4 times: prelaboratory lecture, postlaboratory, and at 6 months and 12 months after laboratory. Statistical analyses utilized a single factor, repeated measures design using rank transformations of means with a Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test. The CAT revealed a significant increase in knowledge from prelaboratory compared to all postlaboratory measurements (passessment tool was effectively adapted using Bloom's Taxonomy as a guide and, when used repeatedly, demonstrated knowledge retention. Minimal time was devoted to application of the probe making it an easily adaptable CAT.
Buhler, Amber V; Karimi, Reza M
To create a doctor of pharmacy curricular experience that will decrease students' social barriers to interaction with and treatment of mentally-ill patients. We created a survey instrument to measure 4 aspects of students' conceptions of schizophrenia and clinical depression: (1) understanding of the medical nature of each disease, (2) understanding of patient behavior, (3) belief in the efficacy of treatment, and (4) social distance. We delivered this instrument before and after a neuropsychiatry curriculum including "peer-level patient presenters" in addition to the traditional first-year pharmacy curriculum. Social-distance scores significantly decreased in first-year pharmacy students who attended peer-level patient presentations, indicating increased willingness to interact with persons with schizophrenia and clinical depression. In addition, students' understanding of the causes of illness, behavior of patients, and most importantly, efficacy of drug counseling for these diseases increased. Changes to the curriculum including the addition of peer-level patient presentations can quantitatively decrease pharmacy students' social barriers to the treatment of mentally-ill patients.
Curso: Auxiliar de Farmacia. Guia. Farmacia Teorica: Manual del Estudiante. Matematica General: Manual del Estudiante. Documento de Trabajo (Pharmacy Assistant Course Guide. Theoretical Pharmacy Student Manual. General Mathematics Student Manual. Working Document).
Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Area for Vocational and Technical Education.
The three parts of this document are intended for a 3-semester course for pharmacy assistants. The course guide contains the following sections: occupational description; educational philosophy; general objectives; tasks/competencies for each unit; course organization; brief description of the topics; student standards; and evaluation methods.…
Henning, Marcus A; Malpas, Phillipa; Ram, Sanya; Rajput, Vijay; Krstić, Vladimir; Boyd, Matt; Hawken, Susan J
One of the key learning objectives in any health professional course is to develop ethical and judicious practice. Therefore, it is important to address how medical and pharmacy students respond to, and deal with, ethical dilemmas in their clinical environments. In this paper, we examined how students communicated their resolution of ethical dilemmas and the alignment between these communications and the four principles developed by Beauchamp and Childress. Three hundred and fifty-seven pharmacy and medical students (overall response rate=63%) completed a questionnaire containing four clinical case scenarios with an ethical dilemma. Data were analysed using multiple methods. The findings revealed that 73% of the qualitative responses could be exclusively coded to one of the 'four principles' determined by the Beauchamp and Childress' framework. Additionally, 14% of responses overlapped between the four principles (multiple codes) and 13% of responses could not be coded using the framework. The subsequent subgroup analysis revealed different response patterns depending on the case being reviewed. The findings showed that when students are faced with challenging ethical dilemmas their responses can be aligned with the Beauchamp and Childress framework, although more contentious dilemmas involving issues of law are less easily categorised. The differences between year and discipline groups show students are developing ethical frames of reference that may be linked with their teaching environments and their levels of understanding. Analysis of these response patterns provides insight into the way students will likely respond in 'real' settings and this information may help educators prepare students for these clinical ethical dilemmas. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Full Text Available Bethany M Shelvey,1 Sion A Coulman,2 Dai N John2 1School of Medicine, 2School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, UK Background: The current literature on undergraduate interprofessional education (IPE for pharmacy and medical students highlights a range of positive outcomes, although to date IPE has focused predominantly on student views and experiences of IPE sessions with these opinions being sought at the end of the sessions. This study aimed to evaluate medical students’ experiences of therapeutics and prescribing IPE, with pharmacy students, 1 year following the session. Methods: Following ethics committee approval, 3rd year medical students at Cardiff University were invited to participate using non-probability sampling. Topic guide development was informed by the literature and research team discussions, including a review of the materials used in the IPE session. Semi-structured one-to-one interviews explored experiences, prior to, during, and after the IPE session. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically. Results: Eighteen medical students were interviewed; 11 were females. Seven themes were identified, namely 1 refinement of pre-session preparation, 2 session value, 3 learning with a pharmacy student, 4 learning about a pharmacist, 5 learning from a pharmacy student, 6 importance and application of what was learnt into practice, and 7 suggestions for change. Conclusion: This study provides a valuable insight into medical students’ experiences of a therapeutics and prescribing IPE session and emphasizes the value they placed on interaction with pharmacy students. Medical students were able to recall clear learning experiences from the IPE session that had taken place 12 months earlier, which itself is an indicator of the impact of the session on the students. Furthermore, they were able to describe how knowledge and skills learnt had been applied to
Maffeo, Carrie; Chase, Patricia; Brown, Bonnie; Tuohy, Kevin; Kalsekar, Iftekhar
To implement and assess the effectiveness of a program to teach pharmacy students the importance of taking personal responsibility for their health. The My First Patient Program was created and lectures were incorporated into an existing first-year course to introduce the concepts of health beliefs, behavior modification, stress management, substance abuse, and nutrition. Each student received a comprehensive health screening and health risk assessment which they used to develop a personal health portfolio and identify strategies to attain and/or maintain their personal health goals. Student learning was assessed through written assignments and student reflections, follow-up surveys, and course evaluations. Students' attainment of health goals and their ability to identify their personal health status illustrated the positive impact of the program. This program serves as a model for colleges and schools of pharmacy and for other health professions in the instruction of health promotion, disease prevention, and behavior modification.
Echeverri, Margarita; Brookover, Cecile; Kennedy, Kathleen
While most of the more frequently used self-report measures of cultural competence in health professionals are targeted to practicing physicians and mental health providers from the majority-white population, no measures have been specifically developed for minority pharmacy students. With the objective to find a suitable tool to be used for…
Davey, Andrew K; Grant, Gary D; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra
To assess the academic performance and experiences of local, international, and collaborative exchange students enrolled in a 4-year Australian bachelor of pharmacy degree program. Survey instruments exploring the demographics, background, and academic and cultural experiences of students during the program were administered in 2005 to students in all 4 years. Additionally, grades from each semester of the program for students (406 local, 70 international, 155 exchange) who graduated between 2002 and 2006 were analyzed retrospectively. The main differences found in the survey responses among the 3 groups were in students' motivations for choosing the degree program and school, with international and collaborative exchange students having put more thought into these decisions than local students. The average grades over the duration of the program were similar in all 3 demographic groups. However, local students slightly outperformed international students, particularly at the start of the year, whereas collaborative exchange students' grades mirrored those of local students during the 2 years prior to leaving their home country of Malaysia but more closely mirrored those of international students in the final 2 years after arriving on campus in Australia. Despite differences in academic backgrounds and culture, international and exchange students can perform well compared to local students in a bachelor of pharmacy program and were actually more satisfied than local students with the overall experience. Studying in a foreign country can negatively influence academic grades to a small extent and this is probably related to adjusting to the new environment.
Vinluan, Celeste M; Jabalie, Melanie M; Navarrete, Jacquelyn P; Padilla, Margie E
The new standards for pharmacy education require that pharmacy students are involved in direct and interprofessional team-based care in multiple practice settings, which include "real-time" interactions with physician prescribers and medical students. From April 2014 to December 2015, fourth-year Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students at University Medical Center of El Paso, Texas were assigned to an interprofessional team that was comprised of physician prescribers, medical students, and a pharmacist faculty. They recorded their interventions that were analyzed for type, number, physician acceptance, clinical importance, and time requirements for intervention recommendation. Interventions were divided into 5 main types and further divided into specific categories. Twelve PharmD students contributed 531 interventions, resulting in an average of 44 interventions per student with a physician acceptance rate of 87%. The most common types of interventions performed by PharmD students were under the categories of Therapy Needed (29.8%), Too Low Dose/Frequency (21.1%), Too High Dose/Frequency (8.3%), Therapeutic Level Monitoring (6.8%), and IV to PO Conversion (4.9%). A majority of interventions were of moderate clinical importance (56.1%) and took approximately 15 minutes to complete (92.5%). PharmD students under the supervision of clinical faculty on an interprofessional internal medicine team are valuable collaborators and contributors in decreasing the number of drug-related problems that can negatively impact patient care.
Hendry, Gillian; Winn, Philip; Wiggins, Sally; Turner, Christopher J
Objective. To determine the views of pharmacists in central Scotland regarding experiential education for MPharm students. Methods. A thematic analysis was completed by Ms. Gillian Hendry and Dr. Sally Wiggins of interviews conducted with ten practicing pharmacists paired with first-year master of pharmacy (MPharm) students during the 2011-2012 academic year. Relevant comments from the interviews were manually sorted in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet to bring similarly themed material together to facilitate the identification and naming of recurring themes and subthemes. Results. The pharmacists were unanimous in their opinion that experiential education was valuable for MPharm students and, in particular, that it helped students to develop self-confidence. The pharmacists derived personal satisfaction in developing mentor/mentee relationships with students. They also recognized the value that students provided to the workforce as well as the educational value to themselves in supervising students. The participants' primary dissatisfaction was that the pharmacy workflow limited the time they could spend mentoring students. Conclusion. The results provide guidance to the academic community and the pharmacy practice community in the United Kingdom (UK) regarding the design and integration of experiential education courses in MPharm degree programs.
Fox, Janna; Cheng, Liying; Zumbo, Bruno D.
Few studies have investigated the impact of English language programs on second language (L2) students studying in Canadian universities (Cheng & Fox, 2008; Fox, 2005, 2009). This article reports on questionnaire responses of 641 L2 students studying in 36 English language programs in 26 Canadian universities. The researchers identified…
Saha, Bijoy Laxmi; Seam, Md Omar Reza; Islam, Md Mainul; Das, Abhijit; Ahamed, Sayed Koushik; Karmakar, Palash; Islam, Md Fokhrul; Kundu, Sukalyan Kumar
Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is a combination of herbal medicine, traditional therapies, and mind-body intervention. This descriptive study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitudes, perception and self-use of CAM among Bangladeshi undergraduate pharmacy students. The study also evaluated their opinions about its integration into the pharmacy course curriculum. It was a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study conducted on 250 pharmacy students of five reputed public universities of Bangladesh. This study revealed that majority of the pharmacy students were using or had previously used at least one type of CAM. Among the students, 59% had used homeopathy followed by Ayurveda (30%), meditation (29%), massage (13%), Unani (9%), yoga (6%) and acupuncture (2%). Students' attitudes towards CAM were influenced by family and friends, books and journals, the internet and to a lesser degree by health practitioners. A significant (p < 0.05) number of students had knowledge about CAM. A majority of the students (90%) had positive, while 10% had negative attitudes towards CAM. Lack of knowledge and trained professionals were found to be the major interruptions to CAM use. 84.45% acknowledged the importance of knowledge about CAM for them as future healthcare practitioners. Furthermore, the majority of the students also believed that ideas and methods of CAM would be beneficial for conventional medicine. From the findings of the study, it can be recommended that an approach should be taken to educate the students about the fundamentals of CAM use so that it may fulfill the professional needs of our future pharmacists.
Yorra, Mark L.
This doctoral thesis contributes to the literature on self-efficacy and self-esteem and the relationship to a student's school, age, gender, ethnicity, GPA, paid and introductory pharmacy practice experiences in a Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) program. Graduates with a high level of self-efficacy and self-esteem are more desirable as pharmacists upon graduation. A quantitative survey, which includes two standardized instruments, the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), was administered to students at five schools of pharmacy in the northeast United States, resulting in a total of 399 responses. The findings confirm the significance of paid experiences and increased levels of a student's self-efficacy in a pharmacy setting. The other finding was related to ethnicity where the Asian/Pacific Islander students showed lower self-efficacy than other ethnic groups, which may be due to a cultural difference in displaying traits of high self-efficacy. Self-esteem also showed a positive finding for students with paid experiences and students who were older. There was an ethnicity finding where Asian/Pacific Islanders scored lower on the self-esteem scale, while the African-Americans scored higher than all the other groups. The results show that students improve their levels of self-efficacy and self-esteem through extended practical experiences. Schools should provide structured experiences of a sufficient length, beyond the present 300 hours, to prepare students for their transition into a professional role. Educators should be aware of the difference in Asian/Pacific Islander culture and encourage students to demonstrate their self-efficacy and self-esteem so other professionals can recognize them for their attributes.
Rajiah, Kingston; Saravanan, Coumaravelou
To analyze the effect of psychological intervention on reducing performance anxiety and the consequences of the intervention on first-year pharmacy students. In this experimental study, 236 first-year undergraduate pharmacy students from a private university in Malaysia were approached between weeks 5 and 7 of their first semester to participate in the study. The completed responses for the Westside Test Anxiety Scale (WTAS), the Kessler Perceived Distress Scale (PDS), and the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) were received from 225 students. Out of 225 students, 42 exhibited moderate to high test anxiety according to the WTAS (score ranging from 30 to 39) and were randomly placed into either an experiment group (n=21) or a waiting list control group (n=21). The prevalence of test anxiety among pharmacy students in this study was lower compared to other university students in previous studies. The present study's anxiety management of psychoeducation and systematic education for test anxiety reduced lack of motivation and psychological distress and improved grade point average (GPA). Psychological intervention helped significantly reduce scores of test anxiety, psychological distress, and lack of motivation, and it helped improve students' GPA.
Chuang, Chih; Khatri, Siddique H; Gill, Manpal S; Trehan, Naveen; Masineni, Silpa; Chikkam, Vineela; Farah, Guillaume G; Khan, Amber; Levine, Diane L
International Service Learning Trips (ISLT) provide health professional students the opportunity to provide healthcare, under the direction of trained faculty, to underserved populations in developing countries. Despite recent increases in international service learning trips, there is scant literature addressing concerns students have prior to attending such trips. This study focuses on identifying concerns before and after attending an ISLT and their impact on students. A survey comprised of closed and open-ended questions was developed to elucidate student concerns prior to attending an ISLT and experiences which might influence concerns. A five-point Likert-scale (extremely concerned = 1, minimally concerned = 5) was used to rate apprehension and satisfaction. Paired t-test was used to compare pre- and post-trip concerns; Chi-Square test was used to compare groups. Thirty-five students (27 medical, 8 pharmacy) attended ISLTs in December 2013. All completed pre and post-trip surveys. Significant decreases were seen in concerns related to cultural barriers (4.14 vs 4.46, P = .047), disease/epidemics (3.34 vs 4.60, P travel (3.86 vs 4.51, P hospitality (3.94 vs 4.74, P = .001) and food (3.83 vs 4.60, P < .001). Language and group dynamics remained concerns post-trip. On open-ended questions, students described benefits of attending an ISLT. Students had multiple concerns prior to attending an ISLT. Most decreased upon return. Addressing concerns has the potential to decrease student apprehension. The results of this study highlight the benefits of providing ISLTs and supporting development of a curriculum incorporating trip-related concerns.
Zanchetta, Margareth; Schwind, Jasna; Aksenchuk, Kateryna; Gorospe, Franklin F; Santiago, Lira
A Canadian nursing student-led knowledge dissemination project on health promotion for social development was implemented with local professionals and communities in Brazil. (a) to identify how student-interns contrasted Canadian and Brazilian cultural and social realities within a primary healthcare context from a social development perspective; (b) to examine how philosophical underpinnings, including social critical theory and notions of social justice, guided student-interns in acknowledging inequalities in primary healthcare in Brazil; and (c) to participate in the debate on the contribution of Canadian nursing students to the global movement for social development. A qualitative appraisal of short-term outcomes of an international internship in the cities of Birigui & Araçatuba (São Paulo-Brazil). Four Canadian fourth-year undergraduate nursing students enrolled in a metropolitan university program. Recruitment was through an email invitation to the student-interns, who accepted, and signed informed consent forms. Their participation was unpaid and voluntary. One-time individual interviews were conducted at the end of their internships. Transcriptions of the audio-recorded interviews were coded using the qualitative software program ATLAS ti 6.0. The findings were analyzed using thematic analysis. Student-interns' learning unfolded from making associations among concepts, new ideas, and their previous experiences, leading to a personal transformation through which they established new conceptual and personal connections. The two main themes revealed by the thematic analysis were dichotomizing realities, that is, acknowledging the existence of "two sides of each situation," and discovering an unexpected reciprocity between global and urban health. Furthermore, the student-interns achieved personal and professional empowerment. The knowledge gained from the international experience helped the student-interns learn how to collaborate with Brazilian society
Wong, Terri H; Ip, Eric J; Lopes, Ingrid; Rajagopalan, Vanishree
To implement the flipped teaching method in a 3-class pilot on cardiac arrhythmias and to assess the impact of the intervention on academic performance and student perceptions. An intervention group of 101 first-year pharmacy students, who took the class with the flipped teaching method, were supplied with prerecorded lectures prior to their 3 classes (1 class in each of the following subjects: basic sciences, pharmacology, and therapeutics) on cardiac arrhythmias. Class time was focused on active-learning and case-based exercises. Students then took a final examination that included questions on cardiac arrhythmias. The examination scores of the intervention group were compared to scores of the Spring 2011 control group of 105 first-year students who took the class with traditional teaching methods. An online survey was conducted to assess student feedback from the intervention group. The mean examination scores of the intervention group were significantly higher than the mean examination scores of the control group for the cardiac arrhythmia classes in pharmacology (with 89.6 ± 2.0% vs 56.8 ± 2.2%, respectively) and therapeutics (89.2 ± 1.4% vs 73.7 ± 2.1%, respectively). The survey indicated higher student satisfaction for flipped classes with highly rated learning objectives, recordings, and in-class activities. Use of the flipped teaching method in a 3-class pilot on cardiac arrhythmias improved examination scores for 2 of the 3 classes (pharmacology and therapeutics). Student satisfaction was influenced by the quality of the learning objectives, prerecorded lectures, and inclass active-learning activities.
Al-Jumaili, Ali Azeez; Al-Rekabi, Mohammed D; Alsawad, Oday S; Allela, Omer Q B; Carnahan, Ryan; Saaed, Hiwa; Naqishbandi, Alaadin; Kadhim, Dheyaa J; Sorofman, Bernard
Objective. To explore for the first time the extent to which Iraqi pharmacy students and faculty use Facebook and university email for academic communications, and to examine factors influencing utilization within the framework of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Methods. An electronic survey was administered to convenience samples of students and faculty of six Iraqi public schools and colleges of pharmacy in 2015. Results. Responses included 489 student and 128 faculty usable surveys. Both students and faculty use Facebook more than university email for academic communications. Less than a third of the faculty used university email. Students used Facebook for academic purposes twice as much as faculty. Conclusion. Absence of university email in Iraqi schools and colleges of pharmacy makes Facebook essential for faculty-student communications. The majority (71.1% to 82%) of respondents perceived that Facebook was easy to use. Three TAM variables (intention to use, attitude toward use and perceived usefulness) had significant positive associations with actual use of both Facebook messaging and university email.
Al-Rekabi, Mohammed D.; Alsawad, Oday S.; Allela, Omer Q.B.; Carnahan, Ryan; Saaed, Hiwa; Naqishbandi, Alaadin; Kadhim, Dheyaa J.; Sorofman, Bernard
Objective. To explore for the first time the extent to which Iraqi pharmacy students and faculty use Facebook and university email for academic communications, and to examine factors influencing utilization within the framework of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Methods. An electronic survey was administered to convenience samples of students and faculty of six Iraqi public schools and colleges of pharmacy in 2015. Results. Responses included 489 student and 128 faculty usable surveys. Both students and faculty use Facebook more than university email for academic communications. Less than a third of the faculty used university email. Students used Facebook for academic purposes twice as much as faculty. Conclusion. Absence of university email in Iraqi schools and colleges of pharmacy makes Facebook essential for faculty-student communications. The majority (71.1% to 82%) of respondents perceived that Facebook was easy to use. Three TAM variables (intention to use, attitude toward use and perceived usefulness) had significant positive associations with actual use of both Facebook messaging and university email. PMID:28720917
The present study, which stems from a critical approach to common perceptions about ESL learners in the TESOL community, examines the perspectives of Japanese-speaking staff in Canadian ESL institutions on their students' school performance. From September 2003 to April 2004, qualitative data were gathered from 11 staff members through mail…
Obrecht, Michael; Porteous, Nancy L.
Introduces the special section on the Student Paper Contest and the Case Competition sponsored by the Canadian Evaluation Society to foster the development of evaluators. The articles are written by former participants and include reflections on the value of the competition for evaluator development. (SLD)
Jurdi, Rozzet; Hage, H. Sam; Chow, Henry P. H.
Academic dishonesty is a persistent problem in institutions of higher education, with numerous short- and long-term implications. This study examines undergraduate students' self-reported engagement in acts of academic dishonesty using data from a sample of 321 participants attending a public university in a western Canadian city during the fall…
This article presents the results of a case study at a Canadian university that used a combination of surveys and focus groups to explore faculty members' and students' perceptions of plagiarism. The research suggests that the globalization of education and remix culture have contributed to competing and contradictory understandings of plagiarism…
Mendeloff, David; Shaw, Carolyn
This paper presents the design and assesses the results of an international collaborative course of American and Canadian undergraduates on the topic of postconflict peacebuilding. Using online discussions, a web-based role-play simulation, and videoconferencing this collaborative course sought to enhance student engagement with the material by…
Hanbidge, Alice Schmidt; Sanderson, Nicole; Tin, Tony
Learning essential information literacy skills through the use of mobile phones is an innovative m-learning pilot project that was collaboratively undertaken in a Canadian university college over the course of two academic terms by faculty and the library staff. The research pilot project involved ninety one undergraduate students in five…
Dubuc-Charbonneau, Nicole; Durand-Bush, Natalie; Forneris, Tanya
The purpose of the current study was to examine the levels of burnout among student-athletes at two Canadian universities and to investigate whether there were significant differences related to gender, sport, year of university sport participation, academic year, and academic program. Burnout was measured by administering Raedeke and Smith's…
Hall, Maurice; Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Hanna, Alan; Hall, Karen
To ascertain goal orientations of pharmacy students and establish whether associations exist between academic performance, gender, or year of study. Goal orientations were assessed using a validated questionnaire. Respondents were categorized as high or low performers based on university grades. Associations and statistical significance were ascertained using parametric and nonparametric tests and linear regression, as appropriate. A response rate of 60.7% was obtained. High performers were more likely to be female than male. The highest mean score was for mastery approach; the lowest for work avoidance. The mean score for work avoidance was significantly greater for low performers than for high performers and for males than for females. First-year students were most likely to have top scores in mastery and performance approaches. It is encouraging that the highest mean score was for mastery approach orientation, as goal orientation may play a role in academic performance of pharmacy students.
Koskinen, Liisa; Campbell, Barbara; Aarts, Clara; Chassé, France; Hemingway, Ann; Juhansoo, Tiina; Mitchell, Maureen P; Marquis, France L; Critchley, Kim A; Nordstrom, Pamela M
This paper describes the enhancement of cultural competence through trans-Atlantic rural community experiences of European and Canadian nursing students using critical incident technique (CIT) as the students' reflective writing method. The data generated from 48 students' recordings about 134 critical incidents over a 2-year project were analysed by qualitative content analysis. Five main learning categories were identified as: cross-cultural ethical issues; cultural and social differences; health-care inequalities; population health concerns; and personal and professional awareness. Four emergent cultural perspectives for the health sector that became apparent from the reflections were: health promotion realm; sensitivity to social and cultural aspects of people's lives; channels between the health sector and society; cultural language and stories of local people. CIT was successfully used to foster European and Canadian undergraduate students' cultural reflections resulting in considerations and suggestions for future endeavours to enhance cultural competence in nursing education.
Many young Canadian athletes seek athletic scholarships from universities and colleges in the United States that will enable them to become student athletes. Among parents, coaches, and children who are involved in Canadian youth sports, a commonly encountered discourse characterizes athletic scholarships as offering beneficial opportunities, including playing American intercollegiate sports, earning an education, and living abroad. From a young age, Canadian athletes witness this discourse a...
Brandys, Jerzy; Panas, Małgorzata; Skowron, Agnieszka; Przybycień, Agata
Over 1.2 billion people in the world are addicted to tobacco products. Tobacco smoke contributes to increased risk cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases and development of cancers. A survey carried out in lines of medical students was assessed prevalence of smoking and attitudes toward the problem of smoking. This research has never been carried out with departments of pharmaceutical students. The aim of this work was to assess the level of knowledge of students Pharmaceutical Faculty of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow addiction from smoking cigarettes, the harmfulness of smoking, knowledge of preparations used in the course of emergence from addiction and move topic dependence on tobacco smoking during the study. Carried a voluntary and anonymous survey, allow for verify and compare the knowledge of issues related to smoking, as well as some idea of how many students smoke cigarettes. The study was performed in the group of 485 students, including 378 from the Pharmaceutical Faculty and 107 from Medical Laboratory Department from all years. As is clear from the survey conducted students from higher years to cope better with questions about carcinogens, diseases caused by tobacco smoking and have bigger knowledge about antinicotine preparations. Among students from IV and V years is also the most people claiming that they can provide anti-smoking advice. It was found the largest proportion of smoking students on the IV and V year. The greatest knowledge of tobacco dependence Faculty of Pharmacy students acquired in class with toxicology, physiology and biology. Universities have a huge scope for action in conducting antinicotine programs.
DellaVecchia, Matthew J; Claudio, Alyssa M; Fairclough, Jamie L
To describe 1) a pharmacy student's teaching assistant (TA) role in an undergraduate medicinal chemistry course, 2) an active learning module co-developed by the TA and instructor, and 3) the unexpected opportunities for pharmacy educational outreach that resulted from this collaboration. Medicinal Chemistry (CHM3413) is an undergraduate course offered each fall at Palm Beach Atlantic University (PBA). As a TA for CHM3413, a pharmacy student from the Gregory School of Pharmacy (GSOP) at PBA co-developed and implemented an active learning module emphasizing foundational medicinal chemistry concepts as they pertain to performance enhancing drugs (PEDs). Surveys assessed undergraduate students' perceived knowledge of medicinal chemistry concepts, PEDs, and TA involvement. Students' (total n = 60, three fall semesters) perceived confidence in knowledge of medicinal chemistry concepts and PEDs increased significantly (p Educational/interprofessional outreach opportunities resulted from a pharmacy student TA's involvement in an undergraduate medicinal chemistry course. An advanced pharmacy practice experience elective in sports pharmacy (based on Ambrose's model) begins Fall 2017. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Muñoz Muñoz, Esperanza; García-Jiménez, Emilio; Martínez Martínez, Fernando; Espejo Guerrero, José
The aim of this study is to calculate smoking prevalence among first, third and fifth-year pharmacy students in Spain, and to describe their attitude towards giving up smoking. Cross-sectional multi-center study using an ad hoc self-administered questionnaire in first, third and fifth-year pharmacy students at seven Spanish universities. Bivariate analysis with chi-square and Student's t-test, statistical significance pstudents have a positive attitude towards giving up smoking, with differences between year groups (p=0.036). Four in ten pharmacy students in Spain smoke every day by the time they finish their degree. Smoking prevalence is lower in the first few years of the degree and increases over time. Students also have a positive attitude towards giving up smoking, and are in favor of measures that can be taken to try to stop people smoking. © 2013 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.
Graudins, Linda V.; Dooley, Michael J.
Medication Safety has been an established pharmacy specialty in Australian hospitals since the early 2000s and is now one of the ten Australian hospital accreditation standards. Although advances have occurred, medication-related patient harm has not been eradicated. Victorian undergraduate pharmacy programs include some aspects of medication safety, however clinical pharmacy experience, along with interpersonal and project management skills, are required to prepare pharmacists to be confiden...
Wright, David; Wickham, Jane; Sach, Tracey
Problem-based learning (PBL) was introduced into the first 3 years of the undergraduate degree course at the University of East Anglia (UEA) to both enhance the student learning experience and to enable it to meet external course accreditation criteria. Evidence to support both of these assertions is required. The objective was to determine student opinions on the value of PBL and the PBL learning process at one UK school of pharmacy. Utilising the professional accreditation criteria for UK schools of pharmacy a questionnaire was devised and piloted before being given to all UEA undergraduate pharmacy students for self-completion. The most appropriate method of dissemination was determined from a student-led focus group. A total of 201/329 (61.1%) students responded. The majority of students agreed that PBL improved their team working (83.1%), oral communication (89.1%) and problem-solving skills (61.7%). Additionally PBL improved students' ability to identify and address ethical dilemmas (74.5%) as well as enhancing their ability to manage their own learning (67.6%). Male students and those with a stated preference for team working were found to prefer PBL. Students generally believe that PBL develops a number of key skills and consequently inclusion of PBL alongside traditional teaching methods enables the school to meet a number of degree accreditation criteria. Male students, those who enjoyed team working and working with their current group were more positive about PBL. Further work is required to improve the experience for all students. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Foral, Pamela A; Turner, Paul D; Monaghan, Michael S; Walters, Ryan W; Merkel, Jennifer J; Lipschultz, Jeremy H; Lenz, Thomas L
To examine faculty members' and students' expectations and perceptions of e-mail communication in a dual pathway pharmacy program. Three parallel survey instruments were administered to campus students, distance students, and faculty members, respectively. Focus groups with students and faculty were conducted. Faculty members perceived themselves as more accessible and approachable by e-mail than either group of students did. Campus students expected a shorter faculty response time to e-mail and for faculty members to be more available than did distance students. E-mail is an effective means of computer-mediated communication between faculty members and students and can be used to promote a sense of community and inclusiveness (ie, immediacy), especially with distant students.
Shazia Qasim Jamshed
Full Text Available Background:The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is consistently on the rise worldwide. Consumers often consider pharmacists as a major source of information about CAM products and their safety. Due to the limitation of data, it is worth exploring the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of pharmacy students toward CAM. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of pharmacy students regarding the use of CAM in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted for 3 months among Bachelor of Pharmacy students in a public sector University of Malaysia. A pretested, self-administered questionnaire, comprised four sections, was used to collect the data from 440 participants. Descriptive analysis was used, and Chi-square test was used to test the association between dependent and independent variables. Results: Of 440 questionnaire distributed, 287 were returned giving a response rate of (65.2%. The results showed that 38.6% participants gave correct answers when asked about the use of herbal products with digoxin. Majority of the participants were knowledgeable about supplementary therapy (25.3% while the lack of knowledge was mostly evident in traditional Chinese medicines (73.7%. Majority of the students were either neutral (49.5% or disagreed that (42.8% CAM use is unsafe. Females were more in disagreement to the statements than males (P = 0.007. Majority of students also agreed to use CAM therapies for their health and well-being (51.2%. Conclusion: The study revealed that pharmacy students did not have adequate knowledge of CAM though their attitudes and perceptions were relatively positive.
Morrill, Amanda M; Abel, Cheryl A; Januszweski, Megan; Chamberlain, Bradley
An electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) is a device used to mimic the experience of smoking tobacco cigarettes. Considering their growing popularity amongst adolescents, it is imperative that education surrounding e-cigarettes be provided. The purpose of this project is to describe the development and delivery of a pilot interactive presentation and survey tool by doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) candidates to gauge the use and understanding of e-cigarettes amongst teens. An interactive presentation providing information on e-cigarettes was created by a PharmD candidate, and presented to 357 high school students in Massachusetts and New Hampshire. An anonymous survey tool was administered after the presentation to evaluate students' perception, use, and knowledge of e-cigarettes. When asked which is safer, an e-cigarette or a tobacco cigarette, most students (84%) responded "neither," and most stated that they learned something new from the presentation. Of the 96% of students that indicated they had heard of e-cigarettes, 27% of them had tried one. PharmD candidates reported increased confidence in public speaking and preparation of patient-suitable material. This pilot project provided both education to adolescents and insight into their experience and understanding of the potential harms of e-cigarettes. Having a PharmD candidate deliver the presentation may have increased the students' level of comfort. An interactive, PharmD candidate-delivered presentation about e-cigarettes is an innovative method to both provide education about e-cigarettes, and ascertain information about knowledge and use in adolescents. Facilitating presentations like this could be successful in other settings or topics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Murai, Yuriko; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Mori, Masaru; Tasaka, Hidehisa; Suzuki, Naoto; Shimada, Miki; Sato, Hiroshi; Hirasawa, Noriyasu; Mano, Nariyasu; Tomioka, Yoshihisa
This study sought to determine whether a long-term case review (LTCR) program helped pharmacy students develop their abilities as pharmacists, and how their level of satisfaction changed. LTCRs were comprised of four elements: self-learning, one-on-one bedside training with advising pharmacists, daily group sessions including three members, and weekly plenary sessions (case conferences). This program conducted on-site training in a hospital for 21 fifth-year students. The students were divided into 7 groups. One member of each group was assigned to a ward for bedside training for three weeks, while other member(s) of the central pharmacy provided support through daily group sessions. Each week, students training in the wards delivered case presentations in the case conference. All students, advising pharmacists, and teachers participated in these weekly case conferences. Upon conclusion of the on-site training, a survey was conducted on the program's efficacy. Through information sharing during group discussions, and in case conferences, continuous patient follow up was possible regardless of students' training schedules in wards or in the central pharmacy. After introducing the LTCR, the mean satisfaction level for case conferences (as scored using a 5-point Likert-type scale) increased from 3.4 to 4.3. Students' levels of understanding also improved. Statistically significant increases in students' self-evaluation scores on professional awareness, presentation skills, and logical thinking were also observed. We concluded that the program helped students to gain practical experience, made them more aware of clinical issues, and improved their presentation skills. Through this program, the students gained clinical competency through a deep understanding of the clinical courses of diseases and patient-oriented pharmaceutical care.
Posner, Barry Z.; Crawford, Bob; Denniston-Stewart, Roxy
Over a period of three years (2006-2008) students entering [university] were asked to complete the Student Leadership Practices Inventory (S-LPI), and 2,855 initial responses were received. Responding students were asked to complete the S-LPI again at the end of their first and third years of study. No significant differences were found in student…
Yamamura, Shigeo; Takehira, Rieko
To establish a model of Japanese pharmacy students' learning motivation profile and investigate the effects of pharmaceutical practical training programs on their learning motivation. The Science Motivation Questionnaire II was administered to pharmacy students in their 4th (before practical training), 5th (before practical training at clinical sites), and 6th (after all practical training) years of study at Josai International University in April, 2016. Factor analysis and multiple-group structural equation modeling were conducted for data analysis. A total of 165 students participated. The learning motivation profile was modeled with 4 factors (intrinsic, career, self-determination, and grade motivation), and the most effective learning motivation was grade motivation. In the multiple-group analysis, the fit of the model with the data was acceptable, and the estimated mean value of the factor of 'self-determination' in the learning motivation profile increased after the practical training programs (P= 0.048, Cohen's d= 0.43). Practical training programs in a 6-year course were effective for increasing learning motivation, based on 'self-determination' among Japanese pharmacy students. The results suggest that practical training programs are meaningful not only for providing clinical experience but also for raising learning motivation.
Neville, Michael W; Palmer, Russ; Elder, Deborah; Fulford, Michael; Morris, Steve; Sappington, Kellie
To evaluate how flexible learning via online video review affects the ability and confidence of first-year (P1) pharmacy students to accurately compound aseptic preparations. Customary instructions and assignments for aseptic compounding were provided to students, who were given unlimited access to 5 short review videos in addition to customary instruction. Student self-confidence was assessed online, and faculty members evaluated students' aseptic technique at the conclusion of the semester. No significant difference on final assessment scores was observed between those who viewed videos and those who did not. Student self-confidence scores increased significantly from baseline, but were not significantly higher for those who viewed videos than for those who did not. First-year students performed well on final aseptic compounding assessments, and those who viewed videos had a slight advantage. Student self-confidence improved over the semester regardless of whether or not students accessed review videos.
The focus of this research is cultural sustainability of African Canadian heritage. Research literature informs us that engaging youth in educational programmes at the local level is fundamental to sustainability discussions. Furthermore, students must be actively engaged in their African Canadian past, present and future education. However, there…
This article reviews Canadian administrative law regarding homophobic bullying and school board decision making. Depending on the provincial legislation, school boards either have a mandatory or a discretionary duty to provide queer students with a safe learning environment. However, Canadian case law has arguably limited that discretion. Recent…
Strohfeldt, Katja; Khutoryanskaya, Olga
To introduce a new approach to problem-based learning (PBL) used in a medicinal chemistry practical class for pharmacy students. The chemistry practical class was based on independent studies by small groups of undergraduate students (4-5), who designed their own practical work, taking relevant professional standards into account. Students were guided by feedback and acquired a set of skills important for health-care professionals. The model was tailored to the application of PBL in a chemistry practical class setting for a large student cohort (150 students). The achievement of learning outcomes was based on the submission of relevant documentation, including a certificate of analysis, in addition to peer assessment. Some of the learning outcomes also were assessed in the final written examination. The practical was assessed at several time points using detailed marking schemes in order to provide the students with feedback. Students were required to engage with the feedback to succeed in the practical. A novel PBL chemistry laboratory course for pharmacy students was successful in that self-reflective learning and engagement with feedback were encouraged, and students enjoyed the challenging learning experience. Essential skills for health-care professionals were also promoted.
Wang, Jing-Ru; Chen, Shin-Feng; Fang, I.; Chou, Ching-Ting
This study used a Chinese-language version of the Index of Science Reading Awareness to explore the science reading metacognition and comprehension of Taiwanese students. Structural equation modelling results confirmed the underlying model comprised three clusters of metacognitive knowledge: beliefs and confidence in science reading, knowledge of structure of science text, and knowledge of science reading strategies. The main contribution of the current research was to provide evidence about the relationship between metacognitive awareness and comprehension of science text. In addition, data comparisons to Canadian (British Columbia) benchmarks from the original development revealed that metacognitive awareness of science reading deteriorated from elementary to middle school in both countries, and there were no significant differences of metacognitive awareness of science reading between Canadian and Taiwanese students. Instructional suggestions for raising students' metacognitive awareness on science reading were discussed.
Hardy, Yolanda M; Marshall, Janene L
The purpose of this article is to discuss the course development and results of a survey assessing students' perceived confidence in performing various skills after completion of this course. The course was taught using a model in which all activities performed by students took place in a fictitious health system. The course was created to give students the opportunity to learn in an environment that closely mimicked advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) while in the didactic setting. Higher order active learning activities and case-based exams were utilized in the course. Students' perceived level of confidence in performing skills practiced in the course was assessed via survey after completion of each semester of the course and after the first introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE). Course coordinators hypothesized that this course design would improve students' perceived level of confidence in performing skills utilized in the clinical practice setting. Survey data from two class cohorts were analyzed. Students' perceived level of confidence in performing skills necessary in clinical practice increased as a result of the course. This course provided students an opportunity to experience an APPE environment while still in the didactic setting. The course design meets the Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) outcomes and aids in making students "APPE-ready" prior to the start of the P4 year. This unique and innovative course format allowed students to integrate knowledge learned in previous courses and apply it in a manner like what is expected in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Purpose It aimed at testing the validity and reliability of a validated team-based learning student assessment instrument (TBL-SAI) to assess United Kingdom pharmacy students’ attitude toward TBL. Methods TBL-SAI, consisting of 33 items, was administered to undergraduate pharmacy students from two schools of pharmacy each at University of Wolverhampton and University of Bradford were conducted on the data, along with comparison between the two schools. Results Students’ response rate was 80.0% (138/173) in completion of the instrument. Overall, the instrument demonstrated validity and reliability when used with pharmacy students. Sub-analysis between schools of pharmacy did, however, show that four items from Wolverhampton data, had factor loadings of less than 0.40. No item in the Bradford data had factor loadings less than 0.40. Cronbach’s alpha score was reliable at 0.897 for the total instrument: Wolverhampton, 0.793 and Bradford, 0.902. Students showed preference to TBL, with Bradford’s scores being statistically higher (P<0.005). Conclusion This validated instrument has demonstrated reliability and validity when used with pharmacy students. Furthermore students at both schools preferred TBL compared to traditional teaching. PMID:27568493
Christian Chinyere Ezeala; Nalucha Siyanga
It aimed to compare the study skills of two groups of undergraduate pharmacy students in the School of Medicine, University of Zambia using the Study Skills Assessment Questionnaire (SSAQ), with the goal of analysing students’ study skills and identifying factors that affect study skills. A questionnaire was distributed to 67 participants from both programs using stratified random sampling. Completed questionnaires were rated according to participants study skill. The total scores and scores ...
Full Text Available Purpose To establish a model of Japanese pharmacy students’ learning motivation profile and investigate the effects of pharmaceutical practical training programs on their learning motivation. Methods The Science Motivation Questionnaire II was administered to pharmacy students in their 4th (before practical training, 5th (before practical training at clinical sites, and 6th (after all practical training years of study at Josai International University in April, 2016. Factor analysis and multiple-group structural equation modeling were conducted for data analysis. Results A total of 165 students participated. The learning motivation profile was modeled with 4 factors (intrinsic, career, self-determination, and grade motivation, and the most effective learning motivation was grade motivation. In the multiple-group analysis, the fit of the model with the data was acceptable, and the estimated mean value of the factor of ‘self-determination’ in the learning motivation profile increased after the practical training programs (P= 0.048, Cohen’s d= 0.43. Conclusion Practical training programs in a 6-year course were effective for increasing learning motivation, based on ‘self-determination’ among Japanese pharmacy students. The results suggest that practical training programs are meaningful not only for providing clinical experience but also for raising learning motivation.
Echeverri, Margarita; Brookover, Cecile; Kennedy, Kathleen
While most of the more frequently used self-report measures of cultural competence in health professionals are targeted to practicing physicians and mental health providers from the majority-white population, no measures have been specifically developed for minority pharmacy students. With the objective to find a suitable tool to be used for curriculum development in cultural competence, this study applied a modified version of the California Brief Multicultural Competence Scale (CBMCS) to 467 pharmacy students at the Xavier University of Louisiana, a Historically Black University. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were conducted to examine if the CBMCS factor structure was replicated using a modified tool and a different population and Cronbach alphas were calculated to determine internal consistency reliability. The CBMCS's original factor structure was not replicated, perhaps because of modifications introduced in the original tool or because of differences between the sample population in this study (minority pharmacy students) and the population used in the original CBMCS study (majority-white mental health providers). However, results show that a modified factor structure fits the data well. The primary difference between the factors found in this study and the CBMCS factors is the appearance of a new factor composed of three items related to interpersonal and racial dynamics, which includes racial discrimination, white privilege, and power imbalance. The significant relationships (p competence of minority health professionals.
Barnett, Jeff; Jennings, Heather
The goal of Canada Health Infoway is to provide at least 50% of all Canadians with an electronic health record (EHR) by 2010. The goal of the Infoway Drug Information Systems Program is to develop an interoperable drug information system that will keep each patient's medication history: prescribed and dispensed drugs, allergies, ongoing drug treatment, etc. Drug and drug-interaction checks will be performed automatically and added to the patients' drug profiles. Physicians and pharmacists will be supplied with data to support appropriate and accurate prescribing and dispensing, thereby avoiding adverse drug interactions and drug-related deaths . This paper describes Canadian developments in pharmacy eHealth. It presents the results of the Pharmacy Informatics Pharmacy Special Networks (PSN) survey about computer systems used in hospital pharmacies across Canada including information concerning Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) systems deployed; which may reduce the number of errors in orders.
Czabak-Garbacz, Róza; Skibniewska, Agnieszka; Mazurkiewicz, Piotr; Gdula, Agnieszka
The aim of the study was the assessment of leisure time among third-year students from the Faculty of Pharmacy of the Medical University of Lublin. It analysed quantity of time devoted to school activity and ways of spending free time. The study involved 114 students (82 women and 32 men). The study revealed that women had less free time than men, who, most probably did not attend some lectures. The most popular activities among the questioned students were: sleeping (average 6.8 hours a day), studying (average 3.6 hours a day), listening to the radio (average 2.9 hours a day), talking with friends (average 1.9 hours a day), personal hygiene (average 1.1 hours a day), watching TV (average 1.1 hours a day), housework. Students devoted the least of their free time on active rest, for example walking (women did it more often than men) or practising sport (more popular among men). Cultural life of the students consisted only of meetings with friends and going to the cinema (women did it more often). The least popular way of spending free time was going to the theatre, opera, concerts and exhibitions. Few students spent their time working. Their number increased significantly during holidays. The way of spending free time by third-year students from the Faculty of Pharmacy (both men and women) during the day was similar, differences related only to the amount of time devoted to each activity.
Wang, Jun; Hu, Xiamin; Liu, Juan; Li, Lei
The aim of this study was to evaluate the attitudes towards physician-pharmacist collaboration among pharmacy students in order to develop an interprofessional education (IPE) opportunity through integrating cooperative learning (CL) into a team-based student-supported community service event. The study also aimed to assess the change in students' attitudes towards interprofessional collaboration after participation in the event. A bilingual version of the Scale of Attitudes Toward Physician-Pharmacist Collaboration (SATP(2)C) in English and Chinese was completed by pharmacy students enrolled in Wuhan University of Science and Technology, China. Sixty-four students (32 pharmacy students and 32 medical students) in the third year of their degree volunteered to participate in the IPE opportunity for community-based diabetes and hypertension self-management education. We found the mean score of SATP(2)C among 235 Chinese pharmacy students was 51.44. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.90. Our key finding was a significant increase in positive attitudes towards interprofessional collaboration after participation in the IPE activity. These data suggest that there is an opportunity to deliver IPE in Chinese pharmacy education. It appears that the integration of CL into an interprofessional team-based community service offers a useful approach for IPE.
Brenneis Fraser R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the looming shortage of physicians in Canada, we wished to determine how closely the career preference of students entering Canadian medical schools was aligned with the current physician mix in Canada. Methods Career choice information was collected from a survey of 2,896 Canadian medical students upon their entry to medical school. The distribution of career choices of survey respondents was compared to the current physician speciality mix in Canada. Results We show that there is a clear mismatch between student career choice at medical school entry and the current specialty mix of physicians in Canada. This mismatch is greatest in Urban Family Medicine with far fewer students interested in this career at medical school entry compared to the current proportion of practicing physicians. There are also fewer students interested in Psychiatry than the current proportion of practicing physicians. Conclusion This mismatch between the student interest and the current proportion of practicing physicians in the various specialities in Canada is particularly disturbing in the face of the current sub-optimal distribution of physicians. If nothing is done to correct this mismatch of student interest in certain specialities, shortages and misdistributions of physicians will be further amplified. Studies such as this can give a window into the future health human resources challenges for a nation.
Alrakaf, Saleh; Anderson, Claire; Coulman, Sion A; John, Dai N; Tordoff, June; Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville; Smith, Lorraine
To identify pharmacy students' preferred achievement goals in a multi-national undergraduate population, to investigate achievement goal preferences across comparable degree programs, and to identify relationships between achievement goals, academic performance, and assessment type. The Achievement Goal Questionnaire was administered to second year students in 4 universities in Australia, New Zealand, England, and Wales. Academic performance was measured using total scores, multiple-choice questions, and written answers (short essay). Four hundred eighty-six second year students participated. Students showed an overall preference for the mastery-approach goal orientation across all sites. The predicted relationships between goal orientation and multiple-choice questions, and written answers scores, were significant. This study is the first of its kind to examine pharmacy students' achievement goals at a multi-national level and to differentiate between assessment type and measures of achievement motivation. Students adopting a mastery-approach goal are more likely to gain high scores in assessments that measure understanding and depth of knowledge.
Mutz, Alyssa B; Beyer, Jacob; Dickson, Whitney L; Gutman, Irina; Yucebay, Filiz; Lepkowsky, Marcie; Chan, Juliana; Carter, Kristen; Shaffer, Christopher L; Fuller, Patrick D
Purpose: To evaluate current residents' level of preparation by US colleges of pharmacy for postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) residency training from the perspective of residency program directors (RPDs). Methods: RPDs were asked in an electronic survey questionnaire to rate PGY1 pharmacy residents' abilities in 4 domains: communication, clinical knowledge, interpersonal/time-management skills, and professionalism/leadership. Results: One hundred ninety-seven RPDs of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP)-accredited PGY1 programs completed the survey. The majority of RPDs strongly agreed or agreed that residents were prepared as students to effectively communicate both verbally and nonverbally, were able to appropriately respond to drug inquiries using drug resources and literature searches, and consistently displayed professionalism. Respondents were more likely to disagree or give a neutral response when asked about residents' understanding of biostatistics and their ability to provide enteral and parenteral nutritional support for patients. Conclusion: Overall, RPDs agreed that residents were prepared to perform the majority of the tasks of each of the 4 domains assessed in this survey relating to PGY1 training. RPDs may use the results of this survey to provide additional support for their residents in the areas in which residents lack adequate preparation, while colleges of pharmacy may focus on incorporating more time in their curriculum for certain areas to better prepare their students for residency training.
Keijsers, Carolina J P W; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; de Wildt, Dick J; Custers, Eugene J F M; Ten Cate, Olle Th J; Hazen, Ankie C M; Jansen, Paul A F
AIM: Pharmacotherapy might be improved if future pharmacists and physicians receive a joint educational programme in pharmacology and pharmacotherapeutics. This study investigated whether there are differences in the pharmacology and pharmacotherapy knowledge and skills of pharmacy and medical
Hartman, Rhea; Blustein, Leona; Morel, Diane; Davis, Lisa
Objective. To design and implement 2 pharmaceutical industry elective courses and assess their impact on students’ selection of advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) and pursuit of pharmaceutical industry fellowships.
Leggett, Carly; Irwin, Melinda; Griffith, Jane; Xue, Lin; Fradette, Katherine
Identifying multi-level factors affecting physical activity (PA) levels among adolescents is essential to increasing activity to promote health within this population. This study examines the associations between PA and 11 independent factors among Manitoba high school students. The sample included 31,202 grade 9-12 students who completed the Manitoba Youth Health Survey. Associations between PA and independent factors were examined separately and through multivariate regression. Analyses were stratified by gender. Perception of athletic ability, school location, parental encouragement and number of active friends were strong predictors of activity for moderately active and active males and females. Grade was a significant predictor of PA for females at both levels of activity but only significant for males when comparing active to inactive students. Perception of schoolwork and means of transport were minimally associated with PA. Results highlight the importance of targeting multiple levels of influence to increase PA among youth. Programs should focus on older students, females and those who are inactive or moderately active. In addition, social modeling of PA and increasing self-efficacy around activity should be encouraged.
Conclusions: Medical students are neither more resilient nor better equipped with coping skills than peers in the population. Greater emphasis on self-care among medical trainees is recommended. Emphasizing the importance of self-care during medical training, whether by formal incorporation into the curriculum or informal mentorship, deserves further study.
Ng, Victor; Irwin, Jennifer D
Physical activity (PA) is powerful for preventing and treating many chronic diseases. Physicians' own PA behaviors are correlated with their likelihood to counsel patients regarding PA. Medical students' PA-related attitudes and behaviors reflect what can be expected from our future physicians. A 27-item online survey was used to determine the percentage of Canadian medical students meeting the Canadian physical activity recommendations, and their self-reported perception of relevance and frequency of exercise counseling during patient encounters. We generated cross-tabulations with the independent covariates and our statistical comparison was based on the generalized estimating equation (GEE) algorithm to adjust for schools (clusters). While 64% (969/1510) of medical students met the MVPA recommendation, only 25% discussed PA counseling with patients. Most (80% and 90%, respectfully) believed physicians should adhere to a healthy lifestyle to effectively encourage their patients to do so, and that their credibility increased if they stayed fit themselves. Medical students are interested in and receptive to the importance of PA. However, not only is there improvement needed for the more than one-third of medical students who are insufficiently active themselves, but substantial change is needed regarding the vast majority of students' current counseling behaviors.
Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; López-González, Laura; González-Sequeros, Ofelia; Jayne, Chrisina; López-Jiménez, Juan José; Carrillo-de-Gea, Juan Manuel; Toval, Ambrosio
This paper presents an empirical study of a formative neural network-based assessment approach by using mobile technology to provide pharmacy students with intelligent diagnostic feedback. An unsupervised learning algorithm was integrated with an audience response system called SIDRA in order to generate states that collect some commonality in responses to questions and add diagnostic feedback for guided learning. A total of 89 pharmacy students enrolled on a Human Anatomy course were taught using two different teaching methods. Forty-four students employed intelligent SIDRA (i-SIDRA), whereas 45 students received the same training but without using i-SIDRA. A statistically significant difference was found between the experimental group (i-SIDRA) and the control group (traditional learning methodology), with T (87) = 6.598, p SIDRA and the methodology used during the process of learning anatomy (M = 4.59). The new empirical contribution presented in this paper allows instructors to perform post hoc analyses of each particular student's progress to ensure appropriate training.
Maxwell, Whitney D; Grant, Amy D; Fabel, Patricia H; Worrall, Cathy; Brittain, Kristy; Martinez, Breanne; Lu, Z Kevin; Davis, Robert; Doran, Georgia H; Ziegler, Bryan
Objective. To identify changes in pharmacy student self-confidence, self-perceptions, and self-awareness after completing the Birkman Method assessment and training program. Methods. Survey tools were developed to evaluate students at baseline and following the co-curricular Birkman Method program. Following IRB approval, students participating in the Birkman Method program were recruited for enrollment in this survey-based study. Results. Student self-confidence was high at baseline (mean=4 out of 5) and did not significantly change after Birkman Method testing and training. Self-perceptions regarding usual and stressed communication style and behaviors and behavioral needs under stress changed significantly after Birkman Method testing and training for these endpoints. The Birkman Method intervention resulted in a significant improvement in self-awareness, as indicated by a mean self-perception accuracy score increase of 1.6 points (95% CI: 1.3-1.9). Conclusions. A Birkman Method assessment and training program is an effective self-assessment tool for students, and may be useful for accomplishing Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) 2016 Standard 4 affective domain elements, particularly self-awareness.
Full Text Available To improve the quality of the MCQs, a supervising feedback strategy between the examination constructors and the Educational Development Office of the School of Traditional Medicine was performed to evaluate the content validity and designation of the course items of the phytotherapy exam for PhD students of Traditional Pharmacy. The efforts resulted in a well-constructed examination.Keywords: STANDARDIZATION, MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS, TRADITIONAL PHARMACY
Cates, Marshall E.; Hogue, Michael D.
Substance use and abuse among pharmacy students is a concern of pharmacy schools, boards of pharmacy, and training sites alike. Pharmacy students must complete approximately 30% of their academic coursework in experiential settings such as community pharmacies, hospitals, and other health systems as part of any accredited pharmacy school's…
Briceland, Laurie L; Hamilton, Robert A
To demonstrate achievement of ability-based outcomes through a structured review of electronic student portfolios in an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) program. One hundred thirty-eight students produced electronic portfolios containing select work products from APPEs, including a self-assessment reflective essay that demonstrated achievement of course manual-specified ability-based outcomes. Through portfolio submissions, all students demonstrated the achievement of ability-based outcomes for providing pharmaceutical care, evaluating the literature, and managing the medication use system with patient case reports most frequently submitted. The rubric review of self-reflective essays addressed student learning through APPEs and continuing professional development plans. The electronic portfolio with reflective essay proved to be a useful vehicle to demonstrate achievement of ability-based outcomes.
Full Text Available International standards of pharmacy curricula are necessary to ensure student readiness for international placements. This paper explores whether curricula from two pharmacy programs, in Australia and Canada, are congruent with international standards and if students feel prepared for international placements. Nationally prescribed educational standards for the two schools were compared to each other and then against the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP Global Competency Framework. Written student reflections complemented this analysis. Mapping results suggested substantial agreement between the FIP framework and Australia and Canada, with two gaps being identified. Moreover, the students felt their programs prepared them for their international placements. Despite differences in countries, pharmacy programs, and health-systems all students acclimatized to their new practice sites. Implications are that if pharmacy programs align well with FIP, pharmacists should be able to integrate and practise in other jurisdictions that also align with the FIP. This has implications for the mobility of pharmacy practitioners to countries not of their origin of training.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Cervical cancer in women can be effectively prevented by HPV vaccine. Healthcare professionals including pharmacists have a role in creating awareness about this vaccine to public. In this context, it was decided to study awareness level about HPV among pharmacy students. The aim of the study is to study the knowledge and attitude towards human papilloma virus and it’s vaccine among pharmacy students of tertiary teaching university hospital in South India. MATERIALS AND METHODS Cross sectional, questionnaire-based study among pharmacy students. RESULTS 229 pharmacy students participated in the study. The mean total knowledge score among participants was 2.69 (SD=2.260 out of the possible maximum of 11 and the mean total attitude score was 2.67 (SD=2.437 out of the possible maximum of 10. Lack of knowledge about vaccine was the main reason for not taking the vaccine. Knowledge about the vaccines improves the attitude towards it (p<0.0001. CONCLUSION There is a need to design education program for pharmacy students to increase awareness about HPV, which in turn will increase the awareness among public positively.
Baillie, Lynne; Callaghan, Doris; Smith, Michelle L
Young adults remain the earliest legal target for the tobacco industry. Against this, the existence of smoking policies would appear to offer some protection to students on campus. However, little research has been conducted into the outcomes of such policies from a student perspective. The authors conducted 8 focus groups at 4 selected Canadian undergraduate campuses to investigate student perceptions and behaviors resulting from campus smoking policies. Results indicated that student smoking behaviors are minimally impacted by campus smoking policies due to seriously compromised implementation and enforcement. These findings imply that the presence of campus smoking policies and claims of "smoke-free" campuses should not be misinterpreted as achievement and without renewed focus and adequate tobacco control infrastructure, it will remain possible for young adults to initiate and maintain tobacco smoking on campus.
Wong, Janice C; Hong, Jonathan; Leung, Pearl; Yin, Penny; Stewart, Donna E
Human trafficking is a human rights violation prevalent globally. Current guidelines highlight healthcare professionals' key role in responding to human trafficking, emphasizing the importance of medical education in raising awareness of trafficking. To assess pre-clerkship medical students' awareness of human trafficking and attitudes towards learning about trafficking in the medical curriculum at Canada's largest medical school. An anonymous, classroom-based questionnaire was designed, piloted and administered to first- and second-year medical students at one large Canadian medical school with a diverse student population. The questionnaire sought demographic data and information on students' self-perceived awareness of human trafficking and interest in learning about trafficking and other community health issues. 262 medical students completed the questionnaire (70.0% response). Most participants reported that they were not knowledgeable (48.5%) or only somewhat knowledgeable (45.4%) about human trafficking. 88.9% of participants were not familiar with signs and symptoms of trafficked persons. While students' responses indicated that they prioritized other social issues, a majority of participants (76.0%) thought that trafficking was important to learn about in medical school, especially identifying trafficked persons and their health needs. These medical students of one Canadian medical school demonstrated limited familiarity with the issue of human trafficking but largely felt that they should be taught more about this issue during their medical education. This assessment of early medical students' awareness of human trafficking is relevant to medical educators and the organizations that could develop the required educational curricula and resources.
Nuffer, Wesley; Duke, Jodi
To compare the effectiveness of an internet-based training series with a traditional live classroom session in preparing pharmacy students to oversee a diabetes management program in community settings. Two cohorts of students were identified that prepared by utilizing a recorded online training exclusively, and two separate cohorts of students…
Student mental health services were created at many American universities during the interwar years in association with the mental hygiene movement of that era. In Canada, psychologists and psychiatrists became focused on the well-being of schoolchildren during this period, but services for university students were minimal or non-existent at most institutions until well after the Second World War. Influenced by American trends and in tune with rising public concern over the problems students were experiencing on Canada's burgeoning campuses, student organizations, in co-operation with the Canadian Mental Health Association, began a concerted campaign for improved services in the early 1960s. Through conferences, seminars, and surveys, they revealed the extent of student distress, and by 1965 their efforts were attracting increasing media attention and having a direct impact on university student health policies. Their campaign then entered a new phase, transformed by the same radicalization that infused the wider student movement in the wake of the Berkeley free speech protests. Dissatisfied with the institutional response and distrustful of the motives behind the services now provided, activists questioned the very meaning of 'mental health' in the context of their deeper critique of the university and society. By the end of the decade, the student mental health movement had run its course, but it left a lasting legacy in the ongoing reform of university health services and in attitudes towards student mental health.
Janke, Kristin K; Traynor, Andrew P; Boyle, Cynthia J
To assist curriculum committees and leadership instructors by gathering expert opinion to define student leadership development competencies for pharmacy curricula. Twenty-six leadership instructors participated in a 3-round, online, modified Delphi process to define competencies for student leadership development in pharmacy curricula. Round 1 asked open-ended questions about leadership knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Round 2 grouped responses for agreement rating and comment. Round 3 allowed rating and comment on competencies not yet meeting consensus, which was prospectively set at 80%. Eleven competencies attained 80% consensus or higher and were grouped into 3 areas: leadership knowledge, personal leadership commitment, and leadership skill development. Connections to contemporary leadership development literature were outlined for each competency as a means of verifying the panel's work. The leadership competencies will aid students in addressing: What is leadership? Who am I as a leader? What skills and abilities do I need to be effective? The competencies will help curriculum committees and leadership instructors to focus leadership development opportunities, identify learning assessments, and define program evaluation.
Traynor, Andrew P.; Boyle, Cynthia J.
Objective. To assist curriculum committees and leadership instructors by gathering expert opinion to define student leadership development competencies for pharmacy curricula. Methods. Twenty-six leadership instructors participated in a 3-round, online, modified Delphi process to define competencies for student leadership development in pharmacy curricula. Round 1 asked open-ended questions about leadership knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Round 2 grouped responses for agreement rating and comment. Round 3 allowed rating and comment on competencies not yet meeting consensus, which was prospectively set at 80%. Results. Eleven competencies attained 80% consensus or higher and were grouped into 3 areas: leadership knowledge, personal leadership commitment, and leadership skill development. Connections to contemporary leadership development literature were outlined for each competency as a means of verifying the panel’s work. Conclusions. The leadership competencies will aid students in addressing: What is leadership? Who am I as a leader? What skills and abilities do I need to be effective? The competencies will help curriculum committees and leadership instructors to focus leadership development opportunities, identify learning assessments, and define program evaluation. PMID:24371346
Development of an instrument to assess the impact of an enhanced experiential model on pharmacy students' learning opportunities, skills and attitudes: A retrospective comparative-experimentalist study
Collins John B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacy schools across North America have been charged to ensure their students are adequately skilled in the principles and practices of pharmaceutical care. Despite this mandate, a large percentage of students experience insufficient opportunities to practice the activities, tasks and processes essential to pharmaceutical care. The objective of this retrospective study of pharmacy students was to: (1 as "proof of concept", test the overall educational impact of an enhanced advanced pharmacy practice experiential (APPE model on student competencies; (2 develop an instrument to measure students' and preceptors' experiences; and (3 assess the psychometric properties of the instrument. Methods A comparative-experimental design, using student and preceptor surveys, was used to evaluate the impact of the enhanced community-based APPE over the traditional APPE model. The study was grounded in a 5-stage learning model: (1 an enhanced learning climate leads to (2 better utilization of learning opportunities, including (3 more frequent student/patient consultation, then to (4 improved skills acquisition, thence to (5 more favorable attitudes toward pharmaceutical care practice. The intervention included a one-day preceptor workshop, a comprehensive on-site student orientation and extending the experience from two four-week experiences in different pharmacies to one eight-week in one pharmacy. Results The 35 student and 38 preceptor survey results favored the enhanced model; with students conducting many more patient consultations and reporting greater skills improvement. In addition, the student self-assessment suggested changes in attitudes favoring pharmaceutical care principles. Psychometric testing showed the instrument to be sensitive, valid and reliable in ascertaining differences between the enhanced and traditional arms. Conclusion The enhanced experiential model positively affects learning opportunities and competency
Ellerton, Cindy; Evans, Cathy
ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify professional behaviours measured in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) by Canadian university physical therapy (PT) programs. Method: A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted to review current practice and determine which OSCE items Canadian PT programs are using to measure PT students' professional behaviours. Telephone interviews using semi-structured questions were conducted with individual instructors responsible for courses that included an OSCE as part of the assessment component. Results: Nine PT programmes agreed to take part in the study, and all reported conducting at least one OSCE. The number and characteristics of OSCEs varied both within and across programs. Participants identified 31 professional behaviour items for use in an OSCE; these items clustered into four categories: communication (n=14), respect (n=10), patient safety (n=4), and physical therapists' characteristics (n=3). Conclusions: All Canadian entry-level PT programmes surveyed assess professional behaviours in OSCE-type examinations; however, the content and style of assessment is variable. The local environment should be considered when determining what professional behaviours are appropriate to assess in the OSCE context in individual programmes. PMID:25931656
Lucas, Kristy H; Testman, Julie A; Hoyland, Marcella N; Kimble, Angel M; Euler, Mary L
To implement an active-learning approach in a pharmacotherapy course sequence in the second year (P2) and third (P3) year of a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program and determine whether the pedagogical changes correlated with retention of core content in the fourth year (P4). Class sessions were transitioned from slides-based lectures to discussion-based active-learning pedagogy. A comprehensive examination was created and administered to assess student retention of therapeutic topics taught. Students demonstrated significantly improved overall scores on questions derived from the active-learning pedagogy used in Pharmacotherapy II and III compared to those derived from Pharmacotherapy I in which content was delivered by lecture. The use of active-learning strategies over lecture-based methods in pharmacotherapy courses resulted in higher retention of core content. Students' performance in areas taught using the discussion-based methodology was superior to that which was taught using lecture-based slide presentations.
Yusuff, Kazeem B
The patient-centered focus of clinical pharmacy practice which demands nuanced application of specialized knowledge and skills targeted to meeting patient-specific therapeutic needs warrant that the training strategy used for PharmD graduates must empower with the ability to use the higher level cognitive processes and critical thinking effectively in service delivery. However, the historical disposition to learning in the Middle East and among Saudi students appeared heavily focused on rote memorization and recall of memorized facts. To assess the impact of active pedagogic strategies such as self-reflection and peer assessment on pharmacy students' academic performance and metacognitive skills, and evaluate students' feedback on the impact of these active pedagogic strategies on their overall learning experience. An exploratory prospective cohort study was conducted among 4th year students at the College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia to assess the impact of self-reflection and peer-assessment in a semester-wide assessment tasks in two compulsory first semester 4th year courses (Therapeutics-3 and Pharmacoeconomics). An end-of-course evaluation survey with a pre-tested 5-item open-ended questionnaire was also conducted to evaluate students' feedback on the impact of active pedagogic strategies on their overall learning experience. Male students (study group) constituted 40.7% of the cohort while 59.3% were females (control group) with mean ± SD age of 23.2 ± 5.6 and 22.1 ± 4.9 years respectively. The mean ± SD scores for quizzes, mid-term and final exams, and the overall percentage pass were significantly higher in the study group for both courses (P group opined that the exposure to active pedagogic strategies enabled them to improve their use of critical thinking, facilitated deeper engagement with their learning and improved their clinical decision-making and discussion skills. The use of active pedagogic strategies
Go, Stephanie L; Lam, Cindy T Y; Lin, Yahui T; Wong, Deborah J; Lazo-Langner, Alejandro; Chin-Yee, Ian
In Canada, all men who have sex with men (MSM) are indefinitely deferred from donating blood. The purpose of this study was to determine the acceptability of an alternative behavior-based donor health questionnaire among Canadian university students. Further we sought to determine the perception of blood safety associated with specific risk behaviors. Questions found on the Canadian Blood Services' donor health assessment questionnaire as well as from studies assessing high-risk behavior for human immunodeficiency virus infection were included. For each question participants were asked to rate the acceptability, comfort in answering, perceived effect on blood safety, and whether the question would deter them from donating blood. Data were analyzed using nonparametric tests. A total of 741 students participated in the study. Questions regarding sexual practices of the donor were rated less important for blood safety compared to those assessing for sexually transmitted infections, sex for money, and injection drug use (30%-62% vs. 69%-95% unsafe). A total of 24.4% of students rated both questions on MSM status and a behavior-based alternative as equally unacceptable. We found an inverse correlation between perception of safety and acceptability of questions. Our findings suggest that a behavior-based screening modification is unlikely to change opinions or satisfy those who object to the MSM current policy in place. Acceptability of these questions might be related to a poor understanding of the effect of sexual practices on blood supply safety. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.
Beatriz Arias, Brasa; Landín Pérez, Mariana
In the early twentieth century, if there were an European Capital of biomedical research, it was definitely Paris. It was in this city where microbiology was born in the 19th century due to the crucial influence of Louis Pasteur. In 1888 he founded the Pasteur Institute in Paris where the rabies vaccine, that Pasteur himself had discovered in 1885, was administrated. This institution was also a place to continue his research on infectious diseases and to disseminate its findings. It is a private non-profit state-approved foundation that has attracted along the years many scientists from France and abroad who have been traditionally called "pasteuriens". So it was a world reference centre which has produced important scientific discoveries at a rapid pace and where resources both material and human, were abundant. The Pasteur institute therefore became one of the favourite research facilities of teachers and students from Spanish universities during the first third of the twentieth century, thanks to new regulations that encouraged training abroad. Scholarship policy promoted by the Spanish Government by an organization called Junta para la Ampliación de Estudios e Investigaciones Científicas (Council for Higher Studies and Scientific Research from, 1907 to 1936) formed scientists abroad. The Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela sent some of its members to the French capital between 1905 and 1933. We found that the vast majority chose the Pasteur Institute to conduct the studies of biological chemistry and drug synthesis, but always dependent of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Paris. Our study focuses on teachers and students who went to Paris, the dates, the course of their scientific stay and how these studies influenced their later work, once they returned to the Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela.
Christian Chinyere Ezeala
Full Text Available It aimed to compare the study skills of two groups of undergraduate pharmacy students in the School of Medicine, University of Zambia using the Study Skills Assessment Questionnaire (SSAQ, with the goal of analysing students’ study skills and identifying factors that affect study skills. A questionnaire was distributed to 67 participants from both programs using stratified random sampling. Completed questionnaires were rated according to participants study skill. The total scores and scores within subscales were analysed and compared quantitatively. Questionnaires were distributed to 37 students in the regular program, and to 30 students in the parallel program. The response rate was 100%. Students had moderate to good study skills: 22 respondents (32.8% showed good study skills, while 45 respondents (67.2% were found to have moderate study skills. Students in the parallel program demonstrated significantly better study skills (mean SSAQ score, 185.4±14.5, particularly in time management and writing, than the students in the regular program (mean SSAQ score 175±25.4; P<0.05. No significant differences were found according to age, gender, residential or marital status, or level of study. The students in the parallel program had better time management and writing skills, probably due to their prior work experience. The more intensive training to students in regular program is needed in improving time management and writing skills.
Ezeala, Christian Chinyere; Siyanga, Nalucha
It aimed to compare the study skills of two groups of undergraduate pharmacy students in the School of Medicine, University of Zambia using the Study Skills Assessment Questionnaire (SSAQ), with the goal of analysing students' study skills and identifying factors that affect study skills. A questionnaire was distributed to 67 participants from both programs using stratified random sampling. Completed questionnaires were rated according to participants study skill. The total scores and scores within subscales were analysed and compared quantitatively. Questionnaires were distributed to 37 students in the regular program, and to 30 students in the parallel program. The response rate was 100%. Students had moderate to good study skills: 22 respondents (32.8%) showed good study skills, while 45 respondents (67.2%) were found to have moderate study skills. Students in the parallel program demonstrated significantly better study skills (mean SSAQ score, 185.4±14.5), particularly in time management and writing, than the students in the regular program (mean SSAQ score 175±25.4; Pstudents in the parallel program had better time management and writing skills, probably due to their prior work experience. The more intensive training to students in regular program is needed in improving time management and writing skills.
McCloughen, Andrea; Foster, Kim
To identify challenging interpersonal interactions experienced by nursing and pharmacy students during clinical placement, and strategies used to manage those situations. Healthcare students and staff experience elevated stress when exposed to dynamic clinical environments, complex care and challenging professional relationships. Emotionally intelligent behaviours are associated with appropriate recognition and management of emotions evoked by stressful experiences and development of effective relationships. Nursing and pharmacy students' use of emotionally intelligent behaviours to manage challenging interpersonal situations is not well known. A qualitative design, using semi-structured interviews to explore experiences of challenging interpersonal situations during clinical placement (Phase two of a larger mixed-methods study). Final-year Australian university nursing and pharmacy students (n = 20) were purposefully recruited using a range of Emotional Intelligence scores (derived in Phase one), measured using the GENOS Emotional intelligence Inventory (concise version). Challenging interpersonal situations involving student-staff and intrastaff conflict, discourteous behaviour and criticism occurred during clinical placement. Students used personal and relational strategies, incorporating emotionally intelligent behaviours, to manage these encounters. Strategies included reflecting and reframing, being calm, controlling discomfort and expressing emotions appropriately. Emotionally intelligent behaviours are effective to manage stressful interpersonal interactions. Methods for strengthening these behaviours should be integrated into education of nursing and pharmacy students and qualified professionals. Education within the clinical/workplace environment can incorporate key interpersonal skills of collaboration, social interaction and reflection, while also attending to sociocultural contexts of the healthcare setting. Students and staff are frequently exposed
Henning, Marcus A; Ram, Sanya; Malpas, Phillipa; Sisley, Richard; Thompson, Andrea; Hawken, Susan J
This paper presents students' views about honest and dishonest actions within the pharmacy and medical learning environments. Students also offered their views on solutions to ameliorating dishonest action. Three research questions were posed in this paper: (1) what reasons would students articulate in reference to engaging in dishonest behaviours? (2) What reasons would students articulate in reference to maintaining high levels of integrity? (3) What strategies would students suggest to decrease engagement in dishonest behaviours and/or promote honest behaviours? The design of the study incorporated an initial descriptive analysis to interpret students' responses to an 18-item questionnaire about justifications for dishonest action. This was followed by a qualitative analysis of students' commentaries in reference to why students would engage in either honest or dishonest action. Finally a qualitative analysis was conducted on students' views regarding solutions to dishonest action. The quantitative results showed that students were more likely to use time management and seriousness justifications for dishonest actions. The qualitative findings found that students' actions (honest or dishonest) were guided by family and friends, the need to do well, issues of morality and institutional guidelines. Students suggested that dishonest action could be ameliorated by external agencies and polarised views between punitive and rewards-based mechanisms were offered. These results suggest that these students engaged in dishonest action for various reasons and solutions addressing dishonest action need to consider diverse mechanisms that likely extend beyond the educational institution. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Curley, Louise E; McDonald, Maureen; Aspden, Trudi
Providing patient-centred care requires pharmacy students to learn how to interact effectively and understand individual differences that can influence patients' health. The School of Pharmacy at The University of Auckland, New Zealand (NZ), developed a virtual teaching platform, called NZ Pharmville, which consisted of twenty-one community-based patients who are members of six families; each family had a video vignette associated with it. Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) students, enrolled in the third year pharmacy practice course, were able to view these recorded vignettes as part of their weekly pre-laboratory work for the course. All the clinical cases within the course were based on this community, with the aim of increasing the realism in the practical sessions and increasing patient-centred learning. This study aimed to explore the perspectives of pharmacy students regarding the integration of this virtual community into a third year undergraduate pharmacy practice course. An anonymous, voluntary survey which consisted of twenty-one items, 13 requiring a Likert scale response and 8 requiring free text responses, was distributed to all students who had completed the third year pharmacy practice course. The responses to the questions were collated and analysed. Responses to questions one to thirteen were recorded in Excel, and results were presented as the combination of strongly agree and agree, strongly disagree and disagree and neutral. Responses to free text questions were read multiple times before being coded by two members of the research team into broad themes aligned to the overall aims of the evaluation. Eighty-six (80.4 %) of the eligible students completed the survey and the majority of responses were positive towards the benefits of using the virtual community in the course. Responses indicated that many of the students found the integration of the virtual community to be useful preparation for their practical sessions and the majority of students
Janaudis-Ferreira, Tania; Araujo, Tamara; Romano, Julia Marie; Camp, Pat G; Hall, Mark; Mathur, Sunita; Brooks, Dina
Purpose: To investigate the opinions of final-year Canadian physiotherapy students of cardiorespiratory physiotherapy (CRP) and the factors influencing their decision about whether to pursue a career in CRP. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was completed by final-year Master of Science of Physical Therapy students from three of the largest English-speaking physiotherapy schools in Canada. Results: A total of 120 students responded to the survey (overall response rate was 44%). Fifteen students (12.5%) responded that they were extremely or quite interested in specializing in CRP. The most common factors that positively influenced students' decision to consider specializing in CRP were job accessibility, potential salary, and experiences in the area, and the most common factors that negatively influenced their decision were the clinical aspects of the area, their experiences in the area, job accessibility, and the influence of others. The most common factors that positively influenced students' opinion of CRP were their clinical supervisor, educator, or lecturer; their own clinical experience; and evidence in the literature, and the most common factors that negatively influenced their opinion were their own clinical experience and their peers. Conclusion: Strategies focusing on increasing awareness of the role of physiotherapists in the care of patients with cardiorespiratory conditions, exposing students to the positive impact that physiotherapists have in this practice area, and good mentorship experiences may promote the attractiveness of this specialty.
Iglesias, S L; Granchetti, H; Azzara, S; Carpineta, M; Pappalardo, M; Argibay, J C; Lagomarsino, E
The beneficial results of a theory-practice pilot stress management program for Pharmacy and Biochemistry professionals and students. Its importance as a complement of traditional academic education, as well as its potential for Pharmaceutical Care is also discussed. A total of 27 students and 26 professionals took part in a program of 10 sessions, aimed at improving stress management. Ten of the students and 10 professionals were randomly assigned to control groups. Salivary cortisol levels and anxiety level tests before and after the program were used to assess efficacy. Both the cortisol and the anxiety levels significantly decreased among students and professionals after the program, whereas it significantly increased in the student control group. Anxiety levels significantly decreased in both students and professionals. This type of pilot program proved effective for students. In the case of health professionals, the sample size needs to be increased in order to achieve an acceptable level of statistical power. Considering the shift of the pharmaceutical profession towards Pharmaceutical Care, the training of competences and attitudes like those described in this work could be of value. Copyright © 2013 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Blissett, Sarah; Law, Christine; Morra, Dante; Ginsburg, Shiphra
Many medical students find choosing a residency challenging. There are several steps involved, including determining one's own priorities, arranging electives, choosing a training program and site, and preparing an in-depth application and a rank order list. Many resources are available to assist students, including the Canadian Resident Matching Service website, program websites, career counselors, career information sessions, mentors, peers, family/friends, and the Canadian Medical Residency Guide. Our study explored the relative impact of these resources on the career decision-making process. We invited medical students in their final year at 12 Canadian medical schools to complete an online survey. Questions included identifying the relative utility of resources in the context of each component of the decision-making process. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The response rate was 71% (1076 of 1518). Overall, mentors, family/friends, and peers had the most impact on students' decision making. Career counselors, websites, and the Canadian Medical Residency Guide had much less impact. Family/friends were most frequently cited as essential to the process; however, family/friends and peers were equal in having some impact. Our findings suggest that students are most influenced by family, friends, and peers, who are not involved in the formal residency selection effort. Appreciating the impact of these influences on students' decision making is important to understanding how they decide on their future careers. The study supports continuation of mentorship programs. Future work could focus on qualitative research to further characterize resource use.
Fox, Brent I.; Flynn, Allen J.; Fortier, Christopher R.; Clauson, Kevin A.
Pharmacy has an established history of technology use to support business processes. Pharmacy informatics education within doctor of pharmacy programs, however, is inconsistent, despite its inclusion as a requirement in the 2007 Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education Standards and Guidelines. This manuscript describes pharmacy informatics knowledge and skills that all graduating pharmacy students should possess, conceptualized within the framework of the medication use process. Addition...
Full Text Available Background: International medical electives (IMEs are unique learning opportunities; however, trainees can risk patient safety. Returning medical students often express concern about doing procedures beyond their level of training. The Canadian Federation of Medical Students has developed guidelines for pre-departure training (PDT, which do not address procedural skills. The purpose of this research is to determine which procedural skills to include in future PDT. Methods: Twenty-six medical students who returned from IMEs completed surveys to assess PDT. Using a Likert scale, we compared procedures performed by students before departing on IME to those performed while abroad. We used a similar scale to assess which procedures students feel ought to be included in future PDT. Results: There was no significant increase in number of procedures performed while on IME. Skills deemed most important to include in future PDT were intravenous line insertion, suturing of lacerations, surgical assisting and post-operative wound care. Conclusions: Pre-departure training is new and lacks instruction in procedural skills. Over half the students rated several procedural skills such as IV line insertion, suturing, assisting in surgery, post operative wound management and foley catheterization as important assets for future PDT.
St-Jacques, J. M.; McGee, S.; Janze, R.; Longman, M.; Pete, S.; Starblanket, N.
Canadian Indigenous people are an extremely poorly represented group in STEM today due to major barriers in obtaining a high school and then a university education. Approximately 10% of the undergraduate student population out of a total 12,600 students at the University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, is First Nations, Métis or Inuit. The university is located in a catchment region where 30% of the population is First Nations or Métis. Approximately 100 students majoring in the sciences, mathematics and engineering have self-declared themselves to be Indigenous. For the past two years, we have been running a pilot project, the Initiative to Support and Increase the Number of Indigenous Students in the Sciences, Mathematics and Engineering at the Aboriginal Student Centre, with financial support from the Deans of Science and Engineering. We provide student networking lunches, Indigenous scientist and engineer speakers and mentors and supplemental tutoring. Our program is actively supported and guided by Elder Noel Starblanket, former president of the National Indian Brotherhood (now the Assembly of First Nations). Our students are greatly interested in the health and environmental sciences (particularly water quality), with a sprinkling of physics, mathematics and engineering majors. Our students have gone on to graduate work with prestigious scholarships and a paid internship in engineering. We report here on various lessons learned: the involvement of elders is key, as is the acceptance of non-traditional academic paths, and any STEM support program must respect Indigenous culture. There is great interest in science and engineering on the part of these students, if scientists and engineers are willing to listen and learn to talk with these students on their own terms.
Full Text Available Compared to the nursing and medical professions, simulation-based pharmacy education is a relatively new mode of supporting learning, although one that is growing rapidly to meet the training needs of a new generation of healthcare professionals. Within the UK (and particularly Scotland, access to the clinical environment through the more traditional route of placement is limited, and simulation offers a partial solution to this problem. As is well-established, simulation—if used appropriately—also offers excellent opportunities for enhancing patient safety, including allowing the exploration of the science of human factors. Given the high incidence of medication errors, pharmacists need to be included in any intervention for improvement of patient safety. It is true, however, that the “clinical environment” experienced by the practising pharmacist (especially in community pharmacy is different from the typical nursing or medical situation. This, combined with a lack of understanding of the role of the pharmacist as a member of the wider healthcare team, means that there are additional considerations required when designing simulation-based learning activities. This commentary undertakes a narrative review of the current situation for pharmacy simulation, and considers how this may be developed to support the Scottish healthcare vision, whilst recognising that the issues raised are likely to be relevant across the sector.
Fatimah Ali Albusalih
Full Text Available Pharmacy and medical students are expected to be more knowledgeable regarding rational use of medications as compared to the general public. A cross-sectional study was conducted among students of pharmacy and medicine colleges of Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University in Dammam, Saudi Arabia using a survey questionnaire. The duration of the study was six months. The aim was to report self-medication prevalence of prescription and non-prescription drugs among pharmacy and medical students. The prevalence of self-medication in the pharmacy college was reported at 19.61%. Prevalence of self-medication at the medical college was documented at 49.3%. The prevalence of multivitamin use was reported at 30.53%, analgesics; 72.35%, antihistamines; 39.16%, and antibiotic use at 16.59%. The prevalence of anti-diarrheal medicines and antacids use among students was found to be 8.63% and 6.64%, respectively. The variable of college and study year was statistically associated with the nature of the medicines. The most common justifications given by students indulging in self-medication were ‘mild problems’ and ‘previous experience with medicines’. Our study reported that prevalence of self-medication in the College of Clinical Pharmacy was low, i.e., 19.61%. The figure has been reported for the first time. Students were mostly observed self-medicating with OTC drugs, however, some reported using corticosteroids and isotretenoin, which are quite dangerous if self-medicated. Students have a positive outlook towards pharmacists as drug information experts.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The frequent use of chiropractic, naturopathic, and physical and occupational therapy by patients with fibromyalgia has been emphasized repeatedly, but little is known about the attitudes of these therapists towards this challenging condition. Methods We administered a cross-sectional survey to 385 senior Canadian chiropractic, naturopathic, physical and occupational therapy students in their final year of studies, that inquired about attitudes towards the diagnosis and management of fibromyalgia. Results 336 students completed the survey (response rate 87%. While they disagreed about the etiology (primarily psychological 28%, physiological 23%, psychological and physiological 15%, unsure 34%, the majority (58% reported that fibromyalgia was difficult to manage. Respondants were also conflicted in whether treatment should prioritize symptom relief (65% or functional gains (85%, with the majority (58% wanting to do both. The majority of respondents (57% agreed that there was effective treatment for fibromyalgia and that they possessed the required clinical skills to manage patients (55%. Chiropractic students were most skeptical in regards to fibromyalgia as a useful diagnostic entity, and most likely to endorse a psychological etiology. In our regression model, only training in naturopathic medicine (unstandardized regression coefficient = 0.33; 95% confidence interval = 0.11 to 0.56 and the belief that effective therapies existed (unstandardized regression coefficient = 0.42; 95% confidence interval = 0.30 to 0.54 were associated with greater confidence in managing patients with fibromyalgia. Conclusion The majority of senior Canadian chiropractic, naturopathic, physical and occupational therapy students, and in particular those with naturopathic training, believe that effective treatment for fibromyalgia exists and that they possess the clinical skillset to effectively manage this disorder. The majority place high priority
El-Ahmady, Sherweit; El-Wakeel, Lamia
A cross-sectional study was conducted on a group of pharmacy students to assess the relation between nutritional knowledge and awareness of university students and their nutrition habits and health related performance and indicators. The students were subjected to a questionnaire designed to approach four health related topics including nutrition literacy, health awareness, nutritional habits and health related performance. Answers on each topic were collected and statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism 5 software including a measure of gender differences and correlative studies. No significant difference between genders in the overall responses but discrepancies in certain questions were observed. Female students showed higher awareness of nutrition concepts and practices but poor implementation from their side was observed. The study revealed that a positive and significant correlation existed between health related performance and nutrition literacy (r = 0.32). Healthier eating habits and lifestyle were associated more with nutrition conscious students (r = 0.73) than knowledgeable students (r = 0.56). It was concluded that knowledge alone is not enough to stimulate individuals to practice healthy habits. Other implementations are required to raise awareness of the issues at hand.
By law, medical faculties are mandated to have a designated partner hospital for the purposes of student practical training. In contrast, pharmacy faculties do not have such a legal requirement for student training in a community pharmacy setting. Nevertheless, there are several public and private universities that do have community pharmacies. However, there is no national university that has established both an educational hospital and a community pharmacy. When Kanazawa University (KU) established a graduate school with a clinical pharmacy course, the faculty of KU deemed it necessary to set up an independent community pharmacy for the purpose of practical training. Thus, in 2003, the Acanthus Pharmacy was set up as the first educational community pharmacy in Japan, managed by a nonprofit organization, with the permission of the Ishikawa Pharmaceutical Association and local community pharmacists. Since that time, Acanthus has managed a clinical pharmacy practice for students from both the undergraduate and graduate schools of KU. From 2006, the undergraduate pharmacy program was changed to a 6-year program, and the Acanthus Pharmacy has continued its roles in educating undergraduate pharmaceutical students, medical students, and as a site of early exposure for KU freshmen. From our experience, it is important to have a real clinical environment available to university pharmacy faculty and students, especially in training for community pharmacy practices.
Rupp, Michael T
In a possible future of supply-demand imbalance in pharmacy education, a brand that positively differentiates a college or school of pharmacy from its competitors may be the key to its survival. The nominal group technique, a structured group problem-solving and decision-making process, was used during a faculty retreat to identify and agree on the core qualities that define the brand image of Midwestern University's College of Pharmacy in Glendale, AZ. Results from the retreat were provided to the faculty and students, who then proposed 168 mottos that embodied these qualities. Mottos were voted on by faculty members and pharmacy students. The highest ranked 24 choices were submitted to the faculty, who then selected the top 10 finalists. A final vote by students was used to select the winning motto. The methods described here may be useful to other colleges and schools of pharmacy that want to better define their own brand image and strengthen their organizational culture.
Chaitin, Chava; Velasquez, Jaimie; Khanfar, Nile M; Chassange, Stephanie; Perez Torres, Rennie; Loan Pham, Ngoc; Rodriguez, Martha M; Hale, Genevieve M
The American Diabetes Association announced in 2012 that 86 million Americans were diagnosed with prediabetes compared to 79 million in 2010. Prediabetes + Me (PreDiaMe) is an innovative educational programme developed by pharmacy students at Nova Southeastern University College of Pharmacy, which provides collaborative interprofessional care for patients with prediabetes. A literature review using EBSCOhost, EMBASE, and MEDLINE databases searching the terms education, health services, interprofessional team, and prediabetes was conducted. Human studies published in English between 2006 and 2016 were included. Investigators interviewed a community pharmacist and a consultant pharmacist certified in diabetes education. Based on these interviews and the literature found, PreDiaMe was created to unite healthcare professionals through a three-step community outreach programme. The goal of PreDiaMe is to identify patients at risk of prediabetes, to decrease the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), to reduce healthcare costs, and to improve the quality of life for patients with prediabetes. PreDiaMe benefits patients with prediabetes, the healthcare system, and pedagogy as it aims to decrease in the prevalence and economic burden and increase health outcomes of patients with prediabetes while being used as a tool to provide integrative education in health professional programmes.
Wongwiwatthananukit, Supakit; Newton, Gail D.; Popovich, Nicholas G.
Sought to develop a reliable and valid instrument to measure pharmacy students' self-confidence and to determine the effect of selected demographic variables as independent predictors of self-confidence. Found that the instrument had content validity, high internal consistency reliability, and convergent and discriminant validity. Several…
Nguyen, Christopher M; Jansen, Bannin De Witt; Hughes, Carmel M; Rasmussen, Wendy; Weckmann, Michelle T
The steady increase in the number of people living and dying with dementia, coupled with the recent focus on quality of care, has highlighted the importance of dementia training for health care professionals. This exploratory study aimed to discover which skills health care students felt were important in providing quality end-of-life care to dementia patients. Ninety-four medicine, nursing, and pharmacy students participated in a larger study using open-ended and closed questions to explore attitudes related to caring for dementia patients at the end of life. This study looks at the student responses to an open-ended question regarding the skills and knowledge they believe are needed to provide end-of-life care to dementia patients. Individual responses were reviewed by the researchers, coded into key issues, and tabulated for frequency of occurrences and group differences. Several common issues emerged: knowledge, patience, empathy, understanding, family involvement, compassion, medication knowledge, respect/patient autonomy, communication, quality of life, and patient education. Significant differences were observed among the participant groups on the following issues: Patience and understanding (pharmacy students mentioned these issues less frequently than medical and nursing students), compassion (medical students mentioned this issue more frequently than pharmacy students), and medication knowledge (pharmacy students mentioned this issue more frequently than medical and nursing students). Different health care disciplines (in-training) value different skill sets for the provision of dementia care at the end-of-life. As health care education for dementia patients at the end of life is expanded, it will be important to understand which skills both patients and health care students value.
Lonie, John M; Rahim, Hamid
The objective of this study was to determine if the addition of a reflective writing component in a fourth year (P-2) pharmacy communication skills course would significantly affect 2 measures of learning: (1) objective multiple choice examination questions and (2) a patient counseling Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) score. Using a nonequivalent group quasi-experimental retrospective comparison design, 98 randomly selected final examination scores from students taking a non-writing intensive (NWI) communication skills course were compared with 112 randomly selected final examination scores from students that took a communication skills course in which students engaged in several reflective writing assignments. In addition, 91 randomly selected patient counseling OSCE scores from a NWI course were statistically compared with 112 scores from students that took the writing intensive (WI) course. There were statistically significant improvements in multiple choice examination scores in the group that took the reflective writing communication skills course. There was not a statistically significant difference in patient counseling OSCE scores after students completed the WI course. Studying the effects of using reflective writing assignments in communication skills courses may improve the retention and retrieval of information presented within the course.
Yamamoto, Tomoka; Yuda, Tomoko; Arimoto, Akie; Sejima, Ei; Kawahara, Yoshihiro; Washiyama, Atsushi; Futagami, Koujiro
Drug information (DI) services is an essential resource for pharmacists to provide counseling to patients and guide appropriate medication use. We devised a DI practical training course that incorporated an inquiry-based practical training program and evaluated its effectiveness. A total of 91 fifth-year students in Pharmaceutical Sciences at Fukuoka University took part in the following DI sessions based on specific behavioral objectives (SBOs) for DI in the Model Core Curriculum for Practical Training: inquiry practice, simulated pharmacy and therapeutics committee, DI newsletter, use of emergency and safety information, off-label use in clinical trials, PRE-AVOID (Be prepared to avoid the adverse drug reactions), adverse drug reactions, and small group discussions about drug poisoning. The level of understanding of the SBOs for DI training was >4.2 for each item assessed, and the level of satisfaction for each practice was >3.9. This DI practical training successfully facilitated students' ability to provide DI. The number of students interested in DI services significantly increased (p<0.01). After the DI practical training, many students made statements such as "I realized that DI services is a very important job" and "I feel that pharmacists have much to contribute to DI services by evaluating the most appropriate information from a pharmacist's standpoint." It appears that students recognized the pharmacist's role and importance of DI services in clinical practice through the DI training. These results suggest that this DI practical training program was effective.
... require passing an exam or completing a formal education or training program. Pay The median annual wage for pharmacy technicians was $30,920 in May ... State & Area Data Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area ... Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of pharmacy technicians with ...
Weber, Robert J.
Issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 include practice model growth and the role of pharmacy students, clinical privileging of health-system pharmacists and provider status, medication error prevention, and specialty pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to 4 issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 to help them focus their department’s goals. This article will address (1) advances in the pharmacy practice model initiative and the role of pharmacy students, (2) the current thinking of pharmacists being granted clinical privileges in health systems, (3) updates on preventing harmful medication errors, and (4) the growth of specialty pharmacy services. The sample template of a strategic plan may be used by a pharmacy department in 2015 in an effort to continue developing patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:25717212
Ford, Jason; Pambrun, Chantale
Physicians in every medical and surgical field must be able to use pathology concepts and skills in their practice: for example, they must order and interpret the correct laboratory tests, they must use their understanding of pathogenesis to diagnose and treat, and they must work with the laboratory to care for their patients. These important concepts and skills may be ignored by medical schools and even national/international organizations setting graduation expectations for medical students. There is an evolving international consensus about the importance of exit competencies for medical school graduates, which define the measurable or observable behaviors each graduate must be able to demonstrate. The Canadian Association of Pathologists (CAP) Education Group set out to establish the basic competencies in pathology and laboratory medicine which should be expected of every medical graduate: not competencies for pathologists, but for medical graduates who intend to enter any residency program. We defined 4 targets for pathology and laboratory medicine exit competencies: that they represent only measurable behaviors, that they be clinically focused, that they be generalizable to every medical graduate, and that the final competency document be user-friendly. A set of competencies was developed iteratively and underwent final revision at the 2012 CAP annual meeting. These competencies were subsequently endorsed by the CAP executive and the Canadian Leadership Council on Laboratory Medicine. This clinically focused consensus document provides the first comprehensive list of exit competencies in pathology and laboratory medicine for undergraduate medical education. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tankler, H; Hinrikus, T; Raal, A
The present paper deals with the M.Sc. dissertations on pharmacy at the University of Tartu/Dorpat (nowadays in Estonia) in 1864-1894. While Professor G. Dragendorff worked in Tartu, 89 persons defended their M.Sc. degrees in pharmacy and 88 persons their M. D. theses in the same field, a total of 177 dissertations for the Institute of Pharmacy, which comprises one third of the M.Sc. degrees in Pharmacy in the whole of Russia. This was the most fruitful era in the activity of Dragendorff and the most successful period in the history of pharmacy in Tartu University.
Fox, Brent I; Flynn, Allen J; Fortier, Christopher R; Clauson, Kevin A
Pharmacy has an established history of technology use to support business processes. Pharmacy informatics education within doctor of pharmacy programs, however, is inconsistent, despite its inclusion as a requirement in the 2007 Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education Standards and Guidelines. This manuscript describes pharmacy informatics knowledge and skills that all graduating pharmacy students should possess, conceptualized within the framework of the medication use process. Additionally, we suggest core source materials and specific learning activities to support pharmacy informatics education. We conclude with a brief discussion of emerging changes in the practice model. These changes are facilitated by pharmacy informatics and will inevitably become commonplace in our graduates' practice environment.
Na, Sumin; Spanierman, Lisa B.; Lalonde, Christopher E.
First, the authors investigated the direct associations of vertical collectivism, ethnic identity exploration, and ethnic identity commitment with psychological well-being among first-generation Asian Canadian university students in Canada (n = 78). Second, to gain a more nuanced understanding of the association between vertical collectivism and…
Smith, Martin M.; Saklofske, Donald H.; Yan, Gonggu; Sherry, Simon B.
This study investigated the generalizability of the tripartite model of perfectionism across Canadian and Chinese university students. Using latent profile analysis and indicators of perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns, and neuroticism in both groups, the authors derived a 3-profile solution: adaptive perfectionists, maladaptive…
This paper focuses on the educational experiences of African-Canadian youth in Canada. Traditionally, the tendency is to emphasize the poor academic performance of black students or issues and problems related to reasons for academic failure or to stereotype them as "loud, lazy, muscular, criminal, athletic, dumb, deprived, dangerous,…
Teplitsky, Paul E
The purpose of this investigation was to a) compare the opinions of Canadian faculty and students as regards to what they felt was an appropriate penalty for particular academic offenses and b) to analyze the results and create a jurisprudence grid to serve as a guideline for appropriate disciplinary action. Two hundred questionnaires were distributed to the ten dental colleges in Canada. Each college was asked to have ten faculty and ten students complete the survey. A response rate of 100 percent was achieved for students and 92 percent for faculty. The questionnaire required respondents to select what they felt were appropriate penalties for a list of fifteen academic offenses and to render judgment on three specific cases. Statistical analysis of survey responses led to the following conclusions: 1) students gave equal or more lenient penalties than faculty for the same offense; 2) extenuating circumstances introduced via case presentations altered penalty choice only slightly; and 3) offenses could be grouped to correspond with appropriate penalties, thereby establishing a jurisprudence grid that may serve as a guideline for adjudication committees.
Hill, Stephanie; Gingras, Jacqui; Gucciardi, Enza
The purpose of this study was to examine the lived experiences of university students with type 1 diabetes mellitus. University students participated in a 2-part focus group. Transcripts were analyzed thematically using an open-coding approach. Data analysis was guided by a framework analysis method and emergent themes were triangulated between study authors for validity. Three major themes identified in this study were food issues within the university environment, lack of diabetes awareness on campus and internal struggles related to the participants' relationships with their diabetes. Results illustrate some of the unique challenges that interfere with diabetes self-management, academic performance and quality of life among this sample of university students. Findings can provide insight for diabetes educators and other healthcare practitioners regarding the issues that may interfere with optimal diabetes self-care in this population. Findings also can be used to inform university administrators how to make the university environment more diabetes friendly for its students. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Abu-Laban, Riyad B; Scott, Ian M; Gowans, Margot C
Canada has two independent routes of emergency medicine (EM) training and certification. This unique situation may encourage medical students with EM career aspirations to apply to family medicine (FM) residencies to subsequently acquire College of Family Physicians of Canada (CFPC) training and certification in EM. We sought answers to the following: 1) Are medical students who indicate EM as their top career choice on medical school entry, and then complete a FM residency, more likely to undertake subsequent CFPC-EM training than other FM residents who did not indicate EM as their top career choice; and 2) What are the characteristics of medical students in four predefined groups, based upon their early interest in EM as a career and ultimate postgraduate training disposition. Data were accessed from a survey of medical students in 11 medical school classes from eight Canadian universities and anonymously linked to information from the Canadian Residency Matching Service between 2006 and 2009. Of 1036 participants, 63 (6.1%) named EM as their top career choice on medical school entry. Of these, 10 ultimately matched to a Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) EM residency program, and 24 matched to a FM residency program, nine of whom went on to do a one-year CFPC-EM residency program in contrast to 57 of the remaining 356 students matching to FM residency programs who did not indicate EM was their top career choice (37.5% vs 16.0%, p=0.007). Statistically significant attitudinal differences related to the presence or absence of EM career interest on medical school entry were found. Considering those who complete CFPC-EM training, a greater proportion indicate on admission to medical school that EM is their top career choice compared to those who do not. Moreover, students with an early career interest in EM are similar for several attitudinal factors independent of their ultimate postgraduate training disposition. Given the current issues and
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, graduating medical students consider many factors, including geographic, social, and academic, when ranking residency programs through the Canadian Residency Matching Service (CaRMS. The relative significance of these factors is poorly studied in Canada. It is also unknown how students differentiate between their top program choices. This survey study addresses the influence of various factors on applicant decision making. Methods Graduating medical students from all six Ontario medical schools were invited to participate in an online survey available for three weeks prior to the CaRMS match day in 2010. Max-Diff discrete choice scaling, multiple choice, and drop-list style questions were employed. The Max-Diff data was analyzed using a scaled simple count method. Data for how students distinguish between top programs was analyzed as percentages. Comparisons were made between male and female applicants as well as between family medicine and specialist applicants; statistical significance was determined by the Mann-Whitney test. Results In total, 339 of 819 (41.4% eligible students responded. The variety of clinical experiences and resident morale were weighed heavily in choosing a residency program; whereas financial incentives and parental leave attitudes had low influence. Major reasons that applicants selected their first choice program over their second choice included the distance to relatives and desirability of the city. Both genders had similar priorities when selecting programs. Family medicine applicants rated the variety of clinical experiences more importantly; whereas specialty applicants emphasized academic factors more. Conclusions Graduating medical students consider program characteristics such as the variety of clinical experiences and resident morale heavily in terms of overall priority. However, differentiation between their top two choice programs is often dependent on social/geographic factors
Azagba, Sunday; Langille, Don; Asbridge, Mark
An emerging body of research has reported high consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among young adults, particularly college students. However, little is known about adolescents' consumption of these drinks. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks and to examine its correlates among Canadian high school students. We used a nationally representative sample of 36 155 Canadian students in grades 7 to 12 who participated in the 2010/2011 Youth Smoking Survey. About 20% of Canadian high school students reported consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks in the last year, with considerable variation across provinces. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of consumption of these drinks were higher among students in lower grades (grades 7 and 8) and among students who identified their ethnicity as black or "other." Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks was positively associated with substance use (current smoking [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-1.95], past-year heavy drinking [adjusted OR 3.41, 95% CI 2.84-4.09] and marijuana use [adjusted OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.90-2.76]), absence from school, participation in school team sports and having more weekly spending money. Students who felt more connected to school and had an academic average of 70% or higher were less likely to consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks. The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks is an emerging public health concern. Consumption of these drinks is substantial among Canadian high school students and can lead to many potential harms, both acute (e.g., injury) and long term (e.g., increased alcohol dependence). Our findings highlight the need for further research into the long-term effects of consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among young people, as well as the development of interventions aimed at reducing consumption of these drinks.
Unno, Keiko; Tanida, Naoki; Ishii, Naoto; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Iguchi, Kazuaki; Hoshino, Minoru; Takeda, Atsushi; Ozawa, Hayato; Ohkubo, Tsutomu; Juneja, Lekh Raj; Yamada, Hiroshi
Theanine, an amino acid in tea, has significant anti-stress effect on experimental animals under psychosocial stress. Anti-stress effect of theanine on humans was evaluated in 5th-year university students during pharmacy practice. The study design was a single-blind group comparison and participants (n=20) were randomly assigned to theanine or placebo groups. Theanine or placebo (lactose) tablets (200 mg, twice a day, after breakfast and lunch) were taken from 1 week prior to the pharmacy practice and continued for 10 days in the practice period. To assess the anxiety of the participants, the state-trait anxiety inventory test was carried out before the pharmacy practice. Salivary α-amylase activity (sAA) was measured as a marker of sympathetic nervous system activity. In the placebo-group, sAA in the morning (pre-practice sAA) was higher than in theanine-group during the pharmacy practice (p=0.032). Subjective stress was significantly lower in the theanine-group than in the placebo-group (p=0.020). These results suggest that theanine intake had anti-stress effect on students. Furthermore, students with higher pre-practice sAA showed significantly higher trait anxiety in both groups (p=0.015). Similarly, higher pre-practice sAA was correlated to shorter sleeping time in both groups (p=0.41×10(-3)). Stressful condition increased the level of sAA that was essentially affected by individual trait anxiety. The low levels of pre-practice sAA and subjective stress in the theanine-group suggest that theanine intake suppressed initial stress response of students assigned for a long-term commitment of pharmacy practice. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sarah M. Courtney
Full Text Available Abstract Background Foodborne diseases are an important public health issue, and young adults are an important demographic to target with food safety education. Our objective was to assess the food safety knowledge of undergraduate students at a Canadian university, to identify potential areas for such education. Methods In February 2015, we conducted an online survey of 485 undergraduate students at a university in Ontario, Canada. We assessed various food-related factors, including cooking frequency and prior food handling or preparation education. We then modeled the relationship between ‘overall knowledge score’ and the demographic and food skills/cooking experience predictors using multivariable log-binomial regression, to determine factors associated with relatively higher proportions of correct responses. Results Respondents were, on average, 20.5 years old, and the majority (64.8 % lived off campus. Students cooked from basic ingredients infrequently, with 3 in 4 doing so a few times a year to never. Students averaged 6.2 correct answers to the 11 knowledge questions. Adjusting for other important covariates, older age and being a current food handler were associated with relatively higher knowledge, whereas working/volunteering in a hospital and infrequent cooking were associated with relatively lower knowledge. Males in the Faculty of Science had relatively higher knowledge than females in the Faculty of Science, both of whom had relatively higher knowledge than all students in other Faculties. Among students who had never taken a food preparation course, knowledge increased with self-reported cooking ability; however, among students who had taken such a course, knowledge was highest among those with low self-reported cooking ability. Conclusions Consistent with other similar studies, students in Faculties outside of the Faculty of Science, younger students, and those who cook infrequently could benefit from food safety education
Courtney, Sarah M; Majowicz, Shannon E; Dubin, Joel A
Foodborne diseases are an important public health issue, and young adults are an important demographic to target with food safety education. Our objective was to assess the food safety knowledge of undergraduate students at a Canadian university, to identify potential areas for such education. In February 2015, we conducted an online survey of 485 undergraduate students at a university in Ontario, Canada. We assessed various food-related factors, including cooking frequency and prior food handling or preparation education. We then modeled the relationship between 'overall knowledge score' and the demographic and food skills/cooking experience predictors using multivariable log-binomial regression, to determine factors associated with relatively higher proportions of correct responses. Respondents were, on average, 20.5 years old, and the majority (64.8 %) lived off campus. Students cooked from basic ingredients infrequently, with 3 in 4 doing so a few times a year to never. Students averaged 6.2 correct answers to the 11 knowledge questions. Adjusting for other important covariates, older age and being a current food handler were associated with relatively higher knowledge, whereas working/volunteering in a hospital and infrequent cooking were associated with relatively lower knowledge. Males in the Faculty of Science had relatively higher knowledge than females in the Faculty of Science, both of whom had relatively higher knowledge than all students in other Faculties. Among students who had never taken a food preparation course, knowledge increased with self-reported cooking ability; however, among students who had taken such a course, knowledge was highest among those with low self-reported cooking ability. Consistent with other similar studies, students in Faculties outside of the Faculty of Science, younger students, and those who cook infrequently could benefit from food safety education. Supporting improved hand hygiene, in particular clarifying hand
Atayee, Rabia S; Singh, Renu F; Best, Brookie M; Freedman, Beverley A; Morello, Candis M
To design and implement a small-group self-guided active-learning format for a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) curriculum, and assess changes in first-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students' attitudes and knowledge of CAM. Students received an overview CAM lecture from a faculty member, and brief presentations with defined parameters on natural products from their peers. Based on pre- and post-intervention survey responses, the percentage of students who strongly agreed about the importance of CAM in pharmacy practice increased from 28% to 55% and the percentage of students who agreed or strongly agreed about the harmful effects of dietary supplements increased from 60% to 96%. Overall, students' attitude toward and self-assessed knowledge of dietary supplements improved significantly from pre- to post-intervention survey. Small-group self-guided learning of CAM, followed by peer presentations on dietary supplements, was successful in significantly improving pharmacy students' attitude toward and knowledge of CAM.
Sowing the seeds for improved Pharmacy education in Nigeria: development of ICT at university of Benin Faculty of Pharmacy. ... For today\\'s pharmacy graduates to function effectively in an ever increasing technological world, pharmacy students must be trained to use computer facilities as they will always encounter the ...
Professionalism is a critically important competency that must be evaluated in medical trainees but is a complex construct that is hard to assess. A systematic review was undertaken to give insight into the current best practices for assessment of professionalism in medical trainees and to identify new research priorities in the field. A search was conducted on PubMed for behavioral assessments of medical students and residents among the United States and Canadian allopathic schools in the last 15 years. An initial search yielded 594 results, 28 of which met our inclusion criteria. Our analysis indicated that there are robust generic definitions of the major attributes of medical professionalism. The most commonly used assessment tools are survey instruments that use Likert scales tied to attributes of professionalism. While significant progress has been made in this field in recent years, several opportunities for system-wide improvement were identified that require further research. These include a paucity of information about assessment reliability, the need for rater training, a need to better define competency in professionalism according to learner level (preclinical, clerkship, resident etc.) and ways to remediate lapses in professionalism. Student acceptance of assessment of professionalism may be increased if assessment tools are shifted to better incorporate feedback. Tackling the impact of the hidden curriculum in which students may observe lapses in professionalism by faculty and other health care providers is another priority for further study. PMID:28652951
Jessica W. Skelley
Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the baseline knowledge of fourth year student pharmacists on their ability to properly identify and categorize medication related problems (MRP during their Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (APPE in the ambulatory care setting, and to assess the efficacy of a written resource designed to educate and train users on identification and documentation of MRP's and used for this purpose with participating students on their ambulatory care APPE. Methods: A pretest consisting of ten multiple-choice questions was administered electronically to fourth year student pharmacists (N=18 at the start of their ambulatory care APPE. The test was designed to assess both the students' baseline knowledge regarding MRP's, and their ability to identify a wide variety of medication-related problems. Students then received a written copy of The Medication Therapy Intervention & Safety Documentation Program training manual and were asked to read it in its entirety in the first week of their APPE. Finally, students were given a posttest survey (identical to the pretest to complete to assess if their knowledge had increased from baseline. Results: The average score for the 18 students taking the baseline knowledge pre-test was 63.33%, indicating limited baseline knowledge regarding the identification and classification of MRP's. In assessing the effectiveness of the written training document, the overall posttest results compared to pretest results did not indicate improvement in students' knowledge or ability to properly identify and classify medication related problems (MRP after reviewing the training manual. The average scores declined from 63.33% on the pretest to 62.78% on the posttest, although this was not found to be statistically significant (p = 0.884. However, a statistically significant decline in students' knowledge occurred on one specific question, which tested their ability to classify MRP's (p = 0.029. Conclusions: Based on the
Full Text Available Opening an independent pharmacy is a process that involves multiple components. The rationale of this project is to discuss different issues that must be investigated prior to opening a new independency pharmacy. This includes the location, structure of the corporation, start-up cost, picking a wholesaler, fulfilling state board requirements and Philadelphia requirements, having a valid license, making professional relationships, and knowing basic marketing research. Methods used include using the knowledge and expertise from an independent pharmacy owner, visiting pharmacies, and interviewing neighbors for basic marketing research. Many aspects of opening an independent pharmacy differ significantly from a retail pharmacy, as there are various issues within the pharmacy and outside the pharmacy that must be extensively researched prior to opening in order to be successful. Type: Student Project
Tam, Vincent C; Ingledew, Paris-Ann; Berry, Scott; Verma, Sunil; Giuliani, Meredith E
Studies have shown that there is a deficiency in focused oncology teaching during medical school in Canada. This study aimed to develop oncology education goals and objectives for medical students through consensus of oncology educators from across Canada. In 2014 we created a comprehensive list of oncology education objectives using existing resources. Experts in oncology education and undergraduate medical education from all 17 Canadian medical schools were invited to participate in a 3-round modified Delphi process. In round 1, the participants scored the objectives on a 9-point Likert scale according to the degree to which they agreed an objective should be taught to medical students. Objectives with a mean score of 7.0 or greater were retained, those with a mean score of 1.0-3.9 were excluded, and those with a mean score of 4.0-6.9 were discussed at a round 2 Web meeting. In round 3, the participants voted on inclusion and exclusion of the round 2 objectives. Thirty-four (92%) of the 37 invited oncology educators, representing 14 medical schools, participated in the study. They included oncologists, family physicians, members of undergraduate medical education curriculum committees and a psychologist. Of the 214 objectives reviewed in round 1, 146 received a mean score of 7.0 or greater, and 68 were scored 4.0-6.9; no objective received a mean score below 4.0. Nine new objectives were suggested. The main themes of participants' comments were to minimize the number of objectives and to aim objectives at the knowledge level required for family physicians. In round 2, the participants were able to combine 28 of the objectives with other existing objectives. In round 3, 7 of the 49 objectives received consensus of at least 75% for inclusion. The final Canadian Oncology Goals and Objectives for Medical Students contained 10 goals and 153 objectives. Through a systematic process, we created a comprehensive, consensus-based set of oncology goals and objectives to
Gleason, Brenda L; Gaebelein, Claude J; Grice, Gloria R; Crannage, Andrew J; Weck, Margaret A; Hurd, Peter; Walter, Brenda; Duncan, Wendy
To determine the feasibility of using a validated set of assessment rubrics to assess students' critical-thinking and problem-solving abilities across a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. Trained faculty assessors used validated rubrics to assess student work samples for critical-thinking and problem-solving abilities. Assessment scores were collected and analyzed to determine student achievement of these 2 ability outcomes across the curriculum. Feasibility of the process was evaluated in terms of time and resources used. One hundred sixty-one samples were assessed for critical thinking, and 159 samples were assessed for problem-solving. Rubric scoring allowed assessors to evaluate four 5- to 7-page work samples per hour. The analysis indicated that overall critical-thinking scores improved over the curriculum. Although low yield for problem-solving samples precluded meaningful data analysis, it was informative for identifying potentially needed curricular improvements. Use of assessment rubrics for program ability outcomes was deemed authentic and feasible. Problem-solving was identified as a curricular area that may need improving. This assessment method has great potential to inform continuous quality improvement of a PharmD program.
Toyin Tofade, MS, PharmD, BCPS, CPCC, Pharmacotherapy Director, Wake Area Health Education Center and Clinical Associate Professor, Division of Pharmacy Practice and Experiential Education
Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the study was to evaluate a live and online training program for first year pharmacy students in implementing Continuing Professional Development (CPD principles (Reflect, Plan, Act, and Evaluate, writing SMART learning objectives, and documenting learning activities prior to and during a hospital introductory professional practice experience.Design: Cohort Study. Setting: Introductory professional practice experience. Participants: First year (PY1 students at the University of North Carolina Eshelman School of Pharmacy. Intervention: Live training or online training to introduce the concept of Continuing Professional Development in practice. Main Outcomes: Implementation of CPD principles through 1 completed pre-rotation education action plans with specific, measurable, achievable, relevant and time-bound (SMART learning objectives; and 2 completed learning activity worksheets post-rotation indicating stimuli for learning, resources used and accomplished learning. objectives; and 3 documented suggestions and content feedback for future lectures and pharmaceutical care lab experiences. Results: Out of the whole cohort (N=154, 14 (87.5% live (in person trainees and 122 (88% online trainees submitted an education action plan. Objectives were scored using a rubric on a scale of 1-5. A rating of 5 means “satisfactory”, 3 means “work in progress” and 1 means “unacceptable”. There were significant differences between the mean live trainee scores and the mean online trainee scores for the following respective section comparisons: Specific 4.7 versus 3.29 (p<0.001; Measurable 3.9 versus 2.05 (p<0.001; number of objectives 3.6 versus 4.6 (p<0.001; and average grade 92.9 versus 77.7 (p<0.001. Of the 396 learning activity worksheets reviewed, 75% selected discussion with peers and/or health providers as a stimulus for learning. Students reported spending an average of 50.2 hours completing the learning objectives. All
Yeung, S S T; Yeung, J K; Lau, T T Y; Forrester, L A; Steiner, T S; Bowie, W R; Bryce, E A
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) represents a spectrum of disease and is a significant concern for healthcare institutions. Our study objective was to assess whether implementation of a regional CDI management policy with Clinical Pharmacy and Medical Microbiology and Infection Control involvement would lead to an improvement in concordance in prescribing practices to an evidence-based CDI disease severity assessment and pharmacological treatment algorithm. Conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital, this two-phase quality assurance study consisted of a baseline retrospective healthcare record review of patients with CDI prior to the implementation of a regional CDI management policy followed by a prospective evaluation post-implementation. One hundred and forty-one CDI episodes in the pre-implementation group were compared to 283 episodes post-implementation. Overall treatment concordance to the CDI treatment algorithm was achieved in 48 of 141 cases (34%) pre-implementation compared with 136 of 283 cases (48·1%) post-implementation (P = 0·01). The median time to treatment with vancomycin was reduced from five days to one day (P < 0·01), with median length of hospital stay decreasing from 30 days to 21 days (P = 0·01) post-implementation. There was no difference in 30-day all-cause mortality. A comprehensive approach with appropriate stakeholder involvement in the development of clinical pathways, education to healthcare workers and prospective audit with intervention and feedback can ensure patients diagnosed with CDI are optimally managed and prescribed the most appropriate therapy based on CDI disease severity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mar, Ellena; Barnett, Mitchell J; T-L Tang, Terrill; Sasaki-Hill, Debra; Kuperberg, James R; Knapp, Katherine
To determine whether students' previous pharmacy-related work experience was associated with their pharmacy school performance (academic and clinical). The following measures of student academic performance were examined: pharmacy grade point average (GPA), scores on cumulative high-stakes examinations, and advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) grades. The quantity and type of pharmacy-related work experience each student performed prior to matriculation was solicited through a student survey instrument. Survey responses were correlated with academic measures, and demographic-based stratified analyses were conducted. No significant difference in academic or clinical performance between those students with prior pharmacy experience and those without was identified. Subanalyses by work setting, position type, and substantial pharmacy work experience did not reveal any association with student performance. A relationship was found, however, between age and work experience, ie, older students tended to have more work experience than younger students. Prior pharmacy work experience did not affect students' overall academic or clinical performance in pharmacy school. The lack of significant findings may have been due to the inherent practice limitations of nonpharmacist positions, changes in pharmacy education, and the limitations of survey responses.
Marcoux, Andre M; Feder, Katya; Keith, Stephen E; Marro, Leonora; James, Marianne E; Michaud, David S
A total of 237 students, 10 to 17 years of age, from 14 schools underwent hearing evaluations. Otoscopic examination, tympanometry and air-conduction pure tone audiometry was conducted at low (0.5, 1, 2 kHz) and high (4 and 8 kHz) frequencies. In all schools, hearing thresholds were measured with headphones in a portable audiometric booth. Socio-demographic information from students and their parents were collected using questionnaires. Overall, the prevalence of any hearing loss greater than 15 dB was 22.3% for low or high frequency pure tone averages. Self-reported symptoms of hearing loss, such as tinnitus, difficulty following a conversation with background noise, and having to turn up the TV/radio more than in the past, were associated with audiometric thresholds, most notably at 4 kHz. These study findings are among the first to provide a detailed characterization of hearing status in a sample of youth in a Canadian demographic.
... common source for obtaining prescriptions is the local pharmacy. Usually the pharmacy is located in a drug or grocery store. ... some insurance companies have chosen is mail-order pharmacy. Once a pharmacy has been chosen it is ...
Battaglia, Jessica N; Kieser, Mara A; Bruskiewitz, Ruth H; Pitterle, Michael E; Thorpe, Joshua M
To develop, implement, and assess the effectiveness of an online medication therapy management (MTM) program to train pharmacists and pharmacy students in providing MTM services for patients with diabetes and to increase their intent to perform these services. An online program was created using an Internet-based learning platform to simulate 4 MTM meetings between a pharmacist and a virtual patient diagnosed with diabetes. Eighty students and 42 pharmacists completed the program. After completing the program, scores on post-intervention assessments showed significant improvement in 2 areas: control over performing MTM, and knowledge of how to perform MTM. Students had a significantly less-positive attitude about MTM and a decline in their perception of the social expectation that MTM is part of the practice of pharmacy, while pharmacists' attitudes did not change significantly in these areas. This online program using a virtual patient improved both participants' belief that they have control over performing MTM, and their knowledge of how to perform MTM for diabetic patients, which may increase the likelihood that pharmacists and pharmacy students will perform MTM in the future.
Scott, Ian M; Matejcek, Adela N; Gowans, Margot C; Wright, Bruce J; Brenneis, Fraser R
Interest in both general surgery and surgical subspecialties has been declining among Canadian medical students. Studies have shown that a student's desire to practise surgery is largely determined before entry into medical school. As part of a larger study of students' career preferences throughout medical school, we sought to identify the level of interest in surgical careers and the factors that influence a student's interest in pursuing a surgical career. We surveyed students from 18 different classes at Canadian medical schools at the commencement of their studies between 2001 and 2004. We asked the students to list their top career choices and the degree to which a series of variables influenced their choices. We also collected demographic data. We performed a factor analysis on the variables. Of 2420 surveys distributed, 2168 (89.6%) were completed. A total of 21.0% of respondents named a surgical specialty as their first choice of career. We found that male students were more likely to express interest in a surgical specialty than female students, who were more likely to express interest in either family medicine or a medical specialty. Compared with students interested in a career in family medicine, those interested in a surgical or medical specialty were younger, more likely to be single and more likely to be influenced by prestige when making their career choices. Students interested in a career in surgery were less influenced by medical lifestyle and a varied scope of practice, less likely to demonstrate a social orientation and more likely to be hospital-oriented than students interested in either family medicine or a medical specialty. Male students interested in a career in surgery were more hospital-oriented and less likely to demonstrate a social orientation than female students interested in surgical careers. We identified 5 factors and a number of demographic variables associated with a student's interest in a surgical career.
Joyce Addo-Atuah, PhD
Full Text Available Purpose: Team-based learning (TBL has been shown to be a very useful active learning tool in a variety of disciplines and educational settings. The objectives of this study in a Global Health elective course within a PharmD curriculum were to (1 determine whether TBL contributes to performance (as measured by iRAT scores, tRAT scores, and grades; and (2 evaluate students’ perceptions of TBL as an instructional strategy. Case Study: TBL sessions were incorporated into a new elective course in Global Health along with other teaching methodologies. Student performance was evaluated during the TBL sessions and course team projects, among others. An anonymous student qualitative survey explored their perceptions of and experiences with TBL at the end of the course. Students’ performance in the TBL sessions improved as reflected in the comparison of individual Readiness Assurance Tests (iRATs and the team Readiness Assurance Tests (tRATs scores. Overall students’ performance in the course resulted in over 88% earning the letter grade A. Students’ performance in the TBL sessions, especially their iRATs, was reflected in their overall course grades. Over 75% of the students believed that TBL increased their analytical skills and nearly 50% believed that learning utilizing TBL would have the most lasting effect on their careers. Conclusion: TBL was successfully implemented in a Global Health elective course in a PharmD curriculum and students perceived it as a beneficial instructional strategy. This study adds to the TBL literature by providing some evidence of the applicability of TBL in a course not traditionally taught in the PharmD curriculum (i.e., Global Health. Future research and intervention(s leading to the development and growth of TBL in pharmacy education are recommended.
Decker, Andrew S; Cipriano, Gabriela C; Tsouri, Gill; Lavigne, Jill E
Objective. To assess and improve student adherence to hand hygiene indications using radio frequency identification (RFID) enabled hand hygiene stations and performance report cards. Design. Students volunteered to wear RFID-enabled hospital employee nametags to monitor their adherence to hand-hygiene indications. After training in World Health Organization (WHO) hand hygiene methods and indications, student were instructed to treat the classroom as a patient care area. Report cards illustrating individual performance were distributed via e-mail to students at the middle and end of each 5-day observation period. Students were eligible for individual and team prizes consisting of Starbucks gift cards in $5 increments. Assessment. A hand hygiene station with an RFID reader and dispensing sensor recorded the nametag nearest to the station at the time of use. Mean frequency of use per student was 5.41 (range: 2-10). Distance between the student's seat and the dispenser was the only variable significantly associated with adherence. Student satisfaction with the system was assessed by a self-administered survey at the end of the study. Most students reported that the system increased their motivation to perform hand hygiene as indicated. Conclusion. The RFID-enabled hand hygiene system and benchmarking reports with performance incentives was feasible, reliable, and affordable. Future studies should record video to monitor adherence to the WHO 8-step technique.
Tucker, Anne M.; Coyle, Elizabeth A.
Objective. To assess the impact of a four-week hybrid online elective course in critical care on student learning attitudes and outcomes compared to that achieved when the same course was taught using a traditional lecture-based approach. Design. A hybrid online elective course was created that featured video-recorded lectures and in-class skills laboratories. Course evaluations were used to assess student perceptions of learning methods, and examination scores were used to assess learning outcomes. Assessment. One hundred five students enrolled in the critical care elective course from 2011-2014. Fifty-four students completed the traditional lecture course, and 51 completed the hybrid online elective course. The examination scores of students who completed the hybrid course were significantly higher than those of students who completed the traditional lecture course. The majority of students enrolled in the hybrid online elective course stated they preferred that format over a traditional course format and would recommend the elective course to a peer. Conclusion. Students preferred the format used for an online hybrid elective course in critical care over a traditional course format, and performed better on examinations than did students who had completed the course when it was offered in a traditional lecture format. PMID:28090103
Wanat, Matthew A; Tucker, Anne M; Coyle, Elizabeth A
Objective. To assess the impact of a four-week hybrid online elective course in critical care on student learning attitudes and outcomes compared to that achieved when the same course was taught using a traditional lecture-based approach. Design. A hybrid online elective course was created that featured video-recorded lectures and in-class skills laboratories. Course evaluations were used to assess student perceptions of learning methods, and examination scores were used to assess learning outcomes. Assessment. One hundred five students enrolled in the critical care elective course from 2011-2014. Fifty-four students completed the traditional lecture course, and 51 completed the hybrid online elective course. The examination scores of students who completed the hybrid course were significantly higher than those of students who completed the traditional lecture course. The majority of students enrolled in the hybrid online elective course stated they preferred that format over a traditional course format and would recommend the elective course to a peer. Conclusion. Students preferred the format used for an online hybrid elective course in critical care over a traditional course format, and performed better on examinations than did students who had completed the course when it was offered in a traditional lecture format.
Blizard, Lida Marie
This mixed methods study was conducted at a Canadian University in 2012, using an online survey and individual interviews to explore faculty members’ perceived experiences of having aggressive, intimidating, defaming, or threatening message(s) sent to them or about them by students via electronic media. Limited empirical research on this issue within the context of higher education led the researcher to draw from literature on workplace bullying, academic bullying, and K-12 sector cyberbullyi...
Fadi M. Alkhateeb
Conclusions: There has been a huge growth in the number and the use of SNS. Students, if they choose to, can take advantage of this revolutionary communication tool to advance professionally. However, the majority of students still choose to use Facebook for social purposes rather than professional or educational purposes.
Panjasaram V. Naidoo
Full Text Available Background: Male circumcision is currently being promoted in South Africa as a HumanImmunodeficiency Virus (HIV prevention method. Effective implementation requires thathealthcare providers should believe in the procedure’s efficacy and should possess a positiveattitude. A study was undertaken amongst pharmacy and nursing students with differentobjectives.Objectives: To ascertain students’ knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding malecircumcision and (HIV prevention.Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study using anonymous questionnaires was undertakenamongst 4th year pharmacy and nursing students studying at a university in KwaZulu-Natal,after obtaining their consent. Data were captured and analysed using SPSS version 15.Results: A response rate of 83.18% and a mean knowledge score of 66.43% with relativelypositive attitudes (62.7 were obtained; 85.4% of the respondents felt that promoting malecircumcision is appropriate, with all Muslim students (n < 11 supporting the promotion ofmale circumcision. Even though all Muslim students supported male circumcision, only 3students were willing to perform the procedure if adequately trained (p < 0.03. The majorityof the female students were unwilling to perform the procedure (p < 0.005. A third of therespondents indicated that male circumcision would both undermine existing protectivebehaviours and strategies as well as increase riskier sexual behaviour. Over 54% of therespondents believed that the South African Health System would be able to cope with themassive male circumcision drive. The majority of the respondents favoured the procedure tobe done at birth. Pain was cited as the most important reason for not wanting to be circumcised.Conclusion: Pharmacy and nursing students have a moderate knowledge of male circumcisionand HIV prevention with relatively positive attitudes. The majority felt that promoting malecircumcision is appropriate and should be encouraged.
Majima, Takashi; Ohara, Hiroshi
The scope of pharmaceutical education in Japan has been expanding, and with it an awareness of the importance of team medical care. However, pharmaceutical education still gives little attention to the psychosocial aspects of care, instead focusing on the structures and functions of drugs. In contrast, nursing education emphasizes the fact that medical care involves patients' family and significant others as much as the patients themselves, and thus nursing students are taught the basic needs and developmental stages of those people requiring care alongside their practical nursing skills. In this study, we examined the effect of incorporating certain aspects of introductory nursing education into pharmaceutical education on the self-efficacy of pharmaceutical students. We thus ran an introduction to nursing education course for fourth-year pharmaceutical students (n=86). After the course had finished, we surveyed students about the course. Approximately 94.2% of the students became more interested in team medical care and nearly all (98.8%) thought that what they had learned in the course would be useful in their career. The results indicated that the introduction to nursing education course offered students an opportunity to acquire different viewpoints on clinical situations because the lectures were given by a pharmacist with a nurse license and they were based on his clinical experiences. We therefore propose that more facets of introductory nursing education be incorporated into pharmaceutical education to help students develop their ability to consider patients' psychosocial backgrounds.
Brocks, Dion R
Pharmacokinetics can be a challenging topic to teach due to the complex relationships inherent between physiological parameters, mathematical descriptors and equations, and their combined impact on shaping the blood fluid concentration vs. time curves of drugs. A computer program was developed within Microsoft Excel for Windows, designed to assist in the instruction of basic pharmacokinetics within an entry-to-practice pharmacy class environment. The program is composed of a series of spreadsheets (modules) linked by Visual Basic for Applications, intended to illustrate the relationships between pharmacokinetic and in some cases physiological parameters, doses and dose rates and the drug blood fluid concentration vs. time curves. Each module is accompanied by a simulation user's guide, prompting the user to change specific independent parameters and then observe the impact of the change(s) on the drug concentration vs. time curve and on other dependent parameters. "Slider" (or "scroll") bars can be selected to readily see the effects of repeated changes on the dependencies. Topics covered include one compartment single dose administration (iv bolus, oral, short infusion), intravenous infusion, repeated doses, renal and hepatic clearance, nonlinear elimination, two compartment model, plasma protein binding and the relationship between pharmacokinetics and drug effect. The program has been used in various forms in the classroom over a number of years, with positive ratings generally being received from students for its use in the classroom. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
An investigation on the level of awareness, attitude, and interest among medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy students toward their majors on entering university: The case of Islamic Azad University, Tehran medical sciences branch
Farhad Adhami Moghadam
Full Text Available Introduction: Having awareness, interest, and positive attitude toward one's fields of study leads to the development of a compatibility between demands and expectations on the one hand and future career on the other hand. This study was carried out to determine the level of awareness, attitude, and interest of medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy students of Islamic Azad University, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch toward their own field of study on entering university. Materials and Methods: This research is a basic descriptive study conducted on 273 students who had just entered university. This study was performed using census. Data collection instrument was a four-part questionnaire which included demographic information, and questions measuring students' awareness, attitude, and interest. Results: With regard to their field of study, there was no statistically significant difference in the average of students' awareness (P = 0.731. The attitude of medicine students was significantly more positive than pharmacy and dentistry students (P < 0.001, and the attitude of dentistry students was significantly more positive than that of pharmacy students (P = 0.460. Medical students' interest level was significantly higher than that of pharmacy and dentistry students (P < 0.05, and the interest level of dentistry students was significantly greater than the interest level of pharmacy students (P = 024/0. There was a statistically significant positive relationship between awareness and attitude and between awareness and interest in all of the study subjects (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The study results indicated that having a high level of awareness toward one's major led students studying in medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy to experience a more positive attitude and a higher level of interest. Thus, before entering the university, academic counseling will be beneficial for acquiring a better understanding of most majors, a goal which could be provided
Dyrbye, Liselotte N; Thomas, Matthew R; Shanafelt, Tait D
To systematically review articles reporting on depression, anxiety, and burnout among U.S. and Canadian medical students. Medline and PubMed were searched to identify peer-reviewed English-language studies published between January 1980 and May 2005 reporting on depression, anxiety, and burnout among U.S. and Canadian medical students. Searches used combinations of the Medical Subject Heading terms medical student and depression, depressive disorder major, depressive disorder, professional burnout, mental health, depersonalization, distress, anxiety, or emotional exhaustion. Reference lists of retrieved articles were inspected to identify relevant additional articles. Demographic information, instruments used, prevalence data on student distress, and statistically significant associations were abstracted. The search identified 40 articles on medical student psychological distress (i.e., depression, anxiety, burnout, and related mental health problems) that met the authors' criteria. No studies of burnout among medical students were identified. The studies suggest a high prevalence of depression and anxiety among medical students, with levels of overall psychological distress consistently higher than in the general population and age-matched peers by the later years of training. Overall, the studies suggest psychological distress may be higher among female students. Limited data were available regarding the causes of student distress and its impact on academic performance, dropout rates, and professional development. Medical school is a time of significant psychological distress for physicians-in-training. Currently available information is insufficient to draw firm conclusions on the causes and consequences of student distress. Large, prospective, multicenter studies are needed to identify personal and training-related features that influence depression, anxiety, and burnout among students and explore relationships between distress and competency.
McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Griffin, LaToya M; Esserman, Denise A; Davidson, Christopher A; Glatt, Dylan M; Roth, Mary T; Gharkholonarehe, Nastaran; Mumper, Russell J
.... Scheduled class periods were dedicated to participating in active-learning exercises. Students also completed 2 course projects, 3 midterm examinations, 8 graded quizzes, and a cumulative and comprehensive final examination...
Chen, Aleda M H; Kiersma, Mary E; Yehle, Karen S; Plake, Kimberly S
To evaluate changes in empathy and perceptions as well as game experiences among student pharmacists participating in an aging simulation game. First-year student pharmacists participated in an aging simulation game. Changes were measured pre/post-activity using the Kiersma-Chen Empathy Scale (KCES) and Jefferson Scale of Empathy--Health Professions Scale (JSE-HPS) for empathy and the Aging Simulation Experience Survey (ASES) for perceptions of older adults' experiences and game experiences. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to determine changes. One hundred fifty-six student pharmacists completed the instruments. Empathy using the KCES and JSE-HPS improved significantly. Of the 13 items in the ASES, 9 significantly improved. Simulation games may help students overcome challenges demonstrating empathy and positive attitudes toward elderly patients.
Wilby, Kyle John; Taylor, Jeff; Khalifa, Sherief I; Jorgenson, Derek
To develop, implement, and evaluate a course-based, cross-cultural student interaction using real-time videoconferencing between universities in Canada and Qatar. A professional skills simulation practice session on smoking cessation was run for students in Qatar (n=22) and Canada (n=22). Students role played cases in small group situations and then interacted with colleagues from the other country regarding culturally challenging situations and communication strategies. Students were assessed on analytical content and communication skills through faculty member and peer evaluation. Cultural competency outcomes were assessed using a postsession survey. Overall, 92.3% of respondents agreed that learning was enhanced through the cross-cultural exchange, and 94.9% agreed that insight was gained into the health-related issues and needs of people from another culture. A course-based, cross-cultural interaction was an effective method to incorporate cultural competency principles into student learning. Future initiatives should increase direct student interaction and focus on culturally sensitive topics.
Kassam, Rosemin; Collins, John B; Berkowitz, Jonathan
To compare patients' expectations and experiences at pharmacies offering traditional APPE learning opportunities with those offering enhanced APPEs that incorporate pharmaceutical care activities. A survey of anchored measures of patient satisfaction was conducted in 2 groups of APPE- affiliated community pharmacies: those participating in an enhanced APPE model versus those participating in the traditional model. The enhanced intervention included preceptor training, a comprehensive student orientation, and an extended experience at a single pharmacy rather than the traditional 2 x 4-week experience at different pharmacies. While patient expectations were similar in both traditional and enhanced APPE pharmacies, patients in enhanced pharmacies reported significantly higher in-store satisfaction and fewer service gaps. Additionally, satisfaction was significantly higher for patients who had received any form of consultation, from either pharmacist or students, than those reporting no consultations. Including provision of pharmaceutical care services as part of APPEs resulted in direct and measurable improvements in patient satisfaction.
Ellis, Robert A; Goodyear, Peter; Brillant, Martha; Prosser, Michael
This study investigates fourth-year pharmacy students' experiences of problem-based learning (PBL). It adopts a phenomenographic approach to the evaluation of problem-based learning, to shed light on the ways in which different groups of students conceive of, and approach, PBL. The study focuses on the way students approach solving problem scenarios in class, and using professional pharmacy databases on-line. Qualitative variations in student approaches to solving problem scenarios in both learning situations are identified. These turn out to be associated with qualitatively different conceptions of PBL and also with levels of achievement. Conceptions and approaches that emphasis learning for understanding correlate with attaining higher course marks. The outcomes of the study reinforce arguments that we need to know more about how students interpret the requirements of study in a PBL context if we are to unravel the complex web of influences upon study activities, academic achievement and longer-term professional competence. Such knowledge is crucial to any theoretical model of PBL and has direct practical implications for the design of learning tasks and the induction of students into a PBL environment.
Peter Bai James
Full Text Available Most low-income nations have national medicine policy that emphasized the use of generic medicines in the public health sector. However, the use of generics is often debatable as there are concerns over its efficacy, quality, and safety compared to their branded counterparts. This study was conducted to compare the knowledge and perception of generic medicines among final year undergraduate medical, pharmacy, and nursing students in Sierra Leone. We conducted a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study among these students at the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences University of Sierra Leone. Out of the 62 students, only two (2/62, 3.2% knew about the acceptable bioequivalence limit. At least half of respondents in all three groups agreed that all generics are therapeutically equivalent to their innovator brand. At least half of the medicine (21/42, 50% and nursing (6/9, 66.6% students, compared to pharmacy students (5/11, 45.5%, believed that higher safety standards are required for proprietary medicines than for generic medicines. Most of them agreed that they need more information on the safety, quality, and efficacy aspects of generics (59/62, 95.2%. All three groups of healthcare students, despite variations in their responses, demonstrated a deficiency in knowledge and misconception regarding generic medicines. Training on issues surrounding generic drugs in healthcare training institutions is highly needed among future healthcare providers in Sierra Leone.
Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Awaisu, Ahmed; Mohamed Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham; Ahmed, Syed Imran
Objectives To develop and implement a new course on public health into the bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) curriculum in Malaysia. Design A required 2-credit-hour course was designed to provide an overview of public health pharmacy roles and the behavioral aspects of human healthcare issues. Graded activities included nursing home visits, in-class quizzes, mini-projects, and poster sessions, and a comprehensive final examination. Assessment The majority of the students performed well on the class activities and 93 (71.5%) of the 130 students enrolled received a grade of B or higher. A Web-based survey was administered at the end of the semester and 90% of students indicated that they had benefited from the course and were glad that it was offered. The majority of students agreed that the course made an impact in preparing them for their future role as pharmacists and expanded their understanding of the public health roles of a pharmacist. Conclusions A public health pharmacy course was successfully designed and implemented in the BPharm curriculum. This study highlighted the feasibilities of introducing courses that are of global relevance into a Malaysian pharmacy curriculum. The findings from the students' evaluation suggest the needs to incorporate a similar course in all pharmacy schools in the country and will be used as a guide to improve the contents and methods of delivery of the course at our school. PMID:19960093
Lapkin, Samuel; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Gilligan, Conor
The current status of interprofessional education (IPE) in Australian and New Zealand universities is largely unexamined despite its generally acknowledged benefit. Data are also limited about the use of IPE in teaching medication safety to nursing, pharmacy and medical students. For this reason a web-based cross-sectional survey was used to gather information from Australian and New Zealand universities offering nursing, pharmacy or medical programs. Responses were received from 31 of the 43 (72%) target universities. Eighty percent of the participants indicated that they currently offer IPE experiences, but only 24% of these experiences met the accepted definition of IPE. Of the participants who offer IPE as defined by Center for the Advancement of Interprofessional Education, only 50% use it to teach medication safety. Timetabling restrictions and lack of appropriate teaching and learning resources were identified as the main barriers to implementation of IPE. All participants reported that staff development, multi-media and e-learning resources would be beneficial to IPE initiatives and the teaching of medication safety. Innovative approaches will be needed to overcome the barriers and facilitate the uptake of quality IPE more broadly. Web-based and e-learning options promise a possible way forward, particularly in the teaching of medication safety to nursing, pharmacy and medical students.
Cloutier, Jacinthe; Lafrance, Josée; Michallet, Bernard; Marcoux, Lyson; Cloutier, France
The Canadian Interprofessional Health Collaborative recommends that future professionals be prepared for collaborative practice. To do so, it is necessary for them to learn about the principles of interprofessional collaboration. Therefore, to ascertain if students are predisposed, their attitude toward interprofessional learning must be assessed. In the French Canadian context such a measuring tool has not been published yet. The purpose of this study is to translate in French an adapted version of the RIPLS questionnaire and to validate it for use with undergraduate students from seven various health and social care programmes in a Canadian university. According to Vallerand's methodology, a method for translating measuring instruments: (i) the forward-backward translation indicated that six items of the experimental French version of the RIPLS needed to be more specific; (ii) the experimental French version of the RIPLS seemed clear according to the pre-test assessing items clarity; (iii) evaluation of the content validity indicated that the experimental French version of the RIPLS presents good content validity and (iv) a very good internal consistency was obtained (α = 0.90; n = 141). Results indicate that the psychometric properties of the RIPLS in French are comparable to the English version, although a different factorial structure was found. The relevance of three of the 19 items on the RIPLS scale is questionable, resulting in a revised 16-item scale. Future research aimed at validating the translated French version of the RIPLS could also be conducted in another francophone cultural context.
Sheaffer, Elizabeth A; Brown, Bonnie K; Byrd, Debbie C; Gupchup, Gireesh V; Mark, Scott M; Mobley Smith, Miriam A; Rospond, Raylene M
To identify the variables associated with an academic pharmacy career choice among the following groups: final professional-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students, pharmacy residents, pharmacy faculty members within the first 5 years of academic employment, and clinical pharmacy practitioners. A cross-sectional design Web-based survey instrument was developed using the online tool SurveyMonkey. The survey link was distributed via e-mail and postcards, and data were collected anonymously. Quantitative analyses were used to describe the 2,494 survey respondents and compare their responses to 25 variables associated with an academic pharmacy career choice. Logistic regression models were used to predict the motivators/deterrents associated with an academic pharmacy career choice for each participant group. Across all participant groups, the potential need to generate one's salary was the primary deterrent and autonomy, flexibility, and the ability to shape the future of the profession were the primary motivators. Final-year pharmacy students who considered a career in academic pharmacy were significantly deterred by grant writing. The overall sample of participants who considered an academic pharmacy career was more likely to be motivated by the academic environment and opportunities to teach, conduct professional writing and reviews, and participate in course design and/or assessment. This study demonstrates specific areas to consider for improved recruitment and retention of pharmacy faculty. For example, providing experiences related to pharmacy academia, such as allowing student participation in teaching and research, may stimulate those individuals' interest in pursuing an academic pharmacy career.
Nuffer, Wesley; Duke, Jodi
To compare the effectiveness of an internet-based training series with a traditional live classroom session in preparing pharmacy students to oversee a diabetes management program in community settings. Two cohorts of students were identified that prepared by utilizing a recorded online training exclusively, and two separate cohorts of students prepared by receiving only live classroom instruction. All students in the four cohorts were given a survey to evaluate the training sessions, and results were analyzed using the analysis of variance statistical test (ANOVA). Preceptors at the sites who interacted with students in all four cohorts were surveyed to evaluate which students appeared more prepared; these data were compared using paired t tests. Final assessment data for students in all four cohorts were analyzed using ANOVA. There were statistical differences between the two live training groups, with the second group finding the training to be more beneficial for preparing them, feeling the training length was appropriate and preferring the live modality for delivery. The two internet training cohorts were similar except for perceptions regarding the length of the online training. Comparing responses from those students who received live training with those receiving internet instruction demonstrated a statistical difference with the live groups rating the trainings as more helpful in preparing them for the clinics, rating the training as necessary, and rating their confidence higher in seeing patients. Preceptors rated the live training statistically higher than online training in preparing students. There was no difference between groups on their final site assessments. Live classroom training appears to be superior to the recorded internet training in preparing pharmacy students to oversee a diabetes management program in community settings.
Pattin, Anthony J; Kelling, Sarah E; Szyskowski, Jim; Izor, Michelle L; Findley, Susan
Pharmacy internships provide students with practical experiences that lead to enhancement of clinical skills and personal growth. To describe the design and implementation of a structured 10-week summer pharmacy internship program in a supermarket chain pharmacy. The pharmacy leadership team developed and piloted a new format of the pharmacy internship during the summer of 2013. Pharmacy students in professional year 1 (P1), 2 (P2), and 4 (P4) were invited to apply for a paid internship. Pharmacy students were recruited from all colleges of pharmacy in the state of Michigan. The goal of the new program was to create a focused learning opportunity that encouraged students to develop knowledge, skills, and abilities about patient care, pharmacy management, and working within a team. A total of 19 interns were recruited (P1 = 7, P2 = 7, and P4 = 5). Students practiced 40 hours per week and participated in the medication dispensing process and employee biometrics screening program. Interns provided approximately 500 assessments on pharmacy employees and all P1 and P2 interns completed a patient care project. The restructured internship program provided pharmacy students with a 10-week program that exposed them to many aspects of community pharmacy practice. The program needs future refinement and assessment measures to verify interns improve skills throughout the program. © The Author(s) 2015.
Nakhaee, Akram; Ghassemi, Amir Reza; Torshizi, Zahra; Ebrahimi, Nazanin; Rostami, Najmeh; Karimzadeh, Zohreh; Sanjaripoor, Asieh; Sheibani, Vahid
Background: Psychedelic drugs can cause one to get out of normal status and permanent cerebral defects, via affecting central nervous system. Consumption of theses drugs seems to be increasing nowadays especially among the youth and university educated population. We conducted a study to evaluate the awareness of medical science students of Kerman University of medical science who are going to be the future medical population. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 471 of stud...
Matthew Hughes, J D; Azzi, Elise; Rose, Gregory Walter; Ramnanan, Christopher J; Khamisa, Karima
To prepare for careers in medicine, medical trainees must develop clinical teaching skills. It is unclear if Canadian medical students need or want to develop such skills. We sought to assess Canadian students' perceptions of clinical teaching, and their desire to pursue clinical teaching skills development via a clinical teaching elective (CTE) in their final year of medical school. We designed a descriptive cross-sectional study of Canadian senior medical students, using an online survey to gauge teaching experience, career goals, perceived areas of confidence, and interest in a CTE. Students at 13 of 17 Canadian medical schools were invited to participate in the survey (4154 students). We collected 321 responses (7.8%). Most (75%) respondents expressed confidence in giving presentations, but fewer were confident providing bedside teaching (47%), teaching sensitive issues (42%), and presenting at journal clubs (42%). A total of 240 respondents (75%) expressed interest in participating in a CTE. The majority (61%) favored a two week elective, and preferred topics included bedside teaching (85%), teaching physical examination skills (71%), moderation of small group learning (63%), and mentorship in medicine (60%). Our study demonstrates that a large number of Canadian medical students are interested in teaching in a clinical setting, but lack confidence in skills specific to clinical teaching. Our respondents signaled interest in participating in an elective in clinical teaching, particularly if it is offered in a two-week format.
Mcluckie, Alan; Kutcher, Stan; Wei, Yifeng; Weaver, Cynthia
Enhancement of mental health literacy for youth is a focus of increasing interest for mental health professionals and educators alike. Schools are an ideal site for addressing mental health literacy in young people. Currently, there is limited evidence regarding the impact of curriculum-based interventions within high school settings. We examined the effect of a high-school mental health curriculum (The Guide) in enhancing mental health literacy in Canadian schools. We conducted a secondary analysis on surveys of students who participated in a classroom mental health course taught by their usual teachers. Evaluation of students' mental health literacy (knowledge/attitudes) was completed before and after classroom implementation and at 2-month follow-up. We used paired-samples t-tests and Cohen's d value to determine the significance and impact of change. There were 265 students who completed all surveys. Students' knowledge significantly improved between pre- and post-tests (p mental health. This is the first study to demonstrate the positive impact of a curriculum-based mental health literacy program in a Canadian high school population.
Hall, Mark; Poth, Cheryl; Manns, Patricia; Beaupre, Lauren
Purpose: To explore Canadian physiotherapists' perceptions of the factors that influence their decisions whether to supervise students in clinical placements. Methods: Using accepted survey development methodology, a survey was developed and administered to 18,110 physiotherapists to identify which factors contribute to the decision to supervise students. The survey also gave respondents opportunities to provide comments; these were analyzed via directed content analysis, using the factors identified in an exploratory factor analysis as an organizing structure. Results: A representative sample of 3,148 physiotherapists responded to the survey. Qualitative analysis of respondent comments provided a rich understanding of the factors contributing to the decision on whether to supervise students, which centred on themes related to stress, workplace productivity, the evaluation instrument, student preparation, and physiotherapists' professional roles and responsibilities. Challenges specific to loss of income and the ethics of charging for student services in private practice were also identified. Conclusions: Supervising students can be stressful, and stress is perceived by respondents to be most influential in deciding whether to supervise students. Effective supervisor training may mitigate some of the stresses related to supervising students. A collaborative approach involving all stakeholders is needed to resolve the issues of student placement capacity.
Objective measures for assessing teaching effectiveness and learning outcomes in the pharmacy curriculum are needed for improving quality of instruction and faculty development. The purpose of this article is to introduce a new teaching assessment method that focuses on self-assessed change in student comfort with the topics taught rather than evaluation of the instructor and to evaluate its performance in comparison to conventional student evaluations of teaching (SET). Six successive cohorts of first-year pharmacy students were surveyed regarding their comfort level at the beginning and end of a 10-week pharmacology course. The change in self-assessed comfort level (ΔSACL) was interpreted as the amount of learning that occurred. This indicator was compared to ratings of a statement from SET designed to obtain the same information. An increasing ΔSACL suggests an increase in learning over time. Differences were observed between ΔSACL and corresponding results from SET, suggesting that there could be extrinsic factors influencing the results. The use of ΔSACL could provide an alternative or complementary approach to assess teaching effectiveness that focuses less on the instructor and more on the actual student learning outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Boyle, Cynthia J.; Janke, Kristin K.
Objective. To assist administrators and faculty members in colleges and schools of pharmacy by gathering expert opinion to frame, direct, and support investments in student leadership development. Methods. Twenty-six leadership instructors participated in a 3-round, online, modified Delphi process to define doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) student leadership instruction. Round 1 asked open-ended questions about leadership knowledge, skills, and attitudes to begin the generation of student leadership development guiding principles and competencies. Statements were identified as guiding principles when they were perceived as foundational to the instructional approach. Round 2 grouped responses for agreement rating and comment. Group consensus with a statement as a guiding principle was set prospectively at 80%. Round 3 allowed rating and comment on guidelines, modified from feedback in round 2, that did not meet consensus. The principles were verified by identifying common contemporary leadership development approaches in the literature. Results. Twelve guiding principles, related to concepts of leadership and educational philosophy, were defined and could be linked to contemporary leadership development thought. These guiding principles describe the motivation for teaching leadership, the fundamental precepts of student leadership development, and the core tenets for leadership instruction. Conclusions. Expert opinion gathered using a Delphi process resulted in guiding principles that help to address many of the fundamental questions that arise when implementing or refining leadership curricula. The principles identified are supported by common contemporary leadership development thought. PMID:24371345
Traynor, Andrew P; Boyle, Cynthia J; Janke, Kristin K
To assist administrators and faculty members in colleges and schools of pharmacy by gathering expert opinion to frame, direct, and support investments in student leadership development. Twenty-six leadership instructors participated in a 3-round, online, modified Delphi process to define doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) student leadership instruction. Round 1 asked open-ended questions about leadership knowledge, skills, and attitudes to begin the generation of student leadership development guiding principles and competencies. Statements were identified as guiding principles when they were perceived as foundational to the instructional approach. Round 2 grouped responses for agreement rating and comment. Group consensus with a statement as a guiding principle was set prospectively at 80%. Round 3 allowed rating and comment on guidelines, modified from feedback in round 2, that did not meet consensus. The principles were verified by identifying common contemporary leadership development approaches in the literature. Twelve guiding principles, related to concepts of leadership and educational philosophy, were defined and could be linked to contemporary leadership development thought. These guiding principles describe the motivation for teaching leadership, the fundamental precepts of student leadership development, and the core tenets for leadership instruction. Expert opinion gathered using a Delphi process resulted in guiding principles that help to address many of the fundamental questions that arise when implementing or refining leadership curricula. The principles identified are supported by common contemporary leadership development thought.
Fichten, Catherine S.; Heiman, Tali; Jorgensen, Mary; Nguyen, Mai Nhu; Havel, Alice; King, Laura; Budd, Jillian; Amsel, Rhonda
We tested the ability of Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) model to predict intention to graduate among Canadian and Israeli students with and without a learning disability/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (LD/ADHD). Results based on 1486 postsecondary students show that the model's predictors (i.e., attitude, subjective norms,…
Hoferichter, Frances; Raufelder, Diana; Eid, Michael; Bukowski, William M.
This cross-national study investigates the perception of the impact of students' relationships towards teachers and peers on scholastic motivation in a total sample of 1477 seventh and eighth grade German (N?=?1088) and Canadian (N?=?389) secondary school students. By applying Multigroup Confirmatory Latent Class Analysis in Mplus we confirmed…
Pathammavong, Ratsamy; Leatherdale, Scott T.; Ahmed, Rashid; Griffith, Jane; Nowatzki, Janet; Manske, Steve
This study examined whether student tobacco, alcohol, marijuana use, and sedentary behaviour were associated with the educational outcomes of health-related absenteeism, truancy, and academic motivation in a nationally representative sample of Canadian youth. Descriptive analyses indicate a high proportion of students missed school due to health,…
Cole, Adam G; Leatherdale, Scott T
The use of alternative tobacco products (ATPs) has grown in popularity among Canadian youth. This study examined the association between a school-level characteristic (the senior student tobacco use rate) and the current use of manufactured cigarettes, little cigars or cigarillos, cigars, roll-your-own cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (SLT), and a hookah among junior students. This study used nationally representative Canadian data from 29,495 students in grades 9 to 12 as part of the 2010/2011 Youth Smoking Survey. For each ATP, we described rates of senior and junior tobacco use, calculated the variance attributed to school-level factors, and examined the association between the senior student (grades 11 and 12) tobacco use rate and the current use of each ATP among junior students (grades 9 and 10) while accounting for relevant student-level characteristics. SAS 9.3 was used for all analyses. Over half of schools sampled had senior students that reported using each ATP. School-level differences accounted for between 14.1% and 29.7% of the variability in ATP current use among junior students. Each one percent increase in the number of senior students at a school that currently use manufactured cigarettes, SLT, or a hookah was significantly independently associated with an increased likelihood that a junior student at that school currently used manufactured cigarettes (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.06), SLT (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.24), or a hookah (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.14). Characteristics of the school environment a junior student attends appear to play an important role in ATP use, and tobacco control programs and policies should be designed to ensure that they include strategies to curb the use of all tobacco products. Additional evidence is needed for the impact of comprehensive school-based tobacco control approaches.
Khandoobhai, Anand; Weber, Robert J
In 2013, the Director's Forum published our assessment of issues facing pharmacy leaders to assist pharmacy directors in planning for the year ahead. The issues include health care reform and the Affordable Care Act, the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative, the health care workforce, patients' perceptions of pharmacists, and the changing landscape of pharmacy education. Based on our environmental scan, the issues addressed in 2013 are pertinent to a department's plan for 2014. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to each of these issues to help pharmacy directors focus their department's goals for 2014 to support the development of patient-centered pharmacy services. This column will address (1) strategies to reduce medication costs and generate new pharmacy revenue streams, (2) innovative approaches to improving medication safety and quality, (3) steps to advance the clinical practice model, and (4) ways to create mutually beneficial student experiences.
Willoughby, Karen A; Rodríguez, Charo; Boillat, Miriam; Dove, Marion; Nugus, Peter; Steinert, Yvonne; Lalla, Leonora
Despite the implementation of longitudinal community-based pre-clerkship courses in several Canadian medical schools, there is a paucity of data assessing students' views regarding their experiences. The present study sought to measure students' perceived effects of the new Longitudinal Family Medicine Experience (LFME) course at McGill University. A 34-item questionnaire called the 'LFME Survey (Student Version)' was created, and all first-year medical students completed it online. The participation rate was 64% (N = 120). Eight factors were identified in the factor analysis performed: overall satisfaction, satisfaction with preceptor, knowledge, affective learning, clinical skills, teaching/feedback, professio