WorldWideScience

Sample records for canadian perspective transportation

  1. Climate change impacts and adaptation: a Canadian perspective. Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-01

    A brief summary of research over the past five years in the field of climate change, as it relates to key sectors in Canada, is presented in the report entitled: Climate change impacts and adaptation: a Canadian perspective. The emphasis of this chapter is on transportation, the role of adaptation in reducing vulnerabilities, and capitalizing on potential opportunities. Other sectors, such as fisheries, the coastal zone, tourism and human health might be affected by decisions made with regard to transportation. The areas that seem most vulnerable to climate change in transportation include northern ice roads, Great Lakes shipping, coastal infrastructure threatened by sea-level rise, and infrastructure located on permafrost. Most of the attention has been devoted to infrastructure and operations issues in northern Canada, despite most of the transportation activities taking place in southern Canada. Milder and or shorter winters might lead to savings, but additional knowledge is required before quantitative estimates can be made. The changed frequency of extreme climate events, and or changes in precipitation may influence other weather hazards or inefficiencies. If Canadians are prepared to be proactive, the report indicated that the effects of climate change on transportation may be largely manageable. 77 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  2. Medical cannabis - the Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gordon D; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol - the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. Despite this, barriers exist to use from both the patient perspective (cost, addiction, social stigma, lack of understanding regarding safe administration) and the physician perspective (credibility, criminality, clinical evidence, patient addiction, and policy from the governing medical colleges). This review addresses these barriers and draws attention to key concerns in the Canadian medical system, providing updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic medication use, and enhanced quality of life. This review also includes case studies demonstrating the use of medical marijuana by patients with neuropathic low-back pain, neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. While significant preclinical data have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis for treating pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, further studies are needed with randomized controlled trials and larger study populations to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts.

  3. Engendering migrant health: Canadian perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    .... What contributes to this deterioration, and how can its effects be mitigated? Engendering Migrant Health brings together researchers from across Canada to address the intersections of gender, immigration, and health in the lives of new Canadians...

  4. Engendering migrant health: Canadian perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    "Voluntary migrants to Canada are generally healthier than the average Canadian, but after ten years in the country they report poorer health and higher rates of chronic disease than those born here...

  5. Engendering migrant health: Canadian perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    .... Focusing on the context of Canadian policy and society, the contributors illuminate migrants' testimonies of struggle, resistance, and solidarity as they negotiate a place for themselves in a new country. Topics range from the difficulties of Francophone refugees and the changing roles of fathers, to the experiences of queer newcomers and the importance of social unity to communal and individual health."--pub. desc.

  6. Canadian safeguards - an historical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ironside, A.M. (Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Smith, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper summarizes safeguards activities and programs undertaken in Canada. In 1970, Canada, in collaboration with the IAEA, began a study of procedures and equipment required for the application of safeguards to on-line-fueled reactors. In 1977, this assistance was substantially increased and formalized into the Canadian Safeguards Support Program (CSSP). To date, Canada has spent in excess of $35 million Canadian on this program. The CSSP provides support to the IAEA safeguards effort for areas in which Canada has expertise and has been primarily engaged in developing safeguards procedures and equipment for the CANDU power reactors in Canada and throughout the world. Work, projects, and equipment development undertaken by CANDU CSSP are highlighted.

  7. Nuclear communications : A Canadian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macpherson, John A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ottawa (Canada)

    1994-04-15

    Times have changed since the early days of nuclear energy when it was a symbol of a brave new world, Public information strategies have evolved to meet increasing public concerns, and have shifted from being a largely unfocused attempt at publicity to being more concerned with managing issues and solving problems. This paper describes some of the salient features of the Canadian experience in nuclear communications and examines four key aspects: opinion and attitude research; media relations; coeducation; and advertising. It also addresses the challenge of responding to the allegations and tactics of those who are actively hostile to nuclear energy, and recommends that the principles of Total Quality Management and of organizational effectiveness be applied more thorough and more consistently to the public affairs function.

  8. Canadian cardiac surgeons' perspectives on biomedical innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyman, Gretchen; Tucker, Joseph E L; Cimini, Massimo; Narine, Kishan; Fedak, Paul W M

    2012-01-01

    Barriers to successful innovation can be identified and potentially addressed by exploring the perspectives of key stakeholders in the innovation process. Cardiac surgeons in Canada were surveyed for personal perspectives on biomedical innovation. Quantitative data was obtained by questionnaire and qualitative data via interviews with selected survey participants. Surgeons were asked to self-identify into 1 of 3 categories: "innovator," "early adopter," or "late adopter," and data were compared between groups. Most surgeons viewed innovation favourably and this effect was consistent irrespective of perceived level of innovativeness. Key barriers to the innovation pathway were identified: (1) support from colleagues and institutions; (2) Canada's health system; (3) sufficient investment capital; and (4) the culture of innovation within the local environment. Knowledge of the innovation process was perceived differently based on self-reported innovativeness. The majority of surgeons did not perceive themselves as having the necessary knowledge and skills to effectively translate innovative ideas to clinical practice. In general, responses indicate support for implementation of leadership and training programs focusing on the innovation process in an effort to prepare surgeons and enhance their ability to successfully innovate and translate new therapies. The perspectives of cardiac surgeons provide an intriguing portal into the challenges and opportunities for healthcare innovation in Canada. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Medical cannabis – the Canadian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gordon D; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol – the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. Despite this, barriers exist to use from both the patient perspective (cost, addiction, social stigma, lack of understanding regarding safe administration) and the physician perspective (credibility, criminality, clinical evidence, patient addiction, and policy from the governing medical colleges). This review addresses these barriers and draws attention to key concerns in the Canadian medical system, providing updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic medication use, and enhanced quality of life. This review also includes case studies demonstrating the use of medical marijuana by patients with neuropathic low-back pain, neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. While significant preclinical data have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis for treating pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, further studies are needed with randomized controlled trials and larger study populations to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts. PMID:27757048

  10. African-Canadian Educators' Perspectives: Critical Factors for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the perspectives of African-Canadian educators on critical factors for success in their educational careers. Interviews were conducted and life histories were constructed to analyze the complex and multifaceted nature of the experiences of ten African-Canadian educators. These data indicate that family and community…

  11. A perspective on Canadian shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Mike; Davidson, Jim; Mortensen, Paul

    2010-09-15

    In a relatively new development over just the past few years, shale formations are being targeted for natural gas production. Based on initial results, there may be significant potential for shale gas in various regions of Canada, not only in traditional areas of conventional production but also non-traditional areas. However, there is much uncertainty because most Canadian shale gas production is currently in experimental or early developmental stages. Thus, its full potential will not be known for some time. If exploitation proves to be successful, Canadian shale gas may partially offset projected long-term declines in Canadian conventional natural gas production.

  12. Family Business Training: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, A. B.; Soufani, K.; Lam, Jose

    2003-01-01

    Family firms play an important role in the working of the Canadian economy; despite their importance to the economic activities and job creation it is observed that family businesses have lower survival rates than non-family firms, some argue that this can possibly be attributed (amongst other factors) to the lack of training. Most of the training…

  13. Indigenous populations health protection: A Canadian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Katya L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The disproportionate effects of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on many Canadian Aboriginal communities have drawn attention to the vulnerability of these communities in terms of health outcomes in the face of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Exploring the particular challenges facing these communities is essential to improving public health planning. In alignment with the objectives of the Pandemic Influenza Outbreak Research Modelling (Pan-InfORM team, a Canadian public health workshop was held at the Centre for Disease Modelling (CDM to: (i evaluate post-pandemic research findings; (ii identify existing gaps in knowledge that have yet to be addressed through ongoing research and collaborative activities; and (iii build upon existing partnerships within the research community to forge new collaborative links with Aboriginal health organizations. The workshop achieved its objectives in identifying main research findings and emerging information post pandemic, and highlighting key challenges that pose significant impediments to the health protection and promotion of Canadian Aboriginal populations. The health challenges faced by Canadian indigenous populations are unique and complex, and can only be addressed through active engagement with affected communities. The academic research community will need to develop a new interdisciplinary framework, building upon concepts from ‘Communities of Practice’, to ensure that the research priorities are identified and targeted, and the outcomes are translated into the context of community health to improve policy and practice.

  14. Canadian regulatory perspectives on genome engineered crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J

    2017-01-02

    New breeding techniques in plant agriculture exploded upon the scene about two years ago, in 2014. While these innovative plant breeding techniques, soon to be led by CRISPR/Cas9, initially appear to hold tremendous promise for plant breeding, if not a revolution for the industry, the question of how the products of these technologies will be regulated is rapidly becoming a key aspect of the technology's future potential. Regulation of innovative technologies and products has always lagged that of the science, but in the past decade, regulatory systems in many jurisdictions have become gridlocked as they try to regulate genetically modified (GM) crops. This regulatory incapability to efficiently assess and approve innovative new agricultural products is particularly important for new plant breeding techniques as if these techniques are classified as genetically modified breeding techniques, then their acceptance and future will diminish considerably as they will be rejected by the European Union. Conversely, if the techniques are accepted as conventional plant breeding, then the future is blindingly bright. This article examines the international debate about the regulation of new plant breeding techniques and then assesses how the Canadian regulatory system has approached the regulation of these technologies through two more public product approvals, GM apples and GM potatoes, then discusses other crop variety approval and those in the regulatory pipeline.

  15. Defining Canadian Perspectives on Climate Change Science and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, C.; Byrne, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Despite the overwhelming scientific evidence of potentially disastrous change in global climate, little is being accomplished in climate mitigation or adaptation in Canada. The energy sector in Canada is still primarily oil and gas, with huge tax breaks to the industry in spite of well known harmful regional and global impacts of fossil fuel pollution. One of the largest concerns for the climate science community is the variable and often complacent attitude many Canadians share on the issue of climate change. The objective herein is twofold: (1) a survey tool will be used to assess the views and opinions of Canadians on climate change science and solutions; (2) develop better communication methods for industry, government and NGOs to share the science and solutions with the public. The study results will inform the Canadian public, policy makers and industry of practical, effective changes needed to address climate change challenges. A survey of Canadians' perspectives is an important step in policy changing research. The climate research and application community must know the most effective ways to communicate the science and solutions with a public that is often resistant to change. The AGU presentation will feature the results of the survey, while continued work into 2015 will be towards advancing communication. This study is both timely and crucial for science communicators in understanding how Canadians view climate change, considering, for example, devastatingly extreme weather being experienced of late and its effect on the economy. The results will assist in recognizing how to encourage Canadians to work towards a more sustainable and resilient energy sector in Canada and abroad.

  16. Coalition command and control: a Canadian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Robert; Demers, David; Gouin, Denis; McCann, Carol; Nourry, Gerard; Pigeau, Ross; Smith, Donald L.; Vezina, Guy; Walker, Robert S.

    1998-08-01

    Canada has been, and remains, committed to participating in coalition operations to promote peace and stability in the post-Cold War world. However, coalition operations challenge traditional command and control concepts, from both the technological and the human perspectives. In the short term, Canada is working closely with traditional NATO and ABCA allies to ensure that the next generation of automated C2 information systems are able to exchange information effectively through structured messages, gateways and standardized data models. Canada is also conducting R&D, and participating in collaborative experiments, to evolve the next generation of systems to permit richer, more dynamic information sharing, along the lines of the Internet and World Wide Web. However, information technology alone will not solve the problems of coalition operations. Research needs to be undertaken to understand task assignment and information flow among coalition partners at the process or operational level. Research is also required at the human level, where differences between coalition partners in culture, personal values, military expectations, religions, and societal values are proving to be less tractable than differences in message formats and communication protocols.

  17. Health risks from acid rain: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, C A; Burnett, R T; Paolini, R J; Raizenne, M E

    1985-11-01

    Acidic deposition, commonly referred to as acid rain, is causing serious environmental damage in eastern Canada. The revenues from forest products, tourism and sport fishing are estimated to account for about 8% of the gross national product. The impact on human health is not as clearcut and a multi-department program on the Long-Range Transport of Airborne Pollutants (LRTAP) was approved by the federal government in June 1980. The objectives of the LRTAP program are to reduce wet sulfate deposition to less than 20 kg/ha per year in order to protect moderately sensitive areas. This will require a 50% reduction in Canadian SO2 emissions east of the Saskatchewan/Manitoba border and concomitant reductions in the eastern U.S.A. The objectives of the health sector of the program are to assess the risk to health posed by airborne pollutants which are subjected to long-range transport and to monitor the influence of abatement programs. Two major epidemiology studies were undertaken in 1983, one in which the health effects related to acute exposure to transported air pollutants were studied in asthmatic and nonasthmatic children, and another in which the effects of chronic exposure to these pollutants were studied in school children living in towns with high and low levels of pollutants. Preliminary analysis of the data do not indicate major health effects, but definitive conclusions must await final analysis. Studies on the indirect effects of acid deposition on water quality have shown that acidified lake water left standing in the plumbing system can adversely affect water quality and that federally set guidelines for copper and lead are exceeded. Flushing of the system before using the water rectifies the situation. Additional studies are planned to further delineate the magnitude of the health effects of acidified lake water.

  18. Women's health promotion in the rural church: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunkett, Robyn; Leipert, Beverly D

    2013-09-01

    The rural church may be an effective health resource for rural Canadian women who have compromised access to health resources. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relevance of the Christian church and faith community nurses in promoting the health of rural Canadian women in the evolving rural context. The findings from an extensive literature search reveal that religion and spirituality often influence the health beliefs, behaviors, and decisions of rural Canadian women. The church and faith community nurses may therefore be a significant health resource for rural Canadian women, although this phenomenon has been significantly understudied.

  19. Doctors of osteopathic medicine (DO): a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evren, Sevan; Bi, Andrew Yuzhong; Talwar, Shuchi; Yeh, Andrew; Teitelbaum, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Doctors of osteopathic medicine (DO) are one of the fastest growing segments of health care professionals in the United States. Although Canada has taken significant leaps in the acknowledgment of US trained DOs, there continues to be a lack of understanding of the profession by Canadian trained physicians. In this article, we provide a brief overview of osteopathic medical education and training in the United States. Current information of osteopathic training by American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine (AACOM) and American Osteopathic Association (AOA) was presented. Data pertaining to Canadians enrolled in osteopathic colleges was compared with allopathic (MD) and international medical graduates (IMGs). Doctors of osteopathic medicine programs provide an additional pathway for students interested in pursuing a medical education. Canadian applications to osteopathic colleges are expected to grow due to successful post-graduate US residency matching, increased difficulty of matriculating at Canadian medical schools, and a greater awareness of the profession in Canada. Given the increasing enrollment of Canadian students in US osteopathic medical schools, we expect that Canadian DOs will play a significant role in shaping health care in both the US and Canada.

  20. Active transportation and adolescents' health: the Canadian Health Measures Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larouche, Richard; Faulkner, Guy E J; Fortier, Michelle; Tremblay, Mark S

    2014-05-01

    Active transportation (AT; e.g., walking and cycling) is increasingly promoted to increase youth physical activity (PA). Most previous research focused solely on school trips, and associations among AT and cardiovascular risk factors have seldom been examined in adolescents. To address these important research gaps using data from the nationally representative 2007-2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey. A total of 1,016 adolescents aged 12-19 years reported their weekly time spent utilitarian walking and cycling, and wore an Actical accelerometer for 7 days. They underwent a series of physical tests (measures of fitness, body composition, blood pressure, and blood sampling) following standardized protocols. In 2013, differences in PA and health-related outcomes across levels of walking and cycling were assessed with ANCOVA analyses adjusted for age, gender, parental education, and usual daily PA. Greater walking and cycling time was associated with higher moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Compared to adolescents reporting walking 1-5 hours/week, those reporting 5 hours/week had better grip strength, lower total cholesterol, and total cholesterol/HDL ratio. Compared to adolescents reporting no cycling, those reporting ≥1 hour/week accumulated more light PA, had greater aerobic fitness, and lower BMI, waist circumference, and total cholesterol/HDL ratio; those who reported cycling <1 hour/week had lower total cholesterol. Utilitarian walking and cycling were associated with higher daily MVPA in youth. Cycling was associated with a more consistent pattern of health benefits than walking. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Has Multiculturalism Really Failed? A Canadian Muslim Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljit Nagra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, claims that multiculturalism has created segregated communities, encouraged terrorism, and failed to foster shared national identities in western nations have gained popularity. In this paper, we use young Canadian Muslims’ lived experience of multiculturalism to reflect on this debate. Contrary to popular rhetoric, our interviews of 50 young Muslim adults show that many maintain a dual Canadian-Muslim identity by utilizing the ideology of multiculturalism, even though they are increasingly stigmatized for their religion. These findings lead us to problematize the discourse surrounding the ‘failure’ of multiculturalism and to highlight the contradictions within it.

  2. The Trust Imperative in the School Principalship: The Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsyuruba, Benjamin; Walker, Keith; Noonan, Brian

    2016-01-01

    As a fundamental concept in human interactions, trust is important for understanding and mediating the social structures in schools. The instrumental work of cultivating, brokering, and maintaining trust in schools lies within the role of the school administrator. Our exploratory study examined the Canadian school principals' perceptions of their…

  3. The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: A Canadian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réjeanne Gougeon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA is a clinical tool designed to facilitate implementation of therapeutic lifestyle recommendations for people with or at risk for type 2 diabetes. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPG recommendations is essential to address varied patient populations within and among diverse regions worldwide. The Canadian version of tDNA supports and targets behavioural changes to improve nutritional quality and to promote regular daily physical activity consistent with Canadian Diabetes Association CPG, as well as channelling the concomitant management of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and dysglycaemia in primary care. Assessing glycaemic index (GI (the ranking of foods by effects on postprandial blood glucose levels and glycaemic load (GL (the product of mean GI and the total carbohydrate content of a meal will be a central part of the Canadian tDNA and complement nutrition therapy by facilitating glycaemic control using specific food selections. This component can also enhance other metabolic interventions, such as reducing the need for antihyperglycaemic medication and improving the effectiveness of weight loss programs. This tDNA strategy will be adapted to the cultural specificities of the Canadian population and incorporated into the tDNA validation methodology.

  4. Strategic Planning for Academic Research: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Creso M.; Tamtik, Merli

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on an empirical study of research planning in Canadian universities. Drawing on data compiled during interviews with senior administrators from 27 academic units in 10 universities, the paper analyses how strategic planning has been applied to the research mission over the past decade. Findings reveal variability in processes…

  5. The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievenpiper, John L.; Jenkins, David; Yale, Jean-François; Bell, Rhonda; Després, Jean-Pierre; Ransom, Thomas P. P.; Dupre, John; Kendall, Cyril; Hegazi, Refaat A.; Marchetti, Albert; Hamdy, Osama; Mechanick, Jeffrey I.

    2014-01-01

    The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA) is a clinical tool designed to facilitate implementation of therapeutic lifestyle recommendations for people with or at risk for type 2 diabetes. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPG) recommendations is essential to address varied patient populations within and among diverse regions worldwide. The Canadian version of tDNA supports and targets behavioural changes to improve nutritional quality and to promote regular daily physical activity consistent with Canadian Diabetes Association CPG, as well as channelling the concomitant management of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and dysglycaemia in primary care. Assessing glycaemic index (GI) (the ranking of foods by effects on postprandial blood glucose levels) and glycaemic load (GL) (the product of mean GI and the total carbohydrate content of a meal) will be a central part of the Canadian tDNA and complement nutrition therapy by facilitating glycaemic control using specific food selections. This component can also enhance other metabolic interventions, such as reducing the need for antihyperglycaemic medication and improving the effectiveness of weight loss programs. This tDNA strategy will be adapted to the cultural specificities of the Canadian population and incorporated into the tDNA validation methodology. PMID:24550982

  6. Entrepreneurship and Educational Leadership Development: Canadian and Australian Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Charles F.; Scott, Shelleyann

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the entrepreneurial activities of two university faculties, one Canadian and the other Australian, that were designed to meet the educational needs of students and to garner the resources necessary for program delivery. A conceptual framework for educational entrepreneurship, containing six dimensions, is proposed. The…

  7. Perspectives from Japanese Staff in Canadian ESL Schools regarding Japanese Students' Groupism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoko

    2006-01-01

    The present study, which stems from a critical approach to common perceptions about ESL learners in the TESOL community, examines the perspectives of Japanese-speaking staff in Canadian ESL institutions on their students' school performance. From September 2003 to April 2004, qualitative data were gathered from 11 staff members through mail…

  8. Clinical diabetes research using data mining: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Baiju R; Lipscombe, Lorraine L

    2015-06-01

    With the advent of the digitization of large amounts of information and the computer power capable of analyzing this volume of information, data mining is increasingly being applied to medical research. Datasets created for administration of the healthcare system provide a wealth of information from different healthcare sectors, and Canadian provinces' single-payer universal healthcare systems mean that data are more comprehensive and complete in this country than in many other jurisdictions. The increasing ability to also link clinical information, such as electronic medical records, laboratory test results and disease registries, has broadened the types of data available for analysis. Data-mining methods have been used in many different areas of diabetes clinical research, including classic epidemiology, effectiveness research, population health and health services research. Although methodologic challenges and privacy concerns remain important barriers to using these techniques, data mining remains a powerful tool for clinical research. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Canadian mental health rights in an international perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisstub, David Norman; Arboleda-Flórez, Julio

    2006-01-01

    This article surveys the status of people with mental disorders in the light of international human rights law and assesses if their rights are respected in the Canadian context. The authors recognize that although the national systems of countries such as Canada provide significant civil and constitutional protections on the positive rights of its citizens, including those who suffer from intellectual disability, the same cannot be said with respect to entitlements to the provision of social services. The authors argue that this shortcoming must be remedied. Finally, the authors conclude that it is paramount to closely monitor the apparent dissonance between internationally recognized rights to adequate healthcare and freedom from discrimination and their strict application in the Canadian context.

  10. Taenia ovis infection and its control: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wolf, B D; Peregrine, A S; Jones-Bitton, A; Jansen, J T; Menzies, P I

    2014-01-01

    Distributed worldwide, Taenia ovis infection is responsible for the condemnation of sheep carcasses in many countries. This review highlights the programme used in New Zealand to successfully control T. ovis in sheep, and discusses how similar approaches may be modified for use in Canada, given what is currently known about the epidemiology of T. ovis. The lifecycle of the parasite is well known, involving dogs as the definitive host and sheep or goats as the intermediate host. An effective vaccine does exist, although it is not presently commercially available. In New Zealand an industry-based, non-regulatory programme was created to educate producers about T. ovis and necessary control strategies, including the need to treat farm dogs with cestocides regularly. This programme resulted in a substantial decrease in the prevalence of T. ovis infections between 1991 and 2012. Historically, T. ovis was not a concern for the Canadian sheep industry, but more recently the percentage of lamb condemnations due to T. ovis has increased from 1.5% in 2006 to 55% in 2012. It has been suggested that coyotes may be transmitting T. ovis, but this has not been confirmed. Recommendation are made for the Canadian sheep industry to adopt a control programme similar to that used in New Zealand in order to reduce the prevalence of T. ovis infection.

  11. Canadian student leaders' perspective on interprofessional education: A consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicorelli, Jennifer; Dennie, Anik; Heinrich, Christina; Hinchey, Blake; Honarparvar, Faraz; Jennings, Morgan; Keefe, Chad; Metro, Trisha Lee; Peel, Celeste; Snowdon, Cordelia; Tempelman, Justine; Wong, Melody Elise; Forbes, Susan L; Livingston, Lori A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to report on the outcomes of an interprofessional education (IPE) consensus-building exercise amongst student leaders enrolled in health science-related degree programs. The 12 participants included undergraduate and graduate students from eight different universities situated in five Canadian provinces. Their areas of study spanned a broad range of professions and disciplines including child and youth care, health promotion, nursing, kinesiology, medicine, physical education, psychology, and social work. A consensus statement regarding IPE and, more specifically, "what we know," "what we don't know," and "where do we go from here" is presented. These insights are unique, and a willingness to embrace them may be critical in building the next generation of improved IPE offerings across the country.

  12. Governance, Globalization, and Political Economy: Perspectives from Canadian Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    The concept of governance has become increasingly popular over the past 15 years signifying its growing acceptance in a number of key sectors of society. Is governance a neutral term that is merely a synonym for government, or does it signify a shift to neoliberalism? Working from a political-economy perspective, this article will explore the…

  13. Statistical Perspectives on Stratospheric Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, L. C.

    1999-01-01

    Long-lived tropospheric source gases, such as nitrous oxide, enter the stratosphere through the tropical tropopause, are transported throughout the stratosphere by the Brewer-Dobson circulation, and are photochemically destroyed in the upper stratosphere. These chemical constituents, or "tracers" can be used to track mixing and transport by the stratospheric winds. Much of our understanding about the stratospheric circulation is based on large scale gradients and other spatial features in tracer fields constructed from satellite measurements. The point of view presented in this paper is different, but complementary, in that transport is described in terms of tracer probability distribution functions (PDFs). The PDF is computed from the measurements, and is proportional to the area occupied by tracer values in a given range. The flavor of this paper is tutorial, and the ideas are illustrated with several examples of transport-related phenomena, annotated with remarks that summarize the main point or suggest new directions. One example shows how the multimodal shape of the PDF gives information about the different branches of the circulation. Another example shows how the statistics of fluctuations from the most probable tracer value give insight into mixing between different regions of the atmosphere. Also included is an analysis of the time-dependence of the PDF during the onset and decline of the winter circulation, and a study of how "bursts" in the circulation are reflected in transient periods of rapid evolution of the PDF. The dependence of the statistics on location and time are also shown to be important for practical problems related to statistical robustness and satellite sampling. The examples illustrate how physically-based statistical analysis can shed some light on aspects of stratospheric transport that may not be obvious or quantifiable with other types of analyses. An important motivation for the work presented here is the need for synthesis of the

  14. UNDERSTANDING TSUNAMI RISK TO STRUCTURES: A CANADIAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Palermo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential catastrophic effects of tsunami-induced loading on built infrastructure in the vicinity of shorelines have been brought to the fore by recent global events. However, state- of-the-art building codes remain silent or provide conflicting guidance on designing near- shoreline structures in tsunami-prone areas. This paper focuses on tsunami-induced loading and its effect on structures within the Canadian context. The mechanics of tsunami-induced loading is described based on knowledge gained during reconnaissance visits after the 2004 south-east Asia Tsunami, as well as post-construction visits to countries significantly affected by the destructive forces of the tsunami. To gain an appreciation of the magnitude of tsunami-induced bores for a given seismic event along the western coastal region of Canada, structural analysis of a simple near-shoreline structure was performed considering a proposed loading protocol for tsunami-induced hydraulic bores. These loads were further compared to seismic loading in order to provide an estimation of the tsunami risk and its impact. The work was complemented by experimental results from a large-scale testing program conducted with the purpose of estimating the forces experienced on structural components. Square-, rectangular-, and diamond-shaped columns were used to study the influence of shape. Furthermore, results from debris impact testing are also discussed.

  15. The Link Between Obesity and Asthma: A Canadian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Philippe Boulet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is considered to be more prevalent in obese subjects, and a possible causal link between these two entities has been suggested. In the present study, various observations on this relationship were reviewed, and an analysis of data obtained from the 2000 to 2001 Canadian Community Health Survey on the prevalence of self-reported asthma, medication use and allergy, according to body weight, was reported. Asthma medication use and self-reported asthma were more prevalent in the obese population, particularly in women. Mean body mass index was higher in the asthmatic population compared with the nonasthmatic population. Self-reported nonfood-related allergies were higher in the more obese subjects in the general population, but the prevalence of allergy was not different in obese asthmatic subjects compared with nonobese asthmatic subjects. Smoking did not seem to influence the relationship between asthma and body mass index. Further research should investigate the mechanisms by which obesity may influence the prevalence of asthma or asthma-like symptoms.

  16. The June 2009 Perspective on Canadian IYA2009 Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesser, James E.; Bartlett, C.; Breland, K.; Hay, K.; Lane, D.; Lacasse, R.; Lemay, D.; Langill, P.; Percy, J.; Welch, D. L.; Woodsworth, A.

    2009-05-01

    IYA effort in Canada is almost entirely a volunteer one relying heavily upon generous donations of time and effort by hundreds of people. Here we analyze accomplishments to date, and we describe activities to come in the remaining seven months of 2009 and well beyond. Accomplishments include provisions of hundreds of diverse opportunities for many thousands to experience their personal moment of astronomical discovery (their `Galileo Moment') a new planetarium show being presented at four major science centres; original works of music and performance that showcase astronomy in a captivating way for children and adults; an animated video narrated in English, French or Mi'kmaq of an Aboriginal story relating the seasons with circumpolar motions of stars; new educational and outreach materials aimed primarily at youth that are distributed freely at IYA events; theatre events; image exhibits; improved science education materials linked closely to curriculum requirements; and many more. In the months to come, all of the above will continue, but opportunities for new activities and partnerships continue to arise, e.g., Canada's Parks Day (18 July) emphasizes IYA, as do numerous cross-cultural events. We provide examples of the activities planned and/or being pursued for the latter portion of 2009 and beyond. These include issuance of a commemorative coin; delivery of a number of new education materials; prototyping of specific programs with Canadian Aboriginal communities in many provinces with the goal of creating multi-year partnerships to improve educational opportunities in their communities; and many more.

  17. The Need for Geoethics Awareness from a Canadian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Ryan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An online survey of Canadian Earth scientists on geoethics—defined as the interconnection between humanity and Earth sciences—asked participants to (1 rate the importance of issues around scientific integrity, social responsibility, aboriginal concerns, corporate ethics, and fieldwork; (2 identify ethical considerations they had observed; and (3 tell us how they were introduced to ethical viewpoints and whether their undergraduate programs had prepared them for ethical decision-making. Despite a small sample size (123 responded to our survey we observe that most respondents deemed all criteria we listed as important or very important, with the strongest support for health/safety and honest reporting, and the least, but still significant support for criteria linked to aboriginal issues and fieldwork. Many respondents had observed ethical considerations, particularly lack of giving credit and biased representation of information. We find that informal activities like reading and discussions with peers are the most frequent avenues into geoethics, while undergraduate education is not a significant contributor to current geoethics understandings. Although the survey was restricted to Canada, we perceive our survey as providing a glimpse into the larger geoscience community and offer various recommendations on how the geoscience community and public must be made aware of geoethics, not just in Canada.

  18. Report on Canadian alternative transportation programs : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    Existing alternative transportation programs and initiatives in Canada were presented as part of an effort to achieve the Canada-Wide Standards on Particulate Matter and Ground-level Ozone. This document is intended for employers that could implement support services in their workplace that promote methods of commuting that reduce vehicle kilometers traveled and encourage alternative transportation to the single occupant vehicle with the objective or reducing particulate matter and ground-level ozone. Alternative transportation programs such as employers programs, youth programs and institutional programs have environmental, economic, social and community benefits such as reduced emissions and greater transportation efficiency which lead to improved quality of life, health and sustainability of the transportation system. Organizations implement alternative transportation programs because of a commitment to; environmental responsibility, improving air quality, offering employee benefits, GHG reductions and corporate leadership. The programs are often initiated by large urban centres experiencing transportation-related problems such as congestion, air pollution or infrastructure capacity constraints. The U-Pass was presented as example of a very successful program that promotes change in behaviour at institutions to increase transit ridership. Telework also offers the opportunity of eliminating commutes. Ridematching is another key marketing tool employed by many organizations. The most successful programs are those with the greatest financial resources because sustained funding is necessary for program delivery, expansion and community acceptance. refs., tabs., figs.

  19. SPS program review transportation perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, W. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The delivery of cargo and space workers to the SPS construction site requires the development of two different systems, one to handle large cargo deliveries and a smaller system to accommodate crew. The overall scenario of the transportation system is shown. Eight major elements comprise the transportation system: personnel launch vehicle (PLV) or shuttle; personnel orbital transfer vehicle (POTV); the heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV); the electric orbital transfer vehicle (EOTV); intra orbit transfer vehicle (IOTV); LEO support facility; GEO support facility and a shuttle derived HLLV (SDHLLV) for supporting the early SPS Demonstration Program. The HLLV and EOTV represent the cargo carriers while the PLV and POTV represent the people carriers. The IOTV is utilized to ferry people and cargo modules over short distances in the vicinity of its station.

  20. Health risks from acid rain: a Canadian perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin, C A; Burnett, R T; Paolini, R J; Raizenne, M E

    1985-01-01

    Acidic deposition, commonly referred to as acid rain, is causing serious environmental damage in eastern Canada. The revenues from forest products, tourism and sport fishing are estimated to account for about 8% of the gross national product. The impact on human health is not as clearcut and a multi-department program on the Long-Range Transport of Airborne Pollutants (LRTAP) was approved by the federal government in June 1980. The objectives of the LRTAP program are to reduce wet sulfate dep...

  1. Status of hydrogen development for aircraft in five countries - A Canadian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J.

    The results of studies funded by the Canadian government to identify fuel alternatives to oil derivatives and estimate the potential for H2 as a fuel are presented. Hydrogen and electricity were concluded as the prime energy carriers in 50 years in Canada, and suggestions were made that the Canadian government initiate a long-term transition by funding programs to establish the infrastructure for hydrogen production, transportation, and use. Periodic reviews of the program were recommended at specified intervals. A conclusion was reached that electrolysis would be the lowest cost generation option by the 1990s. Widespread H2 usage will depend on the progress in H2-fueled road vehicles, on-board storage, and the distribution and refueling systems. Studies were also indicated in electrochemistry and safety.

  2. Examining an occupational perspective in a rural Canadian age-friendly consultation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauckner, Heidi M; Stadnyk, Robin L

    2014-12-01

    The age-friendly community movement is a community-level approach to promoting seniors' health that has yet to be thoroughly examined from an occupational perspective. Through the application of the Canadian Practice Process Framework to an age-friendly consultation process, the authors examined how age-friendly community consultations may provide strategies for occupational therapists to strengthen their work with communities. A consultation with a rural Canadian community was guided by the Age-Friendly Rural/Remote Communities Initiative. Focus groups were held with 35 older adults to identify age-friendly features of the community. Twenty key informants who provide services to seniors were also interviewed individually. Following the community consultation, we examined the relationship between the age-friendly community consultation process and occupational therapy community development practice processes using the Canadian Practice Process Framework. The steps of the consultation process paralleled the occupational therapy practice process, with occupational issues implicitly identified in the age-friendly consultation. The age-friendly consultation process emphasised the importance of collaborative partnerships and the need for occupational therapists to adopt a facilitative rather than leadership role. Skills that enable occupation were used throughout this age-friendly consultation. The study suggests that the process of this age-friendly community consultation has relevance to occupational therapy theory and practice, and can provide a useful framework for collaborative consultative processes when working with communities. © 2014 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  3. Urban sprawl and its relationship with active transportation, physical activity and obesity in Canadian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliske, Laura; Pickett, William; Janssen, Ian

    2012-06-01

    Urban sprawl is a potential environmental influence on youth overweight/obesity. However, little is known about the association between urban sprawl and behaviours that influence obesity such as active transportation and physical activity. The study population consisted of 7,017 respondents aged 12 to 19 to the 2007/2008 Canadian Community Health Survey, living in Canada's 33 census metropolitan areas (CMAs). Factor analysis was used to obtain an urban sprawl score for each CMA, incorporating dwelling density, percentage of single or detached dwelling units, and percentage of the population living in the urban core. Multi-level logistic regression examined whether urban sprawl was associated with frequent active transportation (30 or more minutes a day), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (60 or more minutes a day), and overweight/obesity. Urban sprawl was associated with active transportation among 12- to 15-year-olds, with the relative odds of engaging in at least 30 minutes of active transportation per day increasing by 24% (95% CI: 10-39%) for each standard deviation (SD) increase in the urban sprawl score. For the entire sample aged 12 to 19, higher urban sprawl was associated with MVPA (odds ratio per SD increase = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01-1.20), but not with overweight/obesity (odds ratio per SD increase = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.94-1.18). Urban sprawl was associated with active transportation and MVPA in Canadian youth, although in the opposite direction to what has been reported in the literature for adults.

  4. Canadian campus smoking policies: investigating the gap between intent and outcome from a student perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Lynne; Callaghan, Doris; Smith, Michelle L

    2011-01-01

    Young adults remain the earliest legal target for the tobacco industry. Against this, the existence of smoking policies would appear to offer some protection to students on campus. However, little research has been conducted into the outcomes of such policies from a student perspective. The authors conducted 8 focus groups at 4 selected Canadian undergraduate campuses to investigate student perceptions and behaviors resulting from campus smoking policies. Results indicated that student smoking behaviors are minimally impacted by campus smoking policies due to seriously compromised implementation and enforcement. These findings imply that the presence of campus smoking policies and claims of "smoke-free" campuses should not be misinterpreted as achievement and without renewed focus and adequate tobacco control infrastructure, it will remain possible for young adults to initiate and maintain tobacco smoking on campus.

  5. Active transportation to school in Canadian youth: should injury be a concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropp, Kathleen; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William

    2013-02-01

    Active transportation to school provides a means for youth to incorporate physical activity into their daily routines, and this has obvious benefits for child health. Studies of active transportation have rarely focused on the negative health effects in terms of injury. This cross-sectional study is based on the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey. A sample of children aged 11-15 years (n=20 076) was studied. Multi-level logistic regression was used to examine associations between walking or bicycling to school and related injury. Regular active transportation to school at larger distances (approximately >1.6 km; 1.0 miles) was associated with higher relative odds of active transportation injury (OR: 1.52; 95% CI 1.08 to 2.15), with a suggestion of a dose-response relationship between longer travel distances and injury (p=0.02). Physical activity interventions for youth should encourage participation in active transportation to school, while also recognising the potential for unintentional injury.

  6. Active transportation and bullying in Canadian schoolchildren: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozma, Ioana; Kukaswadia, Atif; Janssen, Ian; Craig, Wendy; Pickett, William

    2015-02-07

    Bullying is a recognized social problem within child populations. Engagement in childhood bullying often occurs in settings that are away from adult supervision, such as en route to and from school. Bullying episodes may also have a negative impact on school childrens' decisions to engage in active transportation. Using a cross-sectional design, we analyzed reports from the 2009/10 cycle of the Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study. Records from this general health survey were obtained for 3,997 urban students in grades 6-10 who lived in close proximity of their school and were hence ineligible for school bussing. Students who indicated walking or bicycling to school were classified as engaged in active transportation. Victims and perpetrators of bullying were defined using standard measures and a frequency cut-off of at least 2-3 times per month. Analyses focused on relations between bullying and active transportation, as well as barriers to active transportation as perceived by young people. 27% of young people indicated being victimized, and 12% indicated that they engaged in bullying. Girls were more likely to be victimized than boys, and younger students were more likely to be victimized than older students. Engagement in active transportation was reported by 63% of respondents, of these, 68% indicated that worrying about bullying on the way to school was an impediment to such transportation methods. Victimization by bullying (adjusted OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.59) was reported more frequently by children who used active transportation. Health promotion efforts to promote engagement in active transportation of students to school have obvious value. The potential for modest increases in exposure to bullying should be considered in the planning of such initiatives.

  7. Physicians and euthanasia: a Canadian print-media discourse analysis of physician perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David Kenneth; Fishman, Jennifer R; Karsoho, Hadi; Sandham, Sarah; Macdonald, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Recent events in Canada have mobilized public debate concerning the controversial issue of euthanasia. Physicians represent an essential stakeholder group with respect to the ethics and practice of euthanasia. Further, their opinions can hold sway with the public, and their public views about this issue may further reflect back upon the medical profession itself. We conducted a discourse analysis of print media on physicians' perspectives about end-of-life care. Print media, in English and French, that appeared in Canadian newspapers from 2008 to 2012 were retrieved through a systematic database search. We analyzed the content of 285 articles either authored by a physician or directly referencing a physician's perspective. We identified 3 predominant discourses about physicians' public views toward euthanasia: 1) contentions about integrating euthanasia within the basic mission of medicine, 2) assertions about whether euthanasia can be distinguished from other end-of-life medical practices and 3) palliative care advocacy. Our data showed that although some medical professional bodies appear to be supportive in the media of a movement toward the legalization of euthanasia, individual physicians are represented as mostly opposed. Professional physician organizations and the few physicians who have engaged with the media are de facto representing physicians in public contemporary debates on medical aid in dying, in general, and euthanasia, in particular. It is vital for physicians to be aware of this public debate, how they are being portrayed within it and its potential effects on impending changes to provincial and national policies.

  8. TOPICAL PROBLEMS AND DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVES OF INTERNATIONAL FREIGHT TRANSPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Sulce, Anastasija

    2014-01-01

    The title of thesis is Typical Problems and Development Perspectives of International Freight Transport. This work is dedicated to different modes of international transportation, freight and logistics their advantages and disadvantages. Another essential part of the work related to different way for transport development and its efficient usage The objective is to explore modes of freight transport and logistics in details and, thereof, reveal advantages and disadvantages. On the basis ...

  9. Medical cannabis ‒ the Canadian perspective 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko GD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gordon D Ko,1,2 Sara L Bober,1 Sean Mindra,3 Jason M Moreau1 1Apollo Applied Research Inc., 2Department of Medicine, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, 3University of Ottawa Medical School, Ottawa, ON, Canada Abstract: Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol – the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. Despite this, barriers exist to use from both the patient perspective (cost, addiction, social stigma, lack of understanding regarding safe administration and the physician perspective (credibility, criminality, clinical evidence, patient addiction, and policy from the governing medical colleges. This review addresses these barriers and draws attention to key concerns in the Canadian medical system, providing updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic medication use, and enhanced quality of life. This review also includes case studies demonstrating the use of medical marijuana by patients with neuropathic low-back pain, neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. While significant preclinical data have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis for treating pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, further studies are needed with randomized controlled trials and larger study populations to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts. Keywords: randomized controlled trials

  10. Physicians and euthanasia: a Canadian print-media discourse analysis of physician perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David Kenneth; Karsoho, Hadi; Sandham, Sarah; Macdonald, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent events in Canada have mobilized public debate concerning the controversial issue of euthanasia. Physicians represent an essential stakeholder group with respect to the ethics and practice of euthanasia. Further, their opinions can hold sway with the public, and their public views about this issue may further reflect back upon the medical profession itself. Methods We conducted a discourse analysis of print media on physicians’ perspectives about end-of-life care. Print media, in English and French, that appeared in Canadian newspapers from 2008 to 2012 were retrieved through a systematic database search. We analyzed the content of 285 articles either authored by a physician or directly referencing a physician’s perspective. Results We identified 3 predominant discourses about physicians’ public views toward euthanasia: 1) contentions about integrating euthanasia within the basic mission of medicine, 2) assertions about whether euthanasia can be distinguished from other end-of-life medical practices and 3) palliative care advocacy. Interpretation Our data showed that although some medical professional bodies appear to be supportive in the media of a movement toward the legalization of euthanasia, individual physicians are represented as mostly opposed. Professional physician organizations and the few physicians who have engaged with the media are de facto representing physicians in public contemporary debates on medical aid in dying, in general, and euthanasia, in particular. It is vital for physicians to be aware of this public debate, how they are being portrayed within it and its potential effects on impending changes to provincial and national policies. PMID:26389090

  11. Unpacking vertical and horizontal integration: childhood overweight/obesity programs and planning, a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Lynne M; Clinton, Kathryn; Edwards, Nancy; Garrard, Michael; Ashley, Lisa; Hansen-Ketchum, Patti; Walsh, Audrey

    2010-05-17

    Increasingly, multiple intervention programming is being understood and implemented as a key approach to developing public health initiatives and strategies. Using socio-ecological and population health perspectives, multiple intervention programming approaches are aimed at providing coordinated and strategic comprehensive programs operating over system levels and across sectors, allowing practitioners and decision makers to take advantage of synergistic effects. These approaches also require vertical and horizontal (v/h) integration of policy and practice in order to be maximally effective. This paper examines v/h integration of interventions for childhood overweight/obesity prevention and reduction from a Canadian perspective. It describes the implications of v/h integration for childhood overweight and obesity prevention, with examples of interventions where v/h integration has been implemented. An application of a conceptual framework for structuring v/h integration of an overweight/obesity prevention initiative is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of vertical/horizontal integration for policy, research, and practice related to childhood overweight and obesity prevention multiple intervention programs. Both v/h integration across sectors and over system levels are needed to fully support multiple intervention programs of the complexity and scope required by obesity issues. V/h integration requires attention to system structures and processes. A conceptual framework is needed to support policy alignment, multi-level evaluation, and ongoing coordination of people at the front lines of practice. Using such tools to achieve integration may enhance sustainability, increase effectiveness of prevention and reduction efforts, decrease stigmatization, and lead to new ways to relate the environment to people and people to the environment for better health for children.

  12. Perspectives on Canadian core fellowship training in pediatric anesthesia: a survey of graduate fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, James D; Crawford, Mark W

    2015-10-01

    Educators in anesthesia have an obligation to ensure that fellowship programs are training anesthesiologists to meet the highest standards of performance in clinical and academic practice. The objective of this survey was to characterize the perspectives of graduates of Canadian core fellowship programs in pediatric anesthesia (during a ten-year period starting in 2003) on the adequacies and inadequacies of fellowship training. We conducted an electronic survey of graduates from eight departments of pediatric anesthesia in Canada who completed one-year core fellowship training in pediatric anesthesia from 2003 to 2013. A novel survey design was implemented, and the content and structure of the design were tested before distribution. Data were collected on respondents' demographics, details of training and practice settings, perceived self-efficacy in subspecialty practices, research experience, and perspectives on one-year core fellowship training in pediatric anesthesia. Descriptive statistics and 95% confidence intervals were determined. The survey was sent to 132 anesthesiologists who completed core fellowship training in pediatric anesthesia in Canada. Sixty-five (49%) completed and eligible surveys were received. Most of the anesthesiologists surveyed perceived that 12 months of core fellowship training are sufficient to acquire the knowledge and critical skills needed to practice pediatric anesthesia. Subspecialty areas most frequently perceived to require improved training included pediatric cardiac anesthesia, chronic pain medicine, and regional anesthesia. This survey reports perceived deficiencies in domains of pediatric anesthesia fellowship training. These findings should help guide the future development of core and advanced fellowship training programs in pediatric anesthesia.

  13. Unpacking vertical and horizontal integration: childhood overweight/obesity programs and planning, a Canadian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Lisa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasingly, multiple intervention programming is being understood and implemented as a key approach to developing public health initiatives and strategies. Using socio-ecological and population health perspectives, multiple intervention programming approaches are aimed at providing coordinated and strategic comprehensive programs operating over system levels and across sectors, allowing practitioners and decision makers to take advantage of synergistic effects. These approaches also require vertical and horizontal (v/h integration of policy and practice in order to be maximally effective. Discussion This paper examines v/h integration of interventions for childhood overweight/obesity prevention and reduction from a Canadian perspective. It describes the implications of v/h integration for childhood overweight and obesity prevention, with examples of interventions where v/h integration has been implemented. An application of a conceptual framework for structuring v/h integration of an overweight/obesity prevention initiative is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of vertical/horizontal integration for policy, research, and practice related to childhood overweight and obesity prevention multiple intervention programs. Summary Both v/h integration across sectors and over system levels are needed to fully support multiple intervention programs of the complexity and scope required by obesity issues. V/h integration requires attention to system structures and processes. A conceptual framework is needed to support policy alignment, multi-level evaluation, and ongoing coordination of people at the front lines of practice. Using such tools to achieve integration may enhance sustainability, increase effectiveness of prevention and reduction efforts, decrease stigmatization, and lead to new ways to relate the environment to people and people to the environment for better health for children.

  14. "It is about being outside": Canadian youth's perspectives of good health and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, Roberta L; Skarlato, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on qualitative data generated from an ethnographic study exploring Canadian youth's understanding of health, this paper examines youth's perspectives of the relationships between health and environment. Seventy-one youth (12 to 19 years of age) took part in individual and focus group interviews, as well as in photovoice interviews. Although initial discourse about health mainly focused on healthy eating and exercise, youth were more enthused and able to share their thoughts and feelings about the relationships between health and environment during the photovoice interviews. For these youth, good health was defined and visualized as "being outside" in a safe, clean, green, and livable space. Youth talked about conditions contributing to healthy environments and how healthy environments contributed to a strong sense of place. Overall, the conversations about the environment evoked many feelings in the youth. Results are discussed in the context of current research and in relation to youth, but also more broadly in relation to research on health and environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. UK and Canadian perspectives of the effectiveness of mobile diabetes management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Emily; Istepanian, Robert S H; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Logan, Alexander; Sungoor, Ala

    2009-01-01

    The use of mobile technologies for self-monitoring of blood glucose and blood pressure for diabetes patients is becoming increasingly popular worldwide. This is propelled by the proliferation of the wider usage of mobile phones and other wireless technologies and computing platforms in the healthcare sector. Such technologies can play a pivotal role in chronic disease management and patient self-care. There have been several clinical trials in recent years on mobile diabetes management in UK and Canada. However, no studies to date have addressed and correlated the technological and clinical outcomes concerning the use of mobile chronic disease management systems for diabetes from the UK and Canadian perspectives. In this paper we address some of these correlative issues based on similar clinical trials on mobile type-2 diabetes management systems deployed in these two countries. In particular, the outcomes of these trials supported the use of telemonitoring for effective blood pressure control, but telemonitoring was less effective at managing blood glucose control. Some of the clinical results and challenges are presented together with future work and suggestions that aim to validate a generic platform for mobile diabetes management.

  16. Intelligent transportation systems problems and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Pamuła, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a discussion of problems encountered in the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). It puts emphasis on the early tasks of designing and proofing the concept of integration of technologies in Intelligent Transport Systems. In its first part the book concentrates on the design problems of urban ITS. The second part of the book features case studies representative for the different modes of transport. These are freight transport, rail transport and aerospace transport encompassing also space stations. The book provides ideas for deployment which may be developed by scientists and engineers engaged in the design of Intelligent Transport Systems. It can also be used in the training of specialists, students and post-graduate students in universities and transport high schools.    .

  17. User Perspectives on Intelligent Transportation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sochor, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), or the advanced use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the transportation context, offers new tools in the continual effort to develop an accessible, safe, and sustainable transportation system. In this thesis, focus is placed on ITS targeting individual use or the end users’ transportation experiences, e.g. video surveillance, cashless payments, pedestrian navigation, real-time information, emergency communications, and parking serv...

  18. Equity Issues in the Academy: An Afro-Canadian Woman's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elabor-Idemudia, Patience

    2001-01-01

    Contends that the Canadian academy perpetuates dominant staffing of teaching and administrative positions with white males, marginalization of minorities, resistance to reflecting non-white values and experiences in education, and diminished expectations for minority students. The Canadian academy can become a site of empowerment and equity for…

  19. Demographic and traditional knowledge perspectives on the current status of Canadian polar bear subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Jordan; Dowsley, Martha; Cornwell, Adam; Kuc, Miroslaw; Taylor, Mitchell

    2016-05-01

    Subpopulation growth rates and the probability of decline at current harvest levels were determined for 13 subpopulations of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) that are within or shared with Canada based on mark-recapture estimates of population numbers and vital rates, and harvest statistics using population viability analyses (PVA). Aboriginal traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) on subpopulation trend agreed with the seven stable/increasing results and one of the declining results, but disagreed with PVA status of five other declining subpopulations. The decline in the Baffin Bay subpopulation appeared to be due to over-reporting of harvested numbers from outside Canada. The remaining four disputed subpopulations (Southern Beaufort Sea, Northern Beaufort Sea, Southern Hudson Bay, and Western Hudson Bay) were all incompletely mark-recapture (M-R) sampled, which may have biased their survival and subpopulation estimates. Three of the four incompletely sampled subpopulations were PVA identified as nonviable (i.e., declining even with zero harvest mortality). TEK disagreement was nonrandom with respect to M-R sampling protocols. Cluster analysis also grouped subpopulations with ambiguous demographic and harvest rate estimates separately from those with apparently reliable demographic estimates based on PVA probability of decline and unharvested subpopulation growth rate criteria. We suggest that the correspondence between TEK and scientific results can be used to improve the reliability of information on natural systems and thus improve resource management. Considering both TEK and scientific information, we suggest that the current status of Canadian polar bear subpopulations in 2013 was 12 stable/increasing and one declining (Kane Basin). We do not find support for the perspective that polar bears within or shared with Canada are currently in any sort of climate crisis. We suggest that monitoring the impacts of climate change (including sea ice decline) on polar bear

  20. GIS and Transport Modeling—Strengthening the Spatial Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Loidl

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The movement and transport of people and goods is spatial by its very nature. Thus, geospatial fundamentals of transport systems need to be adequately considered in transport models. Until recently, this was not always the case. Instead, transport research and geography evolved widely independently in domain silos. However, driven by recent conceptual, methodological and technical developments, the need for an integrated approach is obvious. This paper attempts to outline the potential of Geographical Information Systems (GIS for transport modeling. We identify three fields of transport modeling where the spatial perspective can significantly contribute to a more efficient modeling process and more reliable model results, namely, geospatial data, disaggregated transport models and the role of geo-visualization. For these three fields, available findings from various domains are compiled, before open aspects are formulated as research directions, with exemplary research questions. The overall aim of this paper is to strengthen the spatial perspective in transport modeling and to call for a further integration of GIS in the domain of transport modeling.

  1. DOE perspective on fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, R.

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are one of the most promising technologies for meeting the rapidly growing demand for transportation services while minimizing adverse energy and environmental impacts. This paper reviews the benefits of introducing fuel cells into the transportation sector; in addition to dramatically reduced vehicle emissions, fuel cells offer the flexibility than use petroleum-based or alternative fuels, have significantly greater energy efficiency than internal combustion engines, and greatly reduce noise levels during operation. The rationale leading to the emphasis on proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells for transportation applications is reviewed as are the development issues requiring resolution to achieve adequate performance, packaging, and cost for use in automobiles. Technical targets for power density, specific power, platinum loading on the electrodes, cost, and other factors that become increasingly more demanding over time have been established. Fuel choice issues and pathways to reduced costs and to a renewable energy future are explored. One such path initially introduces fuel cell vehicles using reformed gasoline while-on-board hydrogen storage technology is developed to the point of allowing adequate range (350 miles) and refueling convenience. This scenario also allows time for renewable hydrogen production technologies and the required supply infrastructure to develop. Finally, the DOE Fuel Cells in Transportation program is described. The program, whose goal is to establish the technology for fuel cell vehicles as rapidly as possible, is being implemented by means of the United States Fuel Cell Alliance, a Government-industry alliance that includes Detroit`s Big Three automakers, fuel cell and other component suppliers, the national laboratories, and universities.

  2. Transportation challenges for urban students with disabilities: parent perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Benjamin C; Keys, Christopher B; McMahon, Susan D; Brubacher, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study explored parent perspectives of the transportation difficulties students with disabilities experienced getting to and around school. Participants were parents of predominantly African American and Latino/a high school youth with disabilities from low income neighborhoods. Content analysis of 14 meetings with 5 to 12 parents sponsored by the school district revealed five primary themes concerning transportation: the role of aides, exclusion from school programming, scheduling problems, equipment problems, and physical safety issues. Findings are discussed in regard to students' social and emotional experiences at school. Implications for school policy include improving the integration of transportation within inclusion best practice models. Incorporating parent perspectives can help school administrators and staff enrich the quality of inclusive, socially just education for students with disabilities.

  3. User perspectives in public transport timetable optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Parbo; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    The present paper deals with timetable optimisation from the perspective of minimising the waiting time experienced by passengers when transferring either to or from a bus. Due to its inherent complexity, this bi-level minimisation problem is extremely difficult to solve mathematically, since...... timetable optimisation is a non-linear non-convex mixed integer problem, with passenger flows defined by the route choice model, whereas the route choice model is a non-linear non-continuous mapping of the timetable. Therefore, a heuristic solution approach is developed in this paper, based on the idea...... of varying and optimising the offset of the bus lines. Varying the offset for a bus line impacts the waiting time passengers experience at any transfer stop on the bus line. In the bi-level timetable optimisation problem, the lower level is a transit assignment calculation yielding passengers’ route choice...

  4. Perspective: Theory of quantum transport in molecular junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoss, Michael; Evers, Ferdinand

    2018-01-21

    Molecular junctions, where single molecules are bound to metal or semiconductor electrodes, represent a unique architecture to investigate molecules in a distinct nonequilibrium situation and, in a broader context, to study basic mechanisms of charge and energy transport in a many-body quantum system at the nanoscale. Experimental studies of molecular junctions have revealed a wealth of interesting transport phenomena, the understanding of which necessitates theoretical modeling. The accurate theoretical description of quantum transport in molecular junctions is challenging because it requires methods that are capable to describe the electronic structure and dynamics of molecules in a condensed phase environment out of equilibrium, in some cases with strong electron-electron and/or electronic-vibrational interaction. This perspective discusses recent progress in the theory and simulation of quantum transport in molecular junctions. Furthermore, challenges are identified, which appear crucial to achieve a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of transport in these systems.

  5. Perspective: Theory of quantum transport in molecular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoss, Michael; Evers, Ferdinand

    2018-01-01

    Molecular junctions, where single molecules are bound to metal or semiconductor electrodes, represent a unique architecture to investigate molecules in a distinct nonequilibrium situation and, in a broader context, to study basic mechanisms of charge and energy transport in a many-body quantum system at the nanoscale. Experimental studies of molecular junctions have revealed a wealth of interesting transport phenomena, the understanding of which necessitates theoretical modeling. The accurate theoretical description of quantum transport in molecular junctions is challenging because it requires methods that are capable to describe the electronic structure and dynamics of molecules in a condensed phase environment out of equilibrium, in some cases with strong electron-electron and/or electronic-vibrational interaction. This perspective discusses recent progress in the theory and simulation of quantum transport in molecular junctions. Furthermore, challenges are identified, which appear crucial to achieve a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of transport in these systems.

  6. Canadian user perspectives on Bt use for protection against spruce budworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. J. Irving

    1985-01-01

    Reference is made to a recent interprovincial review of the performance of present day B.t. viz a viz conventional chemicals. The argument is presented that in the Canadian context its practical acceptability to resource managers remains highly jurisdictionally-specific for reasons over and above conventional technical assessments. The New Brunswick situation is...

  7. Multiple Perspectives on the Accessibility of E-Learning in Canadian Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asuncion, Jennison V.; Fichten, Catherine S.; Ferraro, Vittoria; Chwojka, Caroline; Barile, Maria; Nguyen, Mai Nhu; Wolforth, Joan

    2010-01-01

    An exploratory study identified and compared the views of 77 campus disability service providers, 38 professors, and 45 e-learning professionals from Canadian colleges and universities regarding their experiences with e-learning and its accessibility to students with disabilities. Findings indicate that all groups saw benefit in having someone who…

  8. Environmental Factors Influencing Adoption of Canadian Guidelines on Smoking Cessation in Dental Healthcare Settings in Quebec: A Qualitative Study of Dentists’ Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Pascaline Kengne Talla; Marie-Pierre Gagnon; Aimée Dawson

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to understand dentists’ perspective of the environmental determinants which positively or negatively influence the implementation of Canadian smoking cessation clinical practice guidelines (5As: Ask-Advise-Assess-Assist-Arrange) in private dental clinics in Quebec. Methods: This study used a qualitative design and an integrative conceptual framework composed of three theoretical perspectives. Data collection was conducted in individual semi-directed interviews wit...

  9. An industry perspective on Canadian patients' involvement in Medical Tourism: implications for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snyder Jeremy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The medical tourism industry, which assists patients with accessing non-emergency medical care abroad, has grown rapidly in recent years. A lack of reliable data about medical tourism makes it difficult to create policy, health system, and public health responses to address the associated risks and shortcomings, such as spread of infectious diseases, associated with this industry. This article addresses this knowledge gap by analyzing interviews conducted with Canadian medical tourism facilitators in order to understand Canadian patients' involvement in medical tourism and the implications of this involvement for public health. Methods Semi-structured phone interviews were conducted with 12 medical facilitators from 10 companies in 2010. An exhaustive recruitment strategy was used to identify interviewees. Questions focused on business dimensions, information exchange, medical tourists' decision-making, and facilitators' roles in medical tourism. Thematic analysis was undertaken following data collection. Results Facilitators helped their Canadian clients travel to 11 different countries. Estimates of the number of clients sent abroad annually varied due to demand factors. Facilitators commonly worked with medical tourists aged between 40 and 60 from a variety of socio-economic backgrounds who faced a number of potential barriers including affordability, fear of the unfamiliar, and lack of confidence. Medical tourists who chose not to use facilitators' services were thought to be interested in saving money or have cultural/familial connections to the destination country. Canadian doctors were commonly identified as barriers to securing clients. Conclusions No effective Canadian public health response to medical tourism can treat medical tourists as a unified group with similar motivations for engaging in medical tourism and choosing similar mechanisms for doing so. This situation may be echoed in other countries with patients

  10. An industry perspective on Canadian patients' involvement in Medical Tourism: implications for public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The medical tourism industry, which assists patients with accessing non-emergency medical care abroad, has grown rapidly in recent years. A lack of reliable data about medical tourism makes it difficult to create policy, health system, and public health responses to address the associated risks and shortcomings, such as spread of infectious diseases, associated with this industry. This article addresses this knowledge gap by analyzing interviews conducted with Canadian medical tourism facilitators in order to understand Canadian patients' involvement in medical tourism and the implications of this involvement for public health. Methods Semi-structured phone interviews were conducted with 12 medical facilitators from 10 companies in 2010. An exhaustive recruitment strategy was used to identify interviewees. Questions focused on business dimensions, information exchange, medical tourists' decision-making, and facilitators' roles in medical tourism. Thematic analysis was undertaken following data collection. Results Facilitators helped their Canadian clients travel to 11 different countries. Estimates of the number of clients sent abroad annually varied due to demand factors. Facilitators commonly worked with medical tourists aged between 40 and 60 from a variety of socio-economic backgrounds who faced a number of potential barriers including affordability, fear of the unfamiliar, and lack of confidence. Medical tourists who chose not to use facilitators' services were thought to be interested in saving money or have cultural/familial connections to the destination country. Canadian doctors were commonly identified as barriers to securing clients. Conclusions No effective Canadian public health response to medical tourism can treat medical tourists as a unified group with similar motivations for engaging in medical tourism and choosing similar mechanisms for doing so. This situation may be echoed in other countries with patients seeking care abroad

  11. An industry perspective on Canadian patients' involvement in medical tourism: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rory; Crooks, Valorie A; Adams, Krystyna; Snyder, Jeremy; Kingsbury, Paul

    2011-05-31

    The medical tourism industry, which assists patients with accessing non-emergency medical care abroad, has grown rapidly in recent years. A lack of reliable data about medical tourism makes it difficult to create policy, health system, and public health responses to address the associated risks and shortcomings, such as spread of infectious diseases, associated with this industry. This article addresses this knowledge gap by analyzing interviews conducted with Canadian medical tourism facilitators in order to understand Canadian patients' involvement in medical tourism and the implications of this involvement for public health. Semi-structured phone interviews were conducted with 12 medical facilitators from 10 companies in 2010. An exhaustive recruitment strategy was used to identify interviewees. Questions focused on business dimensions, information exchange, medical tourists' decision-making, and facilitators' roles in medical tourism. Thematic analysis was undertaken following data collection. Facilitators helped their Canadian clients travel to 11 different countries. Estimates of the number of clients sent abroad annually varied due to demand factors. Facilitators commonly worked with medical tourists aged between 40 and 60 from a variety of socio-economic backgrounds who faced a number of potential barriers including affordability, fear of the unfamiliar, and lack of confidence. Medical tourists who chose not to use facilitators' services were thought to be interested in saving money or have cultural/familial connections to the destination country. Canadian doctors were commonly identified as barriers to securing clients. No effective Canadian public health response to medical tourism can treat medical tourists as a unified group with similar motivations for engaging in medical tourism and choosing similar mechanisms for doing so. This situation may be echoed in other countries with patients seeking care abroad. Therefore, a call for a comprehensive public

  12. A Multilayer perspective for the analysis of urban transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleta, Alberto; Meloni, Sandro; Moreno, Yamir

    2017-03-01

    Public urban mobility systems are composed by several transportation modes connected together. Most studies in urban mobility and planning often ignore the multi-layer nature of transportation systems considering only aggregated versions of this complex scenario. In this work we present a model for the representation of the transportation system of an entire city as a multiplex network. Using two different perspectives, one in which each line is a layer and one in which lines of the same transportation mode are grouped together, we study the interconnected structure of 9 different cities in Europe raging from small towns to mega-cities like London and Berlin highlighting their vulnerabilities and possible improvements. Finally, for the city of Zaragoza in Spain, we also consider data about service schedule and waiting times, which allow us to create a simple yet realistic model for urban mobility able to reproduce real-world facts and to test for network improvements.

  13. Cost of outpatient endoscopic sinus surgery from the perspective of the Canadian government: a time-driven activity-based costing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Jennifer; Rudmik, Luke

    2013-09-01

    The time-driven activity-based costing (TD-ABC) method is a novel approach to quantify the costs of a complex system. The aim of this study was to apply the TD-ABC technique to define the overall cost of a routine outpatient endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) from the perspective of the Canadian government payer. Costing perspective was the Canadian government payer. All monetary values are in Canadian dollars as of December 2012. Costs were obtained by contacting staff unions, reviewing purchasing databases and provincial physician fee schedules. Practical capacity time values were collected from the College and Association of Registered Nurses of Alberta. Capacity cost rates ($/min) were calculated for all staff, capital equipment, and hospital space. The overall cost for routine outpatient ESS was $3510.31. The cost per ESS case for each clinical pathway encounter was as follows: preoperative holding ($49.19); intraoperative ($3296.60); sterilization ($90.20); postanesthesia care unit ($28.64); and postoperative day ward ($45.68). The 3 major cost drivers were physician fees, disposable equipment, and nursing costs. The intraoperative phase contributed to 94.5% of the overall cost. This study applied the TD-ABC method to evaluate the cost of outpatient ESS from the perspective of the Canadian government payer and defined the overall cost to be $3510.31 per case. © 2013 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  14. Marine Transportation in Turkey and A Future Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet BALIK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Maritime transportation is one of the indicator and determining sectors of state economies. It’s shaped in parallel with the economic structure of the coastal countries in increasing or decreasing volumes. Especially with a significant advantage in international trade, sea transport is increasingly been competitive with other modes of transport. Considering the geographic location of Turkey, evaluating from criticial perspectives and developing meaningful proposals for effective solutions to such issues as strenghtening the alternative routes in seaborne trade and privitazing the ports that are to make further technological investments will enable to take effective and proactive measures concerning the future of this industry. In this study, the existing and likely expansions in the structure of shipping industry both in Turkey and in the world have been examined. In this examination, certain secondary data sets, such as the relevant literature and the recent statistical data, have been used.

  15. Living with coeliac disease and a gluten-free diet: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkadas, M; Dubois, S; MacIsaac, K; Cantin, I; Rashid, M; Roberts, K C; La Vieille, S; Godefroy, S; Pulido, O M

    2013-02-01

    Strict adherence to a gluten-free diet is the only treatment for coeliac disease. The gluten-free diet is complex, costly and impacts on all activities involving food, making it difficult to maintain for a lifetime. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the difficulties experienced, the strategies used and the emotional impact of following a gluten-free diet among Canadians with coeliac disease. A questionnaire was mailed to all members (n = 10 693) of both the Canadian Celiac Association and the Fondation québécoise de la maladie cœliaque in 2008. The overall response rate was 72%. Results are presented for the 5912 respondents (≥18 years) reporting biopsy-confirmed coeliac disease and/or dermatitis herpetiformis. Two-thirds never intentionally consumed gluten. Women reported significantly greater emotional responses to a gluten-free diet but, with time, were more accepting of it than men. Difficulties and negative emotions were experienced less frequently by those on the diet for >5 years, although food labelling and eating away from home remained very problematic. Frustration and isolation because of the diet were the most common negative emotions experienced. The present study quantifies the difficulties experienced, the strategies used and the emotional impact of following a gluten-free diet. It highlights the need to improve the training and education of dietitians, other health providers and the food service industry workers about coeliac disease and a gluten-free diet, with the aim of better helping individuals improve their adherence to a gluten-free diet and their quality of life. © 2012 Canadian Celiac Association and Food Directorate Health Canada Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  16. Leadership, a central ingredient for a successful quality agenda: a qualitative study of Canadian leaders' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Deborah E; Jackson, Karen; Norris, Jill M

    2013-01-01

    Quality and safety (QS) teams have emerged as one strategy to improve the quality of care and safety. This article aims to enhance understanding of, and identify implications for, leaders in implementing successful QS teams. Research findings from the authors' study that explored barriers and facilitators of Canadian QS teams highlight the need for delineated leadership and accountability, focused strategic plans, available data, dedicated resources and targeted messaging to engage staff and physicians. While top-down leadership strategies were predominantly reported, developing leaders at all organizational levels was acknowledged as key to sustaining a quality culture and advancing the quality agenda.

  17. Priority setting of ICU resources in an influenza pandemic: a qualitative study of the Canadian public's perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Diego S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pandemic influenza may exacerbate existing scarcity of life-saving medical resources. As a result, decision-makers may be faced with making tough choices about who will receive care and who will have to wait or go without. Although previous studies have explored ethical issues in priority setting from the perspective of clinicians and policymakers, there has been little investigation into how the public views priority setting during a pandemic influenza, in particular related to intensive care resources. Methods To bridge this gap, we conducted three public town hall meetings across Canada to explore Canadian's perspectives on this ethical challenge. Town hall discussions group discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Six interrelated themes emerged from the town hall discussions related to: ethical and empirical starting points for deliberation; criteria for setting priorities; pre-crisis planning; in-crisis decision-making; the need for public deliberation and input; and participants' deliberative struggle with the ethical issues. Conclusions Our findings underscore the importance of public consultation in pandemic planning for sustaining public trust in a public health emergency. Participants appreciated the empirical and ethical uncertainty of decision-making in an influenza pandemic and demonstrated nuanced ethical reasoning about priority setting of intensive care resources in an influenza pandemic. Policymakers may benefit from a better understanding the public's empirical and ethical 'starting points' in developing effective pandemic plans.

  18. Canadian perspectives on the nutrition care process and international dietetics and nutrition terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Marlis; Basualdo-Hammond, Carlota; Hotson, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline benefits of adoption of the Nutrition Care Process (NCP) and International Dietetics and Nutrition Terminology (IDNT) by Canadian dietitians, discuss implementation considerations for broad-based action and change, and determine future directions. The NCP and IDNT are recommended by the International Confederation of Dietetic Associations for international adoption as a framework for dietetic practice. The NCP uses a client-centred framework to clarify the role of registered dietitians (RDs), nutrition practice elements and skills, and the environments in which RDs practice. It also incorporates an evaluation framework, including identification of specific goals and monitoring of clinical and behavioural outcomes, to improve the quality and effectiveness of nutrition care. The process helps RDs to identify interventions that are more likely to improve nutrition outcomes by providing a systematic approach that encourages critical thinking and problem-solving. IDNT provides a standard set of core nutrition care terms and definitions for the four steps of the nutrition care process: assessment, nutrition diagnosis, intervention, and monitoring/evaluation. Use of IDNT promotes uniform documentation of nutrition care, enables differentiation of the type and amount of nutrition care provided, and provides a basis for linking nutrition care activities with actual or predicted outcomes. To continue to advance the dietetic profession in the Canadian health system, RDs must demonstrate their value by highlighting population, group, and individual health outcomes that are most influenced by the RD. The NCP and IDNT will help dietitians achieve these goals.

  19. The use of genetically-engineered animals in science: perspectives of Canadian Animal Care Committee members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormandy, Elisabeth H; Dale, Julie; Griffin, Gilly

    2013-05-01

    The genetic engineering of animals for their use in science challenges the implementation of refinement and reduction in several areas, including the invasiveness of the procedures involved, unanticipated welfare concerns, and the numbers of animals required. Additionally, the creation of genetically-engineered animals raises problems with the Canadian system of reporting animal numbers per Category of Invasiveness, as well as raising issues of whether ethical limits can, or should, be placed on genetic engineering. A workshop was held with the aim of bringing together Canadian animal care committee members to discuss these issues, to reflect on progress that has been made in addressing them, and to propose ways of overcoming any challenges. Although previous literature has made recommendations with regard to refinement and reduction when creating new genetically-engineered animals, the perception of the workshop participants was that some key opportunities are being missed. The participants identified the main roadblocks to the implementation of refinement and reduction alternatives as confidentiality, cost and competition. If the scientific community is to make progress concerning the implementation of refinement and reduction, particularly in the creation and use of genetically-engineered animals, addressing these roadblocks needs to be a priority. 2013 FRAME.

  20. Mentorship in anesthesia: a survey of perspectives among Canadian anesthesia residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, Suzan; Busse, Jason W; Wong, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Mentorship is important for professional and academic growth; however, the role of mentorship in anesthesia is still being defined. We surveyed Canadian anesthesia residents to explore their perceptions of mentorship relationships. We administered a 20-item cross-sectional survey to program directors and anesthesia residents in all Canadian departments of anesthesia. Program directors were asked about their mentorship programs, and residents were asked about their perceptions of benefits and barriers to effective mentoring. Sixteen of 17 (94%) program directors and 189 of 585 (32%) anesthesia residents responded to our survey. While 143 of 180 (79%) residents agreed that mentorship was beneficial to overall success as an anesthesiologist, only 11 of 16 (69%) program directors reported formal mentorship as part of their residency program, and only 119 of 189 (63%) residents reported access to a mentor. Barriers reported by residents included insufficient time with mentors, lack of formalized meeting times and objectives, mentor-mentee incompatibility (personal or professional), and lack of resident choice in mentor selection. Our study confirms that, despite positive perceptions among residents, mentorship remains underutilized in anesthesia programs. We identify barriers to effective mentorship, including the need to consider resident choice as a means to improve formal anesthesia mentorship programs.

  1. Advocacy for active transport: advocate and city council perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenby Marieah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective advocacy is an important part of efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Research about effective health advocacy is scarce, however, the health sector can learn from the experiences and knowledge of community advocates and those who are on the receiving end of this advocacy. The aim of this study is to explore advocacy for active transport from the perspectives of community advocates and representatives from City councils. Methods Cycling and walking advocates were identified from the local contact list of Cycling Advocates Network and Living Streets Aotearoa. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with cycle and walking advocates from throughout New Zealand. Advocates also nominated a suitable council officer at their local City council to be interviewed. Interviews were recorded and transcribed and categories of responses for each of the questions created. Results Several processes were used by advocates to engage with council staff, including formal council submissions, meetings, stakeholder forums and partnership in running community events promoting active transport. Several other agencies were identified as being influential for active transport, some as potential coalition partners and others as potential adversaries. Barriers to improving conditions for active transport included a lack of funding, a lack of will-power among either council staff or councillors, limited council staff capacity (time or training and a culture of providing infrastructure for motor vehicles instead of people. Several suggestions were made about how the health sector could contribute to advocacy efforts, including encouraging political commitment, engaging the media, communicating the potential health benefits of active transport to the general public and being role models in terms of personal travel mode choice and having workplaces that support participation in active transport

  2. Infrared thermography applied to transport infrastructures monitoring: outcomes and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, J.; Crinière, A.

    2017-05-01

    Long term monitoring of transport infrastructures by infrared thermography has been studied and tested on different structures. A first standalone infrared system architecture developed is presented and discussed. Results obtained with such system on different Civil Engineering structures are presented. Some data processing approaches and inverse thermal model for data analysis are introduced and discussed. Lessons learned from experiments carried out in outdoor with such system are listed and analyzed. Then, a new generation of infrared system architecture is proposed. Finally, conclusions and perspectives are addressed.

  3. Neurobehavioural outcomes of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: A Canadian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Carmen; Andrew, Gail; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Tough, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is one of the most common preventable causes of developmental disability and is currently one of the most pressing public health concerns in Canada. FASD refers to the range of physical, mental, behavioural and learning disabilities that an individual may acquire as a result of maternal alcohol consumption. Prenatal exposure to alcohol leads to numerous primary and secondary disabilities in affected children, which can result in poor long-term outcomes. The present paper reviews previous research on the neurobehavioural outcomes of children with FASD, particularly in terms of behavioural, mental health and adaptive outcomes. The role of risk and protective factors on these outcomes and the impact of FASD on the family are also examined. Finally, future directions and implications regarding outcomes research among children with FASD, particularly within a Canadian context, are discussed. PMID:19252695

  4. NAFTA and occupational health: a Canadian perspective. North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C

    1997-01-01

    In Canada, health and safety laws are built around three worker rights which are not guaranteed by law in the United States: the right to participate in joint management-worker health and safety committees; the right to know about workplace hazards which requires consultation with the joint committee about the education and training programs; and the right to refuse hazardous work. In the context of NAFTA, health, safety and environmental laws and their enforcement, as well as the workers' compensation system, are all under attack by business leaders who cite the need to deregulate and privatize Canadian institutions in order to harmonize with the United States. The counteroffensive by the trade unions and their allies in the social justice movement is described; the struggle continues.

  5. Genetics and Personal Insurance: the Perspectives of Canadian Cancer Genetic Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Michelle; Ngueng Feze, Ida; Joly, Yann

    2015-12-01

    Genetic discrimination in the context of genetic testing has been identified as a concern for symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals for more than three decades. Genetic counselors are often the health care professionals who discuss risks and benefits of genetic testing with patients, thereby making them most appropriate to address patient concerns about genetics and personal insurance (i.e., life, life as related to mortgage or group insurance, disability, critical illness and travel). A pilot study was conducted to ascertain the current practices of Canadian cancer genetic counselors in regard to their discussions with patients about genetic testing and access to personal insurance. Among the 36 counselors surveyed, 100 % reported discussing the issue of genetic testing and personal insurance with their patients. Several factors influenced the content, depth and length of these discussions including age, cancer status, family members, and patients' current and future insurance needs. Counselors reported discussing with patients the possible impact of genetic test results on access to personal insurance, possible access and use of patient genetic information by insurance companies, and whom patients should contact if they have additional questions. The most commonly reported inquiries from patients included questions about the possible impact of genetic testing on their ability to obtain insurance, and the insurability of family members. While 28 % of counselors reported having been contacted by an insurer requesting access to patient information, only one counselor was aware of or could recall the outcome of such a request. This pilot study revealed that issues concerning genetics and personal insurance are commonly discussed in Canadian cancer genetic counseling sessions. Counselors furthermore expressed a need for additional educational resources on the topic of genetics and personal insurance for themselves and their patients.

  6. Benchmarking quality for renal cancer surgery: Canadian Kidney Cancer information system (CKCis) perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Keith A; Saarela, Olli; Liu, Zhihui; Lavallée, Luke T; Breau, Rodney H; Wood, Lori; Jewett, Michael A S; Kapoor, Anil; Tanguay, Simon; Moore, Ronald B; Rendon, Ricardo; Pouliot, Frederic; Black, Peter C; Kawakami, Jun; Drachenberg, Darrel; Finelli, Antonio

    2017-08-01

    There is a lack of validated quality metrics to evaluate the care of patients receiving surgery for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). To address this, the Kidney Cancer Research Network of Canada defined a list of quality indicators (QI) to assess hospital-level performance. We have case-mix adjusted these QIs to benchmark RCC surgical care at Canadian academic centres. The Canadian Kidney Cancer information system (CKCis) was used to measure six QIs: laparoscopic approach proportion (LA), partial nephrectomy proportion (PN), partial nephrectomy in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKDPN), positive margin rate (PMR), partial nephrectomy complication rate (PNCx), and warm ischemia time (WIT). To benchmark performance, indirect standardization (observed-to-expected ratio) methodology was employed using multivariate regression models. Multivariate models for LA, PN, and CKDPN demonstrated good discrimination and were used for benchmarking. National averages of 74% (70-78%), 73% (70-75%), and 70% (67-74%) for the LA, PN, and CKDPN QIs, respectively, were determined and used to benchmark individual hospital performance. Overall, three (23%), two (15%), and two (15%) hospitals performed below expected for LA, PN, and CKDPN, respectively. Hospital identity was an independent predictor of LA, PN, and CKDPN (p<0.001). Significant variability between CKCis hospitals for three RCC surgical QIs exists. Using the CKCis infrastructure may provide a framework for institution-level audit feedback for quality improvement. Greater CKCis capture rates and further data supporting the construct validity of these QIs are required to extend the use of this dataset to real-world quality initiatives.

  7. Learning styles and teaching perspectives of Canadian pharmacy practice residents and faculty preceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, Peter S; Jelescu-Bodos, Anca

    2013-10-14

    To characterize and compare learning styles of pharmacy practice residents and their faculty preceptors, and identify teaching perspectives of faculty preceptors. Twenty-nine pharmacy residents and 306 pharmacy faculty members in British Columbia were invited to complete the Pharmacists' Inventory of Learning Styles (PILS). Faculty preceptors also were asked to complete the Teaching Perspectives Inventory (TPI). One hundred percent of residents and 61% of faculty members completed the PILS, and 31% of faculty members completed the TPI. The most common dominant learning style among residents and faculty preceptors was assimilator, and 93% were assimilators, convergers, or both. The distribution of dominant learning styles between residents and faculty members was not different (p=0.77). The most common dominant teaching perspective among faculty members was apprenticeship. Residents and preceptors mostly exhibited learning styles associated with abstract over concrete thinking or watching over doing. Residency programs should steer residents more toward active learning and doing, and maximize interactions with patients and other caregivers.

  8. Canadian Campus Smoking Policies: Investigating the Gap between Intent and Outcome from a Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Lynne; Callaghan, Doris; Smith, Michelle L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Young adults remain the earliest legal target for the tobacco industry. Against this, the existence of smoking policies would appear to offer some protection to students on campus. However, little research has been conducted into the outcomes of such policies from a student perspective. Methods: The authors conducted 8 focus groups at…

  9. Australian and Canadian perspectives and regulations for protecting the polar marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, Donald R.

    1997-12-31

    The report compares Australian and Canadian responses for protecting polar marine environments. Vast areas of the polar seas fall within their potential combined EEZ/continental shelf jurisdiction. The Antarctic Treaty provisions, doubts on the status of the Northwest Passage waters and the capacity to enforce legislative initiatives against foreign vessels have been constraints. Australia`s enactment of legislation prohibiting mining within the AAT continental shelf and whaling within the AAT EEZ has tested the Antarctic Treaty. Canada`s reaction to the Manhattan and the enactment of the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act is an example of unilateral action. While the countries have made noteworthy initiatives to enhance the protection of their polar marine environments, doubts remain in some instances on their capacity to give effect to the initiatives. However, sovereignty remains at the heart of their response. Failure to address Antarctic marine environmental issues will rebound on the environment and reflect poorly upon Australia`s sovereignty claim to the AAT. For Canada it is a sovereignty issue and has directly impact upon its citizens inhabiting the islands and coastal areas of the Canadian Arctic. The Madrid Protocol provides the strongest legal basis for the Antarctic Treaty parties to enact laws and regulations in Antarctica. Conservation measures adopted under the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources focuses increasingly on environmental concerns. The most significant regional initiative adopted by Arctic states is the AEPS which does not have a legal foundation. It`s co-operative programs provide basis for co-operation in dealing with environmental problems. It clearly recognises that only co-operative responses will achieve significant outcomes. The 1990s have posed new challenges for marine environmental protection such as ship-based tourism in Antarctica and the growing pressure to use the Northwest Passage on a

  10. Perspectives of Canadian Final-Year Physiotherapy Students on Cardiorespiratory Physiotherapy as a Career Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaudis-Ferreira, Tania; Araujo, Tamara; Romano, Julia Marie; Camp, Pat G; Hall, Mark; Mathur, Sunita; Brooks, Dina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the opinions of final-year Canadian physiotherapy students of cardiorespiratory physiotherapy (CRP) and the factors influencing their decision about whether to pursue a career in CRP. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was completed by final-year Master of Science of Physical Therapy students from three of the largest English-speaking physiotherapy schools in Canada. Results: A total of 120 students responded to the survey (overall response rate was 44%). Fifteen students (12.5%) responded that they were extremely or quite interested in specializing in CRP. The most common factors that positively influenced students' decision to consider specializing in CRP were job accessibility, potential salary, and experiences in the area, and the most common factors that negatively influenced their decision were the clinical aspects of the area, their experiences in the area, job accessibility, and the influence of others. The most common factors that positively influenced students' opinion of CRP were their clinical supervisor, educator, or lecturer; their own clinical experience; and evidence in the literature, and the most common factors that negatively influenced their opinion were their own clinical experience and their peers. Conclusion: Strategies focusing on increasing awareness of the role of physiotherapists in the care of patients with cardiorespiratory conditions, exposing students to the positive impact that physiotherapists have in this practice area, and good mentorship experiences may promote the attractiveness of this specialty.

  11. Defining a risk-informed framework for whole-of-government lessons learned: A Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Shaye K; Kelsey, Shelley; Legere, J A Jim

    Lessons learned play an important role in emergency management (EM) and organizational agility. Virtually all aspects of EM can derive benefit from a lessons learned program. From major security events to exercises, exploiting and applying lessons learned and "best practices" is critical to organizational resilience and adaptiveness. A robust lessons learned process and methodology provides an evidence base with which to inform decisions, guide plans, strengthen mitigation strategies, and assist in developing tools for operations. The Canadian Safety and Security Program recently supported a project to define a comprehensive framework that would allow public safety and security partners to regularly share event response best practices, and prioritize recommendations originating from after action reviews. This framework consists of several inter-locking elements: a comprehensive literature review/environmental scan of international programs; a survey to collect data from end users and management; the development of a taxonomy for organizing and structuring information; a risk-informed methodology for selecting, prioritizing, and following through on recommendations; and standardized templates and tools for tracking recommendations and ensuring implementation. This article discusses the efforts of the project team, which provided "best practice" advice and analytical support to ensure that a systematic approach to lessons learned was taken by the federal community to improve prevention, preparedness, and response activities. It posits an approach by which one might design a systematic process for information sharing and event response coordination-an approach that will assist federal departments to institutionalize a cross-government lessons learned program.

  12. Studying illicit drug trafficking on Darknet markets: Structure and organisation from a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broséus, J; Rhumorbarbe, D; Mireault, C; Ouellette, V; Crispino, F; Décary-Hétu, D

    2016-07-01

    Cryptomarkets are online marketplaces that are part of the Dark Web and mainly devoted to the sale of illicit drugs. They combine tools to ensure anonymity of participants with the delivery of products by mail to enable the development of illicit drug trafficking. Using data collected on eight cryptomarkets, this study provides an overview of the Canadian illicit drug market. It seeks to inform about the most prevalent illicit drugs vendors offer for sale and preferred destination countries. Moreover, the research gives an insight into the structure and organisation of distribution networks existing online. In particular, we provide information about how vendors are diversifying and replicating across marketplaces. We inform on the number of listings each vendor manages, the number of cryptomarkets they are active on and the products they offer. This research demonstrates the importance of online marketplaces in the context of illicit drug trafficking. It shows how the analysis of data available online may elicit knowledge on criminal activities. Such knowledge is mandatory to design efficient policy for monitoring or repressive purposes against anonymous marketplaces. Nevertheless, trafficking on Dark Net markets is difficult to analyse based only on digital data. A more holistic approach for investigating this crime problem should be developed. This should rely on a combined use and interpretation of digital and physical data within a single collaborative intelligence model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Practice patterns and perceptions of survivorship care in Canadian genitourinary oncology: A multidisciplinary perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almatar, Ashraf; Richter, Suzanne; Lalani, Nafisha; Bender, Jackie L.; Wiljer, David; Alkazaz, Nour; Legere, Laura; Maganti, Manjula; Sridhar, Srikala S.; Catton, Pamela P.; Jewett, Michael A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: There is little knowledge of survivorship care specific to genitourinary (GU) cancers. To improve care delivery to this patient population, we need to clearly define physician perceptions of survivorship care. We therefore conducted a study to determine the challenges to GU cancer survivorship care in Canada. Methods: A web-based questionnaire was e-mailed to physicians treating GU cancers in Canada, including urologists, radiation oncologists, and medical oncologists. Five domains were assessed: demography, current post-cancer treatment care, perspectives on barriers to survivorship care, accessibility to survivorship resources, and perspectives about advocacy groups. Results: There were 306 responses, with 260 eligible for study. A total of 82% of physicians involve primary care practitioners (PCPs) at some point in survivorship care. Most physicians provide some form of written follow-up plan to PCPs. However, only 25% provided lifestyle recommendations and 53% included persistent and late effects of therapy. Lack of time or resources dedicated to survivorship care was the most commonly reported barrier. There was variation in accessibility to survivorship support programs among different subspecialties and regions. Advocacy groups generally were underutilized, particularly in testis cancer. Low response rate and the potential response bias are the main limitations of this survey. Conclusion: To our knowledge this is the first study to address the challenges of GU cancer survivorship care in Canada. The barriers and accessibility of survivorship care quoted in this survey may be used to improve care for this group of patients. Underutilization of advocacy groups may stimulate the advocacy groups and institutions to address its causes and solutions. PMID:25553154

  14. The Canadian approach to science-based regulation of the long distance transport of animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Doonan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Government regulators face numerous challenges when considering economic necessities (real and perceived, societal expectations on how animals should be treated, scientific research into the needs of various animal species and daily transport practices in the 'real world'. Do we regulate to promote economic competitiveness, to appease animal welfare interest groups and satisfy industry lobbying organisations, or to meet the needs of the animals? In Canada, a recipe to blend regulatory intervention with voluntary, industry-derived standards is the approach of choice.

  15. Socioeconomic influences on Vietnamese-Canadian women's breast and cervical cancer prevention practices: a social determinant's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; McKellin, William; Hislop, Gregory; Long, Bonita

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer and cervical cancer are major contributors to morbidity and mortality for the Vietnamese Canadian women. Vietnamese women face multiple barriers to obtaining effective preventive care and treatment for these diseases. This paper reports the influence of socioeconomic factors on Vietnamese Canadian women's breast and cervical cancer screening behaviors. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with Vietnamese Canadian women and health care providers. The study revealed that low socioeconomic status is a major barrier to women's participation in breast and cervical cancer screening, despite the fact that health care in Canada is funded publicly by the Medicare system. The Vietnamese Canadian women and health care providers in the present study identified a number of major dimensions through which socioeconomic issues were associated with Vietnamese Canadian women's access to and use of health care for the prevention of breast and cervical cancer, including (a) financial concerns; (b) language, occupational opportunities, and downward mobility; (c) economics and women's households; and (d) low socioeconomic status and screening behaviors. Implications are discussed for increasing Vietnamese Canadian women's utilization of breast and cervical cancer screening services.

  16. Natural Radioactivity Accumulated in the Arctic from Long-range Atmospheric Transport - Observations in Canadian Monitoring Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Weihua [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa K1A 1C1 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    In the environment, the main sources of naturally occurring radionuclides come from radionuclides in the uranium decay series. Activity concentrations of uranium decay series radionuclides may vary considerably from place to place depending on the geological characteristics at the location. Their releases to the atmosphere are mainly through radon ({sup 222}Rn), a radioactive noble gas occurring naturally as an indirect decay product of uranium in soils and rocks. Due to the abundance of uranium, radon continuously emanates from continental land masses. With radon as the main source of naturally occurring radioactivity in the environment, one would think that the Arctic should be an area of low background radiation, because a considerable area of the Arctic is covered by glaciers and permafrost, and radon emanation rate has been reported to be negligible from those glacier and permafrost areas. However, available data have shown the opposite. The elevated level of naturally occurring radioactivity in the Arctic is due to natural sources outside of the Arctic, mainly through long-range atmospheric transport of radon and radon progeny. In some cases, natural radioactivity can accumulate to relatively high levels and become a health concern or a limiting factor of country food consumption. By definition, contaminants are undesirable substances which can cause harm to the environment, the biota, and humans. We can call these naturally accumulating radiological burdens to the Arctic 'natural contaminants' to distinguish them from the traditional meaning of contamination, the 'artificial contaminants' which are attributable to industrial or man-made sources. This paper reviews information available in the literature, analyses long-term atmospheric monitoring data in the Canadian high Arctic, sub-Arctic and mid-latitude sites, and provides discussion on research needed to address questions, such as how heavily the Arctic has been impacted by the

  17. Canadian identity: Implications for international social work by Canadians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2011-01-01

    This paper is in response to recent calls to conceptualize and articulate Canadian perspectives and experiences in international social work, given that the Canadian standpoint has been lacking in international social work literature. This paper contends that it is imperative, first of all......, to critically examine and unpack our ‘Canadian’ identity in order to practice international work that is socially just and anti-imperialist. Drawing on the work of post-colonial authors, critical race theorists, and those who study national myth-making, this essay revisits Canadian identity because...... it is this identity that Canadian social workers often carry into their international work....

  18. Environmental Factors Influencing Adoption of Canadian Guidelines on Smoking Cessation in Dental Healthcare Settings in Quebec: A Qualitative Study of Dentists’ Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascaline Kengne Talla

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to understand dentists’ perspective of the environmental determinants which positively or negatively influence the implementation of Canadian smoking cessation clinical practice guidelines (5As: Ask-Advise-Assess-Assist-Arrange in private dental clinics in Quebec. Methods: This study used a qualitative design and an integrative conceptual framework composed of three theoretical perspectives. Data collection was conducted in individual semi-directed interviews with 20 private dentists lasting between 35 and 45 min. The audio-recorded data were transcribed verbatim, followed by a directed content analysis. Results: Some of the barriers identified to counselling in smoking cessation were lack of time, patient attitude, lack of prescription of nicotine replacement therapies, lack of reimbursement, and the lack of training of the dental team. Enablers cited by participants were the style of dentist’s leadership, the availability of community, human and material resources, the perception of counselling as a professional duty, and the culture of dental medicine. In addition to these variables, dentists’ attitude and behaviour were affected by different organisations giving initial or continual training to dentists, governmental policies, and the compatibility of Canadian smoking cessation guidelines with the practice of dentistry. Conclusion: Our findings will inform the development of smoking cessation interventions in dental healthcare settings.

  19. Report for the CCME Task Force on cleaner vehicles and fuels - Cost of upgrading Canadian transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    Findings of a study by Kilborn Engineering Inc for a Task Force of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) and the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) were reviewed. The study concerned estimates of the costs of reducing emissions through fuel reformulation. A total of nine scenarios were examined with information from three of 17 Canadian refineries. Scenarios considered removal of methylcyclopentadienyl-manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) (an octane additive), vapour pressure reduction, benzene/aromatic reduction, toxics and sulphur reduction, and sulphur reduction in diesel fuels. Costs and methods for achieving certain standards varied among the participating refineries. Accuracy of the predictions was estimated to be within 35%. Fuel reformulation costs were determined on a capital recovery cost basis for Atlantic/Quebec region, for Ontario, for the prairie provinces and British Columbia and for Canada as a whole. 31 tabs., 6 refs. for the

  20. Using High School Football to Promote Life Skills and Student Engagement: Perspectives from Canadian Coaches and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camiré, Martin; Trundel, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In Canada, adolescent boys have been shown to have a higher high school dropout rate compared to girls. This situation is particularly evident in the country's second largest province by population, Quebec. The sport of Canadian football has recently gained in popularity in Quebec as many people believe that the sport can be used to promote both…

  1. Your Money or Your Life! A Critical Canadian Perspective on the World Bank's "Reform Agenda" for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Howard

    2011-01-01

    In 1998 the World Bank published a "Reform Agenda" for higher education in the new millennium designed to accelerate privatization and the restructuring of the academic workforce. Before analyzing the report, I consider how changes in Canadian universities reflect the growth of the "knowledge-based economy." I then provide a…

  2. A Person-Centered Perspective on Multidimensional Perfectionism in Canadian and Chinese University Students: A Multigroup Latent Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin M.; Saklofske, Donald H.; Yan, Gonggu; Sherry, Simon B.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the generalizability of the tripartite model of perfectionism across Canadian and Chinese university students. Using latent profile analysis and indicators of perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns, and neuroticism in both groups, the authors derived a 3-profile solution: adaptive perfectionists, maladaptive…

  3. Prosocial Development from Childhood to Adolescence: A Multi-Informant Perspective with Canadian and Italian Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantel-Vivier, Amelie; Kokko, Katja; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Pastorelli, Concetta; Gerbino, Maria Grazia; Paciello, Marinella; Cote, Sylvana; Pihl, Robert O.; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To longitudinally describe prosocial behaviour development from childhood to adolescence, using multiple informants within Canadian and Italian samples. Method: Participants in Study 1 were 1037 boys from low socioeconomic status (SES) areas in Montreal, Canada, for whom yearly teacher and mother reports were obtained between the ages…

  4. PUBLIC TRANSPORT INTERCHANGES FUNCTIONING FROM A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Naumov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The transport interchange functioning has been presented as a gray box cybernetic model. The identified input data characterizes the transport interchange as an infrastructure object and influence the processes both for public transport and passengers. An integrated indicator has been chosen as the efficiency criterion, combining economic, environmental and social costs.

  5. Promoting intermodal freight transport through the development of dry ports in Asia: An environmental perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Hanaoka

    2011-07-01

    This study reviews the status of intermodal freight transport in Asia from an environmental perspective. It examines intermodal transport opportunities presented by the development of inland dry ports in hinterland locations. This paper also reviews selected case studies of dry port development in Asia. Finally, we present the lessons to be learned for the promotion of intermodal freight transport from selected Asian countries as well as the policy options available.

  6. An Interpretive Study of Yosemite National Park Visitors' Perspectives Toward Alternative Transportation in Yosemite Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Dave D.

    2007-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) is increasingly focusing on alternative transportation systems in national parks to address environmental and social problems arising from a historical reliance on personal automobiles as the primary means of visitor access. Despite the potential advantages, alternative transportation may require a reorientation in the way that Americans have experienced national parks since the advent of auto-tourism in the early twentieth century. Little research exists, however, on visitor perspectives towards alternative transportation or the rationale underlying their perspectives. It remains unclear how transportation systems affect visitors’ experiences of the park landscape or the factors influencing their travel behavior in the parks. This report presents an interpretive study of visitor perspectives toward transportation management in the Yosemite Valley area of Yosemite National Park, California. Qualitative analysis of 160 semi-structured interviews identified individual psychological factors as well as situational influences that affect visitors’ behavior and perspectives. Individual psychological factors include perceived freedom, environmental values and beliefs, prior experience with Yosemite National Park and other national parks, prior experience with alternative transportation in national parks, and sensitivity to subjective perceptions of crowding. Situational factors included convenience, access, and flexibility of travel modes, as well as type of visit, type of group, and park use level. Interpretive communication designed to encourage voluntary visitor use of alternative transportation should focus on these psychological and situational factors. Although challenges remain, the results of this study suggest approaches for shaping the way Americans visit and experience their national parks to encourage environmental sustainability.

  7. A Perspective on Efflux Transport Proteins in the Liver

    OpenAIRE

    Kock, K.; Brouwer, K. L. R.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed knowledge regarding the influence of hepatic transport proteins on drug disposition has advanced at a rapid pace over the past decade. Efflux transport proteins located in the basolateral and apical (canalicular) membranes of hepatocytes play an important role in the hepatic elimination of many endogenous and exogenous compounds, including drugs and metabolites. This review focuses on the role of these efflux transporters in hepatic drug excretion. The impact of these proteins as und...

  8. A call to arms: the emergency physician, international perspectives on firearm injury prevention and the Canadian gun control debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, H; Drummond, A

    1999-01-01

    There are more than seven million firearms in Canada and approximately 1400 firearm-related deaths per year. These figures are far greater than those for most European countries, but far less than those for the United States. This article will discuss the different classes of firearm deaths and the associated costs. Public health issues will be explored, especially as they relate to the involvement of the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians, as well as injury control recommendations.

  9. Historical perspectives on long distance transport of animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Blancou

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Since Roman Antiquity, domestic and wild animals have been transported over long distances for purposes as different as improvement of livestock production, food supply, scientific interest, public entertainment, war and numerous other purposes. This long distance transportation was originally limited to the Mediterranean area but, during the Middle Ages extended to the rest of Europe. The conquest of the New World was the first major occasion to transport large numbers of horses and other livestock across the oceans. Domestic animals were necessary for the new colonies and their armies. European expansion to Asia and the Pacific also required the transportation of large numbers of domestic animals. Data, figures and description of the conditions of transport of animals as different as wild beasts, horses, camels, elephants or poultry are reported for each historical period.

  10. Historical perspectives on long distance transport of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancou, Jean; Parsonson, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Since Roman Antiquity, domestic and wild animals have been transported over long distances for purposes as different as improvement of livestock production, food supply, scientific interest, public entertainment, war and numerous other purposes. This long distance transportation was originally limited to the Mediterranean area but, during the Middle Ages extended to the rest of Europe. The conquest of the New World was the first major occasion to transport large numbers of horses and other livestock across the oceans. Domestic animals were necessary for the new colonies and their armies. European expansion to Asia and the Pacific also required the transportation of large numbers of domestic animals. Data, figures and description of the conditions of transport of animals as different as wild beasts, horses, camels, elephants or poultry are reported for each historical period.

  11. Rail freight transportation concerns of developing economies: A Namibian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Saruchera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although rail transport appears to be well established and outperforming other transport modes in Europe and beyond, in the majority of developing economies it was observed that firms and travellers were, on the contrary, shunning from the rail. Despite considerable infrastructural investments in the African rail systems, the sector has been deteriorating over the years.Objectives: This study identifies the freight rail transportation problems faced by African developing economies, focusing on Namibia, and examines the potential actions and factors for minimising such problems, drawing lessons from some of the developed world’s success stories.Method: The objectives of this study are achieved through a survey of Windhoek-based industrial and logistics firms operating in Namibia. Self-administered survey questionnaires were distributed through the aid of trained research assistants.Results: The study’s results show that some of the reasons of shunning rail transport are a matter of attitude, whereas some are related to operational challenges. The study confirms that the transport mode used and ownership of the freight transport services used can affect the degree of satisfaction for the transportation of goods in Namibia.Conclusion: Namibian industrial and logistics firms avoid using rail, owing to its low level of satisfaction obtained from its use. Besides engaging in Public Private Partnerships (PPPs in rail transport operations, the study contends that rail transport should receive attention similar to that given to other transport modes for African economies such as Namibia to overcome the costs associated with the increasing road congestion.

  12. Transportation research into practice : a multi-agency government perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    Safety is the top priority of the US Department of Transportation (DOT), with much of its $1B of annual : research and development budget focused on this priority. Each organization within DOT, and its : oversight origination, the National Transporta...

  13. Satisfaction with civilian family medicine residency training: Perspectives from serving general duty medical officers in the Canadian Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfrom, Brent; Hodgetts, Geoff; Kotecha, Jyoti; Pollock, Emily; Martin, Mary; Han, Han; Morissette, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate satisfaction with civilian residency training programs among serving general duty medical officers within the Canadian Armed Forces. A 23-item, cross-sectional survey face-validated by the office of the Surgeon General of the Canadian Armed Forces. Canada. General duty medical officers serving in the Canadian Armed Forces as of February 2014 identified through the Directorate of Health Services Personnel of the Canadian Forces Health Services Group Headquarters. Satisfaction with and time spent in 7 domains of training: trauma, critical care, emergency medicine, psychiatry, occupational health, sports medicine, and base clinic training. Overall preparedness for leading a health care team, caring for a military population, working in isolated and challenging environments, and being deployed were evaluated on a 5-point Likert scale. Among the survey respondents (n = 135, response rate 54%), 77% agreed or strongly agreed that their family medicine residency training was relevant to their role as a general duty medical officer. Most respondents were either satisfied or very satisfied with their emergency medicine training (77%) and psychiatry training (63%), while fewer were satisfied or very satisfied with their sports medicine (47%), base clinic (41%), and critical care (43%) training. Even fewer respondents were satisfied or very satisfied with their trauma (26%) and occupational health (12%) training. Regarding overall preparedness, 57% believed that they were adequately prepared to care for a military patient population, and 52% of respondents believed they were prepared for their first posting. Fewer respondents (38%) believed they were prepared to work in isolated, austere, or challenging environments, and even fewer (32%) believed that residency training prepared them to lead a health care team. General duty medical officers were satisfied with many aspects of their family medicine residency training; however, military-specific areas for improvement

  14. Perspectives for European land transport; Perspektiven fuer den Europaeischen Landverkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarzembowski, G. [Europaeisches Parlament, Brussels (Belgium)

    1999-02-01

    The European Union has been in no hurry to create the European single market in transport. Whereas air transport has already been liberalized, it was only in the summer of 1998 with the release of cabotage that the liberalization of commercial road freight transport was also concluded. For land transport the harmonization of the general conditions is now to the force so as to make fair competition possible among the firms of the various member states. With the coming expansion of the EU to take in the Central and East European countries there will be new challenges and opportunities in land transport. So as to place the competition among the carriers on a fair and efficient basis, the liberalization of the railway market, repeatedly postponed, is urgently necessary. (orig.) [German] Die Europaeische Union hat sich sehr viel Zeit gelassen, den Europaeischen Binnenmarkt im Verkehr zu schaffen. Waehrend der Luftverkehr bereits seit einiger Zeit liberalisiert ist, wurde erst im Sommer 1998 mit der Freigabe der Kabotage die Liberalisierung des gewerblichen Strassengueterverkehrs ebenfalls abgeschlossen. Beim Landverkehr steht jetzt die Harmonisierung der Rahmenbedingungen im Vordergrund, um einen fairen Wettbewerb unter den Unternehmen aus den verschiedenen Mitgliedstaaten zu ermoeglichen. Mit der anstehenden Erweiterung der Europaeischen Union um die Staaten aus Mittel- und Osteuropa steht auch der Europaeische Landverkehr vor neuen Herausforderungen und Chancen. Um auch den Wettbewerb unter den Verkehrstraegern auf eine faire und effiziente Basis zu stellen, ist die immer wieder hinausgeschobene Libersalisierung des Eisenbahnmarktes dringend erforderlich. (orig.)

  15. Biosimilar monoclonal antibodies: A Canadian regulatory perspective on the assessment of clinically relevant differences and indication extrapolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Bradley J; Klein, Agnes V; Wang, Jian

    2015-03-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have become mainstays of treatment for many diseases. After more than a decade on the Canadian market, a number of authorized monoclonal antibody products are facing patent expiry. Given their success, most notably in the areas of oncology and autoimmune disease, pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies are eager to produce their own biosimilar versions and have begun manufacturing and testing for a variety of monoclonal antibody products. In October of 2013, the first biosimilar monoclonal antibody products were approved by the European Medicines Agency (Remsima™ and Inflectra™). These products were authorized by Health Canada shortly after; however, while the EMA allowed for extrapolation to all of the indications held by the reference product, Health Canada limited extrapolation to a subset of the indications held by the reference product, Remicade®. The purpose of this review is to discuss the Canadian regulatory framework for the authorization of biosimilar mAbs with specific discussion around the clinical requirements for establishing (bio)-similarity and to present the principles that are used in the clinical assessment of New Drug Submissions for intended biosimilar monoclonal antibodies. Health Canada's current views regarding indication extrapolation, product interchangeability, and post-market surveillance are discussed as well. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  16. Intimate partner violence in the Canadian territorial north: perspectives from a literature review and a media watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Pertice; Fikowski, Heather; Mauricio, Marshirette; Mackenzie, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Family violence is a complex, multidimensional and pervasive presence in many Aboriginal communities. Although practitioners acknowledge that intimate partner violence (IPV) is a grave concern in the North, as in other jurisdictions in Canada, there is a paucity of literature about IPV and the local response to that violence. Objective The purpose of this study is to report on a synthesis of Northern Territorial literature and a 3-year media watch conducted in the Canadian territories. Design This review is part of a multidisciplinary 5-year study occurring in the Northwest Territories (NT) and northern regions of the Prairie Provinces of Canada. The methods included a review of the literature through CINAHL, PubMed, Academic Search Complete, Social Sciences Index and JSTOR (1990–2012) combined with a media watch from 2009 to 2012. A thematic content analysis was completed. Results Themes included: colonization; alcohol and substance use; effects of residential schooling; housing inadequacies; help-seeking behaviors; and gaps within the justice system. Identified themes from the media watch were: murders from IPV; reported assaults and criminal charges; emergency protection orders; and awareness campaigns and prevention measures. Conclusion When synthesized, the results of the literature review and media surveillance depict a starting context and description of IPV in the Canadian territories. There are many questions left unanswered which build support for the necessity of the current research, outline the public outcry for action in local media and identify the current published knowledge about IPV. PMID:23986894

  17. Intimate partner violence in the Canadian territorial north: perspectives from a literature review and a media watch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertice Moffitt

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Family violence is a complex, multidimensional and pervasive presence in many Aboriginal communities. Although practitioners acknowledge that intimate partner violence (IPV is a grave concern in the North, as in other jurisdictions in Canada, there is a paucity of literature about IPV and the local response to that violence. Objective. The purpose of this study is to report on a synthesis of Northern Territorial literature and a 3-year media watch conducted in the Canadian territories. Design. This review is part of a multidisciplinary 5-year study occurring in the Northwest Territories (NT and northern regions of the Prairie Provinces of Canada. The methods included a review of the literature through CINAHL, PubMed, Academic Search Complete, Social Sciences Index and JSTOR (1990–2012 combined with a media watch from 2009 to 2012. A thematic content analysis was completed. Results. Themes included: colonization; alcohol and substance use; effects of residential schooling; housing inadequacies; help-seeking behaviours; and gaps within the justice system. Identified themes from the media watch were: murders from IPV; reported assaults and criminal charges; emergency protection orders; and awareness campaigns and prevention measures. Conclusion. When synthesized, the results of the literature review and media surveillance depict a starting context and description of IPV in the Canadian territories. There are many questions left unanswered which build support for the necessity of the current research, outline the public outcry for action in local media and identify the current published knowledge about IPV.

  18. Intimate partner violence in the Canadian territorial north: perspectives from a literature review and a media watch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Pertice; Fikowski, Heather; Mauricio, Marshirette; Mackenzie, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Family violence is a complex, multidimensional and pervasive presence in many Aboriginal communities. Although practitioners acknowledge that intimate partner violence (IPV) is a grave concern in the North, as in other jurisdictions in Canada, there is a paucity of literature about IPV and the local response to that violence. The purpose of this study is to report on a synthesis of Northern Territorial literature and a 3-year media watch conducted in the Canadian territories. This review is part of a multidisciplinary 5-year study occurring in the Northwest Territories (NT) and northern regions of the Prairie Provinces of Canada. The methods included a review of the literature through CINAHL, PubMed, Academic Search Complete, Social Sciences Index and JSTOR (1990-2012) combined with a media watch from 2009 to 2012. A thematic content analysis was completed. THEMES INCLUDED: colonization; alcohol and substance use; effects of residential schooling; housing inadequacies; help-seeking behaviors; and gaps within the justice system. Identified themes from the media watch were: murders from IPV; reported assaults and criminal charges; emergency protection orders; and awareness campaigns and prevention measures. When synthesized, the results of the literature review and media surveillance depict a starting context and description of IPV in the Canadian territories. There are many questions left unanswered which build support for the necessity of the current research, outline the public outcry for action in local media and identify the current published knowledge about IPV.

  19. Biofuels for road transport: A seed to wheel perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    This book provides a review of the history, the current status and the impact of biofuels used in road transport, across the full ‘seed-to-wheel’ life cycle of these fuels. Successive chapters cover many issues relevant to the current debate on biofuels, such as cost, competition with food

  20. Globalisation, Transport and the Environment: New Perspectives for Ecological Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen-Groot, D.B.; Nijkamp, P.

    1999-01-01

    This article aims to offer an overview of key issues centred around the relationship between globalisation and transport-related environmental decay in the ecological economics literature of the past decade, followed by an exploration of new research endeavours. The scientific contribution of 10

  1. The cost-effectiveness of colonic stenting as a bridge to curative surgery in patients with acute left-sided malignant colonic obstruction: A Canadian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harminder; Latosinsky, Steven; Spiegel, Brennan MR; Targownik, Laura E

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Over the past several years, colonic stenting has been advocated as an alternative to the traditional surgical approach for relieving acute malignant left-sided colonic obstruction. The aim of the present study was to determine the most cost-effective strategy in a Canadian setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A decision analytical model was developed to compare three competing strategies: CS – emergent colonic stenting followed by elective resective surgery and reanastomosis; RS – emergent resective surgery followed by creation of either a diverting colostomy or primary reanastomosis; and DC – emergent diverting colostomy followed by elective resective surgery and reanastomosis. The costs were estimated from the perspective of the Manitoba provincial health plan. RESULTS: The use of CS resulted in fewer total operative procedures per patient (mean CS 1.03, RS 1.32, DC 1.9), lower mortality rate (CS 5%, RS 11%, DC 13%) and lower likelihood of requiring a permanent stoma (CS 7%, RS 14%, DC 14%). CS is slightly more expensive than DC, but less costly than RS (DC $11,851, CS $13,164, RS $13,820). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio associated with the use of CS versus DC is $1,415 to prevent a temporary stoma, $1,516 to prevent an additional operation and $15,734 to prevent an additional death. CONCLUSIONS: Colonic stenting for patients with acute colonic obstruction secondary to a resectable colonic tumour is comparable in cost with surgical options, and reduces the likelihood of requiring both temporary and permanent stomas. Colonic stenting should be offered as the initial therapeutic modality for Canadian colorectal cancer patients presenting with acute obstruction as a bridge to definitive RS. PMID:17171197

  2. A Canadian online survey of oncology nurses' perspectives on the management of breakthrough pain in cancer (BTPc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Margaret I; McAndrew, Alison; Burlein-Hall, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores Canadian oncology nurses' perception of management of breakthrough pain in cancer (BTPc). An online questionnaire was distributed to 668 oncology nurses across Canada, and 201 participated. More nurses reported that patients used hydromorphone (99.5%), morphine (97.0%), codeine (88.1%), or oxycodone (88.1%) for BTPc, than fentanyl preparations (64.7%). Problems with opioid administration reported by nurses included failure to work quickly enough (35.7%), difficulty swallowing (16.6%), need for caregiver assistance (13.2%), mouth sores (12.6%) and dry mouth (11.5%). Although most nurses discussed BTPc management with their patients, the vast majority (72.2%) were not very satisfied with current treatment modalities. Effective dialogue with patients and access to educational resources/tools may help optimize therapy and enhance concordance with BTPc medications.

  3. What community characteristics help or hinder rural communities in becoming age-friendly? Perspectives from a Canadian prairie province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, John; Menec, Verena H

    2015-06-01

    Age-friendly initiatives are increasingly promoted as a policy solution to healthy aging, The primary objective of this article was to examine older adults' and key stakeholders' perceptions of the factors that either help or hinder a community from becoming age-friendly in the context of rural Manitoba, a Canadian prairie province. Twenty-four older adults and 17 key informants completed a qualitative interview. The findings show that contextual factors including size, location, demographic composition, ability to secure investments, and leadership influence rural communities' ability to become age-friendly. Government must consider the challenges these communities face in becoming more age-friendly and develop strategies to support communities. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. Mixed Transportation Network Design under a Sustainable Development Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jin; Ni, Ling-lin; Shi, Feng

    2013-01-01

    A mixed transportation network design problem considering sustainable development was studied in this paper. Based on the discretization of continuous link-grade decision variables, a bilevel programming model was proposed to describe the problem, in which sustainability factors, including vehicle exhaust emissions, land-use scale, link load, and financial budget, are considered. The objective of the model is to minimize the total amount of resources exploited under the premise of meeting all the construction goals. A heuristic algorithm, which combined the simulated annealing and path-based gradient projection algorithm, was developed to solve the model. The numerical example shows that the transportation network optimized with the method above not only significantly alleviates the congestion on the link, but also reduces vehicle exhaust emissions within the network by up to 41.56%. PMID:23476142

  5. Mixed Transportation Network Design under a Sustainable Development Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Qin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixed transportation network design problem considering sustainable development was studied in this paper. Based on the discretization of continuous link-grade decision variables, a bilevel programming model was proposed to describe the problem, in which sustainability factors, including vehicle exhaust emissions, land-use scale, link load, and financial budget, are considered. The objective of the model is to minimize the total amount of resources exploited under the premise of meeting all the construction goals. A heuristic algorithm, which combined the simulated annealing and path-based gradient projection algorithm, was developed to solve the model. The numerical example shows that the transportation network optimized with the method above not only significantly alleviates the congestion on the link, but also reduces vehicle exhaust emissions within the network by up to 41.56%.

  6. Warehousing Location Decision in Northern Europe: Transportation Mode Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli-Pekka Hilmola

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing employment has continuously declined in developed economies for more than decade time, but service sector in turn has significantly grown. Services also include warehousing, which connects customers and globally concentrated manufacturing units together. In this manuscript we examine location criteria for warehouses in Northern European companies (Finland and Sweden as well as location of their warehouse network in larger Europe. Our research shows based on multiyear survey that primarily warehouses are established to have: (1 low distribution costs, (2 road transportation connection, and (3 assembly/manufacturing units are near-by. Currently in different contexts is being emphasized intermodal transports, railway connectivity, future potential of location as well as low labour cost are considered to have secondary up to quinary importance. In country level differences we show based on completed surveys that Finnish companies are more active in Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC, while Swedish companies have been extremely cautious with this regard.

  7. Perspectives of Use of Alternative Energy Sources in Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Socha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of environmental load is also reflected in air transport. Usage of fossil fuels, which are dominant nowadays, has a negative impact on the environment and also its resources are limited. Therefore, the article focuses on the prospective of use of other energy sources in aviation, such as alternative fuels (synthetic fuels, biofuels, alcohol, methane, hydrogen, solar energy and the use of fuel cells. Also, the paper briefly summarizes the approach of aircraft manufacturers to the use alternative sources.

  8. Energy transition in transport sector from energy substitution perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wangmin; Yang, Xiaoguang; Han, Song; Sun, Xiaoyang

    2017-10-01

    Power and heating generation sector and transport sector contribute a highest GHG emissions and even air pollutions. This paper seeks to investigate life cycle costs and emissions in both the power sector and transport sector, and evaluate the cost-emission efficient (costs for one unit GHG emissions) of the substitution between new energy vehicles and conventional gasoline based vehicles under two electricity mix scenarios. In power sector, wind power and PV power will be cost comparative in 2030 forecasted with learning curve method. With high subsidies, new energy cars could be comparative now, but it still has high costs to lower GHG emissions. When the government subsidy policy is reversible, the emission reduction cost for new energy vehicle consumer will be 900/ton. According to the sensitive analysis, the paper suggests that the government implement policies that allocate the cost to the whole life cycle of energy production and consumption related to transport sector energy transition and policies that are in favor of new energy vehicle consumers but not the new energy car producers.

  9. Transport Regimes of Air Masses Affecting the Tropospheric Composition of the Canadian and European Arctic During RACEPAC 2014 and NETCARE 2014/2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozem, H.; Hoor, P. M.; Koellner, F.; Kunkel, D.; Schneider, J.; Schulz, C.; Herber, A. B.; Borrmann, S.; Wendisch, M.; Ehrlich, A.; Leaitch, W. R.; Willis, M. D.; Burkart, J.; Thomas, J. L.; Abbatt, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic is warming much faster than any other place in the world and undergoes a rapid change dominated by a changing climate in this region. The impact of polluted air masses traveling to the Arctic from various remote sources significantly contributes to the observed climate change, in contrast there are additional local emission sources contributing to the level of pollutants (trace gases and aerosol). Processes affecting the emission and transport of these pollutants are not well understood and need to be further investigated. We present aircraft based trace gas measurements in the Arctic during RACEPAC (2014) and NETCARE (2014 and 2015) with the Polar 6 aircraft of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) covering an area from 134°W to 17°W and 68°N to 83°N. We focus on cloud, aerosol and general transport processes of polluted air masses into the high Arctic. Based on CO and CO2 measurements and kinematic 10-day back trajectories we analyze the transport regimes prevalent during spring (RACEPAC 2014 and NETCARE 2015) and summer (NETCARE 2014) in the observed region. Whereas the eastern part of the Canadian Arctic is affected by air masses with their origin in Asia, in the central and western parts of the Canadian and European Arctic air masses from North America are predominant at the time of the measurement. In general the more northern parts of the Arctic were relatively unaffected by pollution from mid-latitudes since air masses mostly travel within the polar dome, being quite isolated. Associated mixing ratios of CO and CO2 fit into the seasonal cycle observed at NOAA ground stations throughout the Arctic, but show a more mid-latitudinal characteristic at higher altitudes. The transition is remarkably sharp and allows for a chemical definition of the polar dome. At low altitudes, synoptic disturbances transport polluted air masses from mid-latitudes into regions of the polar dome. These air masses contribute to the Arctic pollution background, but also

  10. The Organic Anion Transporter (OAT) Family: A Systems Biology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Sanjay K.; Bush, Kevin T.; Martovetsky, Gleb; Ahn, Sun-Young; Liu, Henry C.; Richard, Erin; Bhatnagar, Vibha; Wu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The organic anion transporter (OAT) subfamily, which constitutes roughly half of the SLC22 (solute carrier 22) transporter family, has received a great deal of attention because of its role in handling of common drugs (antibiotics, antivirals, diuretics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), toxins (mercury, aristolochic acid), and nutrients (vitamins, flavonoids). Oats are expressed in many tissues, including kidney, liver, choroid plexus, olfactory mucosa, brain, retina, and placenta. Recent metabolomics and microarray data from Oat1 [Slc22a6, originally identified as NKT (novel kidney transporter)] and Oat3 (Slc22a8) knockouts, as well as systems biology studies, indicate that this pathway plays a central role in the metabolism and handling of gut microbiome metabolites as well as putative uremic toxins of kidney disease. Nuclear receptors and other transcription factors, such as Hnf4α and Hnf1α, appear to regulate the expression of certain Oats in conjunction with phase I and phase II drug metabolizing enzymes. Some Oats have a strong selectivity for particular signaling molecules, including cyclic nucleotides, conjugated sex steroids, odorants, uric acid, and prostaglandins and/or their metabolites. According to the “Remote Sensing and Signaling Hypothesis,” which is elaborated in detail here, Oats may function in remote interorgan communication by regulating levels of signaling molecules and key metabolites in tissues and body fluids. Oats may also play a major role in interorganismal communication (via movement of small molecules across the intestine, placental barrier, into breast milk, and volatile odorants into the urine). The role of various Oat isoforms in systems physiology appears quite complex, and their ramifications are discussed in the context of remote sensing and signaling. PMID:25540139

  11. Contesting Family in Finnish and Canadian Immigration and Refugee Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lippert, Randy K; Pyykkönen, Miikka

    2012-01-01

    Adopting a governmentality perspective, this article explores the multi-conceptuality of family in Finnish and Canadian immigration and refugee policy domains by analyzing official and political discourse...

  12. A Qualitative Study of the Impact of Cancer on Romantic Relationships, Sexual Relationships, and Fertility: Perspectives of Canadian Adolescents and Parents During and After Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Jennifer N; Jibb, Lindsay A; Greenberg, Mark; Barrera, Maru; Luca, Stephanie; White, Meghan E; Gupta, Abha

    2015-06-01

    We sought to gain insight into perspectives around core domains of adolescent development--romantic relationships, sexual relationships, and fertility--from the vantage point of Canadian adolescents and parents during and after cancer treatment. Twenty adolescents (12-17 years old at interview) and 20 parents (who may or may not have had an adolescent interviewed) participated in this study. Using a semistructured guide, adolescents and parents were interviewed separately. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Transcribed interview data were independently coded according to the study objectives by two trained analysts. Codes were organized into categories that reflected emerging themes. Discrepancies in coding were resolved through discussion with the lead investigator. Qualitative analysis revealed main themes for adolescents and parents related to: (1) romantic relationships (opinions on the importance of dating in the context of cancer, expectations that cancer will impact future relationships, dating as a source of moral support, and limited opportunities to engage with partners); (2) sexual relationships (thoughts related to the impact of cancer on future sexual relationships); (3) fertility (initiating treatment as a primary concern and fear of infertility and perceived consequences); and (4) recommendations for care (access to knowledge and support through adolescent-friendly and accessible means). Findings from this study highlight cancer-specific relationship and fertility issues faced by adolescents and provide important direction to the development of interventions that may ultimately improve the psychosocial health of adolescents during and after cancer treatment.

  13. Transport safety and traffic forecasting: An economist's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Button

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with forecasting traffic accidents at a relatively aggregate level and over a long time period; the sort of information that is required as part of a comprehensive cost-benefit analysis of a major transportation investment or policy change. It is not so focused on appraising the social value of specific safety measures, although some of the points made seem germane. Whereas there has been much ex ante analysis at the meso- and macro-levels looking at the causes of accidents and ways of reducing both their number and severity, much less ex post has been done considering the accuracy of predictions of accident rates after an investment or policy initiative. Given the evidence that exists on the accuracy of traffic forecasts, especially involving oft over-optimistic predictions of public transit and rail use, there is at least a prima facie case for arguing that many investment and policy decisions are being based, in part, on over favorable assumptions with regard to their aggregate safety impacts.

  14. Charge and energy transport at the nanoscale: A DFT perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eich, Florian; Covito, Fabio; Rubio, Angel

    Understanding the interplay between charge and energy transport at the nanoscale paves the way for novel thermoelectric devices, which may prove useful for the development for sustainable energy sources. However, concepts, such as heat flow, temperature and entropy are only well-established at the macroscopic level for slow dynamics. This raises the question about whether these concepts can be employed for small length and short time scales. We will present our recent efforts to use a time-dependent density-functional theory framework, dubbed thermal DFT, in order to generalize temperature and heat or energy flow to the microscopic regime. To this end we will highlight the analogy of the formally exact microscopic equations of motion for charge density and energy density in thermal DFT to the macroscopic equations of motion of hydrodynamics. Furthermore, we will present first result using our approach to compute transient energy energy currents induced by a temperature gradient and show that in the steady-state limit persistent temperature oscillations develop. This project has received funding from the European Union's Framework Programme for Research and Innovation Horizon 2020 (2014-2020) under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Grant Agreement No. 701796.

  15. Intra-articular hyaluronic acid in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a Canadian evidence-based perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Mohit; Bannuru, Raveendhara R.; Babins, Eric M.; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Khan, Moin; Raynauld, Jean-Pierre; Frankovich, Renata; Mcleod, Deanna; Devji, Tahira; Phillips, Mark; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic condition characterized by a loss of joint cartilage and is a major cause of disability in Canada, with an estimated CN$195 billion annual cost. Knee OA leads to persistent pain and loss of function, and treatment goals primarily focus on symptom relief and retention of function. Intra-articular hyaluronic acid (IAHA) has therapeutic benefits, and numerous recently published meta-analyses (MAs) and commentaries have highlighted new evidence on the role of IAHA therapy for knee OA. A diverse, multidisciplinary group of specialists met independently in closed sessions to review findings from eight MAs with literature search end dates no earlier than 2012 to address controversies surrounding IAHA therapy for mild-to-moderate knee OA within the Canadian treatment context. Outcomes from a total of eight MAs were reviewed, and consistent and statistically significant improvements in pain, function and stiffness up to 26 weeks were found with IAHA therapy compared with IA placebo or controls, regardless of MA size or trial quality. These findings are in line with those of a Cochrane review, another recent systematic review and patient satisfaction survey. Overall, three MAs reported outcomes based on molecular weight (MW), with the two reporting effect sizes showing significantly improved pain outcomes for higher compared with lower MW HAs. Recent evidence suggests that HA therapy is well tolerated with no increased risk of serious adverse events compared with placebo and the full therapeutic effect of IAHA therapy appears to have considerable clinical importance, consisting of the combined IA placebo and HA therapeutic effects. IAHA therapy is a well-tolerated and effective option for patients with mild-to-moderate knee OA failing first-line pharmacological therapy. PMID:28932293

  16. Safety Profile and Costs of Related Adverse Events of Trastuzumab Emtansine for the Treatment of HER2-Positive Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer Compared to Capecitabine Plus Lapatinib from the Perspective of the Canadian Health-Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwko, Charles; Prady, Catherine; Yunger, Simon; Pollex, Erika; Moser, Aurelie

    2015-08-01

    Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1, KADCYLA(®)) is an antibody-drug conjugate comprised of the cytotoxic agent DM1 and trastuzumab (HERCEPTIN(®)). The safety profile of T-DM1 in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer previously treated with trastuzumab and a taxane was investigated in the phase III EMILIA trial. The trial demonstrated clinically and statistically meaningful differences in the safety profile between T-DM1 and capecitabine plus lapatinib (CAP + LAP). The objective of this study was to estimate the costs of managing treatment-related grade ≥ 3 adverse events (AEs) that occurred in ≥ 2% of patients and grade 2 AEs that occurred in ≥ 5% of patients taking T-DM1 compared with patients taking CAP + LAP based on the EMILIA trial, from the perspective of Canadian public payers. An Excel-based model was utilized to estimate the relevant costs. Clinical data were obtained from the EMILIA trial. Cost information was obtained from the literature, clinical experts, and standard cost sources. The analysis was conducted from the Canadian public-payer perspective and reported in 2014 Canadian dollars (CAD). The management of included treatment-related AEs resulted in higher estimated per-patient costs of CAD6901 for CAP + LAP versus CAD3380 for T-DM1, resulting in savings of CAD3521. From a Canadian perspective, this analysis demonstrated that utilizing T-DM1 for the management of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer results in substantial savings to the public health-care system when considering the costs of treatment-related AEs, due to fewer amount of toxicities compared with CAP + LAP. Results of various sensitivity analyses investigating changes in number and costs of AEs confirmed the findings; however, the magnitude of cost savings varied. Further analyses are necessary to determine whether these cost savings would occur in other countries and health-care systems.

  17. Sustainable Transport in Romania vs. European Union. Analysis of Road Transport System from the Sustainable Transport Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clitan Andrei - Florin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a term used more often lately, based on three factors: social, economic, and environmental. Sustainable transport systems increase social cohesion, reduce environmental problems and help create a more efficient economy. Sustainable transport consists in a complex system that is designed to ensure mobility needs of present generations without damaging the environment and health factors. By improving energy and material consumption, it must be capable to satisfy in optimum conditions the need for mobility for future generations. The current transportation system has not a character of sustainability.

  18. Heat transport in low-dimensional materials: A review and perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiping Xu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Heat transport is a key energetic process in materials and devices. The reduced sample size, low dimension of the problem and the rich spectrum of material imperfections introduce fruitful phenomena at nanoscale. In this review, we summarize recent progresses in the understanding of heat transport process in low-dimensional materials, with focus on the roles of defects, disorder, interfaces, and the quantum-mechanical effect. New physics uncovered from computational simulations, experimental studies, and predictable models will be reviewed, followed by a perspective on open challenges.

  19. Environmental assessment of perspective of rail travel transportation organization in zakarpattya region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлія Володимирівна Зеленько

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of the research of perspective of rail travel transportation organization in Zakarpattya region from a position of influence on potential environmental objects in the sphere of influence of railway infrastructure are given in the article. On the basis of geographic information systems and database management systems it is developed information analytical decision support system to ensure a high environmental level of tourist traffic against a background of economic profitability – «SAER»

  20. Neighborhood walkability: Differential associations with self-reported transport walking and leisure-time physical activity in Canadian towns and cities of all sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielman, Justin; Rosella, Laura; Copes, Ray; Lebenbaum, Michael; Manson, Heather

    2015-08-01

    To estimate associations between walkability and physical activity during transportation and leisure in a national-level population. Walkability was measured by Walk Score® (2012-2014) and physical activity by the Canadian Community Health Survey (2007-2012) for urban participants who worked or attended school. Multiple linear regression was done on the total study population, four age subgroups (12-17, 18-29, 30-64, 65+) and three population center subgroups (1000-29,999, 30,000-99,999, 100,000+). 151,318 respondents were examined. Comparing highest to lowest Walk Score® quintiles, covariate-adjusted energy expenditure on transport walking [95% confidence interval] was 0.17 [0.15, 0.18] kcal/kg/day higher in the total study population, and significantly higher in all age and population center subgroups. Leisure physical activity was lower in the age 18-29 subgroup (-0.28 [-0.43, -0.12]) and population centers 100,000+ subgroup (-0.10 [-0.18, -0.03]), but higher in the population centers 1000-29,999 subgroup (0.30 [0.12, 0.48]). Total physical activity was higher in the following subgroups: age 30-64 (0.19 [0.12, 0.26]), population centers 100,000+ (0.12 [0.04, 0.19]) and population centers 1000-29,999 (0.40 [0.20, 0.59]). Walkability is associated with transport walking in all age groups and towns and cities of all sizes. Walkability's inverse associations with leisure physical activity among young adults and in large population centers may offset energy expenditure gains, while positive associations with leisure physical activity in small centers may add to energy expenditure. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Janus at the Crossroads: Perspectives on Long-term Care Trajectories for Older Women With Dementia in a Canadian Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Denise S; Penning, Margaret J

    2017-02-01

    Janus, the two-faced, Roman god of beginnings and transitions, is used as a metaphor to explore our personal narratives and our quantitative research on the experiences of older women with dementia in long-term care (LTC). Two research questions are addressed: (a) How do our quantitative data map onto our mothers' experiences? (b) What lessons do our mothers' experiences offer for the care of older women with dementia? Informed by a life-course perspective, we triangulate administrative data on 3,717 women with dementia receiving LTC in British Columbia, Canada, with personal narratives-the stories of our mothers who made the transition from home care into residential (nursing home) care. Our quantitative data reveal that the home care to residential care transition is the most common LTC trajectory for women with dementia who are most likely to be widowed and living alone in suburban areas. On entry into residential care, they exhibit greater frailty in terms of activities of daily living, cognition, aggression, and incontinence. Our personal narrative data on our mothers reveals that the relatively straightforward pathways through LTC for women with dementia, are often considerably more complex in a real-world context. Attention is drawn to the public and private services, hospitalization patterns, and substantial communication gaps experienced by our moms and families. A life-course perspective, and qualitative and quantitative data facilitate understanding the care journeys-health and service trajectories of older women with dementia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Multi-dimensional transport modelling of corrosive agents through a bentonite buffer in a Canadian deep geological repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Scott; McKelvie, Jennifer; Sleep, Brent; Krol, Magdalena

    2017-12-01

    The use of a deep geological repository (DGR) for the long-term disposal of used nuclear fuel is an approach currently being investigated by several agencies worldwide, including Canada's Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO). Within the DGR, used nuclear fuel will be placed in copper-coated steel containers and surrounded by a bentonite clay buffer. While copper is generally thermodynamically stable, corrosion can occur due to the presence of sulphide under anaerobic conditions. As such, understanding transport of sulphide through the engineered barrier system to the used fuel container is an important consideration in DGR design. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) model of sulphide transport in a DGR was developed. The numerical model is implemented using COMSOL Multiphysics, a commercial finite element software package. Previous sulphide transport models of the NWMO repository used a simplified one-dimensional system. This work illustrates the importance of 3D modelling to capture non-uniform effects, as results showed locations of maximum sulphide flux are 1.7 times higher than the average flux to the used fuel container. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Insights into contaminant transport from unconventional oil and gas developments from analog system analysis of methane-bearing thermal springs in the northern Canadian Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Grant; Grasby, Stephen E.

    2017-09-01

    Natural gas is currently being produced from shales of the Montney and Liard basins in western Canada. Production requires hydraulic fracturing due to the low permeability of the shales in the basins. Stratigraphically equivalent shales are present in the northern Canadian Rocky Mountains. Thermal springs with notable hydrocarbon concentrations occur where large-scale faults intersect the same shale units that are the focus of gas development, indicating that under certain circumstances, connection of deep fractured shales to the land surface is possible. To constrain these conditions, simulations were conducted for the spring with the highest hydrocarbon flux (Toad River Spring), results of which indicate that in order to supply sufficient water to a fault to support measurable advection, the effective permeability of the shales in these structurally deformed areas must be one to four orders of magnitude higher than in areas of active gas production to the east. The spatial scale of enhanced permeability is much greater than that which is achieved by hydraulic fracturing and the mechanism of maintaining high pressures at depth is more persistent in time. Examination of groundwater velocities suggests that upward migration of solutes from hydraulic fracturing may take decades to centuries. Results also indicate that any temperature anomaly will be associated with transport along a fault at such velocities. No such temperature anomaly has been documented in regions with unconventional oil and gas development to date. Such an anomaly would be diagnostic of a deep solute source.

  4. An international perspective on electric transportation. Survey on electric road transport 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeda, M; Kroon, P. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Appels, D. [Agentschap NL, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    To compare the Dutch governmental efforts and developments in the field of electric road transport, the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation has asked ECN Policy Studies and NL Agency to conduct an international assessment on electric mobility. The countries that have been considered are: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, UK, China, USA and South Korea. The Netherlands has a high ambition level with regard to the number of electric vehicles and is one of the leaders as for the envisaged number of charging points. In the field of R and D, Germany, South Korea and China take the lead, followed by France, the UK, the USA and Austria. However, the assessment has only looked at specific funds for electric mobility, and has not looked at general R and D and innovation funds. The Netherlands has several electro-mobility field tests, but is not leading in number. Norway and Austria are leading countries when it comes to implementation of public charging infrastructure.

  5. The Canadian ISTAR Information-Centric Collaborative Workspace Concept. Paper 2: The Info-Centric Collaborative Workspace from the Processes Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thibault, Gaetan; Le May, Francois

    2004-01-01

    ...) concept in the Canadian Land Force. ISTAR provides the commander with a system to collect and process required information for producing intelligence on the threat and knowledge on the environment during operations, as well...

  6. Reconstruction of the Aceh Region following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami disaster: A transportation perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Matsumaru

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aceh, located in the northernmost area of Sumatra Island, is one of the regions that suffered the most damage from the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004. The process of reconstruction after a large-scale disaster is considered an opportunity to create a safer society, especially for developing countries, however the accumulation of knowledge about how to improve reconstruction is insufficient. The affected areas have diverse social and economic characteristics and unprecedented restoration efforts have been made. The Indian Ocean tsunami disaster, therefore, provides numerous research opportunities, and many surveys and other researches have been conducted to better understand what happened and how the reconstruction process could be improved. However, the majority of such research has focused on housing reconstruction, rebuilding livelihoods and community rehabilitation and there has been only limited research on transportation-related issues. Thus, there is significance in evaluating the reconstruction of Aceh from a transportation perspective, a dimension that has yet to be examined systematically. As a first step in the effort to evaluate various aspects of the reconstruction of Aceh from a transportation perspective, this research aims to present three transportation-related issues within the reconstruction process—1 the road network in the Banda Aceh coastal area, 2 mobility in relocation sites, and 3 reconstruction of the Banda Aceh–Meulaboh road—and to conduct a preliminary analysis of these issues by adding the viewpoint of disaster management and reconstruction, the authors' area of specialization. For conducting a preliminary analysis, existing information such as research papers, articles and reports and data collected through interviews and field reconnaissance conducted by the authors were utilized as much as possible, and such “qualitative data” was analyzed by applying the “interpretive approach”, considered an

  7. I Am Canadian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Joe

    2011-01-01

    "I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness......."I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness....

  8. A survey of senior medical students' attitudes and awareness toward teaching and participation in a formal clinical teaching elective: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Hughes, J D; Azzi, Elise; Rose, Gregory Walter; Ramnanan, Christopher J; Khamisa, Karima

    2017-01-01

    To prepare for careers in medicine, medical trainees must develop clinical teaching skills. It is unclear if Canadian medical students need or want to develop such skills. We sought to assess Canadian students' perceptions of clinical teaching, and their desire to pursue clinical teaching skills development via a clinical teaching elective (CTE) in their final year of medical school. We designed a descriptive cross-sectional study of Canadian senior medical students, using an online survey to gauge teaching experience, career goals, perceived areas of confidence, and interest in a CTE. Students at 13 of 17 Canadian medical schools were invited to participate in the survey (4154 students). We collected 321 responses (7.8%). Most (75%) respondents expressed confidence in giving presentations, but fewer were confident providing bedside teaching (47%), teaching sensitive issues (42%), and presenting at journal clubs (42%). A total of 240 respondents (75%) expressed interest in participating in a CTE. The majority (61%) favored a two week elective, and preferred topics included bedside teaching (85%), teaching physical examination skills (71%), moderation of small group learning (63%), and mentorship in medicine (60%). Our study demonstrates that a large number of Canadian medical students are interested in teaching in a clinical setting, but lack confidence in skills specific to clinical teaching. Our respondents signaled interest in participating in an elective in clinical teaching, particularly if it is offered in a two-week format.

  9. Medical cannabis ? the Canadian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Gordon D; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol ? the principal psychoactive...

  10. Public transport accessibility for wheelchair users: a perspective from macro-ergonomic design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Juan Felipe; Renner, Jacinta Sidegum

    2015-01-01

    Considering the current experience of Persons with Disabilities (PWD) seeking to join the labor market as well as improve their quality of life, full accessibility is an important tool to enable their integration into society. The primary objective of this study was to identify ergonomics and accessibility issues faced by wheelchair users and persons with mobility alterations when using public transport, from a user perspective. This was an observational, descriptive study, with a quantitative approach to data analysis and discussion. The study sample comprised 30 wheelchair-bound public transport users, and was drawn from the membership of LEME - Associação dos Lesados Medulares de Novo Hamburgo (Novo Hamburgo Spinal Injury Victims' Association). Data were collected by means of an open-ended interview, which guided questionnaire development, and direct field observations conducted during bus rides. Results indicate that the primary issues are the quality of services offered, particularly the schedule and number of accessible vehicles, and the lack of trained employees to aid wheelchair users. The paper also identifies issues related to accessibility and safety, both when accessing vehicles and during transportation.

  11. Observations and impacts of transported Canadian wildfire smoke on ozone and aerosol air quality in the Maryland region on June 9-12, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreessen, Joel; Sullivan, John; Delgado, Ruben

    2016-09-01

    Canadian wildfire smoke impacted air quality across the northern Mid-Atlantic (MA) of the United States during June 9-12, 2015. A multiday exceedance of the new 2015 70-ppb National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone (O3) followed, resulting in Maryland being incompliant with the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) revised 2015 O3 NAAQS. Surface in situ, balloon-borne, and remote sensing observations monitored the impact of the wildfire smoke at Maryland air quality monitoring sites. At peak smoke concentrations in Maryland, wildfire-attributable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) more than doubled, while non-NOx oxides of nitrogen (NOz) tripled, suggesting long range transport of NOx within the smoke plume. Peak daily average PM2.5 was 32.5 µg m(-3) with large fractions coming from black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC), with a synonymous increase in carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations. Measurements indicate that smoke tracers at the surface were spatially and temporally correlated with maximum 8-hr O3 concentrations in the MA, all which peaked on June 11. Despite initial smoke arrival late on June 9, 2015, O3 production was inhibited due to ultraviolet (UV) light attenuation, lower temperatures, and nonoptimal surface layer composition. Comparison of Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model surface O3 forecasts to observations suggests 14 ppb additional O3 due to smoke influences in northern Maryland. Despite polluted conditions, observations of a nocturnal low-level jet (NLLJ) and Chesapeake Bay Breeze (BB) were associated with decreases in O3 in this case. While infrequent in the MA, wildfire smoke may be an increasing fractional contribution to high-O3 days, particularly in light of increased wildfire frequency in a changing climate, lower regional emissions, and tighter air quality standards. The presented event demonstrates how a single wildfire event associated with an ozone exceedance of the NAAQS can prevent the Baltimore region

  12. Hedgerows of different cultures: implications from a Canadian and English cross-cultural study

    OpenAIRE

    Oreszczyn, S.; Lane, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines the functions and character of hedgerows in two different cultures through the investigation of different perspectives. Data from a small Canadian study in the Delta region of British Columbia was used to inform a larger study in two English counties. Although many aspects of the Canadian perspective on hedgerows were similar to that of the English perspective, the Canadian data highlighted the importance of cultural differences in hedged landscapes. These differences had ...

  13. On the Autonomy and Homogeneity of Canadian English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollinger, Stefan; Clarke, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This introduction to the symposium approaches the themes of autonomy and homogeneity in Canadian English from a historical perspective. We trace the debates on these topics back to the late 19th century and relate them to changing public attitudes toward Canadian linguistic autonomy over time. We review the scholarly evidence on autonomy and…

  14. Research Awards: Canadian Partnerships Program Deadline: 12 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jean-Claude Dumais

    2012-09-12

    Sep 12, 2012 ... This award provides young and upcoming professionals with a unique opportunity to strengthen their research skills and gain a fresh perspective on the Canadian community – both in universities and civil society organizations (CSOs) – that is actively engaged in creating, sharing, and using knowledge to ...

  15. A Review of 'Energy and Transport in Green Transition: Perspectives on Ecomodernity'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Harnesk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The book “Energy and Transport in Green Transitions – Perspectives on Ecomodernity” deals with the societally and scientifically crucial topic of energy and climate change mitigation. The book starts by setting high ambitions as the authors attempt “to go beyond both the extremism of the anti-capitalist critique and the radical enthusiasm of techno-economic positivism” in their exploration to find ways to resolve political, economic and technological entanglements “to boost a greener economy and culture”. It aims to so through a regional comparative study that looks at mature Western economies, the rapidly developing China, and the developing economies in sub-Saharan Africa. The authors present an excellent descriptive historical review for those interested in the broader picture of energy production and automobile sector in the regions addressed. However, in an attempt to cover as much ground as possible while assuring "maximum accessibility”, the authors' explanation of the dynamics of change involved is not conveyed in an analytically convincing manner.

  16. Synchro-Modality and Slow Steaming: New Business Perspectives in Freight Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Perboli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The logistics sector faces substantial challenges in meeting customer demands for higher service quality, speed and flexibility under conditions of continued growth in world trade and worldwide transportation movements, increasing distances and vulnerabilities of the supply chain. Additional challenges relate to the economic and environmental sustainability of logistics operations. While a lot of attention was devoted in the past decades to the operational and technical aspects, the business development phase has been put aside, causing the market failure of several projects. The paper presents the SYNCHRO-modal supply chain eco-NET (SYNCHRO-NET project, which will demonstrate the effectiveness of slow steaming combined with synchro-modality in reducing the cost and the emissions of international supply chains and improving reliability and sustainability through the optimization of the planning process. Differently from other similar projects, SYNCHRO-NET combines operational aspects with a business perspective and represents a stakeholder-driven approach aimed at developing a close-to-market solution over the timeframe of the project.

  17. Dictionaries of Canadian English

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Technology

    ... Globe and Mail said, an enterprising publication. Despite the existence of the Winston dictionary, some Canadians were still, at the end of the 1950s, prepared to dismiss Canadian lexicography as pointless. When the idea of a Canadian dictionary was introduced to the Dean of Arts and Science at Dalhousie University in ...

  18. Site remediation and risk assessment in Canada: current CPPI activities and a vision for the 21. century - a perspective from the Canadian Petroleum Products Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calder, L.M. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Calgary Research Centre

    1997-12-31

    The scope of site remediation in the Canadian petroleum products industry was discussed. It was estimated that the cost to clean up the nearly 100,000 contaminated sites in Canada would be in the order of $20 billion. One alternative to the high cost of clean up is the use of risk assessment for the development of soil remediation criteria that would be appropriate to the real impact of a given contaminated site, instead of the use of arbitrary criteria that are intended to protect all sites. In this way, most dollars would be spent at cleaning up the highest risk sites. Recommendations were made as to how the science and the administration of risk assessments could be improved. It was suggested that a more holistic approach to site remediation must be taken. The issues of risk, risk trade-offs, cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness and prioritization within the site remediation context was also discussed. A comparative study of two risk assessment models, the ASTM-RBCA model used in Atlantic Canada, and the B.C. Vapour Intrusion Model Validation study was described. 23 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. Risk assessment and risk management at the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA): a perspective on the monitoring of foods for chemical residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bietlot, Henri P; Kolakowski, Beata

    2012-08-01

    The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) uses 'Ranked Risk Assessment' (RRA) to prioritize chemical hazards for inclusion in monitoring programmes or method development projects based on their relative risk. The relative risk is calculated for a chemical by scoring toxicity and exposure in the 'risk model scoring system' of the Risk Priority Compound List (RPCL). The relative ranking and the risk management options are maintained and updated in the RPCL. The ranking may be refined by the data generated by the sampling and testing programs. The two principal sampling and testing programmes are the National Chemical Residue Monitoring Program (NCRMP) and the Food Safety Action Plan (FSAP). The NCRMP sampling plans focus on the analysis of federally registered products (dairy, eggs, honey, meat and poultry, fresh and processed fruit and vegetable commodities, and maple syrup) for residues of veterinary drugs, pesticides, environmental contaminants, mycotoxins, and metals. The NCRMP is complemented by the Food Safety Action Plan (FSAP) targeted surveys. These surveys focus on emerging chemical hazards associated with specific foods or geographical regions for which applicable maximum residue limits (MRLs) are not set. The data from the NCRMP and FSAP also influence the risk management (follow-up) options. Follow-up actions vary according to the magnitude of the health risk, all with the objective of preventing any repeat occurrence to minimize consumer exposure to a product representing a potential risk to human health. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2012. Drug Testing and Analysis © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Scenario modeling potential eco-efficiency gains from a transition to organic agriculture: life cycle perspectives on Canadian canola, corn, soy, and wheat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, N; Arsenault, N; Tyedmers, P

    2008-12-01

    We used Life Cycle Assessment to scenario model the potential reductions in cumulative energy demand (both fossil and renewable) and global warming, acidifying, and ozone-depleting emissions associated with a hypothetical national transition from conventional to organic production of four major field crops [canola (Brassica rapa), corn (Zea mays), soy (Glycine max), and wheat (Triticum aestivum)] in Canada. Models of these systems were constructed using a combination of census data, published values, and the requirements for organic production described in the Canadian National Organic Standards in order to be broadly representative of the similarities and differences that characterize these disparate production technologies. Our results indicate that organic crop production would consume, on average, 39% as much energy and generate 77% of the global warming emissions, 17% of the ozone-depleting emissions, and 96% of the acidifying emissions associated with current national production of these crops. These differences were almost exclusively due to the differences in fertilizers used in conventional and organic farming and were most strongly influenced by the higher cumulative energy demand and emissions associated with producing conventional nitrogen fertilizers compared to the green manure production used for biological nitrogen fixation in organic agriculture. Overall, we estimate that a total transition to organic production of these crops in Canada would reduce national energy consumption by 0.8%, global warming emissions by 0.6%, and acidifying emissions by 1.0% but have a negligible influence on reducing ozone-depleting emissions.

  1. Scenario Modeling Potential Eco-Efficiency Gains from a Transition to Organic Agriculture: Life Cycle Perspectives on Canadian Canola, Corn, Soy, and Wheat Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, N.; Arsenault, N.; Tyedmers, P.

    2008-12-01

    We used Life Cycle Assessment to scenario model the potential reductions in cumulative energy demand (both fossil and renewable) and global warming, acidifying, and ozone-depleting emissions associated with a hypothetical national transition from conventional to organic production of four major field crops [canola ( Brassica rapa), corn ( Zea mays), soy ( Glycine max), and wheat ( Triticum aestivum)] in Canada. Models of these systems were constructed using a combination of census data, published values, and the requirements for organic production described in the Canadian National Organic Standards in order to be broadly representative of the similarities and differences that characterize these disparate production technologies. Our results indicate that organic crop production would consume, on average, 39% as much energy and generate 77% of the global warming emissions, 17% of the ozone-depleting emissions, and 96% of the acidifying emissions associated with current national production of these crops. These differences were almost exclusively due to the differences in fertilizers used in conventional and organic farming and were most strongly influenced by the higher cumulative energy demand and emissions associated with producing conventional nitrogen fertilizers compared to the green manure production used for biological nitrogen fixation in organic agriculture. Overall, we estimate that a total transition to organic production of these crops in Canada would reduce national energy consumption by 0.8%, global warming emissions by 0.6%, and acidifying emissions by 1.0% but have a negligible influence on reducing ozone-depleting emissions.

  2. The Canadian mobile satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertenyi, Elemer

    1992-07-01

    Plans to upgrade Canadian mobile data services by introducing a full, two way mobile voice and data service, using a large geostationary satellite which is scheduled to be launched in 1994, are reported. This Mobile Satellite (MSAT) will offer customers the ability to communicate, using mobile or transportable terminals, from the most remote parts of the continent, to any other point within North America, and indeed the whole world. Currently planned MSAT services are reviewed, the main features of the overall system are outlined, and the configuration and key performance parameters of the MSAT satellite are presented. The communications subsystem is detailed, and a summary of the spacecraft service module is given.

  3. Improving knowledge transfer on chronic respiratory diseases: a Canadian perspective. How to translate recent advances in respiratory diseases into day-to-day care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, L-P

    2008-12-01

    towards optimal care, but implementation of these Guides is still poor. Recent Canadian and International initiatives have proposed valid models to help address current care gaps.

  4. Ethical and legal implications of the risks of medical tourism for patients: a qualitative study of Canadian health and safety representatives’ perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Valorie A; Turner, Leigh; Cohen, I Glenn; Bristeir, Janet; Snyder, Jeremy; Casey, Victoria; Whitmore, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Medical tourism involves patients’ intentional travel to privately obtain medical care in another country. Empirical evidence regarding health and safety risks facing medical tourists is limited. Consideration of this issue is dominated by speculation and lacks meaningful input from people with specific expertise in patient health and safety. We consulted with patient health and safety experts in the Canadian province of British Columbia to explore their views concerning risks that medical tourists may be exposed to. Herein, we report on the findings, linking them to existing ethical and legal issues associated with medical tourism. Design We held a focus group in September 2011 in Vancouver, British Columbia with professionals representing different domains of patient health and safety expertise. The focus group was transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Participants Seven professionals representing the domains of tissue banking, blood safety, health records, organ transplantation, dental care, clinical ethics and infection control participated. Results Five dominant health and safety risks for outbound medical tourists were identified by participants: (1) complications; (2) specific concerns regarding organ transplantation; (3) transmission of antibiotic-resistant organisms; (4) (dis)continuity of medical documentation and (5) (un)informed decision-making. Conclusions Concern was expressed that medical tourism might have unintended and undesired effects upon patients’ home healthcare systems. The individual choices of medical tourists could have significant public consequences if healthcare facilities in their home countries must expend resources treating postoperative complications. Participants also expressed concern that medical tourists returning home with infections, particularly antibiotic-resistant infections, could place others at risk of exposure to infections that are refractory to standard treatment regimens and thereby pose

  5. Framing Canadian federalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saywell, John; Anastakis, Dimitry; Bryden, Penny E

    2009-01-01

    ... the pervasive effects that federalism has on Canadian politics, economics, culture, and history, and provide a detailed framework in which to understand contemporary federalism. Written in honour of John T. Saywell's half-century of accomplished and influential scholarly work and teaching, Framing Canadian Federalism is a timely and fitting t...

  6. Sleeping with the Elephant: A Canadian Strategic Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    the Canadian Forces Do Not Campaign,” in The Operational Art: Canadian Perspectives, Context and Concepts, ed. Allan English , Daniel Gosselin...armies. As he wrote in 1838: Nations with powerful imaginations are particularly liable to panics; and nothing short of strong institutions and skillful ...assumptions derived from common experiences and accepted narratives (both oral and written), that shape collective identity and relationships to

  7. THE PERSPECTIVES OF MARITIME TRANSPORT IN EU AND ITS INTEGRATION IN THE SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Voicu-Dorobantu Roxana; Paraschiv Dorel Mihai; Caragin Andreea Raluca

    2010-01-01

    In a globalised economy transport is one of the most important factors linking the national economies and maritime transport is the main way to deliver goods in international trade. For any international company, choosing the appropriate transportation as part of the logistic solution is vital for its competitiveness. In the context of the economic crisis, CEE strategic location factors play an important role for regional companies which adapt and change their logistic services by developing ...

  8. Strategy research of harbin city green transport and sustainable development from low carbon ecological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Wang; Xiao-jie, Qi

    2017-04-01

    With quick development of urbanization and mechanization, there exist some problems in the cities, such as traffic jam, traffic safety, and traffic pollution and so on. It is extremely urgent for the city to develop green transport, in order to relieve these problems and push forward low carbon ecological construction in Harbin. Strategy research of Harbin city green transport and sustainable development is done from the eight aspects of building public transport system of integration, bicycle, walking, and slow-moving system and so on based on analyzing demands of low carbon ecology on city green transport development, and Harbin traffic development state.

  9. Colloid-Facilitated Radionuclide Transport: Current State of Knowledge from a Nuclear Waste Repository Risk Assessment Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-25

    This report provides an overview of the current state of knowledge of colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport from a nuclear waste repository risk assessment perspective. It draws on work that has been conducted over the past 3 decades, although there is considerable emphasis given to work that has been performed over the past 3-5 years as part of the DOE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign. The timing of this report coincides with the completion of a 3-year DOE membership in the Colloids Formation and Migration (CFM) partnership, an international collaboration of scientists studying colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides at both the laboratory and field-scales in a fractured crystalline granodiorite at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland. This Underground Research Laboratory has hosted the most extensive and carefully-controlled set of colloid-facilitated solute transport experiments that have ever been conducted in an in-situ setting, and a summary of the results to date from these efforts, as they relate to transport over long time and distance scales, is provided in Chapter 3 of this report.

  10. [Canadian Petroleum Products Institute]: Annual review, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-01-01

    The CPPI was created as a non-profit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. The Institute represents a membership of Canadian companies involved in refining, transporting and marketing of petroleum products. These companies supply domestic and industrial consumers with products ranging from gasoline and diesel fuel to asphalt. The Institute conducts research to develop industry policy on environmental, health, safety and business issues. This report covers industry operations, industry economics and financial performance, environmental protection and safety, awards, and publications.

  11. Canadian Petroleum Products Institute: Annual report 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The CPPI was created as a non-profit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. The Institute represents a membership of Canadian companies involved in refining, transporting and marketing of petroleum products. These companies supply domestic and industrial consumers with products ranging from gasoline and diesel fuel to asphalt. The Institute conducts research to develop industry policy on environmental, health, safety and business issues. This report covers industry operations, industry economics and financial performance, environmental protection and safety, awards, and publications.

  12. Perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    regards scientific funding4. He never had a big institute in the modern sense and did not dispose of large funds or large numbers of people5. Conflict between Bernal and. Perspectives ... The problems of being a “polytropic scientist” have increased enormously. ... as ever for managing populations. People with power are.

  13. Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarone, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this "Perspectives" column is "Requiring a Proficiency Level as a Requirement for U.S. K-12 Teacher Licensure." In 1998, the American Council of Teachers of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) began to work with the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), which accredits teacher education programs…

  14. Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kussmann, Martin; Morine, Melissa J; Hager, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    We review here the status of human type 2 diabetes studies from a genetic, epidemiological, and clinical (intervention) perspective. Most studies limit analyses to one or a few omic technologies providing data of components of physiological processes. Since all chronic diseases are multifactorial...

  15. Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tamara Shefer

    maintaining safe school environments. This perspective paper outlines the NSSF's approach to preventing school violence. Keywords: national school safety framework, violence prevention, South African schools, school safety. INTRODUCTION. Schools should be safe places for teaching and learning, free of violence and ...

  16. THE PERSPECTIVES OF MARITIME TRANSPORT IN EU AND ITS INTEGRATION IN THE SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voicu-Dorobantu Roxana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In a globalised economy transport is one of the most important factors linking the national economies and maritime transport is the main way to deliver goods in international trade. For any international company, choosing the appropriate transportation as part of the logistic solution is vital for its competitiveness. In the context of the economic crisis, CEE strategic location factors play an important role for regional companies which adapt and change their logistic services by developing new scenarios for the shipping industry in order to obtain a better position on the global market. In addition to a favourable geographical location CEE has several other important arguments, like sufficient harbours for developing container terminals to launch extensive container transport transit. The most important recent trends in logistics are shown, as well as the framework of the EU maritime transport.

  17. Ion transport in the zebrafish kidney from a human disease angle: possibilities, considerations, and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Simone; Arjona, Francisco J

    2017-01-01

    Unique experimental advantages, such as its embryonic/larval transparency, high-throughput nature, and ease of genetic modification, underpin the rapid emergence of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a preeminent model in biomedical research. Particularly in the field of nephrology, the zebrafish provides a promising model for studying the physiological implications of human solute transport processes along consecutive nephron segments. However, although the zebrafish might be considered a valuable model for numerous renal ion transport diseases and functional studies of many channels and transporters, not all human renal electrolyte transport mechanisms and human diseases can be modeled in the zebrafish. With this review, we explore the ontogeny of zebrafish renal ion transport, its nephron structure and function, and thereby demonstrate the clinical translational value of this model. By critical assessment of genomic and amino acid conservation of human proteins involved in renal ion handling (channels, transporters, and claudins), kidney and nephron segment conservation, and renal electrolyte transport physiology in the zebrafish, we provide researchers and nephrologists with an indication of the possibilities and considerations of the zebrafish as a model for human renal ion transport. Combined with advanced techniques envisioned for the future, implementation of the zebrafish might expand beyond unraveling pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie distinct genetic or environmentally, i.e., pharmacological and lifestyle, induced renal transport deficits. Specifically, the ease of drug administration and the exploitation of improved genetic approaches might argue for the adoption of the zebrafish as a model for preclinical personalized medicine for distinct renal diseases and renal electrolyte transport proteins. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Resource Allocation for Sustainable Urban Transit from a Transport Diversity Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Min Feng

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Different transport stakeholders have different needs for transport infrastructure and services. Meeting the needs of all stakeholders implies a trade-off of benefits and costs between supply and demand and creates transport diversity issues. However, the literature has largely ignored these issues. Transport diversity can assess the level to which important needs are satisfied equitably, and monitor whether transportation systems are moving towards sustainability by confirming the targets and basic level of quality of life. Based on the concept of transport diversity, this study utilizes fuzzy multi-objective programming to solve non-linear multi-objective problems involving urban public transit systems to determine the impact of resource allocation on needs satisfaction in relation to stakeholder behaviors. The proposed approach avoids problems of inefficient and inequitable resource allocation. A real-life case is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of applying the proposed methodology. Furthermore, empirical outcomes show that recent investments allocated to public transit systems considered equitable stakeholder satisfaction for both mass rapid transit (MRT and bus, and also promoted transport diversity in the Taipei metropolitan area.

  19. The Canadian elder standard - pricing the cost of basic needs for the Canadian elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Bonnie-Jeanne; Andrews, Doug; Brown, Robert L

    2010-03-01

    We determined the after-tax income required to finance basic needs for Canadian elders living with different circumstances in terms of age, gender, city of residence, household size, homeowner or renter status, means of transportation, and health status. Using 2001 as our base year, we priced the typical expenses for food, shelter, medical, transportation, miscellaneous basic living items and home-based long-term care for elders living in five Canadian cities. This is the first Canadian study of basic living expenses tailored to elders instead of adults in general, prepared on an absolute rather than a relative basis. We also accounted for an individual's unique life circumstances and established the varying effect that they have on the cost of basic expenses, particularly for home care. We found that the maximum Guaranteed Income Supplement and Old Age Security benefit did not meet the cost of basic needs for an elder living in poor circumstances.

  20. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    container. It now permits free transit of shipping containers from their western ports, if transported by rail directly to the U.S. ( Mireles , 2005, p...Transportation Industry Study Seminar. Mireles , Richard, Castillo. (2005, January). A Cure for West Coast Congestion. Logistics Today, Vol. 46, Issue 1. 1

  1. Road pricing : a transport geographical perspective. Geographical accessibility and short and long-term behavioural effects

    OpenAIRE

    Tillema, T

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of a road pricing measure leads to changes in the transport costs on (certain) roads in a network at a certain time, possibly influencing the geographical accessibility of (groups of) people or firms at certain locations. Geographical accessibility indicators or measures give the opportunity to gain a quick and interpretable insight into the (accessibility) effects as a result of changes in the land-use or transport system (e.g. caused by certain policy interventions). These ...

  2. MOTIVATIONS FOR INNOVATION IN PUBLIC TRANSPORT: THE BENEFITS OF A LOW COST PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Klasing Chen; Sophie Hooge; Blanche Segrestin; Armand Hatchuel

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The public transport sector faces several challenges today, due to increasing demand, aggravated by limited funding. Although the dual need for original solutions and cost reductions has been identified, a lack of innovation has been pointed out in literature. Through a systematic review of scholars' literature and its comparison to a low cost approach by a public transport operator, this article aims to provide relevant data on what really counts to drive public trans...

  3. A European perspective on GIS-based walkability and active modes of transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasser, Gerlinde; van Dyck, Delfien; Titze, Sylvia; Stronegger, Willibald J

    2017-02-01

    The association between GIS-based walkability and walking for transport is considered to be well established in USA and in Australia. Research on the association between walkability and cycling for transport in European cities is lacking. The aim of this study was to test the predictive validity of established walkability measures and to explore alternative walkability measures associated with walking and cycling for transport in a European context. Outcome data were derived from the representative cross-sectional survey ( n  = 843) ‘Radfreundliche Stadt’ of adults in the city of Graz (Austria). GIS-based walkability was measured using both established measures (e.g. gross population density, household unit density, entropy index, three-way intersection density, IPEN walkability index) and alternative measures (e.g. proportion of mixed land use, four-way intersection density, Graz walkability index). ANCOVAs were conducted to examine the adjusted association between walkability measures and outcomes. Household unit density, proportion of mixed land use, three-way intersection density and IPEN walkability index were positively associated with walking for transport, but the other measures were not. All walkability measures were positively associated with cycling for transport. The established walkability measures were applicable to a European city such as Graz. The alternative walkability measures performed well in a European context. Due to measurement issues the association between these walkability measures and walking for transport needs to be investigated further.

  4. Association of the dopamine transporter gene and ADHD symptoms in a Canadian population-based sample of same-age twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Wigg, Karen G; Feng, Yu; Dionne, Ginette; Robaey, Philippe; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Simard, Louise; Schachar, Russell; Tremblay, Richard E; Pérusse, Daniel; Boivin, Michel; Barr, Cathy L

    2008-12-05

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent psychiatric disorder emerging during childhood. Psychostimulant medications (e.g., methylphenidate) noticeably reduce ADHD symptoms in most children. Since methylphenidate inhibits dopamine transporter activity, the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) was considered to be the prime candidate risk gene in ADHD. Several studies found evidence for an association between the 10-repeat allele of the variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) located in the 3' untranslated region and ADHD and/or ADHD symptoms in clinical and population-based samples. However, this finding was not replicated in all samples. In this study, we investigated the association between the DAT1 gene and ADHD symptoms in a population-based twin sample from Québec (Canada). We used two polymorphisms, the VNTR and rs27072, the last providing the most significant results in a clinical sample from Toronto (Ontario, Canada). No association was noted between the VNTR and ADHD symptoms in children at 6 and 7 years of age, as reported by teachers. However, a significant association was found for the rs27072 polymorphism and symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. These findings indicate that the DAT1 gene contributes to ADHD symptoms in this sample and further suggest that the VNTR may not be the optimal polymorphism for study in all populations. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Canadians' eating habits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garriguet, Didier

    2007-01-01

    This report is an overview of Canadians' eating habits: total calories consumed and the number of servings from the various food groups, as well as the percentage of total calories from fat, protein and carbohydrates...

  6. 76 FR 57798 - Canadian Pacific Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Consolidated Rail Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Canadian Pacific Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Consolidated Rail Corporation Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement,\\1\\ Consolidated Rail Corporation (CRC...

  7. Trends in transportation energy use, 1970--1988: An international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L.; Steiner, R.; Meyers, S.

    1992-05-01

    Personal mobility and timely movement of goods have become increasingly important around the world, and energy use for transportation has grown rapidly as a consequence. Energy is used in transportation for two rather different activities: moving people, which we refer to as passenger travel, and moving freight. While freight transport is closely connected to economic activity, much of travel is conducted for personal reasons. In the OECD countries, travel accounts for around 70% of total transportation energy use. In contrast, freight transport accounts for the larger share in the Former East Bloc and the developing countries (LDCs). In our analysis, we focus on three elements that shape transportation energy use: activity, which we measure in passenger-km (p-km) or tonne-km (t-km), modal structure (the share of total activity accounted for by various modes), and modal energy intensities (energy use per p-km or t-km). The modal structure of travel and freight transport is important because there are often considerable differences in energy intensity among modes. The average 1988 average energy use per p-km of different travel modes in the United States (US), West Germany, and Japan are illustrated. With the exception of rail in the US, bus and rail travel had much lower intensity than automobile and air travel. What is perhaps surprising is that the intensity of air travel is only slightly higher than that of automobile travel. This reflects the much higher utilization of vehicle capacity in air travel and the large share of automobile travel that takes place in urban traffic (automobile energy intensity in long-distance driving is much lower than the average over types of driving).

  8. Una lectura del transporte público concesionado en Ciudad de México desde la visión del orden urbano 1/A Reading Public Transport Concession in Mexico City from the Perspective of Urban Order/Uma leitura do transporte público concessionado na Cidade do México desde a visão da ordem urbana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Madisson Yojan Carmona Rojas

    2016-01-01

      This article proposes a reading of public transport under concession in Mexico City from the perspective of urban order analysis -a concept developed by Emilio Duhau and Angela Giglia in various studies...

  9. Land use and transport relationships: A perspective from the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seskin, S.N.

    1995-12-31

    As transportation and land use planners and policy makers world wide grapple with the increasingly challenging consequences of automobile use, there is a growing need to communicate globally about both the knowledge of interactions between transport and land use and the ability to analyze these relationships in a systematic manner. As the world`s largest consumer of energy in general and petroleum in particular, the United States continues to conduct research and innovate in integrated transportation and land use policy issues. The need for improving the state of knowledge and practice, however, is more compelling in developing nations, such as Chile and Thailand, from which, despite their transportation and environmental problems, the United States in fact has much to learn. Nevertheless it is instructive to take a long and broad look at the way the United States is planning and building urban environments. This paper focuses on four aspects of that effort. The first is the state of knowledge on the relationships between land use and travel demand. The second is the analytic tools used to evaluate these relationships. Third is the array of approaches used by government to integrate transport and land use. The last is the ways in which individuals and organizations outside of the formal structure of government participate in metropolitan planning and development.

  10. Medium and long term perspectives of Inland Waterway Transport in the European Union. Executive Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-01-15

    If inland shipping is to remain the greenest mode of transport, it will need to improve its environmental act in the coming years. If it fails to do so, it will be overtaken by road transport. That is one of the conclusions of the title study. In this study CE Delft performed the analyses of emissions and offers recommendations for reducing them. The key issue in this regard is to create financial incentives for ship owners to invest in modern, clean engines and retrofit technologies, complementing standards for new engines. The study will be used as a basis for drawing up policy on inland shipping towards 2020, in line with the EU White Paper on transport policy.

  11. Program manager perspectives on the service system to meet the needs of youth with concurrent disorders: findings from a Canadian national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Joanna L; Chaim, Gloria; Luca, Stephanie; Brownlie, E B; Rosenkranz, Susan; Skilling, Tracey A; Beitchman, Joseph H

    2015-09-18

    Concurrent mental health and substance use issues are a serious problem for adolescents and transition-aged youth. Service providers across sectors must be involved in informing system change to meet youth needs. This study examines stakeholder perspectives on services for youth with concurrent disorders including 1) clinical issues in youth services; 2) priority system issues; and 3) optimal knowledge translation strategies to enhance researcher-stakeholder communication. A database of youth clinical services across Canada was developed. Program managers (n = 481) at cross-sectoral (mental health, addictions, justice, child welfare, advocacy, and outreach) youth-serving (aged 12-24) programs were invited to complete an online survey; 232 responded. Survey questions concerned youth needs, program characteristics, priorities for service system enhancement; and usual and preferred knowledge translation methods. Across service sectors, the mean estimated proportion of youth using services with concurrent mental health and substance use problems was 55%. Program managers reported routine screening for mental health and substance use concerns (66%), referring to other agencies to meet the concurrent disorder needs of youth (54%), offering specific programming for concurrent disorders (42%), and program evaluation (48%). Notably, mental health programs were significantly less likely to offer concurrent disorders services than addictions programs. Where services do exist, most are targeted at youth aged 12-18 years, with fewer services available for transition-aged youth. Endorsement of various system change goals exceeded 80%, with a particular emphasis on improving access to services (49%), ensuring a continuum of services for varying levels of severity (37%), and improved integration across sectors (36%). Preferred knowledge exchange methods were workshops and websites for receiving information; and focus groups or surveys, rather than intensive participation on

  12. Hybrid-Electric and Distributed Propulsion Technologies for Large Commercial Transports: A NASA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madavan, Nateri K.; Del Rosario, Ruben; Jankovsky, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    Develop and demonstrate technologies that will revolutionize commercial transport aircraft propulsion and accelerate development of all-electric aircraft architectures. Enable radically different propulsion systems that can meet national environmental and fuel burn reduction goals for subsonic commercial aircraft. Focus on future large regional jets and single-aisle twin (Boeing 737- class) aircraft for greatest impact on fuel burn, noise and emissions. Research horizon is long-term but with periodic spinoff of technologies for introduction in aircraft with more- and all-electric architectures. Research aligned with new NASA Aeronautics strategic R&T thrusts in areas of transition to low-carbon propulsion and ultra-efficient commercial transports.

  13. International Perspectives and Implementation of Sustainability Criteria in the Development of Biofuels for Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    Establishing sustainability criteria for the development of biofuels is an important step for the consolidation of an international market on biofuels for transport for several reasons: Biofuels are expected to play a significant role in a transition to low carbon future in transport in particula...... to supply long-haul heavy trucks and aviation modes that require energy intensive liquid fuels (IEA, 2009). Sustainability criteria can help create a clear framework to producers/business/ investors necessary to help minimize threads and to maximize opportunities for market development...

  14. The Integration Challenge: Connecting International Students with Their Canadian Peers. CBIE Research in Brief #2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Bureau for International Education (CBIE) - Bureau canadien de l’éducation internationale (BCEI), 2015

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of international students themselves, this paper identifies both internal and external barriers that impede the formation of friendships between international students and their Canadian counterparts across Canada's post-secondary campuses. Shedding light on why international students do not make friends with Canadian students…

  15. Committing Canadian sociology: developing a Canadian sociology and a sociology of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Ralph

    2014-05-01

    This paper is a slightly revised version of the author's "Outstanding Career Award Lecture" presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Sociological Association in Victoria, British Columbia on June 6, 2013. The paper distinguishes between Canadian Sociology and the Sociology of Canada. The former involves the explanatory stance that one takes to understanding Canada. The latter addresses the significant social dimensions that underlie Canadian social organization, culture, and behavior. I make a case for a Canadian Sociology that focuses on the unique features of Canadian society rather than adopting a comparative perspective. I also argue that there is a continuing need within the Sociology of Canada to address the issues of staples development. However, I argue that "new" staples analysis must have a directional change from that of the past, in that social processes now largely determine the pattern of staples development. Moreover, new staples analysis must include issues that were never part of earlier staples analysis, such as issues of environmental impacts and of staples depletion under conditions, such as climate change. The paper concludes by analyzing four factors that provide the dominant social contexts for analyzing modern staples development: (1) the rise of neoliberal government, (2) the implementation of globalization and its social consequences, (3) the assumption of aboriginal rights and entitlement, and (4) the rise of environmentalism. These factors were generally not considered in earlier staples approaches. They are critical to understanding the role of staples development and its impact on Canada in the present time.

  16. Road pricing : a transport geographical perspective. Geographical accessibility and short and long-term behavioural effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillema, T.

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of a road pricing measure leads to changes in the transport costs on (certain) roads in a network at a certain time, possibly influencing the geographical accessibility of (groups of) people or firms at certain locations. Geographical accessibility indicators or measures give the

  17. Japanese perspectives and research on packaging, transport and storage of spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saegusa, T.; Ito, C.; Yamakawa, H.; Shirai, K. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Abiko (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The Japanese policy on spent fuel is reprocessing. Until, reprocessed, spent fuel shall be stored properly. This paper overviews current status of transport and storage of spent fuel with related research in Japan. The research was partly carried out under a contract of Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of the Japanese government.

  18. Dynamics of air transport networks: A review from a complex systems perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E.C. Rocha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Air transport systems are highly dynamic at temporal scales from minutes to years. This dynamic behavior not only characterizes the evolution of the system but also affect the system's functioning. Understanding the evolutionary mechanisms is thus fundamental in order to better design optimal air transport networks that benefits companies, passengers and the environment. In this review, we briefly present and discuss the state-of-the-art on time-evolving air transport networks. We distinguish the structural analysis of sequences of network snapshots, ideal for long-term network evolution (e.g. annual evolution, and temporal paths, preferred for short-term dynamics (e.g. hourly evolution. We emphasize that most previous research focused on the first modeling approach (i.e. long-term whereas only a few studies look at high-resolution temporal paths. We conclude the review highlighting that much research remains to be done, both to apply already available methods and to develop new measures for temporal paths on air transport networks. In particular, we identify that the study of delays, network resilience and optimization of resources (aircraft and crew are critical topics.

  19. Joint Road Forward: a new set of tools for including excluded perspectives on transport infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishna, H.; Palavalli, B; Frank, A.F.C.; Meijer, S; Subrahmanian, E

    2016-01-01

    Planning of transportation infrastructure is built upon an established set of planning methods to estimate the need for and specifications of roads, amongst others. The abstraction from the real world as needed for applying clear planning tools has grown to considerably differ from the complex urban

  20. Border Impact: The Mass Media and Canadian Identity; Proceedings of the Association for Education in Journalism Plenary Session, August 18, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Richard R., Ed.

    This document contains the transcripts of three speeches given at the 1975 annual convention of the Association for Education in Journalism. Frank Peers'"Border Impact: The Historical Perspective" examines the effect of U.S. media on Canadian media and Canadian identity. It is argued that Canadian identity tends to be expressed in…

  1. Axon Transport and Neuropathy: Relevant Perspectives on the Etiopathogenesis of Familial Dysautonomia

    OpenAIRE

    Tourtellotte, Warren G.

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathies are highly prevalent and are most often associated with chronic disease, side effects from chemotherapy, or toxic-metabolic abnormalities. Neuropathies are less commonly caused by genetic mutations, but studies of the normal function of mutated proteins have identified particular vulnerabilities that often implicate mitochondrial dynamics and axon transport mechanisms. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies are a group of phenotypically related diseases caused b...

  2. Transportes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidalgo Fernández-Cano, Amalio

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available El movimiento de materiales dentro de la Factoría está atendido por tres principales medios de transporte, en consonancia con las características del material y de los desplazamientos. Así se han establecido: sistemas de cintas transportadoras, una red ferroviaria de ancho normal y una completa malla de caminos enlazando funcionalmente las instalaciones.

  3. "If You Don't Do Parking Management .. Forget Your Behaviour Change, It's Not Going to Work.": Health and Transport Practitioner Perspectives on Workplace Active Travel Promotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Petrunoff

    Full Text Available After having conducted two studies of the effectiveness of workplace travel plans for promoting active travel, we investigated health and transport practitioners' perspectives on implementing workplace travel plans to share some of the lessons learnt. The objectives of this study were to describe perceived elements of effective workplace travel plans, barriers and enablers to workplace travel planning, their experiences of working with the other profession on travel plan implementation, their recommendations for workplace travel planning, and also to explore similarities and differences in transport and health practitioner perspectives.Fourteen health and ten transport practitioners who had prior involvement in workplace travel plan programs were purposefully selected from workplaces in Australia. We conducted 20 in-depth interviews since data saturation had been reached at this point, and data were subject to framework analysis.Perceived essential elements of effective workplace travel plans included parking management; leadership, organisational commitment and governance; skills and other resources like a dedicated travel plan coordinator; and, pre-conditions including supportive transport infrastructure in the surrounds. Recommendations for promoting travel plans included supportive government policy, focusing on business benefits and working at different scales of implementation (e.g. single large worksites and business precincts. Health and transport practitioner perspectives differed, with transport practitioners believing that parking management is the key action for managing travel demand at a worksite.Health practitioners implementing travel plans may require training including concepts of travel demand management, and support from transport planners on parking management strategies. Promoting an understanding of the shared travel behaviour change skills of transport and health practitioners may assist further collaboration. For take

  4. "If You Don't Do Parking Management .. Forget Your Behaviour Change, It's Not Going to Work.": Health and Transport Practitioner Perspectives on Workplace Active Travel Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrunoff, Nick; Rissel, Chris; Wen, Li Ming

    2017-01-01

    After having conducted two studies of the effectiveness of workplace travel plans for promoting active travel, we investigated health and transport practitioners' perspectives on implementing workplace travel plans to share some of the lessons learnt. The objectives of this study were to describe perceived elements of effective workplace travel plans, barriers and enablers to workplace travel planning, their experiences of working with the other profession on travel plan implementation, their recommendations for workplace travel planning, and also to explore similarities and differences in transport and health practitioner perspectives. Fourteen health and ten transport practitioners who had prior involvement in workplace travel plan programs were purposefully selected from workplaces in Australia. We conducted 20 in-depth interviews since data saturation had been reached at this point, and data were subject to framework analysis. Perceived essential elements of effective workplace travel plans included parking management; leadership, organisational commitment and governance; skills and other resources like a dedicated travel plan coordinator; and, pre-conditions including supportive transport infrastructure in the surrounds. Recommendations for promoting travel plans included supportive government policy, focusing on business benefits and working at different scales of implementation (e.g. single large worksites and business precincts). Health and transport practitioner perspectives differed, with transport practitioners believing that parking management is the key action for managing travel demand at a worksite. Health practitioners implementing travel plans may require training including concepts of travel demand management, and support from transport planners on parking management strategies. Promoting an understanding of the shared travel behaviour change skills of transport and health practitioners may assist further collaboration. For take-up by

  5. The rhesus protein RhCG: a new perspective in ammonium transport and distal urinary acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Carsten A; Devuyst, Olivier; Belge, Hendrica; Bourgeois, Soline; Houillier, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Urinary acidification is a complex process requiring the coordinated action of enzymes and transport proteins and resulting in the removal of acid and the regeneration of bicarbonate. Proton secretion is mediated by luminal H(+)-ATPases and requires the parallel movement of NH₃, and its protonation to NH₄(+), to provide sufficient buffering. It has been long assumed that ammonia secretion is a passive process occurring by means of simple diffusion driven by the urinary trapping of ammonium. However, new data indicate that mammalian cells possess specific membrane proteins from the family of rhesus proteins involved in ammonia/μm permeability. Rhesus proteins were first identified in yeast and later also in plants, algae, and mammals. In rodents, RhBG and RhCG are expressed in the collecting duct, whereas in humans only RhCG was detected. Their expression increases with maturation of the kidney and accelerates after birth in parallel with other acid-base transport proteins. Deletion of RhBG in mice had no effect on renal ammonium excretion, whereas RhCG deficiency reduces renal ammonium secretion strongly, causes metabolic acidosis in acid-challenged mice, and impairs restoration of normal acid-base status. Microperfusion experiments or functional reconstitution in liposomes demonstrates that ammonia is the most likely substrate of RhCG. Similarly, crystal structures of human RhCG and the homologous bacterial AmtB protein suggest that these proteins may form gas channels.

  6. Solar radiation transport in the cloudy atmosphere: a 3D perspective on observations and climate impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Anthony B.; Marshak, Alexander

    2010-02-01

    The interplay of sunlight with clouds is a ubiquitous and often pleasant visual experience, but it conjures up major challenges for weather, climate, environmental science and beyond. Those engaged in the characterization of clouds (and the clear air nearby) by remote sensing methods are even more confronted. The problem comes, on the one hand, from the spatial complexity of real clouds and, on the other hand, from the dominance of multiple scattering in the radiation transport. The former ingredient contrasts sharply with the still popular representation of clouds as homogeneous plane-parallel slabs for the purposes of radiative transfer computations. In typical cloud scenes the opposite asymptotic transport regimes of diffusion and ballistic propagation coexist. We survey the three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric radiative transfer literature over the past 50 years and identify three concurrent and intertwining thrusts: first, how to assess the damage (bias) caused by 3D effects in the operational 1D radiative transfer models? Second, how to mitigate this damage? Finally, can we exploit 3D radiative transfer phenomena to innovate observation methods and technologies? We quickly realize that the smallest scale resolved computationally or observationally may be artificial but is nonetheless a key quantity that separates the 3D radiative transfer solutions into two broad and complementary classes: stochastic and deterministic. Both approaches draw on classic and contemporary statistical, mathematical and computational physics.

  7. China’s Energy Transition in the Power and Transport Sectors from a Substitution Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangfeng Han

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Facing heavy air pollution, China needs to transition to a clean and sustainable energy system, especially in the power and transport sectors, which contribute the highest greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. The core of an energy transition is energy substitution and energy technology improvement. In this paper, we forecast the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE for power generation in 2030 in China. Cost-emission effectiveness of the substitution between new energy vehicles and conventional vehicles is also calculated in this study. The results indicate that solar photovoltaic (PV and wind power will be cost comparative in the future. New energy vehicles are more expensive than conventional vehicles due to their higher manufacturer suggested retail price (MSRP. The cost-emission effectiveness of the substitution between new energy vehicles and conventional vehicles would be $96.7/ton or $114.8/ton. Gasoline prices, taxes, and vehicle insurance will be good directions for policy implementation after the ending of subsidies.

  8. Twitter and Canadian Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Max

    2012-01-01

    An emerging group of leaders in Canadian education has attracted thousands of followers. They've made Twitter an extension of their lives, delivering twenty or more tweets a day that can include, for example, links to media articles, research, new ideas from education bloggers, or to their own, or simply a personal thought. At their best,…

  9. Forty Years of Kinesiology: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Digby

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a brief history of the world's first two kinesiology programs at the University of Waterloo and Simon Fraser University, and then gives an overview of the development of kinesiology in Canada over the last 40 years. The issues addressed include departmental affiliation and accreditation, the development of provincial and…

  10. Polling and public opinion: a Canadian perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Butler, Peter Marshall

    2007-01-01

    ..., advertising, and government policy. Using such controversial issues such as free trade, health care, same-sex marriage, and national security, Butler argues that popular opinion on such hot-button topics as these can be guided and changed according to how polls are interpreted for and presented to the public. As well as analysing the impact of po...

  11. Canadian Perspectives on Sex Stereotyping in Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Alice E.; Whipple, Thomas W.

    Based on research findings that sex stereotyping used for product commercials is offensive and often ineffective, recommendations for change have been proposed to the advertising industry. Women, in particular, have been portrayed in advertising in traditional domestic roles, emphasizing the consumer role, especially in television advertising.…

  12. Stress from an administrative perspective in public transport drivers in Mexico City: Minibus and metrobus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lámbarry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El estrés es una de las enfermedades laborales que más afectan a los trabajadores en todo el mundo,perjudicando su productividad y rendimiento tanto propio como de las organizaciones donde laboran,e incluso su salud física y mental. Según la Organización Internacional del Trabajo son los trabajadoresmexicanos quienes mayormente lo padecen a nivel mundial, toda vez que una de las profesiones másestresantes es ser conductor de transporte público. Es por ello que el objetivo de esta investigación esestudiar el estrés laboral en los conductores de autobuses de tránsito rápido y microbuses de la Ciu-dad de México. El método empleado se fundamenta en el análisis estadístico factorial exploratorio. Apartir de lo anterior, se concluye que los factores que más inciden en la aparición de estrés son organi-zacionales, ambientales (físico/individual, intrínsecos del puesto, extraorganizacionales e individuales.Aunque divergentes entre los conductores, son los de minibús los que más lo padecen.

  13. An isotopic perspective on the transport of Byzantine mining camp laborers into southwestern Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Megan A; Coleman, Drew S; Dettman, David L; al-Shiyab, Abdel Halim

    2009-11-01

    The Byzantine Empire managed a complex administrative network that controlled the mining and processing of natural resources from within its boundaries. Scholars relying upon archeological and textual evidence debate the level of imperial involvement in these ventures, particularly in the provinces. Ancient sources note that many mining camps, for instance, purportedly contained criminal laborers and elite administrators transported from distant locales, indicating significant organization and expenditures by the imperial administration to run the mines. This analysis explores the presence of these nonlocal individuals in a cemetery associated with the third to seventh century A.D. mining camp of Phaeno (Faynan), located in modern Jordan. Strontium isotope analysis of 31 burials indicates that most spent their childhood in a similar geological region as Phaeno, implying that they were locally born. The delta(18)O results mirror the homogeneous (87)Sr/(86)Sr values, confirming a local origin for most of the sample. Isotopic evidence therefore suggests that the Phaeno mining camp was largely a local operation, contrary to the picture presented in textual sources, although the profits surely padded imperial coffers.

  14. Perspectives for drive technologies and biogenic energy sources in the transport sector through to the year 2050; Perspektiven fuer Antriebstechnologien und biogene Energietraeger im Verkehr bis 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumann, Karin; Mueller-Langer, Franziska [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gGmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    The supply and use of biofuels as well as perspectively also other renewable energy resources were and will be strongly driven by policies and respective frame conditions. On national and EU level these are set and foreseeable until 2020. However with regard to reaching the 2050-targets no defined measures are in place. In depency how the strategic focus will be led with regard to energy resources and related technologies different scenarios are possible to meet the energy demand in transport until 2050. This is especially true for transport sector like aviation where only very limited alternatives to conventional jetfuel are possible.

  15. Structure and transport at grain boundaries in polycrystalline olivine: An atomic-scale perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantisi, Boris; Sator, Nicolas; Guillot, Bertrand

    2017-12-01

    Structure and transport properties at grain boundaries in polycrystalline olivine have been investigated at the atomic scale by molecular dynamics simulation (MD) using an empirical ionocovalent interaction potential. On the time scale of the simulation (a few tens of nanoseconds for a system size of ∼650,000 atoms) grain boundaries and grain interior were identified by mapping the atomic displacements along the simulation run. In the investigated temperature range (1300-1700 K) the mean thickness of the grain boundary phase is evaluated between 0.5 and 2 nm, a value which depends on temperature and grain size. The structure of the grain boundary phase is found to be disordered (amorphous-like) and is different from the one exhibited by the supercooled liquid. The self-diffusion coefficients of major elements in the intergranular region range from ∼10-13 to 10-10 m2/s between 1300 and 1700 K (with DSigb < DOgb < DFegb < DMggb) and are only one order of magnitude smaller than those evaluated in the supercooled melt. In using a newly derived expression for the bulk self-diffusion coefficient it is concluded that the latter one is driven by the grain boundary contribution as long as the grain size is smaller than a centimeter. In assuming that the electrical conduction at grain boundaries is purely ionic, the macroscopic grain boundary conductivity is found to be two orders of magnitude lower than in molten olivine, and one order of magnitude higher than the lattice conductivity. A consequence is that the conductivity of the olivine polycrystal is dominated by the grain interior contribution as soon as the grain size is larger than a micrometer or so. The grain boundary viscosity has been evaluated from the Green-Kubo relation expressing the viscosity as function of the stress tensor time correlation function. In spite of a slow convergence of the calculation by MD, the grain boundary viscosity was estimated about ∼105 Pa s at 1500 K, a value in agreement with

  16. Dose in the transport of radiopharmaceuticals. Change of perspective for reduction; Dosis en el transporte de radiofarmacos. Cambio de perspectiva para su reduccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acena Moreno, V.; Zamora Martin, F.; Rubio de Juan, E.

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents an analysis, covering a period of seven years, the doses received by workers in the transport sector, especially road transport of radiopharmaceuticals. This analysis details the reasons for the doses received by these workers, the measures have been adopted during this period for their reduction and additional measures would be required to achieve further reductions, taking into account the increase in recent years number of this type of transport and transport indices (TI) for some packages.

  17. Canadian Mathematical Congress

    CERN Document Server

    1977-01-01

    For two weeks in August, 1975 more than 140 mathematicians and other scientists gathered at the Universite de Sherbrooke. The occasion was the 15th Biennial Seminar of the Canadian Mathematical Congress, entitled Mathematics and the Life Sciences. Participants in this inter­ disciplinary gathering included researchers and graduate students in mathematics, seven different areas of biological science, physics, chemistry and medical science. Geographically, those present came from the United States and the United Kingdom as well as from academic departments and government agencies scattered across Canada. In choosing this particular interdisciplinary topic the programme committee had two chief objectives. These were to promote Canadian research in mathematical problems of the life sciences, and to encourage co-operation and exchanges between mathematical scientists" biologists and medical re­ searchers. To accomplish these objective the committee assembled a stim­ ulating programme of lectures and talks. Six ...

  18. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  19. Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon H Hoeppner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic tuberculosis (TB was almost certainly present in Canadian aboriginal people (aboriginal Canadians denotes status Indians, Inuit, nonstatus Indians and metis as reported by Statistics Canada before the Old World traders arrived. However, the social changes that resulted from contact with these traders created the conditions that converted endemic TB into epidemic TB. The incidence of TB varied inversely with the time interval from this cultural collision, which began on the east coast in the 16th century and ended in the Northern Territories in the 20th century. This relatively recent epidemic explains why the disease is more frequent in aboriginal children than in Canadian-born nonaboriginal people. Treatment plans must account for the socioeconomic conditions and cultural characteristics of the aboriginal people, especially healing models and language. Prevention includes bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and chemoprophylaxis, and must account for community conditions, such as rates of suicide, which have exceeded the rate of TB. The control of TB requires a centralized program with specifically directed funding. It must include a program that works in partnership with aboriginal communities.

  20. Iron sufficiency of Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Marcia; Greene-Finestone, Linda; Lowell, Hélène; Levesque, Johanne; Robinson, Stacey

    2012-12-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world, but little is known about the iron status of people in Canada, where the last estimates are from 1970-1972. The data are from cycle 2 (2009 to 2011) of the Canadian Health Measures Survey, which collected blood samples from a nationally representative sample of Canadians aged 3 to 79. Descriptive statistics (percentages, arithmetic means, geometric means) were used to estimate hemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations, and other markers of iron status. Analyses were performed by age/sex group, household income, self-perceived health, diet, and use of iron supplements. World Health Organization reference values (2001) were used to estimate the prevalence of iron sufficiency and anemia. The overall prevalence of anemia was low in the 2009-to-2011 period--97% of Canadians had sufficient hemoglobin levels. Generally, hemoglobin concentration increased compared with 1970-1972; however, at ages 65 to 79, rates of anemia were higher than in 1970-1972. Depleted iron stores were found in 13% of females aged 12 to 19 and 9% of females aged 20 to 49. Lower household income was associated with a lower prevalence of hemoglobin sufficiency, but was not related to lower serum ferritin sufficiency. Self-perceived health and diet were not significantly associated with hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels. The lack of a relationship between iron status and diet may be attributable to the use of questions about food consumption frequency that were not specifically designed to estimate dietary iron intake. Factors other than iron intake might have contributed to the increase in the prevalence of anemia among seniors.

  1. Canadian space robotic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallaberger, Christian; Space Plan Task Force, Canadian Space Agency

    The Canadian Space Agency has chosen space robotics as one of its key niche areas, and is currently preparing to deliver the first flight elements for the main robotic system of the international space station. The Mobile Servicing System (MSS) is the Canadian contribution to the international space station. It consists of three main elements. The Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) is a 7-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm. The Special Purpose Dextrous Manipulator (SPDM), a smaller 2-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm can be used independently, or attached to the end of the SSRMS. The Mobile Base System (MBS) will be used as a support platform and will also provide power and data links for both the SSRMS and the SPDM. A Space Vision System (SVS) has been tested on Shuttle flights, and is being further developed to enhance the autonomous capabilities of the MSS. The CSA also has a Strategic Technologies in Automation and Robotics Program which is developing new technologies to fulfill future robotic space mission needs. This program is currently developing in industry technological capabilities in the areas of automation of operations, autonomous robotics, vision systems, trajectory planning and object avoidance, tactile and proximity sensors, and ground control of space robots. Within the CSA, a robotic testbed and several research programs are also advancing technologies such as haptic devices, control via head-mounted displays, predictive and preview displays, and the dynamic characterization of robotic arms. Canada is also now developing its next Long Term Space Plan. In this context, a planetary exploration program is being considered, which would utilize Canadian space robotic technologies in this new arena.

  2. Mining Legal and Business Resources on Canadian Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Johal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the distinct nature of the Canadian banking system, it is important for novice researchers to know which business and legal resources to consult in order to quickly find information that is particular to Canadian banking. However, there are very few articles or monographs in the library literature that describe how to find information sources exclusively on this subject from a Canadian perspective. Most available publications tend to specialize in sources for the US banking and Federal Reserve System with little attention to Canada. The paper begins with a brief introduction to Canadian banking. From there, the authors demonstrate where researchers can find primary sources such as legislation, regulations and case law. In addition, this article identifies and discusses the different types of information found on the websites of associations and government agencies such as the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions, which supervises and regulates various areas of Canada’s financial system. Also discussed are secondary sources such as industry research and reports that are available from reliable websites and subscription-based resources. This paper also explores the best business and legal databases for researchers. Based on results from searching in periodical directories and indexes, the paper additionally provides a description of the most pertinent academic, trade and general publications relevant to the Canadian banking system and where their contents are indexed.

  3. Unique Factors Affecting Canadian Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Robin H.

    In a background statement identifying what is unique about Canada and the issues it currently faces, this paper begins by discussing the concurrent movements toward Canadian nationalism and Quebec nationalism as an illustration of the problems caused by large size and great diversity. It then focuses on unique aspects of Canadian education,…

  4. 49 CFR 1244.3 - Reporting contract shipment waybills and Canadian and Mexican international waybills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting contract shipment waybills and Canadian and Mexican international waybills. 1244.3 Section 1244.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to..., RECORDS AND REPORTS WAYBILL ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY-RAILROADS § 1244.3 Reporting contract...

  5. Annual review 1994 (Canadian Petroleum Products Institute, Ottawa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The CPPI was created as a non-profit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. The Institute represents a membership of Canadian companies involved in refining, transporting and marketing of petroleum products. These companies supply domestic and industrial consumers with products ranging from gasoline and diesel fuel to asphalt. The Institute conducts research to develop industry policy on environmental, health, safety and business issues. This report covers industry operations, industry economics and financial performance, environmental protection and safety, awards, and publications.

  6. Are Chinese Green Transport Policies Effective? A New Perspective from Direct Pollution Rebound Effect, and Empirical Evidence From the Road Transport Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Yi Qiu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has become a serious challenge in China. Emissions from motor vehicles have been found to be one main sources of air pollution. Although the Chinese government has undertaken numerous green policies to mitigate harmful emissions from road transport sector, it is still uncertain for both policy makers and researchers to know whether the policies are effective in the short and long terms. We propose a new concept of “pollution rebound effect” (PRE to estimate the effectiveness of green traffic policies. We estimate direct air PRE as a measure of the effectiveness of the policies of reducing air pollution from the transport sector based on time-series data from the period 1986–2014. We find that the short-term direct air PRE is −0.4105, and the corresponding long-run PRE is −0.246. The negative results indicate that the direct air PRE does not exist in the road passenger transport sector in China, both in the short term and in the long term during the period 1986–2014. This implies that the Chinese green transport policies are effective in terms of harmful emissions reduction in the transport sector. This research, to the best of our knowledge, is the first attempt to quantify the effectiveness of the green transport policies in the transitional period that China is currently undergoing.

  7. Multi-stakeholder dialogue on formal and informal forms of public transport in Harare, Zimbabwe: Convergence or divergence perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatenda Mbara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cities in the developing world are growing both geographically and demographically. Thisgrowth has increased pressure on services, including the public transport systems used bythe majority of people. In the last two decades public transport provision has undergoneconsiderable changes. Concomitant to these changes there has been debate on the formof public transport to be operated. Such debate has been informal, general, and at timesacademic, and therefore not able to provide substantive understanding of the views of keystakeholders. Zimbabwe has had an explosion of informal transport activity in the formof minibuses, and decision makers appear to be in a policy dilemma because of a need tostrike a balance between maximising passenger welfare whilst protecting the livelihoods ofindigenous minibus operators and striving to build an efficient and environmentally soundurban transport system. Critical questions for policy dialogue in this conundrum include,inter alia: How do stakeholders perceive the current public transport system? How can publictransport be sustainably provided? This study seeks to answer these questions using a casestudy of Harare. A qualitative research approach blended with some quantitative aspects wasused. Initial steps involved the identification and clustering of key urban public passengertransport stakeholders, followed by structured and unstructured interviews. Although thereis lack of consensus on the form of public transport that the City of Harare should adopt, thereis a strong view that a mass transit system is the backbone of sustainable public transport.

  8. Canadian National Vegetation Classification (CNVC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The mandate of the CNVC is to comprehensively classify and describe natural and semi-natural Canadian vegetation in an ecologically meaningful manner. The...

  9. Natural history of Canadian mammals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Naughton, Donna; Banfield, A. W. F

    2012-01-01

    .... A complete revision of A.W.F. Banfield's classic text Mammals of Canada, it features brand-new, full-colour images of each species, as well as stunning photographs from Canadian Geographic magazine's national photography...

  10. A proposed icebreaker for shipping LNG from the Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, R.A. [Arcturus International Associates, Calgary, AB (Canada); Bell, M.H. [Miropial Investments Ltd. Ottawa, ON (Canada); Prior, A. [Fleetway Inc. Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2006-11-15

    With the vast quantities of hydrocarbons and mineral resources to be found in the Canadian Arctic, it is essential that the marine technology associated with year-round operation in ice be further explored. The proven reserves in the Drake field alone make liquefied natural gas (LNG) an obvious choice for a shipping trial. This paper suggested a route by which to transport liquefied natural gas from the Sverdrup Basin to an eastern Canadian port for regasification. Marine technology was reviewed with reference to vessel routing, the physical environment, ship technology and the transportation of LNG, together with the current maritime regulatory regime governing shipping activities. The paper also presented an outline design for appropriate Polar Class LNG vessels. The Sverdrup Basin holds substantial reserves of hydrocarbons and minerals. As such, a safe, economic and environmentally acceptable means of transport will soon be needed for the commercial development of the Arctic. The Arctic Pilot Project (APP) was launched in 1977 by Petro-Canada to demonstrate Canadian sovereignty and to research the commercial development of natural gas resources in the Canadian High Arctic. The administrative centre of the Canadian High Arctic is at Resolute Bay, Cornwallis Island. The polar class LNG vessel was described with reference to the hull shape, bow shape, midbody forms; stern forms; performance prediction; hull structure, materials, hull girder structure and propulsion. It was concluded that LNG shipping issues are now better understood than at the onset of the APP, as evidenced by nearly 180 LNG vessels in operation and another 100 on order. The safety record of these polar class LNG vessels is second to none in the shipping industry, with a forty-year track record of never having had an accident resulting in penetration of the cargo tanks. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs., 1 appendix.

  11. Climatological perspectives of air transport from atmospheric boundary layer to tropopause layer over Asian monsoon regions during boreal summer inferred from Lagrangian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B.; Xu, X. D.; Yang, S.; Zhao, T. L.

    2012-07-01

    The Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) region has been recognized as a key region that plays a vital role in troposphere-to-stratosphere transport (TST), which can significant impact the budget of global atmospheric constituents and climate change. However, the details of transport from the boundary layer (BL) to tropopause layer (TL) over these regions, particularly from a climatological perspective, remain an issue of uncertainty. In this study, we present the climatological properties of BL-to-TL transport over the ASM region during boreal summer season (June-July-August) from 2001 to 2009. A comprehensive tracking analysis is conducted based on a large ensemble of TST-trajectories departing from the atmospheric BL and arriving at TL. Driven by the winds fields from NCEP/NCAR Global Forecast System, all the TST-trajectories are selected from the high resolution datasets generated by the Lagrangian particle transport model FLEXPART using a domain-filling technique. Three key atmospheric boundary layer sources for BL-to-TL transport are identified with their contributions: (i) 38% from the region between tropical Western Pacific region and South China Seas (WP) (ii) 21% from Bay of Bengal and South Asian subcontinent (BOB), and (iii) 12% from the Tibetan Plateau, which includes the South Slope of the Himalayas (TIB). Controlled by the different patterns of atmospheric circulation, the air masses originated from these three source regions are transported along the different tracks into the TL. The spatial distributions of three source regions keep similarly from year to year. The timescales of transport from BL to TL by the large-scale ascents r-range from 1 to 7 weeks contributing up to 60-70% of the overall TST, whereas the transport governed by the deep convection overshooting become faster on a timescales of 1-2 days with the contributions of 20-30%. These results provide clear policy implications for the control of very short lived substances, especially for the

  12. Canadian leadership in energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Canada's energy is complex and an important resource as it fuels and funds the economy. The unique character of Canada's energy production and consumption provides strength to the country. The purpose of this booklet was to highlight Canada's energy production and consumption and to demonstrate Canada's rank globally with other major global energy players. The document also presented information on the value of Canada's energy exports, Canada's relationship with the United States, and Canada's energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. Specifically, the document discussed Canada's energy in a global context; the value of Canada's energy exports; domestic value of energy; Canada's unique energy mix; Canada's electricity mix; Canada's carbon dioxide emissions; energy strategies; and the importance of energy to Canadians. It was concluded that there are 14 federal, provincial and territorial jurisdictions managing their respective energy resources. All of these regions, with the exception of Saskatchewan have produced an energy strategy document or a climate change action plan focusing on 8 areas of action, notably awareness; benefit; efficiency; development; diversification; electricity; and emissions. refs., tabs., figs.

  13. An efficiency analysis of modern and perspective methods and facilities to reduce of the automobile transport exhaust gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Петрович Юдін

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the degree of atmosphere pollution with automobile transport exhaust gases, the evolution of their rating in the European Union, and the reasons why Ukrainian automobile transport exhaust gases lag behind in meeting emission standards. Constructive, organizational, and regulating techniques aimed at reducing the amount of exhaust gases are analyzed; non-standard propositions concerning cooperation of motor vehicle owners and regulatory authorities are offered; the examples of successful practices employed in Zaporizhia region are given

  14. Canadian Petroleum Products Institute 1996 annual review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) is an association of Canadian companies involved in the downstream sector of the petroleum industry which includes refining, distributing and marketing of petroleum products. CPPI`s mandate includes: (1) establishing environmental policies, (2) establishing working relationships with governments to develop public policy, (3) developing guidelines for the safe handling of petroleum products, and (4) providing information about the petroleum industry to the public. Canada`s 19 refineries processed an average of 1.5 million barrels of crude oil per day in 1996. Domestic sources of crude made up 61 per cent of crude oil processed in 1996. Total exports during the year amounted to 105 million barrels. Some of the issues that the CPPI focused on during 1996 included the controversy over the future of the octane enhancing fuel additive MMT, fuel quality standards for transportation fuels and reformulated fuels, gasoline pricing, air quality and workplace safety. CPPI members` participation in the Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) program towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions was also discussed. The industry was also actively involved in seeking to improve its refinery wastewater discharges.

  15. Canadian synthetic resins industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margeson, J. [Industry Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    The growth of the synthetic resin industry in Canada is described. In 1999 the industry had shipments totalling $6.3 billion and employed about 9,000 people in 105 establishments. The industry is concentrated in Alberta, Ontario and Quebec. Plants in Alberta produce commodity-grade thermoplastic resins from raw materials derived mainly from natural gas, whereas plants in Ontario and Quebec produce both thermoplastic and thermoset resins using raw materials derived from both crude oil and natural gas. Sixty-four per cent of the synthetic reins produced in Canada, worth about $4.1 billion, are exported. This is offset by imports of 68 per cent of domestic consumption, (valued at $5.0 billion) reflecting rationalization and specialization of the resin industry on a continental basis. Process and product technologies used in Canada are up-to-date and licensed from parent or other foreign chemical companies. Capital investment in the Canadian resin industry is lagging behind investment in the United States, however, this is expected to change once the impact of recent investments in the industry in Alberta is reflected in the statistics. A five to seven per cent real average annual growth in world-wide consumption is predicted over the next five years. Growth in North America is projected to be in the three to four per cent range. The Alberta-based component of the industry, being relatively new, is expected to improve its ability to compete globally in commodity thermoplastics. In contrast, the plants in Ontario and Quebec suffer from the fact that they were built prior to the Free Trade Agreement and were designed to satisfy domestic requirements. They are attempting to compensate for their lack of economics of scale by developing strategies to supply niche products. 8 figs.

  16. Responsible Canadian energy progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents oil and gas companies throughout Canada; its members produce over 90% of Canada's natural gas and crude oil output. The aim of the Association is to improve the economics of the Canadian upstream petroleum sector in an environmentally and socially responsible way. The aim of this Responsible Canadian Energy report is to present the performance data of CAPP's members for the year 2009. Data, trends, and performance analyses are provided throughout the document. This analysis makes it possible to determine where progress has been made and where performance improvement is necessary. It also presents success stories and best practices so that other companies can learn from them how to improve their own performance. This paper provides useful information on the performance of the upstream petroleum industry in Canada and highlights where the focus should be for further improvement in its performance.

  17. Biofuel scenarios in a water perspective: the global blue and green water footprint of road transport in 2030

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lienden, A.R.; Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    2010-01-01

    The trend towards substitution of conventional transport fuels by biofuels requires additional water. The EU aims In the last two centuries, fossil fuels have been our major source of energy. However, issues concerning energy security and the quality of the environment have given an impulse to the

  18. Marketing active transportation to school to improve children's health: Utilizing parental perspectives from an inner-city environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royne, Marla B; Ivey, Stephanie S; Levy, Marian; Fox, Alexa K; Roakes, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Thirty years ago, nearly half of the children in the United States walked or rode their bikes to school. Today, less than 15% of children actively commute to school. With the growing obesity epidemic, encouraging children to walk or bike to school has become a national priority. This research examines factors that influence parental decisions allowing their children to walk to school in an urban environment to identify effective marketing and communication strategies to reach those parents. Results indicate differences in parental perspectives across populations; suggestions for effectively marketing the Safe Routes to School program to minority populations are provided.

  19. Transnational archives: the Canadian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Creet

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the concept of the transnational archive as a counterpoint to the idea that a national archive is necessarily a locus of a static idea of nation. The Canadian national archives is used as a case study of an archives that was transnational in its inception, and one that has continued to change in its mandate and materials as a response to patterns in migration and changing notions of multiculturalism as a Canadian federal policy. It introduces the most recent formation of the transnational archive and its denizens: the genealogical archive inhabited by family historians.

  20. The Influence of Cultural Background on Parental Perceptions of Adolescent Gambling Behaviour: A Canadian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Colin A.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Meerkamper, Eric; Cutajar, Jo

    2012-01-01

    Considerable research has begun to address youth gambling issues from a bio-psycho-social perspective. The current Canadian national study adds to this body of knowledge by examining the cultural influences impacting parent's attitudes, behaviors and perceptions of youth gambling. A total of 3,279 parents with a child between the ages of 13 and 18…

  1. Tanzanian and Canadian Children's Valued School Experiences: A Cross Case Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streelasky, Jodi

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates children's multimodal perspectives on their school experiences in two diverse, international contexts. The research shares data from 45 Canadian and Tanzanian children, and focused on the children's use of multimodal methods to share what mattered to them at school. The children's significant interest in their outdoor…

  2. Internationalization of Canadian Higher Education: Discrepancies between Policies and International Student Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Guo, Shibao

    2017-01-01

    The internationalization of higher education in Canada is happening at a rapid pace. One manifestation of internationalization is the increasing enrolment of international students in Canadian institutions. There is little research on international undergraduate students' experiences from their own perspectives as they adapt to a new educational…

  3. Women of Mystery: Investigating Learning Pathways of Canadian and American Female Crime Fiction Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouthro, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the learning pathways of 15 Canadian and American female crime fiction authors. Using a critical feminist perspective, it argues that despite the neoliberal rhetoric of individual choice, as in most careers, there are social-structural factors that create opportunities and barriers for women mystery writers. The article…

  4. Playing the victim: A critical analysis of Canada's bill c-36 from an international human rights perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Galbally, Phoebe J

    2016-01-01

    .... This article examines the foreseeable impact of the abolitionist perspective enshrined in Bill C-36 on the lives of domestic Canadian sex workers, from an international human rights perspective...

  5. The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rachel E.; Boulos, David; Garber, Bryan G.; Jetly, Rakesh; Sareen, Jitender

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) collected detailed information on mental health problems, their impacts, occupational and nonoccupational determinants of mental health, and the use of mental health services from a random sample of 8200 serving personnel. The objective of this article is to provide a firm scientific foundation for understanding and interpreting the CFMHS findings. Methods: This narrative review first provides a snapshot of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), focusing on 2 key determinants of mental health: the deployment of more than 40,000 personnel in support of the mission in Afghanistan and the extensive renewal of the CAF mental health system. The findings of recent population-based CAF mental health research are reviewed, with a focus on findings from the very similar mental health survey done in 2002. Finally, key aspects of the methods of the 2013 CFMHS are presented. Results: The findings of 20 peer-reviewed publications using the 2002 mental health survey data are reviewed, along with those of 25 publications from other major CAF mental health research projects executed over the past decade. Conclusions: More than a decade of population-based mental health research in the CAF has provided a detailed picture of its mental health and use of mental health services. This knowledge base and the homology of the 2013 survey with the 2002 CAF survey and general population surveys in 2002 and 2012 will provide an unusual opportunity to use the CFMHS to situate mental health in the CAF in a historical and societal perspective. PMID:27270738

  6. Canadian Children's Literature: An Alberta Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Carbonaro, Mike; Green, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the findings of an online survey administered to Alberta elementary school teachers in 2000-2001. The survey explored the teachers' knowledge and use of Canadian children's literature and their thoughts about the role of Canadian literature in elementary school classrooms. Canadian children's trade books espouse particular…

  7. Study on the optimization of comprehensive transportation system in China under the perspective of total factor efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Mei; Zhang, Lu

    2017-03-01

    Using BCC model of DEA technique, this paper estimate the energy effectiveness of China's local transportation industry. Based on data from China’s statistical yearbook from 1998 to 2014, operating kilometers of regional railway, highway and water-way industry and employees of civil aviation industry and consumption of transportation energy are chosen as input variables and GDP of regional transportation industry every year as output variable to estimate the operational energy efficiency. It is found that energy efficiency of provinces such as Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong, Hainan, Qinghai, Ningxia and Xinjiang are relatively effective, compare to national average, provinces such as Shanxi, Anhui, Liaoning, Jiangxi, Jilin, Hunan, Shaanxi, Heilongjiang, Guangxi, Hubei, Guizhou, Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Sichuan, Yunnan are on the low side, which mainly concentrated in the northeast and central and western regions, then, the paper grouped these provinces which energy efficiency on the low side according to the redundancy, the major and minor reasons lead to their lower efficiency are analyzed, and optimization suggestions are put forward.

  8. Building a sustainable land public transportation at Ayer Keroh, Malacca: Perspective view from hang tuah jaya municipal council (HTJMC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukri, Fatin Hafizah; Chew, Boon Cheong; Hamid, Syaiful Rizal; Loo, Heoy Shin

    2017-03-01

    Sustainable land public transportation (SLPT) aims to promote a better and healthier ways of meeting individual and community needs. Even though sufficient land public transportation have been provided at Ayer Keroh, Malacca but the level of usage among the community is still low as there is the growth in traffic. Hang Tuah Jaya Municipal Council (HTJMC) is responsible to identify the most appropriate strategies to manage the issues regarding SLPT in order to support of the Malacca state vision becoming Green Technology State in the year 2020. Therefore, this paper attempts to examine the strategies involve in building a SLPT, which may enhance the community's welfare. Thus, the proposed theoretical framework is to demonstrate the strategies towards building a SLPT, which can cater issues within the municipal council area. In this qualitative research, an in-depth focus group have been conducted to obtain the primary data. Thirteen (13) executives from HTJMC involved. This study brings a new paradigm in transforming land public transportation at Ayer Keroh to enhance the community welfare. The result found that land use development as the most significant strategy in SLPT, meanwhile the implementation program is the least strategy involved in building a SLPT at Ayer Keroh. Future research requires more information on the factors of implementing of SLPT so that HTJMC can plan an effective SLPT thorough the demand as the data may indicate numbers of passengers who really support to the implementation of SLPT.

  9. Phonological Variability in Canadian English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wolf, Gaelan Dodds

    A study compared salient variables of Canadian English from two concurrent sociodialectal surveys, one for Ottawa, Ontario and one for Vancouver, British Columbia. Using the Labovian model of phonological variation in association with sociological parameters and other linguistic variables within each specific area, the analysis investigated four…

  10. Universal values of Canadian astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

    2012-11-01

    Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

  11. “If You Don’t Do Parking Management .. Forget Your Behaviour Change, It’s Not Going to Work.”: Health and Transport Practitioner Perspectives on Workplace Active Travel Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissel, Chris; Wen, Li Ming

    2017-01-01

    Objectives After having conducted two studies of the effectiveness of workplace travel plans for promoting active travel, we investigated health and transport practitioners’ perspectives on implementing workplace travel plans to share some of the lessons learnt. The objectives of this study were to describe perceived elements of effective workplace travel plans, barriers and enablers to workplace travel planning, their experiences of working with the other profession on travel plan implementation, their recommendations for workplace travel planning, and also to explore similarities and differences in transport and health practitioner perspectives. Materials and Methods Fourteen health and ten transport practitioners who had prior involvement in workplace travel plan programs were purposefully selected from workplaces in Australia. We conducted 20 in-depth interviews since data saturation had been reached at this point, and data were subject to framework analysis. Results Perceived essential elements of effective workplace travel plans included parking management; leadership, organisational commitment and governance; skills and other resources like a dedicated travel plan coordinator; and, pre-conditions including supportive transport infrastructure in the surrounds. Recommendations for promoting travel plans included supportive government policy, focusing on business benefits and working at different scales of implementation (e.g. single large worksites and business precincts). Health and transport practitioner perspectives differed, with transport practitioners believing that parking management is the key action for managing travel demand at a worksite. Conclusions Health practitioners implementing travel plans may require training including concepts of travel demand management, and support from transport planners on parking management strategies. Promoting an understanding of the shared travel behaviour change skills of transport and health practitioners may

  12. The "APEC Blue" Phenomenon: Impacts of Regional emission control Meteorology Condition and Regional Transport from a Modeling Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Liu, Z.; Ji, D.; Saide, P. E.; Wang, Y.; Xin, J.

    2015-12-01

    On November 5-11, China hosted the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Economic Leaders' Week in Beijing. To ensure good air quality during the APEC week, a series of strict emission control measures were taken in Beijing and surrounding provinces, which provide us with a great opportunity to examine the effectiveness of regional emission control. As important as emissions, meteorology can also significantly affect air quality in Beijing, so it's meaningful to understand the impact of meteorology conditions in the APEC week. Besides, it's important to study the impact of regional transport as its contribution to Beijing pollution levels is controversial. In this study, we investigate the impacts of emission control, meteorology and regional transport on the air quality during APEC week using a fully online coupled meteorology-chemistry model WRF-Chem. Compared to surface observations, the model has very good performance. The conclusions from this study will provide useful insights for government to control aerosol pollution in Beijing.

  13. Spillage of Viable Seeds of Oilseed Rape along Transportation Routes: Ecological Risk Assessment and Perspectives on Management Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Pascher

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Seed spillage during handling and transportation promotes establishment and invasion of feral crops into adjacent semi-natural habitats. This is also the case for oilseed rape (OSR, Brassica napus, where seed spillage may lead to establishment of herbicide resistant OSR populations in countries without cultivation of genetically modified OSR. Using data from Austria—where cultivation and import of genetically modified OSR are banned—as a prime example, we demonstrate that ports, oil mills, switchyards, and border railway stations to countries with different electric current systems—where trains have to stop—are the sites of primary concern with respect to seed spillage. Based on the results of the Austrian case study we discuss common measures to limit crop seed spillage which include intensified controls at border railway stations and the mode of seed packing during transportation. We further recommend sufficient cleaning both of goods wagons and of loading areas of trucks and ships as well as an appropriate weed management.

  14. Canadian Adjuvant Initiative Workshop, March 26-27, 2013--Ottawa, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Lakshmi; Twine, Susan; Gerdts, Volker; Barreto, Luis; Richards, James C

    2014-01-01

    Novel adjuvants hold the promise for developing effective modern subunit vaccines capable of appropriately modulating the immune response against challenging diseases such as those caused by chronic and/or intracellular pathogens and cancer. Over the past decade there has been intensive research into discovering new adjuvants, however, their translation into routine clinical use is lagging. To stimulate discussion and identify opportunities for networking and collaboration among various stakeholders, a Canadian Adjuvant Initiative Workshop was held in Ottawa. Sponsored by the National Research Council Canada, Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Vaccine Industry Committee, a two day workshop was held that brought together key Canadian and international stakeholders in adjuvant research from industry, academia and government. To discover innovation gaps and unmet needs, the presentations covered a board range of topics in adjuvant development; criteria for selection of lead adjuvant candidates from an industry perspective, discovery research across Canada, bioprocessing needs and challenges, veterinary vaccines, Canadian vaccine trial capabilities, the Canadian regulatory framework and WHO formulation laboratory experience. The workshop concluded with a discussion on the opportunity to create a Canadian Adjuvant Development Network. This report details the key discussion points and steps forward identified for facilitating adjuvant development research in Canada.

  15. A Harmonized Perspective on Transportation Management in Smart Cities: The Novel IoT-Driven Environment for Road Traffic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Masek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The unprecedented growth of today’s cities together with increased population mobility are fueling the avalanche in the numbers of vehicles on the roads. This development led to the new challenges for the traffic management, including the mitigation of road congestion, accidents, and air pollution. Over the last decade, researchers have been focusing their efforts on leveraging the recent advances in sensing, communications, and dynamic adaptive technologies to prepare the deployed road traffic management systems (TMS for resolving these important challenges in future smart cities. However, the existing solutions may still be insufficient to construct a reliable and secure TMS that is capable of handling the anticipated influx of the population and vehicles in urban areas. Along these lines, this work systematically outlines a perspective on a novel modular environment for traffic modeling, which allows to recreate the examined road networks in their full resemblance. Our developed solution is targeted to incorporate the progress in the Internet of Things (IoT technologies, where low-power, embedded devices integrate as part of a next-generation TMS. To mimic the real traffic conditions, we recreated and evaluated a practical traffic scenario built after a complex road intersection within a large European city.

  16. A Harmonized Perspective on Transportation Management in Smart Cities: The Novel IoT-Driven Environment for Road Traffic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Pavel; Masek, Jan; Frantik, Petr; Fujdiak, Radek; Ometov, Aleksandr; Hosek, Jiri; Andreev, Sergey; Mlynek, Petr; Misurec, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    The unprecedented growth of today’s cities together with increased population mobility are fueling the avalanche in the numbers of vehicles on the roads. This development led to the new challenges for the traffic management, including the mitigation of road congestion, accidents, and air pollution. Over the last decade, researchers have been focusing their efforts on leveraging the recent advances in sensing, communications, and dynamic adaptive technologies to prepare the deployed road traffic management systems (TMS) for resolving these important challenges in future smart cities. However, the existing solutions may still be insufficient to construct a reliable and secure TMS that is capable of handling the anticipated influx of the population and vehicles in urban areas. Along these lines, this work systematically outlines a perspective on a novel modular environment for traffic modeling, which allows to recreate the examined road networks in their full resemblance. Our developed solution is targeted to incorporate the progress in the Internet of Things (IoT) technologies, where low-power, embedded devices integrate as part of a next-generation TMS. To mimic the real traffic conditions, we recreated and evaluated a practical traffic scenario built after a complex road intersection within a large European city. PMID:27834796

  17. A Harmonized Perspective on Transportation Management in Smart Cities: The Novel IoT-Driven Environment for Road Traffic Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Pavel; Masek, Jan; Frantik, Petr; Fujdiak, Radek; Ometov, Aleksandr; Hosek, Jiri; Andreev, Sergey; Mlynek, Petr; Misurec, Jiri

    2016-11-08

    The unprecedented growth of today's cities together with increased population mobility are fueling the avalanche in the numbers of vehicles on the roads. This development led to the new challenges for the traffic management, including the mitigation of road congestion, accidents, and air pollution. Over the last decade, researchers have been focusing their efforts on leveraging the recent advances in sensing, communications, and dynamic adaptive technologies to prepare the deployed road traffic management systems (TMS) for resolving these important challenges in future smart cities. However, the existing solutions may still be insufficient to construct a reliable and secure TMS that is capable of handling the anticipated influx of the population and vehicles in urban areas. Along these lines, this work systematically outlines a perspective on a novel modular environment for traffic modeling, which allows to recreate the examined road networks in their full resemblance. Our developed solution is targeted to incorporate the progress in the Internet of Things (IoT) technologies, where low-power, embedded devices integrate as part of a next-generation TMS. To mimic the real traffic conditions, we recreated and evaluated a practical traffic scenario built after a complex road intersection within a large European city.

  18. Analytic approach to magneto-strain tuning of electronic transport through a graphene nanobubble: perspectives for a strain sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Enrique; Soto-Garrido, Rodrigo

    2017-11-01

    We consider the scattering of Dirac particles in graphene due to the superposition of an external magnetic field and mechanical strain. As a model for a graphene nanobubble, we find exact analytical solutions for single-particle states inside and outside a circular region submitted to the fields. Finally, we obtain analytical expressions for the scattering cross-section, as well as for the Landauer current through the circular region. Our results provide a fully-analytical treatment for electronic transport through a graphene nanobubble, showing that a combination of a physical magnetic field and strain leads to valley polarization and filtering of the electronic current. Moreover, our analytical model provides an explicit metrology principle to measure strain by performing conductance experiments under a controlled magnetic field imposed over the sample.

  19. Long-range Transport of Asian Dust Storms: A Satellite/Surface Perspective on Societal and Scientific Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Among the many components contributing to air pollution, airborne mineral dust plays an important role due to its biogeochemical impact on the ecosystem and its radiative forcing effect on the weather/climate system. As much as one-third to half of the global dust emissions, estimated about 800 Tg, are introduced annually into Earth's atmosphere from various deserts in China. Asian dust storm outbreaks are believed to have persisted for hundreds and thousands years over the vast territory of north and northwest China, but not until recent decades that many studies reveal the compelling evidence in recognizing the importance of these eolian dust particles for forming Chinese Loess Plateau and for biogeochemical cycling in the North Pacific Ocean to as far as in the Greenland ice-sheets through long-range transport. The Asian dust and air pollution aerosols can be detected by its colored appearance on current Earth observing satellites and its evolution monitored by satellite and surface network. In this paper, we will demonstrate the capability of a new satellite algorithm, called Deep Blue, to retrieve aerosol properties, particularly but not limited to, over bright-reflecting surfaces such as urban areas and deserts. Recently, many field campaigns were designed and executed to study the compelling variability in spatial and temporal scale of both pollution-derived and naturally occurring aerosols, which often exist in high concentrations over eastern Asia and along the rim of the western Pacific. We will provide an overview of the outbreak of Asian dust storms, near source/sink and their evolution along transport pathway, from space and surface observations. The climatic effects and societal impacts of the Asian dusts will be addressed in depth. (to be presented in the International Workshop on Semi-Arid Land Surface-

  20. Exploring the efficacy of endoscopic ventriculostomy for hydrocephalus treatment via a multicompartmental poroelastic model of CSF transport: a computational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardakis, John C; Tully, Brett J; Ventikos, Yiannis

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes the implementation of a Multiple-Network Poroelastic Theory (MPET) model coupled with finite-volume computational fluid dynamics for the purpose of studying, in detail, the effects of obstructing CSF transport within an anatomically accurate cerebral environment. The MPET representation allows the investigation of fluid transport between CSF, brain parenchyma and cerebral blood, in an integral and comprehensive manner. A key novelty in the model is the amalgamation of anatomically accurate choroid plexuses with their feeding arteries and a simple relationship relaxing the constraint of a unique permeability for the CSF compartment. This was done in order to account for the Aquaporin-4-mediated swelling characteristics. The aim of this varying permeability compartment was to bring to light a feedback mechanism that could counteract the effects of ventricular dilation and subsequent elevations of CSF pressure through the efflux of excess CSF into the blood system. This model is used to demonstrate the impact of aqueductal stenosis and fourth ventricle outlet obstruction (FVOO). The implications of treating such a clinical condition with the aid of endoscopic third (ETV) and endoscopic fourth (EFV) ventriculostomy are considered. We observed peak CSF velocities in the aqueduct of the order of 15.6 cm/s in the healthy case, 45.4 cm/s and 72.8 cm/s for the mild and severe cases respectively. The application of ETV reduced the aqueductal velocity to levels around 16-17 cm/s. Ventricular displacement, CSF pressure, wall shear stress (WSS) and pressure difference between lateral and fourth ventricles (ΔP) increased with applied stenosis, and subsequently dropped to nominal levels with the application of ETV. The greatest reversal of the effects of atresia come by opting for ETV rather than the more complicated procedure of EFV.

  1. Analysis of Blockade in Charge Transport Across Polymeric Heterojunctions as a Function of Thermal Annealing: A Different Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Sonika; Chauhan, Gayatri; Gupta, Saral K.; Srivastava, Ritu; Singh, Amarjeet

    2017-02-01

    A blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5diyl) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) is popularly used as an active medium in polymeric solar devices. According to the most recent understanding, the blend is a three-phase system contrary to its earlier understanding of two-phase bicontinuous network. We have synthesized a P3HT-PCBM based layered heterostructure system by spin coating and thermal vacuum evaporations. Current density ( J) was measured as a function of applied electric field ( E) across the system bound between two metal electrodes. J- E relations were analyzed into the backdrop of space charge limited current model and Schottky model. The later was used to predict dc-dielectric constants from the linear slopes of ln ( J) versus E 1/2. The curves were not monotonously linear, but observe a knee-bend separating into two linear segments for each curve. Thermal annealing from 40°C to 80°C was used as an activation tool for driving changes in the internal morphology via inter-diffusion of polymers and current measurements were performed at room temperature after each annealing. At the last stage of annealing the two linear slopes were highly distinct. The presence of sharp knee-bend results in approximately 20 times jump in dielectric constant as a function of electric field. Such high jumps in dielectric constant illustrate the potential for switching applications and charge storage. The high dielectric constants can be understood in terms of space charge polarization due to isolated domains which hindrance to charge transport. The high dielectric constants were confirmed by another experiment of capacitance measurements of a different set of similar samples. A study of thermal evolution of internal morphology was also carried out using x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques to correlate the morphological changes with the transport properties.

  2. Exploring the efficacy of endoscopic ventriculostomy for hydrocephalus treatment via a multicompartmental poroelastic model of CSF transport: a computational perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Vardakis

    Full Text Available This study proposes the implementation of a Multiple-Network Poroelastic Theory (MPET model coupled with finite-volume computational fluid dynamics for the purpose of studying, in detail, the effects of obstructing CSF transport within an anatomically accurate cerebral environment. The MPET representation allows the investigation of fluid transport between CSF, brain parenchyma and cerebral blood, in an integral and comprehensive manner. A key novelty in the model is the amalgamation of anatomically accurate choroid plexuses with their feeding arteries and a simple relationship relaxing the constraint of a unique permeability for the CSF compartment. This was done in order to account for the Aquaporin-4-mediated swelling characteristics. The aim of this varying permeability compartment was to bring to light a feedback mechanism that could counteract the effects of ventricular dilation and subsequent elevations of CSF pressure through the efflux of excess CSF into the blood system. This model is used to demonstrate the impact of aqueductal stenosis and fourth ventricle outlet obstruction (FVOO. The implications of treating such a clinical condition with the aid of endoscopic third (ETV and endoscopic fourth (EFV ventriculostomy are considered. We observed peak CSF velocities in the aqueduct of the order of 15.6 cm/s in the healthy case, 45.4 cm/s and 72.8 cm/s for the mild and severe cases respectively. The application of ETV reduced the aqueductal velocity to levels around 16-17 cm/s. Ventricular displacement, CSF pressure, wall shear stress (WSS and pressure difference between lateral and fourth ventricles (ΔP increased with applied stenosis, and subsequently dropped to nominal levels with the application of ETV. The greatest reversal of the effects of atresia come by opting for ETV rather than the more complicated procedure of EFV.

  3. Destructive quantum interference in electron transport: A reconciliation of the molecular orbital and the atomic orbital perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Geskin, Victor; Stadler, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Destructive quantum interference (DQI) in single molecule electronics is a purely quantum mechanical effect and is entirely defined by the inherent properties of the molecule in the junction such as its structure and symmetry. This definition of DQI by molecular properties alone suggests its relation to other more general concepts in chemistry as well as the possibility of deriving simple models for its understanding and molecular device design. Recently, two such models have gained a wide spread attention, where one was a graphical scheme based on visually inspecting the connectivity of the carbon sites in conjugated π systems in an atomic orbital (AO) basis and the other one puts the emphasis on the amplitudes and signs of the frontier molecular orbitals (MOs). There have been discussions on the range of applicability for these schemes, but ultimately conclusions from topological molecular Hamiltonians should not depend on whether they are drawn from an AO or a MO representation, as long as all the orbitals are taken into account. In this article, we clarify the relation between both models in terms of the zeroth order Green's function and compare their predictions for a variety of systems. From this comparison, we conclude that for a correct description of DQI from a MO perspective, it is necessary to include the contributions from all MOs rather than just those from the frontier orbitals. The cases where DQI effects can be successfully predicted within a frontier orbital approximation we show them to be limited to alternant even-membered hydrocarbons, as a direct consequence of the Coulson-Rushbrooke pairing theorem in quantum chemistry.

  4. The Canadian safeguards support program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeffe, R. [Atomic Energy Control Board, Canadian Safeguards Support Program, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    Canada supports international safeguards as a means by which the proliferation of nuclear weapons can be discouraged. Canada recognizes that,to meet that the IAEA must have effective safeguards techniques and the active cooperation of Member States. Therefore the Canadian Government decided in 1976 to initiate a program in support of IAEA safeguards, known as the Canadian Safeguards Support Program (CSSP). The CSSP is funded and administered by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The CSSP is a co-ordinated program for the development and the application of safeguards instruments and techniques for nuclear facilities and materials on behalf of the IAEA and also in support of Canada's own national nuclear material safeguards system, implemented by the AECB. (author)

  5. Canadian prostate brachytherapy in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Mira; Crook, Juanita; Morris, W. James; Morton, Gerard; Pickles, Tom; Usmani, Nawaid; Vigneault, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Prostate brachytherapy can be used as a monotherapy for low- and intermediate-risk patients or in combination with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) as a form of dose escalation for selected intermediate- and high-risk patients. Prostate brachytherapy with either permanent implants (low dose rate [LDR]) or temporary implants (high dose rate [HDR]) is emerging as the most effective radiation treatment for prostate cancer. Several large Canadian brachytherapy programs were established in the mid- to late-1990s. Prostate brachytherapy is offered in British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick. We anticipate the need for brachytherapy services in Canada will significantly increase in the near future. In this review, we summarize brachytherapy programs across Canada, contemporary eligibility criteria for the procedure, toxicity and prostate-specific antigen recurrence free survival (PRFS), as published from Canadian institutions for both LDR and HDR brachytherapy. PMID:23671495

  6. Transport statistics 1995

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Haan, ML

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available This publication contains information on all major modes of transport in South Africa. The transport sector is placed in perspective relative to the macro economy and a number of important transport indicators are given. The document also contains...

  7. Reframing the Canadian Oil Sands

    OpenAIRE

    Patchett, Merle M; Lozowy, A

    2012-01-01

    Reframing the Canadian Oil Sands” is a collaborative exchange between photographer Andriko Lozowy and cultural geographer Merle Patchett that engages photography and photographic theory to evoke a more critical and politically meaningful visual engagement with the world’s largest capital oil project. Since the appearance of Edward Burtynsky’s aerial and abstracted photographic-mappings of the region, capturing the scale of the Oil Sands from ‘on high’ has become the dominant visual imaginary....

  8. Nutritional risk among older Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramage-Morin, Pamela L; Garriguet, Didier

    2013-03-01

    Nutritional risk screening is typically done in clinical settings to identify individuals at risk of malnourishment. This article presents the first population-level assessment of nutritional risk based on a large national sample representative of Canadian householders aged 65 or older. Data from the 2008/2009 Canadian Community Health Survey-Healthy Aging were used to estimate the prevalence of nutritional risk by selected characteristics. Factors associated with nutritional risk were examined with restricted and full logistic models. The distribution of responses on the SCREEN II-AB nutritional risk instrument is reported. Based on the results of the 2008/2009 survey, 34% of Canadians aged 65 or older were at nutritional risk. Women were more likely than men to be at risk. Among people with depression, 62% were at nutritional risk, compared with 33% of people without depression. Level of disability, poor oral health, and medication use were associated with nutritional risk, as were living alone, low social support, infrequent social participation, and not driving on a regular basis. Lower income and education were also associated with nutritional risk. Nutritional risk is common among seniors living in private households in Canada. The characteristics of people most likely to be at nutritional risk provide evidence for targeted screening and assessment.

  9. Professional Legitimation for Education in Canadian Universities: "The Canadian Journal of Education", 1976-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Donald

    2017-01-01

    In this commentary, Donald Fisher reports on the history of the "The Canadian Journal of Education" as part of this 40th anniversary issue. Fisher states that the history of the Canadian Society for the Study of Education (CSSE) has been profoundly influenced by changes in the role of the Canadian State. The 1960s and 1970s were a time…

  10. One decade of research into the fate and transport of carbon-based nanomaterials - Lessons learnt and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüffer, Thorsten; Hofmann, Thilo

    2016-04-01

    Carbon-based nanomaterials (CNM) exhibit unique physico-chemical properties (e.g., large surface area to volume ratios, electron delocalization), which make them promising for a great number of applications. The production, use, and disposal of CNM and CNM-containing products will inevitably result in the release of these materials into the environment. The fate and transport of CNM greatly depends on their physico-chemical properties and surrounding environmental conditions. This field of research has constantly increased over recent years. Yet little is known on how transformation processes such as changes in surface properties or aggregation influence their interaction with other environmental species (i.e., solid surfaces or contaminants). For example, changes in redox chemistry in combination with irradiation have shown to significantly alter the surface chemistry of C60 fullerenes and consequently decreased their sorption affinity towards non-polar organic contaminants [1]. The presence of natural organic matter (NOM) seems to play a major role on the aggregation of CNM; however, the results are not consistent whether this leads to an increase or decrease in interactions with solid surfaces or contaminants. Either increased interactions resulting from a higher dispersion of CNM or decreased interactions of CNM, which was assigned to an offset of "creating" new sorption sites due to increased dispersion by a reduced accessibility of polar moieties. For the latter effect, NOM was proposed to either directly compete for sorption sites on CNM surface or a blocking of CNM pores by large NOM molecules [2]. The potential consequences of these changes in surface properties of CNM on their toxic effects on microorganisms have only been partially examined. For an environmental risk assessment, data on the occurrence of CNM is obligatory but to date the environmental concentrations of CNM are still difficult to assess due to still unsolved analytical issues in matrix

  11. Canadian Council for Area Studies Learned Societies - 2007-2008 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CCASLS) provides a shared secretariat for four area studies associations: the Canadian Association of African Studies (CAAS); the Canadian Asian Studies Association (CASA): the Canadian Association of Latin American and Caribbean Studies ...

  12. 77 FR 35113 - Canadian National Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Niagara County, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... Surface Transportation Board Canadian National Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Niagara County... milepost 0.20 to approximately milepost 0.35 in the City of Niagara Falls, Niagara County, N.Y., a distance... track in Niagara Falls, extending between the eastern end of the Bridge and the beginning of the Niagara...

  13. Perspectives on optimizing care of patients in multidisciplinary chronic kidney disease clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Collister, David; Russell, Randall; Verdon, Josee; Beaulieu, Monica; Levin, Adeera

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize a jointly held symposium by the Canadian Society of Nephrology (CSN), the Canadian Association of Nephrology Administrators (CANA), and the Canadian Kidney Knowledge Translation and Generation Network (CANN-NET) entitled ?Perspectives on Optimizing Care of Patients in Multidisciplinary Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Clinics? that was held on April 24, 2015, in Montreal, Quebec. Sources of information The panel consisted of a variety of members from across Canada i...

  14. The Application of Ground-Penetrating Radar to Transportation Engineering: Recent Advances and New Perspectives (GI Division Outstanding ECS Award Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, Fabio; Benedetto, Andrea; Pajewski, Lara; Alani, Amir M.

    2017-04-01

    aims at presenting the recent advances and the new perspectives in the application of GPR to transportation engineering. This study reports on new experimental-based and theoretical models for the assessment of the physical (i.e., clay and water content in subgrade soils, railway ballast fouling) and the mechanical (i.e., the Young's modulus of elasticity) properties that are critical in maintaining the structural stability and the bearing capacity of the major transport infrastructures, such as highways, railways and airfields. With regard to the physical parameters, the electromagnetic behaviour related to the clay content in the load-bearing layers of flexible pavements as well as in subgrade soils has been analysed and modelled in both dry and wet conditions. Furthermore, it is discussed a new simulation-based methodology for the detection of the fouling content in railway ballast. Concerning the mechanical parameters, experimental based methods are presented for the assessment of the strength and deformation properties of the soils and the top-bounded layers of flexible pavements. Furthermore, unique case studies in terms of the methodology proposed, the survey planning and the site procedures in rather complex operations, are discussed in the case of bridges and tunnels inspections. Acknowledgements The Authors are grateful to the GI Division President Dr. Francesco Soldovieri and the relevant Award Committee in the context of the "GI Division Outstanding Early Career Scientists Award" of the European Geosciences Union. We also acknowledge the COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" for providing networking and discussion opportunities throughout its activity and operation as well as facilitating prospect for publishing research outputs.

  15. Canadian Cardiovascular Society and Canadian Thoracic Society Position Statement on Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Langleben

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Cardiovascular Society and the Canadian Thoracic Society requested a position statement on pulmonary arterial hypertension from leading Canadian experts. The present document is intended to act as an update for the clinician, to provide a template for the initial evaluation of patients, to enable the understanding of current therapeutic paradigms based on approved indications for Canada, to highlight new therapies on the horizon, and to state the positions of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society and the Canadian Thoracic Society on resource management for pulmonary arterial hypertension in Canada.

  16. 75 FR 15613 - Hazardous Materials Transportation; Registration and Fee Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ...) The Council on the Safe Transportation of Dangerous Articles, Inc. (COSTHA) Canadian Trucking Alliance...-Operator Independent Drivers Association, Inc. (OOIDA) Dangerous Goods Advisory Council (DGAC) Horizon... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  17. CASID and Canadian Journal of Development Studies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CASID and Canadian Journal of Development Studies : Organizational Strengthening 2007-2010. The Canadian Association for the Study of International Development (CASID) is a national, bilingual, multidisciplinary and pluralistic association devoted to the study of international development in all parts of the world.

  18. Guide to Canadian Aerospace Related Industries,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    fabrication, PWC assembly & test, automatic backplane wiring, computerized wire History : AEI, an established Canadian company for over 55...production of Automatic Number Identification (ANI) systems and 911 Emergency History : Aeo Machining Ltd is a small machining company Reporting Systems for...Aircraft, DeHavilland, Grumman Aircraft, and Canadian Digital Radar Data Processing - Contract with Fundacao Vickers Ltd. Educacional de Bauru, Brazil

  19. 47 CFR 90.121 - Canadian registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Canadian registration. 90.121 Section 90.121 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations § 90.121 Canadian registration. Form 410 shall be...

  20. Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

  1. Gaps between Beliefs, Perceptions, and Practices: The Every Teacher Project on LGBTQ-Inclusive Education in Canadian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine G.; Meyer, Elizabeth J.; Peter, Tracey; Ristock, Janice; Short, Donn; Campbell, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The Every Teacher Project involved large-scale survey research conducted to identify the beliefs, perspectives, and practices of Kindergarten to Grade 12 educators in Canadian public schools regarding lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ)-inclusive education. Comparisons are made between LGBTQ and cisgender heterosexual…

  2. Research as Improvisation: Dancing among Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Glenda-mae; Freed, Shirley

    2005-01-01

    This article captures the way research methods were intertwined with core identities to understand the success development of Caribbean-Canadian women. It highlights the importance of researchers experimenting with a blend of perspectives to fit their problem as well as their identity. Viewing the research process through the eyes of the…

  3. Making ethical choices: a comprehensive decision-making model for Canadian psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjistavropoulos, T; Malloy, D C

    2000-05-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical augmentation of the seven-step decision-making model outlined in the Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists. We propose that teleological, deontological, and existential ethical perspectives should be taken into account in the decision-making process. We also consider the influence of individual, issue-specific, significant-other, situational, and external factors on ethical decision-making. This theoretical analysis demonstrates the richness and complexity of ethical decision-making.

  4. Transportation Development Centre annual review, 1997-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Report describing the activities and accomplishments of the Transportation Development Centre (TDC) for the fiscal year ending March 31, 1998 is presented. The role of the TDC is to improve the safety, security, energy efficiency and accessibility of the Canadian transportation system while protecting the environment. From a management perspective, one of the important developments during the reporting year was a new framework for research and development in Transport Canada, which defines a process for identifying and setting departmental research and development priorities. The year also marked the finalization of a five-year science and technology plan for increased cooperation in the field of North American transportation technologies. Among research and development highlights in air, marine, road and rail transportation work done on aircraft takeoff behaviour of failed de-icing fluids; the winter runway friction measurement program; revision of flight recorder configuration standards; development of a new child safety system; a ship-based search and rescue radar detection system; research on flooding protection of ro-ro ferries; completion of a study on leak-before-burst performance of various designs of natural gas vehicle cylinders; work on school bus safety and a thermal management system for road vehicles; plastic- lined traction motor bearings for locomotives, and work on a guided radar system designed to detect rock falls and washouts, were singled out. Progress related to issues regarding the transportation of dangerous goods, transportation accessibility, human factors and security are also reported. A financial overview which provides a detailed breakdown of TDC`s funding and funding sources for 1997-98 is also included. tabs., figs.

  5. Factors affecting food selection in Canadian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ree, M; Riediger, N; Moghadasian, M H

    2008-11-01

    To establish health-related reasons behind Canadian food choices, and how variables such as education, income, gender, ethnicity and age may affect food selection. Approximately 98 733 Canadians responded to the 12 questions regarding food choices in the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) cycle 2.1, conducted by the Canadian Government in 2003. These included 13 727 adolescents (12-19 years), 19 089 young adults (20-34 years), 31 039 middle-aged adults (35-54 years), 25 338 older adults (55-74 years) and 9580 elderly (75+ years). Approximately 70% of Canadian adolescents in the sample indicated that their food choices were independent of health concerns. Body weight management was a major concern for food selection by adolescents and adults, while the elderly stated heart disease as their main concern. Among all participants, females, and individuals with high levels of education and income reported the highest response to choosing or avoiding foods due to health concerns and food content. Our data indicate that several factors significantly affect food choices for health-related reasons in the Canadian population. Among them, age- and gender-related gaps, particularly between adolescents and adults, are profound. This observation may urge authorities to implement effective strategies to educate Canadians, especially adolescents, that selection of appropriate foods may prevent chronic diseases.

  6. Tritium technology. A Canadian overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmings, R.L. [Canatom NPM (Canada)

    2002-10-01

    An overview of the various tritium research and operational activities in Canada is presented. These activities encompass tritium processing and recovery, tritium interactions with materials, and tritium health and safety. Many of these on-going activities form a sound basis for the tritium use and handling aspects of the ITER project. Tritium management within the CANDU heavy water reactor, associated detritiation facilities, research and development facilities, and commercial industry and improving the understanding of tritium behaviour in humans and the environment remain the focus of a long-standing Canadian interest in tritium. While there have been changes in the application of this knowledge and experience over time, the operating experience and the supporting research and development continue to provide for improved plant and facility operations, an improved understanding of tritium safety issues, and improved products and tools that facilitate tritium management. (author)

  7. Canadian orthodontist Internet user profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Neal G; Yacyshyn, James R; Northcott, Herbert C; Nebbe, Brian; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Major, Paul W

    2006-01-01

    An anonymous, self-administered, mail-out survey of Canadian Orthodontists was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of orthodontic Internet use. The response rate was 45.6% (304 of 667). A total of 76.6% of orthodontists reported having Internet access at work, and an additional 12.4% reported having Internet access from a different location. Statistically significant associations between Internet usage and office staff size (P < .001) and years of practice (P = .046) were observed. Offices with larger staffs had greater Internet access. Number of staffs and number of case starts were positively correlated (P < .001, r = 0.498). The odds ratio for having Internet access on the basis of increased case starts from the less than 100 to 300-399 categories was 5.67. Although not statistically significant, there was a trend for greater Internet access by younger practitioners.

  8. Canadian Civil Society Organizations and Human Rights and Global ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to strengthen the capacity of Canadian civil society organizations (CSOs) to inform Canadian policy on human rights and global justice. The Canadian Council for International Co-operation (CCIC) receives core funding from the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). This grant will provide ...

  9. Drinking water consumption patterns in Canadian communities (2001-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, S M; Jones, A Q; Majowicz, S E; McEwen, S A; Pintar, K D M

    2012-03-01

    A pooled analysis of seven cross-sectional studies from Newfoundland and Labrador, Waterloo and Hamilton Regions, Ontario and Vancouver, East Kootenay and Northern Interior Regions, British Columbia (2001 to 2007) was performed to investigate the drinking water consumption patterns of Canadians and to identify factors associated with the volume of tap water consumed. The mean volume of tap water consumed was 1.2 L/day, with a large range (0.03 to 9.0 L/day). In-home water treatment and interactions between age and gender and age and bottled water use were significantly associated with the volume of tap water consumed in multivariable analyses. Approximately 25% (2,221/8,916) of participants were classified as bottled water users, meaning that 75% or more of their total daily drinking water intake was bottled. Approximately 48.6% (4,307/8,799) of participants used an in-home treatment method to treat their tap water for drinking purposes. This study provides a broader geographic perspective and more current estimates of Canadian water consumption patterns than previous studies. The identified factors associated with daily water consumption could be beneficial for risk assessors to identify individuals who may be at greater risk of waterborne illness.

  10. Diversity Management in the Canadian Workplace: Towards an Antiracism Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanmala Hiranandani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most diversity management programs in Canada maintain that enhancing workforce diversity is of tremendous significance for business organizations in today’s competitive global urban markets. Since well-meaning diversity management initiatives have been largely ineffective thus far in dealing with workplace discrimination and racism in the Canadian workplace, this paper underscores the need to decenter the focus of diversity management from a business imperative to an antidiscrimination and social justice imperative. Within this latter perspective, the paper examines the strengths and limitations of the antiracism approach that has been implemented in various developed countries in recent years. The antiracism approach is an action-oriented strategy for institutional and systemic change that has at its core the interrogation of privilege, power disparities, and other forms of inequity within the organization. Drawing from the lessons of various initiatives that have utilized this approach, the present paper emphasizes the need for a nuanced antiracism approach in the multicultural Canadian society if diversity management is to attain its goal of greater inclusion of all individuals in informal networks and formal organizational programs.

  11. Dietary supplementation practices in Canadian high-performance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun, Victor; Erdman, Kelly A; Fung, Tak S; Reimer, Raylene A

    2012-02-01

    Dietary supplementation is a common practice in athletes with a desire to enhance performance, training, exercise recovery, and health. Supplementation habits of elite athletes in western Canada have been documented, but research is lacking on supplement use by athletes across Canada. The purpose of this descriptive study was to evaluate the dietary supplementation practices and perspectives of high-performance Canadian athletes affiliated with each of the country's eight Canadian Sport Centres. Dietitians administered a validated survey to 440 athletes (63% women, 37% men; M=19.99±5.20 yr) representing 34 sports who predominantly trained≥16 hr/wk, most competing in "power" based sports. Within the previous 6 months, 87% declared having taken≥3 dietary supplements, with sports drinks, multivitamin and mineral preparations, carbohydrate sports bars, protein powder, and meal-replacement products the most prevalent supplements reported. Primary sources of information on supplementation, supplementation justification, and preferred means of supplementation education were identified. Fifty-nine percent reported awareness of current World Anti-Doping Agency legislation, and 83% subjectively believed they were in compliance with such anti-doping regulations. It was concluded that supplementation rates are not declining in Canada, current advisors on supplementation for this athletic population are not credible, and sports medicine physicians and dietitians need to consider proactive strategies to improve their influence on supplementation practices in these elite athletes.

  12. Effects-Based Approaches to Operations: Canadian Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Robert Grossman-Vermaas, scientifique de la Défense canadien, sur l’approche basée sur les effets comme mesure de rechange pour atteindre les...Caproni’s views, this small, English- text book was a further exposition of the concept of strategic bombardment.”41 Gorrell also collaborated with...Air Force - Aircraft Factories - Aluminium Plants - Magnesium Plants - Engine Factories 2. Electric Power - Power Plants - Switching Stations

  13. Imaging trends in suspected appendicitis-a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Victoria F; Patlas, Michael N; Katz, Douglas S

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of our study was to assess trends in the imaging of suspected appendicitis in adult patients in emergency departments of academic centers in Canada. A questionnaire was sent to all 17 academic centers in Canada to be completed by a radiologist who works in emergency radiology. The questionnaires were sent and collected over a period of 4 months from October 2015 to February 2016. Sixteen centers (94%) responded to the questionnaire. Eleven respondents (73%) use IV contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) as the imaging modality of choice for all patients with suspected appendicitis. Thirteen respondents (81%) use ultrasound as the first modality of choice in imaging pregnant patients with suspected appendicitis. Eleven respondents (69%) use ultrasound (US) as the first modality of choice in patients younger than 40 years of age. Ten respondents (67%) use ultrasound as the first imaging modality in female patients younger than 40 years of age. When CT is used, 81% use non-focused CT of the abdomen and pelvis, and 44% of centers use oral contrast. Thirteen centers (81%) have ultrasound available 24 h a day/7 days a week. At 12 centers (75%), ultrasound is performed by ultrasound technologists. Four centers (40%) perform magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in suspected appendicitis in adult patients at the discretion of the attending radiologist. Eleven centers (69%) have MRI available 24/7. All 16 centers (100%) use unenhanced MRI. Various imaging modalities are available for the work-up of suspected appendicitis. Although there are North American societal guidelines and recommendations regarding the appropriateness of the multiple imaging modalities, significant heterogeneity in the first-line modalities exist, which vary depending on the patient demographics and resource availability. Imaging trends in the use of the first-line modalities should be considered in order to plan for the availability of the imaging examinations and to consider plans for an imaging algorithm to permit standardization across multiple centers. While this study examined the imaging trends specifically in Canada, there are implications to other countries seeking to streamline imaging protocols and determining appropriateness of the first-line imaging modalities.

  14. New perspective on the health of Canadians: 28 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Marc

    2002-09-01

    As part of its 100th-anniversary celebration, the Pan American Health Organization has named 12 persons as "Public Health Heroes of the Americas" in recognition of their noteworthy contributions to#10; public health in the Region of the Americas. Over the course of this year, the Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública/Pan American Journal of Public Health will be carrying pieces written by or about these heroes.

  15. Strategic planning for academic research: A Canadian perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sa, Creso M; Tamtik, Merli

    2012-01-01

    .... Drawing on data compiled during interviews with senior administrators from 27 academic units in 10 universities, the paper analyses how strategic planning has been applied to the research mission over the past decade...

  16. School recess, social connectedness and health: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Lauren; Colley, Paige; Franklin, Nicole

    2017-04-01

    Children need opportunities to establish positive social connections at school, yet many school playgrounds are challenged by social conflict that can undermine these connections. When children's social needs go unmet, the resultant feelings of loneliness, isolation and self-doubt can cumulatively lead to mental and physical illness. Because recess is typically the only time during the school day that children are free to socialize and play, we propose a more thoughtful way of thinking about it: from the lens of belongingness. Schools are, historically, designed for instruction. We argue, however, that we need to attend to children's social needs at school. We highlight current research from social neuroscience, belonging and social connectedness in order to delineate the pathways between daily school recess and developmental health trajectories. We then consolidate an array of research on play, social interaction and school change to suggest four areas that could benefit from consideration in research, practice and policy: (i) the culture of recess, (ii) the importance of healthy role models on the playground, (iii) the necessity of activities, options and variety during recess and (iv) the significance of space and spatial layout (indoor and outdoor). We bridge our discussion with the conception of health as described in the Ottawa Charter and emphasize the need to build alliances across sectors to assist schools in their efforts to support children's overall health needs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. School-Based Practices for Asperger Syndrome: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrimmon, Adam W.; Altomare, Alyssa A.; Matchullis, Ryan L.; Jitlina, Katia

    2012-01-01

    Educators face increasing demands to provide quality education in their classrooms, particularly to students with exceptional needs. Students with Asperger syndrome (AS) represent a population experiencing significant nonacademic barriers to learning (e.g., social, emotional, and behavioural needs). However, educational policies that identify and…

  18. A Canadian Perspective on the Uncertain Future of Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Bill

    2005-01-01

    Distance education as a field of educational endeavor is at a crucial juncture in its historical development. The notion of learning at a distance has gained wide acceptance across the developed world. Instructors, physically and temporally separated from learners using newly emerging information and communication technologies, are widespread.…

  19. Perspectives on Organizational Change in the Canadian Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    homosexuals would likely be minimal for most heterosexuals. However, Shawver (p. 20) predicts that an unknown number of homophobic persons--those who suffer...negative side, extreme homophobics , who have fears regarding their sexuality, could experience "homosexual panic", and might need special attention

  20. West Nile Virus Surveillance and Diagnostic: A Canadian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Drebot

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A surveillance program has been in place since 2000 to detect the presence of West Nile virus (WNV in Canada. Serological assays are most appropriate when monitoring for human disease and undertaking case investigations. Genomic amplification procedures are more commonly used for testing animal and mosquito specimens collected as part of ongoing surveillance efforts. The incursion of WNV into this country was documented for the first time in 2001 when WNV was demonstrated in 12 Ontario health units during the late summer and fall. In 2002 WNV activity was documented by avian surveillance in Ontario by mid-May with subsequent expansion of the virus throughout Ontario and into Quebec, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Nova Scotia. Human cases were recorded in both Ontario and Quebec in 2002 with approximately 800 to 1000 probable, confirmed and suspect cases detected. The possible recurrence and further spread of WNV to other parts of Canada in 2003 must be anticipated with potential risk to public health. The continued surveillance and monitoring for WNV-associated human illness is necessary and appropriate disease prevention measures need to be in place in 2003.

  1. Air quality management: Canadian perspectives on a global issue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taylor, Eric; Mcmillan, Ann C

    2014-01-01

    .... Benefit from the experience of 43 of Canada's most experienced air quality management professionals who share their insights into the state of air quality in Canada today, how it is managed, as well...

  2. Citizenship Education in the Era of Globalization:Canadian Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Pashby

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Important and challenging theoretical debates and questions arising from considerations of the role of citizenship education in the current “global era” are evident in academic literature. Ultimately, our scholarly work must also engage with what happens in our elementary, secondary, and post-secondary classrooms. Much important scholarly attention is being directed to debates about the nature of globalization, and about national and, increasingly, global concepts of citizenship, multiculturalism, and social movements of global resistance. However, much of this work is done outside of a direct engagement with teachers, students, and classroom practices and is consequently left at a level of abstraction that appears disconnected from the day-to-day work of public schooling. Indeed, when working through significant theoretical interjections and conversations that engage with the complexities and possibilities to which we are drawn, we can never forget that the “what” and “how” of teaching and learning, and the values that circulate within classrooms, reflect the global movements of contemporary history and are shaped by a sense that we must take-up global issues. We must, therefore, recognize what Pashby (this issue refers to as the global imperative that exerts particular pressure on educational theory, practice, policy, and politics. To do this we must struggle with questions of theory that inform our scholarly and our practical work as educators, be that practice in faculties of education or in K to 12 classrooms. This special themed issue presents important questions, concerns, and possibilities that mark both theoretical discourses and classroom practice.

  3. Barriers to palliative radiotherapy referral: A Canadian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samant, Rajiv S.; Fitzgibbon, Edward; Meng, Joanne; Graham, Ian D. [Univ. of Ottawa. Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-15

    Radiotherapy is an effective but underutilized treatment modality for cancer patients. We decided to investigate the factors influencing radiotherapy referral among family physicians in our region. A 30-item survey was developed to determine palliative radiotherapy knowledge and factors influencing referral. It was sent to 400 physicians in eastern Ontario (Canada) and the completed surveys were evaluated. The overall response rate was 50% with almost all physicians seeing cancer patients recently (97%) and the majority (80%) providing palliative care. Approximately 56% had referred patients for radiotherapy previously and 59% were aware of the regional community oncology program. Factors influencing radiotherapy referral included the following: waiting times for radiotherapy consultation and treatment, uncertainty about the benefits of radiotherapy, patient age, and perceived patient inconvenience. Physicians who referred patients for radiotherapy were more than likely to provide palliative care, work outside of urban centres, have hospital privileges and had sought advice from a radiation oncologist in the past. A variety of factors influence the referral of cancer patients for radiotherapy by family physicians and addressing issues such as long waiting times, lack of palliative radiotherapy knowledge and awareness of Cancer Centre services could increase the rate of appropriate radiotherapy patient referral.

  4. Interpersonal factors affecting communication in clinical consultations: Canadian physicians' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Brenda L; Lee, Raymond T; Brotheridge, Celeste M

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to determine how process and latent errors in the interpersonal, organizational, health system, and public health domains impact doctor/patient communication and patient safety. There were 278 physicians from Manitoba, Canada who completed a self-report questionnaire during 2006. The largest specialty was family medicine, followed by internal medicine and pediatrics. Mean years of practice was 16, and 60 percent of the respondents were male. Respondents indicated the extent to which difficulties were encountered when communicating with patients. The study finds that physicians had more difficulties with patients in the 0-20 year age bracket on 12 of the 18 communication statements. Psychiatry and pediatrics reported more difficulties with language interpreters. Pediatrics reported more difficulties with patients using culturally-based alternative medicine. Internal medicine had more difficulty with patients not appearing to trust or participate in treatment decisions. Patients in the 41-60 years age bracket had the highest mean for non-adherence to treatment plans, health maintenance and needed lifestyle change. The female physician-female patient dyad had fewer communication difficulties on all statements. Further research should examine how family structure influences health-care delivery and health outcomes. Health care organizations can contribute to improving quality of care by seeking out and correcting sources of latent errors, and by supporting professional development and practice interventions. Few studies exist that have linked communication difficulties to adverse events. This study provides insight on sources of interpersonal errors in communication that directly impact the physician/patient relationship and which may represent threats to patient safety.

  5. Clinical Experience in Advanced Practice Nursing: A Canadian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Glenn

    2003-01-01

    The role of advanced practice (AP) nurses must be clearly articulated and defined and not overshadowed by medical functions. Consensus on their educational preparation and explication of the nature of expertise in advanced practice are needed if AP nurses are to realize the full scope of their practice. (Contains 35 references.) (SK)

  6. Canadian integrative oncology research priorities: results of a consensus-building process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, L.C.; Seely, D.; Balneaves, L.G.; Boon, H.S.; Leis, A.; Oneschuk, D.; Sagar, S.M.; Verhoef, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background In Canada, many diverse models of integrative oncology care have emerged in response to the growing number of cancer patients who combine complementary therapies with their conventional medical treatments. The increasing interest in integrative oncology emphasizes the need to engage stakeholders and to work toward consensus on research priorities and a collaborative research agenda. The Integrative Canadian Oncology Research Initiative initiated a consensus-building process to meet that need and to develop an action plan that will implement a Canadian research agenda. Methods A two-day consensus workshop was held after completion of a Delphi survey and stakeholder interviews. Results Five interrelated priority research areas were identified as the foundation for a Canadian research agenda: EffectivenessSafetyResource and health services utilizationKnowledge translationDeveloping integrative oncology models Research is needed within each priority area from a range of different perspectives (for example, patient, practitioner, health system) and in a way that reflects a continuum of integration from the addition of a single complementary intervention within conventional cancer care to systemic change. Strategies to implement a Canadian integrative oncology research agenda were identified, and working groups are actively developing projects in line with those strategic areas. Of note is the intention to develop a national network for integrative oncology research and knowledge translation. Conclusions The identified research priorities reflect the needs and perspectives of a spectrum of integrative oncology stakeholders. Ongoing stakeholder consultation, including engagement from new stakeholders, is needed to ensure appropriate uptake and implementation of a Canadian research agenda. PMID:23904767

  7. Skin-Color Preferences and Body Satisfaction among South Asian-Canadian and European-Canadian Female University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Sarita; Piran, Niva

    1997-01-01

    Examines skin-color preferences and body satisfaction among South Asian-Canadian and European-Canadian female university students. Hypothesizes that South Asian-Canadians would display a greater wish to be lighter in skin color than would European-Canadians and that the discrepancy would be greater the darker their skin color. Reports that the…

  8. Monitoring of the Canadian Oil Sands from the Aura Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, C. A.; Shephard, M. W.; Fioletov, V.; Cady-Pereira, K. E.; Krotkov, N. A.; Boersma, K. F.; Li, C.; Luo, M.; Joiner, J.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    Two instruments on-board the NASA Aura satellite, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), have been used to monitor air pollution over the Canadian oil sands region. Between them they provide a unique perspective on the distributions, evolution, and sources of several key pollutants. This presentation will detail some highlights from these Aura-based oil sands studies: (i) the evolution of OMI-measured nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide enhancements over the past decade, including comparisons with other nearby sources, (ii) two years of ammonia, carbon monoxide, methanol, and formic acid observations from TES special-observation transects, and (iii) preliminary insights into emissions derived from these observations.

  9. Dysplastic Nevus: Management by Canadian Dermatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapra, Priya; Rosen, Cheryl; Siddha, Sanjay; Lynde, Charles W

    2015-01-01

    The management of dysplastic nevi is controversial. No studies have collected data regarding management of the lesion amongst Canadian dermatologists. To provide a comprehensive review of what the prevailing opinions are, regarding treatment and terminology of dysplastic nevi, amongst Canadian dermatologists. An online survey of 25 questions was e-mailed to 613 members of the Canadian Dermatology Association, in French and English. A total of 179 responses were received. Varying numbers of participants completed each question. The majority of participants think that the term dysplastic nevus should not be abandoned, and they indicated that they never reexcise lesions with mild to moderate atypia even when the margins are positive. The majority of Canadian dermatologists retain the use of the term dysplastic nevus and do not reexcise lesions with mild to moderate atypia even when the margins are positive. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Freezing at sea: a Canadian opportunity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bollivar, D.R; Cadegan, E; Demone, E.H; Matthew, P; Nicholson, P.J; Shannon, C.P; Stirling, R.C

    This report was prepared for the Nova Scotia Fish Packers Association in an effort to set out as clearly as possible the issues relating to introduction of freezing at sea technology to the Canadian...

  11. The Canadian Forces Recruitment/Attrition Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wait, Tracey

    1998-01-01

    ...), as part of its mandate to provide analysis of potential impacts of trends and change on defense and defense related issues, has designed a prototype model of recruitment and attrition of the Canadian Forces (C F...

  12. Canadian shellfish sanitation program: manual of operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    This manual outlines the authorities (acts and regulations), policies and procedures which apply to the Canadian program and which will be used to evaluate regional activities associated with the shellfish Sanitation Program...

  13. Canadian Business Schools: Going out of Business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobni, Dawn; Dobni, Brooke

    1996-01-01

    Using Porter's five-forces model (potential entrants, suppliers, buyers, rivalry, substitutes) to analyze competition in Canadian university business schools, the authors conclude that schools are becoming increasingly vulnerable to competitive pressures and that strategic reorientation is necessary. (SK)

  14. Understanding the Irony: Canadian Gay Men Living with HIV/AIDS, Their Catholic Devotion, and Greater Well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liboro, Renato M; Walsh, Richard T G

    2016-04-01

    Nine Canadian Catholic HIV-positive gay men were interviewed to obtain a better understanding of why and how they were able to persevere in their faith despite their religion's teachings against homosexuality and contributions to the stigmatization of HIV/AIDS. By examining the lived experiences and personal perspectives of the participants, the study aimed to explore and elucidate the significant role of Catholicism and the Catholic Church both as a continued source of marginalization and oppression, as well as strength and support, for Canadian gay men living with HIV/AIDS today.

  15. Canadian Art Partnership Program in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ketovuori, Mikko Mr.

    2011-01-01

    This article is about a multidisciplinary R&D project in which a Canadian Learning Through The Arts (LTTA) program was imported to Finland in 2003–2004. Cultural differences in arts education in Finland and Canada are discussed. While Finland has a national school curriculum with all the arts included. Canada relies more on partnerships to ensure arts education for children in the schools. Despite the fact that Canadian learning methods appeared to be quite similar to the ones Finnish teacher...

  16. Canadian Multiculturalism, Same as it ever Was?

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen Hoyos

    2014-01-01

    After the Second World War ended, Canada was no longer mainly composed of its two dominant ethnocultural groups, French and English, but rather constituted by polyethnicity; meaning, Canadian culture was made up of many different ethnic groups. Since then, Canada has actively embraced multiculturalism and on 12 July 1988, the House of Commons passed Bill C-93, ‘An Act for the preservation and enhancement of multiculturalism in Canada’. The Canadian multicultural experience has been much portr...

  17. Liability of land transportation of fuels from the perspective of Brazilian legal system; Responsabilidade civil dos transportadores terrestres de combustiveis a luz do ordenamento juridico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Gabrielle Trindade Moreira de; Soares, Pedro Lucas de Moura [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos em Direito do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis

    2010-01-15

    The article explains about the assumptions of liability - injury, illicit act and the causation between them - and the strands that give ground, namely the subjective and objective liability. Finally, we examine the legal framework on land transportation of fuels, applying to it device relating to civil liability, determining the ways to responsibility the transportation company, in each of the modality of land transportation, which are the road, railway and by using pipes.

  18. A Canadian answer to LNG safety fears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, A.

    2004-04-05

    Safety-inspired opposition to the construction of liquefied natural gas (LNG) plants, or the mooring of ships used to transport liquefied natural gas in close proximity to land, has focused attention on the ideas of a Cambridge-educated Canadian mathematician and economist, James Cran and his associates, who came up with the idea of transporting natural gas compressed (CNG) in coiled pipes fitted into canisters or 'coselles'. A CNG-ship carries about 600 million cubic feet of gas which has been compressed 325-fold, while an LNG ship carries about three billion cubic feet condensed 600-fold. LNG is shipped at a temperature of -165 degree C in very large tanks, while CNG is shipped at a temperature of about five degree C in coils fitted inside a carousel. If an LNG ship were rammed and its containers punctured, its liquid contents would coat the vessel and constitute a dangerous fire hazard. In a similar incident, CNG, being still in a gaseous state, would dissipate into the atmosphere. An added advantage is that unlike LNG ships which cannot unload into a transmission pipeline and require a land-based storage tank, CNG shipping can provide continuous service: once empty, the ship can trade places with the next one for uninterrupted delivery to the shore-linked pipeline. CNG loading facilities also costs about one-twentieth of the cost of building an LNG terminal, and they are less complex to build since they do not require sophisticated infrastructure. It is an irony of fate that future CNG ships may be built in Russian shipyards formerly engaged in building nuclear submarines for the Soviet Union. To enable the Russians to recommission their ship-building industry which fell into disuse and disrepair after the break-up of the Soviet Union, Russia is getting help from the United States Industry Coalition, a non-profit association of American companies and universities, as well as from the US government which is quietly helping the Russians revive their

  19. Violence on canadian television networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Guy

    2004-02-01

    Over the past twenty years, the question of the effects of violence on television has figured prominently in public opinion and hundreds of studies have been devoted to this subject. Many researchers have determined that violence has a negative impact on behavior. The public, broadcasters and political figures all support the idea of reducing the total amount of violence on television - in particular in shows for children. A thousand programs aired between 1993 and 2001 on major non-specialty television networks in Canada were analyzed: TVA, TQS, as well as CTV and Global, private French and English networks, as well as the English CBC Radio and French Radio-Canada for the public networks. The methodology consists of a classic analysis of content where an act of violence constitutes a unit of analysis. The data collected revealed that the amount of violence has increased regularly since 1993 despite the stated willingness on the part of broadcasters to produce programs with less violence. The total number of violent acts, as well as the number of violent acts per hour, is increasing. Private networks deliver three times more violence than public networks. Researchers have also noted that a high proportion of violence occurs in programs airing before 21:00 hours, thereby exposing a large number of children to this violence. Psychological violence is taking on a more significant role in Canadian Television.

  20. The Canadian mobile satellite program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, P. M.; Breithaupt, R. W.; McNally, J. L.

    The progressions and selection of design features for the Canadian segment of a mobile satellite (MSAT) communications system are traced. The feasibility study for a satellite-based public and government mobile communications service to underserved areas was carried out between 1980-82. The results covered the market demand, commercial viability, user cost-benefit, and spacecraft concepts. A subsequent 2 yr study was initiated to proceed with project definition. A market of 1.1 million users was identified in all of Canada, with MSAT replacing other systems for 50 percent of the market. Operations would be in the 806-890 MHz range. Traffic will be routed through gateway links functioning in the 8/7 GHz SHF band while the mobile units will be connected through an 821-825 MHz up link and an 866-870 MH downlink. New technologies will be needed for a central control station, the gateway stations, and the base stations for the mobile radio service, the mobile user terminals, and data collection platforms.

  1. The Canadian International Medical Graduate Bottleneck: A New Problem for New Doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Watts

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A growing population of Canadian students are travelling outside of Canada for medical training. The purpose of this study is to assess the opportunity for Canadians studying medicine abroad (CSAs to secure post-graduate medical residency positions as International medical graduates (IMGs in Canada. Methods: Current statistics on IMG applicants into the Canadian Residency Matching Service (CaRMS will be compared to the number of CSAs applying to return to Canada. Results: In 2010, 75% (1232 of IMG applicants were unmatched following application to CaRMS, despite a doubling in positions reserved for IMGs from 2003. An estimated 3750 CSAs are currently attending over 55 medical schools globally; a six-fold increase since first reports in 2006. Between 2012 and 2014, it is estimated that 72.8% of CSAs will graduate, with 90.4% hoping to return to Canada for post-graduate residency training.   Discussion: The increasing population of CSAs poses a significant risk for future IMGs attempting to secure postgraduate training positions in Canada. From this perspective, we have coined the term ‘Canadian IMG Bottleneck’ – which describes the funnelling effect that has been created by the growing number of CSAs and the limited number of IMG residency positions available in Canada.

  2. Theorizing Gender in Contemporary Canadian Citizenship: Lessons Learned from the CBC's "Greatest Canadian" Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubas, Kaela

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I have used the 2004 Greatest Canadian contest as an example of media's educational function. Contrary to mainstream discourse of gender-neutral citizenship, this contest reiterates a notion of Canadian citizenship as masculinized, classed, and raced. Gramsci's concepts of "hegemony," "ideology", and…

  3. Canadian guidelines for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide a clinical summary of the Canadian clinical practice guidelines for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) that includes relevant considerations for family physicians. Quality of evidence Guideline authors performed a systematic literature search and drafted recommendations. Recommendations received both strength of evidence and strength of recommendation ratings. Input from external content experts was sought, as was endorsement from Canadian medical societies (Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada, Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Canadian Society of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians, and the Family Physicians Airways Group of Canada). Main message Diagnosis of ABRS is based on the presence of specific symptoms and their duration; imaging or culture are not needed in uncomplicated cases. Treatment is dependent on symptom severity, with intranasal corticosteroids (INCSs) recommended as monotherapy for mild and moderate cases, although the benefit might be modest. Use of INCSs plus antibiotics is reserved for patients who fail to respond to INCSs after 72 hours, and for initial treatment of patients with severe symptoms. Antibiotic selection must account for the suspected pathogen, the risk of resistance, comorbid conditions, and local antimicrobial resistance trends. Adjunct therapies such as nasal saline irrigation are recommended. Failure to respond to treatment, recurrent episodes, and signs of complications should prompt referral to an otolaryngologist. The guidelines address situations unique to the Canadian health care environment, including actions to take during prolonged wait periods for specialist referral or imaging. Conclusion The Canadian guidelines provide up-to-date recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of ABRS that reflect an evolving understanding of the disease. In addition, the guidelines offer useful tools to help

  4. Defensive medicine in neurosurgery: the Canadian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy R; Hulou, M Maher; Yan, Sandra C; Cote, David J; Nahed, Brian V; Babu, Maya A; Das, Sunit; Gormley, William B; Rutka, James T; Laws, Edward R; Heary, Robert F

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT Recent studies have examined the impact of perceived medicolegal risk and compared how this perception impacts defensive practices within the US. To date, there have been no published data on the practice of defensive medicine among neurosurgeons in Canada. METHODS An online survey containing 44 questions was sent to 170 Canadian neurosurgeons and used to measure Canadian neurosurgeons' perception of liability risk and their practice of defensive medicine. The survey included questions on the following domains: surgeon demographics, patient characteristics, type of physician practice, surgeon liability profile, policy coverage, defensive behaviors, and perception of the liability environment. Survey responses were analyzed and summarized using counts and percentages. RESULTS A total of 75 neurosurgeons completed the survey, achieving an overall response rate of 44.1%. Over one-third (36.5%) of Canadian neurosurgeons paid less than $5000 for insurance annually. The majority (87%) of Canadian neurosurgeons felt confident with their insurance coverage, and 60% reported that they rarely felt the need to practice defensive medicine. The majority of the respondents reported that the perceived medicolegal risk environment has no bearing on their preferred practice location. Only 1 in 5 respondent Canadian neurosurgeons (21.8%) reported viewing patients as a potential lawsuit. Only 4.9% of respondents would have selected a different career based on current medicolegal risk factors, and only 4.1% view the cost of annual malpractice insurance as a major burden. CONCLUSIONS Canadian neurosurgeons perceive their medicolegal risk environment as more favorable and their patients as less likely to sue than their counterparts in the US do. Overall, Canadian neurosurgeons engage in fewer defensive medical behaviors than previously reported in the US.

  5. Portrayal of youth suicide in canadian news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easson, Amanda; Agarwal, Arnav; Duda, Stephanie; Bennett, Kathryn

    2014-09-01

    Responsible media reporting of youth suicide may reduce the risk of contagion and increase help-seeking behaviour. Accordingly, we conducted a content analysis of Canadian youth suicide newspaper articles to assess quality and summarize content (themes, age groups, populations and use of scientific evidence). The Canadian Periodical Index Quarterly (CPI.Q) was searched (2008-2012) for full-text Canadian newspaper articles using the keywords "youth" and "suicide." The top five most relevant articles as judged by CPI.Q were selected sequentially for each year (n=25). Quality was assessed using World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for responsible media reporting. Content analysis was completed in duplicate by two reviewers. All articles addressed youth suicide generally rather than reporting exclusively on a specific death by suicide. Alignment of articles with individual WHO guideline items ranged from 16 to 60%. The most common content theme was prevention (80%). No article was judged to glamorize suicide. Help seeking was addressed in 52% of articles, but only 20% provided information on where to obtain help. Statistics were referenced more frequently than scientific research (76% vs. 28%). Our review suggests that Canadian media presents youth suicide as an issue for which hope and help exist. While the majority of reports aim to educate the public about suicide, increased use of scientific evidence about risk factors and prevention is recommended to facilitate the translation of rigorous scientific knowledge into improved mental health and reduced suicide risk among Canadian youth.

  6. Perspectives for the development of intermodel transport in a new railroad paradigm; Entwicklungsperspektiven des Kombinierten Verkehrs in einem neuen Paradigma der Eisenbahn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, J. [TransCare Umweltvertraegliche Verkehrskonzepte GmbH, Wiesbaden (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Intermodal transport systems may help to solve current transportation problems. The conception is discussed using both the railway paradigm and an new paradigm. [German] Die Situation im Verkehrsbereich hat gegenwaertig einen Punkt erreicht, an dem der Transport von Personen und Guetern nicht nur Probleme loest, sondern selbst zum Problem geworden ist. Dabei wird der Kombinierte Verkehr Schiene/Strasse oft als Hoffnungstraeger der Bahn bezeichnet. Im Rahmen dieses Beitrages wird die Konzeption des Kombinierten Verkehrs sowohl unter dem bisherigen Paradigma der Eisenbahn, als auch unter einem neuen Paradigma skizziert. (orig.)

  7. Enhancing cultural competence: trans-atlantic experiences of European and Canadian nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Liisa; Campbell, Barbara; Aarts, Clara; Chassé, France; Hemingway, Ann; Juhansoo, Tiina; Mitchell, Maureen P; Marquis, France L; Critchley, Kim A; Nordstrom, Pamela M

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes the enhancement of cultural competence through trans-Atlantic rural community experiences of European and Canadian nursing students using critical incident technique (CIT) as the students' reflective writing method. The data generated from 48 students' recordings about 134 critical incidents over a 2-year project were analysed by qualitative content analysis. Five main learning categories were identified as: cross-cultural ethical issues; cultural and social differences; health-care inequalities; population health concerns; and personal and professional awareness. Four emergent cultural perspectives for the health sector that became apparent from the reflections were: health promotion realm; sensitivity to social and cultural aspects of people's lives; channels between the health sector and society; cultural language and stories of local people. CIT was successfully used to foster European and Canadian undergraduate students' cultural reflections resulting in considerations and suggestions for future endeavours to enhance cultural competence in nursing education.

  8. Satellite Monitoring Over the Canadian Oil Sands: Highlights from Aura OMI and TES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Mark W.; McLinden, Chris; Fioletov, Vitali; Cady-Pereira, Karen E.; Krotkov, Nick A.; Boersma, Folkert; Li, Can; Luo, Ming; Bhartia, P. K.; Joiner, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing provides a unique perspective for air quality monitoring in and around the Canadian Oil Sands as a result of its spatial and temporal coverage. Presented are Aura satellite observations of key pollutants including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ammonia (NH3), methanol (CH3OH), and formic acid (HCOOH) over the Canadian Oil Sands. Some of the highlights include: (i) the evolution of NO2 and SO2 from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), including comparisons with other nearby sources, (ii) two years of ammonia, carbon monoxide, methanol, and formic acid observations from 240 km North-South Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) transects through the oils sands, and (iii) preliminary insights into emissions derived from these observations.

  9. If it bleeds, it leads: the construction of workplace injury in Canadian newspapers, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnetson, Bob; Foster, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Public perceptions of workplace injuries are shaped by media reports, but the accuracy of such reports is unknown. This study identifies differences between workers' compensation claims data and newspaper reports of workplace injuries in Canadian newspapers and media sources. This study applies quantitative content analysis to 245 Canadian English-language newspaper articles from 2009 to 2014. Workers' compensation claims data is drawn from the Association of Workers' Compensation Boards of Canada. Newspapers dramatically overreport fatalities, injuries to men, injuries in the construction and mining/quarrying/oil industries, injuries stemming from contact with objects/equipment and fires/explosions, and acute physical injuries such as burns, fractures, intracranial injuries, and traumatic injuries. Newspaper reporters tend to rely upon government, police/firefighter, and employer accounts, rarely recounting the perspectives of workers. Newspapers overreported fatalities, injuries to men, and injuries in the construction and mining/quarrying/oil industries. This results in a misleading picture of occupational injuries in Canada.

  10. A regulatory framework for the trans-boundary transportation of dangerous goods in Southern Africa : an environmental perspective / Jean-Claude Nkwanyuo Ashukem

    OpenAIRE

    Ashukem, Jean-Claude Nkwanyuo

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation is to analyse the extent to which the South African legal framework governing the trans-boundary transportation of dangerous goods, provides for the regulation of environmental aspects in terms of dangerous goods transportation. The dissertation examines the role of regional and sub-regional laws in this regard in an effort to ascertain whether there is sufficient legal certainty and harmonisation of laws for environmental regulation. No specific l...

  11. Cognitive aspects of sexual functioning: differences between East Asian-Canadian and Euro-Canadian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Heather; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the sexual beliefs of female undergraduates, as well as the thoughts they experience during sexual experiences. The study aimed to determine potential differences in these variables between East Asian-Canadians and Euro-Canadians, as well as the influence of acculturation on these variables. In addition, the relationships between sexual beliefs, automatic thoughts, and specific aspects of sexual functioning were examined. Euro-Canadian (n = 77) and East Asian-Canadian (n = 123) undergraduate women completed the Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire, the Sexual Modes Questionnaire, the Female Sexual Function Index, and the Vancouver Index of Acculturation. East Asian women endorsed almost all sexual beliefs assessed in this study more than did Euro-Canadian women, and endorsement of these beliefs was associated with acculturation. In addition, East Asian-Canadian and Euro-Canadian women differed in the frequency of experiencing negative automatic thoughts. Results also revealed associations between difficulties in sexual functioning, and both sexual beliefs and automatic thoughts. Together, these results provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that differences in cognitive aspects of sexuality may underlie the differences in sexual functioning previously observed between these two groups.

  12. The importance of nature to Canadians: survey highlights

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DuWors, E

    1999-01-01

    .... The 1996 Survey on the Importance of Nature to Canadians (the Nature Survey) also tells us that Canadians commit large amounts of their leisure time to activities that depend on natural areas and wildlife...

  13. Optimizing diabetes literacy: lessons from African Canadians in Calgary about type 2 diabetes diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekong, Jane I; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; Arthur, Nancy

    2013-08-01

    With the aim of optimizing diabetes education, type 2 diabetes awareness, primary prevention and secondary prevention, we studied how African Canadians experience type 2 diabetes. Specifically, we studied stories told by African Canadians living in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, about significant events and experiences at the time of their diagnosis with type 2 diabetes. From recorded interviews, we extracted themes from stories about diagnosis, using hermeneutic phenomenology. Participants included 11 African Canadians older than age 18 and at least 1-year post-diagnosis. Transcribed stories were analyzed for units of meaning describing significant themes/experiences about the diagnosis. Extracted units of meaning were organized into themes that were presented to a focus group of African Canadians in Calgary to garner their perspective on the findings, discuss the implications and make recommendations for improvements. All participants reported experiencing shock, disbelief, fear and a sense of helplessness immediately after their diagnosis. These rendered them unable to think clearly or start their treatment regimen until propelled by additional forces. Also, 73% of participants reported experiencing anger/denial about the diagnosis for some time, whereas 18% reported a short-lived relief that they could finally put a name to their symptoms. However, the overarching issue associated with all of the themes appeared to emanate from a lack of type 2 diabetes awareness. Emotions experienced by participants seemed precipitated by a lack of type 2 diabetes awareness. Some community-specific factors contributed to the lack of type 2 diabetes awareness, which appeared to impede primary and secondary prevention among participants. Recommendations for ameliorating these factors are presented. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Statistics in action a Canadian outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Lawless, Jerald F

    2014-01-01

    Commissioned by the Statistical Society of Canada (SSC), Statistics in Action: A Canadian Outlook helps both general readers and users of statistics better appreciate the scope and importance of statistics. It presents the ways in which statistics is used while highlighting key contributions that Canadian statisticians are making to science, technology, business, government, and other areas. The book emphasizes the role and impact of computing in statistical modeling and analysis, including the issues involved with the huge amounts of data being generated by automated processes.The first two c

  15. Canadian Petroleum Products Institute: Annual report 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Annual report of the Institute, which represents the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry on environmental, health, safety, and business issues affecting the industry and Canadian society. The report describes the Institute; gives highlights for the year; describes the recipient of the first CPPI Chairman's Award, Dr. Linton Kulak; provides a general policy and guiding principles for environment, health, and safety; describes the environmental achievements and challenges of the Canadian petroleum industry; and describes industry economics and operations. A list of 1991 publications is also included.

  16. Trends in Canadian Respiratory Clinical Trials from 2001 to 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Claire Elizabeth Tacon; Hina Abbas; Shiyuan Zhang; Barbara Nicholls; Glenn Crater; Zhen Su

    2014-01-01

    Clinical research bridges patients’ unmet medical need with innovative medicines, increases knowledge acquisition by clinicians, and creates solutions to improve the sustainability and quality of the Canadian health care system and economy. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Canadian Lung Association have recently raised concerns over declining research activities within the Canadian respiratory community. While there are currently >3000 ongoing clinical trials in Canada, the ...

  17. The Lived Experiences of Canadian-Born and Foreign-Born Chinese Canadian Post-Secondary Students in Northern Ontario

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fei Wang

    2016-01-01

    ... and (d) the effect of Canadian education on career options. The study revealed that Canadian-born Chinese students differed from their foreign-born counterparts in their viewpoints on ethnic identity...

  18. Transnational Education -- An Opportunity and a Canadian Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Transnational education is a huge growth industry and a potential source of considerable income for Canadian educational institutions. Canadian educational establishments seem to be missing out on this, and this seems short sighted. Canada has a very good reputation globally; this could be utilized when selling Canadian educational institutions in…

  19. Next-generation models for Canadian collaboration in international ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Through this project, the Canadian Council for International Cooperation (CCIC), in partnership with the Canadian Association for the Study of International Development, will identify and promote new ways for Canadian practitioners, academics, and public policymakers to work together in international development.

  20. The Canadian Association for the Study of International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Canadian Association for the Study of International Development (CASID) was founded in 1989 to provide a forum for Canadian scholars, policymakers, and civil society to meet and exchange views. It is the only Canadian learned society devoted to the study of international development. The Association's journal, the ...

  1. Canadian Association of Gastroenterology and the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation: Guidelines on Colon Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond Leddin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent cancer affecting both men and women in Canada. Many of these cancers are preventable, and the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG and the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation (CDHF strongly support the establishment of screening programs for colorectal cancer. These guidelines discuss a number of screening options, listing the advantages and disadvantages of each. Ultimately, the test that is used for screening should be determined by patient preference, current evidence and local resources.

  2. Canadian contributions to high temperature superconductivity research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlinsky, A.J.

    This paper presents a review of contributions from Canadian researchers to the field of investigating superconductivity in the range of 35/sup 0/K and up. Research projects since January 1987 are described or mentioned, including investigation of superconducting materials, theories of superconducting behavior, measurements of local magnetic fields in superconductors, and the production and modification of new oxide superconductors.

  3. Highlight: Canadian and Caribbean parliamentarians discuss open ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... Toward open parliaments. Open parliaments were also on the agenda in a session moderated by Senator David Smith, in the Centre Block of the Canadian Parliament Buildings. Increased information about legislative activities and greater opportunities for dialogue between citizens and their parliaments ...

  4. Canadian Adult Education: Still a Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbit, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Writing recently in this journal, two of Canada's veteran adult educators contemplated the "death" of the Canadian adult education movement. I disagree and argue that adult education in Canada is as vital an activity as ever and one that still fully justifies being called a movement. Specifically, Selman and Selman (2009) list five…

  5. Computer Language Settings and Canadian Spellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleworth, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The language settings used on personal computers interact with the spell-checker in Microsoft Word, which directly affects the flagging of spellings that are deemed incorrect. This study examined the language settings of personal computers owned by a group of Canadian university students. Of 21 computers examined, only eight had their Windows…

  6. Opportunity potential matrix for Atlantic Canadians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Danchuk; Ed Thomson

    1992-01-01

    Opportunity for provision of Parks Service benefit to Atlantic Canadians was investigated by mapping travel behaviour into a matrix in terms of origin, season, purpose, distance, time, and destination. Findings identified potential for benefit in several activity areas, particularly within residents' own province.

  7. Theoretical Analysis of Canadian Lifelong Education Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Natalia; Barabash, Olena; Busko, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the article, the problem of Canadian lifelong education development has been studied. The main objectives of the article are defined as theoretical analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature which highlights different aspects of the research problem; periods of lifelong education development; and determination of lifelong learning role…

  8. Update on Canadian Government Documents in Microform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbe, Mary

    1988-01-01

    Reviews recent developments in Canadian government documents available in microform, including: (1) Statistics Canada titles, including the 1986 census; (2) publications of the federal Atomic Energy Control Board and other federal technical reports; (3) provincial government publications; and (4) commercial publications of Micromedia. (seven…

  9. Recent Canadian Government Publications in Microform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbe, Mary

    1983-01-01

    This biennial survey of microformatted Canadian government publications highlights the diverse publications of Micromedia Ltd., the National Library of Canada, Public Archives of Canada, and Statistics Canada. Technical reports of a federal government department--Fisheries and Oceans--patent literature, and archival materials are noted. Eight…

  10. The Handbook of Canadian Film. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Eleanor

    The core of this book consists of 131 short entries on individual Canadian filmmakers, arranged in alphabetical order, with filmographies and suggestions for further reading. The majority of the filmmakers who are described are directors; other members of the film community--producers, sound engineers, camera operators, and so on--are discussed in…

  11. Experiencing Online Pedagogy: A Canadian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Heather E.; Barnett, John

    2010-01-01

    This case study explored the educational experiences of Canadian preservice teachers in a course designed to teach about online teaching. Students gained experience in course design and delivery, and safe and ethical behavior related to technology. Findings indicated that projects in which students actively applied their knowledge were more…

  12. Adult Literacy Education on the Canadian Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Canada's Frontier College began in 1899 to bring literacy and citizenship education to immigrant men; in the 1920s it offered university education. However, its early history embodied a legacy of nativism, anticommunism, racism, and sexism as it attempted to assimilate adult literacy learners into Anglo-Canadian sociocultural norms. (Contains 19…

  13. Reducing dietary sodium intake: the Canadian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Susan I

    2010-02-01

    Sodium is a required nutrient; Adequate Intakes for adults range from 1200 to 1500 mg*day(-1), depending on age. The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for sodium is 2300 mg*day(-1) for adults, based on the relationship between sodium intake and increased blood pressure. Elevated blood pressure, which is prevalent among Canadians, is, in turn, a major risk factor for stroke, cardiovascular disease, and renal disease. Sodium intake is not the only determinant of blood pressure; other modifiable risk factors include relative mass, physical activity, overall dietary quality, and alcohol consumption. However, because >90% of adult Canadian men and two thirds of Canadian women have sodium intakes above the UL, Health Canada's Working Group on Dietary Sodium Reduction has been charged with developing, implementing, and overseeing a strategy to reduce Canadians' sodium intakes. It is estimated that approximately 75% of dietary sodium is added during food processing; in addition to taste and palatability, sodium also has functional roles in food manufacturing and preservation, although the amounts used often exceed those required. Because of the central role of processed foods in sodium intake, the strategy proposed by Health Canada's Working Group includes voluntary reduction of sodium in processed foods and foods sold in food service establishments. It will also include an education and awareness campaign, and research and surveillance. Initiatives to reduce sodium in other parts of the world have demonstrated that it will be challenging to reduce sodium intake to the recommended range and will likely require many years to accomplish.

  14. Labour Law in Canadian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnetson, Bob

    2006-01-01

    The legislative framework for academic and nonacademic unionization and collective bargaining in Canadian public colleges, universities and technical institutes is set out and compared with mainstream labour law. Significant deviations affecting academic staff in the province of Alberta are explored to understand their effect and the factors which…

  15. Sustainable Transport and Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2004-01-01

    ustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators...... in forecasting and tracking the performance of transport systems increasingly guide sustainable transport policy making. This review explores the implications of the "sustainable transport" concept and how it can be made operational with indicators. A number of indicator systems are reviewed, and some strengths...... and weaknesses are highlighted with regard to the support they provide for sustainable transport development....

  16. Global standardization of the calculation of CO2 emissions along transport chains-gaps, approaches, perspectives of the global alignment process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehrler, V.; Engel, A. van den; Davydenko, I.; Diekmann, D.; Kiel, J.; Lewis, A.; Seidel, S.

    2015-01-01

    The transport industry, consumers, shippers and political bodies are all pressing for a global standard for the calculation of emissions along supply chains. Comparability of the chains’ efficiency, reduction of energy consumption, transparency of the carbon footprint of products and identification

  17. A REVIEW OF ASSESSMENTS CONDUCTED ON BIO-ETHANOL AS A TRANSPORTATION FUEL FROM A NET ENERGY, GREENHOUSE GAS, AND ENVIRONMENTAL LIFE CYCLE PERSPECTIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in producing ethanol from bio-mass in an attempt to make transportation ecologically sustainable continues to grow. In recent years, a large number of assessments have been conducted to assess the environmental merit of biofuels. Two detailed reviews that looked at the s...

  18. Predicting human hepatic clearance from in vitro drug metabolism and transport data: a scientific and pharmaceutical perspective for assessing drug-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenisch, Gian; Umehara, Ken-ichi

    2012-05-01

    Membrane transporters and metabolism are major determinants of the hepatobiliary elimination of drugs. This work investigates several key questions for drug development. Such questions include which drugs demonstrate transporter-based clearance in the clinic, and which in vitro methods are most suitable for drug classification, i.e. transporter- vs metabolism-dependent compound class categories. Additional questions posed are: what is the expected quantitative change in exposure in the presence of a transporter- and/or metabolism-inhibiting drug, and which criteria should trigger follow-up clinical drug-drug interaction studies. A well-established method for (human) liver clearance prediction that considers all four physiological processes driving hepatic drug elimination (namely sinusoidal uptake and efflux, metabolism and biliary secretion) was applied. Suspended hepatocytes, liver microsomes and sandwich-cultured hepatocytes were used as in vitro models to determine the individual intrinsic clearance for 13 selected compounds with various physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. Using this in vitro-in vivo extrapolation method a good linear correlation was observed between predicted and reported human hepatic clearances. Linear regression analysis revealed much improved correlations compared with other prediction methods. The presented approach serves as a basis for accurate compound categorization within the Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) and was applied to anticipate metabolism- and transporter-based drug-drug interactions using different static prediction methods. A decision tree proposal is provided and helps to guide clinical studies on active processes influencing hepatic elimination. All recommendations in this paper are generally intended to support early pre-clinical and clinical drug development and the filing of a new drug application. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Saharan Dust Fertilizing Atlantic Ocean and Amazon Rainforest via Long-range Transport and Deposition: A Perspective from Multiyear Satellite Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H.; Chin, M.; Yuan, T.; Bian, H.; Remer, L. A.; Prospero, J. M.; Omar, A. H.; Winker, D. M.; Yang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, C.

    2015-12-01

    Massive dust emitted from Sahara desert is carried by trade winds across the tropical Atlantic Ocean, reaching the Amazon Rainforest and Caribbean Sea. Airborne dust degrades air quality and interacts with radiation and clouds. Dust falling to land and ocean adds essential nutrients that could increase the productivity of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and modulate the biogeochemical cycles and climate. The resultant climate change will feed back on the production of dust in Sahara desert and its subsequent transport and deposition. Understanding the connections among the remote ecosystems requires an accurate quantification of dust transport and deposition flux on large spatial and temporal scales, in which satellite remote sensing can play an important role. We provide the first multiyear satellite-based estimates of altitude-resolved across-Atlantic dust transport and deposition based on eight-year (2007-2014) record of aerosol three-dimensional distributions from the CALIPSO lidar. On a basis of the 8-year average, 179 Tg (million tons) of dust leaves the coast of North Africa and is transported across Atlantic Ocean, of which 102, 20, and 28 Tg of dust is deposited into the tropical Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and Amazon Rainforest, respectively. The dust deposition adds 4.3 Tg of iron and 0.1 Tg of phosphorus to the tropical Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea where the productivity of marine ecosystem depends on the availability of these nutrients. The 28 Tg of dust provides about 0.022 Tg of phosphorus to Amazon Rainforest yearly that replenishes the leak of this plant-essential nutrient by rains and flooding, suggesting an important role of Saharan dust in maintaining the productivity of Amazon rainforest on timescales of decades or centuries. We will also discuss seasonal and interannual variations of the dust transport and deposition, and comparisons of the CALIOP-based estimates with model simulations.

  20. Enhancing Canadian Teacher Education Using a Story Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Drake

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Accord on Initial Teacher Education was created by the Canadian Deans of Education in 2006 to guide teacher educators across Canada. The Story Model (Drake et al., 1992 is aligned with the principles in the Accord and has proven useful in teacher education. Here it is explored as a framework for curriculum development and as an instructional strategy for students to analyze complex educational issues. This framework uses an inside-outside/past- future approach to analyze current issues and includes personal, cultural and global perspectives. Literacy and emerging new literacies are explored within the framework, as well as traditional assessment and assessment for and as learning. The Story Model looks toward creating a dynamic pan-Canadian “new story” in teacher education.En 2006, l’Association canadienne des doyens et doyennes des facultés d’éducation a créé l’Accord sur la formation initiale à l’enseignement afin de guider les formateurs des enseignants au Canada. Le modèle du récit (Story Model – Drake et al., 1992 correspond aux principes de l’Accord et a démontré son utilité en matière de formation des enseignants. Dans cet article, les auteurs le présentent à titre de cadre de référence pour l’élaboration de programmes d’enseignement, de même qu’à titre de stratégie d’enseignement permettant aux étudiants d’analyser des enjeux pédagogiques complexes. Ce cadre utilise une méthode intérieur-extérieur/ passé-présent pour analyser les enjeux actuels et considère les perspectives personnelles, culturelles et globales. Les auteurs étudient la littéracie et les nouvelles littéracies, tout comme l’évaluation traditionnelle et celle qui est au service de l’apprentissage. Le modèle du récit (Story Model vise à créer un « nouveau récit » pancanadien dynamique en matière d’éducation des enseignants.

  1. Diversity management in the Canadian workplace: Towards an anti-racism approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2012-01-01

    Most diversity management programs in Canada maintain that enhancing workforce diversity is of tremendous significance for business organizations in today’s competitive global urban markets. Since well-meaning diversity management initiatives have been largely ineffective thus far in dealing...... with workplace discrimination and racism in the Canadian workplace, this paper underscores the need to decenter the focus of diversity management from a business imperative to an antidiscrimination and social justice imperative. Within this latter perspective, the paper examines the strengths and limitations...

  2. Quality of healthcare in Canada: potential for a pan-Canadian measurement standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florizone, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Saskatchewan has embarked on a journey to transform the quality of its healthcare. Through our experiences, we have learned many lessons that could be useful to the development of a pan-Canadian system of measurement aimed at bettering care. However, measurement in isolation is insufficient to achieve improved healthcare. The system needs to be linked to a common improvement agenda. Creating a systematic approach to improvement is only possible through developing the capacities of leaders and front-line staff, by alignment through a common purpose, by focusing on value from the perspective of the customer and by creating measures backed by best practice that are transparent and accountable.

  3. Natural Gas Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Correa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the present and future on natural gas transportation options, from oil and gas fields to markets, including liquefied natural gas, gas pipeline, compressed natural gas, natural gas hydrates, and gas to liquids and the perspectives of using them in Colombia, since this is the main fuel alternative to supply the world in at least the next 50 years.

  4. An Analysis of Canadian Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing through the Junctures of History, Gender, Nursing Education, and Quality of Work Life in Ontario, Manitoba, Alberta, and Saskatchewan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A society that values mental health and helps people live enjoyable and meaningful lives is a clear aspiration echoed throughout our Canadian health care system. The Mental Health Commission of Canada has put forth a framework for a mental health strategy with goals that reflect the virtue of optimal mental health for all Canadians (Mental Health Commission Canada, 2009). Canadian nurses, the largest group of health care workers, have a vital role in achieving these goals. In Canada, two-thirds of those who experience mental health problems do not receive mental health services (Statistics Canada, 2003). Through a gendered, critical, and sociological perspective the goal of this paper is to further understand how the past has shaped the present state of psychiatric mental health nursing (PMHN). This integrative literature review offers a depiction of Canadian PMHN in light of the intersections of history, gender, education, and quality of nursing work life. Fourteen articles were selected, which provide a partial reflection of contemporary Canadian PMHN. Findings include the association between gender and professional status, inconsistencies in psychiatric nursing education, and the limitations for Canadian nurse practitioners to advance the role of the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner. PMID:23710367

  5. An Analysis of Canadian Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing through the Junctures of History, Gender, Nursing Education, and Quality of Work Life in Ontario, Manitoba, Alberta, and Saskatchewan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mary; Khanlou, Nazilla

    2013-01-01

    A society that values mental health and helps people live enjoyable and meaningful lives is a clear aspiration echoed throughout our Canadian health care system. The Mental Health Commission of Canada has put forth a framework for a mental health strategy with goals that reflect the virtue of optimal mental health for all Canadians (Mental Health Commission Canada, 2009). Canadian nurses, the largest group of health care workers, have a vital role in achieving these goals. In Canada, two-thirds of those who experience mental health problems do not receive mental health services (Statistics Canada, 2003). Through a gendered, critical, and sociological perspective the goal of this paper is to further understand how the past has shaped the present state of psychiatric mental health nursing (PMHN). This integrative literature review offers a depiction of Canadian PMHN in light of the intersections of history, gender, education, and quality of nursing work life. Fourteen articles were selected, which provide a partial reflection of contemporary Canadian PMHN. Findings include the association between gender and professional status, inconsistencies in psychiatric nursing education, and the limitations for Canadian nurse practitioners to advance the role of the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner.

  6. EDITORIAL: Perspectives Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, Richard

    2011-05-01

    In this issue, we are delighted to publish the second in a series of articles under the banner of Perspectives. The series commenced in late 2008, when Udo Kaatze [1] published an article about the powerful technique of dielectric spectrometry for liquid measurements. In addition to examining the very wide frequency range from 10-6 Hz to 10-13 Hz, an outline of possible future developments was presented. Some challenging tasks for the future were briefly outlined. The format of the article was different to the usual style of a contributed paper or review article. Instead, it represented a short summary of recent work in the field and offered a viewpoint of an expert in the area. Its commentary noted several milestones that had been recently achieved, and then looked to the future. The Perspective format allowed the author to provide some opinion about the challenges of the future not normally permitted in a Topical Review. The journal now intends to publish several more Perspectives. For example, in this issue David Birch [2] presents a Perspective about another important measurement science, namely fluorescence detections and their future directions. These are based on an old technique which provided the basis for detecting the presence of molecular species. Successful research led to an understanding and description of the phenomenon of molecular fluorescence in terms of excited state energies, transitions, symmetries and rate parameters. More recently, using fluorescence as a probe, and with the exploitation of new technologies, new applications have included the study of protein, vision, photosynthesis, membranes and DNA. Indeed nowhere has fluorescence had more impact than in the biosciences. Once again, the intention of the Perspective article has been to highlight recent milestones within the field. Importantly, it also indicates some of the future challenges. Such Perspectives are an occasional series. They are not intended to deflect from the balance of

  7. Local Transport Policy and Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    The Ph. D. thesis describes and analyses how environmental obejctives and strategies have materialised in the real-life context of local transport policies and plans, how environmental perspectives have been picked up by policy makers concerned with transport issues, how policy and planning...

  8. 19 CFR 123.52 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada. 123.52 Section 123.52 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... States to another port in Canada, may present his samples to a Canadian Customs officer at the Canadian...

  9. Webpages on copyright in Canadian academic libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony G Horava

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Academic libraries value the web as being a vital channel for communicating information and policies to their user community. Designing a webpage on copyright is a challenging task that requires a consideration of the medium and the message. This article proposes a conceptual model and proactive approach for integrating policy objective and goals into the development of a copyright webpage, based on key elements of the library’s involvement in academia. To complement this theoretical approach, an analysis of Canadian academic library websites was conducted in order to gage the effectiveness of copyright webpages, in the Canadian legal context, according to the model as well as related design issues of visibility and access.

  10. Asbestos in drinking water: a Canadian view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, P.; Meek, M.E.

    1983-11-01

    Because of the widespread occurrence of chrysotile asbestos in drinking water supplies in Canada, public health professionals have been faced with evaluating the potential hazards associated with the ingestion of asbestos in food and drinking water. The results of available Canadian monitoring and epidemiologic studies of asbestos in drinking water are reviewed and discussed in light of other published work. The Canadian studies provide no consistent, convincing evidence of increased cancer risks attributable to the ingestion of drinking water contaminated by asbestos, even though the observed asbestos concentrations were relatively high in several communities. Only one study, conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area, has shown evidence of increased cancer incidence associated with the ingestion of asbestos in drinking water. 6 references.

  11. Canadian petroleum history bibliography. Release update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2010-01-07

    The petroleum history bibliography was created over several years as a record dedicated to preserving the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. It comprises a list of more than 5000 publications, including books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles and stories of the many companies that have come and gone. It aims to include all publications and audio visual products from the Social Sciences and Humanities on company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry and humour. An author index is included. Most government documents are excluded as they are accessible through Library and Archives Canada. This bibliography is an ongoing piece of work, and welcomes any additions relating to the study and preservation of Canadian petroleum industry history.

  12. Youth De-Radicalization: A Canadian Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafal (Haval Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Youth radicalization leading to violence has become a growing fear among Canadians, as terrorist attacks are carried out in Western states. Although Canada has suffered relatively fewer acts of violence, this fear has intensified and a de-radicalization strategy is needed in the Canadian context. In a qualitative case study methodology, interviews were conducted with school counsellors, religious leaders, and academics to explore solutions to youth radicalization. Youth de-radicalization approaches from the United Kingdom were analyzed and found that community-based initiatives were missing from programming. Social identity theory is used to explain that youth join radicalized groups to feel a sense of belonging and have to be provided an alternative and moderate group identity to de-radicalize. This study found youth de-radicalization in Canada is best served through a community collaboration approach.

  13. Transport, energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Transportation demands a large and increasing share of total energy consumption in Europe. At the same time many European countries are facing difficult decisions in achieving their long term environmental goals. Therefore energy policy, environmental policy and transport policy should be seen and discussed in a common perspective. In particular the relative contribution from the transport sector and the energy sector involves a number of important and difficult issues. The aim of the conference was to bring together economists, scientists, manufactures, energy planners, transport planners, and decision makers in order to discuss the importance of the transport sector in relation to energy demand and long term environmental goals. General conference sessions covered. Trends in Transport Energy Demand and Environmental constraints, Technological Development and New Transport Systems, Lifestyle Changes and the Transport Sector, Megacities: Solutions to the Transport and Air Pollution Problems, Effectiveness of Public Policies, Transport and Energy sector, and Methods, Models and Data. The conference took place at Hotel Marienlyst, Elsinore, Denmark and attracted wide interest. The participants represented 14 different countries covering international organisations, ministries, universities, research centres, consulting firms, industry etc. (EG)

  14. Bicultural identity conflict in second-generation Asian Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroink, Mirella L; Lalonde, Richard N

    2009-02-01

    Researchers have shown that bicultural individuals, including 2nd-generation immigrants, face a potential conflict between 2 cultural identities. The present authors extended this primarily qualitative research on the bicultural experience by adopting the social identity perspective (H. Tajfel & J. C. Turner, 1986). They developed and tested an empirically testable model of the role of cultural construals, in-group prototypicality, and identity in bicultural conflict in 2 studies with 2nd-generation Asian Canadians. In both studies, the authors expected and found that participants' construals of their 2 cultures as different predicted lower levels of simultaneous identification with both cultures. Furthermore, the authors found this relation was mediated by participants' feelings of prototypicality as members of both groups. Although the perception of cultural difference did not predict well-being as consistently and directly as the authors expected, levels of simultaneous identification did show these relations. The authors discuss results in the context of social identity theory (H. Tajfel & J. C. Turner) as a framework for understanding bicultural conflict.

  15. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E.; Ooi, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer...

  16. 2003 Canadian Asthma Consensus Guidelines Executive Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Allan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma have been published over the last 15 years; however, there has been little focus on issues relating to asthma in childhood. Since the last revision of the 1999 Canadian Asthma Consensus Report, important new studies, particularly in children, have highlighted the need to incorporate new information into the asthma guidelines. The objectives of this article are to review the literature on asthma published between January 2000 and June 2003 and to evaluate the influence of new evidence on the recommendations made in the 1999 Canadian Asthma Consensus Report and its 2001 update, with a major focus on pediatric issues. Methods The diagnosis of asthma in young children and prevention strategies, pharmacotherapy, inhalation devices, immunotherapy, and asthma education were selected for review by small expert resource groups. The reviews were discussed in June 2003 at a meeting under the auspices of the Canadian Network For Asthma Care and the Canadian Thoracic Society. Data published through December 2004 were subsequently reviewed by the individual expert resource groups. Results This report evaluates early-life prevention strategies and focuses on treatment of asthma in children, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis and preventive therapy, the benefits of additional therapy, and the essential role of asthma education. Conclusion We generally support previous recommendations and focus on new issues, particularly those relevant to children and their families. This document is a guide for asthma management based on the best available published data and the opinion of health care professionals, including asthma experts and educators.

  17. Asbestos in drinking water: a Canadian view.

    OpenAIRE

    Toft, P; Meek, M E

    1983-01-01

    For several years now, public health professionals have been faced with evaluating the potential hazards associated with the ingestion of asbestos in food and drinking water. In Canada, this is a subject of particular concern, because of the widespread occurrence of chrysotile asbestos in drinking water supplies. The results of available Canadian monitoring and epidemiologic studies of asbestos in drinking water are reviewed and discussed in light of other published work. It is concluded that...

  18. Guide to Canadian Aerospace-Related Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    ATR42 , Saab 340, Fokker HISTORY. Calian Communications Systems (CCS) is a wholly Canadian- F-28, Fokker F-50, Fokker F- 100, CL-600, and Citation 500...rough field usage, advanced material applications, and crash - systems and black boxes. This is typified by the microprocessor- worthiness features for...Avionics; Beacons; Build- To-Print Cockpit Displays; Communications; Crash Position Indicator; CONTACT- John Wandell, Senior Vice President of Sales- Digital

  19. Canadian Multiculturalism, Same as it ever Was?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Hoyos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available After the Second World War ended, Canada was no longer mainly composed of its two dominant ethnocultural groups, French and English, but rather constituted by polyethnicity; meaning, Canadian culture was made up of many different ethnic groups. Since then, Canada has actively embraced multiculturalism and on 12 July 1988, the House of Commons passed Bill C-93, ‘An Act for the preservation and enhancement of multiculturalism in Canada’. The Canadian multicultural experience has been much portrayed as a celebration of ethnicity where different cultural groups share their customs and learn from each other. However, it is recently being rumoured that the multiculturalism hype is not all it is cut out to be and segregates communities rather than integrate. According to Canadian authors Keith Banting and Will Kymlicka, “in much of the world and particularly in Europe, there is a widespread perception that multiculturalism has failed” (44. In this paper, I examine some recent common issues of concern, especially, racism and discrimination, through the literary expression of Canadian playwrights and writers such as George F. Walker, Cecil Foster, and Mordecai Richler. These writers are not meant to represent any ethnic group as a whole, but rather try to project a general feeling about the nation in individual ways. I will finally explore the idea of how perhaps multiculturalism in Canada is evolving into another state since migratory patterns and the social circumstances that Canada is facing in the 21st century have changed. Today, the idea of celebrating different ethnicities and customs is no longer as important as celebrating the transcultural or “transnational” aspects of relations between individuals and groups of immigrants.

  20. Guide to Canadian Aerospace Related Industries,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    color-coded to alert the pilot to dangerous ions and to provide easy readability, thus improving safety and reducing pilot workload. Digital readouts...Biogradiometer - a biomagnetic sensor/dewar combination designed to detect the third spatial gradient with a high sensitivity only to very near...34 Research on preconcentration for ion mobility spectrometer relating to detection of explosive vapors in air at trace levels (Canadian Department of

  1. The Canadian Assessment of Physical literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Claire E; Longmuir, Patricia E; Boyer, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy (CAPL) was conceptualized as a tool to monitor children's physical literacy. The original model (fitness, activity behavior, knowledge, motor skill) required revision and relative weights for calculating/interpreting scores were required...... opinions remained regarding the inclusion of sleep time, assessment/scoring of the obstacle course assessment of motor skill, and the need for an overall physical literacy classification. Conclusions: The revised CAPL model (overlapping domains of physical competence, motivation, and knowledge, encompassed...

  2. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. In 1991, the Atlantic Petroleum Association, the Quebec Petroleum Association, the Ontario Petroleum Association, the Canada West Petroleum Association, and the Petroleum Association for Conservation of the Canadian Environment (PACE) were integrated into the CPPI. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. A report is presented of the year's activities arranged by regional division. Major developments include a used oil management plan, creation of two new oil spill response centers in Nova Scotia and Quebec, CPPI's intervention in the Public Review Panel on Tanker Safety and Marine Spill Response, participation in the federal government's Green Plan, and member reviews of a number of operational issues such as lowering benzene emission levels, reducing sulfur content of diesel fuel, and minimizing pollutant levels at fuel transfer sites. Lists of CPPI publications, standing committees, and officers are also included.

  3. An international internship on social development led by Canadian nursing students: empowering learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchetta, Margareth; Schwind, Jasna; Aksenchuk, Kateryna; Gorospe, Franklin F; Santiago, Lira

    2013-07-01

    A Canadian nursing student-led knowledge dissemination project on health promotion for social development was implemented with local professionals and communities in Brazil. (a) to identify how student-interns contrasted Canadian and Brazilian cultural and social realities within a primary healthcare context from a social development perspective; (b) to examine how philosophical underpinnings, including social critical theory and notions of social justice, guided student-interns in acknowledging inequalities in primary healthcare in Brazil; and (c) to participate in the debate on the contribution of Canadian nursing students to the global movement for social development. A qualitative appraisal of short-term outcomes of an international internship in the cities of Birigui & Araçatuba (São Paulo-Brazil). Four Canadian fourth-year undergraduate nursing students enrolled in a metropolitan university program. Recruitment was through an email invitation to the student-interns, who accepted, and signed informed consent forms. Their participation was unpaid and voluntary. One-time individual interviews were conducted at the end of their internships. Transcriptions of the audio-recorded interviews were coded using the qualitative software program ATLAS ti 6.0. The findings were analyzed using thematic analysis. Student-interns' learning unfolded from making associations among concepts, new ideas, and their previous experiences, leading to a personal transformation through which they established new conceptual and personal connections. The two main themes revealed by the thematic analysis were dichotomizing realities, that is, acknowledging the existence of "two sides of each situation," and discovering an unexpected reciprocity between global and urban health. Furthermore, the student-interns achieved personal and professional empowerment. The knowledge gained from the international experience helped the student-interns learn how to collaborate with Brazilian society

  4. Sustainable Transport and Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    in forecasting and tracking the performance of transport systems increasingly guide sustainable transport policy making. This review explores the implications of the sustainable transport” concept and how it can be made operational with indicators. A number of indicator systems are reviewed, and some strengths......Sustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators...

  5. Insights into aerosols, chemistry, and clouds from NETCARE: Observations from the Canadian Arctic in summer 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbatt, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Canadian Network on Aerosols and Climate: Addressing Key Uncertainties in Remote Canadian Regions (or NETCARE) was established in 2013 to study the interactions between aerosols, chemistry, clouds and climate. The network brings together Canadian academic and government researchers, along with key international collaborators. Attention is being given to observations and modeling of Arctic aerosol, with the goal to understand underlying processes and so improve predictions of aerosol climate forcing. Motivation to understand the summer Arctic atmosphere comes from the retreat of summer sea ice and associated increase in marine influence. To address these goals, a suite of measurements was conducted from two platforms in summer 2014 in the Canadian Arctic, i.e. an aircraft-based campaign on the Alfred Wegener Institute POLAR 6 and an ocean-based campaign from the CGCS Amundsen icebreaker. NETCARE-POLAR was based out of Resolute Bay, Nunavut during an initial period of little transport and cloud-free conditions and a later period characterized by more transport with potentially biomass burning influence. Measurements included particle and cloud droplet numbers and size distributions, aerosol composition, cloud nuclei, and levels of gaseous tracers. Ultrafine particle events were more frequently observed in the marine boundary layer than above, with particle growth observed in some cases to cloud condensation nucleus sizes. The influence of biological processes on atmospheric constituents was also assessed from the ship during NETCARE-AMUNDSEN, as indicated by high measured levels of gaseous ammonia, DMS and oxygenated VOCs, as well as isolated particle formation and growth episodes. The cruise took place in Baffin Bay and through the Canadian archipelago. Interpretation of the observations from both campaigns is enhanced through the use of chemical transport and particle dispersion models. This talk will provide an overview of NETCARE Arctic observational and

  6. Supply and transport of natural gas. State of the art and perspectives en la EU and Spain; Aprovisionamiento y transporte del gas natural. La situacion en la UE y en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez de Silanes Busto, J. L.

    1998-12-31

    The following paper provides some data about global gas reserves and their location. Moreover, it describes the main international transactions of natural gas, either in gaseous form (through international pipelines), or as liquefied Natural Gas (LNG, by ships). Regarding the natural gas chain in Spain, the present paper offers a through analysis of the supply and transportation phases, with a special mention to the increase in the number of countries which supply natural gas to Spain, increase that has taken place in recent years. There is also a brief description of the important developments, made by the Gas Natural Group, of basic gas infrastructure in Spain, as well as how its utilization could take place under the new law of the Hydrocarbon Sector, recently approved by the Spanish Parliament. (Author)

  7. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1991. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. , rapport annuel 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. In 1991, the Atlantic Petroleum Association, the Quebec Petroleum Association, the Ontario Petroleum Association, the Canada West Petroleum Association, and the Petroleum Association for Conservation of the Canadian Environment (PACE) were integrated into the CPPI. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. An industry overview is provided, as well as highlights of environmental achievements and challenges, and economics and operations for the year. Lists of CPPI publications, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs.

  8. Nation, Genre and Female Performance in Canadian Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Akser

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a theory of sytle and performance in Canadian film based on geography, gender and genre. It is possible to form a theory of Canadian cinema based on theme-genre (strong women, nature as oppressor in dysfunctional family melodramas in which female characters, as well as their personas, interact with both a physical geography and a social space to define a Canadian identity.

  9. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Driving: A Canadian Thoracic Society and Canadian Sleep Society Position Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najib Ayas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA experience sleep fragmentation and poor sleep quality that results in daytime sleepiness, which impairs performance during driving and leads to an increased risk for collisions. Not surprisingly, observational studies have shown that patients with OSA experience a two- to 10-fold higher risk for collision compared with healthy controls. Although treatment would clearly mitigate these risks, there is no current Canadian position on driving and OSA. This article, the first Canadian position statement addressing the issue, provides an overview of provincial regulations and proposes recommendations with regard to driving in patients with OSA.

  10. Public Opinion on Canadian Arctic Sovereignty and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mathieu Landriault

    2016-01-01

    .... An examination of 18 opinion polls conducted between 2006 and 2015 that questioned respondents directly or indirectly on circumpolar affairs concluded that Canadians do not prioritize the Arctic...

  11. Consensus statement: the development of a national Canadian Migraine Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, W J; Christie, S N; Mackie, G; Cooper, P

    2010-07-01

    Migraine is a significant cause of suffering and disability in the Canadian population, and imposes a major cost on Canadian Society. Based on current medical science, much more could be done to provide better comprehensive medical care to the millions of individuals with migraine in Canada. To propose and design a national Canadian Migraine Strategy which could be implemented to reduce migraine related disability in Canada. A multidisciplinary task force of the Canadian Headache Society met for a Canadian Migraine Summit Meeting in Halifax, Nova Scotia in June, 2009. Pertinent literature was reviewed and a consensus document was produced based upon the round table discussion at the meeting. The outline of a national Canadian Migraine Strategy was created. This strategy is based on the chronic disease management model, and would include: an outline of what constitutes appropriate migraine care for Canadians, educational programs (for health care professionals, individuals with migraine, and the general public), research programs, and the development of the necessary organizations and partnerships to develop further and implement the Canadian Migraine Strategy. Based upon the medical literature and expert discussion at the meeting, a national Canadian Migraine Strategy with a patient self-management focus has the potential to improve patient care and reduce headache related disability in Canada.

  12. Asessing the Impacts of Agricultural Biotechnologies : Canadian ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Asessing the Impacts of Agricultural Biotechnologies : Canadian–Latin American Perspectives. Couverture du livre Asessing the Impacts of Agricultural Biotechnologies : Canadian–Latin American Perspectives. Directeur(s) : Brent Herbert-Copley. Maison(s) d'édition : CRDI. 17 décembre 1995. ISBN : épuisé. 150 pages.

  13. Electric transport in the Netherlands in an international perspective. Benchmark electric driving 2012; Elektrisch vervoer in Nederland in internationaal perspectief. Benchmark elektrisch rijden 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroon, P.; Weeda, M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Appels, D. [Agentschap NL, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-07-15

    This international benchmark on electric mobility has been conducted to compare the Dutch governmental efforts and developments in the field of electric road transport. The countries that have been considered in this benchmark are: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, UK, China, USA and South Korea. The Netherlands has a high ambition level with regard to the number of electric vehicles compared to other countries without a large car industry. As for the envisaged number of charging points, the Netherlands is one of the prominent leaders. In the field of R and D, Germany, South Korea and China take the lead, followed by France, the UK, the USA and Austria. However, the benchmark has only looked at specific funds for electric mobility, and has not looked at general R and D and innovation funds. The Netherlands has several electro-mobility field tests, but is not leading in number. However, regarding general market penetration, the Netherlands is one of the leading countries, next to Norway, based on the relative number of passenger cars and commercial vehicles on the road. Norway and Austria are leading countries when it comes to implementation of public charging infrastructure, but also in this field the Netherlands has a prominent position in the group of countries that follow. In the current pre-commercial phase, the introduction of electric transportation in the Netherlands is supported by a high-level advisory group, the so-called Formula E-Team. This group consists of representatives and experts from industry and (scientific) society, and acts as a figurehead for electric transport. The group advises on coordination of actions to stimulate not only electro- mobility, but also innovation which should lead to new economic activities. Currently, about two hundred companies are already active in the field of electro-mobility in the Netherlands, including some top players and many SMEs (Small Medium Enterprises). The

  14. Is a pan-Canadian early child development system possible? Yes, when we redress what ails Canadian culture

    OpenAIRE

    Kershaw, Paul; Anderson, Lynell

    2009-01-01

    Canada lags behind other countries when it comes to investing in families with children. Canada, therefore, fails to promote health by not optimizing early development. The authors diagnose the Canadian failure. The problem is not research or fiscal capacity, but rather a sickness in Canadian culture. Four ailments are identified: Canadians are convinced they cannot afford new social investments, tend to treat illness rather than promote health, ignore that good family policy requires gender ...

  15. Canadian Pediatric Weight Management Registry (CANPWR): baseline descriptive statistics and comparison to Canadian norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Feng, Min; Garriguet, Didier; Ball, Geoff D C; Buchholz, Annick; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre; Lambert, Marie; Morrison, Katherine M

    2015-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of establishing a multi-site CANadian Pediatric Weight management Registry (CANPWR) containing individual, family and weight management program information. Standardized baseline data were collected to characterize CANPWR participants (n = 310) in comparison to a sample of age-matched Canadian children measured in the nationally representative Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS; n = 3,788). This study compared demographic, anthropometric, cardiometabolic and lifestyle characteristics of participants (aged 6-17 years) in the CANPWR pilot study with those from the CHMS. Compared to CHMS respondents, CANPWR participants had higher BMI z-score, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and fasting glucose, and lower HDL cholesterol. They reported lower sugared drink consumption, were more likely to be non-white and had parents with lower education. The CANPWR cohort represents a group that has biological and behavioral profiles that place them at increased health risk and who differ significantly from typical Canadians of the same age.

  16. The Canadian Niagara Power Company story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, N.R. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2005-07-01

    This book chronicles the history and contributions of the Canadian Niagara Power Company and its employees toward the establishment of electricity generation and distribution in Niagara Falls and Fort Erie, Ontario, dating back to its founding in 1892. Through historical photographs, maps and drawings, the book demonstrates the impact of electricity on the Niagara region. It emphasizes the many skills and jobs required to run the company that generated electricity and maintained a complete system to deliver power, metering, and billing services through the depression, wars, and postwar booms, even during lightning, snow and ice storms. The company began producing power in 1905 with what had been the world's largest-capacity turbines and generators that supplied power to both sides of the Niagara River. Initially, most of the electricity was exported to New York State. The company eventually expanded its Canadian customer service area from Niagara Falls, Ontario, to Fort Erie, Bridgeburg, Amigari, Ridgeway, Stevensville, Crystal Beach and Point Abino. Throughout its history, the Canadian Niagara Power Company provided power at a lower cost than its neighbouring competitors. The William Birch Rankine Generating Station became an important tourist attraction, showcasing the latest electrical appliances of the time in an effort to promote the use of electricity in homes and offices. Today, the station remains a tribute to the fact that natural beauty can coincide with industry. The book also chronicles the difficult business challenges caused by restructuring in the electric power industry in the 1990s, repairing aging equipment and applying the latest in automation and remote sensing technology. Today, the company as FortisOntario is expanding to other communities around Ontario. refs., tabs., figs.

  17. 2007: A Canadian Corporate Ownership Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsan, Calin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study documents a decline in the levels of corporate ownership concentration between 1996 and 2007. When compared to previous studies, the incidence of ownership stakes of 20% or larger has decreased form 60% to 41% of the total population of publicly listed Canadian firms. Regional disparities among provinces remain important. Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia have the most widely-held firms, while Quebec and Atlantic Canada show the most concentrated corporate ownership patterns. The interpretation of these results requires a complex understanding of historical, demographic, cultural, political and institutional factors.

  18. The Changing Health of Canadian Grandparents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Margolis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fertility postponement and mortality decline are shifting the demography of the grandparent population in Canada. The ways in which the aging of the grandparent population affects families depends in large part on the health of grandparents. In this article, we document the aging of Canadian grandparents between 1985 and 2011. However, despite being older, grandparents are healthier, signaling that the compression of morbidity is outpacing the postponement of grandparenthood. This shift is partly due to the higher educational attainment of this population and partly due to secular improvements in health over time. The improved health of grandparents in Canada has important implications for intergenerational transfers and relationships.

  19. Refugees and education in Canadian schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaprielian-Churchill, Isabel

    1996-07-01

    This article summarizes some of the findings and recommendations of a research project focusing on the nature and needs of refugee students in Canadian schools. The school performance of refugee students is examined under the following headings: immigration regulations; initial identification, assessment, placement and monitoring; unaccompanied youngsters; "at risk" students; academic needs; the conflict of cultures. In particular, the article discusses the changing role of the school in the light of recent immigration trends. Many of the findings are applicable to other national settings.

  20. Access to hyperacute stroke services across Canadian provinces: a geospatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswaradass, Prasanna Venkatesan; Swartz, Richard H; Rosen, Jamey; Hill, Michael D; Lindsay, M Patrice

    2017-06-14

    Canada's vast geography creates challenges for ensuring prompt transport to hospital of patients who have had a stroke. We sought to determine the proportion of people across various Canadian provinces for whom hyperacute stroke services are accessible within evidence-based time targets. We calculated, for the 8 provinces with available data, drive-time polygons on a map of Canada that delineated the area around stroke centres and emergency medical services (EMS) base centres to which one can drive in 3.5-6 hours. We calculated the proportional area of each forward sortation area (first 3 digits of the postal code) contained within a drive-time polygon. We applied this ratio to the 2011 Canadian census population of the forward sortation area to estimate the population that can reach a stroke centre in a designated time. A total of 47.1%-96.4% of Canadians live within a 4.5-hour drive to a stroke centre via road EMS, and 53.3%-96.8% live within a 6-hour drive. Assuming a total travel time of 5 hours by EMS from base centre to patient and patient to hospital, 84.7%-99.8% of the population has access to a current or proposed endovascular thrombectomy site. Most Canadians live within 6 hours' road access to a stroke centre. Geospatial mapping could be used to inform decisions for additional sites and identify gaps in service accessibility. Coordinated systems of care and ambulance bypass agreements must continue to evolve to ensure maximal access to time-sensitive emergency stroke services. Copyright 2017, Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  1. The national question: political economy and the Canadian working class: Marxism or nationalist reformism?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Murray E

    2000-01-01

    Despite its occasionally Marxist verbiage, the New Canadian Political Economy has always been more indebted to the Canadian political economy tradition associated with Harold Innis and to "dependency...

  2. Far-infrared Beamline at the Canadian Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianbao; Billinghurst, Brant

    2017-06-01

    Far-infrared is a particularly useful technique for studies on lattice modes as they generally appear in the Far-infrared region. Far-infrared is also an important tool for gathering information on the electrical transport properties of metallic materials and the band gap of semiconductors. This poster will describe the horizontal microscope that has recently been built in the Far-infrared beamline at the Canadian Light Source Inc. (CLS). This microscope is specially designed for high-pressure Far-infrared absorbance and reflectance spectroscopic studies. The numerical aperture (0.5) and the long working distance (82.1 mm) in the microscope are good fits for Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC). The spectra are recorded using liquid helium cooled Si bolometer or Ge:Cu detector. The pressure in the DAC can be determined by using the fluorescence spectrometer available onsite. The Far-infrared beamline at CLS is a state-of-the-art synchrotron facility, offering significantly more brightness than conventional sources. Because of the high brightness of the synchrotron radiation, we can obtain the Far-infrared reflectance/absorbance spectra on the small samples with more throughput than with a conventional source. The Far-infrared beamline is open to users through peer review.

  3. Attitudes Toward Oral Contraception Among Canadian University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardis, Panos D.

    The author conducted a cross-cultural survey of attitudes toward the pill among university students, part of this international sample being a group of young Canadians. The subjects were students from a southwestern Canadian university and were stratified as to sex and amount of education. The author employed his Pill Scale, a 25-item Likert type…

  4. From Republicans to Hacktivists: Recent Inclusion Initiatives in Canadian Theatre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kirsty

    2017-01-01

    Could targeted inclusion initiatives press Canada's professional theatre community to tap the vast reserve of disabled people disenfranchised by its current practices? In 2015/2016, several long-standing professional institutions dedicated to fostering Canadian theatre joined with Canadian disability theatre artists in order to mark and understand…

  5. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault in Canadian Sports and Courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Margery; Moriarty, Richard

    Sexual harassment is deemed a violation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms which provides protection from discrimination based on sex. Provincial jurisdictions may offer legislation more stringent than that reflected in the Canadian code. Recourse for acts of sexual harassment through the courts is sought by alleging discrimination.…

  6. Bridging Grant : Building Canadian Support for Global Health ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Canadian Coalition for Global Health Research (CCGHR) is a not-for-profit organization dedicated to supporting research for global health equity. The CCGHR provides a networking and action platform for the Canadian global health research community and partners in low- and middle-income countries. This grant will ...

  7. Indigenous knowledge in Canadian science curricula: cases from Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijung

    2017-09-01

    To enhance Aboriginal students' educational opportunities in sciences, culturally relevant science curriculum has been examined and practiced in Western Canadian science classrooms. This article shares some examples of inclusion of indigenous knowledge in science curricula and discusses the improvement and challenges of culturally relevant science curricula in Canadian contexts.

  8. School Autonomy and 21st Century Learning: The Canadian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Paul; da Costa, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the policy and practice contexts for school autonomy and twenty-first century learning in Canadian provinces. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reports on an analysis of policies in Canadian provinces (particularly the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan). The authors review policies…

  9. Aspects sociolinguistiques du bilinguisme canadien (Aspects of Canadian Bilingualism).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Jacques, Bernard

    The Canadian government opted for a politics of bilingualism according to the "personal solution" whereby the Canadian citizen, whether English or French, can demand the protection of his language regardless of the section of the country in which he lives. In a "territorial solution," an individual can claim official status for…

  10. Planning and Evaluation by Canadian Civil Society Organizations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Planning and Evaluation by Canadian Civil Society Organizations : Bridging Gaps between Methodologies. In the current global context, Canadian civil society organizations (CSOs) are finding it increasingly difficult to assess their efficiency and effectiveness, and report to external stakeholders, both donor agencies and ...

  11. How Canadian Universities Use Social Media to Brand Themselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Charles H.; Bali, Suchita; Longden, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores social media marketing strategies applied by Canadian universities as a tool for institutional branding, recruitment and engagement of home and international students. The target sample involves the total population of Canadian university-status institutions ("N" = 106). Qualitative data were collected from two major…

  12. "In Canada Even History Divides": Unique Features of Canadian Citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Alan

    1997-01-01

    Explores the unique features of Canadian history and society that influence the conception of Canadian citizenship. These include the historical development of Canada as a frontier crown territory, the search for an elusive national identity, the decentralized political structure, and the proximity to the United States. (MJP)

  13. Denials of Racism in Canadian English Language Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliver, Trevor; Thurrell, Kristy

    2016-01-01

    This critical discourse analysis examines denials of racism in descriptions of Canada and Canadians from English language textbooks. Denials of racism often accompany racist and nationalist discourse, preempting observations of racism. The study finds that in representations of Canada or Canadians, English language texts minimize and downplay…

  14. A cost-utility analysis of cervical cancer vaccination in preadolescent Canadian females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merid Maraki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the fact that approximately 70% of Canadian women undergo cervical cancer screening at least once every 3 years, approximately 1,300 women were diagnosed with cervical cancer and approximately 380 died from it in 2008. This study estimates the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of vaccinating 12-year old Canadian females with an AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine. The indirect effect of vaccination, via herd immunity, is also estimated. Methods A 12-health-state 1-year-cycle Markov model was developed to estimate lifetime HPV related events for a cohort of 12-year old females. Annual transition probabilities between health-states were derived from published literature and Canadian population statistics. The model was calibrated using Canadian cancer statistics. From a healthcare perspective, the cost-effectiveness of introducing a vaccine with efficacy against HPV-16/18 and evidence of cross-protection against other oncogenic HPV types was evaluated in a population undergoing current screening practices. The base-case analysis included 70% screening coverage, 75% vaccination coverage, $135/dose for vaccine, and 3% discount rate on future costs and health effects. Conservative herd immunity effects were taken into account by estimated HPV incidence using a mathematical model parameterized by reported age-stratified sexual mixing data. Sensitivity analyses were performed to address parameter uncertainties. Results Vaccinating 12-year old females (n = 100,000 was estimated to prevent between 390-633 undiscounted cervical cancer cases (reduction of 47%-77% and 168-275 undiscounted deaths (48%-78% over their lifetime, depending on whether or not herd immunity and cross-protection against other oncogenic HPV types were included. Vaccination was estimated to cost $18,672-$31,687 per QALY-gained, the lower range representing inclusion of cross-protective efficacy and herd immunity. The cost per QALY-gained was most

  15. Transportation planning, management systems, public participation, and land use modeling. Transportation research record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This volume focuses on statewide and metropolitan transportation planning, management systems, and land use-transportation issues. The papers on statewide and metropolitan transportation planning concern an interactive planning modeling process (Wyoming), an area transportation partnership to assist in the development of the state transportation improvement program (Minnesota), the development of a customer perspective in the statewide transportation planning process (Colorado), a pilot transportation plan for an Indian reservation in western North Carolina, and a community-based, strategic, comprehensive planning process (Ithaca, New York). The papers that concern management systems fall into two categories: those which discuss congestion management and those which discuss management systems for transport infrastructure.

  16. Canadian Autonomous Landing and Lunar Exploration Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, R.; Tripp, J.; Mukherji, R.; Ghafoor, N.; Sallaberger, C.

    In coming decades planetary exploration will change its focus from remote observation to robotic in situ exploration sample-return missions and eventually human missions Two Canadian companies have combined 30 years of heritage in terrestrial and space technologies to provide new capabilities in space including autonomous landing and exploration technologies for lunar exploration MDA is the world leader in space robotics a key element of the Canadian Space Program for the last two decades with over 2-billion CDN of total investment Robotic arms designed and built by MDA are used on virtually all flights of the Space Shuttle and the three robotic systems comprising the Mobile Servicing System - SSRMS MBS and SPDM - have been designed and built for the International Space Station Optech is the world leader in terrestrial lidar systems with 30 years of technology heritage A strategic partnership of MDA and Optech was formed in 2002 to provide unique space lidar solutions for space operations and planetary exploration Now as robotic exploration moves in earnest beyond Earth orbit strategic technologies are being developed by Optech and MDA that will allow Canada to expand its world leading position in space sensors and robotics to become a dominant provider of robotic exploration systems and missions targeted at the Moon Mars asteroids and beyond The key requirements for successful planetary exploration in topographically diverse areas include a spacecraft capable of precision landing and hazard avoidance Since 2001 Optech and MDA

  17. Canadian tourist and Dominican Republic sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, E S

    1992-01-01

    The Dominican Republic is a popular tourist destination for Canadians. The country's sex industry for tourists developed markedly in the 1980s. The Puerto Plata/Sosua area is currently one of the most popular tourist sites and claimed the highest incidence of AIDS in 1989 at 23.2 cases/100,000 people. Two pilot phases of the Dominican Sex Workers and Canadian Tourists Study have been conducted to obtain methodological and empirical data to use in developing a major study of sex and tourism. First phase interviews were held only with beachboys who make money by having relations with female tourists, while phase two interviews were held with beachboys, female sex workers, and female and male tourists. Results indicate that female tourists consider their relations with male sex workers to be primarily social, while male tourists see their relations with female sex workers as more casual, sexual, and monetarily based. Further, women are more likely than men to continue their relationships with sex workers after returning to Canada; many help their men to immigrate and some get married. To learn more about the dynamics of tourism, sex, and AIDS prevention, the author proposes individual studies exploring the characteristics of each of the following four populations: male and female sex workers and male and female tourists.

  18. Diet composition and obesity among Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Kellie; Garriguet, Didier; Findlay, Leanne

    2009-12-01

    The contribution of specific nutrients to obesity has not been definitively established. The objective of this study was to determine if an association exists between obesity and the relative percentages of fats, carbohydrates, protein and fibre in the diets of Canadians. The data are from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey--Nutrition. The analysis pertains to 6454 respondents aged 18 or older who provided valid 24-hour dietary recall information and measured height and weight, and whose reported energy intake was considered plausible based on their predicted energy expenditure. Logistic regression models with obesity status as the main outcome were conducted, controlling for potential confounders. All analyses were based on weighted estimates. When the effect of the control variables was taken into account, total kilocalories consumed increased the odds of obesity in men, and fibre intake decreased the odds. Among women, only total kilocalories consumed was significantly associated with increased odds of obesity. Higher consumption of kilocalories increased the odds of obesity, but the relative amounts of fats, carbohydrates and protein were generally not significant. The sole exception was an association between higher fibre intake and lower rates of obesity among men.

  19. Exploring Canadian Echinoderm Diversity through DNA Barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    DNA barcoding has proven an effective tool for species identification in varied groups of marine invertebrates including crustaceans, molluscs, polychaetes and echinoderms. In this study, we further validate its utility by analyzing almost half of the 300 species of Echinodermata known from Canadian waters. COI sequences from 999 specimens were assigned to 145 BINs. In most cases, species discrimination was straightforward due to the large difference (25-fold) between mean intra- (0.48%) and inter- (12.0%) specific divergence. Six species were flagged for further taxonomic investigation because specimens assigned to them fell into two or three discrete sequence clusters. The potential influence of larval dispersal capacity and glacial events on patterns of genetic diversity is discussed for 19 trans-oceanic species. Although additional research is needed to clarify biogeographic patterns and resolve taxonomic questions, this study represents an important step in the assembly of a DNA barcode library for all Canadian echinoderms, a valuable resource for future biosurveillance programs. PMID:27870868

  20. Exploring Canadian Echinoderm Diversity through DNA Barcodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara K S Layton

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding has proven an effective tool for species identification in varied groups of marine invertebrates including crustaceans, molluscs, polychaetes and echinoderms. In this study, we further validate its utility by analyzing almost half of the 300 species of Echinodermata known from Canadian waters. COI sequences from 999 specimens were assigned to 145 BINs. In most cases, species discrimination was straightforward due to the large difference (25-fold between mean intra- (0.48% and inter- (12.0% specific divergence. Six species were flagged for further taxonomic investigation because specimens assigned to them fell into two or three discrete sequence clusters. The potential influence of larval dispersal capacity and glacial events on patterns of genetic diversity is discussed for 19 trans-oceanic species. Although additional research is needed to clarify biogeographic patterns and resolve taxonomic questions, this study represents an important step in the assembly of a DNA barcode library for all Canadian echinoderms, a valuable resource for future biosurveillance programs.

  1. Cognitive enhancement in Canadian medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudlow, Paul A; Naylor, Karline Treurnicht; Xie, Bin; McIntyre, Roger S

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive enhancing agents are substances that may augment functions such as memory, attention, concentration, wakefulness, and intelligence. An anonymous, online survey containing a series of questions on the actual and hypothetical use of cognitive enhancers was sent via email to 647 medical students across all four years in one Canadian MD program. The response rate was 50% (326/647). Overall, 49 (15%, 95% CI: 11% to 19%) students admitted to non-medical and/or off-label use of one or more pharmaceutical stimulants, of whom 14 (4%, 95% CI: 2% to 6%) had used stimulants within the last year. Senior medical students reported recent use more often than junior students (8% vs. 2%, P = 0.04). Class seniority and male gender were both associated with positive attitudes towards use of these agents; favorable attitudes were associated with recent use of pharmaceutical stimulant and high-caffeine products. A substantial proportion of Canadian medical students have engaged at some point in non-medical and/or off-label use of stimulants for purposes of cognitive enhancement. Male students and those in upper years of the MD program were more likely to have used pharmaceutical stimulants in the last year, and have favorable attitudes concerning use of cognitive-enhancing agents.

  2. Impacting Canadian public health nurses' job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Karen R; Davies, Barbara L; Woodend, A Kirsten; Simpson, Jane; Mantha, Shannon L

    2011-01-01

    Workforce recruitment and retention challenges are being experienced in public health as in other Canadian health sectors. While there are many nurses working in public health, little research has been done about their job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is linked to recruitment, retention and positive client outcomes. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationships between three modifiable work environment factors (autonomy, control-over-practice, and workload) and Canadian public health nurses' (PHNs) job satisfaction. Data were from the 2005 National Survey of the Work and Health of Nurses (response rate, 79.7%; 18,676 nurses). Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used for this secondary analysis. Findings were discussed with practicing PHNs, policy-makers and researchers from across Canada at a knowledge translation (KT) 'Think-Tank'. Among the 271 PHNs, 53.5% reported being 'very satisfied' with their jobs. The interaction between autonomy and workload was a significant predictor of PHNs' job satisfaction, (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.96-0.99, p multi-generational workforce.

  3. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-05-24

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups.

  4. An inventory of undiscovered Canadian mineral resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labovitz, M. L.; Griffiths, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Unit regional value (URV) and unit regional weight are area standardized measures of the expected value and quantity, respectively, of the mineral resources of a region. Estimation and manipulation of the URV statistic is the basis of an approach to mineral resource evaluation. Estimates of the kind and value of exploitable mineral resources yet to be discovered in the provinces of Canada are used as an illustration of the procedure. The URV statistic is set within a previously developed model wherein geology, as measured by point counting geologic maps, is related to the historical record of mineral resource production of well-developed regions of the world, such as the 50 states of the U.S.A.; these may be considered the training set. The Canadian provinces are related to this training set using geological information obtained in the same way from geologic maps of the provinces. The desired predictions of yet to be discovered mineral resources in the Canadian provinces arise as a consequence. The implicit assumption is that regions of similar geology, if equally well developed, will produce similar weights and values of mineral resources.

  5. Diet and Blood Pressure Control in Chinese Canadians: Cultural Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ping

    2017-04-01

    Hypertension is highly prevalent in Chinese Canadians and diet has been identified as an important modifiable risk factor for hypertension. The current anti-hypertensive dietary recommendations in hypertension care guidelines lack examination of cultural factors, are not culturally sensitive to ethnic populations, and cannot be translated to Chinese Canadian populations without cultural considerations. Guided by Leininger's Sunrise Model of culture care theory, this paper investigates how cultural factors impact Chinese Canadians' dietary practice. It is proposed that English language proficiency, health literacy, traditional Chinese diet, migration and acculturation, and Traditional Chinese Medicine influence Chinese Canadians' dietary practices. A culturally congruent nursing intervention should be established and tailored according to related cultural factors to facilitate Chinese Canadians' blood pressure control. In addition, further study is needed to test the model adapted from Sunrise Model and understand its mechanism.

  6. The road to sustainable transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Jo

    2017-07-01

    Since most modes of transportation rely on liquid energy carriers like gasoline or diesel, the approaching end of the fossil fuel era poses a special challenge. One should bear in mind that nothing matches the energy density of liquid fuels. It is, therefore, important to consider the efficiency of various modes of transportation and explore alternative options for energy carriers. This includes a feasibility study of the use of solar energy in transportation. In this perspective various modes of transportation are briefly reviewed and the possible alternative energy carriers assessed.

  7. Mapping Medievalism: An Indigenous Political Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Dion Fletcher

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of Kathryn Brush (ed., Mapping Medievalism at the Canadian Frontier, London Ontario Canada: Museum London and the McIntosh Gallery, 2010. Mapping Medievalism, a collection of essays written by a professor and nine graduate students, is an examination of the role of settlers’ imagination of Europe’s middle ages in the development of Canadian culture. The project aims to be inclusive of Aboriginal histories, and some authors grapple with the colonial implications of the settlers’ imagining of the medieval. This review provides an indigenous political perspective on the book, and argues that some essays provide useful insight into colonial processes. However, some essays approach colonialism in a non-productive fashion and, ultimately, the publication falls short of its aim to be inclusive to Aboriginal histories.

  8. Innovations for sustainable public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hrelja, Robert; Hansson, Lisa; Richardson, Tim

    The aim of the project has been to analyse institutional and planning conditions for public transport in the Scandinavian countries from a comparative perspective, looking at the county of Skåne (Sweden) and the municipalities of Aarhus (Denmark) and Trondheim (Norway). The report considers...... qualitative case- studies of public transport in Skåne, Aarhus, and Trondheim, and uses an empirical material consisting of written material and interviews. It concludes that: (i) new forms of coordination between organizations and policy areas are called for in a number of critical areas, if public transport...... is to contribute effectively to the development of an efficient and sustainable transport system (for example, forms for the coordination of public transport, land use, and infrastructure planning); (ii) public transport must not be seen as an end in itself, or as merely a technical transport system; (iii...

  9. Daily smoking and lower back pain in adult Canadians: the Canadian Community Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Alkherayf

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Fahad Alkherayf1,2,3, Eugene K Wai4,5,6, Eve C Tsai1,3,4,6, Charles Agbi1,3,41University of Ottawa, Division of Neurosurgery, Ottawa, Ontario; 2University of Ottawa, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Ottawa, Ontario; 3The Ottawa Hospital, Civic campus, Division of Neurosurgery, Ottawa, Ontario; 4The Ottawa Hospital, Civic Campus, Spine Unit Ottawa, Ontario; 5The Ottawa Hospital, Civic Campus, Division of Orthopedic Surgery, Ottawa, Ontario; 6The Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, CanadaBackground: Lower back pain (LBP is one of the primary causes of disability in the Canadian community. However, only a limited number of studies have addressed the association between daily smoking and LBP in Canada. Of the studies that have explored this association, many had small sample sizes and failed to control for confounders.Objective: The primary objective of the study was to determine if daily smoking is associated with an increased risk of having LBP. The secondary objectives were to assess the risk for LBP among occasional smokers and to determine the prevalence of LBP in relation to different covariates.Data and study design: Using the Canadian Community Health Survey (cycle 3.1 data, 73,507 Canadians between the ages of 20 and 59 years were identified. LBP status, smoking level, sex, age, body mass index (BMI, level of activity and level of education were assessed in these subjects.Methods: Stratified analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to detect effect modifications and to adjust for covariates. Population weight and design were taken into consideration.Results: The prevalence of LBP was 23.3% among daily smokers and 15.7% among non-smokers. Age and sex were found to be effect modifiers. The association between LBP and daily smoking was statistically significant in all ages and genders; this association was stronger for younger age groups. The adjusted odds ratio for male daily smokers aged 20 to 29 was 1.87 (95

  10. Una lectura del transporte público concesionado en Ciudad de México desde la visión del orden urbano 1/A Reading Public Transport Concession in Mexico City from the Perspective of Urban Order/Uma leitura do transporte público concessionado na Cidade do México desde a visão da ordem urbana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Madisson Yojan Carmona Rojas

    2016-01-01

    .... To do this, five spatial operators are defined from which the functional structure of the transport under concession will dialogue with regulations and spatial practices of the users of bus routes...

  11. International Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kenn; Habermann, Ulla; Chowdhury, Omar Faruque; Guerra, Iraida Manzanilla

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Introduction to International Perspectives" (Allen); "Volunteerism in the Welfare State: The Case of Denmark" (Habermann); "Grassroots Organizing in Bangladesh" (Chowdhury); and "Volunteerism in Latin America" (Guerra). (SK)

  12. Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  13. Antimicrobial use on Canadian dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, V; McClure, J T; Léger, D; Dufour, S; Sheldon, A G; Scholl, D T; Barkema, H W

    2012-03-01

    Antimicrobial use (AMU) data are critical for formulating policies for containing antimicrobial resistance. The present study determined AMU on Canadian dairy farms and characterized variation in AMU based on herd-level factors such as milk production, somatic cell count, herd size, geographic region and housing type. Drug use data were collected on 89 dairy herds in 4 regions of Canada, Alberta, Ontario, Québec, and the Maritime provinces (Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia) for an average of 540 d per herd. Dairy producers and farm personnel were asked to deposit empty drug containers into specially provided receptacles. Antimicrobial use was measured as antimicrobial drug use rate (ADUR), with the unit being number of animal defined-daily doses (ADD)/1,000 cow-days. Antimicrobial drug use rates were determined at farm, region, and national level. Combined ADUR of all antimicrobial classes was 14.35 ADD/1,000 cow-days nationally. National level ADUR of the 6 most commonly used antimicrobial drug classes, cephalosporins, penicillins, penicillin combinations, tetracyclines, trimethoprim-sulfonamide combinations, and lincosamides were 3.05, 2.56, 2.20, 1.83, 0.87, and 0.84 ADD/1,000 cow-days, respectively. Dairy herds in Ontario were higher users of third-generation cephalosporins (ceftiofur) than in Québec. Alberta dairy herds were higher users of tetracyclines in comparison to Maritimes. Antimicrobial drug use rate was higher via systemic route as compared with intramammary and other routes of administration (topical, oral, and intrauterine). The ADUR of antimicrobials used intramammarily was higher for clinical mastitis treatment than dry cow therapy. For dry cow therapy, penicillin ADUR was greater than ADUR of first-generation cephalosporins. For clinical mastitis treatment, ADUR of intramammary penicillin combinations was greater than ADUR of cephapirin. Herd-level milk production was positively associated with overall ADUR, ADUR of

  14. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1992. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. , rapport annuel 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. CPPI conducts research to develop industry policy on a wide variety of environmental, health, safety and business issues. Key activities include: developing guidelines for the safe handling of petroleum products, establishing environmental policies, managing a national environmental protection network of over 100 centers across Canada; providing information on industry activities to the public; and developing working partnerships with government and public interest groups to address issues of common concern. An overview is provided of industry operations, economics and financial performance, and environmental protection and safety. Lists of CPPI publications, awards, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs.

  15. Planning and evaluation of sustainability in transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Introduction and general approaches 2. Brief overview ofsome projects related to sustainability 3. Examples from research – Decision analysis and support – Policy Influence of indic ators – National Sustainable Transport Planning 4. Some perspectives......Introduction and general approaches 2. Brief overview ofsome projects related to sustainability 3. Examples from research – Decision analysis and support – Policy Influence of indic ators – National Sustainable Transport Planning 4. Some perspectives...

  16. Change in Corporal Punishment Over Time in a Representative Sample of Canadian Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréchette, Sabrina; Romano, Elisa

    2015-08-01

    Corporal punishment is a controversial form of discipline. Although its prevalence appears high, legal reforms and public education efforts to limit corporal punishment may be resulting in a decrease in its prevalence and frequency of use. This study drew on Canadian nationally representative data to understand the social change that might be happening and to characterize parents who continue to use corporal punishment. The study relied on cross-sectional data from Cycles 1 (1994) to 8 (2008) of the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth to examine parental reports of corporal punishment for children ages 2–11 years. Analyses were conducted separately for 2- to 5-, 6- to 9-, and 10- to 11-year-olds, and sociodemographics associated with corporal punishment were examined. A significant decrease in the prevalence and frequency of corporal punishment use was observed across time for all age groups. Child sex, parent age, employment status, family structure, household size, immigration status, ethnicity, and religion significantly distinguished parents who use corporal punishment from those who do not, but there was variability across the age groups. Effect sizes question the relevance of the observed decrease in corporal punishment from an applied perspective. Approximately 25% of Canadian parents still use corporal punishment with children ages 2–11 years; therefore, it remains an issue that merits continued attention. Certain child, parent, and family characteristics seem to characterize parents who use corporal punishment, but other more dynamic variables may be important to consider, such as parental stress and their attitudes toward corporal punishment.

  17. Canadian Quality Circle pilot project in osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, George; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Thabane, Lehana; Gafni, Amiram; Hodsman, Anthony; Kvern, Brent; Johnstone, Dan; Plumley, Nathalie; Baldwin, Alanna; Doupe, M.; Katz, Alan; Salach, Lena; Adachi, Jonathan D.

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM ADDRESSED Family physicians are not adequately following the 2002 Osteoporosis Canada guidelines for providing optimal care to patients with osteoporosis. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM The Canadian Quality Circle (CQC) pilot project was developed to assess the feasibility of the CQC project design and to gather informationfor implementing a national study of quality circles (QCs). The national study would assess whether use ofQCs could improve family physicians’ adherence to the osteoporosis guidelines. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The pilot project enrolled 52 family physicians and involved 7 QCs. The project had 3 phases: training and baseline data collection, educational intervention and follow-up data collection, and sessions on implementing strategies for care. CONCLUSION Findings from the pilot study showed that the CQC project was well designed and well received. Use of QCs appeared to be feasible for transferring knowledge and giving physicians an opportunity to analyze work-related problems and develop solutions to them. PMID:17934033

  18. Norman Bethune, Canadian surgeon: his Chinese connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, G V

    1983-07-01

    Norman Bethune, a Canadian thoracic surgeon who dabbled in painting, poetry, criticism, teaching and invention, was a member of the Communist Party of Canada. He became involved in two civil wars on opposite sides of the world and amassed both criticism and respect from colleagues and national leaders. The author describes Bethune's time in China, during which he developed front line field hospitals for Mao Tse-tung and his guerrillas in their struggle against the Japanese during 1938 and 1939. His efforts in China on behalf of the wounded brought him into contact with the primitive military medicine of the country and the poverty of its people; it earned for him a local reputation as saviour and benefactor and gave him an honoured place in Chinese military history.

  19. British view of Canadian general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, G N

    1971-02-06

    The Canadian general practitioner is remunerated by an item-of-service system of payment which encourages servicing demands rather than needs, discourages delegation of work to paramedical workers, and involves his staff in a massive amount of paper work. He has an excellent hospital attachment, which unfortunately is overdone. His community facilities are piecemeal and his office organization is rudimentary. There are few incentives for good general practice in the community. He spends an inordinate amount of time examining well people. The university departments of general practice are extremely good and much should be heard from them very quickly. The patient's attitude towards his doctor is quite different from the one prevailing currently in Britain.I returned happily to British general practice.

  20. The Canadian Penning Trap spectrometer at Argonne

    CERN Document Server

    Savard, G; Boudreau, C; Buchinger, F; Caggiano, J; Clark, J; Crawford, J E; Fukutani, H; Gulick, S; Hardy, J C; Heinz, A; Lee, J K P; Moore, R B; Sharma, K S; Schwartz, J; Seweryniak, D; Sprouse, G D; Vaz, J

    2001-01-01

    The Canadian Penning Trap (CPT) mass spectrometer is a device used for high-precision mass measurements on short-lived isotopes. It is located at the ATLAS superconducting heavy-ion linac facility where a novel injection system, the RF gas cooler, allows fast reaction products to be decelerated, thermalized and bunched for rapid and efficient injection into the CPT. The CPT spectrometer and its injection system will be described in detail and its unique capabilities with respect to its initial physics program, concentrating on isotopes around the N=Z line with particular emphasis on isotopes of interest to low-energy tests of the electroweak interaction and the rp-process, will be highlighted. (6 refs).

  1. Brewer spectrophotometer measurements in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, J. B.; Evans, W. F. J.

    1988-01-01

    In the winters of 1987 and 1988 measurements were conducted with the Brewer Spectrophotometer at Alert (82.5 N) and Resolute (74.5 N). The measurements were conducted as part of our Canadian Program to search for an Arctic Ozone Hole (CANOZE). Ozone measurements were conducted in the months of December, January and February using the moon as a light source. The total ozone measurements will be compared with ozonesonde profiles, from ECC sondes, flown once per week from Alert and Resolute. A modified Brewer Spectrophotometer was used in a special study to search for chlorine dioxide at Alert in March 1987. Ground based observations at Saskatoon in February and at Alert in March 1987 failed to detect any measureable chlorine dioxide. Interference from another absorbing gas, which we speculate may be nitrous acid, prevented the measurements at the low levels of chlorine dioxide detected in the Southern Hemisphere by Solomon et al.

  2. Battered woman syndrome defense in Canadian courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, C; Glancy, G

    1995-04-01

    As a result of a 1990 Supreme Court of Canada decision, battered woman syndrome defense is now accepted as a legitimate extension of self-defense in Canadian courts. This defense hinges on the expert testimony that a battered woman who is accused of murder or aggravated assault suffers from the psychological sequelae of abuse and that this psychological distress contributes to her apprehension of danger and ultimately her apprehension of death during a particular battering episode. The authors present a brief overview of the history of battered woman syndrome defense, the role of the expert in assessing the applicability of this defense in any particular situation, and the pitfalls of using battered woman syndrome defense.

  3. Canadian Activities in Space Debris Mitigation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikanpour, Darius; Jiang, Xin Xiang; Goroshin, Samuel; Haddad, Emile; Kruzelecky, Roman; Hoa, Suong; Merle, Philippe; Kleiman, Jacob; Gendron, Stephane; Higgins, Andrew; Jamroz, Wes

    The space environment, and in particular the Low Earth Orbit (LEO), is becoming increasingly populated with space debris which include fragments of dysfunctional spacecraft parts and materials traveling at speeds up to 15 km per second. These pose an escalating potential threat to LEO spacecraft, the international space station, and manned missions. This paper presents the Canadian activities to address the concerns over space debris in terms of debris mitigation measures and technologies; these include novel spacecraft demise technologies to safely decommission the spacecraft at the end of the mission, integrated self-healing material technologies for spacecraft structures to facilitate self-repair and help maintain the spacecraft structural and thermal performance, hypervelocity ground test capability to predict the impact of space debris on spacecraft performance, and ways of raising awareness within the space community through participation in targeted Science and Technology conferences and international forums.

  4. Contraceptive sterilization among Canadians, 1984-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Krishnan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior to early 1970s, traditional methods were the principal means of controlling the number and spacing of births. Today, an estimated 57 per cent of the world’s married women use contraceptives and half use modern methods such as medical sterilizations. Recent statistics suggest that Canada has the highest sterilization rate in the Western world. This paper presents findings of research examining sterilization trends in Canada with respect to changing patterns in the use of modern contraceptives, using data from the 1984 Canadian Fertility Survey (CFS and the 1995 General Social Survey (GSS. The main finding is that there is a decrease in the use of tubal ligation and an increase in the use of hysterectomy over the period 1984-1995. Less educated women are more likely to be in the forefront of modern methods of contraception.

  5. A Canadian Indian Health Status Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connop, P J

    1983-01-01

    Health care services for registered "band" Indians in Ontario are provided primarily by the Canadian Federal Government. Complex management methods preclude the direct involvement of Indian people in the decisions for their health resource allocation. Health indicators, need, and health status indexes are reviewed. The biostatistics of mortality and demography of the Indian and reference populations are aggregated with hospitalization/morbidity experience as the Chen G'1 Index, as an indicator of normative and comparative need. This is weighted by linear measurements of perceived need for preventive medicine programs, as ranked and scaled values of priorities, Zj. These were determined by community survey on 11 Indian reserves using a non-probabilistic psychometric method of "pair comparisons," based upon "Thurstone's Law of Comparative Judgement.," The calculation of the aggregate single unit Indian Health Status Index [Log.G'1].Zj and its potential application in a "zero-base" budget is described.

  6. Canadian consumer battery baseline study : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    This report provided information about the estimated number of consumer and household batteries sold, re-used, stored, recycled, and disposed each year in Canada. The report discussed the ways in which different batteries posed risks to human health and the environment, and legislative trends were also reviewed. Data used in the report were obtained from a literature review as well as through a series of interviews. The study showed that alkaline batteries are the most common primary batteries used by Canadians, followed by zinc carbon batteries. However, lithium primary batteries are gaining in popularity, and silver oxide and zinc air button cell batteries are also used in applications requiring a flat voltage and high energy. Secondary batteries used in laptop computers, and cell phones are often made of nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal-hydroxide, and lithium ion. Small sealed lead batteries are also commonly used in emergency lighting and alarm systems. Annual consumption statistics for all types of batteries were provided. Results of the study showed that the primary battery market is expected to decline. Total units of secondary batteries are expected to increase to 38.6 million units by 2010. The report also used a spreadsheet model to estimate the flow of consumer batteries through the Canadian waste management system. An estimated 347 million consumer batteries were discarded in 2004. By 2010, it is expected that an estimated 494 million units will be discarded by consumers. The study also considered issues related to lead, cadmium, mercury, and nickel disposal and the potential for groundwater contamination. It was concluded that neither Canada nor its provinces or territories have initiated legislative or producer responsibility programs targeting primary or secondary consumer batteries. 79 refs., 37 tabs., 1 fig.

  7. CanWEA Pan-Canadian wind integration study paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, Martin [GL Garrad Hassan Canada Inc, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Gardner, Paul [GL Garrad Hassan and Partners, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Price, Doug; Le, Don [GL Garrad Hassan America, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    GL Garrad Hassan has been contracted by CanWEA to undertake a scoping study for a future Pan-Canadian Wide-Scale Wind Integration Study. The scoping study provides the methodology and the rationale on which the actual wind integration study and request for proposals will be based on. Major system operators and owners of each Canadian Province along with experts involved in major US wind integration studies have been consulted and contributed to the decisional process. This paper provides a summary of the factors considered in the study and outline the actual methodology that was adopted for the future Pan-Canadian wind integration study. (orig.)

  8. Knowledge synthesis and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Ian D

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR is Canada's premier health-research funding agency. We fund nearly 14,000 researchers and trainees in four theme areas: biomedical, clinical, health services, and population and public-health research. Our mandate is 'to excel according to international standards of scientific excellence, in the creation of new knowledge and its translation into improved health for Canadians, more effective health services and products and a strengthened Canadian health care system'. Knowledge synthesis is a key element of the knowledge-translation objectives of CIHR, as outlined in our definition of knowledge-translation.

  9. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas-Rueda, David; de Nazelle, Audrey; Andersen, Zorana J

    2016-01-01

    Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling) have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16-64) in six European cities. We conducted a health...... reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year). Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists...... and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation....

  10. Safety Perceptions of Health Care Leaders in 2 Canadian Academic Acute Care Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, David H; Nyce, James M; Van Den Kerkhof, Elizabeth G

    2017-06-01

    An estimated 7.4% of patients admitted to acute care facilities in Canada experience injury or death due to health care mishaps, and 38% of these events are deemed preventable. Commitment of executive leaders to a culture of safety is important for the reduction of risk to Canadian patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the safety climate from a leader's perspective in 2 Canadian acute care settings, with attention paid to high reliability organization (HRO) principles. The Patient Safety Culture in Healthcare Organizations questionnaire was administered to leaders in 2 acute care hospitals in Ontario between June and January 2009. The primary outcome measures were senior leadership support for safety and supervisory leadership support for safety. Misalignment between the safety climate and HRO principles was defined as greater than 10% of respondents reporting problematic or neutral leadership support for safety. Of the 142 respondents (67% response rate), both medical/nursing leaders and tertiary care clinical leaders were significantly more likely than board/administrative leaders to report problematic/neutral responses. Overall, executive leadership perceptions of the safety climate were not aligned with HRO principles. The significant differences in response between board/administrative leaders and those involved in frontline patient care suggest that a weak safety culture exists in these 2 health care organizations. The cultivation of a stronger organizational safety culture, in alignment with HRO principles, could lead to lower rates of preventable mishaps and support risk identification and mitigation in perioperative settings.

  11. Accounts from 19th-century Canadian Arctic explorers' logs reflect present climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, James E.; Wood, Kevin

    The widely perceived failure of 19th-century expeditions to find and transit the Northwest Passage in the Canadian Arctic is often attributed to extraordinary cold climatic conditions associated with the “Little Ice Age” evident in proxy records. However, examination of 44 explorers' logs for the western Arctic from 1818 to 1910 reveals that climate indicators such as navigability, the distribution and thickness of annual sea ice, monthly surface air temperature, and the onset of melt and freeze were within the present range of variability.The quest for the Northwest Passage through the Canadian archipelago during the 19th century is frequently seen as a vain and tragic failure. Polar exploration during the Victorian era seems to us today to have been a costly exercise in heroic futility, which in many respects it was. This perspective has been reinforced since the 1970s, when paleoclimate reconstructions based on Arctic ice core stratigraphy appeared to confirm the existence of exceptionally cold conditions consistent with the period glaciologists had termed the “Little Ice Age” (Figure 1a), with temperatures more than one standard deviation colder relative to an early 20th-century mean [Koerner, 1977; Koerner and Fisher, 1990; Overpeck et al., 1998]. In recent years, the view of the Little Ice Age as a synchronous worldwide and prolonged cold epoch that ended with modern warming has been questioned [Bradley and Jones, 1993; Jones and Briffa, 2001 ;Ogilvie, 2001].

  12. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...

  13. Similarities and Differences Between Yoruba Traditional Healers (YTH) and Native American and Canadian Healers (NACH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekson, Mary Olufunmilayo

    2016-10-01

    Indigenous people of the world have used the services of medicine men and traditional healers from time immemorial. According to the World Health Organization, 80 % of the world's populations consult traditional healers. With an emerging globalization of health services in the world, there is a need for western mental health practitioners to learn and understand the practices of indigenous healers across the globe. This paper will not only highlight the similarities and differences between Yoruba traditional healers of Western Nigeria and Native American and First Nation Canadian traditional healers, but it will also allow practitioners to gain clearer perspectives of indigenous clients from Yoruba land and those from the United States of America and Canada. This ultimately will inform culturally sensitive clinical practice with these populations.

  14. International research partnerships in occupational therapy: a Canadian-Zambian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njelesani, Janet; Stevens, Marianne; Cleaver, Shaun; Mwambwa, Lombe; Nixon, Stephanie

    2013-06-01

    The country of Zambia's Sixth National Development Plan includes many objectives related to participation and health that align with values underlying occupational therapy. Given this link, occupational therapy research has the potential to advance the Sixth National Development Plan and thereby enhance the participation and health of Zambians. However, there is neither a school of occupational therapy nor many occupational therapists working in Zambia. Using an example of a global research partnership between Canadian occupational therapy researchers and Zambian researchers, this paper examines the partnership using four criteria for global health research in order to derive lessons for future occupational therapy research partnerships. Implications for future occupational therapy research partnerships include the need for partners to combine their complementary skills and knowledge so that they may collaborate in mutually beneficial ways to address global health challenges and expand the reach of occupational therapy perspectives. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Active transportation safety features around schools in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, Bryn; Rosu, Andrei; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William

    2013-10-31

    The purpose of this study was to describe the presence and quality of active transportation safety features in Canadian school environments that relate to pedestrian and bicycle safety. Variations in these features and associated traffic concerns as perceived by school administrators were examined by geographic status and school type. The study was based on schools that participated in 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey. ArcGIS software version 10 and Google Earth were used to assess the presence and quality of ten different active transportation safety features. Findings suggest that there are crosswalks and good sidewalk coverage in the environments surrounding most Canadian schools, but a dearth of bicycle lanes and other traffic calming measures (e.g., speed bumps, traffic chokers). Significant urban/rural inequities exist with a greater prevalence of sidewalk coverage, crosswalks, traffic medians, and speed bumps in urban areas. With the exception of bicycle lanes, the active transportation safety features that were present were generally rated as high quality. Traffic was more of a concern to administrators in urban areas. This study provides novel information about active transportation safety features in Canadian school environments. This information could help guide public health efforts aimed at increasing active transportation levels while simultaneously decreasing active transportation injuries.

  16. Active Transportation Safety Features around Schools in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryn Pinkerton

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the presence and quality of active transportation safety features in Canadian school environments that relate to pedestrian and bicycle safety. Variations in these features and associated traffic concerns as perceived by school administrators were examined by geographic status and school type. The study was based on schools that participated in 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC survey. ArcGIS software version 10 and Google Earth were used to assess the presence and quality of ten different active transportation safety features. Findings suggest that there are crosswalks and good sidewalk coverage in the environments surrounding most Canadian schools, but a dearth of bicycle lanes and other traffic calming measures (e.g., speed bumps, traffic chokers. Significant urban/rural inequities exist with a greater prevalence of sidewalk coverage, crosswalks, traffic medians, and speed bumps in urban areas. With the exception of bicycle lanes, the active transportation safety features that were present were generally rated as high quality. Traffic was more of a concern to administrators in urban areas. This study provides novel information about active transportation safety features in Canadian school environments. This information could help guide public health efforts aimed at increasing active transportation levels while simultaneously decreasing active transportation injuries.

  17. Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Position Statement on Screening Individuals at Average Risk for Developing Colorectal Cancer: 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond J Leddin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology and the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation published guidelines on colon cancer screening in 2004. Subsequent to the publication of these guidelines, many advances have occurred, thereby necessitating a review of the existing guidelines in the context of new technologies and clinical knowledge. The assembled guideline panel recognized three recent American sets of guidelines and identified seven issues that required comment from a Canadian perspective. These issues included, among others, the role of program-based screening, flexible sigmoidoscopy, computed tomography colonography, barium enema and quality improvement. The panel also provided context for the selection of the fecal immunochemical test as the fecal occult blood test of choice, and the relative role of colonoscopy as a primary screening tool. Recommendations were also provided for an upper age limit for colon cancer screening, whether upper endoscopy should be performed following a negative colonoscopy for a positive fecal occult blood test and when colon cancer screening should resume following negative colonoscopy.

  18. Media Hyping and the “Herceptin Access Story”: An Analysis of Canadian and UK Newspaper Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Julia; Collins, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    In May 2005, preliminary trial results pronouncing the effectiveness of Herceptin (trastuzumab) for treatment of early-stage breast cancer were disseminated at a high-profile scientific meeting. Herceptin was subsequently approved for use in the public healthcare systems of Canada and the United Kingdom, although the differences between the two decision timelines were stark. The authors compared UK and Canadian newspaper coverage of the Herceptin story to assess how it may have been “hyped” in each country. They analyzed a diverse sample of newspapers and coded clippings for reporters' framing of the drug's efficacy, costs and funding approval process. Canadian news coverage preceded formal publication of the trial results, while UK coverage mirrored major national events. Reporters in both countries used predominantly individualistic perspectives and framed Herceptin's efficacy in salutary terms. Framing of costs was more neutral in Canadian than in UK newspapers. Funding approval framing focused on inequitable access in the UK and timeliness in Canada. News coverage of drug access stories varies across jurisdictions in terms of intensity and some aspects of framing. Such variations likely reflect different journalistic practices and dominant political rhetoric. Greater attention should be given to the role that news coverage of drug access plays in shaping public opinion and policy action, especially when this coverage precedes scientific debate. PMID:19377347

  19. Asking to Listen: Towards a Youth Perspective on Sexual Health Education and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Jo-Ann; Gagnon, Anita J.; Mitchell, Claudia; Di Meglio, Giuseppina; Rennick, Janet E.; Cox, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this three-phase exploratory study, we used participatory approaches with youth in a small Canadian province. Through iterative focus groups in school settings, we examined young men and women's perspectives regarding factors important to taking control of their sexual health behaviour. Youth aged 15-17 discussed sexual health through…

  20. Canadian Contraception Consensus (Part 2 of 4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Amanda; Guilbert, Edith; Costescu, Dustin; Dunn, Sheila; Fisher, William; Kives, Sari; Mirosh, Melissa; Norman, Wendy V; Pymar, Helen; Reid, Robert; Roy, Geneviève; Varto, Hannah; Waddington, Ashley; Wagner, Marie-Soleil; Whelan, Anne Marie; Ferguson, Carrie; Fortin, Claude; Kielly, Maria; Mansouri, Shireen; Todd, Nicole

    2015-11-01

    To provide guidelines for health care providers on the use of contraceptive methods to prevent pregnancy and on the promotion of healthy sexuality. Guidance for Canadian practitioners on overall effectiveness, mechanism of action, indications, contraindications, non-contraceptive benefits, side effects and risks, and initiation of cited contraceptive methods; family planning in the context of sexual health and general well-being; contraceptive counselling methods; and access to, and availability of, cited contraceptive methods in Canada. Published literature was retrieved through searches of Medline and The Cochrane Database from January 1994 to January 2015 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., contraception, sexuality, sexual health) and key words (e.g., contraception, family planning, hormonal contraception, emergency contraception). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies published in English from January 1994 to January 2015. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to June 2015. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of the evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table). Chapter 1: Contraception in Canada Summary Statements  1. Canadian women spend a significant portion of their lives at risk of an unintended pregnancy. (II-2)  2. Effective contraceptive methods are underutilized in Canada, particularly among vulnerable populations. (II-2)  3. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods, including contraceptive implants and intrauterine contraception (copper-releasing and levonorgestrel

  1. Canadian Contraception Consensus (Part 1 of 4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Amanda; Guilbert, Edith; Costescu, Dustin; Dunn, Sheila; Fisher, William; Kives, Sari; Mirosh, Melissa; Norman, Wendy V; Pymar, Helen; Reid, Robert; Roy, Geneviève; Varto, Hannah; Waddington, Ashley; Wagner, Marie-Soleil; Whelan, Anne Marie; Ferguson, Carrie; Fortin, Claude; Kielly, Maria; Mansouri, Shireen; Todd, Nicole

    2015-10-01

    To provide guidelines for health care providers on the use of contraceptive methods to prevent pregnancy and on the promotion of healthy sexuality. Guidance for Canadian practitioners on overall effectiveness, mechanism of action, indications, contraindications, non-contraceptive benefits, side effects and risks, and initiation of cited contraceptive methods; family planning in the context of sexual health and general well-being; contraceptive counselling methods; and access to, and availability of, cited contraceptive methods in Canada. Published literature was retrieved through searches of Medline and The Cochrane Database from January 1994 to January 2015 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., contraception, sexuality, sexual health) and key words (e.g., contraception, family planning, hormonal contraception, emergency contraception). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies published in English from January 1994 to January 2015. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to June 2015. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of the evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table). Chapter 1: Contraception in Canada Summary Statements 1. Canadian women spend a significant portion of their lives at risk of an unintended pregnancy. (II-2) 2. Effective contraceptive methods are underutilized in Canada, particularly among vulnerable populations. (II-2) 3. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods, including contraceptive implants and intrauterine contraception (copper-releasing and levonorgestrel

  2. Biofuels for transportation : a climate perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    As the United States seeks to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from motor vehicles and to lessen its dependence on imported oil, biofuels are gaining increasing attention as one possible solution. This paper offers an introduction to the current...

  3. Hemp biofuel for automotive transport. Ukrainian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolodnytska R.V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ukraine takes a fourth place in the world in the technical hemp production and can use waste of hemp for biofuel (including biodiesel production. This paper presents an analysis of cetane numbers and low-temperature properties of hemp biodiesels as well as spray and evaporation of these fuels. Two types of hemp biodiesel fuels are analyzed: Hemp Methyl esters, produced from hemp oil in Ukraine (HM1 and European Union (HM2. It was found that hemp biodiesel has smaller cetane number than traditional rapeseed or soy biodiesel. At the same time hemp biodiesel shows better low-temperature properties compared with traditional biodiesels. So, it was recommended to use the mixture of rapeseed or soy biodiesel with hemp biodiesel to optimise both the low-temperature properties and cetane number of fuel. According to modelling the spray parameters of hemp biodiesel are very close to those of soy biodiesel. Evaporation of hemp biodiesel is very close to soy biodiesel according to previous research. Therefore, mixture of soy/rapeseed and hemp biodiesels can be recommended for experimental investigation as a future fuel for Ukrainian market.

  4. Guidelines for Evaluation of Canadian Forces Indoor Firing Ranges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Severs, Y

    1999-01-01

    Indoor Firing Ranges (IFR) within DND are typically used by Canadian Forces (CF) personnel, Cadets, RCMP, and civilian organizations for firing small bore weapons in support of both operational/ occupational and recreational requirements...

  5. Building Canadian Support for Global Health Research - Phase III ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008. Key activities will include mobilizing Canadian investment in global health research, building global health research capacity in Canada and LMICs, translating research into action, nurturing partnerships between researchers in Canada ...

  6. Canadian women opting for less effective birth control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lauren Vogel

    2017-01-01

    More Canadian women are relying on less effective methods of birth control and are using them less consistently than they did a decade ago, according to the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC...

  7. Endoscopy training in Canadian general surgery residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Nori L; Bazzerelli, Amy; Lim, Jenny; Wu Chao Ying, Valerie; Steigerwald, Sarah; Strickland, Matt

    2015-06-01

    Currently, general surgeons provide about 50% of endoscopy services across Canada and an even greater proportion outside large urban centres. It is essential that endoscopy remain a core component of general surgery practice and a core competency of general surgery residency training. The Canadian Association of General Surgeons Residents Committee supports the position that quality endoscopy training for all Canadian general surgery residents is in the best interest of the Canadian public. However, the means by which quality endoscopy training is achieved has not been defined at a national level. Endoscopy training in Canadian general surgery residency programs requires standardization across the country and improved measurement to ensure that competency and basic credentialing requirements are met.

  8. Interculturalism and Theatrefront: Shifting Meanings in Canadian Collective Creation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ratsoy, Ginny

    2013-01-01

    .... The intercultural work Ubuntu (The Cape Town Project) expressionistically performs the stories of two generations of a South African family and a Canadian family as their complex associations are revealed against the backdrop of a Toronto university...

  9. Technical Communication Programs at Canadian Post-secondary Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Roger; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a survey identifying the location, extent, and focus of technical writing programs at Canadian colleges and universities. Describes representative programs in some detail. Discusses the focus of these programs and the need for more programs. (SR)

  10. Latin American geo-political struggles in Canadian documentaries production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Reich Corseuil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2009n56p137 This paper analyzes two contemporary Canadian documentaries about Latin American history, specifically the ways in which the films provide an aesthetics of resistance to stereotypical and homogeneous representations of Latin American countries. Canadian documentaries on the history and the people of third world countries not only document Latin American countries but also criticize the conflicting relationships and forms of representation involved in the making of the documentary, revealing the documentary as a narrative form in its making of Latin American subjects and histories. Within this theoretical context, the study here proposed analyses two documentaries about Latin-American geopolitical conflicts. The World is Watching: Inside the News (1988, a British-Canadian production directed by Jim Munro and Peter Raymond, and a Place Called Chiapas, a Canadian production, directed by Nettie Wild (1998.

  11. Toxic effects of skin-lightening products in Canadian immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Nisha; Shapero, Jonathan; Kundu, Roopal V; Shapero, Harvey

    2011-01-01

    The cultural practice of skin bleaching is highly prevalent in Africa. Most reported cases of toxic effects of skin-lightening products occur in this region. To describe cases of misuse of over-the-counter (OTC) cosmetic skin-lightening products occurring in Canadian immigrants. Two cases of Canadian immigrants with severe complications from OTC skin-bleaching agents were identified in a community-based dermatology practice in Toronto. The case histories were reviewed and analyzed. A 28-year-old African-Canadian woman developed extensive striae from long-term use of a topical cream containing clobetasol that she had purchased in a Caribbean health food store. A 55-year-old African-Canadian woman developed exogenous ochronosis from the use of a topical bleaching agent she had purchased in Ghana. Cosmetic skin lightening with unregulated topical products occurs in Canada. Dermatologists working in Canada need to be aware of this practice to provide appropriate directive care.

  12. 22 CFR 123.19 - Canadian and Mexican border shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.19 Canadian and Mexican border shipments. A shipment originating in Canada or Mexico which incidentally transits the United States en route to a delivery point in...

  13. Canadian Forces Experience with Turbofan HCF - Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kinart, Corey; Theriault, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) cracking of a Canadian Forces (CF) turbofan engine fuel tube resulted in a six year, multinational effort to identify the root cause and to ultimately develop and implement a solution...

  14. Household Income, Food Insecurity and Nutrition in Canadian Youth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sean Mark; Marie Lambert; Jennifer O'Loughlin; Katherine Gray-Donald

    2012-01-01

    .... The objective of this study was to examine the influence of income and the conjoint influence of low income and food insecurity on several dietary indicators in a representative sample of Canadian youth. Methods...

  15. Thinking Globally, Acting Locally: Preparing the Canadian Foreign ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , strengthen the foreign policy community in the national capital region, and include younger professionals in ongoing work. This grant from IDRC will help the National Capital Branch of the Canadian International Council (CIC-NCB) create a ...

  16. AUCC-IDRC Partnership Grant 2013-2016: Canadian University ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will identify promising practices in Canadian universities' student mobility programs, which are designed to advance the institutions' internationalization strategies. Researchers will examine program partnerships between developing- and developed-countries, along with the success factors behind them.

  17. Perspective on renewable fuels policy April 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) has initiated a constructive dialogue on its ethanol policy, and the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) is supportive of the government's efforts in that regard and encourages this dialogue to continue. CPPI believes that it is important to provide sound information to policy makers. Before policy decisions are made, all stakeholders must be fully involved in the process and aware of the implications of the various options open for discussion. In this document, it is stated that significant additional government intervention in the form of higher subsidies and/or mandate is required to increase Canadian demand and push market penetration of fuel ethanol. One of the benefits from the utilization of ethanol fuel resides in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. However, the cost effectiveness of ethanol in terms of greenhouse gas emissions reductions indicates that other strategies are less expensive. It was mentioned that ethanol production technology requires a thorough evaluation. The situation in the United States is reviewed. Negotiations recently took place that produced a comprehensive proposal on renewable fuels, and includes: a renewable fuels mandate, funding for leaking underground storage tanks programs, maintenance of the toxic air pollution reductions, and a study of harmonization of Federal, state and local fuel requirements, among others. It was indicated that the Canadian situation is not reflected in this proposal, since most of the policy drivers for the American proposal are not relevant to the Canadian situation. The considerations for Canadian policy makers include two options: investment in production facilities that are widely distributed throughout the country, or transporting ethanol across vast distances at a higher cost. The conclusion calls for further federal and provincial intervention.

  18. Particulate trimethylamine in the summertime Canadian high Arctic lower troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köllner, Franziska; Schneider, Johannes; Willis, Megan D.; Klimach, Thomas; Helleis, Frank; Bozem, Heiko; Kunkel, Daniel; Hoor, Peter; Burkart, Julia; Leaitch, W. Richard; Aliabadi, Amir A.; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.; Herber, Andreas B.; Borrmann, Stephan

    2017-11-01

    Size-resolved and vertical profile measurements of single particle chemical composition (sampling altitude range 50-3000 m) were conducted in July 2014 in the Canadian high Arctic during an aircraft-based measurement campaign (NETCARE 2014). We deployed the single particle laser ablation aerosol mass spectrometer ALABAMA (vacuum aerodynamic diameter range approximately 200-1000 nm) to identify different particle types and their mixing states. On the basis of the single particle analysis, we found that a significant fraction (23 %) of all analyzed particles (in total: 7412) contained trimethylamine (TMA). Two main pieces of evidence suggest that these TMA-containing particles originated from emissions within the Arctic boundary layer. First, the maximum fraction of particulate TMA occurred in the Arctic boundary layer. Second, compared to particles observed aloft, TMA particles were smaller and less oxidized. Further, air mass history analysis, associated wind data and comparison with measurements of methanesulfonic acid give evidence of a marine-biogenic influence on particulate TMA. Moreover, the external mixture of TMA-containing particles and sodium and chloride (Na / Cl-) containing particles, together with low wind speeds, suggests particulate TMA results from secondary conversion of precursor gases released by the ocean. In contrast to TMA-containing particles originating from inner-Arctic sources, particles with biomass burning markers (such as levoglucosan and potassium) showed a higher fraction at higher altitudes, indicating long-range transport as their source. Our measurements highlight the importance of natural, marine inner-Arctic sources for composition and growth of summertime Arctic aerosol.

  19. Canadian advanced life support capacities and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamsey, M.; Graham, T.; Stasiak, M.; Berinstain, A.; Scott, A.; Vuk, T. Rondeau; Dixon, M.

    2009-07-01

    Canada began research on space-relevant biological life support systems in the early 1990s. Since that time Canadian capabilities have grown tremendously, placing Canada among the emerging leaders in biological life support systems. The rapid growth of Canadian expertise has been the result of several factors including a large and technically sophisticated greenhouse sector which successfully operates under challenging climatic conditions, well planned technology transfer strategies between the academic and industrial sectors, and a strong emphasis on international research collaborations. Recent activities such as Canada's contribution of the Higher Plant Compartment of the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant and the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic continue to demonstrate Canadian capabilities with direct applicability to advanced life support systems. There is also a significant latent potential within Canadian institutions and organizations with respect to directly applicable advanced life support technologies. These directly applicable research interests include such areas as horticultural management strategies (for candidate crops), growth media, food processing, water management, atmosphere management, energy management, waste management, imaging, environment sensors, thermal control, lighting systems, robotics, command and data handling, communications systems, structures, in-situ resource utilization, space analogues and mission operations. With this background and in collaboration with the Canadian aerospace industry sector, a roadmap for future life support contributions is presented here. This roadmap targets an objective of at least 50% food closure by 2050 (providing greater closure in oxygen, water recycling and carbon dioxide uptake). The Canadian advanced life support community has chosen to focus on lunar surface infrastructure and not low Earth orbit or transit systems (i.e. microgravity

  20. Mini Citizens' Assemblies on the Future of Canadian Federalism

    OpenAIRE

    Reuchamps, Min

    2008-01-01

    Canadian federalism and its future are undeniably a frequent and important topic of debate. Many people have their own opinions on the topic but they rarely have the opportunity to discuss it with fellow Canadians, experts and politicians in a setting conducive to learning and debate. With this in mind, three small citizens' assemblies on the future of federalism in Canada were held in the spring of 2008, two in Montreal and one in Kingston. For over four hours, participants had the opportuni...

  1. Association between Body Composition and Sport Injury in Canadian Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Ezzat, Allison M.; Schneeberg, Amy; Koehoorn, Mieke; Emery, Carolyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the association between overweight or obesity and sport injury in a population-based sample of Canadian adolescents. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses were performed using the Canadian Community Health Survey (2009?2010), a nationally representative sample (n=12,407) of adolescents aged 12?19 years. Body composition was quantified using BMI, grouping participants into healthy weight, overweight, or obese. The outcome of interest was acute or repetitive strain injury sustai...

  2. Open Access and Canadian Libraries: Taking a Position

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Heather; Waller, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The co-convenors of the Canadian Library Association (CLA) Task Force on Open Access report on the work of the Task Force. CLA has adopted strong policies on open access to CLA's own publications, most of which have been implemented. CLA has contributed to consultations on open access. On May 21, 2008, CLA approved a Position Statement on Open Access for Canadian Libraries. The Position Statement reinforces access to information as one of librarianship's key values. Libraries are encoura...

  3. Financial Situation and Performance of Canadian Farms 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Niekamp, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This publication is a resource book of statistics on farm income in Canada. Farm income is a complex issue because of the diversity of Canadian farms and agricultural production in Canada. This resource book focuses on both income and the opportunities and challenges facing Canadian producers to provide a better understanding of the financial conditions of farms and farm families in Canada. Charts, figures and tables with brief accompanying text are used to summarize information and to provid...

  4. Self-Perceived Eating Habits and Food Skills of Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Joyce J; Mudryj, Adriana N

    2016-01-01

    This study identified and described Canadians' self-perceived eating habits and food skills through the use of population-based data. Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 2013 Rapid Response on Food Skills was used to examine the eating quality and patterns of Canadians. Data were collected from all provinces in January and February 2013. Respondent variables (sex, age, Aboriginal/immigrant status) were examined to assess differentiations between socio-demographic groupings (family structure, marital status, education, and income). Logistic regression was used to determine whether demographic variables increased the likelihood of certain responses. Forty-six percent of Canadians believe they have excellent/very good eating habits, with 51% categorizing their habits as good or fair. Similarly, the majority report having good food skills. Sex and age were significantly associated with food skills, with women rating their cooking skill proficiency higher than men (72% vs 55%), and older Canadians reporting higher food skill knowledge than their younger counterparts. Results indicate that while portions of the Canadian population have adequate food skills, others are lacking, which may negatively impact their diet. Findings from this study have implications for education and health promotion programs focusing on foods skills, particularly among vulnerable target groups. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The representations of work-life balance in Canadian newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Katherine T; Davis, Jane A; Polatajko, Helene J

    2009-01-01

    Work-life balance has become a topic of increasing interest in the media as well as a concern among working Canadians. Since print media discourse can both reflect and shape societal values, cultural norms and ideals of workers in this country, it is important to understand this representation and its potential influence on the occupational engagement and life transitions of Canadian workers. Articles from four major Canadian newspapers published between 2003 and 2005 were used as data sources to examine the media construction of "work-life balance". Thematic analysis of 100 articles was performed using a modified affinity diagramming process. Representations within the Canadian print media conveyed both themes pertaining to the perceived experiences of imbalance and balance, as well as, a process of life balance. Obtaining balance was portrayed as an ongoing process during which an individual negotiates and sacrifices in an attempt to achieve his or her ideal level of balance. Environmental expectations and individual practices and perceptions were conveyed as reasons for the success or derailment of balance. The representations of work-life balance found in the Canadian print media were predominantly of professionals, focused on the demands of work and family, and did not appear to be a broad representation of the multiple realities that all Canadians face.

  6. Microfluidics and microscale transport processes

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Suman

    2012-01-01

    With an intense focus on micro- and nanotechnology from a fluidic perspective, this book details the research activities in key directions on both the theoretical and experimental fronts. As part of the IIT Kharagpur Research Monograph series, the text discusses topics such as capillary transport in microchannels, fluid friction and heat transfer in microchannels, electrokinetics, and interfacial transport in nanochannels. It also covers nanoparticle transport in colloidal suspensions, bubble generation in microfluidic channels, micro-heat pipe, the lattice Boltzmann method for phase changing

  7. Canadian plans for participation in GSETT 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. North

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC is making preparations for Canadian participation in GSETT 3 but will be unable to make a formal commitment until the necessary resources have been secured. As Canada is expected to provide at least four alpha stations, and a significant number of beta stations, the financial resources that will be needed are substantial, even though in many respccts the GSC is, with the recent modernization of the Yellowknife array and the ongoing installation of the Canadian National Seismograph Network (CNSN, well positioned to make a significant contribution to GSETT 3. The CNSN currently (October 1993 consists of 17 broad band stations and will grow to 23 and 33 such stations by December 1993 and December 1994 respectively. Some 40 50 short period stations will complete the network. Data from all sites are continuously telemetered in real time to network acquisition centres in Ottawa and Sidney, British Columbia, archived to optical disk, and kept on line in a 72 h ring buffer. Most of the broadband sites could serve as either alpha or beta stations once the necessary software for continuous data transfer, or on request provision, of data from the selected sites has been completed. This software wili be configured so that changes in station selection are easy to implement, and this will provide considerable flexibility to the GSETT 3 planning and operations working groups in selecting the optimum network. Backup stations can be designated in the case of station failures, and the network centre in British Columbia will serve, at least for beta stations, as a backup NDC to that in Ottawa. Data from. the Yellowknife array are collected in Yellowknife and forwarded in ten minute files to Ottawa, where processing is completed and the results archived. This arrangement would not meet the deadlines for receipt of alpha station data at the IDC and new hardware and software will be needed to forward the data more immediately from

  8. What is Transportation Demand Management?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.M. [UrbanTrans Consultants Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

    2003-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation described the impacts of Transportation Demand Management (TDM) strategies on people and communities. TDM supports sustainable transportation. More than 33 per cent of Canadian drivers spend more than one hour on their commute. In the past 20 years, suburban commute increased 74 per cent. Congestion is costly in terms of wasted time and fuel. Twenty-five per cent of Canada's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions come from the transportation sector. New facilities are more appealing when they maximize travel options. Keeping pace with transportation demand would require doubling the pace of road construction or shifting 4 per cent of single occupancy vehicle (SOV) drivers to other modes. TDM gives travelers real choices, provides incentives and focuses on partnerships. A survey has shown that employers who do not offer TDM benefits have an SOV rate of 86 per cent, compared to 71 per cent for employers who offer TDM benefits. TDM maximizes available infrastructure services, reduces traffic, improves personal mobility and facilitates employee retention. This presentation outlined several TDM tools for the Peel Region, including: commute coordinators; marketing promotions; intelligent transportation systems; high occupancy vehicle lanes; bus rapid transit; carpool parking lots; and a TDM-friendly site design. tabs., figs.

  9. Evolving Perspectives on Lyme Borreliosis in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, JLH; Middelveen, MJ; Klein, D; Sperling, FAH

    2012-01-01

    With cases now documented in every province, Lyme borreliosis (LB) is emerging as a serious public health risk in Canada. Controversy over the contribution of LB to the burden of chronic disease is maintained by difficulty in capturing accurate Canadian statistics, especially early clinical cases of LB. The use of dogs as sentinel species demon-strates that potential contact with Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes, as detected by C6 peptide, extends across the country. Dissemination of infected ticks by migratory birds and rapid establishment of significant levels of infection have been well described. Canadian public health response has focused on identification of established populations of the tick vectors, Ixodes scapularis and I. pacificus, on the assumption that these are the only important vectors of the disease across Canada. Strains of B. burgdorferi circulating in Canada and the full range of their reservoir species and coinfections remain to be explored. Ongoing surveys and historical records demonstrate that Borrelia-positive Ixodes species are regu-larly present in regions of Canada that have previously been considered to be outside of the ranges of these species in re-cent modeling efforts. We present data demonstrating that human cases of LB are found across the nation. Consequently, physician education and better early diagnoses are needed to prevent long term sequelae. An international perspective will be paramount for developing improved Canadian guidelines that recognize the complexity and diversity of Lyme borreliosis. PMID:23091570

  10. Word Segmentation in Monolingual Infants Acquiring Canadian English and Canadian French: Native Language, Cross-Dialect, and Cross-Language Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polka, Linda; Sundara, Megha

    2012-01-01

    In five experiments, we tested segmentation of word forms from natural speech materials by 8-month-old monolingual infants who are acquiring Canadian French or Canadian English. These two languages belong to different rhythm classes; Canadian French is syllable-timed and Canada English is stress-timed. Findings of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 show that…

  11. Adaptation of the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) into French-Canadian and English-Canadian

    OpenAIRE

    Donna Coffin; Karine Duval; Simon Martel; John Granton; Marie-Claude Lefebvre; Meads, David M.; James Twiss; McKenna, Stephen P.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) is the first disease-specific instrument for assessing patient-reported symptoms, functioning and quality of life (QoL) in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH).OBJECTIVES: To create and validate French-Canadian (FC) and English-Canadian (EC) language versions of the CAMPHOR.METHODS: A translation panel (for the FC version) and lay panels (for both versions) were convened to adapt the questionnaires (dual-panel methodol...

  12. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E; Ooi, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services.

  13. Food and eating environments: in Canadian schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, H Frances; Laxer, Rachel E; Janssen, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This national study was conducted to examine healthy eating programs, healthy eating education, and the food retail environments of schools. A total of 436 Canadian schools were studied. Administrators completed a questionnaire designed to assess school healthy eating programs, healthy eating education, and food retail environment. The number of chain fast food restaurants, chain cafés/coffee shops, and convenience stores within 1 km of schools was measured using geographic information systems food retailer measures from DMTI Spatial Inc. and the Yellow Pages. During the preceding year, 67% of schools had initiated healthy eating lunch programs while 18% had junk food-free days. The majority of schools offered cooking classes (59%) and healthy eating media literacy education (67%), while a minority offered gardening activities (15%) and field trips to farmers' markets (27%) and grocery stores (36%). Fifty-three percent had a school cafeteria, and most had a school tuck shop (75%) and pop/juice vending machines (76%). Fifty percent had a chain fast food restaurant, 33% had a chain café/coffee shop, and 41% had a convenience store within 1 km. An important aspect of addressing childhood obesity will be improving the food environments of schools and their surrounding neighbourhoods, and providing healthy eating education for all students.

  14. Canadian survey on pandemic flu preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy CS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of pandemic influenza creates public health challenges. An ethical framework, 'Stand on Guard for Thee: ethical considerations in pandemic influenza preparedness' that served as a template for the World Health Organization's global consultation on pandemic planning, was transformed into a survey administered to a random sample of 500 Canadians to obtain opinions on key ethical issues in pandemic preparedness planning. Methods All framework authors and additional investigators created items that were pilot-tested with volunteers of both sexes and all socioeconomic strata. Surveys were telephone administered with random sampling achieved via random digit dialing (RDD. Eligible participants were adults, 18 years or older, with per province stratification equaling provincial percent of national population. Descriptive results were tabulated and logistic regression analyses were used to assess whether demographic factors were significantly associated with outcomes. Results 5464 calls identified 559 eligible participants of whom 88.5% completed surveys. Over 90% of subjects agreed the most important goal of pandemic influenza preparations was saving lives, with 41% endorsing saving lives solely in Canada and 50% endorsing saving lives globally as the highest priority. Older age (OR = 8.51, p Conclusions Results suggest trust in public health officials to make difficult decisions, providing emphasis on reciprocity and respect for individual rights.

  15. The Olympus program: A Canadian opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, G. H.; Hayes, E. J.; Mamen, R.; Olsen, R. L.; Tsang, E. K.

    Canada was involved in the European Space Agency's Olympus satellite program since the beginning. Canadian industry was responsible for the design and manufacture of the large solar array system, intermediate frequency amplifiers, and microwave components as well as playing an important role in the assembly, integration, and test of the satellite and test models which were largely conducted at the Department of Communications' David Florida Laboratory (DFL). This paper describes the salient features of the satellite, special aspects of the testing at the DFL that were driven by the Olympus program, and Canada's part in the post-launch trials and demonstration program which provides Canada with an early opportunity to experiment in the next frequency band to be exploited commercially. The Olympus satellite is a multipurpose three axis stabilized bus capable of carrying a variety of payloads. It has a flexible solar array capable of generating 3.5 kW of power. The multielement payload of the first Olympus satellite includes the following: a two channel, high power television broadcast payload, a four channel 12/14 GHz payload for business services, a 20/30 GHz communications payload primarily aimed at video conferencing and communications systems, and 12/30/30 GHz beacon which will be used to gather propagation information. Testing at the DFL included thermal, vibration, and mass properties measurements and radio frequency testing.

  16. Specialization in services: a Canadian example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Simmons

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In modern urban systems the economic growth of cities is largely driven by services. In many regions employment growth in primary and secondary activities is close to zero, or even negative. Growth depends on the ability to attract jobs in the services. This study explores the pattern of specialization in various service activities for 159 Canadian urban areas in 1996, as the basis for a series of maps for the Atlas of Canada. The hierarchical specialization is evaluated for each service sector by computing a regression model of ser-vice employment as a function of urban population and income per capita. The rapidly growing business and financial services are the most strongly oriented to larger cities. The horizontal specialization is measured as residuals from the regressions. Strong regional differences contrast the central place roles of agricultural communities with the more loca-lized markets of resource and manufacturing centres. Public sector decisions about the loca-tion of major health and education facilities complement the choices of the private sector.

  17. Neurotransmitter transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gether, Ulrik; Andersen, Peter H; Larsson, Orla M

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of neurotransmitters in the extracellular space is tightly controlled by distinct classes of membrane transport proteins. This review focuses on the molecular function of two major classes of neurotransmitter transporter that are present in the cell membrane of neurons and....../or glial cells: the solute carrier (SLC)1 transporter family, which includes the transporters that mediate the Na(+)-dependent uptake of glutamate, and the SLC6 transporter family, which includes the transporters that mediate the Na(+)-dependent uptake of dopamine, 5-HT, norepinephrine, glycine and GABA....... Recent research has provided substantial insight into the structure and function of these transporters. In particular, the recent crystallizations of bacterial homologs are of the utmost importance, enabling the first reliable structural models of the mammalian neurotransmitter transporters...

  18. Sustainable transport studies in Asia

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Junyi

    2013-01-01

    This book aims to provide a good understanding of and perspective on sustainable transport in Asia by focusing on economic, environmental, and social sustainability. It is widely acknowledged that the current situation and trends in transport are not always sustainable in Asia, due in part to the fast-growing economy and the astounding speed of urbanization as well as least-mature governance. As essential research material, the book provides strong support for policy makers and planners by comprehensively covering three groups of strategies, characterized by the words “avoid” (e.g., urban form design and control of car ownership), “shift” (e.g., establishing comprehensive transportation systems and increasing public transportation systems for both intracity and intercity travel), and “improve” (e.g., redesign of paratransit system, low-emission vehicles, intelligent transportation systems, and eco-life). These are elaborated in the book alongside consideration of the uncertainty of policy effects ...

  19. Canadian pediatric gastroenterology workforce: Current status, concerns and future projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinville, Véronique; Drouin, Éric; Lévesque, Dominique; Espinosa, Victor M; Jacobson, Kevan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is concern that the Canadian pediatric gastroenterology workforce is inadequate to meet health care demands of the pediatric population. The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Pediatric Committee performed a survey to determine characteristics and future plans of the Canadian pediatric gastroenterology workforce and trainees. METHODS: Estimates of total and pediatric populations were obtained from the 2001 Census of Population, Statistics Canada (with estimates to July 1, 2005). Data on Canadian pediatric gastroenterologists, including clinical full-time equivalents, sex, work interests, opinions on workforce adequacy, retirement plans, fellowship training programs and future employment plans of fellows, were gathered through e-mail surveys and telephone correspondence in 2005 and 2006. RESULTS: Canada had an estimated population of 32,270,507 in 2005 (6,967,853 people aged zero to 17 years). The pediatric gastroenterology workforce was estimated at 9.2 specialists per million children. Women accounted for 50% of the workforce. Physician to pediatric population ratios varied, with Alberta demonstrating the highest and Saskatchewan the lowest ratios (1:69,404 versus 1:240,950, respectively). Between 1998 and 2005, Canadian pediatric gastroenterology fellowship programs trained 65 fellows (65% international trainees). Twenty-two fellows (34%) entered the Canadian workforce. CONCLUSIONS: The survey highlights the variable and overall low numbers of pediatric gastroenterologists across Canada, an increasingly female workforce, a greater percentage of part-time physicians and a small cohort of Canadian trainees. In conjunction with high projected retirement rates, greater demands on the work-force and desires to partake in nonclinical activities, there is concern for an increasing shortage of pediatric gastroenterologists in Canada in future years. PMID:17948136

  20. Solving certain dental records problems with technology--the Canadian solution in the Thailand tsunami response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, David

    2006-05-15

    Each natural or man-made disaster presents a different set of circumstances and, as a consequence, each event results in new challenges for response teams. The very large number of deceased victims in recent tragic events is certainly one of the enormous challenges that can tax many different resources for identification specialists. But there are other significant challenges. And during the response, some of these seem insurmountable. They can be solved if we embrace technologies outside the customary disciplines. The Canadian identification effort following the December 2004 tsunami involved responders from several disciplines. Each discipline faced challenges in many different and special areas that were difficult and in some cases previously unseen. This paper presents examples of the ways the Canadian identification team used Internet technology to solve problems that were encountered when it became necessary to duplicate victims' dental, medical and personal records, and transport these records halfway around the world. Digital images of the records were saved at high resolution in multi-page PDF files. These images were made available to on-site personnel using an encrypted, password-secured website.