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Sample records for canadian perspective transportation

  1. Climate change impacts and adaptation: a Canadian perspective. Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-01

    A brief summary of research over the past five years in the field of climate change, as it relates to key sectors in Canada, is presented in the report entitled: Climate change impacts and adaptation: a Canadian perspective. The emphasis of this chapter is on transportation, the role of adaptation in reducing vulnerabilities, and capitalizing on potential opportunities. Other sectors, such as fisheries, the coastal zone, tourism and human health might be affected by decisions made with regard to transportation. The areas that seem most vulnerable to climate change in transportation include northern ice roads, Great Lakes shipping, coastal infrastructure threatened by sea-level rise, and infrastructure located on permafrost. Most of the attention has been devoted to infrastructure and operations issues in northern Canada, despite most of the transportation activities taking place in southern Canada. Milder and or shorter winters might lead to savings, but additional knowledge is required before quantitative estimates can be made. The changed frequency of extreme climate events, and or changes in precipitation may influence other weather hazards or inefficiencies. If Canadians are prepared to be proactive, the report indicated that the effects of climate change on transportation may be largely manageable. 77 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  2. Climate change impacts and adaptation: a Canadian perspective. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief summary of research over the past five years in the field of climate change, as it relates to key sectors in Canada, is presented in the report entitled: Climate change impacts and adaptation: a Canadian perspective. The emphasis of this chapter is on transportation, the role of adaptation in reducing vulnerabilities, and capitalizing on potential opportunities. Other sectors, such as fisheries, the coastal zone, tourism and human health might be affected by decisions made with regard to transportation. The areas that seem most vulnerable to climate change in transportation include northern ice roads, Great Lakes shipping, coastal infrastructure threatened by sea-level rise, and infrastructure located on permafrost. Most of the attention has been devoted to infrastructure and operations issues in northern Canada, despite most of the transportation activities taking place in southern Canada. Milder and or shorter winters might lead to savings, but additional knowledge is required before quantitative estimates can be made. The changed frequency of extreme climate events, and or changes in precipitation may influence other weather hazards or inefficiencies. If Canadians are prepared to be proactive, the report indicated that the effects of climate change on transportation may be largely manageable. 77 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  3. Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system : transportation assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system. In addition to regulating the construction and operation of Canada's 45,000 km of pipeline that cross international and provincial borders, Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. The ability of pipelines to delivery this energy is critical to the country's economic prosperity. The pipeline system includes large-diameter, cross-country, high-pressure natural gas pipelines, low-pressure crude oil and oil products pipelines and small-diameter pipelines. In order to assess the hydrocarbon transportation system, staff at the NEB collected data from pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources. The Board also held discussions with members of the investment community regarding capital markets and emerging issues. The assessment focused largely on evaluating whether Canadians benefit from an efficient energy infrastructure and markets. The safety and environmental integrity of the pipeline system was also evaluated. The current adequacy of pipeline capacity was assessed based on price differentials compared with firm service tolls for major transportation paths; capacity utilization on pipelines; and, the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. The NEB concluded that the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system is working effectively, with an adequate capacity in place on existing natural gas pipelines, but with a tight capacity on oil pipelines. It was noted that shippers continue to indicate that they are reasonably satisfied with the services provided by pipeline companies and that the NEB-regulated pipeline companies are financially stable. 14 refs, 11 tabs., 28 figs., 4 appendices

  4. Chernobyl - a Canadian technical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report we present the design review done to date in Canada by AECL. From the Canadian point of view it covers: 1) relevant information on the Chernobyl design and the accident, both as presented by the Soviets at the Post-Accident Review Meeting (PARM) held in Vienna from August 25-29, 1986, and as deduced from publicly available Soviet documentation; and 2) details of AECL's technical review of the CANDU PHWR (Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) against the background of the Chernobyl accident, and implications of the Chernobyl accident. Reviews of operational aspects are underway by the Canadian electrical utilities and a review by the Canadian regulatory agency (the Atomic Energy Control Board) is near completion

  5. Medical cannabis – the Canadian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gordon D; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol – the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. Despite this, barriers exist to use from both the patient perspective (cost, addiction, social stigma, lack of understanding regarding safe administration) and the physician perspective (credibility, criminality, clinical evidence, patient addiction, and policy from the governing medical colleges). This review addresses these barriers and draws attention to key concerns in the Canadian medical system, providing updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic medication use, and enhanced quality of life. This review also includes case studies demonstrating the use of medical marijuana by patients with neuropathic low-back pain, neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. While significant preclinical data have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis for treating pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, further studies are needed with randomized controlled trials and larger study populations to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts. PMID:27757048

  6. Pharmacist-led minor ailment programs: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeff Gordon; Joubert, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacists have a long history of helping Canadians with minor ailments. This often has involved management with over-the-counter medications. If pharmacists felt that the best care required something more robust, they would refer the patient to a physician. In hopes of improving the care of such ailments, Canadian provinces have granted pharmacists the option of selecting medications traditionally under physician control. This review examines the Canadian perspective on pharmacists prescribing for minor ailments and the evidence of value for these programs. It might provide guidance for other jurisdictions contemplating such a move. PMID:27570460

  7. A perspective on Canadian shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Mike; Davidson, Jim; Mortensen, Paul

    2010-09-15

    In a relatively new development over just the past few years, shale formations are being targeted for natural gas production. Based on initial results, there may be significant potential for shale gas in various regions of Canada, not only in traditional areas of conventional production but also non-traditional areas. However, there is much uncertainty because most Canadian shale gas production is currently in experimental or early developmental stages. Thus, its full potential will not be known for some time. If exploitation proves to be successful, Canadian shale gas may partially offset projected long-term declines in Canadian conventional natural gas production.

  8. Indigenous populations health protection: A Canadian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Katya L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The disproportionate effects of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on many Canadian Aboriginal communities have drawn attention to the vulnerability of these communities in terms of health outcomes in the face of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Exploring the particular challenges facing these communities is essential to improving public health planning. In alignment with the objectives of the Pandemic Influenza Outbreak Research Modelling (Pan-InfORM team, a Canadian public health workshop was held at the Centre for Disease Modelling (CDM to: (i evaluate post-pandemic research findings; (ii identify existing gaps in knowledge that have yet to be addressed through ongoing research and collaborative activities; and (iii build upon existing partnerships within the research community to forge new collaborative links with Aboriginal health organizations. The workshop achieved its objectives in identifying main research findings and emerging information post pandemic, and highlighting key challenges that pose significant impediments to the health protection and promotion of Canadian Aboriginal populations. The health challenges faced by Canadian indigenous populations are unique and complex, and can only be addressed through active engagement with affected communities. The academic research community will need to develop a new interdisciplinary framework, building upon concepts from ‘Communities of Practice’, to ensure that the research priorities are identified and targeted, and the outcomes are translated into the context of community health to improve policy and practice.

  9. Family Business Training: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, A. B.; Soufani, K.; Lam, Jose

    2003-01-01

    Family firms play an important role in the working of the Canadian economy; despite their importance to the economic activities and job creation it is observed that family businesses have lower survival rates than non-family firms, some argue that this can possibly be attributed (amongst other factors) to the lack of training. Most of the training…

  10. Feminist Approaches to Journalism Studies: Canadian Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Gertrude J. Robinson

    2008-01-01

    One of the orthodoxies of communication scholarship is that much of the gender-based differences between males and females with regard to experiences in newsrooms can be attributed to demographics. The discussion presented in this paper challenges this claim by comparing the findings of two national surveys that measured the professional progress of Canadian press and television journalists. The first survey was undertaken in 1975, and the second in 1995. While the historical evidence points ...

  11. Women and nuclear issues: Comments in a Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the Canadian Nuclear industry launched its information program, it was found that women were less supportive of nuclear power. Reasons were difficult to pin-point and hovered around individual perceptions and misunderstandings. The basis of the Canadian Nuclear Association Public Information program lies with its target: men and women equally. The Program Takes Into Consideration The major characteristics and nuances of these two groups. Female Characteristics from Canadian Perspective are: Strong sense of generation continuity; Detail and task oriented; Nontechnical training; Strong sense of individuality (local). Patterns of behavoiur in relation to nuclear industry for women in Canada are: not prone to take risks; micro-economic approach to decisions (local); little confidence in technology; pragmatic and balanced in their choices (local). Major concerns of Canadian women are: Safety of power plants; disposal of waste; peace and environment versus growth and energy need; trustworthiness of the industry. Canadian nuclear association public information program communirations -approach covers: the right message, down to earth language, factual and real information for real choices, effective reach: spokespeople and media buy. Results of polls: show thtt women are less in favour of Nuclear energy in Canada today than men, consider NPPs less important in Meeting Canada's energy need in the years ahead; and think that Nuclear Energy is not a choice for Canada of all sources of energy available for large scale use

  12. Feminist Approaches to Journalism Studies: Canadian Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrude J. Robinson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the orthodoxies of communication scholarship is that much of the gender-based differences between males and females with regard to experiences in newsrooms can be attributed to demographics. The discussion presented in this paper challenges this claim by comparing the findings of two national surveys that measured the professional progress of Canadian press and television journalists. The first survey was undertaken in 1975, and the second in 1995. While the historical evidence points to reductions in gender-based structural inequalities over time, it also identifies the continued presence of gender-based assumptions about how work and family obligations should be combined. Such assumptions, it is argued, help to foster and reproduce systemic biases in the newsroom culture that still resonate today in the journalism profession and which can be best understood as a manifestation of the meaning of gender at three levels: as a classifying system, as a structuring structure, and as an ideology.

  13. Defining Canadian Perspectives on Climate Change Science and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, C.; Byrne, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Despite the overwhelming scientific evidence of potentially disastrous change in global climate, little is being accomplished in climate mitigation or adaptation in Canada. The energy sector in Canada is still primarily oil and gas, with huge tax breaks to the industry in spite of well known harmful regional and global impacts of fossil fuel pollution. One of the largest concerns for the climate science community is the variable and often complacent attitude many Canadians share on the issue of climate change. The objective herein is twofold: (1) a survey tool will be used to assess the views and opinions of Canadians on climate change science and solutions; (2) develop better communication methods for industry, government and NGOs to share the science and solutions with the public. The study results will inform the Canadian public, policy makers and industry of practical, effective changes needed to address climate change challenges. A survey of Canadians' perspectives is an important step in policy changing research. The climate research and application community must know the most effective ways to communicate the science and solutions with a public that is often resistant to change. The AGU presentation will feature the results of the survey, while continued work into 2015 will be towards advancing communication. This study is both timely and crucial for science communicators in understanding how Canadians view climate change, considering, for example, devastatingly extreme weather being experienced of late and its effect on the economy. The results will assist in recognizing how to encourage Canadians to work towards a more sustainable and resilient energy sector in Canada and abroad.

  14. Canadian cardiac surgeons' perspectives on biomedical innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyman, Gretchen; Tucker, Joseph E L; Cimini, Massimo; Narine, Kishan; Fedak, Paul W M

    2012-01-01

    Barriers to successful innovation can be identified and potentially addressed by exploring the perspectives of key stakeholders in the innovation process. Cardiac surgeons in Canada were surveyed for personal perspectives on biomedical innovation. Quantitative data was obtained by questionnaire and qualitative data via interviews with selected survey participants. Surgeons were asked to self-identify into 1 of 3 categories: "innovator," "early adopter," or "late adopter," and data were compared between groups. Most surgeons viewed innovation favourably and this effect was consistent irrespective of perceived level of innovativeness. Key barriers to the innovation pathway were identified: (1) support from colleagues and institutions; (2) Canada's health system; (3) sufficient investment capital; and (4) the culture of innovation within the local environment. Knowledge of the innovation process was perceived differently based on self-reported innovativeness. The majority of surgeons did not perceive themselves as having the necessary knowledge and skills to effectively translate innovative ideas to clinical practice. In general, responses indicate support for implementation of leadership and training programs focusing on the innovation process in an effort to prepare surgeons and enhance their ability to successfully innovate and translate new therapies. The perspectives of cardiac surgeons provide an intriguing portal into the challenges and opportunities for healthcare innovation in Canada. PMID:22902159

  15. Not "There" Yet: A Canadian Perspective on the Knowledge Base in Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Beth

    A feminist perspective on educational administration in Canada is provided in this paper, which reviews feminist critiques of educational administration research and offers a synthesis of contemporary Canadian feminist research. The main thesis is that the Canadian knowledge base has begun to incorporate the concepts of "Canadian" and "education";…

  16. Coalition command and control: a Canadian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Robert; Demers, David; Gouin, Denis; McCann, Carol; Nourry, Gerard; Pigeau, Ross; Smith, Donald L.; Vezina, Guy; Walker, Robert S.

    1998-08-01

    Canada has been, and remains, committed to participating in coalition operations to promote peace and stability in the post-Cold War world. However, coalition operations challenge traditional command and control concepts, from both the technological and the human perspectives. In the short term, Canada is working closely with traditional NATO and ABCA allies to ensure that the next generation of automated C2 information systems are able to exchange information effectively through structured messages, gateways and standardized data models. Canada is also conducting R&D, and participating in collaborative experiments, to evolve the next generation of systems to permit richer, more dynamic information sharing, along the lines of the Internet and World Wide Web. However, information technology alone will not solve the problems of coalition operations. Research needs to be undertaken to understand task assignment and information flow among coalition partners at the process or operational level. Research is also required at the human level, where differences between coalition partners in culture, personal values, military expectations, religions, and societal values are proving to be less tractable than differences in message formats and communication protocols.

  17. The Canadian Government perspective on cost-effective regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiscal constraint, globalization of markets, and accelerated technological change have resulted in a new focus on the cost-effectiveness of government activities and, in turn, on methods of policy evaluation. An exploration of regulatory problems, and the use of regulation as a public policy instrument, reveals a commonalty of experience in all industrialized countries. This paper provides a brief synopsis of the Government of Canada's perspective on cost-effective regulation. To understand cost-effective regulation, this paper examines the principles of regulatory reform which underlie the current strategy of the federal government (collaborative decision-making mechanisms., methods of clear policy evaluation, and well defined lines of accountability). It discusses the nature of, and rationale for, government regulation, the reasons for regulatory reform in the economy, and the principal aims of Canadian regulatory reform and regulatory policy assessment. It does so by specifically addressing the role of cost-benefit analysis in the process of regulatory assessment - a method which involves systematically identifying, and quantifying where possible, the social benefits and costs associated with alternative public policy actions - with a particular focus on regulation which affects the Canadian nuclear industry. (author). 51 refs

  18. Volunteering with Newcomers: The Perspectives of Canadian- and Foreign-born Volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Behnam Behnia

    2012-01-01

    Canadian- and foreign-born volunteers have contributed to the settlement of newcomers into Canadian society. Despite their important contribution, little has been reported about the experiences and perspectives of these volunteers. Using the information collected from face-to-face interviews with 60 Canadian- and foreign-born volunteers who support newcomers, this article discusses factors that motivate people to volunteer with newcomers. The study results revealed among other findings that (...

  19. Moving Toward Shibboleth Authentication: A Canadian Academic Library’s Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Moving towards Shibboleth authentication has been a slow process for Canadian academic libraries. This article is intended to provide an overview of the current status of Shibboleth implementation from a Canadian academic library’s perspective. The author will begin with needs analysis for Shibboleth authentication for a Canadian academic library, then proceed to explore the issues and challenges surrounding Shibboleth implementation, and finally discuss the key roles of the stakeholders as w...

  20. Canadian Site Visit and Workshop - Summary and International Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The third workshop of the OECD/NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) was hosted by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) for three days in Ottawa, following a one-day visit of the Port Hope area which included meetings with community representatives and project managers and a tour of low-level waste management facilities. The Ottawa workshop examined social concerns regarding radioactive waste management: what the concerns are, how they are identified, and how they can be addressed. Sixty-nine people attended the workshop from fourteen countries and forty-five organizations. They ranged from representatives of municipal governments, non-governmental organizations and private citizens to government policy makers, regulators, implementers, consultants and university, social and media researchers. The participants included stakeholders in large-scale industrial projects (both nuclear and nonnuclear) and stakeholders directly affected by nuclear projects. About one half came from FSC member organisations; the remainders were Canadian stakeholders. The workshop was structured with five half-day sessions. The opening half-day described Canadian policy and the regulatory environment for radioactive waste management and the two central case studies for the workshop: the Port Hope Area Initiative and the Nuclear Fuel Waste Act. Three sessions addressed the topics 'What are the social concerns?', 'How to address social concerns?' and 'Development opportunities for communities'. Each of the sessions began with plenary presentations by five stakeholders. These 'stakeholder voices' were followed by roundtable discussions. The participants were divided into eight tables, each including a mix of Canadian and other attendees. Each table discussed a set of pre-defined questions under the direction of a facilitator/Rapporteur. The discussions from each round table were reported in a follow-up plenary. The final half-day of the workshop was

  1. Radioactive waste disposal - ethical and environmental considerations - A Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with ethical and environmental considerations of radioactive waste disposal in Canada. It begins with the canadian attitudes toward nature and environment. Then are given the canadian institutions which reflect an environmental ethic, the development of a canadian radioactive waste management policy, the establishment of formal assessment and review process for a nuclear fuel waste disposal facility, some studies of the ethical and risk dimensions of nuclear waste decisions, the canadian societal response to issues of radioactive wastes, the analysis of risks associated with fuel waste disposal, the influence of other energy related environmental assessments and some common ground and possible accommodation between the different views. (O.L.). 50 refs

  2. Health risks from acid rain: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, C A; Burnett, R T; Paolini, R J; Raizenne, M E

    1985-11-01

    Acidic deposition, commonly referred to as acid rain, is causing serious environmental damage in eastern Canada. The revenues from forest products, tourism and sport fishing are estimated to account for about 8% of the gross national product. The impact on human health is not as clearcut and a multi-department program on the Long-Range Transport of Airborne Pollutants (LRTAP) was approved by the federal government in June 1980. The objectives of the LRTAP program are to reduce wet sulfate deposition to less than 20 kg/ha per year in order to protect moderately sensitive areas. This will require a 50% reduction in Canadian SO2 emissions east of the Saskatchewan/Manitoba border and concomitant reductions in the eastern U.S.A. The objectives of the health sector of the program are to assess the risk to health posed by airborne pollutants which are subjected to long-range transport and to monitor the influence of abatement programs. Two major epidemiology studies were undertaken in 1983, one in which the health effects related to acute exposure to transported air pollutants were studied in asthmatic and nonasthmatic children, and another in which the effects of chronic exposure to these pollutants were studied in school children living in towns with high and low levels of pollutants. Preliminary analysis of the data do not indicate major health effects, but definitive conclusions must await final analysis. Studies on the indirect effects of acid deposition on water quality have shown that acidified lake water left standing in the plumbing system can adversely affect water quality and that federally set guidelines for copper and lead are exceeded. Flushing of the system before using the water rectifies the situation. Additional studies are planned to further delineate the magnitude of the health effects of acidified lake water. PMID:4076081

  3. Pediatric Clinical Pharmacology and Child Health:A Canadian Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stuart Macleod

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction Canadian academic centres and children's hospitals have had a longstanding interest in the improvement of drug therapy for children through research conducted across the four pillars of activity identified as being of critical importance by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research(viz,basic research,clinical research,population health research,applied health and policy research)[1].

  4. Has Multiculturalism Really Failed? A Canadian Muslim Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Baljit Nagra; Ito Peng

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, claims that multiculturalism has created segregated communities, encouraged terrorism, and failed to foster shared national identities in western nations have gained popularity. In this paper, we use young Canadian Muslims’ lived experience of multiculturalism to reflect on this debate. Contrary to popular rhetoric, our interviews of 50 young Muslim adults show that many maintain a dual Canadian-Muslim identity by utilizing the ideology of multiculturalism, even though they a...

  5. Plagiarism detection software and academic integrity : the canadian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kloda, Lorie A; Nicholson, Karen

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, McGill University, a member of the Canadian “G10” research universities, undertook a limited trial of plagiarism detection software in specific undergraduate courses. While it is estimated that 28 Canadian universities and colleges currently use text-matching software , the McGill trial received considerable attention from student, national and international media after a student refused to submit his work to the service and successfully challenged the university’s policy requiring t...

  6. Has Multiculturalism Really Failed? A Canadian Muslim Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljit Nagra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, claims that multiculturalism has created segregated communities, encouraged terrorism, and failed to foster shared national identities in western nations have gained popularity. In this paper, we use young Canadian Muslims’ lived experience of multiculturalism to reflect on this debate. Contrary to popular rhetoric, our interviews of 50 young Muslim adults show that many maintain a dual Canadian-Muslim identity by utilizing the ideology of multiculturalism, even though they are increasingly stigmatized for their religion. These findings lead us to problematize the discourse surrounding the ‘failure’ of multiculturalism and to highlight the contradictions within it.

  7. The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: A Canadian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réjeanne Gougeon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA is a clinical tool designed to facilitate implementation of therapeutic lifestyle recommendations for people with or at risk for type 2 diabetes. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPG recommendations is essential to address varied patient populations within and among diverse regions worldwide. The Canadian version of tDNA supports and targets behavioural changes to improve nutritional quality and to promote regular daily physical activity consistent with Canadian Diabetes Association CPG, as well as channelling the concomitant management of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and dysglycaemia in primary care. Assessing glycaemic index (GI (the ranking of foods by effects on postprandial blood glucose levels and glycaemic load (GL (the product of mean GI and the total carbohydrate content of a meal will be a central part of the Canadian tDNA and complement nutrition therapy by facilitating glycaemic control using specific food selections. This component can also enhance other metabolic interventions, such as reducing the need for antihyperglycaemic medication and improving the effectiveness of weight loss programs. This tDNA strategy will be adapted to the cultural specificities of the Canadian population and incorporated into the tDNA validation methodology.

  8. The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievenpiper, John L.; Jenkins, David; Yale, Jean-François; Bell, Rhonda; Després, Jean-Pierre; Ransom, Thomas P. P.; Dupre, John; Kendall, Cyril; Hegazi, Refaat A.; Marchetti, Albert; Hamdy, Osama; Mechanick, Jeffrey I.

    2014-01-01

    The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA) is a clinical tool designed to facilitate implementation of therapeutic lifestyle recommendations for people with or at risk for type 2 diabetes. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPG) recommendations is essential to address varied patient populations within and among diverse regions worldwide. The Canadian version of tDNA supports and targets behavioural changes to improve nutritional quality and to promote regular daily physical activity consistent with Canadian Diabetes Association CPG, as well as channelling the concomitant management of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and dysglycaemia in primary care. Assessing glycaemic index (GI) (the ranking of foods by effects on postprandial blood glucose levels) and glycaemic load (GL) (the product of mean GI and the total carbohydrate content of a meal) will be a central part of the Canadian tDNA and complement nutrition therapy by facilitating glycaemic control using specific food selections. This component can also enhance other metabolic interventions, such as reducing the need for antihyperglycaemic medication and improving the effectiveness of weight loss programs. This tDNA strategy will be adapted to the cultural specificities of the Canadian population and incorporated into the tDNA validation methodology. PMID:24550982

  9. A U.S. perspective on Canadian supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of Canadian crude supply on U.S. refiners was discussed. Amoco's refineries run over 1 million barrels per day of crude oil, of which 160,000 b/d is Canadian supply. Exports of Canadian crude oil has increased from 645 kbpd in 1990 to 1090 kbpd in 1996. About half of that increase was in heavy crudes. Synthetic crudes are predicted to offset the decline in light crude production. Recent forecasts indicate that heavy oil supply will exceed the demand of the highest netback markets. Optimistic heavy oil development plans may be hindered by crude pricing, pipeline capacity, limited markets, diluent supply, and competition from Mexico and Venezuela. Exports of Canadian crude to U.S. PADDs 1, 2, 3 and 4 are expected to increase from 1,090,000 b/d in 1996 to 1,415,000 b/d in 2002. About three quarters of the increase will be in heavy crudes. These opportunities have been created by declining U.S. domestic production, a growth in demand, new market opportunities and upgrader facilities. 12 figs

  10. Entrepreneurship and Educational Leadership Development: Canadian and Australian Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Charles F.; Scott, Shelleyann

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the entrepreneurial activities of two university faculties, one Canadian and the other Australian, that were designed to meet the educational needs of students and to garner the resources necessary for program delivery. A conceptual framework for educational entrepreneurship, containing six dimensions, is proposed. The…

  11. Strategic Planning for Academic Research: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Creso M.; Tamtik, Merli

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on an empirical study of research planning in Canadian universities. Drawing on data compiled during interviews with senior administrators from 27 academic units in 10 universities, the paper analyses how strategic planning has been applied to the research mission over the past decade. Findings reveal variability in processes…

  12. Perspective on the current realities confronting Canadian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of the Canadian energy sector is indicated by the large proportion of energy investments in the economy, the significant contribution of energy exports to total exports, the major role of the energy sector in Canada's regional economies, the high per-capita energy consumption, and the high contribution of fossil fuels to Canadian greenhouse gas emissions. The history of Canadian energy policy is characterized by three relatively distinct periods: a period of strong growth and development in the energy sector starting in the late 1940s, a crisis management period starting with the oil crises in the 1970s, and a market orientation in the early 1980s which reduced the role of government in the energy sector. Energy policy has generally focused on two main themes: assuring access to competitively priced energy supplies, and ensuring maximum economic benefit from energy developments. A third theme, environmental responsibility, has emerged since the late 1980s. Current pressures on Canadian energy policies include the increasing integration of energy markets in North America, the influence of international conditions on energy prices, and environmental quality concerns relating to the costs and uncertainties of environmental assessment, climate change, and sustainable development. Further constraints and influences on energy policy come from multilateral agreements with other countries and international agencies, and the need for cooperation among the different levels of Canadian governments. Economic regulation has fallen out of favor with most governments, industry, and the public, and the increased use of regulation to pursue environmental goals in the energy sector seems likely to continue

  13. Current issues in occupational health nursing. A Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, C

    1991-07-01

    The National Association of Occupational Health Nurses is still in its infancy and is striving to become an interest group under the umbrella of the Canadian Nurses Association. This will bring together the provincial associations in a common goal of promoting worker health and safety. The diversity of the country and the sheer magnitude of the various occupations of Canadians reflect the need for the occupational health nurse to be well educated and kept abreast of new developments. Changes in the worksite echo changes in health and safety legislation that will help to improve conditions in the workplace. Future challenges arise from changes in the work force and the nature of work and include: ergonomic issues, job stress, older workers, EAPs, and increased competition.

  14. Current issues in occupational health nursing. A Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, C

    1991-07-01

    The National Association of Occupational Health Nurses is still in its infancy and is striving to become an interest group under the umbrella of the Canadian Nurses Association. This will bring together the provincial associations in a common goal of promoting worker health and safety. The diversity of the country and the sheer magnitude of the various occupations of Canadians reflect the need for the occupational health nurse to be well educated and kept abreast of new developments. Changes in the worksite echo changes in health and safety legislation that will help to improve conditions in the workplace. Future challenges arise from changes in the work force and the nature of work and include: ergonomic issues, job stress, older workers, EAPs, and increased competition. PMID:2069607

  15. Transportation of Western Canadian oil production to market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil sands production is expected to increase from 43 per cent of Western Canadian production in 2003 to 61 per cent in 2010. Twenty-eight billion dollars have been invested to date, with a forecast of $36 billion over the next 10 years. There are 174 billion barrels of established oil. This paper provided details of Enbridge core infrastructure businesses in relation to Western Canadian production of oil sands. A chart of production forecast by crude type was presented, as well as a light to heavy crude differential. Details of North American refining oil pipelines and existing markets were provided, along with maps of market access solutions. Mid-continent, eastern and phased southern access details were presented. A regional oil sands pipeline infrastructure was also presented. West coast access was reviewed, with details of gateway pipelines and export pipeline alternatives. Target markets were also examined in relation to Canadian access to new markets. tabs., figs

  16. Pharmacist-led minor ailment programs: a Canadian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Jeff; Joubert,Ray

    2016-01-01

    Jeff Gordon Taylor,1 Ray Joubert,2 1College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, 2Saskatchewan College of Pharmacy Professionals, Regina, SK, Canada Abstract: Pharmacists have a long history of helping Canadians with minor ailments. This often has involved management with over-the-counter medications. If pharmacists felt that the best care required something more robust, they would refer the patient to a physician. In hopes of improving the care of such ailments, ...

  17. Negotiating value: a Canadian perspective on the international film festival

    OpenAIRE

    Burgess, Diane Louise

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation argues that the Toronto and Vancouver International Film Festivals have been undervalued as showcases and in fact these hybrid public-private institutions are catalysts in the global, local and regional articulation of English-Canadian cinema culture. As a threshold to mainstream release and a non-theatrical venue, the festival operates in the gap between the production and consumption of film commodities. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu’s model of the field of cultural productio...

  18. The Canadian Management of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in Historical and Scientific Perspective, 1990-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quimby, Alexandra E; Shamy, Michel C F

    2015-11-01

    On February 11, 2015, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency announced that a cow born and raised in Alberta had tested positive for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as mad cow disease. BSE is a prion disease of cattle that, when transmitted to humans, produces a fatal neurodegenerative disease known as variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. We believe that this latest case of BSE in Canadian cattle suggests the timeliness of a review of the management of BSE in Canada from a historically and scientifically informed perspective. In this article, we ask: how did the Canadian management of BSE between 1990 and 2014 engage with the contemporary understanding of BSE's human health implications? We propose that Canadian policies largely ignored the implicit medical nature of BSE, treating it as a purely agricultural and veterinary issue. In this way, policies to protect Canadians were often delayed and incomplete, in a manner disturbingly reminiscent of Britain's failed management of BSE. Despite assurances to the contrary, it is premature to conclude that BSE (and with it the risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease) is a thing of Canada's past: BSE remains very much an issue in Canada's present. PMID:26357946

  19. Trans-Canada Slimeways: Slime mould imitates the Canadian transport network

    CERN Document Server

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Slime mould Physarum polycephalum builds up sophisticated networks to transport nutrients between distant part of its extended body. The slime mould's protoplasmic network is optimised for maximum coverage of nutrients yet minimum energy spent on transportation of the intra-cellular material. In laboratory experiments with P. polycephalum we represent Canadian major urban areas with rolled oats and inoculated slime mould in the Toronto area. The plasmodium spans the urban areas with its network of protoplasmic tubes. We uncover similarities and differences between the protoplasmic network and the Canadian national highway network, analyse the networks in terms of proximity graphs and evaluate slime mould's network response to contamination.

  20. Success in nuclear technology transfer: A Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology transfer has played a significant part in the expansion of nuclear power to many countries of the world. Canada's involvement in nuclear technology transfer spans four decades. The experience gained through technology transfer, initially to Canadian industry and then to other countries in association with the construction of CANDU nuclear power plants, forms a basis from which to assess the factors which contribute to successful technology transfer. A strong commitment from all parties, in terms of both financial and human resources, is essential to success. Detailed planning of both the scope and timing of the technology transfer program is also required together with an assessment of the impact of the introduction of nuclear power on other sectors of the economy. (author)

  1. Management and Prevention of Herpes Zoster: A Canadian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Boivin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicella-zoster virus reactivation leads to herpes zoster – the main complication of which is postherpetic neuralgia (PHN. Rapid antiviral therapy initiated within 72 h of rash onset has been shown to accelerate rash healing, reduce the duration of acute pain and, to some extent, attenuate the development and duration of PHN. Other adjunctive therapies such as analgesics, antidepressants and some anticonvulsants are frequently required in the management of severe PHN. A live, attenuated zoster vaccine has been recently shown to significantly decrease herpes zoster incidence, PHN and the overall burden of illness when administered to adults older than 60 years of age. This new prophylactic modality has been reported to be cost-effective in the Canadian context, especially in the 60- to 75-year-old age group.

  2. How much international exposure is advantageous in a domestic portfolio from a Canadian perspective?

    OpenAIRE

    Ghilardi, Jeffry; Currie, John

    2006-01-01

    In a wave of globalization that has overtaken the world in the last decade; many investors are now adding international exposure to their domestic portfolios, but how much International exposure is advantageous? Extensive academic research has been completed on this question. Almost all papers have tackled this problem from a U.S. domestic perspective; the focus in this paper is on how much international exposure is advantageous for a Canadian domestic investor. Drawing upon the work of Roger...

  3. The June 2009 Perspective on Canadian IYA2009 Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesser, James E.; Bartlett, C.; Breland, K.; Hay, K.; Lane, D.; Lacasse, R.; Lemay, D.; Langill, P.; Percy, J.; Welch, D. L.; Woodsworth, A.

    2009-05-01

    IYA effort in Canada is almost entirely a volunteer one relying heavily upon generous donations of time and effort by hundreds of people. Here we analyze accomplishments to date, and we describe activities to come in the remaining seven months of 2009 and well beyond. Accomplishments include provisions of hundreds of diverse opportunities for many thousands to experience their personal moment of astronomical discovery (their `Galileo Moment') a new planetarium show being presented at four major science centres; original works of music and performance that showcase astronomy in a captivating way for children and adults; an animated video narrated in English, French or Mi'kmaq of an Aboriginal story relating the seasons with circumpolar motions of stars; new educational and outreach materials aimed primarily at youth that are distributed freely at IYA events; theatre events; image exhibits; improved science education materials linked closely to curriculum requirements; and many more. In the months to come, all of the above will continue, but opportunities for new activities and partnerships continue to arise, e.g., Canada's Parks Day (18 July) emphasizes IYA, as do numerous cross-cultural events. We provide examples of the activities planned and/or being pursued for the latter portion of 2009 and beyond. These include issuance of a commemorative coin; delivery of a number of new education materials; prototyping of specific programs with Canadian Aboriginal communities in many provinces with the goal of creating multi-year partnerships to improve educational opportunities in their communities; and many more.

  4. Canadian regulatory perspective on organization and management assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian nuclear industry is undergoing change in response to a variety of internal and external pressures on licensee organizations. Operational experience also indicates that management and human performance aspects are among the leading causes of unplanned events at licensed facilities. These observations have raised the CNSC's awareness of the importance of organization and management processes and human performance to the safety performance of a facility. The CNSC is utilizing quality management and organizational assessment approaches to address this issue. The Organization and Management Review Method has been developed to carry out organizational evaluations. The method has been applied to a number of nuclear facilities in Canada. Results have provided a more complete profile of the organizations and have thereby contributed to the oversight monitoring of licensees. Some of the data are being meta-analyzed to determine what influence culture has on the other organizational dimensions and whether there are performance indicators that can predict future safety performance. We hope that a clear profile of a 'good performer' will allow us to compare and rate facilities against a series of benchmarks or standards yet to be developed. Some of the challenges that the CNSC faces with respect to the implementation of the O and M Method are being addressed. All of the information relevant to safety performance should be taken into account when giving recommendations pertaining to licensing decisions. (author)

  5. Canadian Nurses’ Perspectives on Prostate Cancer Support Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Ko, Wellam F.; Oliffe, John L.; Han, Christina S.; Garrett, Bernie; Henwood, Tim; Tuckett, Anthony G.; Sohrevardi, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer support groups (PCSGs) are community-based organizations that offer information and psychosocial support to men who experience prostate cancer and their families. Nurses are well positioned to refer men to a range of psychosocial resources to help them adjust to prostate cancer; however, little is known about nurses’ perspectives on PCSGs. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe nurses’ views about PCSGs as a means to making recommendations for advancing t...

  6. Trans-Canada Slimeways: Slime mould imitates the Canadian transport network

    OpenAIRE

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Akl, Selim G.

    2011-01-01

    Slime mould Physarum polycephalum builds up sophisticated networks to transport nutrients between distant part of its extended body. The slime mould's protoplasmic network is optimised for maximum coverage of nutrients yet minimum energy spent on transportation of the intra-cellular material. In laboratory experiments with P. polycephalum we represent Canadian major urban areas with rolled oats and inoculated slime mould in the Toronto area. The plasmodium spans the urban areas with its netwo...

  7. Grain Transportation Policy and Transformation in Western Canadian Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Doan, Darcie; Paddock, Brian; Dyer, Jan

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of grain transportation policy in Canada over the last 100 years, including the inception of the Crow Rate, the replacement of the Crow Rate with the Western Grain Transportation Act(WGTA), and finally, the repeal of the WGTA. Particular emphasis is placed on the structural change to the western agricultural economy that occurred following repeal of the WGTA in 1995. When grain transportation subsidies were removed, industry responded quickly to market signals ...

  8. Electrification of the Canadian road transportation sector: A 2050 outlook with TIMES-Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use a newly developed bottom-up model of the entire Canadian energy system (TIMES-Canada) to assess potentials for electrification of the road transport sector. A special emphasis has been put on the modelling of the Canadian road transport, by considering a variety of vehicles for passenger and freight transportation. Besides a business-as-usual (baseline) scenario, we have analysed an energy policy scenario imposing targets for electric vehicle penetration and a climate policy scenario imposing targets for greenhouse gas emission reduction. Our analysis shows on the one hand that electric vehicles penetrate notably the passenger vehicle market after 2040 in the baseline scenario and after 2030 in the energy policy scenario (following the assumed penetration targets). On the other hand, the assumed climate policy forces a stronger penetration of electric vehicles for passenger transportation, with a progressive phasing out of internal combustion engine vehicles, whereas the latter vehicles remain dominant for freight transportation but with a shift away of fossil fuels and in favour of biofuels. A sensitivity analysis on the (assumed) evolution of electric vehicles over time confirms these general trends. -- Highlights: •We use a newly developed TIMES-Canada model of the entire Canadian energy system. •We assess potentials for electrification of the Canadian road transport sector. •We analyse three scenarios: baseline, energy policy and climate policy. •EVs penetrate notably after 2040 in the baseline and after 2030 in the energy policy scenario. •The climate policy forces a stronger penetration of EVs

  9. Report on Canadian alternative transportation programs : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    Existing alternative transportation programs and initiatives in Canada were presented as part of an effort to achieve the Canada-Wide Standards on Particulate Matter and Ground-level Ozone. This document is intended for employers that could implement support services in their workplace that promote methods of commuting that reduce vehicle kilometers traveled and encourage alternative transportation to the single occupant vehicle with the objective or reducing particulate matter and ground-level ozone. Alternative transportation programs such as employers programs, youth programs and institutional programs have environmental, economic, social and community benefits such as reduced emissions and greater transportation efficiency which lead to improved quality of life, health and sustainability of the transportation system. Organizations implement alternative transportation programs because of a commitment to; environmental responsibility, improving air quality, offering employee benefits, GHG reductions and corporate leadership. The programs are often initiated by large urban centres experiencing transportation-related problems such as congestion, air pollution or infrastructure capacity constraints. The U-Pass was presented as example of a very successful program that promotes change in behaviour at institutions to increase transit ridership. Telework also offers the opportunity of eliminating commutes. Ridematching is another key marketing tool employed by many organizations. The most successful programs are those with the greatest financial resources because sustained funding is necessary for program delivery, expansion and community acceptance. refs., tabs., figs.

  10. Active transportation to school in Canadian youth: should injury be a concern?

    OpenAIRE

    Gropp, Kathleen; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William

    2012-01-01

    Active transportation to school provides a means for youth to incorporate physical activity into their daily routines, and this has obvious benefits for child health. Studies of active transportation have rarely focused on the negative health effects in terms of injury. This cross-sectional study is based on the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey. A sample of children aged 11–15 years (n=20 076) was studied. Multi-level logistic regression was used to examine ass...

  11. Generation capacity issues in deregulated markets : a Canadian perspective, volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) to assess generation capacity issues in deregulated electricity markets in Canada. This first volume is based on observations of the restructuring experience in several jurisdictions. It describes how, or if, energy-only markets are succeeding in ensuring capacity additions, and under what conditions. Supply-side and demand-side mechanisms have been proposed as solutions to address these problems. The report focuses on theoretical and practical issues of adequacy that are most relevant from a Canadian perspective. In fully developed energy markets, the price of energy reflects scarcity. Prices are low when generating resources are abundant, and owners make investment decisions based on price expectations. Although deregulated markets may theoretically offer a solution to the capacity adequacy problem, experience has shown that it is not easy to make the rules that make markets operate efficiently. It was concluded that it seems unlikely that deregulated markets in their current state will be able to offer adequate generation for the long term. The challenge lies in moving to competitive markets that encourage long term investment, and adding a capacity mechanism to the market design. refs., tabs., figs

  12. User perspectives in public transport timetable optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Parbo; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    The present paper deals with timetable optimisation from the perspective of minimising the waiting time experienced by passengers when transferring either to or from a bus. Due to its inherent complexity, this bi-level minimisation problem is extremely difficult to solve mathematically, since...... on the large-scale public transport network in Denmark. The timetable optimisation approach yielded a yearly reduction in weighted waiting time equivalent to approximately 45 million Danish kroner (9 million USD)....

  13. A simulation tool for integrating climate change and Canadian surface transport : towards assessing impacts and adaptations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extreme weather events resulting from climate change will have a significant impact of the performance of the Canadian transportation system. This presentation described a simulation tool designed to investigate the potential ramifications of future climate change on transportation and the economy. The CLIMATE-C tool was designed to simulate future weather scenarios for the years 2020 and 2050 using weather parameters obtained from a global general circulation model. The model accounted for linkages between weather, transportation, and economic systems. A random utility-based multi-regional input-output model was used to predict inter-regional trade flows by truck and rail in Canada. Simulated weather scenarios were used to describe predicted changes in demographic, social, economic, technological and environmental developments to 2100. Various changes in population and economic growth were considered. Six additional scenarios were formulated to consider moderate and high rainfall events, moderate, high and extreme snowfall, and cold temperatures. Results of the preliminary analysis indicated that the model is sensitive to changes in weather events. Future research is needed to evaluate future weather scenarios and analyze weather-transport data in order to quantify travel speed reduction parameters. tabs., figs.

  14. Unpacking vertical and horizontal integration: childhood overweight/obesity programs and planning, a Canadian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Lisa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasingly, multiple intervention programming is being understood and implemented as a key approach to developing public health initiatives and strategies. Using socio-ecological and population health perspectives, multiple intervention programming approaches are aimed at providing coordinated and strategic comprehensive programs operating over system levels and across sectors, allowing practitioners and decision makers to take advantage of synergistic effects. These approaches also require vertical and horizontal (v/h integration of policy and practice in order to be maximally effective. Discussion This paper examines v/h integration of interventions for childhood overweight/obesity prevention and reduction from a Canadian perspective. It describes the implications of v/h integration for childhood overweight and obesity prevention, with examples of interventions where v/h integration has been implemented. An application of a conceptual framework for structuring v/h integration of an overweight/obesity prevention initiative is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of vertical/horizontal integration for policy, research, and practice related to childhood overweight and obesity prevention multiple intervention programs. Summary Both v/h integration across sectors and over system levels are needed to fully support multiple intervention programs of the complexity and scope required by obesity issues. V/h integration requires attention to system structures and processes. A conceptual framework is needed to support policy alignment, multi-level evaluation, and ongoing coordination of people at the front lines of practice. Using such tools to achieve integration may enhance sustainability, increase effectiveness of prevention and reduction efforts, decrease stigmatization, and lead to new ways to relate the environment to people and people to the environment for better health for children.

  15. Medical cannabis ‒ the Canadian perspective 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko GD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gordon D Ko,1,2 Sara L Bober,1 Sean Mindra,3 Jason M Moreau1 1Apollo Applied Research Inc., 2Department of Medicine, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, 3University of Ottawa Medical School, Ottawa, ON, Canada Abstract: Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol – the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. Despite this, barriers exist to use from both the patient perspective (cost, addiction, social stigma, lack of understanding regarding safe administration and the physician perspective (credibility, criminality, clinical evidence, patient addiction, and policy from the governing medical colleges. This review addresses these barriers and draws attention to key concerns in the Canadian medical system, providing updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic medication use, and enhanced quality of life. This review also includes case studies demonstrating the use of medical marijuana by patients with neuropathic low-back pain, neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. While significant preclinical data have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis for treating pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, further studies are needed with randomized controlled trials and larger study populations to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts. Keywords: randomized controlled trials

  16. Students' Conceptions of the Nature of Science: Perspectives from Canadian and Korean Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeran; Nielsen, Wendy; Woodruff, Earl

    2014-05-01

    This study examined and compared students' understanding of nature of science (NOS) with 521 Grade 8 Canadian and Korean students using a mixed methods approach. The concepts of NOS were measured using a survey that had both quantitative and qualitative elements. Descriptive statistics and one-way multivariate analysis of variances examined the quantitative data while a conceptually clustered matrix classified the open-ended responses. The country effect could explain 3-12 % of the variances of subjectivity, empirical testability and diverse methods, but it was not significant for the concepts of tentativeness and socio-cultural embeddedness of science. The open-ended responses showed that students believed scientific theories change due to errors or discoveries. Students regarded empirical evidence as undeniable and objective although they acknowledged experiments depend on theories or scientists' knowledge. The open responses revealed that national situations and curriculum content affected their views. For our future democratic citizens to gain scientific literacy, science curricula should include currently acknowledged NOS concepts and should be situated within societal and cultural perspectives.

  17. Canadian electricity and the economy : developing a North American energy perspective : a proposal for action on electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presented an overview of the Canadian electric power industry and provided a Canadian industry perspective on what could be done to improve the way in which electricity markets operate in a North American Energy Framework. The measures outlined by the Canadian Electricity Association are based on the solid policy framework already in place in Canada and the United States which have focused on making energy systems more market responsive and reducing environmental impacts. In the past decade, Canadian and U.S. energy markets have become more interdependent regarding oil and gas and electricity in particular. This paper argued the point that while this interdependence has benefited consumers and producers in both countries, it is important to take measures to ensure energy security. In particular, the paper focused on a domestic supply shortage in the U.S. and is aimed at decision-makers and policy advisors in Canada and the United States to strengthen the Canada-U.S electricity partnership

  18. Canadian petroleum industry review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide ranging discussion about the factors that have influenced oil and natural gas prices, the differences of the Canadian market from international markets, the differences between eastern and western Canadian markets, and shareholders' perspectives on recent commodity price developments was presented. Developments in the OPEC countries were reviewed, noting that current OPEC production of 25 mmbbls is about 60 per cent higher than it was in 1985. It is expected that OPEC countries will continue to expand capacity to meet expected demand growth and the continuing need created by the UN embargo on Iraqi oil sales. Demand for natural gas is also likely to continue to rise especially in view of the deregulation of the electricity industry where natural gas may well become the favored fuel for incremental thermal generation capacity. Prices of both crude oil and natural gas are expected to hold owing to unusually low storage levels of both fuels. The inadequacy of infrastructure, particularly pipeline capacity as a key factor in the Canadian market was noted, along with the dynamic that will emerge in the next several years that may have potential consequences for Canadian production - namely the reversal of the Sarnia to Montreal pipeline. With regard to shareholders' expectations the main issues are (1) whether international markets reach back to the wellhead, hence the producer's positioning with respect to transportation capacity and contract portfolios, and (2) whether the proceeds from increased prices are invested in projects that are yielding more than the cost of capital. 28 figs

  19. Demographic and traditional knowledge perspectives on the current status of Canadian polar bear subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Jordan; Dowsley, Martha; Cornwell, Adam; Kuc, Miroslaw; Taylor, Mitchell

    2016-05-01

    Subpopulation growth rates and the probability of decline at current harvest levels were determined for 13 subpopulations of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) that are within or shared with Canada based on mark-recapture estimates of population numbers and vital rates, and harvest statistics using population viability analyses (PVA). Aboriginal traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) on subpopulation trend agreed with the seven stable/increasing results and one of the declining results, but disagreed with PVA status of five other declining subpopulations. The decline in the Baffin Bay subpopulation appeared to be due to over-reporting of harvested numbers from outside Canada. The remaining four disputed subpopulations (Southern Beaufort Sea, Northern Beaufort Sea, Southern Hudson Bay, and Western Hudson Bay) were all incompletely mark-recapture (M-R) sampled, which may have biased their survival and subpopulation estimates. Three of the four incompletely sampled subpopulations were PVA identified as nonviable (i.e., declining even with zero harvest mortality). TEK disagreement was nonrandom with respect to M-R sampling protocols. Cluster analysis also grouped subpopulations with ambiguous demographic and harvest rate estimates separately from those with apparently reliable demographic estimates based on PVA probability of decline and unharvested subpopulation growth rate criteria. We suggest that the correspondence between TEK and scientific results can be used to improve the reliability of information on natural systems and thus improve resource management. Considering both TEK and scientific information, we suggest that the current status of Canadian polar bear subpopulations in 2013 was 12 stable/increasing and one declining (Kane Basin). We do not find support for the perspective that polar bears within or shared with Canada are currently in any sort of climate crisis. We suggest that monitoring the impacts of climate change (including sea ice decline) on polar bear

  20. An Evaluation of Procedural Training in Canadian Respirology Fellowship Programs: Program Directors’ and Fellows’ Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    David Ryan Stather; Julie Jarand; Silvestri, Gerard A.; Alain Tremblay

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, there has been a rapid growth in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures performed by respirologists.OBJECTIVES: To assess the number and type of procedures performed in Canadian respirology training programs, for comparison with the American College of Chest Physicians minimum competency guidelines, and to assess fellow satisfaction with procedural training during their fellowships.METHODS: Internet-based surveys of Canadian respirology fellows and respirology fell...

  1. Re-examination of diversification benefits from foreign real estate investment: a Canadian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Justin

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the diversification benefits of foreign real estate for Canadian investors. Monthly data from December 1994 to December 2006 are used. The evidence supports that foreign real estate is an effective diversification tool. Its low correlation with Canadian stock was consistent through the time period. During the 2001 “Tech Bubble” volatility period, it even had negative correlation. Adding foreign real estate to a portfolio can help reduce the risk and increase the return. Fur...

  2. Brown snow: A long-range transport event in the Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, H.E.; Muir, D.C.G.; Billeck, B.N.; Lockhart, W.L.; Brunskill, G.J.; Kling, H.J. (Freshwater Inst., Winnipeg (Canada)); Olson, M.P. (Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, Ontario (Canada)); Lemoine, R.M. (Hardy BBT Ltd., Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada))

    1991-02-01

    The authors document the occurrence of a long-range transport event that deposited thousands of tons of fine particulates on the District of Keewatin, central Canadian Arctic, {approximately}63 N. Air mass trajectories, clay mineral composition, soot particles, and visible organic remains point to Asian sources for the brown snow material, probably western China. Semivolatile organic pollutants detected in the brown snow included polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ({Sigma}PAH), PCB congeners, and DDT-related compounds ({Sigma}DDT), polychlorinated camphenes (PCCs), as well as the herbicide trifuluralin and insecticides methoxychlor, endosulfan, and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). {Sigma}PAH, PCB, and PCC concentrations were within the range reported in other studies of Arctic snow but {Sigma}DDT levels were 2-10 times higher than previous reports. High molecular weight PAH may have been associated with soot particles in the brown snow but evidence for Asian sources of the pesticides was not strong because of unknown source signal strengths and possible atmospheric transformations of the compounds. Fluxes of these pollutants were also determined by analyzing sediment cores from two small headwater lakes near the sampling site. The quantities of pollutants deposited in this single event may have comprised a significant fraction (>10%) of total annual input {Sigma}PAH and {Sigma}DDT, as determined from lake sedimentation records.

  3. Terrorism threats and preparedness in Canada: the perspective of the Canadian public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Stacey; Lemyre, Louise; Clément, Mélanie; Markon, Marie-Pierre L; Lee, Jennifer E C

    2007-06-01

    Although Canada has not experienced a major terrorist attack, an increased global pending threat has put preparedness at the top of the Canadian government's agenda. Given its strong multicultural community and close proximity to the recently targeted United States, the Canadian experience is unique. However, minimal research exists on the public's reactions to terrorism threats and related preparedness strategies. In order for response initiatives to be optimally effective, it is important that the public's opinions regarding terrorism and preparedness be considered. This qualitative study examined perceptions of terrorism threats among Canadians living in Central and Eastern Canada (N = 75) in the fall of 2004. Conceptualizations of terrorism threat, psychosocial impacts, and sense of preparedness were explored in a series of qualitative interviews. Findings revealed that the majority of Canadians did not feel overly threatened by terrorist attacks, due in part to a perception of terrorist threats as related to global sociopolitical events and a positive Canadian identity. In addition, while most respondents did not feel they were individually affected by the threat of terrorism, there was some concern regarding larger societal impacts, such as increased paranoia, discrimination, and threats to civil liberties. Participants' views on preparedness focused largely on the utility of emergency preparedness strategies and the factors that could mitigate or inhibit preparedness at the individual and institutional levels, with a specific focus on education. Finally, the significant relevance of these findings in shaping terrorism preparedness, both in Canada and generally, is discussed.

  4. The Color Purple?: Perspectives of Canadian Parents of Adopted Children from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Bian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, Canadian parents have been regularly adopting infants from China, and have been facing a confusing dilemma on how to introduce their children’s Chinese heritage and language. The aim of this qualitative study is to uncover the beliefs and attitudes of the adopting parents about how to best promote a healthy identify development that includes their Chinese background. Using in-depth interviews, 19 parents of 14 adopted children explored their beliefs about incorporating the Chinese heritage in the development of their girls. The findings reveal that some parents feel that it is best to emphasize Canadian culture - “she is just Canadian.” Some parents feel that it is best to leave it alone and allow the children to choose their “identity” – “she has both feet in both worlds”, whereas, other parents are proactive by introducing Chinese heritage and culture to their children at an early age. Some parents feel that their children created a new identity with the “color purple” – a hybrid and new culture that combines both their Chinese background with a mainstream Canadian lifestyle.

  5. Multiple Perspectives on the Accessibility of E-Learning in Canadian Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asuncion, Jennison V.; Fichten, Catherine S.; Ferraro, Vittoria; Chwojka, Caroline; Barile, Maria; Nguyen, Mai Nhu; Wolforth, Joan

    2010-01-01

    An exploratory study identified and compared the views of 77 campus disability service providers, 38 professors, and 45 e-learning professionals from Canadian colleges and universities regarding their experiences with e-learning and its accessibility to students with disabilities. Findings indicate that all groups saw benefit in having someone who…

  6. Response strategies for the Great Plains: Canadian and U.S. perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From a policy point of view, the sharpest contrast between the five Great Plains states and the three Canadian provinces is the much greater significance of the Prairie provinces in Canadian life and national policymaking. The population of the Prairie provinces is substantial, and continues to grow steadily, with most growth concentrated in urban areas. A significant climate change issue in the boreal forest will be the impact of fire, as the forest is fire and insect dominated. The American solution to low precipitation, irrigation, is currently of relatively small importance on the Canadian Prairies. The main indication of general circulation models is that summer evapotranspiration will be more substantial than modest increases in precipitation, and while irrigation development is possible, there is no Canadian equivalent to the Ogallala aquifer. Adjustment or adaptation is as likely to mean adaptation to social and economic stress as much as to climate stress. Nebraska may provide a model for changes required to deal with climate warming, with a substantial problem area, substantial urban centers, and an aquifer recharge rate comparable with extraction rates. 13 refs

  7. An industry perspective on Canadian patients' involvement in Medical Tourism: implications for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snyder Jeremy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The medical tourism industry, which assists patients with accessing non-emergency medical care abroad, has grown rapidly in recent years. A lack of reliable data about medical tourism makes it difficult to create policy, health system, and public health responses to address the associated risks and shortcomings, such as spread of infectious diseases, associated with this industry. This article addresses this knowledge gap by analyzing interviews conducted with Canadian medical tourism facilitators in order to understand Canadian patients' involvement in medical tourism and the implications of this involvement for public health. Methods Semi-structured phone interviews were conducted with 12 medical facilitators from 10 companies in 2010. An exhaustive recruitment strategy was used to identify interviewees. Questions focused on business dimensions, information exchange, medical tourists' decision-making, and facilitators' roles in medical tourism. Thematic analysis was undertaken following data collection. Results Facilitators helped their Canadian clients travel to 11 different countries. Estimates of the number of clients sent abroad annually varied due to demand factors. Facilitators commonly worked with medical tourists aged between 40 and 60 from a variety of socio-economic backgrounds who faced a number of potential barriers including affordability, fear of the unfamiliar, and lack of confidence. Medical tourists who chose not to use facilitators' services were thought to be interested in saving money or have cultural/familial connections to the destination country. Canadian doctors were commonly identified as barriers to securing clients. Conclusions No effective Canadian public health response to medical tourism can treat medical tourists as a unified group with similar motivations for engaging in medical tourism and choosing similar mechanisms for doing so. This situation may be echoed in other countries with patients

  8. An industry perspective on Canadian patients' involvement in Medical Tourism: implications for public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The medical tourism industry, which assists patients with accessing non-emergency medical care abroad, has grown rapidly in recent years. A lack of reliable data about medical tourism makes it difficult to create policy, health system, and public health responses to address the associated risks and shortcomings, such as spread of infectious diseases, associated with this industry. This article addresses this knowledge gap by analyzing interviews conducted with Canadian medical tourism facilitators in order to understand Canadian patients' involvement in medical tourism and the implications of this involvement for public health. Methods Semi-structured phone interviews were conducted with 12 medical facilitators from 10 companies in 2010. An exhaustive recruitment strategy was used to identify interviewees. Questions focused on business dimensions, information exchange, medical tourists' decision-making, and facilitators' roles in medical tourism. Thematic analysis was undertaken following data collection. Results Facilitators helped their Canadian clients travel to 11 different countries. Estimates of the number of clients sent abroad annually varied due to demand factors. Facilitators commonly worked with medical tourists aged between 40 and 60 from a variety of socio-economic backgrounds who faced a number of potential barriers including affordability, fear of the unfamiliar, and lack of confidence. Medical tourists who chose not to use facilitators' services were thought to be interested in saving money or have cultural/familial connections to the destination country. Canadian doctors were commonly identified as barriers to securing clients. Conclusions No effective Canadian public health response to medical tourism can treat medical tourists as a unified group with similar motivations for engaging in medical tourism and choosing similar mechanisms for doing so. This situation may be echoed in other countries with patients seeking care abroad

  9. Intelligent transportation systems problems and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Pamuła, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a discussion of problems encountered in the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). It puts emphasis on the early tasks of designing and proofing the concept of integration of technologies in Intelligent Transport Systems. In its first part the book concentrates on the design problems of urban ITS. The second part of the book features case studies representative for the different modes of transport. These are freight transport, rail transport and aerospace transport encompassing also space stations. The book provides ideas for deployment which may be developed by scientists and engineers engaged in the design of Intelligent Transport Systems. It can also be used in the training of specialists, students and post-graduate students in universities and transport high schools.    .

  10. A multilayer perspective for the analysis of urban transportation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Aleta, Alberto; Meloni, Sandro; Moreno, Yamir

    2016-01-01

    Public urban mobility systems are composed by several transportation modes connected together. Most studies in urban mobility and planning often ignore the multi-layer nature of transportation systems considering only aggregated versions of this complex scenario. In this work we present a model for the representation of the transportation system of an entire city as a multiplex network. Using two different perspectives, one in which each line is a layer and one in which lines of the same tran...

  11. TRANSPORT OUTSOURCING AND TRANSPORT COLLABORATION RELATIONSHIP - THE RISK HEDGING PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđica M. Stojanović

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although transport outsourcing decision-making and collaborative transport management (CTM have been “hot topics” for years, their links are still not thoroughly explored. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between them. In particular, we focus on the conflicting and complementary features of these concepts with regard to their capability to hedge against transport outsourcing-related risks. Transport outsourcing is often a tool for transferring part of the demand risks from the primary parties in supply chains to transport service providers. However, new relationships introduce some new risks - outsourcing contract risks. It is important to identify, estimate and compare such kinds of risks. Transport collaboration may decrease both the demand risks and the outsourcing contract risks, although the relationship with the latter is more complex. It is used an exploratory research based on a combination of a literature review and empirical examples.

  12. Rethinking What Counts. Perspectives on Wellbeing and Genuine Progress Indicator Metrics from a Canadian Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tyedmers

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A prevailing undercurrent of doubt regarding the merits of economic growth has motivated efforts to rethink how we measure the success of economic policy and societal wellbeing. This article comments on efforts to better account for impacts of economic activity emphasizing genuine progress indicator (GPI and wellbeing metrics from a Canadian viewpoint. The authors caution that GPI and related metrics are measures of human and social welfare and not adequate to account for the ecological costs associated with economic growth. In addition, the article discusses the suitability of wellbeing models and metrics for local scale applications, recognizing growing interest in these techniques at the urban and local level. The article concludes with a reflection on the uptake of GPI and wellbeing measures highlighting the Canadian experience.

  13. Challenges and choices : a U.S. refiner's perspective on Western Canadian crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation included a map depicting refineries, pipelines, terminals, coastal terminals and inland terminals in the eastern United States. Major oil trade movements between the United States, Canada, Mexico, South America, Central America, Europe, Middle East, Africa, and Asia-Pacific were also illustrated. A graph depicting Western Canada's long range crude supply forecast shows a decrease in conventional heavy oil supply but an increase in supply of diluent bitumen blend and synthetic bitumen blends. The presentation focused on this shift in refining and how product quality is viewed differently by producers and refiners in terms of gravity, sulfur content, boiling range distribution, distillate cetane, total acid number (TAN), asphalt properties, nitrogen and particulates. Refiners are looking for affordability, quality, consistency, yields and unit balance. Canadian marketing connections to PADD 1, 2, 4 and 5 were outlined. It was noted that more than 45 refineries in over 20 regions in the United States use Western Canadian crude oil. 22 figs

  14. Canadian upstream oil and gas industry profitability: Historical review and future perspectives [with executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The profitability of the Canadian upstream oil and gas industry is examined by analyzing return on equity and return on capital invested. By all measures and interpretations, the upstream industry has been unprofitable since the mid-1980s; returns generated are far below the industry's own historical cost of capital, and are inadequate relative to other sectors of the Canadian economy and to international oil and gas companies. This poor profitability is attributed to such factors as: overly optimistic price forecasts and healthy cash flows generated in the early 1980s, which led to excess capital spending; poor returns on capital reflective of the physical limitations of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin; high capital and operating costs; and a high royalty burden imposed by provincial governments. The consequences of low profitability include inadequate returns to equity investors, a drop in spending on upstream services such as drilling and exploration, a reduced ability of the industry to generate employment, and an adverse effect on the economy of Alberta. Forecasts indicate that the upstream sector is extremely vulnerable to a scenario of relatively flat prices due to high and increasing operating costs and depletion charges, and the significant royalty payments that still are in effect. Little scope is foreseen for industry profitability to return to acceptable levels over the first half of the 1990s. Reduced royalties have the potential to make a significant contribution to improved profitability. 52 figs., 40 tabs

  15. Characterising aerosol transport into the Canadian High Arctic using aerosol mass spectrometry and Lagrangian modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kuhn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the analysis of measurements made using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS; Aerodyne Research Inc. that was installed in the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL in summer 2006. PEARL is located in the Canadian high Arctic at 610 m above sea level on Ellesmere Island (80° N 86° W. PEARL is unique for its remote location in the Arctic and because most of the time it is situated within the free troposphere. It is, therefore, well suited as a receptor site to study the long-range tropospheric transport of pollutants into the Arctic. Some information about the successful year-round operation of an AMS at a high Arctic site such as PEARL will be reported here, together with design considerations for reliable sampling under harsh low-temperature conditions. Computational fluid dynamics calculations were made to ensure that sample integrity was maintained while sampling air at temperatures that average −40 °C in the winter and can be as low as −55 °C. Selected AMS measurements of aerosol mass concentration, size and chemical composition recorded during the months of August, September and October 2006 will be reported. The air temperature was raised to about 20 °C during sampling, but the short residence time in the inlet system (~25 s ensured that less than 10% of semivolatiles such as ammonium nitrate were lost. During this period, sulfate was, at most times, the predominant aerosol component with on average 0.115 μg m−3 (detection limit 0.003 μg m−3. The second most abundant component was undifferentiated organic aerosol, with on average 0.11 μg m−3 (detection limit 0.04 μg m−3. The nitrate component, which averaged 0.007 μg m−3, was above its detection limit (0.002 μg m−3, whereas the ammonium ion had an apparent average concentration of 0.02 μg m−3, which was approximately equal to its detection limit. A few

  16. GIS and Transport Modeling—Strengthening the Spatial Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Loidl

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The movement and transport of people and goods is spatial by its very nature. Thus, geospatial fundamentals of transport systems need to be adequately considered in transport models. Until recently, this was not always the case. Instead, transport research and geography evolved widely independently in domain silos. However, driven by recent conceptual, methodological and technical developments, the need for an integrated approach is obvious. This paper attempts to outline the potential of Geographical Information Systems (GIS for transport modeling. We identify three fields of transport modeling where the spatial perspective can significantly contribute to a more efficient modeling process and more reliable model results, namely, geospatial data, disaggregated transport models and the role of geo-visualization. For these three fields, available findings from various domains are compiled, before open aspects are formulated as research directions, with exemplary research questions. The overall aim of this paper is to strengthen the spatial perspective in transport modeling and to call for a further integration of GIS in the domain of transport modeling.

  17. Priority setting of ICU resources in an influenza pandemic: a qualitative study of the Canadian public's perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Diego S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pandemic influenza may exacerbate existing scarcity of life-saving medical resources. As a result, decision-makers may be faced with making tough choices about who will receive care and who will have to wait or go without. Although previous studies have explored ethical issues in priority setting from the perspective of clinicians and policymakers, there has been little investigation into how the public views priority setting during a pandemic influenza, in particular related to intensive care resources. Methods To bridge this gap, we conducted three public town hall meetings across Canada to explore Canadian's perspectives on this ethical challenge. Town hall discussions group discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Six interrelated themes emerged from the town hall discussions related to: ethical and empirical starting points for deliberation; criteria for setting priorities; pre-crisis planning; in-crisis decision-making; the need for public deliberation and input; and participants' deliberative struggle with the ethical issues. Conclusions Our findings underscore the importance of public consultation in pandemic planning for sustaining public trust in a public health emergency. Participants appreciated the empirical and ethical uncertainty of decision-making in an influenza pandemic and demonstrated nuanced ethical reasoning about priority setting of intensive care resources in an influenza pandemic. Policymakers may benefit from a better understanding the public's empirical and ethical 'starting points' in developing effective pandemic plans.

  18. Methane production potential (B0) of swine and cattle manures--a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbout, S; Verma, M; Larouche, J P; Potvin, L; Chapman, A M; Lemay, S P; Pelletier, F; Brar, S K

    2010-11-01

    Canada's agricultural emissions accounted for 60 Mt or 8% of national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2007. The estimation of CH4 emission factor (B0) from manure management systems in Canada is prone to uncertainty owing to lack of B0 values for Canadian conditions. Therefore, in this study, manure samples from six Canadian animal farms, two each of swine, beef and dairy cattle, were investigated in order to estimate their methane production potential (B0). The ultimate anaerobic biodegradability was measured with ISO standard batch fermentation. The extent of biodegradation of the manure samples with or without sodium benzoate was always greater than 60% and hence showed no inhibitory effect on methane production by the manure. The impact of use of antibiotics in the animal feed on methane production was also considered; however, no inhibitory effect on methane production could be observed. The plateau of methane production in all cases was achieved by 63 d of anaerobic digestion process and the final pH was within 6-8. The calculated B0 were in the range of 0.47-0.42, 0.21-0.19 and 0.35-0.30 for swine, beef cattle and dairy cattle, respectively. The uncertainties associated with B0 values were +/- 9% for swine, +/- 3% for beef cattle and, +/- 6 and +/- 2% for dairy cows.

  19. Developing Educational Resources to Advance Umbilical Cord Blood Banking and Research: A Canadian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Beak, Carla; Chargé, Sophie B; Isasi, Rosario; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2015-05-01

    In 2013 Canadian Blood Services (CBS) launched the National Public Cord Blood Bank (NPCBB), a program to collect, process, test, and store cord blood units donated for use in transplantation. A key component of the creation of the NPCBB is the establishment of a program that enables cord blood not suitable for banking or transplantation to be used for biomedical research purposes. Along with the development of processes and policies to manage the NPCBB and the cord blood research program, CBS-in collaboration with researchers from the Stem Cell Network-have also developed educational tools to provide relevant information for target audiences to aid implementation and operation. We describe here one of these tools, the REB Primer on Research and Cord Blood Donation (the Primer), which highlights key ethical and legal considerations and identifies Canadian documents that are relevant to the use of cord blood in biomedical research. The Primer also introduces the NPCBB and describes the systems CBS is implementing to address ethical issues. The Primer is intended to assist research ethics boards in evaluating the ethical acceptability of research protocols, to facilitate harmonized decision-making by providing a common reference, and to highlight the role of research ethics boards in governance frameworks. With the Primer we hope to illustrate how the development of such educational tools can facilitate the ethical implementation and governance of programs related to stem cell research in Canada and abroad.

  20. Canadian perspectives on the nutrition care process and international dietetics and nutrition terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Marlis; Basualdo-Hammond, Carlota; Hotson, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline benefits of adoption of the Nutrition Care Process (NCP) and International Dietetics and Nutrition Terminology (IDNT) by Canadian dietitians, discuss implementation considerations for broad-based action and change, and determine future directions. The NCP and IDNT are recommended by the International Confederation of Dietetic Associations for international adoption as a framework for dietetic practice. The NCP uses a client-centred framework to clarify the role of registered dietitians (RDs), nutrition practice elements and skills, and the environments in which RDs practice. It also incorporates an evaluation framework, including identification of specific goals and monitoring of clinical and behavioural outcomes, to improve the quality and effectiveness of nutrition care. The process helps RDs to identify interventions that are more likely to improve nutrition outcomes by providing a systematic approach that encourages critical thinking and problem-solving. IDNT provides a standard set of core nutrition care terms and definitions for the four steps of the nutrition care process: assessment, nutrition diagnosis, intervention, and monitoring/evaluation. Use of IDNT promotes uniform documentation of nutrition care, enables differentiation of the type and amount of nutrition care provided, and provides a basis for linking nutrition care activities with actual or predicted outcomes. To continue to advance the dietetic profession in the Canadian health system, RDs must demonstrate their value by highlighting population, group, and individual health outcomes that are most influenced by the RD. The NCP and IDNT will help dietitians achieve these goals.

  1. Developing legally defensible physiological employment standards for prominent physically demanding public safety occupations: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamnik, V; Gumienak, R; Gledhill, N

    2013-10-01

    Canadian court decisions and human rights legislation impose strict legal criteria for developing applicant and incumbent physiological employment standards to qualify as a bona fide occupational requirement. These legal criteria compel researchers and employers to ensure that the standards are criterion-based and validly linked to the critical life threatening physically demanding tasks of the occupation, and this has led to the establishment of a systematic research process template to ensure this connection. Validation of job-related physiological employment standards is achieved using both construct and content procedures and reliability is established via test-retest procedures. The 1999 Supreme Court of Canada Meiorin Decision also obliges employers to demonstrate that it is impossible to accommodate an individual applicant or employee who is adversely impacted by lowering the physiological employment standards without imposing undue hardship on the employer. Recent evidence has demonstrated convincingly that familiarization opportunities, motivational feedback/coaching during test performance, and participation in a 6-week job-specific physical fitness training program can overcome the adverse impact of a physiological employment standards on a sub-group of participants, thereby providing "de facto" accommodation. In this article, the authors review the physiological employment standards for prominent Canadian physically demanding public safety occupations; police, correctional officers, nuclear emergency personnel, structural fire fighters, and wildland fire fighters, to illustrate the steps, challenges, and solutions involved in developing and implementing physiological employment standards designed to meet the requirements to qualify as a bona fide occupational requirement.

  2. Perceptions, perspectives, proportions: Radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearly a hundred years ago in 1893 - when railroads still monopolized land transport, the first set of international rules governing shipments of hazardous materials were issued to cover their movement by rail. Since then, more than a dozen international bodies, and scores of national regulatory agencies, have published regulations directed at the carriage of dangerous goods by road, sea, air, as well as rail. The regulatory network today covers virtually all kinds of substances and commodities that are used for beneficial purposes, but that under certain conditions are potentially harmful to people and the environment. 'The Problems Encountered by International Road Transport in Multimodal Transport Operations', by M. Marmy, paper presented at the 8th International Symposium on the Transport and Handling of Dangerous Goods by Sea and Associated Modes, Havana, Cuba, 1984. These include the chemical fertilizers farmers spread on their fields, the nuclear fuel now powering electricity plants in some two dozen countries, the drugs physicians use to diagnose and treat illnesses, and the fossil fuels, such as gasoline, routinely used in transport vehicles. All told today, about 21 different international labels are required to identify separate classes of dangerous goods among them, explosives, corrosives, and flammables. Another separate class radioactive materials is the specific subject of feature articles in this issue of the IAEA Bulletin. The evolving regulatory system reflects at once the growth in traffic of hazardous materials, essentially a post-World War II trend. Since the mid-1940s, for example, the transport of all dangerous goods just on the seas has grown 1000%. based on reports at a recent international conference. Overall, years ahead will see further increases

  3. Characterizing aerosol transport into the Canadian High Arctic using aerosol mass spectrometry and Lagrangian modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kuhn

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the analysis of measurements made using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS; Aerodyne Research Inc. that was installed in the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL in summer 2006. PEARL is located in the Canadian high Arctic at 610 m above sea level on Ellesmere Island (80° N 86° W. PEARL is unique for its remote location in the Arctic and because most of the time it is situated within the free troposphere. It is therefore well suited as a receptor site to study the long range tropospheric transport of pollutants into the Arctic. Some information about the successful year-round operation of an AMS at a high Arctic site such as PEARL will be reported here, together with design considerations for reliable sampling under harsh low-temperature conditions. Computational fluid dynamics calculations were made to ensure that sample integrity was maintained while sampling air at temperatures that average −40 °C in the winter and can be as low as −55 °C. Selected AMS measurements of aerosol mass concentration, size, and chemical composition recorded during the months of August, September and October 2006 will be reported. During this period, sulfate was at most times the predominant aerosol component with on average 0.115 μg m−3 (detection limit 0.003 μg m−3. The second most abundant component was undifferentiated organic aerosol, with on average 0.11 μg m−3 detection limit (0.04 μg m−3. The nitrate component, which averaged 0.007 μg m−3, was above its detection limit (0.002 μg m−3, whereas the ammonium ion had an apparent average concentration of 0.02 μg m−3, which was approximately equal to its detection limit. A few episodes having increased mass concentrations and lasting from several hours to several days are apparent in the data. These were investigated further using a statistical analysis to determine their common

  4. Technology assessment and resource allocation for predictive genetic testing: A study of the perspectives of Canadian genetic health care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einsiedel Edna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With a growing number of genetic tests becoming available to the health and consumer markets, genetic health care providers in Canada are faced with the challenge of developing robust decision rules or guidelines to allocate a finite number of public resources. The objective of this study was to gain Canadian genetic health providers' perspectives on factors and criteria that influence and shape resource allocation decisions for publically funded predictive genetic testing in Canada. Methods The authors conducted semi-structured interviews with 16 senior lab directors and clinicians at publically funded Canadian predictive genetic testing facilities. Participants were drawn from British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia. Given the community sampled was identified as being relatively small and challenging to access, purposive sampling coupled with snowball sampling methodologies were utilized. Results Surveyed lab directors and clinicians indicated that predictive genetic tests were funded provincially by one of two predominant funding models, but they themselves played a significant role in how these funds were allocated for specific tests and services. They also rated and identified several factors that influenced allocation decisions and patients' decisions regarding testing. Lastly, participants provided recommendations regarding changes to existing allocation models and showed support for a national evaluation process for predictive testing. Conclusion Our findings suggest that largely local and relatively ad hoc decision making processes are being made in relation to resource allocations for predictive genetic tests and that a more coordinated and, potentially, national approach to allocation decisions in this context may be appropriate.

  5. DOE perspective on fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, R.

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are one of the most promising technologies for meeting the rapidly growing demand for transportation services while minimizing adverse energy and environmental impacts. This paper reviews the benefits of introducing fuel cells into the transportation sector; in addition to dramatically reduced vehicle emissions, fuel cells offer the flexibility than use petroleum-based or alternative fuels, have significantly greater energy efficiency than internal combustion engines, and greatly reduce noise levels during operation. The rationale leading to the emphasis on proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells for transportation applications is reviewed as are the development issues requiring resolution to achieve adequate performance, packaging, and cost for use in automobiles. Technical targets for power density, specific power, platinum loading on the electrodes, cost, and other factors that become increasingly more demanding over time have been established. Fuel choice issues and pathways to reduced costs and to a renewable energy future are explored. One such path initially introduces fuel cell vehicles using reformed gasoline while-on-board hydrogen storage technology is developed to the point of allowing adequate range (350 miles) and refueling convenience. This scenario also allows time for renewable hydrogen production technologies and the required supply infrastructure to develop. Finally, the DOE Fuel Cells in Transportation program is described. The program, whose goal is to establish the technology for fuel cell vehicles as rapidly as possible, is being implemented by means of the United States Fuel Cell Alliance, a Government-industry alliance that includes Detroit`s Big Three automakers, fuel cell and other component suppliers, the national laboratories, and universities.

  6. Genetics and Personal Insurance: the Perspectives of Canadian Cancer Genetic Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Michelle; Ngueng Feze, Ida; Joly, Yann

    2015-12-01

    Genetic discrimination in the context of genetic testing has been identified as a concern for symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals for more than three decades. Genetic counselors are often the health care professionals who discuss risks and benefits of genetic testing with patients, thereby making them most appropriate to address patient concerns about genetics and personal insurance (i.e., life, life as related to mortgage or group insurance, disability, critical illness and travel). A pilot study was conducted to ascertain the current practices of Canadian cancer genetic counselors in regard to their discussions with patients about genetic testing and access to personal insurance. Among the 36 counselors surveyed, 100 % reported discussing the issue of genetic testing and personal insurance with their patients. Several factors influenced the content, depth and length of these discussions including age, cancer status, family members, and patients' current and future insurance needs. Counselors reported discussing with patients the possible impact of genetic test results on access to personal insurance, possible access and use of patient genetic information by insurance companies, and whom patients should contact if they have additional questions. The most commonly reported inquiries from patients included questions about the possible impact of genetic testing on their ability to obtain insurance, and the insurability of family members. While 28 % of counselors reported having been contacted by an insurer requesting access to patient information, only one counselor was aware of or could recall the outcome of such a request. This pilot study revealed that issues concerning genetics and personal insurance are commonly discussed in Canadian cancer genetic counseling sessions. Counselors furthermore expressed a need for additional educational resources on the topic of genetics and personal insurance for themselves and their patients.

  7. Genetics and Personal Insurance: the Perspectives of Canadian Cancer Genetic Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Michelle; Ngueng Feze, Ida; Joly, Yann

    2015-12-01

    Genetic discrimination in the context of genetic testing has been identified as a concern for symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals for more than three decades. Genetic counselors are often the health care professionals who discuss risks and benefits of genetic testing with patients, thereby making them most appropriate to address patient concerns about genetics and personal insurance (i.e., life, life as related to mortgage or group insurance, disability, critical illness and travel). A pilot study was conducted to ascertain the current practices of Canadian cancer genetic counselors in regard to their discussions with patients about genetic testing and access to personal insurance. Among the 36 counselors surveyed, 100 % reported discussing the issue of genetic testing and personal insurance with their patients. Several factors influenced the content, depth and length of these discussions including age, cancer status, family members, and patients' current and future insurance needs. Counselors reported discussing with patients the possible impact of genetic test results on access to personal insurance, possible access and use of patient genetic information by insurance companies, and whom patients should contact if they have additional questions. The most commonly reported inquiries from patients included questions about the possible impact of genetic testing on their ability to obtain insurance, and the insurability of family members. While 28 % of counselors reported having been contacted by an insurer requesting access to patient information, only one counselor was aware of or could recall the outcome of such a request. This pilot study revealed that issues concerning genetics and personal insurance are commonly discussed in Canadian cancer genetic counseling sessions. Counselors furthermore expressed a need for additional educational resources on the topic of genetics and personal insurance for themselves and their patients. PMID:25925606

  8. Canadian Campus Smoking Policies: Investigating the Gap between Intent and Outcome from a Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Lynne; Callaghan, Doris; Smith, Michelle L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Young adults remain the earliest legal target for the tobacco industry. Against this, the existence of smoking policies would appear to offer some protection to students on campus. However, little research has been conducted into the outcomes of such policies from a student perspective. Methods: The authors conducted 8 focus groups at…

  9. Australian and Canadian perspectives and regulations for protecting the polar marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, Donald R.

    1997-01-01

    The report compares Australian and Canadian responses for protecting polar marine environments. Vast areas of the polar seas fall within their potential combined EEZ/continental shelf jurisdiction. The Antarctic Treaty provisions, doubts on the status of the Northwest Passage waters and the capacity to enforce legislative initiatives against foreign vessels have been constraints. Australia's enactment of legislation prohibiting mining within the AAT continental shelf and whaling within the AAT EEZ has tested the Antarctic Treaty. Canada's reaction to the Manhattan and the enactment of the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act is an example of unilateral action. While the countries have made noteworthy initiatives to enhance the protection of their polar marine environments, doubts remain in some instances on their capacity to give effect to the initiatives. However, sovereignty remains at the heart of their response. Failure to address Antarctic marine environmental issues will rebound on the environment and reflect poorly upon Australia's sovereignty claim to the AAT. For Canada it is a sovereignty issue and has directly impact upon its citizens inhabiting the islands and coastal areas of the Canadian Arctic. The Madrid Protocol provides the strongest legal basis for the Antarctic Treaty parties to enact laws and regulations in Antarctica. Conservation measures adopted under the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources focuses increasingly on environmental concerns. The most significant regional initiative adopted by Arctic states is the AEPS which does not have a legal foundation. It's co-operative programs provide basis for co-operation in dealing with environmental problems. It clearly recognises that only co-operative responses will achieve significant outcomes. The 1990s have posed new challenges for marine environmental protection such as ship-based tourism in Antarctica and the growing pressure to use the

  10. Australian and Canadian perspectives and regulations for protecting the polar marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, Donald R.

    1997-12-31

    The report compares Australian and Canadian responses for protecting polar marine environments. Vast areas of the polar seas fall within their potential combined EEZ/continental shelf jurisdiction. The Antarctic Treaty provisions, doubts on the status of the Northwest Passage waters and the capacity to enforce legislative initiatives against foreign vessels have been constraints. Australia`s enactment of legislation prohibiting mining within the AAT continental shelf and whaling within the AAT EEZ has tested the Antarctic Treaty. Canada`s reaction to the Manhattan and the enactment of the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act is an example of unilateral action. While the countries have made noteworthy initiatives to enhance the protection of their polar marine environments, doubts remain in some instances on their capacity to give effect to the initiatives. However, sovereignty remains at the heart of their response. Failure to address Antarctic marine environmental issues will rebound on the environment and reflect poorly upon Australia`s sovereignty claim to the AAT. For Canada it is a sovereignty issue and has directly impact upon its citizens inhabiting the islands and coastal areas of the Canadian Arctic. The Madrid Protocol provides the strongest legal basis for the Antarctic Treaty parties to enact laws and regulations in Antarctica. Conservation measures adopted under the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources focuses increasingly on environmental concerns. The most significant regional initiative adopted by Arctic states is the AEPS which does not have a legal foundation. It`s co-operative programs provide basis for co-operation in dealing with environmental problems. It clearly recognises that only co-operative responses will achieve significant outcomes. The 1990s have posed new challenges for marine environmental protection such as ship-based tourism in Antarctica and the growing pressure to use the Northwest Passage on a

  11. Defining the role of omics in assessing ecosystem health: Perspectives from the Canadian environmental monitoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamonde, Paulina A; Feswick, April; Isaacs, Meghan A; Munkittrick, Kelly R; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Scientific reviews and studies continue to describe omics technologies as the next generation of tools for environmental monitoring, while cautioning that there are limitations and obstacles to overcome. However, omics has not yet transitioned into national environmental monitoring programs designed to assess ecosystem health. Using the example of the Canadian Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) program, the authors describe the steps that would be required for omics technologies to be included in such an established program. These steps include baseline collection of omics endpoints across different species and sites to generate a range of what is biologically normal within a particular ecosystem. Natural individual variability in the omes is not adequately characterized and is often not measured in the field, but is a key component to an environmental monitoring program, to determine the critical effect size or action threshold for management. Omics endpoints must develop a level of standardization, consistency, and rigor that will allow interpretation of the relevance of changes across broader scales. To date, population-level consequences of routinely measured endpoints such as reduced gonad size or intersex in fish is not entirely clear, and the significance of genome-wide molecular, proteome, or metabolic changes on organism or population health is further removed from the levels of ecological change traditionally managed. The present review is not intended to dismiss the idea that omics will play a future role in large-scale environmental monitoring studies, but rather outlines the necessary actions for its inclusion in regulatory monitoring programs focused on assessing ecosystem health.

  12. Studying illicit drug trafficking on Darknet markets: Structure and organisation from a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broséus, J; Rhumorbarbe, D; Mireault, C; Ouellette, V; Crispino, F; Décary-Hétu, D

    2016-07-01

    Cryptomarkets are online marketplaces that are part of the Dark Web and mainly devoted to the sale of illicit drugs. They combine tools to ensure anonymity of participants with the delivery of products by mail to enable the development of illicit drug trafficking. Using data collected on eight cryptomarkets, this study provides an overview of the Canadian illicit drug market. It seeks to inform about the most prevalent illicit drugs vendors offer for sale and preferred destination countries. Moreover, the research gives an insight into the structure and organisation of distribution networks existing online. In particular, we provide information about how vendors are diversifying and replicating across marketplaces. We inform on the number of listings each vendor manages, the number of cryptomarkets they are active on and the products they offer. This research demonstrates the importance of online marketplaces in the context of illicit drug trafficking. It shows how the analysis of data available online may elicit knowledge on criminal activities. Such knowledge is mandatory to design efficient policy for monitoring or repressive purposes against anonymous marketplaces. Nevertheless, trafficking on Dark Net markets is difficult to analyse based only on digital data. A more holistic approach for investigating this crime problem should be developed. This should rely on a combined use and interpretation of digital and physical data within a single collaborative intelligence model. PMID:26978791

  13. Studying illicit drug trafficking on Darknet markets: Structure and organisation from a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broséus, J; Rhumorbarbe, D; Mireault, C; Ouellette, V; Crispino, F; Décary-Hétu, D

    2016-07-01

    Cryptomarkets are online marketplaces that are part of the Dark Web and mainly devoted to the sale of illicit drugs. They combine tools to ensure anonymity of participants with the delivery of products by mail to enable the development of illicit drug trafficking. Using data collected on eight cryptomarkets, this study provides an overview of the Canadian illicit drug market. It seeks to inform about the most prevalent illicit drugs vendors offer for sale and preferred destination countries. Moreover, the research gives an insight into the structure and organisation of distribution networks existing online. In particular, we provide information about how vendors are diversifying and replicating across marketplaces. We inform on the number of listings each vendor manages, the number of cryptomarkets they are active on and the products they offer. This research demonstrates the importance of online marketplaces in the context of illicit drug trafficking. It shows how the analysis of data available online may elicit knowledge on criminal activities. Such knowledge is mandatory to design efficient policy for monitoring or repressive purposes against anonymous marketplaces. Nevertheless, trafficking on Dark Net markets is difficult to analyse based only on digital data. A more holistic approach for investigating this crime problem should be developed. This should rely on a combined use and interpretation of digital and physical data within a single collaborative intelligence model.

  14. A Canadian perspective on progress in thorium R and D: towards sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently heavy water reactors in Canada and internationally typically operate on a once-through nuclear fuel cycle using mainly natural uranium fuel. Future nuclear power program decisions will be increasingly based on strategic considerations involving the complete nuclear fuel cycle, including requirements related to supply assurances, resource utilization, proliferation resistance and radioactive waste disposal. Heavy water technology is uniquely suited to respond to future needs because of its inherent technical characteristics and associated fuel cycle flexibility. Given its widespread abundance, thorium is expected to play a significant role as nations move towards implementation of advanced fuel cycles. Canadian Nuclear Laboratories (which evolved from Atomic Energy of Canada Limited) has been investigating thorium fuelled reactor concepts and developing thoria (thorium dioxide) fuel technology for more than 55 years, which complements international experience in the development of thorium-based fuel cycles. Although there is a strong foundation based on past experience, gaps exist in the science and technology required to implement the use of thorium-based fuels on an industrial scale. Recent progress and some aspects of the necessary evolution of the technology are outlined in this paper

  15. Investigating Patient and Physician Delays in the Diagnosis of Head and Neck Cancers: a Canadian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghun John; Dhepnorrarat, Chris; Nyhof-Young, Joyce; Witterick, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Diagnostic delays for head and neck cancer (HNC) patients are common. Patients often disregard symptoms for long periods before seeking help, and some family physicians may not be alert to the warning symptoms and signs of HNCs. This study evaluated the factors associated with length of delays in the diagnosis of HNCs in a Canadian population. This was a mixed-method study consisting of patient interviews and surveys in an academic health center. A questionnaire requesting demographic and disease information was completed by HNC patients followed by a 30 min semi-structured interview in a private setting. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, anonymized, and descriptively coded for emergent themes. Twenty-eight head and neck cancer patients participated in the study. More patients experienced physician delay (71 %) than patient delay (36 %). The median physician delay and patient delay were 108 and 31 days, respectively. Two main themes regarding these delays were (1) physician lack of knowledge and (2) lack of patient awareness. Results indicate that physician delay needs to be focused on compared to patient delay, as it is more common and has longer delays. More comprehensive training in head and neck clinical examination skills during undergraduate and residency training is recommended to reduce physician delay. Patient delay could be targeted by public education programs via both physicians and dentists. PMID:25566764

  16. A multilayer perspective for the analysis of urban transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Aleta, Alberto; Moreno, Yamir

    2016-01-01

    Public urban mobility systems are composed by several transportation modes connected together. Most studies in urban mobility and planning often ignore the multi-layer nature of transportation systems considering only aggregated versions of this complex scenario. In this work we present a model for the representation of the transportation system of an entire city as a multiplex network. Using two different perspectives, one in which each line is a layer and one in which lines of the same transportation mode are grouped together, we study the interconnected structure of 9 different cities in Europe raging from small towns to mega-cities like London and Berlin highlighting their vulnerabilities and possible improvements. Finally, for the city of Zaragoza in Spain, we also consider data about service schedule and waiting times, which allow us to create a simple yet realistic model for urban mobility able to reproduce real-world facts and to test for network improvements.

  17. Advocacy for active transport: advocate and city council perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenby Marieah; Reeder Anthony I; Murdoch Linda; Richards Rosalina

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Effective advocacy is an important part of efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Research about effective health advocacy is scarce, however, the health sector can learn from the experiences and knowledge of community advocates and those who are on the receiving end of this advocacy. The aim of this study is to explore advocacy for active transport from the perspectives of community advocates and representatives from City councils. Methods Cycl...

  18. Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions from transportation of Canadian oil sands to future markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil sands transportation diversification is important for preventing discounted crude pricing. Current life cycle assessment (LCA) models that assess greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crude oil transportation are linearly-scale and fail to account for project specific details. This research sets out to develop a detailed LCA model to compare the energy inputs and GHG emissions of pipeline and rail transportation for oil sands products. The model is applied to several proposed oils sands transportation routes that may serve as future markets. Comparison between transportation projects suggest that energy inputs and GHG emissions show a high degree of variation. For both rail and pipeline transportation, the distance over which the product is transported has a large impact on total emissions. The regional electricity grid and pump efficiency have the largest impact on pipeline emissions, while train engine efficiency and bitumen blending ratios have the largest impact on rail transportation emissions. LCA-based GHG regulations should refine models to account for the range of product pathways and focus efforts on cost-effective emission reductions. As the climate-change impacts of new oil sands transportation projects are considered, GHG emission boundaries should be defined according to operation control. -- Highlights: •A life cycle model is developed to compare transportation of oil sands products. •The model is applied to several potential future oil sands markets. •Energy inputs and GHG emissions are compared. •Model inputs are explored using sensitivity analysis. •Policy recommendations are provided

  19. Canadian electricity and the economy : developing a North American energy perspective : a proposal for action on electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provided a Canadian industry perspective on strategies to improve the way electricity markets operate in North America, particularly following the events of September 11, 2001 which highlighted how closely the integrated infrastructure between Canada and the United States really is. Other major and recent events that have influenced the process of fundamental change across much of the North American electricity industry include the electricity crisis in California, the downturn in the North American economy, and the collapse of Enron. These events have forced governments to work collaboratively on integrating policy initiatives related to electricity. This report also discussed the impact that the U.S. withdrawal from the Kyoto Protocol would have on Canada. Canada is not yet on a path to meet the greenhouse gas emission reduction target of 6 per cent below 1990 levels by 2008-2012. Should Canada decide to implement Kyoto, the fact that the U.S. plan is much less aggressive than Kyoto, would place Canada at a cost disadvantage relative to its major trading partner. The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) believes that this problem can be solved using a continental approach to climate change with realistic targets to reduce greenhouse gases over a long-term period. The energy strategy delivered by the Bush administration focuses on security of supply. Within Canada, there is no crisis in supply, and to keep it that way, due attention must be given to future demand through investment in new generation and transmission. The CEA believes that an effective partnership between Canada and the United States would ensure security and economic advantages for both countries. This report summarized the following: (1) electricity generation by fuel type in Canada and the United States in 2000, (2) electricity exports from Canada and imports from United States from 1992 to 2001, (3) volume of net exports and imports in 2001, and (4) the status of restructuring in

  20. International Perspectives: Polish Post-Secondary Vocational Schools and Canadian Community Colleges: A Comparison Using an Information Technology Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Norman L.; Davidson, Barry S.; Pachocinski, Ryszard; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    This study compares Polish post-secondary vocational institutions with Canadian community colleges using an information technology conceptual framework. The research concentrated upon programs in information technology delivered by one Polish school Cracow School of Information Technology and two Canadian community colleges Durham (Oshawa,…

  1. Canadian identity: Implications for international social work by Canadians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2011-01-01

    This paper is in response to recent calls to conceptualize and articulate Canadian perspectives and experiences in international social work, given that the Canadian standpoint has been lacking in international social work literature. This paper contends that it is imperative, first of all...

  2. Advocacy for active transport: advocate and city council perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenby Marieah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective advocacy is an important part of efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Research about effective health advocacy is scarce, however, the health sector can learn from the experiences and knowledge of community advocates and those who are on the receiving end of this advocacy. The aim of this study is to explore advocacy for active transport from the perspectives of community advocates and representatives from City councils. Methods Cycling and walking advocates were identified from the local contact list of Cycling Advocates Network and Living Streets Aotearoa. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with cycle and walking advocates from throughout New Zealand. Advocates also nominated a suitable council officer at their local City council to be interviewed. Interviews were recorded and transcribed and categories of responses for each of the questions created. Results Several processes were used by advocates to engage with council staff, including formal council submissions, meetings, stakeholder forums and partnership in running community events promoting active transport. Several other agencies were identified as being influential for active transport, some as potential coalition partners and others as potential adversaries. Barriers to improving conditions for active transport included a lack of funding, a lack of will-power among either council staff or councillors, limited council staff capacity (time or training and a culture of providing infrastructure for motor vehicles instead of people. Several suggestions were made about how the health sector could contribute to advocacy efforts, including encouraging political commitment, engaging the media, communicating the potential health benefits of active transport to the general public and being role models in terms of personal travel mode choice and having workplaces that support participation in active transport

  3. Review of off-gasing from wood pellets - a Canadian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melin, Staffan [Wood Pellet Association of Canada (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    The issue of off-gassing from pellets was identified following a deadly accident in 2002: exposed to carbon monoxide on entering a cargo hold, one person was killed and two others severely injured. Following that accident, warnings and guidelines were issued to inform persons involved in the transportation of pellets of the potential risk involved. It was then found that the off-gassing issue was not specific to pellets but extends to all wood products. Since 2002 several accidents have occurred which has led to extensive research into this phenomenon, particularly by the Wood Pellet Association of Canada (WPAC) to determine causes and develop prevention measures. In this paper, the WPAC proposes several measures for preventing accidents due to off-gassing from pellets, such as a standardized method for characterization of the off-gassing, the adoption of internationally standardized pictogram warnings and the development of training programs for emergency personnel.

  4. The Canadian approach to science-based regulation of the long distance transport of animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Doonan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Government regulators face numerous challenges when considering economic necessities (real and perceived, societal expectations on how animals should be treated, scientific research into the needs of various animal species and daily transport practices in the 'real world'. Do we regulate to promote economic competitiveness, to appease animal welfare interest groups and satisfy industry lobbying organisations, or to meet the needs of the animals? In Canada, a recipe to blend regulatory intervention with voluntary, industry-derived standards is the approach of choice.

  5. A case study of a transported bromine explosion event in the Canadian high arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X.; Strong, K.; Adams, C.; Schofield, R.; Yang, X.; Richter, A.; Friess, U.; Blechschmidt, A.-M.; Koo, J.-H.

    2016-01-01

    Ozone depletion events in the polar troposphere have been linked to extremely high concentrations of bromine, known as bromine explosion events (BEE). However, the optimum meteorological conditions for the occurrence of these events remain uncertain. On 4-5 April 2011, a combination of both blowing snow and a stable shallow boundary layer was observed during a BEE at Eureka, Canada (86.4°W, 80.1°N). Measurements made by a Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy spectrometer were used to retrieve BrO profiles and partial columns. During this event, the near-surface BrO volume mixing ratio increased to ~20 parts per trillion by volume, while ozone was depleted to ~1 ppbv from the surface to 700 m. Back trajectories and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 satellite tropospheric BrO columns confirmed that this event originated from a bromine explosion over the Beaufort Sea. From 30 to 31 March, meteorological data showed high wind speeds (24 m/s) and elevated boundary layer heights (~800 m) over the Beaufort Sea. Long-distance transportation (~1800 km over 5 days) to Eureka indicated strong recycling of BrO within the bromine plume. This event was generally captured by a global chemistry-climate model when a sea-salt bromine source from blowing snow was included. A model sensitivity study indicated that the surface BrO at Eureka was controlled by both local photochemistry and boundary layer dynamics. Comparison of the model results with both ground-based and satellite measurements confirmed that the BEE observed at Eureka was triggered by transport of enhanced BrO from the Beaufort Sea followed by local production/recycling under stable atmospheric shallow boundary layer conditions.

  6. Greenhouse gas options, policy and measures for the Canadian Transportation Equipment Manufacturing Industry - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes and analyses the work that have been carried out by the Transportation Equipment Manufacturing Sector (TEMS) Working Group of the National Climate Change Industry Table over the last 14 months, and presents the Group's view of appropriate policies for greenhouse gas emission reduction in Canada. To develop its approach, the Working Group conducted five separate studies which are included in this report as annexes. Annex A is a Foundation Paper, which provides an overview of the sector's performance vis-a-vis energy use and greenhouse gas production. Annex B analyzes the competitive position of the industry by reviewing growth trends in each of the industry sub-sectors and the key factors in maintaining and enhancing the sector's international competitive position. Annex C is a technology assessment. It provides an overview of the uptake of energy saving technology in the sector. Annex D provides a facility level analysis focusing on energy use in the automotive parts manufacturing sector. Annex E is a review of American policies on climate change, summarizing the approach currently being taken towards greenhouse gas emission reduction in the United States. Some of the key findings of this report are: (1) business-as-usual emissions will greatly exceed the implicit Kyoto target of six per cent reduction from 1990 levels, (2) relatively few opportunities exist for major emissions reductions through the use of existing technology, (3) sector-specific policies appear to be ill-advised, but cross-cutting policies provide good opportunities for the transportation equipment manufacturing sector to do its part in helping Canada meeting its Kyoto commitment. The report recommends investigation of barriers to adoption of new technologies and examination of market imperfections, promotion of cogeneration where it makes economic sense, and consideration of the use of flexible instruments such as carbon taxes and tradable emission permits. Overall, the

  7. Natural Radioactivity Accumulated in the Arctic from Long-range Atmospheric Transport - Observations in Canadian Monitoring Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Weihua [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa K1A 1C1 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    In the environment, the main sources of naturally occurring radionuclides come from radionuclides in the uranium decay series. Activity concentrations of uranium decay series radionuclides may vary considerably from place to place depending on the geological characteristics at the location. Their releases to the atmosphere are mainly through radon ({sup 222}Rn), a radioactive noble gas occurring naturally as an indirect decay product of uranium in soils and rocks. Due to the abundance of uranium, radon continuously emanates from continental land masses. With radon as the main source of naturally occurring radioactivity in the environment, one would think that the Arctic should be an area of low background radiation, because a considerable area of the Arctic is covered by glaciers and permafrost, and radon emanation rate has been reported to be negligible from those glacier and permafrost areas. However, available data have shown the opposite. The elevated level of naturally occurring radioactivity in the Arctic is due to natural sources outside of the Arctic, mainly through long-range atmospheric transport of radon and radon progeny. In some cases, natural radioactivity can accumulate to relatively high levels and become a health concern or a limiting factor of country food consumption. By definition, contaminants are undesirable substances which can cause harm to the environment, the biota, and humans. We can call these naturally accumulating radiological burdens to the Arctic 'natural contaminants' to distinguish them from the traditional meaning of contamination, the 'artificial contaminants' which are attributable to industrial or man-made sources. This paper reviews information available in the literature, analyses long-term atmospheric monitoring data in the Canadian high Arctic, sub-Arctic and mid-latitude sites, and provides discussion on research needed to address questions, such as how heavily the Arctic has been impacted by the

  8. Ready or Not...: Perspectives on Literacy and Essential Skills in this Economic Downturn--A Canadian Baseline Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Janet; Yerichuk, Deanna; Murray-Smith, Nick

    2009-01-01

    In March 2009, Movement for Canadian Literacy (MCL) commissioned "Resources for Results", a private research and evaluation firm, to conduct a baseline study to explore the effects of the recent economic downturn on literacy and essential skills programs across Canada. The "Resources for Results" research team interviewed 35 people from across…

  9. A Person-Centered Perspective on Multidimensional Perfectionism in Canadian and Chinese University Students: A Multigroup Latent Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin M.; Saklofske, Donald H.; Yan, Gonggu; Sherry, Simon B.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the generalizability of the tripartite model of perfectionism across Canadian and Chinese university students. Using latent profile analysis and indicators of perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns, and neuroticism in both groups, the authors derived a 3-profile solution: adaptive perfectionists, maladaptive…

  10. Soil Production and Transport Perspectives on Critical Zone Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimsath, A. M.; Foster, M.; Whipple, K. X.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying soil production and transport rates and processes is a key aspect of most critical zone studies. Methodologies range from relatively straightforward, low cost studies like sediment traps and basin volume estimates to sophisticated and expensive studies using chemical and physical tracers and isotope geochemistry. Inherent in all methodologies are assumptions and simplifications that enable any measurement to be translated to a rate and interpreted in terms of process mechanics. For example, quantifying soil production using in situ cosmogenic nuclides measured in the parent material beneath an upland mobile regolith mantle depends on assuming a locally steady state soil thickness (i.e. neither thinning or thickening with time). Similarly, utilizing hillslope-scale sediment traps or landscape-scale basin analyses depends on assumptions of steady state processes and constraining the timescales represented by the captured sediment. As our analyses of landscapes have expanded into the details of how spatial and temporal gradients of all driving variables (lithology, climate, tectonics, distribution of biota, etc.) influence landscape evolution, our adherence to the assumptions and simplifications necessitated by our methods becomes questionable. Here we provide content analyses of recent and ongoing studies quantifying soil production and transport processes across a range of climatic, geologic and tectonic regimes. We code the studies for their inclusion and use of assumptions and simplifications necessary to ensure that the methodologies apply to their intended use. These analyses provide an important perspective on the use of quantitative methods and offer both a complimentary and cautionary views on critical zone studies in general.

  11. Cost Effectiveness of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate for the Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B from a Canadian Public Payer Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Dakin; Morris Sherman; Scott Fung; Carrie Fidler; Anthony Bentley

    2011-01-01

    Introduction:Introduction: Previous research has demonstrated that tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF) is the most cost-effective nucleos(t)ide treatment for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in the UK, Spain, Italy and France. However, to our knowledge, no published studies have yet evaluated the cost effectiveness of any treatments for CHB in a Canadian setting, where relative prices and management of CHB differ from those in Europe. Abstract: Aim:Aim: Our objective was to determine the cost effecti...

  12. Intimate partner violence in the Canadian territorial north: perspectives from a literature review and a media watch

    OpenAIRE

    Moffitt, Pertice; Fikowski, Heather; Mauricio, Marshirette; Mackenzie, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Family violence is a complex, multidimensional and pervasive presence in many Aboriginal communities. Although practitioners acknowledge that intimate partner violence (IPV) is a grave concern in the North, as in other jurisdictions in Canada, there is a paucity of literature about IPV and the local response to that violence.Objective. The purpose of this study is to report on a synthesis of Northern Territorial literature and a 3-year media watch conducted in the Canadian terri...

  13. Long range transport of smoke particles from Canadian forest fires to the Mediterranean basin during June 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorio, T.; Anello, F.; Bommarito, C.; Cacciani, M.; Denjean, C.; De Silvestri, L.; Di Biagio, C.; di Sarra, A.; Ellul, R.; Formenti, P.; Gómez-Amo, J.; Martinez-Lozano, J. A.; Meloni, D.; Monteleone, F.; Pace, G.; Piacentino, S.; Schioppo, R.; Sferlazzo, D.

    2013-12-01

    23, as also revealed by MODIS, OMI, and CALIOP images and data. The circulation systems of those days was favorable to the long range eastward transport of these aerosol plumes towards Europe, down to the Mediterranean Sea. A further confirmation of the advection of Canadian airmasses over the Mediterranean central region during this period is provided by measurements made at Gozo. The Gozo AERONET Cimel data analysis on June 27 shows a single scattering albedo with spectral characteristics typical of biomass burning, with the contribution of fine particles to the total AOD growing progressively up to 92% in the early afternoon. At Capo Granitola the AOD peaked at about 0.8 in the late afternoon of June 27, with elevated values (> 2) of the AE. The ATR42 overflew the area on those days and additional observational evidence will be sought in its data.

  14. What community characteristics help or hinder rural communities in becoming age-friendly? Perspectives from a Canadian prairie province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, John; Menec, Verena H

    2015-06-01

    Age-friendly initiatives are increasingly promoted as a policy solution to healthy aging, The primary objective of this article was to examine older adults' and key stakeholders' perceptions of the factors that either help or hinder a community from becoming age-friendly in the context of rural Manitoba, a Canadian prairie province. Twenty-four older adults and 17 key informants completed a qualitative interview. The findings show that contextual factors including size, location, demographic composition, ability to secure investments, and leadership influence rural communities' ability to become age-friendly. Government must consider the challenges these communities face in becoming more age-friendly and develop strategies to support communities.

  15. Intimate partner violence in the Canadian territorial north: perspectives from a literature review and a media watch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertice Moffitt

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Family violence is a complex, multidimensional and pervasive presence in many Aboriginal communities. Although practitioners acknowledge that intimate partner violence (IPV is a grave concern in the North, as in other jurisdictions in Canada, there is a paucity of literature about IPV and the local response to that violence. Objective. The purpose of this study is to report on a synthesis of Northern Territorial literature and a 3-year media watch conducted in the Canadian territories. Design. This review is part of a multidisciplinary 5-year study occurring in the Northwest Territories (NT and northern regions of the Prairie Provinces of Canada. The methods included a review of the literature through CINAHL, PubMed, Academic Search Complete, Social Sciences Index and JSTOR (1990–2012 combined with a media watch from 2009 to 2012. A thematic content analysis was completed. Results. Themes included: colonization; alcohol and substance use; effects of residential schooling; housing inadequacies; help-seeking behaviours; and gaps within the justice system. Identified themes from the media watch were: murders from IPV; reported assaults and criminal charges; emergency protection orders; and awareness campaigns and prevention measures. Conclusion. When synthesized, the results of the literature review and media surveillance depict a starting context and description of IPV in the Canadian territories. There are many questions left unanswered which build support for the necessity of the current research, outline the public outcry for action in local media and identify the current published knowledge about IPV.

  16. Canadian Immersion Education in an Evaluative Perspective : A Synthesis of Research Findings on the Efficiency of French Immersion Programmes (1)

    OpenAIRE

    伊東, 治己

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to synthesize research findings accumulated by numerous evaluation studies on the efficiency of French immersion programmes in Canada. The synthesis has been attempted in terms of the four different, but related perspectives; effects on French language skills, effects on English language skills, effects on general scholastic achievements, and effects on socio-cultural domains. Out of these four perspectives, the present paper, the first of the series of two...

  17. The flow of radionuclides through the Canadian archipelago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of contaminants to the Canadian Arctic by air and in water and their concentration through the marine food web has lead to enhanced levels of contaminants in several foods of Canadian northern inhabitants. Artificial radionuclides in the marine water can be used to determine water circulation and to trace contaminant transport through the Canadian Archipelago

  18. WAYS AND PERSPECTIVES OF TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENT ON AUTOMOBILE TRANSPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Bilichenko, V.; Smyrnov, E.

    2005-01-01

    Modern conditions of enterprise on automobile transport are analyzed. Technical development of enterprise on automobile transport as one of the ways of increasing competitive abilities and there profits is considered.

  19. Enabling sustainable urban road transport in China : a policy and institutional perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    This paper is an effort to investigate the approach to sustainable urban road transport in Chinese mega cities with an emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. The study links the major “unsustainabilities” of China’s urban road transport with those deficiencies in urban road transport planning and management and China’s auto industry policy, and gives some suggestions and recommendations for policy change and adjustment. The paper also provides some examples of successful experienc...

  20. Perspectives for Sustainable Urban Transport Planning in Irkutsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Engel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobility is a strong demand of urban societies and transport systems are backbones of urban life – in Russian cities like in other cities all over the world. Transport planning has to be understood as an integral part of urban development and urban planning. The report discusses problems and chances for sustainable urban transport planning in Irkutsk.

  1. An Interpretive Study of Yosemite National Park Visitors' Perspectives Toward Alternative Transportation in Yosemite Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Dave D.

    2007-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) is increasingly focusing on alternative transportation systems in national parks to address environmental and social problems arising from a historical reliance on personal automobiles as the primary means of visitor access. Despite the potential advantages, alternative transportation may require a reorientation in the way that Americans have experienced national parks since the advent of auto-tourism in the early twentieth century. Little research exists, however, on visitor perspectives towards alternative transportation or the rationale underlying their perspectives. It remains unclear how transportation systems affect visitors’ experiences of the park landscape or the factors influencing their travel behavior in the parks. This report presents an interpretive study of visitor perspectives toward transportation management in the Yosemite Valley area of Yosemite National Park, California. Qualitative analysis of 160 semi-structured interviews identified individual psychological factors as well as situational influences that affect visitors’ behavior and perspectives. Individual psychological factors include perceived freedom, environmental values and beliefs, prior experience with Yosemite National Park and other national parks, prior experience with alternative transportation in national parks, and sensitivity to subjective perceptions of crowding. Situational factors included convenience, access, and flexibility of travel modes, as well as type of visit, type of group, and park use level. Interpretive communication designed to encourage voluntary visitor use of alternative transportation should focus on these psychological and situational factors. Although challenges remain, the results of this study suggest approaches for shaping the way Americans visit and experience their national parks to encourage environmental sustainability.

  2. Impacts of lindane usage in the Canadian prairies on the Great Lakes ecosystem. 1. Coupled atmospheric transport model and modeled concentrations in air and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianmin; Daggupaty, Sreerama; Harner, Tom; Li, Yifan

    2003-09-01

    A coupled atmospheric transport, soil-air, water-air exchange model was developed to investigate the impacts of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH or lindane) usage in the Canadian prairies over the Great Lakes region. The fate of gamma-HCH in air and soil is governed by atmospheric dynamics and physical and chemical processes that are described by the coupled model. These processes include transport and turbulent diffusion in the atmosphere, dry and wet deposition, exchange at the interfacial boundaries of air-water and soil-air, and removal processes from the soil such as diffusion, leaching, and degradation. Numerical experiments were conducted for the period of May 1, 1998-April 30, 1999, starting with application of lindane in the spring. The coupled model was executed with two lindane emission (usage) inventories in the model domain. The first scenario contained all known fresh emission sources in Canada-98% was usage in the prairies; the second excluded emission sources from Ontario and Quebec. The model showed that, in the absence of the reemission from past application of lindane, usage of lindane in Ontario and Quebec has a negligible impact on air concentrations in these regions and that the lindane budget in the Great Lakes ecosystem is mostly attributed to applications of lindane in the canola fields in Canadian prairie provinces. Model-predicted air concentrations and seasonal trends agreed well with measured data over the same time period for several background sites operated under the Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network. Air temperature was shown to play a key role on surface-air exchange dynamics of gamma-HCH. A future paper will assess loadings to the Great Lakes based on these validated model results. PMID:12967095

  3. A trajectory analysis of atmospheric transport of black carbon aerosols to Canadian High Arctic in winter and spring (1990–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Huang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC particles accumulated in the Arctic troposphere and deposited over snow have significant effects on radiative forcing of the Arctic regional climate. Applying cluster analysis technique on 10-day backward trajectories, transport pathways affecting Alert (82.5° N, 62.5° W, Nunavut in Canada are identified in this work, along with the associated transport frequency. Based on the atmospheric transport frequency and the estimated BC emission intensity from surrounding regions, a linear regression model is constructed to investigate the inter-annual variations of BC observed at Alert in January and April, representative of winter and spring respectively, between 1990 and 2005. Strong correlations are found between BC concentrations predicted with the regression model and measured at Alert for both seasons (R2 equals 0.77 and 0.81 for winter and spring, respectively. Results imply that atmospheric transport and BC emission are the major contributors to the inter-annual variations in BC concentrations observed at Alert in the cold seasons for the 16-year period. Based on the regression model the relative contributions of regional BC emissions affecting Alert are attributed to the Eurasian sector, composed of the European Union and the former USSR, and the North American sector. Considering both seasons, the model suggests that Eurasia is the major contributor to the near-surface BC levels at the Canadian High Arctic site with an average contribution of over 85% during the 16-year period. In winter, the atmospheric transport of BC aerosols from Eurasia is found to be even more predominant with a multi-year average of 94%. The model estimates smaller contribution from the Eurasian sector in spring (70% than that in winter. It is also found that the change in Eurasian contributions depends mainly on the reduction of emission intensity, while the changes in both emission and atmospheric transport contributed to the

  4. Transport of smoke from Canadian forest fires to the surface near Washington, D.C.: Injection height, entrainment, and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarco, P. R.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Doddridge, B. G.; Marufu, L. T.; Torres, O.; Welton, E. J.

    2004-03-01

    Smoke and pollutants from Canadian forest fires are sometimes transported over the United States at low altitudes behind advancing cold fronts. An unusual event occurred in July 2002 in which smoke from fires in Quebec was observed by satellite, lidar, and aircraft to arrive over the Washington, D.C., area at high altitudes. This elevated smoke plume subsequently mixed to the surface as it was entrained into the turbulent planetary boundary layer and had adverse effects on the surface air quality over the region. Trajectory and three-dimensional model calculations confirmed the origin of the smoke, its transport at high altitudes, and the mechanism for bringing the pollutants to the surface. Additionally, the modeled smoke optical properties agreed well with aircraft and remote sensing observations provided the smoke particles were allowed to age by coagulation in the model. These results have important implications for the long-range transport of pollutants and their subsequent entrainment to the surface, as well as the evolving optical properties of smoke from boreal forest fires.

  5. Transport Regimes of Air Masses Affecting the Tropospheric Composition of the Canadian and European Arctic During RACEPAC 2014 and NETCARE 2014/2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozem, H.; Hoor, P. M.; Koellner, F.; Kunkel, D.; Schneider, J.; Schulz, C.; Herber, A. B.; Borrmann, S.; Wendisch, M.; Ehrlich, A.; Leaitch, W. R.; Willis, M. D.; Burkart, J.; Thomas, J. L.; Abbatt, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic is warming much faster than any other place in the world and undergoes a rapid change dominated by a changing climate in this region. The impact of polluted air masses traveling to the Arctic from various remote sources significantly contributes to the observed climate change, in contrast there are additional local emission sources contributing to the level of pollutants (trace gases and aerosol). Processes affecting the emission and transport of these pollutants are not well understood and need to be further investigated. We present aircraft based trace gas measurements in the Arctic during RACEPAC (2014) and NETCARE (2014 and 2015) with the Polar 6 aircraft of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) covering an area from 134°W to 17°W and 68°N to 83°N. We focus on cloud, aerosol and general transport processes of polluted air masses into the high Arctic. Based on CO and CO2 measurements and kinematic 10-day back trajectories we analyze the transport regimes prevalent during spring (RACEPAC 2014 and NETCARE 2015) and summer (NETCARE 2014) in the observed region. Whereas the eastern part of the Canadian Arctic is affected by air masses with their origin in Asia, in the central and western parts of the Canadian and European Arctic air masses from North America are predominant at the time of the measurement. In general the more northern parts of the Arctic were relatively unaffected by pollution from mid-latitudes since air masses mostly travel within the polar dome, being quite isolated. Associated mixing ratios of CO and CO2 fit into the seasonal cycle observed at NOAA ground stations throughout the Arctic, but show a more mid-latitudinal characteristic at higher altitudes. The transition is remarkably sharp and allows for a chemical definition of the polar dome. At low altitudes, synoptic disturbances transport polluted air masses from mid-latitudes into regions of the polar dome. These air masses contribute to the Arctic pollution background, but also

  6. Canadian hydrogen safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian hydrogen safety program (CHSP) is a project initiative of the Codes and Standards Working Group of the Canadian transportation fuel cell alliance (CTFCA) that represents industry, academia, government, and regulators. The Program rationale, structure and contents contribute to acceptance of the products, services and systems of the Canadian Hydrogen Industry into the Canadian hydrogen stakeholder community. It facilitates trade through fair insurance policies and rates, effective and efficient regulatory approval procedures and accommodation of the interests of the general public. The Program integrates a consistent quantitative risk assessment methodology with experimental (destructive and non-destructive) failure rates and consequence-of-release data for key hydrogen components and systems into risk assessment of commercial application scenarios. Its current and past six projects include Intelligent Virtual Hydrogen Filling Station (IVHFS), Hydrogen clearance distances, comparative quantitative risk comparison of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG) refuelling options; computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling validation, calibration and enhancement; enhancement of frequency and probability analysis, and Consequence analysis of key component failures of hydrogen systems; and fuel cell oxidant outlet hydrogen sensor project. The Program projects are tightly linked with the content of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task 19 Hydrogen Safety. (author)

  7. The Corridor Chronicles. Integrated perspectives on European transport corridor development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation aims to clarify the added value of an integrated perspective on corridor development in Europe. For many years, knowledge on corridors has been developed in a sectoral, technocratic manner, despite a growing call for an integrated analysis of corridor issues. The integration argume

  8. Enabling sustainable urban road transport in China: A policy and institutional perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is an effort to investigate the approach to sustainable urban road transport in Chinese mega cities with an emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. The study links the major ''unsustainabilities'' of China's urban road transport with those deficiencies in urban road transport planning and management and China's auto industry policy and gives some suggestions and recommendations for policy change and adjustment. The paper also provides some examples of successful experiences from foreign cities in urban road transport development from which Chinese cities can learn. (Author)

  9. Trends and perspectives of the Romanian regional passenger transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristache, S. E.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, passenger transport has become an indispensable life element, because it offers to the society members many travel possibilities. Modern civilisation, characterised by a massive trade of material and spiritual values, claims a continuous movement of goods and people from a place to another. Transport services are strongly influenced by the transition to the market economy, Romania’s geographical position and also by the life standard. The purpose of this paper is to realize a statistical analysis of the main indicators concerning passenger transport for the southern part of Romania, respectively for the historical provinces Muntenia (excluding Bucharest Municipality and Oltenia.

  10. Trends and perspectives of the Romanian regional passenger transport

    OpenAIRE

    Cristache, S. E.; Iacob, A. I.; Serban, D; Frâncu, G.

    2011-01-01

    Today, passenger transport has become an indispensable life element, because it offers to the society members many travel possibilities. Modern civilisation, characterised by a massive trade of material and spiritual values, claims a continuous movement of goods and people from a place to another. Transport services are strongly influenced by the transition to the market economy, Romania’s geographical position and also by the life standard. The purpose of this paper is to realize a statistic...

  11. China's transportation energy consumption and CO2 emissions from a global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapidly growing energy demand from China's transportation sector in the last two decades have raised concerns over national energy security, local air pollution, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and there is broad consensus that China's transportation sector will continue to grow in the coming decades. This paper explores the future development of China's transportation sector in terms of service demands, final energy consumption, and CO2 emissions, and their interactions with global climate policy. This study develops a detailed China transportation energy model that is nested in an integrated assessment model—Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM)—to evaluate the long-term energy consumption and CO2 emissions of China's transportation sector from a global perspective. The analysis suggests that, without major policy intervention, future transportation energy consumption and CO2 emissions will continue to rapidly increase and the transportation sector will remain heavily reliant on fossil fuels. Although carbon price policies may significantly reduce the sector's energy consumption and CO2 emissions, the associated changes in service demands and modal split will be modest, particularly in the passenger transport sector. The analysis also suggests that it is more difficult to decarbonize the transportation sector than other sectors of the economy, primarily owing to its heavy reliance on petroleum products. -- Highlights: •Transport sector in China are analyzed from a global perspective. •Passenger transport turnover reduction and modal shifts is less sensitive to carbon price. •Bio-fuel, electricity and H2 will play an important role for carbon mitigation in transport sector. •The transport sector is more difficult to decarbonize than other sectors

  12. A trajectory analysis of atmospheric transport of black carbon aerosols to Canadian high Arctic in winter and spring (1990–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Huang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC particles accumulated in the Arctic troposphere and deposited on snow have been calculated to have significant effects on radiative forcing of the Arctic regional climate. Applying cluster analysis technique on 10-day backward trajectories, seven distinct transport pathways (or clusters affecting Alert (82.5° N, 62.5° W, Nunavut in Canada are identified in this work. Transport frequency associated with each pathway is obtained as the fraction of trajectories in that cluster. Based on atmospheric transport frequency and BC surface flux from surrounding regions (i.e. North America, Europe, and former USSR, a linear regression model is constructed to investigate the inter-annual variations of BC observed at Alert in January and April, representative of winter and spring respectively, between 1990 and 2005. Strong correlations are found between BC concentrations predicted with the regression model and measurements at Alert for both seasons (R2 equals 0.77 and 0.81 for winter and spring, respectively. Results imply that atmospheric transport and BC emission are the major contributors to the inter-annual variations in BC concentrations observed at Alert in the cold seasons for the 16-year period. Other factors, such as deposition, could also contribute to the variability in BC concentrations but were not considered in this analysis. Based on the regression model the relative contributions of regional BC emissions affecting Alert are attributed to the Eurasian sector, composed of the European Union and the former USSR, and the North American sector. Considering both seasons, the model suggests that former USSR is the major contributor to the near-surface BC levels at the Canadian high Arctic site with an average contribution of about 67% during the 16-year period, followed by European Union (18% and North America (15%. In winter, the atmospheric transport of BC aerosols from Eurasia is found to be even more

  13. Transport Layer Protocols Taxonomy From Voice Over Ip Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosleh M. Abu-Alhaj

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available VoIP technology is becoming increasingly important as they gain market share in PSTN technology. In the short run, it is likely that VoIP technology will dominate the telecommunications market. This evolution towards VoIP technology makes sense for improving the VoIP technology efficiency under the auspices of the internet. However, the PSTN still provide voice quality better than the VoIP technology voice quality. This would be due to many contributing factors such as delay and packet loss. Apart from internet hardware infrastructure, the VoIP transfer protocols cause the delay and packet loss problems as well. Typically, the Real-time Media Transfer Protocols (RTMTPs, such as the Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP, are working in conjunction with the transport layer protocols (TLPs to carry the VoIPapplications data. However, some of the TLPs protocols are transfer the VoIP applications data by themselves. The aim of this paper is to present the capability of the TLPs protocols to transfer the VoIP applications data, and the obstacles face these protocols to do so. For easier comparison and discussion, we have divided TLPs protocols into three groups, the Reliable Transport Layer Protocols (RTLPs, Unreliable Transport Layer Protocols (UTLPs, and Reliable and Unreliable Transport Layer Protocols (RUTLPs. We have studied the three groups from VoIP point of view. In addition, we have showed that the UTLPs group needs to work with the RTMTPs to be able to transfer the VoIP applications data. Finally, we have showed the problems caused by each group to the VoIP applications. As result, a comparison among the transport layer protocols is presented according to the problems resulting from theses protocols when transferring the VoIP applications data. The comparison can help to choose the suitable protocols to carry the VoIP data. However, after studied all the TLPs protocols, the paper recommend to use the UTLPs group in conjunction with the RTMTPs

  14. Mixed Transportation Network Design under a Sustainable Development Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Qin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixed transportation network design problem considering sustainable development was studied in this paper. Based on the discretization of continuous link-grade decision variables, a bilevel programming model was proposed to describe the problem, in which sustainability factors, including vehicle exhaust emissions, land-use scale, link load, and financial budget, are considered. The objective of the model is to minimize the total amount of resources exploited under the premise of meeting all the construction goals. A heuristic algorithm, which combined the simulated annealing and path-based gradient projection algorithm, was developed to solve the model. The numerical example shows that the transportation network optimized with the method above not only significantly alleviates the congestion on the link, but also reduces vehicle exhaust emissions within the network by up to 41.56%.

  15. THE URBAN DENSITY AND ISOPRICE PERSPECTIVES FOR TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry Hermawan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The endownment problems of urban growth is the density. Based on Land-Rent theorema, the people move tosuburban area. After that, the access built to accommodating the people activities. This article describe aboutthe density, road network pattern identification and the isoprice as the new approach to chapturing themacroscopic evaluation. By literature study from previews study and spatial methodology by geographicinformation system, the problems was simulated quantitatively. The result of this study indicated that SemarangCity has radial concentric topology with pattern of density commencing to south district with cheaper costtransport in the dense network of public transport.

  16. Modelling of radionuclide transport in forests: Review and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecological modeling is a powerful tool which can be used to synthesize information on the dynamic processes which occur in ecosystems. Models of radionuclide transport in forests were first constructed in the mid-1960's, when the consequences of global fallout from nuclear weapons tests and waste disposal in the environment were of great concern. Such models were developed based on site-specific experimental data and were designed to address local needs. These models had a limited applicability in evaluating distinct ecosystems and deposition scenarios. Given the scarcity of information, the same experimental data sets were often used both for model calibration and validation, an approach which clearly constitutes a methodological error. Even though the carry modeling attempts were far from being faultless, they established a useful conceptual approach in that they tried to capture general processes in ecosystems and thus had a holistic nature. Later, radioecological modeling attempted to reveal ecosystem properties by separating the component parts from the whole system, as an approach to simplification. This method worked well for radionuclide transport in agricultural ecosystems, in which the biogeochemistry of radionuclide cycling is relatively well understood and can be influenced by fertilization. Several models have been successfully developed and applied to human dose evaluation and emergency response to contaminating events in agricultural lands

  17. China's transportation energy consumption and CO2 emissions from a global perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Xiang; Chen, Wenying; Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.; Kim, Son H.; Patel, Pralit L.; Yu, Sha; Kyle, G. Page

    2015-07-01

    ABSTRACT Rapidly growing energy demand from China's transportation sector in the last two decades have raised concerns over national energy security, local air pollution, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and there is broad consensus that China's transportation sector will continue to grow in the coming decades. This paper explores the future development of China's transportation sector in terms of service demands, final energy consumption, and CO2 emissions, and their interactions with global climate policy. This study develops a detailed China transportation energy model that is nested in an integrated assessment model—Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM)—to evaluate the long-term energy consumption and CO2 emissions of China's transportation sector from a global perspective. The analysis suggests that, without major policy intervention, future transportation energy consumption and CO2 emissions will continue to rapidly increase and the transportation sector will remain heavily reliant on fossil fuels. Although carbon price policies may significantly reduce the sector's energy consumption and CO2 emissions, the associated changes in service demands and modal split will be modest, particularly in the passenger transport sector. The analysis also suggests that it is more difficult to decarbonize the transportation sector than other sectors of the economy, primarily owing to its heavy reliance on petroleum products.

  18. Capitalizing on new opportunities in Canada's emerging midstream : processing, transportation, marketing, NGL, storage : proceedings of a Canadian Institute conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Text or speaking notes used at a conference to examine the challenges and opportunities facing Canada's midstream petroleum and natural gas industry are contained in this volume. A total of eight 8 papers were presented, focusing on the wide range of business opportunities that do not fit into the core functions of the upstream business (exploration and production), or into the core functions of the downstream business (distribution and retail marketing). One of the biggest opportunities lies in the development of storage facilities for the natural gas industry. Other aspects of the midstream business addressed included processing, transportation, marketing, and natural gas liquids. tabs., figs

  19. Coupling Nitrogen Transport and Transformation Model with Land Surface Scheme SABAE-HW and its Application on the Canadian Prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, A.; Woodbury, A. D.; Loukili, Y.; Akinremi, W.

    2012-12-01

    The main goal of the present research is to contribute to the understanding of nutrient transport and transformations in soil and its impact on groundwater on a large scale. This paper specifically integrates the physical, chemical and biochemical nitrogen transport processes with a spatial and temporal Land Surface Scheme (LSS). Because solute transport highly depends on soil moisture and soil temperature, a vertical soil nitrogen transport and transformations model was coupled with the SABAE-HW model. Since manure is one of the most commonly available sources of nutrients, it is assumed that the main source of organic N is from animal manure in this study. A-single-pool nitrogen transformation is designed to simulate nitrogen dynamics. Mineralization and nitrification are modeled using the first order kinetics. The performance of the integrated model (SABAE-HWS) is calibrated and verified using 3 years field data from Carberry site in central Canada, Manitoba. Two rates of hog manure (2500 and 7500 gal/acre) were investigated to study the distribution of soil ammonium and soil nitrate within the 120 cm of soil profile. The results clearly showed that there is a good agreement between observed and simulated soil ammonium and soil nitrate for the two manure application rates in the first two years of study. However, there were significant differences between observations and simulations at lower depths with 7500 gal/acre by the end of growing season of 2004. Also, a 10-year climate data was used to evaluate the effect of manure rates on nitrate leaching at the Carberry site. The results indicated that to minimize the risk of nitrate leaching, the rate of manure application, accumulated soil nitrogen from earlier applications, and the atmospheric conditions should be all taken into account at the same time. The simulations clearly showed that to have a nitrate concentration below 10 mg/kg in the leachate, the manure rate should not exceed 2500 gal/acre. The model is

  20. Heat transport in low-dimensional materials: A review and perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiping Xu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Heat transport is a key energetic process in materials and devices. The reduced sample size, low dimension of the problem and the rich spectrum of material imperfections introduce fruitful phenomena at nanoscale. In this review, we summarize recent progresses in the understanding of heat transport process in low-dimensional materials, with focus on the roles of defects, disorder, interfaces, and the quantum-mechanical effect. New physics uncovered from computational simulations, experimental studies, and predictable models will be reviewed, followed by a perspective on open challenges.

  1. An international perspective on electric transportation. Survey on electric road transport 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeda, M; Kroon, P. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Appels, D. [Agentschap NL, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    To compare the Dutch governmental efforts and developments in the field of electric road transport, the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation has asked ECN Policy Studies and NL Agency to conduct an international assessment on electric mobility. The countries that have been considered are: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, UK, China, USA and South Korea. The Netherlands has a high ambition level with regard to the number of electric vehicles and is one of the leaders as for the envisaged number of charging points. In the field of R and D, Germany, South Korea and China take the lead, followed by France, the UK, the USA and Austria. However, the assessment has only looked at specific funds for electric mobility, and has not looked at general R and D and innovation funds. The Netherlands has several electro-mobility field tests, but is not leading in number. Norway and Austria are leading countries when it comes to implementation of public charging infrastructure.

  2. Ozone seasonality above the tropical tropopause: reconciling the Eulerian and Lagrangian perspectives of transport processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalos, M.; Ploeger, F.; Konopka, P.; Randel, W. J.; Serrano, E.

    2013-11-01

    We aim to reconcile the recently published, apparently contrasting results regarding the relative importance of tropical upwelling versus horizontal transport for the seasonality of ozone above the tropical tropopause. Different analysis methods in the literature (Lagrangian versus Eulerian, and isentropic versus pressure vertical coordinates) yield different perspectives of ozone transport, and the results must be carefully compared in equivalent terms to avoid misinterpretation. By examining the Lagrangian calculations in the Eulerian formulation, we show here that the results are in fact consistent with each other and with a common understanding of the ozone transport processes near and above the tropical tropopause. We further emphasize that the complementary approaches are suited for answering two different scientific questions: (1) what drives the observed seasonal cycle in ozone at a particular level above the tropical tropopause? and (2) how important is horizontal transport from mid-latitudes for ozone concentrations in the tropical lower stratosphere? Regarding the first question, the analysis of the transformed Eulerian mean (TEM) ozone budget shows that the annual cycle in tropical upwelling is the main forcing of the ozone seasonality at altitudes with large vertical gradients in the tropical lower stratosphere. To answer the second question a Lagrangian framework must be used, and the results show that a large fraction (~50%) of the ozone molecules ascending through the tropical lower stratosphere is of extra-tropical origin and has been in-mixed from mid-latitudes.

  3. Providing cleaner air to Canadians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet is designed to explain salient aspects of the Ozone Annex, negotiated and signed recently by Canada and the United States, in a joint effort to improve air quality in North America. By significantly reducing the transboundary flows of air pollutants that cause smog, the Ozone Annex will benefit some 16 million people in central and eastern Canada and provide an example for a future round of negotiations to address concerns of the millions of Canadians and Americans who live in the border area between British Columbia and Washington State. The brochure provide summaries of the Canadian and American commitments, focusing on transportation, monitoring and reporting. The Ozone Annex complements other air quality initiatives by the Government of Canada enacted under the Environmental Protection Act, 1999. These measures include regulations to reduce sulphur content to 30 parts per million by Jan 1, 2005; proposing to restrict toxic particulate matter (PM) to less than 10 microns; establishing daily smog forecasts in the Maritimes and committing to a national program built upon existing smog advisories and forecasts in Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia; and investing in more clean air research through the newly created Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences

  4. Beware the Ides of Coupland: Douglas Coupland's (Oh, so Very Canadian) Perspective on the Future and What It Means to Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle-Taylor, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    Douglas Coupland, a prolific author/artist/lecturer and now prognosticator, is in the forefront of the arts movement in both Canada and the US. His works, starting with his breakout novel "Generation X: Tales for an Accelerated Culture," have consistently worked as a bellwether of current perspectives and values, both noting our cultural…

  5. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Association 35. annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of the thirty-fifth annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association contain 22 papers organized in the following sessions: update on the status of the Canadian nuclear industry, non-proliferation and related political issues, nuclear waste disposal perspectives, regulatory issues, trade development, new markets, economics of nuclear electricity, public acceptance or rejection. In addition one paper from a CNA/CNS special session on nuclear diffraction is included. The individual papers have been abstracted separately

  6. Markets for Canadian oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference presentation presented charts and graphs on the market for Canadian oil. Graphs included crude oil and natural gas prices and heavy oil discount differential. Graphs depicting heavy oil economics such as bitumen blending with condensate were also included along with global crude oil reserves by country. Information on oil sands projects in the Athabasca, Peace River, and Cold Lake deposits was presented along with graphs on oil sands supply costs by recovery type; Canadian production for conventional, oil sands and offshore oil; new emerging oil sands crude types; and 2003 market demand by crude type in the United States and Canada. Maps included Canada and United States crude oil pipelines; western Canadian crude oil markets; long term oil pipeline expansion projects; Canadian and United States crude oil pipeline alternatives; and potential tanker markets for Canadian oil sands production. Lastly, the presentation provided graphs on 2003 refinery crude demand and California market demand. tabs., figs

  7. Scenario modeling potential eco-efficiency gains from a transition to organic agriculture: life cycle perspectives on Canadian canola, corn, soy, and wheat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, N; Arsenault, N; Tyedmers, P

    2008-12-01

    We used Life Cycle Assessment to scenario model the potential reductions in cumulative energy demand (both fossil and renewable) and global warming, acidifying, and ozone-depleting emissions associated with a hypothetical national transition from conventional to organic production of four major field crops [canola (Brassica rapa), corn (Zea mays), soy (Glycine max), and wheat (Triticum aestivum)] in Canada. Models of these systems were constructed using a combination of census data, published values, and the requirements for organic production described in the Canadian National Organic Standards in order to be broadly representative of the similarities and differences that characterize these disparate production technologies. Our results indicate that organic crop production would consume, on average, 39% as much energy and generate 77% of the global warming emissions, 17% of the ozone-depleting emissions, and 96% of the acidifying emissions associated with current national production of these crops. These differences were almost exclusively due to the differences in fertilizers used in conventional and organic farming and were most strongly influenced by the higher cumulative energy demand and emissions associated with producing conventional nitrogen fertilizers compared to the green manure production used for biological nitrogen fixation in organic agriculture. Overall, we estimate that a total transition to organic production of these crops in Canada would reduce national energy consumption by 0.8%, global warming emissions by 0.6%, and acidifying emissions by 1.0% but have a negligible influence on reducing ozone-depleting emissions.

  8. Scenario modeling potential eco-efficiency gains from a transition to organic agriculture: life cycle perspectives on Canadian canola, corn, soy, and wheat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, N; Arsenault, N; Tyedmers, P

    2008-12-01

    We used Life Cycle Assessment to scenario model the potential reductions in cumulative energy demand (both fossil and renewable) and global warming, acidifying, and ozone-depleting emissions associated with a hypothetical national transition from conventional to organic production of four major field crops [canola (Brassica rapa), corn (Zea mays), soy (Glycine max), and wheat (Triticum aestivum)] in Canada. Models of these systems were constructed using a combination of census data, published values, and the requirements for organic production described in the Canadian National Organic Standards in order to be broadly representative of the similarities and differences that characterize these disparate production technologies. Our results indicate that organic crop production would consume, on average, 39% as much energy and generate 77% of the global warming emissions, 17% of the ozone-depleting emissions, and 96% of the acidifying emissions associated with current national production of these crops. These differences were almost exclusively due to the differences in fertilizers used in conventional and organic farming and were most strongly influenced by the higher cumulative energy demand and emissions associated with producing conventional nitrogen fertilizers compared to the green manure production used for biological nitrogen fixation in organic agriculture. Overall, we estimate that a total transition to organic production of these crops in Canada would reduce national energy consumption by 0.8%, global warming emissions by 0.6%, and acidifying emissions by 1.0% but have a negligible influence on reducing ozone-depleting emissions. PMID:18574623

  9. Scenario Modeling Potential Eco-Efficiency Gains from a Transition to Organic Agriculture: Life Cycle Perspectives on Canadian Canola, Corn, Soy, and Wheat Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, N.; Arsenault, N.; Tyedmers, P.

    2008-12-01

    We used Life Cycle Assessment to scenario model the potential reductions in cumulative energy demand (both fossil and renewable) and global warming, acidifying, and ozone-depleting emissions associated with a hypothetical national transition from conventional to organic production of four major field crops [canola ( Brassica rapa), corn ( Zea mays), soy ( Glycine max), and wheat ( Triticum aestivum)] in Canada. Models of these systems were constructed using a combination of census data, published values, and the requirements for organic production described in the Canadian National Organic Standards in order to be broadly representative of the similarities and differences that characterize these disparate production technologies. Our results indicate that organic crop production would consume, on average, 39% as much energy and generate 77% of the global warming emissions, 17% of the ozone-depleting emissions, and 96% of the acidifying emissions associated with current national production of these crops. These differences were almost exclusively due to the differences in fertilizers used in conventional and organic farming and were most strongly influenced by the higher cumulative energy demand and emissions associated with producing conventional nitrogen fertilizers compared to the green manure production used for biological nitrogen fixation in organic agriculture. Overall, we estimate that a total transition to organic production of these crops in Canada would reduce national energy consumption by 0.8%, global warming emissions by 0.6%, and acidifying emissions by 1.0% but have a negligible influence on reducing ozone-depleting emissions.

  10. Roundtable Discussion on the Canadian Economy


    OpenAIRE

    McArthur, Doug; Ivanova, Iglika; Dobrzanski, Chris; Garrosino, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    Since the 2008 global financial earthquake, the world economy has continued to be turbulent.

The roundtable discussion focussed on the Canadian economy within the 2012 global environment, but with a specific Vancouver and BC based perspective. Each of the panellists, from their own vantage point, talked about concerns with the economy, opportunities in the mid and long term for BC, and public policy ideas that they would put forward to improve the BC economy. The discussion was  followe...

  11. Basic Living Expenses for the Canadian Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnie-Jeanne MacDonald; Doug Andrews; Brown, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Our research undertakes to determine the basic living expenses required by Canadian seniors living in different circumstances in terms of age, gender, city of residence, household size, homeowner or renter, means of transportation and health status. The paper develops required expenses for food, shelter, health care, transportation and miscellaneous. The research identifies the typical expenses of seniors in each of these categories. Using 2001 as our base year, we follow the US Elder Standar...

  12. Ethical and legal implications of the risks of medical tourism for patients: a qualitative study of Canadian health and safety representatives’ perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Valorie A; Turner, Leigh; Cohen, I Glenn; Bristeir, Janet; Snyder, Jeremy; Casey, Victoria; Whitmore, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Medical tourism involves patients’ intentional travel to privately obtain medical care in another country. Empirical evidence regarding health and safety risks facing medical tourists is limited. Consideration of this issue is dominated by speculation and lacks meaningful input from people with specific expertise in patient health and safety. We consulted with patient health and safety experts in the Canadian province of British Columbia to explore their views concerning risks that medical tourists may be exposed to. Herein, we report on the findings, linking them to existing ethical and legal issues associated with medical tourism. Design We held a focus group in September 2011 in Vancouver, British Columbia with professionals representing different domains of patient health and safety expertise. The focus group was transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Participants Seven professionals representing the domains of tissue banking, blood safety, health records, organ transplantation, dental care, clinical ethics and infection control participated. Results Five dominant health and safety risks for outbound medical tourists were identified by participants: (1) complications; (2) specific concerns regarding organ transplantation; (3) transmission of antibiotic-resistant organisms; (4) (dis)continuity of medical documentation and (5) (un)informed decision-making. Conclusions Concern was expressed that medical tourism might have unintended and undesired effects upon patients’ home healthcare systems. The individual choices of medical tourists could have significant public consequences if healthcare facilities in their home countries must expend resources treating postoperative complications. Participants also expressed concern that medical tourists returning home with infections, particularly antibiotic-resistant infections, could place others at risk of exposure to infections that are refractory to standard treatment regimens and thereby pose

  13. Environmental catalysis: the Canadian situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aye, T.; Christensen, D.; Gostick, J.; Mogharei, A.; Oskin, G. O.; Won, W.; Aida, T. [Waterloo Univ. ON (Canada)

    2000-10-01

    The Canadian situation with respect to research in environmental catalysis was investigated by analyzing catalysis papers appearing in the 1999 and 2000 issues of major journals devoted to research in catalysis (Journal of Catalysis; Catalysis Today; Applied Catalysis A: General and B: Environmental). A total of 2150 papers were surveyed; of these 34 were by Canadian authors, with Canada ranking twentieth in the world in terms of research in this field. About 40 per cent of the catalysis papers were related to the environment, with nitrogen and sulphur emissions being the most important topics and energy conversion second. Hydrodesulphurization of petroleum oil, use of low sulphur coal and flue gas desulphurization are the principal processes for controlling sulfur emissions into the air, while nitrogen oxides emissions in automobiles are ccontrolled bt three-way catalysts. In power generation, selective catalytic reduction is the preferred method, although not in Canada, where installing low-NOx burners or using low nitrogen fuels such as natural gas are favored. The control of volatile organic compounds is also a serious problem. The two most promising processes for the Canadian situation are adsorption by activated carbon and catalysis using low-temperature catalysts. Water treatment of textile mill effluents, a favorite topics by Canadian authors, includes photocatalytic oxidation with titanium oxide photocatalyst, ozonation with activated carbons and a combination of photocatalysis and biological treatment. Carbon dioxide conversion was also a favoured topic by Canadian researchers; not surprising in view if the fact that Canada is the highest per capita producer of carbon dioxide emissions. Nearly two-thirds of the carbon dioxide emissions is due to the transportation and energy production sectors, therefore, any carbon dioxide mitigation strategies should be applied initially in these areas. Catalytic conversion of carbon dioxide into methanol, which then

  14. The Integration Challenge: Connecting International Students with Their Canadian Peers. CBIE Research in Brief #2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Bureau for International Education (CBIE) - Bureau canadien de l’éducation internationale (BCEI), 2015

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of international students themselves, this paper identifies both internal and external barriers that impede the formation of friendships between international students and their Canadian counterparts across Canada's post-secondary campuses. Shedding light on why international students do not make friends with Canadian students…

  15. Committing Canadian sociology: developing a Canadian sociology and a sociology of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Ralph

    2014-05-01

    This paper is a slightly revised version of the author's "Outstanding Career Award Lecture" presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Sociological Association in Victoria, British Columbia on June 6, 2013. The paper distinguishes between Canadian Sociology and the Sociology of Canada. The former involves the explanatory stance that one takes to understanding Canada. The latter addresses the significant social dimensions that underlie Canadian social organization, culture, and behavior. I make a case for a Canadian Sociology that focuses on the unique features of Canadian society rather than adopting a comparative perspective. I also argue that there is a continuing need within the Sociology of Canada to address the issues of staples development. However, I argue that "new" staples analysis must have a directional change from that of the past, in that social processes now largely determine the pattern of staples development. Moreover, new staples analysis must include issues that were never part of earlier staples analysis, such as issues of environmental impacts and of staples depletion under conditions, such as climate change. The paper concludes by analyzing four factors that provide the dominant social contexts for analyzing modern staples development: (1) the rise of neoliberal government, (2) the implementation of globalization and its social consequences, (3) the assumption of aboriginal rights and entitlement, and (4) the rise of environmentalism. These factors were generally not considered in earlier staples approaches. They are critical to understanding the role of staples development and its impact on Canada in the present time.

  16. Diverse Functional Roles of Monosaccharide Transporters and their Homologs in Vascular Plants: A Physiological Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas L. Slewinski

    2011-01-01

    Vascular plants contain two gene families that encode monosaccharide transporter proteins. The classical monosaccharide transporter(-like)gene superfamily is large and functionally diverse, while the recently identified SWEET transporter family is smaller and, thus far, only found to transport glucose. These transporters play essential roles at many levels, ranging from organelles to the whole plant. Many family members are essential for cellular homeostasis and re-productive success. Although most transporters do not directly participate in long-distance transport, their indirect roles greatly impact carbon allocation and transport flux to the heterotrophic tissues of the plant. Functional characterization of some members from both gene families has revealed their diverse roles in carbohydrate partitioning, phloem function,resource allocation, plant defense, and sugar signaling. This review highlights the broad impacts and implications of monosaccharide transport by describing some of the functional roles of the monosaccharide transporter(-like)superfamily and the SWEET transporter family.

  17. Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarone, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this "Perspectives" column is "Requiring a Proficiency Level as a Requirement for U.S. K-12 Teacher Licensure." In 1998, the American Council of Teachers of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) began to work with the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), which accredits teacher education programs…

  18. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Association 31. annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the technical sessions from the 31. Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association. Topics of discussion include: the role of nuclear energy in the global energy future, public participation in energy policy making, CANDU 3 in Saskatchewan, new technologies, perspectives on global warming, components of successful nuclear programs, and Canada's nuclear challenges

  19. Canadian beef quality audit.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Jewison, G; M. Mann; Cherry, B; Altwasser, B; Lower, R; Wiggins, K; Dejonge, R; Thorlakson, B; Moss, E.; C. Mills; Grogan, H

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted in 4 Canadian processing plants in 1995-96 to determine the prevalence of quality defects in Canadian cattle. One percent of the annual number of cattle processed in Canada were evaluated on the processing floor and 0.1% were graded in the cooler. Brands were observed on 37% and multiple brands on 6% of the cattle. Forty percent of the cattle had horns, 20% of which were scurs, 33% were stubs, 10% were tipped, and 37% were full length. Tag (mud and manure on the hide) wa...

  20. Canadian Irradiation Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Irradiation Centre is a non-profit cooperative project between Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Radiochemical Company and Universite du Quebec, Institut Armand-Frappier, Centre for Applied Research in Food Science. The Centre's objectives are to develop, demonstrate and promote Canada's radiation processing technology and its applications by conducting applied research; training technical, professional and scientific personnel; educating industry and government; demonstrating operational and scientific procedures; developing processing procedures and standards, and performing product and market acceptance trials. This pamphlet outlines the history of radoation technology and the services offered by the Canadian Irradiation Centre

  1. Decoupling urban transport from GHG emissions in Indian cities-A critical review and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How to sustain rapid economic and urban growth with minimised detriment to environment is a key challenge for sustainable development and climate change mitigation in developing countries, which face constraints of technical and financial resources scarcity as well as dearth of infrastructure governance capacity. This paper attempts to address this question by investigating the driving forces of transport demand and relevant policy measures that facilitate mitigating GHG emissions in the urban transport sector in Indian cities based on a critical review of the literature. Our overview of existing literature and international experiences suggests that it is critical to improve urban governance in transport infrastructure quality and develop efficient public transport, coupled with integrated land use/transport planning as well as economic instruments. This will allow Indian cities to embark on a sustainable growth pathway by decoupling transport services demand of GHG emissions in the longer term. Appropriate policy instruments need to be selected to reconcile the imperatives of economic and urban growth, aspiration to higher quality of life, improvements in social welfare, urban transport-related energy consumption and GHG emissions mitigation target in Indian cities. - Highlights: → Investigating the relevant policies that facilitate mitigating GHG emissions in urban transport in Indian cities. → Determining the factors of increase in energy demand and carbon emissions in transport. → Improving urban governance in transport infrastructure with integrated transport planning. → Designing and implementing the policy and economic instruments for low-carbon urban transport in India.

  2. Canadian heavy water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews Canadian experience in the production of heavy water, presents a long-term supply projection, relates this projection to the anticipated long-term electrical energy demand, and highlights principal areas for further improvement that form the bulk of our research and development program on heavy water processes

  3. Twitter and Canadian Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Max

    2012-01-01

    An emerging group of leaders in Canadian education has attracted thousands of followers. They've made Twitter an extension of their lives, delivering twenty or more tweets a day that can include, for example, links to media articles, research, new ideas from education bloggers, or to their own, or simply a personal thought. At their best,…

  4. Reform in Canadian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 67 Canadian university vice presidents and 66 deans concerning reform in recent years found that the many changes reported were modest and reactive rather than bold and proactive. Most common changes involved strategic planning, retrenchment, curriculum expansion, response to enrollment changes, administrative restructuring, and more…

  5. The Impact of Oceanic Heat Transport on the Atmospheric Circulation: a Thermodynamic Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Schröder, Alexander; Lunkeit, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates how global thermodynamic properties of the climate system are affected by the changes in the intensity of the imposed oceanic heat transport in an atmospheric general circulation model in aqua-planet configuration. Increasing the poleward oceanic heat transport results in an overall increase in the surface temperature and a decrease in the equator-to-pole surface temperature difference as a result of the ice-albedo feedback. Following the classical ansatz by Stone, the atmospheric heat transport changes in such a way that the total poleward heat transport remains almost unchanged. We also find that the efficiency of the climate machine, the intensity of the Lorenz energy cycle and the material entropy production of the system decline with increased oceanic heat transport which suggests that the climate system becomes less efficient and turns into a state of reduced entropy production, as the enhanced oceanic transport performs a stronger large-scale mixing between geophysical fl...

  6. A Perspective of Transportation Development for Bintuni Regency in West Papua-Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Jinca, Muhammad Yamin

    2014-01-01

    Bintuni Regency in West Papua Province, can be accessed by sea and air transportation from Manokwari, Sorong and it???s a road tansport from Manokwari. The study aims to analyze regional resources of Bintuni Regency which is supported by transportation, availability of infrastructure and transportation services, to support development. The method used was interview with questionnaires and secondary data collection from relevant institute. Regional potency and availability of infrastructure an...

  7. THE PERSPECTIVES OF MARITIME TRANSPORT IN EU AND ITS INTEGRATION IN THE SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voicu-Dorobantu Roxana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In a globalised economy transport is one of the most important factors linking the national economies and maritime transport is the main way to deliver goods in international trade. For any international company, choosing the appropriate transportation as part of the logistic solution is vital for its competitiveness. In the context of the economic crisis, CEE strategic location factors play an important role for regional companies which adapt and change their logistic services by developing new scenarios for the shipping industry in order to obtain a better position on the global market. In addition to a favourable geographical location CEE has several other important arguments, like sufficient harbours for developing container terminals to launch extensive container transport transit. The most important recent trends in logistics are shown, as well as the framework of the EU maritime transport.

  8. Financing Canadian international operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A primer on financing international operations by Canadian corporations was provided. Factors affecting the availability to project finance (location, political risk), the various forms of financing (debt, equity, and combinations), the main sources of government backed financing to corporations (the International Finance Corporation) (IFC), the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the Overseas Property Insurance Corporation (OPIC), government or agency guarantees, political risk coverage, the use of offshore financial centres, and the where, when and how these various organizations operate, were reviewed. Examples of all of the above, taken from the experiences of Canadian Occidental Petroleum of Calgary in the U.S., in South America, in the Middle and Far East, and in Kazakhstan, were used as illustrations. figs

  9. Canadian Mathematical Congress

    CERN Document Server

    1977-01-01

    For two weeks in August, 1975 more than 140 mathematicians and other scientists gathered at the Universite de Sherbrooke. The occasion was the 15th Biennial Seminar of the Canadian Mathematical Congress, entitled Mathematics and the Life Sciences. Participants in this inter­ disciplinary gathering included researchers and graduate students in mathematics, seven different areas of biological science, physics, chemistry and medical science. Geographically, those present came from the United States and the United Kingdom as well as from academic departments and government agencies scattered across Canada. In choosing this particular interdisciplinary topic the programme committee had two chief objectives. These were to promote Canadian research in mathematical problems of the life sciences, and to encourage co-operation and exchanges between mathematical scientists" biologists and medical re­ searchers. To accomplish these objective the committee assembled a stim­ ulating programme of lectures and talks. Six ...

  10. Resource Allocation for Sustainable Urban Transit from a Transport Diversity Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Min Feng

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Different transport stakeholders have different needs for transport infrastructure and services. Meeting the needs of all stakeholders implies a trade-off of benefits and costs between supply and demand and creates transport diversity issues. However, the literature has largely ignored these issues. Transport diversity can assess the level to which important needs are satisfied equitably, and monitor whether transportation systems are moving towards sustainability by confirming the targets and basic level of quality of life. Based on the concept of transport diversity, this study utilizes fuzzy multi-objective programming to solve non-linear multi-objective problems involving urban public transit systems to determine the impact of resource allocation on needs satisfaction in relation to stakeholder behaviors. The proposed approach avoids problems of inefficient and inequitable resource allocation. A real-life case is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of applying the proposed methodology. Furthermore, empirical outcomes show that recent investments allocated to public transit systems considered equitable stakeholder satisfaction for both mass rapid transit (MRT and bus, and also promoted transport diversity in the Taipei metropolitan area.

  11. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  12. Teaching Literature K-12: A Canadian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambell, Trevor J.

    Focusing on literature and the teaching of literature, this monograph presents and discusses salient issues, inviting the reader to participate in the dialogue. The first section following the introduction presents reasons for teaching literature and discusses the types, quality, and selection of literature, as well as literature and values. The…

  13. Power generation choices: a canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada has abundant reserves of all the major energy resources but regional variations in their distribution have shaped the development of the utilities serving these regions. Since the 1970's rising costs have reversed the earlier downward trend and the risks associated with very large projects have changed the approach to planning. Overall, however, environmental requirements have had the greatest impact on utility planning. The rising need to consider residual environmental impacts or externalities and the growing importance of demand side measures are becoming major influences. (authors). 2 tabs

  14. Nuclear industry prospects: A Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada, with its proven, safe and versatile CANDU reactor is well poised for the second half-century of nuclear fission. Canada's nuclear pedigree goes back to the turn-of-the-century work of Ernest Rutherford in Montreal. This year, Canada's nuclear industry celebrates the 50th anniversary of the start-up of its first research reactor at Chalk River. Last year, the pioneering work of Bert ram Blockhouse in Physics was honoured with a Nobel Prize. Future international success for the nuclear industry, such as has been achieved here in Korea, depends on continued cooperative and collaborative team work between the public and private sectors, continued strong research and development backing by the government, and new strategic partnerships. The biggest challenge is financing for the emerging markets. The brightness or dimness of future prospects are relative to the intensity of the lessons learned from history. In Canada we have a fairly long nuclear pedigree, It goes back almost a century to 1898, when Ernest Rutherford set up a world centre at McGill University in Montreal for research into the structure of the atom and into radioactivity

  15. Women and Education: A Canadian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskell, Jane, Ed.; McLaren, Arlene, Ed.

    This four-part book contains 16 papers that explore the relationship between feminist research and education, especially in Canada. The papers in the first part, "Women as Mothers, Women as Teachers," are as follows: "The Evolution of the Sexual Division of Labour in Teaching" (Danylewycz, Light, Prentice); "More than a Labour of Love" (Task Force…

  16. Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon H Hoeppner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic tuberculosis (TB was almost certainly present in Canadian aboriginal people (aboriginal Canadians denotes status Indians, Inuit, nonstatus Indians and metis as reported by Statistics Canada before the Old World traders arrived. However, the social changes that resulted from contact with these traders created the conditions that converted endemic TB into epidemic TB. The incidence of TB varied inversely with the time interval from this cultural collision, which began on the east coast in the 16th century and ended in the Northern Territories in the 20th century. This relatively recent epidemic explains why the disease is more frequent in aboriginal children than in Canadian-born nonaboriginal people. Treatment plans must account for the socioeconomic conditions and cultural characteristics of the aboriginal people, especially healing models and language. Prevention includes bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and chemoprophylaxis, and must account for community conditions, such as rates of suicide, which have exceeded the rate of TB. The control of TB requires a centralized program with specifically directed funding. It must include a program that works in partnership with aboriginal communities.

  17. Heat transport in low-dimensional materials: A review and perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiping Xu

    2016-01-01

    Heat transport is a key energetic process in materials and devices. The reduced sample size, low dimension of the problem and the rich spectrum of material imperfections introduce fruitful phenomena at nanoscale. In this review, we summarize recent progresses in the understanding of heat transport process in low-dimensional materials, with focus on the roles of defects, disorder, interfaces, and the quantum-mechanical effect. New physics uncovered from computational simulations, experimental ...

  18. Reforming transport pricing: an economist's perspective on equity, efficiency and acceptability

    OpenAIRE

    Mayeres, Inge; Proost, Stef

    2002-01-01

    This paper applies the traditional definition of equity and efficiency in economics to transport pricing. It is shown how this framework can also be used to define acceptability. The problems and potential of this approach are illustrated by examining the effects for Belgium of replacing current transport pricing by marginal social cost pricing. The welfare effects on different income groups of this pricing reform are shown for different income groups using a computable general equilibr...

  19. Trends in transportation energy use, 1970--1988: An international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L.; Steiner, R.; Meyers, S.

    1992-05-01

    Personal mobility and timely movement of goods have become increasingly important around the world, and energy use for transportation has grown rapidly as a consequence. Energy is used in transportation for two rather different activities: moving people, which we refer to as passenger travel, and moving freight. While freight transport is closely connected to economic activity, much of travel is conducted for personal reasons. In the OECD countries, travel accounts for around 70% of total transportation energy use. In contrast, freight transport accounts for the larger share in the Former East Bloc and the developing countries (LDCs). In our analysis, we focus on three elements that shape transportation energy use: activity, which we measure in passenger-km (p-km) or tonne-km (t-km), modal structure (the share of total activity accounted for by various modes), and modal energy intensities (energy use per p-km or t-km). The modal structure of travel and freight transport is important because there are often considerable differences in energy intensity among modes. The average 1988 average energy use per p-km of different travel modes in the United States (US), West Germany, and Japan are illustrated. With the exception of rail in the US, bus and rail travel had much lower intensity than automobile and air travel. What is perhaps surprising is that the intensity of air travel is only slightly higher than that of automobile travel. This reflects the much higher utilization of vehicle capacity in air travel and the large share of automobile travel that takes place in urban traffic (automobile energy intensity in long-distance driving is much lower than the average over types of driving).

  20. The risk assesment in storage and transportation of dangerous substances - preoccupations and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a risk assessment model for dangerous substance storage and transportation. It will combine also qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods, the results being referred to the lethal risk at individual and social level. The model includes the main tasks to classify the risks and to achieve a scale of priorities. To achieve a proper analysis of a regional risk the following steps should be observed: a list of dangerous substances; the classification of storage and transportation activities in the area; the selection of those activities that can be included in the study; establishing the category of effects ; the estimation of consequences to the environment and people; the calculation of major accidents frequency; the risk level classification. Generally, in the global risk assessment in industrial sector one neglects the risk induced by the transport of dangerous substances. Because of that the decision process in the risk management field can be seriously affected and the initiatives to reduce the risk and to decrease the consequences of potential accidents can be reduced, too. The model will be applied to evaluate the risk due major accidents occurring in the storage of dangerous substances and their transportation on roads, railway or by pipes. It represents a prime action plan at national level to evaluate and analyze the transportation risk. (authors)

  1. Land use and transport relationships: A perspective from the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seskin, S.N.

    1995-12-31

    As transportation and land use planners and policy makers world wide grapple with the increasingly challenging consequences of automobile use, there is a growing need to communicate globally about both the knowledge of interactions between transport and land use and the ability to analyze these relationships in a systematic manner. As the world`s largest consumer of energy in general and petroleum in particular, the United States continues to conduct research and innovate in integrated transportation and land use policy issues. The need for improving the state of knowledge and practice, however, is more compelling in developing nations, such as Chile and Thailand, from which, despite their transportation and environmental problems, the United States in fact has much to learn. Nevertheless it is instructive to take a long and broad look at the way the United States is planning and building urban environments. This paper focuses on four aspects of that effort. The first is the state of knowledge on the relationships between land use and travel demand. The second is the analytic tools used to evaluate these relationships. Third is the array of approaches used by government to integrate transport and land use. The last is the ways in which individuals and organizations outside of the formal structure of government participate in metropolitan planning and development.

  2. The environmental assessment of nuclear materials disposition options: A transportation perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy has undertaken a program to evaluate and select options for the long-term storage and disposition of fissile materials declared surplus to defense needs as a result of the end of the Cold War. The transport of surplus fissile material will be an important and highly visible aspect of the environmental impact studies and other planning documents required for implementation of the disposition options. This report defines the roles and requirements for transportation of fissile materials in the program, and discusses an existing methodology for determining the environmental impact in terms of risk. While it will be some time before specific alternatives are chosen that will permit the completion of detailed risk calculations, the analytical models for performing the probabilistic risk assessments already exist with much of the supporting data related to the transportation system. This report summarizes the various types of data required and identifies sources for that data

  3. A perspective from transport protein particle: vesicle tether and human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunman; Yu, Sidney

    2014-02-25

    Vesicle-mediated transport of proteins is a highly regulated, multi-step process. When the vesicle is approaching its target membrane compartment, many factors are required to provide specificity and tethering between the incoming vesicle and the target membrane, before vesicle fusion can occur. Tethering factors, which include multisubunit complexes, coiled-coil proteins, with the help of small GTPases, provide the initial interaction between the vesicle and its target membrane. Of the multisubunit tethering factors, the transport protein particle (TRAPP) complexes function in a number of trafficking steps, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi transport, intra- and post-Golgi traffic and autophagosome formation. In this review, we summarize the updated progress in structure and function of TRAPP complexes as well as human diseases caused by genetic mutations in TRAPP.

  4. Medium and long term perspectives of Inland Waterway Transport in the European Union. Executive Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-01-15

    If inland shipping is to remain the greenest mode of transport, it will need to improve its environmental act in the coming years. If it fails to do so, it will be overtaken by road transport. That is one of the conclusions of the title study. In this study CE Delft performed the analyses of emissions and offers recommendations for reducing them. The key issue in this regard is to create financial incentives for ship owners to invest in modern, clean engines and retrofit technologies, complementing standards for new engines. The study will be used as a basis for drawing up policy on inland shipping towards 2020, in line with the EU White Paper on transport policy.

  5. Hybrid-Electric and Distributed Propulsion Technologies for Large Commercial Transports: A NASA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madavan, Nateri K.; Del Rosario, Ruben; Jankovsky, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    Develop and demonstrate technologies that will revolutionize commercial transport aircraft propulsion and accelerate development of all-electric aircraft architectures. Enable radically different propulsion systems that can meet national environmental and fuel burn reduction goals for subsonic commercial aircraft. Focus on future large regional jets and single-aisle twin (Boeing 737- class) aircraft for greatest impact on fuel burn, noise and emissions. Research horizon is long-term but with periodic spinoff of technologies for introduction in aircraft with more- and all-electric architectures. Research aligned with new NASA Aeronautics strategic R&T thrusts in areas of transition to low-carbon propulsion and ultra-efficient commercial transports.

  6. International Perspectives and Implementation of Sustainability Criteria in the Development of Biofuels for Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    Establishing sustainability criteria for the development of biofuels is an important step for the consolidation of an international market on biofuels for transport for several reasons: Biofuels are expected to play a significant role in a transition to low carbon future in transport in particular...... to supply long-haul heavy trucks and aviation modes that require energy intensive liquid fuels (IEA, 2009). Sustainability criteria can help create a clear framework to producers/business/ investors necessary to help minimize threads and to maximize opportunities for market development...

  7. The development of the Canadian peat industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibault, J.J. (New Brunswick Dept. of Natural Resources and Energy, Bathurst, NB (Canada). Mineral Resources Division)

    1994-02-01

    Peatlands occupy 111 million hectares or about 12% of Canada's land surface and are principally located in the boreal region of the country. Most of the bog surveys which were initiated in Canada since 1908 have been prompted by a national interest in gaining fuel self-sufficiency, but the production of peat has almost always been exclusively for horticultural purposes. The birth of the Canadian peat industry dates back to the early 1940s, when the United States' traditional supplies from Europe were cut off during the Second World War. Between 1938 and 1992, the production of horticultural peat has grown from 4,000 and 745,000 tonnes, making Canada the world's third largest producer of horticultural peat. Canadian peat is exported to 25 countries. In 1992, the United States accounted for 89% of all exports, and Japan ranked second with 10%. In 1992, the total value of the production was estimated at 108 million dollars and provided employment for thousands of people in rural areas. The present industry owes its existence to an abundant supply of sphagnum moss located near population centres and in proximity to important transportation corridors. The continued development of the Canadian peat industry depends on establishing sound environmental practices, examining alternate uses for peat and exploring new market opportunities. 27 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Modeling conversion and transport phenomena in solid-state fermentation: a review and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahardjo, Y.S.P.; Tramper, J.; Rinzema, A.

    2006-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is accompanied inevitably by development of concentration and temperature gradients within the substrate particles and microbial biofilms. These gradients are needed for driving the transport of substrates and products. In addition, concentration gradients have been su

  9. Mining Legal and Business Resources on Canadian Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Johal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the distinct nature of the Canadian banking system, it is important for novice researchers to know which business and legal resources to consult in order to quickly find information that is particular to Canadian banking. However, there are very few articles or monographs in the library literature that describe how to find information sources exclusively on this subject from a Canadian perspective. Most available publications tend to specialize in sources for the US banking and Federal Reserve System with little attention to Canada. The paper begins with a brief introduction to Canadian banking. From there, the authors demonstrate where researchers can find primary sources such as legislation, regulations and case law. In addition, this article identifies and discusses the different types of information found on the websites of associations and government agencies such as the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions, which supervises and regulates various areas of Canada’s financial system. Also discussed are secondary sources such as industry research and reports that are available from reliable websites and subscription-based resources. This paper also explores the best business and legal databases for researchers. Based on results from searching in periodical directories and indexes, the paper additionally provides a description of the most pertinent academic, trade and general publications relevant to the Canadian banking system and where their contents are indexed.

  10. Canadian photovoltaic industry directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory has been prepared to help potential photovoltaic (PV) customers identify Canadian-based companies who can meet their needs, and to help product manufacturers and distributors identify potential new clients and/or partners within the PV industry for new and improved technologies. To assist the reader, an information matrix is provided that identifies the product and service types offered by each firm and its primary clients served. A list of companies by province or territory is also included. The main section lists companies in alphabetical order. Information presented for each includes address, contact person, prime activity, geographic area served, languages in which services are offered, and a brief company profile

  11. The Canadian safeguards program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Canada provides technical support to the International Atomic Energy Agency for the development of safeguards relevant to Canadian designed and built nuclear facilities. Some details of this program are discussed, including the philosophy and development of CANDU safeguards systems; the unique equipment developed for these systems; the provision of technical experts; training programs; liaison with other technical organizations; research and development; implementation of safeguards systems at various nuclear facilities; and the anticipated future direction of the safeguards program

  12. On Realities of Canadian Multiculturalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦辰

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a multicultural country which was mainly established by immigrants. Just because of that, Canadian govern⁃ment has carried out the policy of multiculturalism since1970s. However, it has encountered many problems such as policy con⁃flicts, national identity, democracy-inquiry and racial discrimination, etc. Hence the Canadian multiculturalism has been in a di⁃lemma.

  13. Distribution of genetic polymorphisms of genes encoding drug metabolizing enzymes & drug transporters - a review with Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurusamy Umamaheswaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase I and II drug metabolizing enzymes (DME and drug transporters are involved in the absorption, distribution, metabolism as well as elimination of many therapeutic agents, toxins and various pollutants. Presence of genetic polymorphisms in genes encoding these proteins has been associated with marked inter-individual variability in their activity that could result in variation in drug response, toxicity as well as in disease predisposition. The emergent field pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics (PGx is a promising discipline, as it predicts disease risk, selection of proper medication with regard to response and toxicity, and appropriate drug dosage guidance based on an individual′s genetic make-up. Consequently, genetic variations are essential to understand the ethnic differences in disease occurrence, development, prognosis, therapeutic response and toxicity. For that reason, it is necessary to establish the normative frequency of these genes in a particular population before unraveling the genotype-phenotype associations. Although a fair amount of allele frequency data are available in Indian populations, the existing pharmacogenetic data have not been compiled into a database. This review was intended to compile the normative frequency distribution of the variants of genes encoding DMEs (CYP450s, TPMT, GSTs, COMT, SULT1A1, NAT2 and UGTs and transporter proteins (MDR1, OCT1 and SLCO1B1 with Indian perspective.

  14. Axon Transport and Neuropathy: Relevant Perspectives on the Etiopathogenesis of Familial Dysautonomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourtellotte, Warren G

    2016-03-01

    Peripheral neuropathies are highly prevalent and are most often associated with chronic disease, side effects from chemotherapy, or toxic-metabolic abnormalities. Neuropathies are less commonly caused by genetic mutations, but studies of the normal function of mutated proteins have identified particular vulnerabilities that often implicate mitochondrial dynamics and axon transport mechanisms. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies are a group of phenotypically related diseases caused by monogenic mutations that primarily affect sympathetic and sensory neurons. Here, I review evidence to indicate that many genetic neuropathies are caused by abnormalities in axon transport. Moreover, in hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies. There may be specific convergence on gene mutations that disrupt nerve growth factor signaling, upon which sympathetic and sensory neurons critically depend. PMID:26724390

  15. Metabolism and transport of tamoxifen in relation to its effectiveness: new perspectives on an ongoing controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Damkier, Per; Lash, Timothy L

    2014-01-01

    Tamoxifen reduces the rate of breast cancer recurrence by approximately a half. Tamoxifen is metabolized to more active metabolites by enzymes encoded by polymorphic genes, including cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). Tamoxifen is a substrate for ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins. We review tamoxifen's clinical pharmacology and use meta-analyses to evaluate the clinical epidemiology studies conducted to date on the association between CYP2D6 inhibition and tamoxifen effectiveness. Our find...

  16. The practice of cost benefit analysis in the transport sector: A Mexican perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Soberanis, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Mexico's public investment process is strengthened by an institutional framework that ensures that projects with a high social return are given preference. The Federal Law of Budget and Financial Responsibility establishes as prerequisite for federal investments the obligation to present a Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA), and to get the Investment Unit approval. This paper describes the use of CBA for the social and economic evaluation of transport infrastructure in Mexico and is made from the po...

  17. Satellite perspective of aerosol intercontinental transport: From qualitative tracking to quantitative characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongbin; Remer, Lorraine A.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Chin, Mian; Zhang, Yan

    2013-04-01

    Evidence of aerosol intercontinental transport (ICT) is both widespread and compelling. Model simulations suggest that ICT could significantly affect regional air quality and climate, but the broad inter-model spread of results underscores a need of constraining model simulations with measurements. Satellites have inherent advantages over in situ measurements to characterize aerosol ICT, because of their spatial and temporal coverage. Significant progress in satellite remote sensing of aerosol properties during the Earth Observing System (EOS) era offers the opportunity to increase quantitative characterization and estimates of aerosol ICT beyond the capability of pre-EOS era satellites that could only qualitatively track aerosol plumes. EOS satellites also observe emission strengths and injection heights of some aerosols, aerosol precursors, and aerosol-related gases, which can help characterize aerosol ICT. We review how the current generation of satellite measurements have been used to (1) characterize the evolution of aerosol plumes (e.g., both horizontal and vertical transport, and properties) on an episodic basis, (2) understand the seasonal and inter-annual variations of aerosol ICT and their control factors, (3) estimate the export and import fluxes of aerosols, and (4) evaluate and constrain model simulations. Substantial effort is needed to further explore an integrated approach using measurements from on-orbit satellites (e.g., A-Train synergy) for observational characterization and model constraint of aerosol intercontinental transport and to develop advanced sensors for future missions.

  18. Dynamics of Air Transport Networks: A Review from a Complex Systems Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Rocha, Luis Enrique Correa

    2016-01-01

    Air transport systems are highly dynamic at temporal scales from minutes to years. This dynamic behavior not only characterizes the evolution of the system but also affect the system's functioning. Understanding the evolutionary mechanisms is thus fundamental in order to better design optimal air transport networks that benefits companies, passengers and the environment. In this review, we briefly present and discuss the state-of-art on time-evolving air transport networks. We distinguish the structural analysis of sequences of network snapshots, ideal for long-term network evolution (e.g. annual evolution), and temporal paths, preferred for short-term dynamics (e.g. hourly evolution). We emphasize that most previous research focused on the first modeling approach (i.e. long-term) whereas only a few studies look at high-resolution temporal paths. We conclude the review highlighting that much research remains to be done, both to apply already available methods and to develop new measures for temporal paths on ...

  19. Satellite Perspective of Aerosol Intercontinental Transport: From Qualitative Tracking to Quantitative Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongbin; Remer, Lorraine A.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Chin, Mian; Zhang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of aerosol intercontinental transport (ICT) is both widespread and compelling. Model simulations suggest that ICT could significantly affect regional air quality and climate, but the broad inter-model spread of results underscores a need of constraining model simulations with measurements. Satellites have inherent advantages over in situ measurements to characterize aerosol ICT, because of their spatial and temporal coverage. Significant progress in satellite remote sensing of aerosol properties during the Earth Observing System (EOS) era offers opportunity to increase quantitative characterization and estimates of aerosol ICT, beyond the capability of pre-EOS era satellites that could only qualitatively track aerosol plumes. EOS satellites also observe emission strengths and injection heights of some aerosols, aerosol precursors, and aerosol-related gases, which can help characterize aerosol ICT. After an overview of these advances, we review how the current generation of satellite measurements have been used to (1) characterize the evolution of aerosol plumes (e.g., both horizontal and vertical transport, and properties) on an episodic basis, (2) understand the seasonal and inter-annual variations of aerosol ICT and their control factors, (3) estimate the export and import fluxes of aerosols, and (4) evaluate and constrain model simulations. Substantial effort is needed to further explore an integrated approach using measurements from on-orbit satellites (e.g., A-Train synergy) for observational characterization and model constraint of aerosol intercontinental transport and to develop advanced sensors for future missions.

  20. Railroad perspective on transportation of spent fuel and high level waste and recent ICC decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper attempts to summarize some railroad viewpoints on issues concerning transportation of spent fuel and high-level waste and to outline Interstate Commerce Commission decisions arising over differing opinions about the manner of such transportation. Although the railroad position includes a number of legal arguments, it also involves operating expertise and a number of well-based questions concerning the safety of casks under actual operating conditions in regular trains. The commonly-used estimates of accident frequency and severity in regular trains are severe underestimates based on a mistake in the annual number of railroad car-miles, inadequacies in and misunderstanding of accident reporting, and invalid assumptions, especially concerning fires, which some actual data suggest are far more frequent than assumed. Thus, railroads estimate casks could be involved in at least 12 accidents involving severe fires by 1990. A number of unanswered questions about casks and perceived inadequacies in testing lead to a conservative railroad position. These include the possibility of escape routes of materials other than by breach such as weld and pressure relief valve failures and direct radiation hazards through loss of shielding. These doubts are fostered through experience with accidents more severe than those used in testing or certification as well as these questions. Also, there is doubt concerning the integrity of fuel rod cladding (used as a second level of containment) in credible accident situations. Moreover, the damage estimates of $1,000 per man rem have been shown to have no relationship to damages in a transportation accident.Added safety is expected in special trains for at least 17 reasons involving speed, transit time, routing, train consist, crew alertness, reduced slack and other reduced hazards and accident opportunities

  1. Canadian beef quality audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Jewison, G; Mann, M; Cherry, B; Altwasser, B; Lower, R; Wiggins, K; Dejonge, R; Thorlakson, B; Moss, E; Mills, C; Grogan, H

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted in 4 Canadian processing plants in 1995-96 to determine the prevalence of quality defects in Canadian cattle. One percent of the annual number of cattle processed in Canada were evaluated on the processing floor and 0.1% were graded in the cooler. Brands were observed on 37% and multiple brands on 6% of the cattle. Forty percent of the cattle had horns, 20% of which were scurs, 33% were stubs, 10% were tipped, and 37% were full length. Tag (mud and manure on the hide) was observed on 34% of the cattle. Bruises were found on 78% of the carcasses, 81% of which were minor in severity. Fifteen percent of the bruises were located on the round, 29% on the loin, 40% on the rib, 16% on the chuck, and 0.02% on the brisket. Grubs were observed in 0.02% of the steers, and injection sites were observed in 1.3% of whole hanging carcasses. Seventy percent of the livers were passed for human food and 14% for pet food; 16% were condemned. Approximately 71% of the liver condemnations were due to liver abscesses. Four percent of the heads, 6% of the tongues, and 0.2% of whole carcasses were condemned. The pregnancy rate in female cattle was approximately 6.7%. The average hot carcass weight was 357 kg (s = 40) in steers, 325 kg (s = 41) in heifers, 305 kg (s = 53) in cows, 388 kg (s = 62) in virgin bulls and 340 kg (s = 39) in mature bulls. The average ribeye area in all cattle was 84 cm2 (s = 12); range 29 cm2 to 128 cm2. Grade fat was highly variable and averaged 9 mm (s = 4) for steers and heifers, 6 mm (s = 6) for cows, 5 mm (s = 1) for virgin bulls, and 4 mm (s = 0.5) for mature bulls. The average lean meat yield was 59.7% in cattle (s = 3.4); range 39% to 67%. One percent of the carcasses were devoid of marbling, 1% were dark cutters, and 0.05% of the steer carcasses were staggy. Six percent of the carcasses had poor conformation, 3.7% were underfinished, and 0.7% were overfinished. Yellow fat was observed in 4% of the carcasses; 10% of carcasses were

  2. Choline on the Move: Perspectives on the Molecular Physiology and Pharmacology of the Presynaptic Choline Transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, E A; Blakely, R D

    2016-01-01

    Genetic, biochemical, physiological, and pharmacological approaches have advanced our understanding of cholinergic biology for over 100 years. High-affinity choline uptake (HACU) was one of the last features of cholinergic signaling to be defined at a molecular level, achieved through the cloning of the choline transporter (CHT, SLC5A7). In retrospect, the molecular era of CHT studies initiated with the identification of hemicholinium-3 (HC-3), a potent, competitive CHT antagonist, though it would take another 30 years before HC-3, in radiolabeled form, was used by Joseph Coyle's laboratory to identify and monitor the dynamics of CHT proteins. Though HC-3 studies provided important insights into CHT distribution and regulation, another 15 years would pass before the structure of CHT genes and proteins were identified, a full decade after the cloning of most other neurotransmitter-associated transporters. The availability of CHT gene and protein probes propelled the development of cell and animal models as well as efforts to gain insights into how human CHT gene variation affects the risk for brain and neuromuscular disorders. Most recently, our group has pursued a broadening of CHT pharmacology, elucidating novel chemical structures that may serve to advance cholinergic diagnostics and medication development. Here we provide a short review of the transformation that has occurred in HACU research and how such advances may promote the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:27288078

  3. Algal biomass as a global source of transport fuels:Overview and development perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kifayat Ullah; Mushtaq Ahmad; Sofia; Vinod Kumar Sharma; Pengmei Lu; Adam Harvey; Muhammad Zafar; Shazia Sultana; C.N. Anyanwu

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the global fuel crisis of the early 1970s, coupled with concerns for the environment, the use of biofuel has been on the increase in many regions throughout the world. At present, a total of approximately 30 billion (30 × 109) liters of biofuel are utilized worldwide annually, although most countries rely hugely on the first generation biofuel. The limitations of the first and second generation biofuel gave rise to current interest in algae as a promising alternative to these conventional biofuel sources. Algal biomass could provide a lion's share of the global transport fuel requirements in future. The present review highlights some important developments in, and potentials of algaculture as a major biomass resource of the future. However, the major constraint to commercial-scale algae farming for energy production is the cost factor, which must be addressed adequately before its potentials can be harnessed.

  4. Algal biomass as a global source of transport fuels: Overview and development perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kifayat Ullah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the global fuel crisis of the early 1970s, coupled with concerns for the environment, the use of biofuel has been on the increase in many regions throughout the world. At present, a total of approximately 30 billion (30×109 liters of biofuel are utilized worldwide annually, although most countries rely hugely on the first generation biofuel. The limitations of the first and second generation biofuel gave rise to current interest in algae as a promising alternative to these conventional biofuel sources. Algal biomass could provide a lion׳s share of the global transport fuel requirements in future. The present review highlights some important developments in, and potentials of algaculture as a major biomass resource of the future. However, the major constraint to commercial-scale algae farming for energy production is the cost factor, which must be addressed adequately before its potentials can be harnessed.

  5. Structural and dynamic perspectives on the promiscuous transport activity of P-glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Nandhitha; Condic-Jurkic, Karmen; O'Mara, Megan L

    2016-09-01

    The multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is expressed in the blood-brain barrier endothelium where it effluxes a range of drug substrates, preventing their accumulation within the brain. P-gp has been studied extensively for 40 years because of its crucial role in the absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of a range of pharmaceutical compounds. Despite this, many aspects of the structure-function mechanism of P-gp are unresolved. Here we review the emerging role of molecular dynamics simulation techniques in our understanding of the membrane-embedded conformation of P-gp. We discuss its conformational plasticity in the presence and absence of ATP, and recent efforts to characterize the drug binding sites and uptake pathways. PMID:27180050

  6. Arctic response strategy: Canadian Coast Guard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revision of the Canadian Coast Guard's Arctic response strategy was described with particular focus on the consultative method used to ensure that all perspectives were taken into consideration. Some tankers used to re-supply fuel to remote Arctic communities carry more than 30,000 tonnes of product, putting them at risk for major spills. The Arctic response strategy was revised to emphasize recommendations for prevention, preparedness and response. Prevention was recognized as the most effective solution to oil spills in the Arctic. The leadership and coordination roles of the Canadian Coast Guard were demonstrated in relation to ship-source oil pollution. The new strategy also outlined the equipment requirements needed to respond to a large spill in the Arctic. Categorization of spill sizes as tier 1 to 4 was determined by examining southern regimes as was the characterization of corresponding equipment. Implementation of the new recommendations of the revised Arctic response strategy will take place over the next 2 years. The prevention aspect will include some legislative changes or stricter guidelines

  7. Results and perspectives of particle transport measurements in gases in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedernikov, Andrei; Balapanov, Daniyar; Beresnev, Sergey

    2016-07-01

    Solid or liquid particles floating in a gas belong to dispersed systems, most often referred to as aerosols or dust clouds. They are widely spread in nature, involving both environmental and technological issues. They attract growing attention in microgravity, particularly in complex plasma, simulation of protoplanetary dust clouds, atmospheric aerosol, etc. Brownian random walk, motion of particles in gravity, electrostatic and magnetic fields, are well defined. We present the survey showing that the quantitative description of a vast variety of other types of motion is much less accurate, often known only in a limited region of parameters, sometimes described by the contradictory models, poorly verified experimentally. It is true even for the most extensively investigated transport phenomena - thermophoresis and photophoresis, not to say about diffusiophoresis, gravito-photophoresis, various other types of particle motion driven by physicochemical transformation and accommodation peculiarities on the particle-gas interface, combination of different processes. The number of publications grow very quickly, only those dealing with thermophoresis exceeded 300 in 2015. Hence, there is a strong need in high quality experimental data on particle transport properties with growing interest to expand the scope for non-isometric particles, agglomerates, dense clouds, interrelation with the two-phase flow dynamics. In most cases, the accuracy and sometimes the entire possibility of the measurement is limited by the presence of gravity. Floating particles have the density considerably different from that of the gas. They sediment, often with gliding and tumbling, that perturbs the motion trajectory, local hydrodynamic environment around particles, all together complicating definition of the response. Measurements at very high or very low Knudsen numbers (rarefied gas or too big particles) are of particular difficulty. Experiments assume creating a well-defined force, i

  8. Canadian National Vegetation Classification (CNVC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The mandate of the CNVC is to comprehensively classify and describe natural and semi-natural Canadian vegetation in an ecologically meaningful manner. The...

  9. Modeling conversion and transport phenomena in solid-state fermentation: a review and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahardjo, Yovita S P; Tramper, Johannes; Rinzema, Arjen

    2006-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is accompanied inevitably by development of concentration and temperature gradients within the substrate particles and microbial biofilms. These gradients are needed for driving the transport of substrates and products. In addition, concentration gradients have been suggested to be crucial for obtaining the characteristics that define the products of SSF; nevertheless, gradients are also known to result in reduced productivity and unwanted side reactions. Solid-state fermentations are generally batch processes and this further complicates their understanding as conditions change with time. Mathematical models are therefore needed for improving the understanding of SSF processes and allowing their manipulation to achieve the desired outcomes. Existing models of SSF processes describe coupled substrate conversion and diffusion and the consequent microbial growth. Existing models disregard many of the significant phenomena that are known to influence SSF. As a result, available models cannot explain the generation of the numerous products that form during any SSF process and the outcome of the process in terms of the characteristics of the final product. This review critically evaluates the proposed models and their experimental validation. In addition, important issues that need to be resolved for improved modeling of SSF are discussed.

  10. New perspective on the accessibility of railway transport for the vulnerable traveller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vulnerable travellers experience various problems in the transport environment. These may reduce public travel confidence and consequently lead to decreased mobility. A goal of our research is to find out how to improve the accessibility to railway travelling, especially, for persons with functional limitations. By reducing barriers, the ability of travelling would be improved, and consequently allow for more flexible travel behaviors. In order to develop a model and a method of measurement for accessibility, we (a) constructed a reference group of representative 'typical older persons' (65–85 years) from questionnaire data, and (b) developed an accessibility measure for persons with functional limitations. In this measure barriers have different weights for the different persons depending on their functional ability and travel behavior. This gives the probability of facing a certain barrier when travelling to a certain destination; that is, a measure of accessibility for the individual. The more weight placed on a certain barrier, the less probable it is that the particular journey will take place. These weights will be obtained in forthcoming research on the perception of a set of various travel scenarios representing barriers

  11. Transport Turnover with Spatial Econometric Perspective under the Energy Conservation and Emissions Reduction in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongzhen Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of spatial econometrics model is used to study the space correlation of road turnover (freight and passenger among the 31 provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions in China. Since some factors (such as the level of economic development, industrial structure, and population may impact the road turnover (freight and passenger, these indexes are used as variables to reflect the influence in this model. The data of 31 provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions in China in 2012 is collected to analyze the method. The results show that when the characteristics of turnover in a region are analyzed, it is necessary to consider the influence of its surrounding areas in space. Different scenarios were established according to different economic growth and degree of emission reduction to analyze the influence of the reduction of road turnover in regions with high spatial cluster effect to the whole country. We also carried out how to use the space effect of road turnover to the energy saving and emission reduction in the transportation industry.

  12. Stress from an administrative perspective in public transport drivers in Mexico City: Minibus and metrobus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lámbarry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El estrés es una de las enfermedades laborales que más afectan a los trabajadores en todo el mundo,perjudicando su productividad y rendimiento tanto propio como de las organizaciones donde laboran,e incluso su salud física y mental. Según la Organización Internacional del Trabajo son los trabajadoresmexicanos quienes mayormente lo padecen a nivel mundial, toda vez que una de las profesiones másestresantes es ser conductor de transporte público. Es por ello que el objetivo de esta investigación esestudiar el estrés laboral en los conductores de autobuses de tránsito rápido y microbuses de la Ciu-dad de México. El método empleado se fundamenta en el análisis estadístico factorial exploratorio. Apartir de lo anterior, se concluye que los factores que más inciden en la aparición de estrés son organi-zacionales, ambientales (físico/individual, intrínsecos del puesto, extraorganizacionales e individuales.Aunque divergentes entre los conductores, son los de minibús los que más lo padecen.

  13. Perspectives for drive technologies and biogenic energy sources in the transport sector through to the year 2050; Perspektiven fuer Antriebstechnologien und biogene Energietraeger im Verkehr bis 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumann, Karin; Mueller-Langer, Franziska [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gGmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    The supply and use of biofuels as well as perspectively also other renewable energy resources were and will be strongly driven by policies and respective frame conditions. On national and EU level these are set and foreseeable until 2020. However with regard to reaching the 2050-targets no defined measures are in place. In depency how the strategic focus will be led with regard to energy resources and related technologies different scenarios are possible to meet the energy demand in transport until 2050. This is especially true for transport sector like aviation where only very limited alternatives to conventional jetfuel are possible.

  14. Canadian leadership in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's energy is complex and an important resource as it fuels and funds the economy. The unique character of Canada's energy production and consumption provides strength to the country. The purpose of this booklet was to highlight Canada's energy production and consumption and to demonstrate Canada's rank globally with other major global energy players. The document also presented information on the value of Canada's energy exports, Canada's relationship with the United States, and Canada's energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. Specifically, the document discussed Canada's energy in a global context; the value of Canada's energy exports; domestic value of energy; Canada's unique energy mix; Canada's electricity mix; Canada's carbon dioxide emissions; energy strategies; and the importance of energy to Canadians. It was concluded that there are 14 federal, provincial and territorial jurisdictions managing their respective energy resources. All of these regions, with the exception of Saskatchewan have produced an energy strategy document or a climate change action plan focusing on 8 areas of action, notably awareness; benefit; efficiency; development; diversification; electricity; and emissions. refs., tabs., figs.

  15. Harvey Cushing's Canadian connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feindel, William

    2003-01-01

    During his surgical career between 1896 and 1934, Harvey Cushing made eight visits to Canada. He had a broad impact on Canadian medicine and neurosurgery. Cushing's students Wilder Penfield and Kenneth McKenzie became outstanding leaders of the two major centers in Canada for neurosurgical treatment and training. On his first trip to Canada, shortly after completing his surgical internship in August 1896, Cushing traveled with members of his family through the Maritime Provinces and visited hospitals in Quebec and Montreal. Eight years later, in February 1904, as a successful young neurosurgeon at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, he reported to the Montreal Medico-Chirurgical Society on his surgical experience in 20 cases of removal of the trigeminal ganglion for neuralgia. In 1922, as the Charles Mickle Lecturer at the University of Toronto, Cushing assigned his honorarium of $1000 to support a neurosurgical fellowship at Harvard. This was awarded to McKenzie, then a general practitioner, for a year's training with Cushing in 1922-1923. McKenzie returned to initiate the neurosurgical services at the Toronto General Hospital, where he developed into a master surgeon and teacher. On Cushing's second visit to McGill University in October 1922, he and Sir Charles Sherrington inaugurated the new Biology Building of McGill's Medical School, marking the first stage of a Rockefeller-McGill program of modernization. In May 1929, Cushing attended the dedication of the Osler Library at McGill. In September 1934, responding to the invitation of Penfield, Cushing presented a Foundation Lecture-one of his finest addresses on the philosophy of neurosurgery-at the opening of the Montreal Neurological Institute. On that same trip, Cushing's revisit to McGill's Osler Library convinced him to turn over his own treasure of historical books to Yale University.

  16. Canadian physical activity guidelines for adults: are Canadians aware?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Leila Pfaeffli; LeBlanc, Allana G; Orr, Krystn; Berry, Tanya; Deshpande, Sameer; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; O'Reilly, Norm; Rhodes, Ryan E; Tremblay, Mark S; Faulkner, Guy

    2016-09-01

    The present study evaluated awareness of the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology's 2011 Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for Adults and assessed correlates. Reported awareness of the physical activity (PA) guidelines was 12.9% (204/1586) of the total sample surveyed. More than half (55%) self-reported meeting PA guidelines of ≥ 150 min of moderate to vigorous PA per week. Awareness of PA guidelines was significantly related to participants' level of PA (χ(2) (1) = 30.63, p < 0.001, φ = -0.14), but not to any demographic variables. PMID:27560541

  17. Responsible Canadian energy progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents oil and gas companies throughout Canada; its members produce over 90% of Canada's natural gas and crude oil output. The aim of the Association is to improve the economics of the Canadian upstream petroleum sector in an environmentally and socially responsible way. The aim of this Responsible Canadian Energy report is to present the performance data of CAPP's members for the year 2009. Data, trends, and performance analyses are provided throughout the document. This analysis makes it possible to determine where progress has been made and where performance improvement is necessary. It also presents success stories and best practices so that other companies can learn from them how to improve their own performance. This paper provides useful information on the performance of the upstream petroleum industry in Canada and highlights where the focus should be for further improvement in its performance.

  18. Political Affiliation of Canadian Professors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reza Nakhaie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The social role of universities has been the subject of a lengthy debate as to whether those who teach in the academy are system-legitimizing conservatives or radicals helping to generate critical thinking that challenges the status quo. The aim of this paper is to evaluate political affiliations of Canadian university professors based on a national survey conducted in 2000. The study shows that Canadian professors’ political affiliation can be identified as either left or right depending on how the political orientation of political parties is conceptualized. University professors tend to vote more for the Liberal Party than other parties, and view it as centrist party. Moreover, the study highlights a complex and non-monolithic picture of the Canadian academy. University professors are not politically homogenous and party vote depends on the prestige of their university, their discipline, gender, ethnicity, marital status, generation, and agreement with liberalism.

  19. Diversity management in the Canadian workplace: Towards an anti-racism approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2012-01-01

    with workplace discrimination and racism in the Canadian workplace, this paper underscores the need to decenter the focus of diversity management from a business imperative to an antidiscrimination and social justice imperative. Within this latter perspective, the paper examines the strengths and limitations...

  20. A Topography for Canadian Curriculum Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Cynthia

    1999-01-01

    Presents challenges to Canadian curriculum theorists: (1) to create curriculum languages and genres that represent all of Canada; (2) to use Canadian scholars and indigenous languages to find these curriculum languages and genres; (3) to seek interpretive tools to understand what it means to be Canadian; and (4) to create curriculum theory that…

  1. The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rachel E.; Boulos, David; Garber, Bryan G.; Jetly, Rakesh; Sareen, Jitender

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) collected detailed information on mental health problems, their impacts, occupational and nonoccupational determinants of mental health, and the use of mental health services from a random sample of 8200 serving personnel. The objective of this article is to provide a firm scientific foundation for understanding and interpreting the CFMHS findings. Methods: This narrative review first provides a snapshot of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), focusing on 2 key determinants of mental health: the deployment of more than 40,000 personnel in support of the mission in Afghanistan and the extensive renewal of the CAF mental health system. The findings of recent population-based CAF mental health research are reviewed, with a focus on findings from the very similar mental health survey done in 2002. Finally, key aspects of the methods of the 2013 CFMHS are presented. Results: The findings of 20 peer-reviewed publications using the 2002 mental health survey data are reviewed, along with those of 25 publications from other major CAF mental health research projects executed over the past decade. Conclusions: More than a decade of population-based mental health research in the CAF has provided a detailed picture of its mental health and use of mental health services. This knowledge base and the homology of the 2013 survey with the 2002 CAF survey and general population surveys in 2002 and 2012 will provide an unusual opportunity to use the CFMHS to situate mental health in the CAF in a historical and societal perspective. PMID:27270738

  2. Very long term development of the Dutch Inland Waterway Transport System: Policy analysis, transport projections, shipping scenarios, and a new perspective on economic growth and future discounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dorsser, J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis addresses how a new method for the evaluation of policies with a very long term impact on the Dutch Inland Waterway Transport (IWT) system can be developed. It proposes an outline for a very long term transport model, prepares a number of very long term scenarios, and indicates that a di

  3. Canadian contributions studies for the WFIRST instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, J.-F.; Rowlands, N.; Grandmont, F. J.; Lafrenière, D.; Marois, C.; Daigle, O.; Thibault, S.; Schade, D.; Artigau, É.; Brousseau, D.; Maire, J.; Cretot-Richert, G.; Ducharme, M.-È.; Levesque, L. E.; Laurin, D.; Dupuis, J.

    2016-07-01

    WFIRST-AFTA is the NASA's highest ranked astrophysics mission for the next decade that was identified in the New World, New Horizon survey. The mission scientific drivers correspond to some of the deep questions identified in the Canadian LRP2010, and are also of great interest for the Canadian scientists. Given that there is also a great interest in having an international collaboration in this mission, the Canadian Space Agency awarded two contracts to study a Canadian participation in the mission, one related to each instrument. This paper presents a summary of the technical contributions that were considered for a Canadian contribution to the coronagraph and wide field instruments.

  4. Universal values of Canadian astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

    2012-11-01

    Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

  5. Canadian Postcolonialism: Recovering British Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2005-01-01

    The field of Postcolonial Studies is one of the academic fashions that has arisen in an attempt to amend or replace radical theories of social power since the alleged discrediting of Marxism. The Canadian case is more ambiguous. Postcolonialism, already an essentially contested concept, is especially conflicted where Canada is concerned. Canada…

  6. Canadian Government Electronic Information Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Kirsti

    1993-01-01

    Examines development and evolution of Canadian government information policy in response to issues of preservation of data, information industry involvement in government data development and marketing, role of Crown copyright, and public access to government information in electronic formats. Six key information policy instruments are also…

  7. Nuclear regulation - the Canadian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the Atomic Energy Control Board was established 35 years ago the basic philosophy of nuclear regulation in Canada and the underlying principles of the regulatory process remain essentially unchanged. This paper outlines the Canadian approach to nuclear regulation and explains in practical terms how the principles of regulation are applied. (author)

  8. Toward Revealing the Critical Role of Perovskite Coverage in Highly Efficient Electron-Transport Layer-Free Perovskite Solar Cells: An Energy Band and Equivalent Circuit Model Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Like; Xu, Jie; Sun, Xiaoxiang; Du, Yangyang; Cai, Hongkun; Ni, Jian; Li, Juan; Hu, Ziyang; Zhang, Jianjun

    2016-04-20

    Currently, most efficient perovskite solar cells (PVKSCs) with a p-i-n structure require simultaneously electron transport layers (ETLs) and hole transport layers (HTLs) to help collecting photogenerated electrons and holes for obtaining high performance. ETL free planar PVKSC is a relatively new and simple structured solar cell that gets rid of the complex and high temperature required ETL (such as compact and mesoporous TiO2). Here, we demonstrate the critical role of high coverage of perovskite in efficient ETL free PVKSCs from an energy band and equivalent circuit model perspective. From an electrical point of view, we confirmed that the low coverage of perovskite does cause localized short circuit of the device. With coverage optimization, a planar p-i-n(++) device with a power conversion efficiency of over 11% was achieved, implying that the ETL layer may not be necessary for an efficient device as long as the perovskite coverage is approaching 100%.

  9. Variables of Canadian Aboriginal Secondary Education from the Macro and Micro Perspective%加拿大土著中等教育之变量研究:基于宏观与微观视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忠文

    2012-01-01

    多元文化政策和各项土著教育政策的实施促进了加拿大土著教育的良性发展。然而,根据最近统计数据,与非土著学生相比,土著在学习态度,学业成绩、出勤率和稳定学习等诸多方面均表现出极大的差距。根据雅塔·卡努教授对土著学生所做的教育调查报告的结果展开了深度思考,从土著文化与课程的有机融合,到宏观结构政策的积极配合,这两种变量对土著学生取得学业成功至关重要,缺一不可。%The implementation of the Multicuhuralism and several Aboriginal Educational policies has contributed to the positive development of the Canadian Aboriginal education. According to the recent statis- tics, however, the Aboriginal students have a huge gap with the non -Aboriginal students in terms of atti- tudes, academic achievements, attendance, and school retention. The article commences the deep thinking from the conclusion of Yatta's research into the Aboriginal students. The equally important variables, from the organic integration structural policies, of Aboriginal cultures into curriculum instructions to the positive coordination of the macro are vital to the Aboriginal students" school success, neither of which can be overlooked

  10. An Interactive Perspective on Transportation Function and Demand%基于运输需求互动性的运输职能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭琴

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, on the basis of the findings of previous studies on the interrelationship between transportation and social economy, we analyzed the inadequacies of these researches in methodology and perspective, pointed out the interaction between the demand for transportation and the social economy through which we could have a more accurate grasp of the role played by transportation in economic development, and accordingly argued that transportation could support, guide and control the development of the social economy.%在总结现有运输与社会经济之间相互作用关系研究成果的基础上,分析了目前运输职能研究方法和视角上的不足之处,指出了通过探析运输需求与社会经济之间的互动联系,可以更准确地把握运输在社会经济发展中所起的作用,并据此提出了运输对社会经济具有支撑职能、引导职能和控制职能.

  11. Prospects for Research in Transport and Logistics on a Regional: Global Perspective (I: February 2009: İstanbul: Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Ülengin, Füsun

    2009-01-01

    Committees, i -- Words of Welcome and Gratitude, ii -- Introduction, iii -- Chapter 1 Global Issues in Logistics and Transportation, 1 -- Potential to Reduce GHG through Efficient Logistic Concepts, 3 -- Werner Rothengatter -- A methodological framework for the evaluation and prioritisation of multinational transport projects: the Case of euro-asian transport linkages, 21 / Dimitrios TSAMBOULAS, Angeliki KOPSACHEILI -- Container port throughput performance - case study: Far east, north west e...

  12. The prospects for Canadian uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1980s have seen a decline in markets for uranium concentrate, largely as a result of falling estimates for reactor fuel requirements and rising inventories. Spot market prices fell to $44 in September 1982, but have since risen back to $60. World production also fell in 1982 and is not expected to increase significantly before 1990. Some opportunities exist for Canadian producers with new low-cost deposits to replace high-cost producers in Canada and other countries, particularly the United States. There will be strong competition between Canadian producers as well as from Australia. Australia's reserves are somewhat larger than Canada's, although the reported ore grades tend to be lower than those of Saskatchewan

  13. Canadian electricity exports and imports : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This energy market assessment (EMA) report focuses on recent trends in exports and imports of Canadian electricity and the associated revenue and pricing. It also outlines major developments in electricity markets in Canada and the United States in the past decade with reference to the implications of electricity trade for both consumers and the power industry. This guide comes at a time of market openings in Alberta and Ontario, and with recent increases in applications to the National Energy Board for electricity exports and international power lines. The first chapter presents an overview of current Canadian federal regulatory regime for electricity exports and restructuring of the electric power industry in Canada and the United States. The second chapter reviews electricity exports and imports from a national perspective. Provincial analyses were presented in the third chapter which also covered international interconnections, export and import trends, export and import pricing, implications for consumer prices, and factors affecting future trade. The final chapter presents some observations on each of these issues. It is noted that exports have fluctuated significantly from year to year due to specific events including the shutdown of nuclear power plants, high gas prices, and the California electricity crisis in 2000-2001. Canadian international electricity trade has continued to yield net revenues of $1 to $2 billion per year due to strong electricity export prices. The relationship between export and import prices varies from province to province. Canadian utilities have emphasized the need for more transmission to the U.S. to foster future trade and improve transmission reliability. refs., tabs., figs

  14. Exporting the Canadian licensing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the problems of an overseas regulatory agency in licensing a Canadian-supplied nuclear plant which is referenced to a plant in Canada. Firstly, the general problems associated with the use of a reference plant are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of specific problems which arise from the licensing practices in Canada. The paper concludes with recommendations to simplify the task of demonstrating the licensability of an overseas CANDU plant

  15. Congestion pricing of Canadian airports

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph I. Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Under congestion pricing, Canadian airports would annually save between $72 and $105 million. Social costs per landing and takeoff decrease about $300 at Toronto and Vancouver and $50 at Calgary and Montreal. Slot constraints fail to eliminate this airport congestion. Congestion prices are lower on average than existing weight-based prices. Current airport capacity accommodates at least five more years of traffic growth before congestion reaches current levels. Substantial welfare gains occur...

  16. Canadian Content in Video Games

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Leonard

    2005-01-01

    THEME: Internationalism: Worlds at Play Topics: Internationalism, Identity in Gaming and Learning to Play Abstract: How does Canada fit into the global cultural context of video games? This paper investigates the culture being reflected in video games being produced in Canada as Canada is one of the world's leading producers of video games. It examines the how Canadian culture is represented in current new media artistic output against the culture, or lack of culture, being represented in vid...

  17. Canadian Energy Research Institute, Board of Directors annual report: Year ended March 31, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Energy Research Institute was established in 1975 to meet a need for independent and non-partisan perspectives on energy matters. The Institute brings together experts and officials from energy industries, universities, and governments to study energy issues and opportunities. Institute sponsors include federal and provincial government departments, a university, the Private Energy Research Association, and a number of foreign governments and corporations. Services provided by the Institute include government/industry liaison, provision of energy information, publication of results of analyses and policy recommendations, and training of energy economists. In 1991/92, the Institute released several important studies, including two on emerging energy technologies and on market-based means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The Institute's financial base was broadened by the addition of sponsorship agreements with Environment Canada and the Northwest Territories energy ministry. A broad range of studies was conducted on such topics as world gas trade, alternative transportation fuels, emissions permit trading, and the world oil market. An annotated listing of studies and reports published in 1990/91 and research projects in 1991/92 is included

  18. Canadian fusion fuels technology project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project was launched in 1982 to coordinate Canada's provision of fusion fuels technology to international fusion power development programs. The project has a mandate to extend and adapt existing Canadian tritium technologies for use in international fusion power development programs. 1985-86 represents the fourth year of the first five-year term of the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project (CFFTP). This reporting period coincides with an increasing trend in global fusion R and D to direct more effort towards the management of tritium. This has resulted in an increased linking of CFFTP activities and objectives with those of facilities abroad. In this way there has been a continuing achievement resulting from CFFTP efforts to have cooperative R and D and service activities with organizations abroad. All of this is aided by the cooperative international atmosphere within the fusion community. This report summarizes our past year and provides some highlights of the upcoming year 1986/87, which is the final year of the first five-year phase of the program. AECL (representing the Federal Government), the Ministry of Energy (representing Ontario) and Ontario Hydro, have given formal indication of their intent to continue with a second five-year program. Plans for the second phase will continue to emphasize tritium technology and remote handling

  19. Conference summaries. Canadian Nuclear Association 29. annual conference; Canadian Nuclear Society 10. annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 15 papers from the twenty-ninth Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association. Abstracts were also prepared for the 102 papers from the tenth Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society

  20. entering the postindustrial society: the canadian case

    OpenAIRE

    Matejko, Alexander J.

    1986-01-01

    abstract: the canadian federation is based on the substantial autonomy of the provinces constituting it, the welfare orientation of central bodies, the volunteer activities at the grass-root level, and the external policy open to the world. there are no any doubts about the genuinely democratic character of canadian internal politics or the commitment of canadians to the world peace. the economic prosperity of the country is secured by the mineral resources, good agriculture, and the intensiv...

  1. Economic Perspectives on Automated Demand Responsive Transportation and Shared Taxi Services - Analytical models and simulations for policy analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jokinen, Jani-Pekka

    2016-01-01

    The automated demand responsive transportation (DRT) and modern shared taxi services provide shared trips for passengers, adapting dynamically to trip requests by routing a fleet of vehicles operating without any fixed routes or schedules. Compared with traditional public transportation, these new services provide trips without transfers and free passengers from the necessity of using timetables and maps of route networks. Furthermore, automated DRT applies real-time traffic information in ve...

  2. Identifying Canadian freshwater fishes through DNA barcodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Hubert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA barcoding aims to provide an efficient method for species-level identifications using an array of species specific molecular tags derived from the 5' region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene. The efficiency of the method hinges on the degree of sequence divergence among species and species-level identifications are relatively straightforward when the average genetic distance among individuals within a species does not exceed the average genetic distance between sister species. Fishes constitute a highly diverse group of vertebrates that exhibit deep phenotypic changes during development. In this context, the identification of fish species is challenging and DNA barcoding provide new perspectives in ecology and systematics of fishes. Here we examined the degree to which DNA barcoding discriminate freshwater fish species from the well-known Canadian fauna, which currently encompasses nearly 200 species, some which are of high economic value like salmons and sturgeons. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We bi-directionally sequenced the standard 652 bp "barcode" region of COI for 1360 individuals belonging to 190 of the 203 Canadian freshwater fish species (95%. Most species were represented by multiple individuals (7.6 on average, the majority of which were retained as voucher specimens. The average genetic distance was 27 fold higher between species than within species, as K2P distance estimates averaged 8.3% among congeners and only 0.3% among concpecifics. However, shared polymorphism between sister-species was detected in 15 species (8% of the cases. The distribution of K2P distance between individuals and species overlapped and identifications were only possible to species group using DNA barcodes in these cases. Conversely, deep hidden genetic divergence was revealed within two species, suggesting the presence of cryptic species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study evidenced that freshwater fish

  3. Wrong side of the tracks: the neglected human costs of transporting oil and gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Lloyd; Stretesky, Paul

    2014-06-14

    The connection between human rights and climate change is most evident when examining carbon dioxide emissions that result from burning fossil fuels (e.g., sea level rise and displaced coastal cultures). However, the transport of fossil fuels also has human rights implications for human rights and climate change. This research focuses on the health and safety risks inflicted on those residents who are adjacent to the railways that ship fossil fuels along the US-Canada transportation corridors. Applying sociological and jurisprudential perspectives, we review the environmental/climate justice literature as it pertains to industrial transport corridors, documenting the forms of heightened risk imposed on those living along these transportation paths. Next, we develop an illustrative case study of Canada's worst rail catastrophe. In so doing, we provide evidence of a decades-long failure of US and Canadian regulators to prevent such disasters. We interpret that disaster through a human rights case law suggesting that States have an affirmative duty to protect their citizens from foreseeable disasters. Based on this analysis, we propose specific rail safety regulatory reforms. We argue that if the US and Canadian governments implement these regulations as required under human rights law, they can more effectively honor their obligations to their citizens who are paying a high human cost for the material benefits associated with increased energy production.

  4. Sea ice in the Canadian Arctic in the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate warming will occur first and most intensely in Arctic regions, according to the numerical simulations of future climate performed with different Global Climate Models (GCMs). It includes the simulations performed by the Meteorological Service of Canada. The observations gathered in the Arctic indicate that the present warming has no precedent over the past four hundred years. Since the 1970s, data acquired mainly by satellite indicates that the extent of Arctic sea ice decreased at a rate of approximately three per cent per decade. Over the period 1969-2000, a similar rate of decrease has been observed within Canadian Arctic waters. Over the past forty years, estimates of the thickness of ice in the Arctic, based on submarine measurements, show a 40 per cent decrease. By 2050, if all the conditions remain as they are, the Arctic Ocean could be ice free. The most widely held scientific opinion seems to be that in the future there will be less ice in the Arctic than what was observed in the past, an opinion that is still being debated by scientists. The development of local natural resources and trans-shipment between Europe and Asia could increase dramatically in a future with less ice. Marine transportation in the Canadian Arctic would be expanded. Climatological analysis results of Canadian ice information is presented by the authors, and they have chosen to discuss various probable scenarios related to ice conditions during this century. 13 refs., 8 figs

  5. Perspectives on EU Transport Guidelines – Evaluation of Purchasing’s Consideration of Outsourcing Transport Route Services to Turkey, a New Gate From the Old Silk Way Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan ADA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of the new member states to the European Union, the study aims to demonstrate awareness of the attendant challenges of increases in the congestion on railroads and motorways in the connections to the developing markets of the Far East and to the development of the Trans European Networks (TEN. There is growing importance for the purchasing source management function of supplier integration and supplier development to include Turkey – at the intersection of the Asian and European transport corridors and once considered in ancient times as the Silk Way Road – as an alternative route to achieve competitive advantage.

  6. The Canadian Astronomy Data Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Nicholas M.; Schade, D.; Astronomy Data Centre, Canadian

    2011-01-01

    The Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC) is the world's largest astronomical data center, holding over 0.5 Petabytes of information, and serving nearly 3000 astronomers worldwide. Its current data collections include BLAST, CFHT, CGPS, FUSE, Gemini, HST, JCMT, MACHO, MOST, and numerous other archives and services. It provides extensive data archiving, curation, and processing expertise, via projects such as MegaPipe, and enables substantial day-to-day collaboration between resident astronomers and computer specialists. It is a stable, powerful, persistent, and properly supported environment for the storage and processing of large volumes of data, a condition that is now absolutely vital for their science potential to be exploited by the community. Through initiatives such as the Common Archive Observation Model (CAOM), the Canadian Virtual Observatory (CVO), and the Canadian Advanced Network for Astronomical Research (CANFAR), the CADC is at the global forefront of advancing astronomical research through improved data services. The CAOM aims to provide homogeneous data access, and hence viable interoperability between a potentially unlimited number of different data collections, at many wavelengths. It is active in the definition of numerous emerging standards within the International Virtual Observatory, and several datasets are already available. The CANFAR project is an initiative to make cloud computing for storage and data-intensive processing available to the community. It does this via a Virtual Machine environment that is equivalent to managing a local desktop. Several groups are already processing science data. CADC is also at the forefront of advanced astronomical data analysis, driven by the science requirements of astronomers both locally and further afield. The emergence of 'Astroinformatics' promises to provide not only utility items like object classifications, but to directly enable new science by accessing previously undiscovered or intractable

  7. REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADIAN ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Modern English is an international language inthe world.Besides Great Britain,English is spokenas first language in 39 countries.These countries arelocated in different regions with different naturalfeatures,history development and cultural character-istics.Thus,English used in these different regionscarries its own regional character—forming Englishregional varieties.The main English regional varieties are:BritishEnglish,American English,Canadian English andSouth African English.Canada is a rich country inNorth America with its own characteristics,which of

  8. Theoretical Analysis of Canadian Lifelong Education Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukan Natalia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the problem of Canadian lifelong education development has been studied. The main objectives of the article are defined as theoretical analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature which highlights different aspects of the research problem; periods of lifelong education development; and determination of lifelong learning role and importance in modern Canadian society.

  9. Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

  10. The Canadian Hospital Executive Simulation System (CHESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, G H; Knotts, U A; Parrish, L G; Shields, C A

    1991-01-01

    The Canadian Hospital Executive Simulation System (CHESS) is a computer-based management decision-making game designed specifically for Canadian hospital managers. The paper begins with an introduction on the development of business and health services industry-specific simulation games. An overview of CHESS is provided, along with a description of its development and a discussion of its educational benefits. PMID:10109530

  11. DATA MINING IN CANADIAN LYNX TIME SERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Karnaboopathy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper sums up the applications of Statistical model such as ARIMA family timeseries models in Canadian lynx data time series analysis and introduces the method of datamining combined with Statistical knowledge to analysis Canadian lynx data series.

  12. Gaps between Beliefs, Perceptions, and Practices: The Every Teacher Project on LGBTQ-Inclusive Education in Canadian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine G.; Meyer, Elizabeth J.; Peter, Tracey; Ristock, Janice; Short, Donn; Campbell, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The Every Teacher Project involved large-scale survey research conducted to identify the beliefs, perspectives, and practices of Kindergarten to Grade 12 educators in Canadian public schools regarding lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ)-inclusive education. Comparisons are made between LGBTQ and cisgender heterosexual…

  13. Biofuel scenarios in a water perspective: the global blue and green water footprint of road transport in 2030

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lienden, van A.R.; Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Meer, van der Th.H.

    2010-01-01

    The trend towards substitution of conventional transport fuels by biofuels requires additional water. The EU aims In the last two centuries, fossil fuels have been our major source of energy. However, issues concerning energy security and the quality of the environment have given an impulse to the d

  14. Biofuel scenarios in a water perspective: The global blue and green water footprint of road transport in 2030

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Lienden, van A.R.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Meer, van der T.H.

    2012-01-01

    Concerns over energy security and climate change stimulate developments towards renewable energy. Transport is expected to switch from fossil fuel use to the use of fuel mixtures with a larger fraction of biofuels, e.g. bio-ethanol and biodiesel. Growing biomass for biofuels requires water, a scarce

  15. A source-to-sink perspective on the mobilization, transport, and burial of organic carbon following the 2008 Sichuan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, A.; Li, G.; Hammond, D. E.; Jin, Z.

    2012-12-01

    The mobilization and fluvial transport of organic carbon is one of the most important geochemical legacies of landslides triggered by extreme events such as major floods or earthquakes. While there is some information about the quantity of carbon carried by rivers under varying flow regimes, and even in the aftermath of single large events, there is little source-to-sink information about the transfer of this carbon through river systems into depositional centers, and about the geochemical transformations following deposition. These processes may be distinct in the aftermath of extreme events because of the association of organic carbon transport with high clastic sediment loads. In this study, we use the legacy of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake in Sichuan, China, to explore the mobilization, transport, and ultimate fate of organic carbon associated with co-seismic and post-seismic landslides. We focus on Zipingpu Reservoir, which serves as a trap for material carried by the Min Jiang river that drains the epicentral region most dramatically affected by landslides. We use revised landslide and biomass maps to quantify total organic carbon mobilized from hillslopes within the reservoir catchment area. We have collected sediment cores from the reservoir itself, and together with estimates of sedimentation rates constrained by short-lived radionuclide abundances, we construct a budget for the carbon transport into the reservoir based on analyses of sediment solid phase organic C concentrations and isotope ratios. Post-depositional diagenetic alteration is quantified using pore water profiles, including DIC concentration, carbon isotope compositions, and the isotopic composition of methane collected both in-situ from pore waters, and associated with actively bubbling methane seeps.

  16. Human ABC transporter ABCG2/BCRP expression in chemoresistance: basic and clinical perspectives for molecular cancer therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noguchi K

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Kohji Noguchi, Kazuhiro Katayama, Yoshikazu Sugimoto Division of Chemotherapy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Adenine triphosphate (ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter proteins, such as ABCB1/P-glycoprotein (P-gp and ABCG2/breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, transport various structurally unrelated compounds out of cells. ABCG2/BCRP is referred to as a “half-type” ABC transporter, functioning as a homodimer, and transports anticancer agents such as irinotecan, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38, gefitinib, imatinib, methotrexate, and mitoxantrone from cells. The expression of ABCG2/BCRP can confer a multidrug-resistant phenotype on cancer cells and affect drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in normal tissues, thus modulating the in vivo efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. Clarification of the substrate preferences and structural relationships of ABCG2/BCRP is essential for our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying its effects in vivo during chemotherapy. Its single-nucleotide polymorphisms are also involved in determining the efficacy of chemotherapeutics, and those that reduce the functional activity of ABCG2/BCRP might be associated with unexpected adverse effects from normal doses of anticancer drugs that are ABCG2/BCRP substrates. Importantly, many recently developed molecular-targeted cancer drugs, such as the tyrosine kinase inhisbitors, imatinib mesylate, gefitinib, and others, can also interact with ABCG2/BCRP. Both functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms and inhibitory agents of ABCG2/BCRP modulate the in vivo pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of these molecular cancer treatments, so the pharmacogenetics of ABCG2/BCRP is an important consideration in the application of molecular-targeted chemotherapies. Keywords: kinase inhibitor, SNP, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, molecular target

  17. Heat, electricity, or transportation? The optimal use of residual and waste biomass in Europe from an environmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steubing, Bernhard; Zah, Rainer; Ludwig, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The optimal use of forest energy wood, industrial wood residues, waste wood, agricultural residues, animal manure, biowaste, and sewage sludge in 2010 and 2030 was assessed for Europe. An energy system model was developed comprising 13 principal fossil technologies for the production of heat, electricity, and transport and 173 bioenergy conversion routes. The net environmental benefits of substituting fossil energy with bioenergy were calculated for all approximately 1500 combinations based on life cycle assessment (LCA) results. An optimization model determines the best use of biomass for different environmental indicators within the quantified EU-27 context of biomass availability and fossil energy utilization. Key factors determining the optimal use of biomass are the conversion efficiencies of bioenergy technologies and the kind and quantity of fossil energy technologies that can be substituted. Provided that heat can be used efficiently, optimizations for different environmental indicators almost always indicate that woody biomass is best used for combined heat and power generation, if coal, oil, or fuel oil based technologies can be substituted. The benefits of its conversion to SNG or ethanol are significantly lower. For non-woody biomass electricity generation, transportation, and heating yield almost comparable benefits as long as high conversion efficiencies and optimal substitutions are assured. The shares of fossil heat, electricity, and transportation that could be replaced with bioenergy are also provided. PMID:22091634

  18. Canada's upstream petroleum industry - 1996 perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the activities and business prospects of the Canadian petroleum and natural gas industry for 1996 was provided. Canada's hydrocarbon resource base, reserve potential, crude oil and natural gas markets, pipeline transportation system, business and investment climate, deregulation and environmental health and safety concerns were summarized. A profile of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, the principal industry organization representing upstream producers in Canada, was also provided

  19. Emerging Canadian QA standards for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Canada operates a publicly funded health care system in which 70% of health care costs are paid by some level of government. Radiotherapy, indeed most cancer management, falls within the publicly funded realm of Canada's health care system. National legislation (the Canada Health Act) guarantees access to cancer services for all Canadians. However, the financial responsibility for these services is borne by the provinces. Most Canadian provinces manage the cancer management problem through central cancer agencies. In the past few decades, these provincial cancer agencies have formed the Canadian Association of Provincial Cancer Agencies (CAPCA). This association has adopted a broad mandate for cancer management in Canada (see www.capca.ca). Included in this mandate is the adoption of standards and guidelines for all aspects of cancer control. The complexity of radiation therapy has long underscored the need for cooperation at the international and national levels in defining programmes and standards. In recent decades formal quality assurance programme recommendations have emerged in the United States, Europe and Great Britain. When defining quality assurance programs, Canadian radiation treatment centres have referenced U.S. and other program standards since they have been available. Recently, under the leadership of the Canadian Association of Provincial Cancer Agencies (CAPCA), Canadian national quality assurance program recommendations are emerging. A CAPCA sponsored project to harmonize Canadian quality assurance processes has resulted in a draft document entitled 'Standards for Quality Assurance at Canadian Radiation Treatment Centres'. This document provides recommendations for the broad framework of radiation therapy quality assurance programs. In addition, detailed work is currently underway regarding equipment quality control procedures. This paper explores the historical and political landscape in which the quality assurance problem has

  20. Dental fitness classification in the Canadian forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Richard R

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian Forces Dental Services utilizes a dental classification system to identify those military members dentally fit for an overseas deployment where dental resources may be limited. Although the Canadian Forces Dental Services dental classification system is based on NATO standards, it differs slightly from the dental classification systems of other NATO country dental services. Data collected by dental teams on overseas deployments indicate a low rate of emergency dental visits by Canadian Forces members who were screened as dentally fit to deploy. PMID:18277717

  1. Tritium technology. A Canadian overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the various tritium research and operational activities in Canada is presented. These activities encompass tritium processing and recovery, tritium interactions with materials, and tritium health and safety. Many of these on-going activities form a sound basis for the tritium use and handling aspects of the ITER project. Tritium management within the CANDU heavy water reactor, associated detritiation facilities, research and development facilities, and commercial industry and improving the understanding of tritium behaviour in humans and the environment remain the focus of a long-standing Canadian interest in tritium. While there have been changes in the application of this knowledge and experience over time, the operating experience and the supporting research and development continue to provide for improved plant and facility operations, an improved understanding of tritium safety issues, and improved products and tools that facilitate tritium management. (author)

  2. THE CANADIAN POLITICAL BUSINESS CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Libby

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss the existence of a Canadian Political Business Cycle (PBC during the period 1946-1989. Logit analysis was used to determine if changes in the unemployment rate, growth of real GNE and the rate of inflation are significantly different in the period before an election than during the rest of the electoral term. It was found that the rate of growth in the unemployment rate declines and the rate of growth of real GNP increases in the four quarters before an election. The behavior of these variables reverses in the period after an election. These findings are consistent with a political business cycle. Policy variables, under a majority government, also behave in a manner associated with a PBC, with the government stimulating the economy approximately two years into its term so that good economic news will occur before it has to call an election. Minority governments tend to simulate the economy immediately after taking office.

  3. Chinese Feelings Cherished By Canadians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On March 30, "The Chinese Feelings Across the Pacific-The Century Exhibition of the Old Photos Treasured by the Canadians" was open in the Lu Xun Museum in Beijing. The exhibition lasted for one week. At the exhibition some old photos taken in the early 20th century were on display, showing James G. Endicott, envoy of world peace, together with Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai; the family of O. L. Kilborn, one of the founders of West China Union University, together with Chinese women with bound feet: O. L. Kilborn treating the wounded soldiers during the Revolution of 1911; Leslie Earl Willmott in Chinese tunic suit and his wife reluctant to bid farewell to China, as well as photos of Ashley Woodward Lindesay, founder of China’s modern

  4. Tritium technology. A Canadian overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmings, R.L. [Canatom NPM (Canada)

    2002-10-01

    An overview of the various tritium research and operational activities in Canada is presented. These activities encompass tritium processing and recovery, tritium interactions with materials, and tritium health and safety. Many of these on-going activities form a sound basis for the tritium use and handling aspects of the ITER project. Tritium management within the CANDU heavy water reactor, associated detritiation facilities, research and development facilities, and commercial industry and improving the understanding of tritium behaviour in humans and the environment remain the focus of a long-standing Canadian interest in tritium. While there have been changes in the application of this knowledge and experience over time, the operating experience and the supporting research and development continue to provide for improved plant and facility operations, an improved understanding of tritium safety issues, and improved products and tools that facilitate tritium management. (author)

  5. Diversity Management in the Canadian Workplace: Towards an Antiracism Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanmala Hiranandani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most diversity management programs in Canada maintain that enhancing workforce diversity is of tremendous significance for business organizations in today’s competitive global urban markets. Since well-meaning diversity management initiatives have been largely ineffective thus far in dealing with workplace discrimination and racism in the Canadian workplace, this paper underscores the need to decenter the focus of diversity management from a business imperative to an antidiscrimination and social justice imperative. Within this latter perspective, the paper examines the strengths and limitations of the antiracism approach that has been implemented in various developed countries in recent years. The antiracism approach is an action-oriented strategy for institutional and systemic change that has at its core the interrogation of privilege, power disparities, and other forms of inequity within the organization. Drawing from the lessons of various initiatives that have utilized this approach, the present paper emphasizes the need for a nuanced antiracism approach in the multicultural Canadian society if diversity management is to attain its goal of greater inclusion of all individuals in informal networks and formal organizational programs.

  6. The "APEC Blue" Phenomenon: Impacts of Regional emission control Meteorology Condition and Regional Transport from a Modeling Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Liu, Z.; Ji, D.; Saide, P. E.; Wang, Y.; Xin, J.

    2015-12-01

    On November 5-11, China hosted the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Economic Leaders' Week in Beijing. To ensure good air quality during the APEC week, a series of strict emission control measures were taken in Beijing and surrounding provinces, which provide us with a great opportunity to examine the effectiveness of regional emission control. As important as emissions, meteorology can also significantly affect air quality in Beijing, so it's meaningful to understand the impact of meteorology conditions in the APEC week. Besides, it's important to study the impact of regional transport as its contribution to Beijing pollution levels is controversial. In this study, we investigate the impacts of emission control, meteorology and regional transport on the air quality during APEC week using a fully online coupled meteorology-chemistry model WRF-Chem. Compared to surface observations, the model has very good performance. The conclusions from this study will provide useful insights for government to control aerosol pollution in Beijing.

  7. The use of regional advance mitigation planning (RAMP) to integrate transportation infrastructure impacts with sustainability; a perspective from the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Globally, urban areas are expanding, and their regional, spatially cumulative, environmental impacts from transportation projects are not typically assessed. However, incorporation of a Regional Advance Mitigation Planning (RAMP) framework can promote more effective, ecologically sound, and less expensive environmental mitigation. As a demonstration of the first phase of the RAMP framework, we assessed environmental impacts from 181 planned transportation projects in the 19 368 km2 San Francisco Bay Area. We found that 107 road and railroad projects will impact 2411–3490 ha of habitat supporting 30–43 threatened or endangered species. In addition, 1175 ha of impacts to agriculture and native vegetation are expected, as well as 125 crossings of waterways supporting anadromous fish species. The extent of these spatially cumulative impacts shows the need for a regional approach to associated environmental offsets. Many of the impacts were comprised of numerous small projects, where project-by-project mitigation would result in increased transaction costs, land costs, and lost project time. Ecological gains can be made if a regional approach is taken through the avoidance of small-sized reserves and the ability to target parcels for acquisition that fit within conservation planning designs. The methods are straightforward, and can be used in other metropolitan areas. (papers)

  8. The use of regional advance mitigation planning (RAMP) to integrate transportation infrastructure impacts with sustainability; a perspective from the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, James H.; Huber, Patrick R.; O'Donoghue, Elizabeth; Santos, Maria J.

    2014-05-01

    Globally, urban areas are expanding, and their regional, spatially cumulative, environmental impacts from transportation projects are not typically assessed. However, incorporation of a Regional Advance Mitigation Planning (RAMP) framework can promote more effective, ecologically sound, and less expensive environmental mitigation. As a demonstration of the first phase of the RAMP framework, we assessed environmental impacts from 181 planned transportation projects in the 19 368 km2 San Francisco Bay Area. We found that 107 road and railroad projects will impact 2411-3490 ha of habitat supporting 30-43 threatened or endangered species. In addition, 1175 ha of impacts to agriculture and native vegetation are expected, as well as 125 crossings of waterways supporting anadromous fish species. The extent of these spatially cumulative impacts shows the need for a regional approach to associated environmental offsets. Many of the impacts were comprised of numerous small projects, where project-by-project mitigation would result in increased transaction costs, land costs, and lost project time. Ecological gains can be made if a regional approach is taken through the avoidance of small-sized reserves and the ability to target parcels for acquisition that fit within conservation planning designs. The methods are straightforward, and can be used in other metropolitan areas.

  9. Monitoring of the Canadian Oil Sands from the Aura Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, C. A.; Shephard, M. W.; Fioletov, V.; Cady-Pereira, K. E.; Krotkov, N. A.; Boersma, K. F.; Li, C.; Luo, M.; Joiner, J.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    Two instruments on-board the NASA Aura satellite, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), have been used to monitor air pollution over the Canadian oil sands region. Between them they provide a unique perspective on the distributions, evolution, and sources of several key pollutants. This presentation will detail some highlights from these Aura-based oil sands studies: (i) the evolution of OMI-measured nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide enhancements over the past decade, including comparisons with other nearby sources, (ii) two years of ammonia, carbon monoxide, methanol, and formic acid observations from TES special-observation transects, and (iii) preliminary insights into emissions derived from these observations.

  10. Understanding the Irony: Canadian Gay Men Living with HIV/AIDS, Their Catholic Devotion, and Greater Well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liboro, Renato M; Walsh, Richard T G

    2016-04-01

    Nine Canadian Catholic HIV-positive gay men were interviewed to obtain a better understanding of why and how they were able to persevere in their faith despite their religion's teachings against homosexuality and contributions to the stigmatization of HIV/AIDS. By examining the lived experiences and personal perspectives of the participants, the study aimed to explore and elucidate the significant role of Catholicism and the Catholic Church both as a continued source of marginalization and oppression, as well as strength and support, for Canadian gay men living with HIV/AIDS today. PMID:26160146

  11. Responsiveness of the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.C.J.M. Eyssen; M.P.M. Steultjens; T.A.M. Oud; E.M. Bolt; A. Maasdam; J. Dekker

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the responsiveness of the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), an individualized, client-centered outcome measure for the identification and evaluation of self-perceived occupational performance problems. We recruited 152 consecutive patients with various diagnoses,

  12. Canadian Business Schools: Going out of Business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobni, Dawn; Dobni, Brooke

    1996-01-01

    Using Porter's five-forces model (potential entrants, suppliers, buyers, rivalry, substitutes) to analyze competition in Canadian university business schools, the authors conclude that schools are becoming increasingly vulnerable to competitive pressures and that strategic reorientation is necessary. (SK)

  13. Canadian media representations of mad cow disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Amanda D; Jardine, Cynthia G; Driedger, S Michelle

    2009-01-01

    A Canadian case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or "mad cow disease" was confirmed in May, 2003. An in-depth content analysis of newspaper articles was conducted to understand the portrayal of BSE and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the Canadian media. Articles in the "first 10 days" following the initial discovery of a cow with BSE in Canada on May 20, 2003, were examined based on the premise that these initial stories provide the major frames that dominate news media reporting of the same issue over time and multiple occurrences. Subsequent confirmed Canadian cases were similarly analyzed to determine if coverage changed in these later media articles. The results include a prominence of economic articles, de-emphasis of health aspects, and anchoring the Canadian outbreak to that of Britain's crisis. The variation in media representations between those in Canada and those documented in Britain are explored in this study. PMID:19697246

  14. Canadian used fuel disposal concept review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A federal government environmental assessment review of the disposal concept developed under the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is currently underway. The Canadian concept is, simply stated, the placement of used fuel (or fuel waste) in long-lived containers at a depth between 500 m and 1000 m in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited submitted an Environmental Impact Statement in 1994 and the public hearing aspect of the concept review is in its final phase. A unique aspect of the Canadian situation is that government has stipulated that site selection can not commence until the concept has been approved. Hence, the safety and acceptability of the concept is being reviewed in the context of a generic site. Some comments and lessons learned to date related to the review process are discussed. (author)

  15. Canadian Law Schools: In Search of Excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakman, Leon E.

    1980-01-01

    Academically, Canadian education is at the crossroads between formalism and functionalism, with the latter prevailing in recent years. There now arises a demand for a more integrated approach, linking legal theory with legal practice. (MSE)

  16. Exploring the Efficacy of Endoscopic Ventriculostomy for Hydrocephalus Treatment via a Multicompartmental Poroelastic Model of CSF Transport: A Computational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardakis, John C.; Tully, Brett J.; Ventikos, Yiannis

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes the implementation of a Multiple-Network Poroelastic Theory (MPET) model coupled with finite-volume computational fluid dynamics for the purpose of studying, in detail, the effects of obstructing CSF transport within an anatomically accurate cerebral environment. The MPET representation allows the investigation of fluid transport between CSF, brain parenchyma and cerebral blood, in an integral and comprehensive manner. A key novelty in the model is the amalgamation of anatomically accurate choroid plexuses with their feeding arteries and a simple relationship relaxing the constraint of a unique permeability for the CSF compartment. This was done in order to account for the Aquaporin-4-mediated swelling characteristics. The aim of this varying permeability compartment was to bring to light a feedback mechanism that could counteract the effects of ventricular dilation and subsequent elevations of CSF pressure through the efflux of excess CSF into the blood system. This model is used to demonstrate the impact of aqueductal stenosis and fourth ventricle outlet obstruction (FVOO). The implications of treating such a clinical condition with the aid of endoscopic third (ETV) and endoscopic fourth (EFV) ventriculostomy are considered. We observed peak CSF velocities in the aqueduct of the order of 15.6 cm/s in the healthy case, 45.4 cm/s and 72.8 cm/s for the mild and severe cases respectively. The application of ETV reduced the aqueductal velocity to levels around 16–17 cm/s. Ventricular displacement, CSF pressure, wall shear stress (WSS) and pressure difference between lateral and fourth ventricles (ΔP) increased with applied stenosis, and subsequently dropped to nominal levels with the application of ETV. The greatest reversal of the effects of atresia come by opting for ETV rather than the more complicated procedure of EFV. PMID:24391968

  17. Exploring the efficacy of endoscopic ventriculostomy for hydrocephalus treatment via a multicompartmental poroelastic model of CSF transport: a computational perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Vardakis

    Full Text Available This study proposes the implementation of a Multiple-Network Poroelastic Theory (MPET model coupled with finite-volume computational fluid dynamics for the purpose of studying, in detail, the effects of obstructing CSF transport within an anatomically accurate cerebral environment. The MPET representation allows the investigation of fluid transport between CSF, brain parenchyma and cerebral blood, in an integral and comprehensive manner. A key novelty in the model is the amalgamation of anatomically accurate choroid plexuses with their feeding arteries and a simple relationship relaxing the constraint of a unique permeability for the CSF compartment. This was done in order to account for the Aquaporin-4-mediated swelling characteristics. The aim of this varying permeability compartment was to bring to light a feedback mechanism that could counteract the effects of ventricular dilation and subsequent elevations of CSF pressure through the efflux of excess CSF into the blood system. This model is used to demonstrate the impact of aqueductal stenosis and fourth ventricle outlet obstruction (FVOO. The implications of treating such a clinical condition with the aid of endoscopic third (ETV and endoscopic fourth (EFV ventriculostomy are considered. We observed peak CSF velocities in the aqueduct of the order of 15.6 cm/s in the healthy case, 45.4 cm/s and 72.8 cm/s for the mild and severe cases respectively. The application of ETV reduced the aqueductal velocity to levels around 16-17 cm/s. Ventricular displacement, CSF pressure, wall shear stress (WSS and pressure difference between lateral and fourth ventricles (ΔP increased with applied stenosis, and subsequently dropped to nominal levels with the application of ETV. The greatest reversal of the effects of atresia come by opting for ETV rather than the more complicated procedure of EFV.

  18. How Canadians feel about nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey conducted by Decima Research in April 1989 showed that 50% of Canadians were somewhat or strongly in favour of nuclear energy, the percentage varying from 37% in British Columbia to 65% in Ontario. A majority (56%) questioned the nuclear industry's ability to handle its waste safely, but 45% believed that it was working hard to solve the problem. It was evident that an advertising campaign by the Canadian Nuclear Association had an effect

  19. Canadian National Identity and Anti-Americanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭万宏

    2015-01-01

    Canadian national identity is closely related to antiAmericanism and for Canadians,comparing with America has become the main way to identify themselves.So some scholars argue that Canada lacks a real national identity and this is the main reason of its anti-American tradition.However,the author remarks Canada has its national identity.In this paper,the author will present three reasons to support her view.

  20. Canadian National Identity and Anti-Americanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭万宏

    2015-01-01

    Canadian national identity is closely related to anti-Americanism and for Canadians,comparing with America has become the main way to identify themselves.So some scholars argue that Canada lacks a real national identity and this is the main reason of its anti-American tradition.However,the author remarks Canada has its national identity.In this paper,the author will present three reasons to support her view.

  1. Canadian experience with structured clinical examinations.

    OpenAIRE

    Grand'Maison, P.; Lescop, J; Brailovsky, C. A.

    1993-01-01

    The use of structured clinical examinations to improve the evaluation of medical students and graduates has become significantly more common in the past 25 years. Many Canadian medical educators have contributed to the development of this technique. The Canadian experience is reviewed from the introduction of simulated-standardized patients and objective-structured clinical examinations to more recent developments and the use of such examinations for licensure and certification.

  2. Canadian Art Partnership Program in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ketovuori, Mikko Mr.

    2011-01-01

    This article is about a multidisciplinary R&D project in which a Canadian Learning Through The Arts (LTTA) program was imported to Finland in 2003–2004. Cultural differences in arts education in Finland and Canada are discussed. While Finland has a national school curriculum with all the arts included. Canada relies more on partnerships to ensure arts education for children in the schools. Despite the fact that Canadian learning methods appeared to be quite similar to the ones Finnish teacher...

  3. Perspectives on industry restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An industry association perspective on restructuring in the electrical industry was offered, placing the ongoing debate about deregulation and competition in the industry in Ontario into a Canadian and a global context. It was found that the move towards deregulation was a global phenomenon, fuelled by the emergence of increasingly open and highly competitive global markets, heightened consumer expectations, and new technologies and convergence. Examples from the U.K., Norway, Australia, New Zealand and the United States were cited to indicate the spread of this trend. Canadian utilities, among them B.C. Hydro, Nova Scotia Power and the Alberta utilities being prime examples, also have restructured recently into separate generation, transmission, distribution and consumer service units to better react to changing market needs. Alliances with other utilities or competitors in the energy sector to pursue business opportunities outside traditional markets, are also not uncommon. Therefore, it was only a question of time for Ontario Hydro, the largest Canadian electric utility, to come under public pressure to follow the national and global trend. The MacDonald Committee recommendations provide the foundation for radical change for the industry. If and when implemented, they could have a major impact on how the electricity sector in Canada will operate in the years to come. Sound decisions by the Ontario government as to the appropriate regulatory model may also determine the province's ability to compete in the unfolding restructuring of electricity markets throughout North America

  4. Coeval ages of Australasian, Central American and Western Canadian tektites reveal multiple impacts 790 ka ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Winfried H.; Trieloff, Mario; Bollinger, Klemens; Gantert, Niklas; Fernandes, Vera A.; Meyer, Hans-Peter; Povenmire, Hal; Jessberger, Elmar K.; Guglielmino, Massimo; Koeberl, Christian

    2016-04-01

    High resolution 40Ar-39Ar step heating dating of australites and indochinites, representing a large area of the Australasian strewn field, and more recently discovered tektite-like glasses from Central America (Belize) and Western Canada, were carried out. Precise plateau ages were obtained in all cases, yielding indistinguishable ages of 789 ± 9 ka for four australites, 783 ± 5 ka for four indochinites, 783 ± 17 ka for one Western Canadian and 769 ± 16 ka for one Belize impact glass. Concerning major elements and REEs, australites and the Western Canadian impact glass are indistinguishable. If the Western Canadian sample was transported by impact ejection and belongs to the Australasian strewn field, this implies extremely far ballistic transport of 9000 km distance, assuming a source crater in southern Asia. The distinct major element and REE composition of the Belize impact glass suggests formation in another separate impact event. We conclude that the Australasian/Western Canadian impact glasses formed 785 ± 7 ka ago in a single event and Belize impact glass in a separate event 769 ± 16 ka ago. The two impact events forming these two strewn fields occurred remarkably closely related in time, i.e., separated by <30 ka.

  5. Canadian Attitudes toward Labour Market Issues: A Survey of Canadian Opinion. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, Human Resources and Social Development Canada commissioned Environics Research Group Limited to conduct a public opinion survey on labour market issues among 3,000 adult Canadians. The objective of the public opinion survey was to better understand the perceptions of Canadians regarding labour market challenges and opportunities in order…

  6. Economic Growth and the Environment: A Canadian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen Day; R. Quentin Grafton

    2001-01-01

    The paper examines the relationship between economic growth and environmental degradation in Canada. Reduced form models are estimated to measure the relationship between GDP and 10 measures of environmental degradation. The reduced form results provide little support for the existence of an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), the view that environmental degradation initially rises with GDP per capita, but reaches a turning point, and then declines. The data are tested for the presence of unit...

  7. Telemedicine and security. Confidentiality, integrity, and availability: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennett, P; Watanabe, M; Igras, E; Premkumar, K; Hall, W

    1996-01-01

    The health care system is undergoing major reform, characterized by organized delivery systems (regionalization, decentralization, devolution, etc); shifts in care delivery sites; changing health provider roles; increasing consumer responsibilities; and accountability. Rapid advances in information technology and telecommunications have led to a new type of information infrastructure which can play a major role in this reform. Compatible health information systems are now being integrated and connected across institutional, regional, and sectorial boundaries. In the near future, these information systems will readily be accessed and shared by health providers, researchers, policy makers, health consumers, and the public. SECURITY is a critical characteristic of any health information system. This paper will address three fields associated with SECURITY: confidentiality, integrity, and availability. These will be defined and examined as they relate to specific aspects of Telemedicine, such as electronic integrated records and clinical databases; electronic transfer of documents; as well as data storage and disposal. The guiding principles, standards, and safeguards being considered and put in place to ensure that telemedicine information intrastructures can protect and benefit all stakeholders' rights and needs in both primary and secondary uses of information will be reviewed. Implemented, proposed, and tested institutional, System, and Network solutions will be discussed; for example, encryption-decryption methods; data transfer standards; individual and terminal access and entry I.D. and password levels; smart card access and PIN number control; data loss prevention strategies; interference alerts; information access keys; algorithm safeguards; and active marketing to users of standards and principles. Issues such as policy, implementation, and ownership will be addressed. PMID:10163762

  8. Citizenship Education in the Era of Globalization:Canadian Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Pashby

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Important and challenging theoretical debates and questions arising from considerations of the role of citizenship education in the current “global era” are evident in academic literature. Ultimately, our scholarly work must also engage with what happens in our elementary, secondary, and post-secondary classrooms. Much important scholarly attention is being directed to debates about the nature of globalization, and about national and, increasingly, global concepts of citizenship, multiculturalism, and social movements of global resistance. However, much of this work is done outside of a direct engagement with teachers, students, and classroom practices and is consequently left at a level of abstraction that appears disconnected from the day-to-day work of public schooling. Indeed, when working through significant theoretical interjections and conversations that engage with the complexities and possibilities to which we are drawn, we can never forget that the “what” and “how” of teaching and learning, and the values that circulate within classrooms, reflect the global movements of contemporary history and are shaped by a sense that we must take-up global issues. We must, therefore, recognize what Pashby (this issue refers to as the global imperative that exerts particular pressure on educational theory, practice, policy, and politics. To do this we must struggle with questions of theory that inform our scholarly and our practical work as educators, be that practice in faculties of education or in K to 12 classrooms. This special themed issue presents important questions, concerns, and possibilities that mark both theoretical discourses and classroom practice.

  9. Barriers to palliative radiotherapy referral: A Canadian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samant, Rajiv S.; Fitzgibbon, Edward; Meng, Joanne; Graham, Ian D. [Univ. of Ottawa. Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-15

    Radiotherapy is an effective but underutilized treatment modality for cancer patients. We decided to investigate the factors influencing radiotherapy referral among family physicians in our region. A 30-item survey was developed to determine palliative radiotherapy knowledge and factors influencing referral. It was sent to 400 physicians in eastern Ontario (Canada) and the completed surveys were evaluated. The overall response rate was 50% with almost all physicians seeing cancer patients recently (97%) and the majority (80%) providing palliative care. Approximately 56% had referred patients for radiotherapy previously and 59% were aware of the regional community oncology program. Factors influencing radiotherapy referral included the following: waiting times for radiotherapy consultation and treatment, uncertainty about the benefits of radiotherapy, patient age, and perceived patient inconvenience. Physicians who referred patients for radiotherapy were more than likely to provide palliative care, work outside of urban centres, have hospital privileges and had sought advice from a radiation oncologist in the past. A variety of factors influence the referral of cancer patients for radiotherapy by family physicians and addressing issues such as long waiting times, lack of palliative radiotherapy knowledge and awareness of Cancer Centre services could increase the rate of appropriate radiotherapy patient referral.

  10. School-Based Practices for Asperger Syndrome: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrimmon, Adam W.; Altomare, Alyssa A.; Matchullis, Ryan L.; Jitlina, Katia

    2012-01-01

    Educators face increasing demands to provide quality education in their classrooms, particularly to students with exceptional needs. Students with Asperger syndrome (AS) represent a population experiencing significant nonacademic barriers to learning (e.g., social, emotional, and behavioural needs). However, educational policies that identify and…

  11. Stereotactic radiosurgery for acoustic neuroma: a Canadian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, I.B. [Univ. of Manitoba, Section of Neurosurgery, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Tator, C.H. [Univ. of Toronto, Div. of Neurosurgery, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-11-01

    Stereotactically delivered radiation is now an accepted treatment for patients with acoustic neuroma. In some cases, patient preference may be the reason for its selection, while in others neurosurgeons may select it for patients who are elderly or have significant risk factors for conventional surgery. The majority of patients with acoustic neuroma treatment with stereotactic radiosurgery have been treated with the Gamma Knife, with follow ups of over 25 years in some instances. Other radiosurgical modalities utilizing the linear accelerator have been developed and appear promising, but there is no long-term: follow up. Canada does not possess a Gamma Knife facility, and its government-funded hospital and medical insurance agencies have made it difficult for patients to obtain reimbursement for Gamma Knife treatments in other countries. We review the literature to date on the various forms of radiation treatment for acoustic neuroma and discuss the current issues facing physicians and patients in Canada who wish to obtain their treatment of choice. (author)

  12. New perspective on the health of Canadians: 28 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Marc

    2002-09-01

    As part of its 100th-anniversary celebration, the Pan American Health Organization has named 12 persons as "Public Health Heroes of the Americas" in recognition of their noteworthy contributions to#10; public health in the Region of the Americas. Over the course of this year, the Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública/Pan American Journal of Public Health will be carrying pieces written by or about these heroes.

  13. Canadian photovoltaic industry directory --1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The directory is intended to help potential PV customers identify Canadian-based companies who can meet their needs, and to help product manufacturers and distributors identify potential new clients and/or partners within the PV industry for new and improved technologies leading to greater end-use customer satisfaction. The principal feature of the directory is an information matrix that identifies the product and service types offered by each firm and the primary clients served. There is also a list of companies by province and territory, followed by an alphabetical listing of all companies, with detailed information including, mailing address, contact person, prime activity, geographic area served, languages in which services are provided, and a brief company profile. Additional information provided by the companies themselves, dealing with items such as number of systems sold, the total installed capacity, etc., is included in an 'experience matrix' for each firm. Sources of additional information on photovoltaic systems are included in a list at the end of the directory

  14. Canadian landmine detection research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFee, John E.; Das, Yogadhish; Faust, Anthony A.

    2003-09-01

    Defence R&D Canada (DRDC), an agency within the Department of National Defence, has been conducting research and development (R&D) on the detection of landmines for countermine operations and of unexploded ordnance (UXO) for range clearance since 1975. The Canadian Centre for Mine Action Technologies (CCMAT), located at DRDC Suffield, was formed in 1998 to carry out R&D related to humanitarian demining. The lead group responsible for formulating and executing both countermine and humanitarian R&D programs in detection is the Threat Detection Group at DRDC Suffield. This paper describes R&D for both programs under the major headings of remote minefield detection, close-in scanning detection, confirmation detection and teleoperated systems. Among DRDC's achievements in landmine and UXO detection R&D are pioneering work in electromagnetic and magnetic identification and classification; the first military-fielded multisensor, teleoperated vehicle-mounted landmine detection system; pioneering use of confirmation detectors for multisensor landmine detection systems; the first fielded thermal neutron activation landmine confirmation sensor; the first detection of landmines using a real-time hyperspectral imager; electrical impedance imaging detection of landmines and UXO and a unique neutron backscatter landmine imager.

  15. Canadian environmental sustainability indicators: highlights 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadians' health and their social and economic well-being are fundamentally linked to the quality of their environment. Recognizing this, in 2004 the Government of Canada committed to establishing national indicators of freshwater quality, air quality and greenhouse gas emissions. The goal of these new indicators is to provide Canadians with more regular and reliable information on the state of their environment and how it is linked with human activity. Canadians need clearly defined environmental indicators - measuring sticks that can track the results that have been achieved through the efforts of governments, industries and individuals to protect and improve the environment. Environment Canada, Statistics Canada and Health Canada are working together to further develop and communicate these indicators. Reflecting the joint responsibility for environmental management in Canada, this effort has benefited from the cooperation and input of the provinces and territories. The indicators are: air quality; greenhouse gas emissions; and, freshwater quality. Air quality tracks Canadians' exposure to ground-level ozone - a key component of smog. The indicator measures one of the most common, harmful air pollutants to which people are exposed. The use of the seasonal average of ozone concentrations reflects the potential for long-term health effects. Greenhouse gas emissions tracks the annual releases of the six greenhouse gases that are the major contributors to climate change. The indicator comes directly from the greenhouse gas inventory report prepared by Environment Canada for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol. The data are widely used to report on progress toward Canada's Kyoto target for reduced emissions. Freshwater quality reports the status of surface water quality at selected monitoring sites across the country. For this first report, the focus of the indicator is on the protection of aquatic life, such as

  16. The dirty oil card and Canadian foreign policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chastko, P. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). International Relations Program

    2010-10-15

    This paper discussed Canada's oil sands industry in relation to its international reputation as the source of an unacceptable amount of pollution. Environmental lobbyists and awareness groups have targeted Canada's oil sands industry as an example of how the oil industry contributes to pollution during the production phase. Media attention has focused on the oil sands as a heavy grade of crude oil that requires significant upgrading and refining before it can be produced as a barrel of usable oil. Canadian exports of oil sands to the United States have been the target of consumer boycotts and proposed legislation. A lack of available alternative energy sources and infrastructure for the transportation sector, and the continued global demand for petroleum mean that oil sands will continue to be exported to the United States as well as to other export markets such as China and India. The United States is likely to remain the largest importer of Canadian crude oils. However, policy-makers must ensure that the discourse about oil sands does not devolve into an argument in which energy security is pitted against the need for increased environmental protection. 49 refs.

  17. VLF propagation measurements in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, Wilfred R.; Bertrand, Jean M.

    1993-05-01

    For the past three years, during a period of high sun spot numbers, propagation measurements were made on the reception of VLF signals in the Canadian Arctic. Between Aug. and Dec. 1989, the received signal strengths were measured on the Canadian Coast Guard icebreaker, John A. MacDonald in the Eastern Canadian Arctic. Between Jul. 1991 and Jun. 1992, the received signal strengths were measured at Nanisivik, Baffin Island. The purposes of this work were to check the accuracy and estimate variances of the Naval Ocean Systems Center's (NOSC) Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) predictions in the Canadian Arctic and to gather ionospheric storm data. In addition, the NOSC data taken at Fort Smith and our data at Nanisivik were used to test the newly developed Longwave Noise Prediction (LNP) program and the CCIR noise predictions, at 21.4 and 24.0 kHz. The results of the work presented and discussed in this paper show that in general the LWPC predicts accurate values of received signal strength in the Canadian Arctic with standard deviations of 1 to 2 dB over several months. Ionospheric storms can gauge the received signal strengths to decrease some 10 dB for a period of several hours or days. However, the effects of these storms are highly dependent on the propagation path. Finally the new LNP atmospheric noise model predicts lower values of noise in the Arctic than the CCIR model and our limited measurements tend to support these lower values.

  18. JUDGING SELECTION: APPOINTING CANADIAN JUDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McCormick

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s, the appointment of trial judges in Canada has generally involved an arms-length committee of professionals, although the structure of these committees and their role in the process has varied from province to province, as well as evolving over time. Yet these “new” structures and “new” processes did not prevent a major judicial appointment scandal in the province of Quebec in 2010, culminating in the formation of the Bastarache Committee to recommend changes. This paper summarizes the forty-year history of Canadian judicial appointment committees, identifies the major challenges that face those committees, and suggests the basic values toward which reforms to the appointment process might be directed. Depuis les années 1970, la nomination des juges de première instance au Canada a généralement mis à contribution un comité de professionnels indépendants, bien que la structure de ce comité et son rôle dans le processus de nomination aient varié d’une province à l’autre et évolué avec le temps. Ces « nouvelles » structures et « nouveaux » processus n’ont certes pas empêché l’éclatement du scandale sur la nomination des juges au Québec en 2010. Ce scandale a donné lieu à la formation de la Commission Bastarache qui avait notamment le mandat de recommander des changements. La présent document résume les quarante ans d’histoire des comités canadiens de nomination des juges, recense les principaux défis que ces comités doivent relever, et propose les valeurs fondamentales qui devraient inspirer les réformes du processus de nomination.

  19. 生态创业、绿色交通与城市公交政策:一种红绿观点∗%Ecological Entrepreneurship, Green Transportation and Urban Public Transportation Policy:A Conflict of Perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郇庆治

    2015-01-01

    The construction of a real green urban transportation system could not be realized without appropriate policies or some political prerequisite and promotion. It is not a mere problem of technology and management in ̄novation within an industry. However,over the past 20 years,China′s urban transportation policy and its reform include that of Beijing is increasingly moving toward a″depoliticalization″direction,with the result that the con ̄struction and operation of capital ̄oriented infrastructures are especially popular, while non ̄profit transportation projects failed to get attention and development. Accordingly,urban traffic congestion and environmental pollution,especially frequent fog and haze,has become a difficult public and political issue of management and the people′s livelihood. From the perspective of Green ̄left,we could never provide the proper context and soil for green urban transportation until we are committed to a more extensive and profound social ecological transformation.%一种真正意义上的城市绿色交通体系的构建,离不开适当的政策与政治前提和推动,而不单纯是一个行业内部的技术与管理创新问题。然而,过去20多年来,包括北京市在内的我国城市交通政策及其改革却日益走向了一种“去政治化”的方向,结果是,更容易采取资本化运作和市场化经营的某些交通设施建设及其运营受到特别青睐,而更多具有社会公益性质的大众公共交通却未能获得应有的重视和发展,相应地,城市交通拥堵和环境污染成为一个十分棘手的公共管理与民生政治议题,尤其在城市雾霾天气频发的新背景下更是如此。从绿色左翼的视角看,只有致力于一种更为广泛与深刻的社会—生态转型,才能为我们城市绿色交通的创建提供合适的背景和土壤。

  20. Patient engagement in radiation therapy: The development of guidelines for current Canadian practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purificacion, Sunshine; Brown, Erika; Anne-Davis, Carol; French, John

    2016-09-01

    Radiation therapy service quality is not only defined by the technical aspects of care-the patient's involvement and satisfaction also contribute largely to determining the quality of care received. Although there have been recent increases in support for the development of patient engagement activities throughout Canada, the lack of guidance and knowledge of patient engagement techniques within the radiotherapy context limits implementation. Without processes to obtain first-hand insight from patients, the need for these programs is overlooked. With a commitment to improving quality and consistency of care, the Canadian Partnership for Quality Radiotherapy recognized the need for a set of national guidelines on patient engagement in radiation therapy service delivery. Making use of the perspectives and first-hand experience of patient representatives, this initiative aims to develop a pan-Canadian guidance document that radiation therapy centres can adopt for successful integration of patient engagement through core activities of service delivery. PMID:27576854

  1. Satellite Monitoring Over the Canadian Oil Sands: Highlights from Aura OMI and TES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Mark W.; McLinden, Chris; Fioletov, Vitali; Cady-Pereira, Karen E.; Krotkov, Nick A.; Boersma, Folkert; Li, Can; Luo, Ming; Bhartia, P. K.; Joiner, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing provides a unique perspective for air quality monitoring in and around the Canadian Oil Sands as a result of its spatial and temporal coverage. Presented are Aura satellite observations of key pollutants including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ammonia (NH3), methanol (CH3OH), and formic acid (HCOOH) over the Canadian Oil Sands. Some of the highlights include: (i) the evolution of NO2 and SO2 from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), including comparisons with other nearby sources, (ii) two years of ammonia, carbon monoxide, methanol, and formic acid observations from 240 km North-South Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) transects through the oils sands, and (iii) preliminary insights into emissions derived from these observations.

  2. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. In 1991, the Atlantic Petroleum Association, the Quebec Petroleum Association, the Ontario Petroleum Association, the Canada West Petroleum Association, and the Petroleum Association for Conservation of the Canadian Environment (PACE) were integrated into the CPPI. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. An industry overview is provided, as well as highlights of environmental achievements and challenges, and economics and operations for the year. Lists of CPPI publications, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs

  3. A Roadmap for Canadian Submillimetre Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Tracy; Di Francesco, James; Matthews, Brenda; Murray, Norm; Scott, Douglas; Wilson, Christine

    2013-01-01

    We survey the present landscape in submillimetre astronomy for Canada and describe a plan for continued engagement in observational facilities to ~2020. Building on Canada's decadal Long Range Plan process, we emphasize that continued involvement in a large, single-dish facility is crucial given Canada's substantial investment in ALMA and numerous PI-led submillimetre experiments. In particular, we recommend: i) an extension of Canadian participation in the JCMT until at least the unique JCMT Legacy Survey program is able to realize the full scientific potential provided by the world-leading SCUBA-2 instrument; and ii) involvement of the entire Canadian community in CCAT, with a large enough share in the partnership for Canadian astronomers to participate at all levels of the facility. We further recommend continued participation in ALMA development, involvement in many focused PI-led submillimetre experiments, and partnership in SPICA.

  4. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Society 2. international conference on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings contain 136 papers on waste management from 19 countries. An index of the delegates and their affiliations is included. Emphasis was laid on the Canadian program for geologic disposal in hard rock. Sessions dealt with the following: storage and disposal, hydrogeology and geochemistry, transportation, buffers and backfill, public attitudes, tailings, site investigations and geomechanics, concrete, economics, licensing, matrix materials and container design, durability of fuel, biosphere modelling, radioactive waste processing, and future options

  5. The Construction of the Identity of Chinese Canadian Women--Analyzing the Characterization of May-Ying in the Concubine’s Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁慧

    2015-01-01

    Denise Chong’s first novel the Concubine’s Children, not only enjoys the high compliments from the critics but also gains great popular among common readers. This paper intends to study the construction of the identity of Chinese Canadian women in the Concubine’s Children through analyzing the characterization of May-ying from the postcolonial feminism perspective.

  6. Open Access Funds: A Canadian Library Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Fernandez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of Canadian research libraries was conducted to determine the extent of funding support for open access publications in these institutions. Results indicate that there is substantial support for open access publishing, and a diversity of approaches is being used to fund open access resources. The reasons for funding support along with policy and promotional issues are explored. The broader implications of funding open access are discussed in the context of a changing scholarly publishing landscape. This paper will be especially relevant to Canadian academic libraries that are exploring options for funding open access publications.

  7. Statistics in action a Canadian outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Lawless, Jerald F

    2014-01-01

    Commissioned by the Statistical Society of Canada (SSC), Statistics in Action: A Canadian Outlook helps both general readers and users of statistics better appreciate the scope and importance of statistics. It presents the ways in which statistics is used while highlighting key contributions that Canadian statisticians are making to science, technology, business, government, and other areas. The book emphasizes the role and impact of computing in statistical modeling and analysis, including the issues involved with the huge amounts of data being generated by automated processes.The first two c

  8. Women in the Canadian Economy: A Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Sylvia; Staunton, Ted, Ed.

    One of a series of teaching units designed to introduce secondary school students to the Canadian economy, this handbook contains activities on the economic status and roles of Canadian women. The first of 4 sections presents a profile of male and female occupations. Section 2 contains statistics on females in the Canadian labor force. Section 3,…

  9. A Course in Canadian Film for U.S. Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenko, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Canadian Film will be a new course in the Communications Studies department at the University of Missouri at Kansas City particularly designed for non-Canadian Midwestern US students. It will not only introduce students to the richness and significance of Canadian film as both art and entertainment (which is virtually unrecognized around here),…

  10. A Demographic and Career Profile of Canadian Research University Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an up-to-date career and demographic profile of Canadian research university librarians by comparing newly derived data from the 8Rs Study: The "Future of Human Resources in Canadian Libraries", with corresponding information from the author's 2006 survey: "The Scholarship of Canadian Research University Librarians", and other…

  11. Canadian Occidental joins Hunt as Yemen oil producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 23 September 1993, the Canadian Occidental Petroleum Company initiated the export of 120,000 b/d (barrels a day) of low sulphur, medium gravity crude oil from its Masila Block concession in Yemen. The oil is transported from Masila via a pipeline built by CanOxy and its partners to a new terminal at Ash Shihr, near Mukalla, in the Gulf of Aden. CanOxy is the third operator oil company to produce oil commercially in Yemen. The first, the Hunt Oil Company, began production in December 1987 and its output now totals about 187,000 b/d. The second, Nimir Petroleum, a Saudi venture which took over the facilities developed in the 1980s by two Soviet companies, is currently producing about 10,000 b/d and expects to increase its output to 25,000 b/d during this year. (Author)

  12. Detecting, locating and identifying failed fuel in Canadian power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes how defected fuel elements are detected, located and identified in Canadian CANDU power reactors. Fuel defects are detected by monitoring the primary coolant for gaseous fission products and radioiodines, while location in core is usually performed on-power by delayed neutron monitoring of coolant samples from individual fuel channels or off-power by gamma-ray monitoring of the channel feeder pipes. The systems and techniques used to detect and locate defected fuel in both Ontario Hydro and CANDU 6 power stations are described, along with examples provided by station experience. The ability to detect and locate defected fuel in power stations was greatly enhanced by a fundamental R and D program, which provided an understanding and models of fission-product release and transport, and the post-defect deterioration of failed fuel. Techniques and equipment used to identify and store defected fuel after it has been discharged from the reactor are briefly reviewed

  13. Human security and Canadian foreign policy: the new face of Canadian internationalism

    OpenAIRE

    DeJong, Melissa Joy

    2011-01-01

    In the late 1990s, human security was promoted as a new idea to guide the formation of Canadian foreign policy in the post-Cold War era. However, a review of the ideas which have influenced foreign policymaking in Canada since the end of the Second World War demonstrates that human security is rooted in internationalism, the dominant Canadian foreign policy tendency. Internationalism prescribes that cooperation, multilateralism, responsibility, international law and a consideration of the v...

  14. Bidi and Hookah Use Among Canadian Youth: Findings From the 2010 Canadian Youth Smoking Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Czoli, Christine D; Leatherdale, Scott T; Rynard, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although cigarette use among Canadian youth has decreased significantly in recent years, alternative forms of tobacco use are becoming increasingly popular. Surveillance of youth tobacco use can help inform prevention programs by monitoring trends in risk behaviors. We examined the prevalence of bidi and hookah use and factors associated with their use among Canadian youth by using data from the 2010–2011 Youth Smoking Survey (YSS). Methods We analyzed YSS data from 28,416 studen...

  15. Forecasting Canadian nuclear power station construction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the huge volume of capital required to construct a modern electric power generating station, investment decisions have to be made with as complete an understanding of the consequences of the decision as possible. This understanding must be provided by the evaluation of future situations. A key consideration in an evaluation is the financial component. This paper attempts to use an econometric method to forecast the construction costs escalation of a standard Canadian nuclear generating station (NGS). A brief review of the history of Canadian nuclear electric power is provided. The major components of the construction costs of a Canadian NGS are studied and summarized. A database is built and indexes are prepared. Based on these indexes, an econometric forecasting model is constructed using an apparently new econometric methodology of forecasting modelling. Forecasts for a period of 40 years are generated and applications (such as alternative scenario forecasts and range forecasts) to uncertainty assessment and/or decision-making are demonstrated. The indexes, the model, and the forecasts and their applications, to the best of the author's knowledge, are the first for Canadian NGS constructions. (author)

  16. Asian and Pacific Migration: The Canadian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, T. John

    1994-01-01

    Examines the characteristics of landed immigrants (permanent settlers) from Asia, and explores their settlement, adaptation, and integration experience in Canada. It suggests that access to Canadian land does not always translate into equal opportunity in the economy and society, but notes that Canada may be more successful at assimilating Asian…

  17. 2003 survey of Canadian radiation oncology residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation oncology's popularity as a career in Canada has surged in the past 5 years. Consequently, resident numbers in Canadian radiation oncology residencies are at all-time highs. This study aimed to survey Canadian radiation oncology residents about their opinions of their specialty and training experiences. Methods and Materials: Residents of Canadian radiation oncology residencies that enroll trainees through the Canadian Resident Matching Service were identified from a national database. Residents were mailed an anonymous survey. Results: Eight of 101 (7.9%) potential respondents were foreign funded. Fifty-two of 101 (51.5%) residents responded. A strong record of graduating its residents was the most important factor residents considered when choosing programs. Satisfaction with their program was expressed by 92.3% of respondents, and 94.3% expressed satisfaction with their specialty. Respondents planning to practice in Canada totaled 80.8%, and 76.9% plan to have academic careers. Respondents identified job availability and receiving adequate teaching from preceptors during residency as their most important concerns. Conclusions: Though most respondents are satisfied with their programs and specialty, job availability and adequate teaching are concerns. In the future, limited time and resources and the continued popularity of radiation oncology as a career will magnify the challenge of training competent radiation oncologists in Canada

  18. A Canadian View of Monitoring Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhaber, Herbert

    1975-01-01

    A Canadian scientist discusses his country's environmental monitoring programs (by parameter and medium), points out their strengths and weaknesses, and indicates some possible directions for future efforts in the field of environmental monitoring at both the national and international level. (BT)

  19. Who Are the Players in Canadian Curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Geoffrey

    1987-01-01

    Labels range of persons advocating different theoretical positions of Canadian curriculum as "players." Describes players as "managers,""predictors,""transformers,""sleuths,""analysts." Values varied viewpoints for attention to language regarding curriculum, critical review of ideas/concepts, examination of current policies, awareness of history…

  20. Canadian Art Partnership Program in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketovuori, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    This article is about a multidisciplinary R&D project in which a Canadian Learning Through The Arts (LTTA) program was imported to Finland in 2003-2004. Cultural differences in arts education in Finland and Canada are discussed. While Finland has a national school curriculum with all the arts included. Canada relies more on partnerships to ensure…

  1. In the Field: The Canadian Ecology Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Clare

    2000-01-01

    The Canadian Ecology Centre (Ontario) offers year-round residential and day programs in outdoor and environmental education for secondary students, field placement and internship opportunities for college students, and ecotourism programs, while providing employment and tax revenues to the local community. Dubbed consensus environmentalism, the…

  2. Canadian Indigenous Arts Exhibited in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangCheng

    2004-01-01

    A beautiful collection of Canadian Inuit wall hangings, titled “Culture on Cloth,” was exhibited at the Capital Library in Beijing from October 12 to 22, 2004. The exhibition was composed of 19 works by women artists from Baker Lake, Nunavut, Canada.

  3. Canadian Adult Education: Still a Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbit, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Writing recently in this journal, two of Canada's veteran adult educators contemplated the "death" of the Canadian adult education movement. I disagree and argue that adult education in Canada is as vital an activity as ever and one that still fully justifies being called a movement. Specifically, Selman and Selman (2009) list five trends that…

  4. Revisiting the Canadian English vowel space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Robert

    2005-04-01

    In order to fill a need for experimental-acoustic baseline measurements of Canadian English vowels, a database is currently being constructed in Winnipeg, Manitoba. The database derives from multiple repetitions of fifteen English vowels (eleven standard monophthongs, syllabic /r/ and three standard diphthongs) in /hVd/ and /hVt/ contexts, as spoken by multiple speakers. Frequencies of the first four formants are taken from three timepoints in every vowel token (25, 50, and 75% of vowel duration). Preliminary results (from five men and five women) confirm some features characteristic of Canadian English, but call others into question. For instance the merger of low back vowels appears to be complete for these speakers, but the result is a lower-mid and probably rounded vowel rather than the low back unround vowel often described. With these data Canadian Raising can be quantified as an average 200 Hz or 1.5 Bark downward shift in the frequency of F1 before voiceless /t/. Analysis of the database will lead to a more accurate picture of the Canadian English vowel system, as well as provide a practical and up-to-date point of reference for further phonetic and sociophonetic comparisons.

  5. Computer Language Settings and Canadian Spellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleworth, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The language settings used on personal computers interact with the spell-checker in Microsoft Word, which directly affects the flagging of spellings that are deemed incorrect. This study examined the language settings of personal computers owned by a group of Canadian university students. Of 21 computers examined, only eight had their Windows…

  6. An Overview of Canadian Education. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayfer, Margaret

    An overview of Canadian education is provided in this book. Chapter 1 presents basic facts and figures on the educational system's general structure and diversity and the role of the federal government. The second chapter describes provincial/territorial structure, specifically: the role of the departments of education and school board, financing,…

  7. Canadian Ethnohistory: A Source for Social Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickwire, Wendy

    1998-01-01

    Presents an overview of ethnohistory, a relatively new area of historical investigation that draws on anthropology, geography, and linguistics, as well as history, to document the pasts of predominantly indigenous peoples. Encourages social studies teachers to take notice of a major body of work being produced by Canadian ethnohistorians. (DSK)

  8. International surgery: definition, principles and Canadian practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, Ronald

    2003-10-01

    This article is dedicated to the Canadian international surgeon, Norman Bethune (1890-1939). International surgery is defined as a humanitarian branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of bodily injuries or disorders by incision or manipulations, emphasizing cooperation and understanding among nations and involving education, research, development and advocacy. In this article I review the colonial past, the dark ages following the Declaration of Alma-Ata, the progress made and the present challenges in international surgery. I present a definition of international surgery that recognizes the current era of surgical humanitarianism, validates a global understanding of surgical issues and promotes cooperation among nations. Included are the principles of international surgery: education, research, infrastructure development and advocacy. International surgical projects are classified according to type (clinical, relief, developmental) and integration strategy (vertical or horizontal). Also reviewed are the Canadian practice of international surgery by nongovernmental, professional and academic organizations and the requirements of international and Canadian funding agencies, the development concepts basic to all projects, including results-based management and the cross-cutting themes of gender equity, environmental protection and human safety. I recommend formalizing international surgery into a discipline as a means of promoting surgical care in low-income countries. If international surgery is to be sustained in Canada, infrastructure and support from Canadian surgeons is particularly important. An understanding of the history, definition and classification of international surgery should promote surgical care in low-income countries.

  9. Canadian suicide mortality rates: first-generation immigrants versus Canadian-born.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, J; Johansen, H; Nair, C; Nargundkar, M

    1990-01-01

    This article examines suicide mortality rates and trends in Canada for first-generation immigrants and the Canadian-born population. Data are analyzed by age, sex and country of birth. Since 1950, suicide rates worldwide for both men and women have been increasing. In North America and most of Europe, suicide has been one of the major causes of death for many years. In Canada, suicide rates are also rising. However, this increase is due entirely to a rise in the rate for men; the rate for women has remained relatively stable. Several differences are apparent between the rates for the Canadian-born population and those for first-generation immigrants. For example, three times as many Canadian-born men as women commit suicide. For first-generation immigrants, the ratio is two to one. Suicide mortality rates for the Canadian-born are higher than those for first-generation immigrants in every age group except for the 65 and over groups. Canadian born males have higher ASMR than first generation immigrant males. The rates for women show that first-generation immigrant women have higher suicide mortality rates than their Canadian-born counterparts, and that the highest rate for all women is for immigrants born in Asia.

  10. A Situated Cognition Perspective on Literacy Discourses: Seeing More Clearly through a New Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Maurice C.; Blunt, Adrian

    2001-01-01

    Using a situated cognition framework, 24 vignettes of literacy practices were examined in 4 Canadian settings: community-based, workplace, family, and school-based literacy. Literacy researchers appear constrained by behaviorist, normative perspectives despite the shift toward humanist perspectives. (Contains 51 references.) (SK)

  11. Enhancing Canadian Teacher Education Using a Story Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Drake

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Accord on Initial Teacher Education was created by the Canadian Deans of Education in 2006 to guide teacher educators across Canada. The Story Model (Drake et al., 1992 is aligned with the principles in the Accord and has proven useful in teacher education. Here it is explored as a framework for curriculum development and as an instructional strategy for students to analyze complex educational issues. This framework uses an inside-outside/past- future approach to analyze current issues and includes personal, cultural and global perspectives. Literacy and emerging new literacies are explored within the framework, as well as traditional assessment and assessment for and as learning. The Story Model looks toward creating a dynamic pan-Canadian “new story” in teacher education.En 2006, l’Association canadienne des doyens et doyennes des facultés d’éducation a créé l’Accord sur la formation initiale à l’enseignement afin de guider les formateurs des enseignants au Canada. Le modèle du récit (Story Model – Drake et al., 1992 correspond aux principes de l’Accord et a démontré son utilité en matière de formation des enseignants. Dans cet article, les auteurs le présentent à titre de cadre de référence pour l’élaboration de programmes d’enseignement, de même qu’à titre de stratégie d’enseignement permettant aux étudiants d’analyser des enjeux pédagogiques complexes. Ce cadre utilise une méthode intérieur-extérieur/ passé-présent pour analyser les enjeux actuels et considère les perspectives personnelles, culturelles et globales. Les auteurs étudient la littéracie et les nouvelles littéracies, tout comme l’évaluation traditionnelle et celle qui est au service de l’apprentissage. Le modèle du récit (Story Model vise à créer un « nouveau récit » pancanadien dynamique en matière d’éducation des enseignants.

  12. Assistant angels: Canadian voluntary aid detachment nurses in the Great War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiney, L J

    1998-01-01

    Canada's Voluntary Aid Detachment nurses of the Great War have yet to be recognized in Canadian nursing history. This article offers a synopsis of the evidence traced thus far in the search to recover their history, and presents some of the issues that history addresses. Comparisons to the much larger and well-documented British VADs of the era testify to similarities in social origin from among the more privileged Protestant, middle and upper classes from across Canada. Yet significant distinctions have been found in both the academic and employment profile of Canada's VADs. The research addresses conflicts that surrounded issues in the professionalization of nursing, the gendered dimensions of nursing as "women's work," both in peace and war, and tensions deriving from the juxtaposition of both volunteer and career nurses in the hospital environment. The postwar effects of VAD nursing are also addressed, both from the perspective of the women themselves and the emerging Canadian society witnessing the evolution of the "working girl" and the voting woman. While stil incomplete, this research promises to recover a dynamic community of Canadian women, contributing new insights into women's history, medical history, and Canada's history.

  13. Seeing Oneself in a Book: The Changing Face of Canadian Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Fayjean, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Takes a look at children's literature over time, and its recent emergence as a respected body of literary work. Discusses what is Canadian about Canadian children's literature. Annotates six picture books. Notes that Canadian literature reflects the diversity of the Canadian population, the vast differences in the Canadian landscape, and the…

  14. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. CPPI conducts research to develop industry policy on a wide variety of environmental, health, safety and business issues. Key activities include: developing guidelines for the safe handling of petroleum products, establishing environmental policies, managing a national environmental protection network of over 100 centers across Canada; providing information on industry activities to the public; and developing working partnerships with government and public interest groups to address issues of common concern. An overview is provided of industry operations, economics and financial performance, and environmental protection and safety. Lists of CPPI publications, awards, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs

  15. Canadian Clinical Practice Guidelines for Rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Yuka; Tan, Jerry; Baibergenova, Akerke; Barankin, Benjamin; Cochrane, Chris L; Humphrey, Shannon; Lynde, Charles W; Marcoux, Danielle; Poulin, Yves; Rivers, Jason K; Sapijaszko, Mariusz; Sibbald, R Gary; Toole, John; Ulmer, Marcie; Zip, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    Rosacea is a chronic facial inflammatory dermatosis characterized by background facial erythema and flushing and may be accompanied by inflammatory papules and pustules, cutaneous fibrosis and hyperplasia known as phyma, and ocular involvement. These features can have adverse impact on quality of life, and ocular involvement can lead to visual dysfunction. The past decade has witnessed increased research into pathogenic pathways involved in rosacea and the introduction of novel treatment innovations. The objective of these guidelines is to offer evidence-based recommendations to assist Canadian health care providers in the diagnosis and management of rosacea. These guidelines were developed by an expert panel of Canadian dermatologists taking into consideration the balance of desirable and undesirable outcomes, the quality of supporting evidence, the values and preferences of patients, and the costs of treatment. The 2015 Cochrane review "Interventions in Rosacea" was used as a source of clinical trial evidence on which to base the recommendations. PMID:27207355

  16. Survey of Canadian hospitals radiation emergency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the findings of a survey of Canadian hospitals conducted by Social Data Research Ltd. during the Spring and Summer, 1995. The main objective of the survey was to determine the state of readiness of Canadian hospitals in respect of radiation emergency planning. In addition, the AECB was interested in knowing the extent to which a report by the Group of Medical Advisors, 'GMA-3: Guidelines on Hospital Emergency Plans for the Management of Minor Radiation Accidents', which was sponsored and distributed in 1993, was received and was useful to hospital administrators and emergency personnel. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 598 acute care hospitals, and 274 responses were received. The main conclusion of this study is that, with the exception of a few large institutions, hospitals generally do not have specific action plans to handle minor radiation accidents. (author)

  17. Canadian petroleum history bibliography. Release update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2010-01-07

    The petroleum history bibliography was created over several years as a record dedicated to preserving the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. It comprises a list of more than 5000 publications, including books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles and stories of the many companies that have come and gone. It aims to include all publications and audio visual products from the Social Sciences and Humanities on company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry and humour. An author index is included. Most government documents are excluded as they are accessible through Library and Archives Canada. This bibliography is an ongoing piece of work, and welcomes any additions relating to the study and preservation of Canadian petroleum industry history.

  18. Canadian mercury inventories: the missing pieces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research was conducted to determine the significance of the deliberate use of mercury in products in Canada and the associated releases from these sources. Through a combination of literature review and new calculations, the reservoir, flux, and releases of mercury from eight product sources were calculated, and these results compared to historical Canadian inventories. Mercury contributions from the waste sector were also assessed and compared to total Canadian mercury releases and to mercury releases from coal-fired generating stations. Results suggest the use and release of mercury associated with release of mercury associated with its use in products is 4.5 times what previous inventories indicate. Including dental amalgam and sewage sludge, the total releases of mercury to all environmental compartments in Canada totals 20 tonnes per year. This accounts for less than one-half of the 44 tonnes per year of mercury released from mercury waste disposal each year in Canada. Waste mercury contributions from hazardous waste imports, unknown product sources, and incomplete information on the use of mercury in known products may account for this discrepancy. Waste-related mercury releases and transfers for disposal and recycling are 11 times greater than that of electricity generation in Canada. Results indicate that Canadian inventories have underestimated the significance of mercury use and release associated with products, calling into question the current priorities for mercury management. This paper was developed as part of a panel session at the International Joint Commission 'Mercury in the Ecosystem' workshop, February 26-27, 2003, Windsor, ON, Canada, as a complement to the information on Canadian Inventories presented by Luke Trip (Senes Consulting, Ottawa, ON, Canada)

  19. Canadian Multiculturalism, Same as it ever Was?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Hoyos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available After the Second World War ended, Canada was no longer mainly composed of its two dominant ethnocultural groups, French and English, but rather constituted by polyethnicity; meaning, Canadian culture was made up of many different ethnic groups. Since then, Canada has actively embraced multiculturalism and on 12 July 1988, the House of Commons passed Bill C-93, ‘An Act for the preservation and enhancement of multiculturalism in Canada’. The Canadian multicultural experience has been much portrayed as a celebration of ethnicity where different cultural groups share their customs and learn from each other. However, it is recently being rumoured that the multiculturalism hype is not all it is cut out to be and segregates communities rather than integrate. According to Canadian authors Keith Banting and Will Kymlicka, “in much of the world and particularly in Europe, there is a widespread perception that multiculturalism has failed” (44. In this paper, I examine some recent common issues of concern, especially, racism and discrimination, through the literary expression of Canadian playwrights and writers such as George F. Walker, Cecil Foster, and Mordecai Richler. These writers are not meant to represent any ethnic group as a whole, but rather try to project a general feeling about the nation in individual ways. I will finally explore the idea of how perhaps multiculturalism in Canada is evolving into another state since migratory patterns and the social circumstances that Canada is facing in the 21st century have changed. Today, the idea of celebrating different ethnicities and customs is no longer as important as celebrating the transcultural or “transnational” aspects of relations between individuals and groups of immigrants.

  20. The Canadian Lung Cancer Conference 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Melosky, B.; Ho, C

    2016-01-01

    Each February, the Canadian Lung Cancer Conference brings together lung cancer researchers, clinicians, and care professionals who are united in their commitment to improve the care of patients with lung cancer. This year’s meeting, held 11–12 February, featured a resident education session, a welcome dinner, networking sessions, lectures, breakout sessions, debates, and a satellite symposium. Key themes from this year’s meeting included innovations across the care spectrum and results of rec...

  1. Fatal falciparum malaria in Canadian travellers

    OpenAIRE

    Humar, A.; Sharma, S.; Zoutman, D; Kain, K. C.

    1997-01-01

    The authors report 2 cases of severe falciparum malaria in Canadians that had fatal outcomes. In the first case a man presented to a local hospital shortly after returning from Africa, but a diagnosis of malaria was not considered. He was transferred to a secondary and then to a tertiary care facility, where he subsequently died. Intravenous quinidine therapy, the treatment of choice, was unavailable at all 3 hospitals. In the second case, a woman taking chloroquine prophylaxis while visiting...

  2. Competition in the Canadian Mortgage Market

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Allen

    2011-01-01

    This article begins with a brief examination of the Canadian mortgage market, focusing on the market’s evolution following changes to the Bank Act in 1992, which allowed chartered banks to enter the trust business, and the subsequent entrance of virtual banks and mortgage brokers. It then summarizes key research currently being undertaken by the Bank of Canada. This research suggests that the mortgage rates paid by borrowers depend on their observable characteristics, their local market, and ...

  3. Tornado Mitigation in the Canadian Prairie Region

    OpenAIRE

    Durage, Samanthi, Prof.

    2014-01-01

    Tornadoes are a destructive form of the extreme weather associated with thunderstorms. Canada gets more tornadoes than any other country with the exception of the US. This paper presents some results of a study on tornado mitigation in the Canadian Prairie region. Initially, a regression-based analysis of the Prairie tornado database was conducted, and the trend for the number of tornadoes reported in each year is discussed in this paper. The detection, warning, communication, and evacuation ...

  4. Morbidity Experiences and Disability Among Canadian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesMeules, Marie; Turner, Linda; Cho, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Health Issue Women are more frequently affected by chronic conditions and disability than men. Although some of these sex differences have been in part attributed to biological susceptibility, social determinants of health and other factors, these gaps have not been fully explained in the current literature. This chapter presents comparisons of hospitalization rates, and the prevalence of chronic conditions and physical disability between Canadian women and men and between various subgroups of women, adjusting for selected risk factors. The Canadian Hospital Morbidity Database (2000–2001) and Canadian Community Health Survey (2000–2001) were used to examine inpatient hospital morbidity, prevalence of chronic conditions and disability. Key Findings Hospitalization rates were 20% higher among women than men. This was due to the large number of hospitalizations for pregnancies and childbirth. When "normal" deliveries were excluded, hospitalization rates remained higher among women. Women had slightly lower rates of hospitalizations for ambulatory-care sensitive conditions than men. Prevalence of activity limitation (mild and severe) was higher among women than men, and differences remained after adjusting for age, chronic conditions, socio-economic status, and smoking. Women who reported a disability were less likely than men to be in a partnered relationship, have less tangible social support, and have lower income and employment rates. Data Gaps and Recommendations The impact of morbidity and disability on Canadian women is substantial. These results identify areas for interventions among more vulnerable subgroups, and point to the need for further research in the area of risk factors for the prevention of morbidity and disability in the population. PMID:15345073

  5. Canadian mercury inventories: the missing pieces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagreen, L.A.; Lourie, B.A. [Summerhill Group, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Research was conducted to determine the significance of the deliberate use of mercury in products in Canada and the associated releases from these sources. Through a combination of literature review and new calculations, the reservoir, flux, and releases of mercury from eight product sources were calculated, and these results compared to historical Canadian inventories. Mercury contributions from the waste sector were also assessed and compared to total Canadian mercury releases and to mercury releases from coal-fired generating stations. Results suggest the use and release of mercury associated with its use in products is 4.5 times what previous inventories indicate. Including dental amalgam and sewage sludge, the total releases of mercury to all environmental compartments in Canada totals 20 tonnes per year. This accounts for less than one-half of the 44 tonnes per year of mercury released from mercury waste disposal each year in Canada. Waste mercury contributions from hazardous waste imports, unknown product sources, and incomplete information on the use of mercury in known products may account for this discrepancy. Waste-related mercury releases and transfers for disposal and recycling are 11 times greater than that of electricity generation in Canada. Results indicate that Canadian inventories have underestimated the significance of mercury use and release associated with products, calling into question the current priorities for mercury management. This paper was developed as part of a panel session at the International Joint Commission 'Mercury in the Ecosystem' workshop, February 26-27, 2003, Windsor, ON, Canada, as a complement to the information on Canadian Inventories presented by Luke Trip (Senes Consulting, Ottawa, ON, Canada).

  6. Globalization, health, and the future Canadian metropolis.

    OpenAIRE

    Schrecker, Ted

    2010-01-01

    This chapter represents a preliminary effort to understand the health implications of transnsational economic integration (globalization) for population health in Canadian metropolitan areas, and to inform the development of policy responses and strategies of resistance. Special emphasis is placed on health equity as it is affected by social determinants of health. I first provide a stylized description of the rationale for concentrating on major metropolitan areas, rather than on...

  7. Industry analysis - Canadian medical doctoral universities

    OpenAIRE

    Crighton, Lyla Eileen

    2005-01-01

    Most public sector and non-profit entities do not undergo standard business analysis that is typically found in their private sector counterparts, however such approaches may provide administrators with information to better understand their industry. A high-level industry analysis of Canadian medical-doctoral universities, based on Porter's five forces and value chain analysis, combined with an analysis of pertinent issues indicated that universities are greatly affected by strategic decisio...

  8. Canadian survey on pandemic flu preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy CS; Guglietti C; Gibson JL; Wilson Kumanan; Ritvo Paul; Nie JX; Jadad AR; Upshur REG

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The management of pandemic influenza creates public health challenges. An ethical framework, 'Stand on Guard for Thee: ethical considerations in pandemic influenza preparedness' that served as a template for the World Health Organization's global consultation on pandemic planning, was transformed into a survey administered to a random sample of 500 Canadians to obtain opinions on key ethical issues in pandemic preparedness planning. Methods All framework authors and additi...

  9. A Canadian Medical Team in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Caldwell, J. Paul; Kain, Brian F.; Robert C. McDonald

    1985-01-01

    In February 1985, a Canadian medical relief team was established in a northern Ethiopia refugee camp. Volunteer physicians, nurses, and support staff have worked in the camp since February 1985. Their activities range from supervising intensive feeding programs, to controlling infections, to educating patients. About 300-400 patients visit the outpatient clinics daily. Malnutrition, vitamin A and B deficiencies, scurvy, rickets, gastroenteritis, malaria, leprosy, tuberculosis, pneumonia, trac...

  10. Viewpoint: Canadian competition policy: progress and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Ross

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the state of competition policy - in particular the economics of competition policy - in Canada today and considers its prospects going forward. It argues that: (i) the importance of competition policy has become accepted widely in Canada and indeed throughout much of the world; (ii) competition policy design and enforcement is in general well done in Canada; (iii) economists, including many Canadians, have played a central role in the development of an efficient and effe...

  11. Canadian oil and gas survey 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberge, R.B. [ed.

    1998-11-01

    The year 1997 brought record levels of financing for the Canadian oil and gas industry which led to record levels of capital spending and unprecedented merger and acquisition activity. Production records were achieved, but soft commodity prices in the fourth quarter resulted in a significant downturn in the equity markets. El Nino reduced demand for natural gas and heating oil, resulting in increased storage levels for both commodities. Record drilling and capital spending fueled the Canadian oilfield service industry as total market capitalization rose to $10 billion. As for the 1998 outlook, the industry has turned to natural gas as the favoured commodity, as indicated by the conclusion of the Alliance pipeline hearings and the Nova/TCPL merger. This survey presents a review of crude oil and natural gas production, prices, and capital spending for development and exploratory wells, and the financial and operating results for fiscal year 1997 of selected oil and gas companies and income trusts. All listed companies are Canadian public companies, or publicly traded income trusts, traded on one of the country`s four major stock exchanges. They are ranked according to gross oil and gas production revenue only (before royalties). Syncrude and oil sands production is also included. The remaining data in the financial statistics tables includes all business segments of each company included. The survey excluded companies that were wholly-owned subsidiaries, divisions or U.S. subsidiaries and private companies. tabs., figs.

  12. Foldable Containers to Reduce the Costs of Empty Transport? A Cost–Benefit Analysis from a Chain and Multi-Actor Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Rob Konings

    2005-01-01

    Transport of empty containers, which arises from the need to reposition containers, is an expensive business. This holds in particular for shipping lines, which are usually responsible for container repositioning and have to bear these container management costs. Shipping lines are known to follow various strategies to reduce the costs of empty transport. A rather unfamiliar, but interesting option to save costs is the possibility to fold empty containers. This could save transport costs, but...

  13. Papers of the Canadian Energy Pipeline Association's 7. annual climate change workshop : energy efficiency and greenhouse gas reduction opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference focused on the role that Canadian pipeline companies will play in addressing greenhouse gas emissions. Ninety-five per cent of Canada's oil and gas is transported by pipeline. The Canadian Energy Pipeline Association (CEPA) is a national association representing all the major crude oil and natural gas transportation companies in Canada which operate 100,000 kilometres of pipeline in the country. CEPA's ongoing commitment to climate change includes a commitment to participate in the climate change process, share best management practices, develop energy efficient technology, and position Canadian companies so that they can be part of the solution. It was emphasized that a strong commitment to an effective innovation strategy will be crucial to a successful long term energy policy that meets both economic and environmental objectives. One of the key messages at the conference was that Canada's climate change policies should be consistent with those of the United States, its major trading partner, to ensure that Canada is not placed at a competitive disadvantage within North American and world energy markets. It was also noted that greenhouse gas emissions should be reduced in all consuming and producing sectors of the economy through energy efficiency practices and not through reductions in Canadian industry output for domestic or export markets. Five presentations were indexed separately for inclusion in the database. tabs., figs

  14. Beyond "medical tourism": Canadian companies marketing medical travel

    OpenAIRE

    Turner Leigh

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite having access to medically necessary care available through publicly funded provincial health care systems, some Canadians travel for treatment provided at international medical facilities as well as for-profit clinics found in several Canadian provinces. Canadians travel abroad for orthopaedic surgery, bariatric surgery, ophthalmologic surgery, stem cell injections, “Liberation therapy” for multiple sclerosis, and additional interventions. Both responding to publi...

  15. Should investors prefer Canadian hedge funds or stocks?

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xiao Yan; Zhou, Weihui

    2007-01-01

    This paper updates Brulhart and Klein (2006) by comparing the magnitude of extreme returns from Tremont, HFRI hedge fund indices with stock indices. It also compares the magnitude of extreme returns from Canadian hedge fund indices with stock indices. We found that the results from Brulhart and Klein hold for the updated US data. However, the results do not hold for the Canadian hedge fund indices. The magnitude of extreme returns from Canadian hedge fund indices is lower than the magnitude o...

  16. Fueling war : the impact of Canadian oil investment on the conflict in Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, S.

    2002-11-15

    Canadian oil companies have become increasingly involved in oil exploration and development in Columbia over the last 2 years. This paper examined the impact of Canadian oil investment on armed conflict in Columbia, and suggested that there is a strong correlation between regions of mineral wealth and regions of political conflict. The role of Canadian companies in contributing to the escalation of political violence was explored, and the economics of civil war from a theoretical perspective were examined with regards to the financing of rebellion and the role of international investment. The origins and evolution of the civil war in Colombia were outlined. Possibilities for ethical oil investment in Colombia were also explored. The paper supported recent assertions that in order to understand the political economy of civil war, the role of the international private sector must be evaluated. The significance of primary resources as a funding source for armed groups was confirmed, as well as the tendency for conflict to centre on areas of resource wealth in the country. A case study of Talisman Energy's activities in Sudan was also presented. It was suggested that oil companies operating in Colombia must become involved in local development projects to improve education and health, and should also design security measures from a corporate social responsibility perspective. It was concluded that in order to work towards the resolution of armed conflict there the root causes of the conflict, issues such as land reform, social inequality, and the terms of foreign investment must be addressed in addition to the means by which illegal armed actors finance themselves. 73 figs.

  17. Very long term development of the Dutch Inland Waterway Transport System: Policy analysis, transport projections, shipping scenarios, and a new perspective on economic growth and future discounting: Extended summary report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dorsser, J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    This report, that provides an extended summary of a similar named thesis, addresses how a new method for the evaluation of policies with a very long term impact on the Dutch Inland Waterway Transport (IWT) system can be developed. It proposes an outline for a very long term transport model, prepares

  18. Insights into aerosols, chemistry, and clouds from NETCARE: Observations from the Canadian Arctic in summer 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbatt, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Canadian Network on Aerosols and Climate: Addressing Key Uncertainties in Remote Canadian Regions (or NETCARE) was established in 2013 to study the interactions between aerosols, chemistry, clouds and climate. The network brings together Canadian academic and government researchers, along with key international collaborators. Attention is being given to observations and modeling of Arctic aerosol, with the goal to understand underlying processes and so improve predictions of aerosol climate forcing. Motivation to understand the summer Arctic atmosphere comes from the retreat of summer sea ice and associated increase in marine influence. To address these goals, a suite of measurements was conducted from two platforms in summer 2014 in the Canadian Arctic, i.e. an aircraft-based campaign on the Alfred Wegener Institute POLAR 6 and an ocean-based campaign from the CGCS Amundsen icebreaker. NETCARE-POLAR was based out of Resolute Bay, Nunavut during an initial period of little transport and cloud-free conditions and a later period characterized by more transport with potentially biomass burning influence. Measurements included particle and cloud droplet numbers and size distributions, aerosol composition, cloud nuclei, and levels of gaseous tracers. Ultrafine particle events were more frequently observed in the marine boundary layer than above, with particle growth observed in some cases to cloud condensation nucleus sizes. The influence of biological processes on atmospheric constituents was also assessed from the ship during NETCARE-AMUNDSEN, as indicated by high measured levels of gaseous ammonia, DMS and oxygenated VOCs, as well as isolated particle formation and growth episodes. The cruise took place in Baffin Bay and through the Canadian archipelago. Interpretation of the observations from both campaigns is enhanced through the use of chemical transport and particle dispersion models. This talk will provide an overview of NETCARE Arctic observational and

  19. The Canadian Teaching Commons: The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Canadian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuetherick, Brad; Yu, Stan

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reports on a national study exploring the current state of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) and assessing the perceptions of Canadian SoTL scholars at the micro (individual), meso (departmental), macro (institutional), and mega (disciplinary) contexts.

  20. 加拿大法裔少数民族心理形成的阶段性特征--以魁北克分离主义为视角%Formation of Canadian Francophone National Minority’s Psychology In Different Phases--On the Perspective of Quebec Separatism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建波

    2012-01-01

      加拿大法裔少数民族心理是在十八世纪中期至十九世纪中期加拿大的历史演进、政治变革和社会变迁中形成的,它具有被异族征服的屈辱和对其统治的敌对、文化生存的焦虑、社会经济地位导致的自卑和弱势的敏感等特征.20世纪60年代得到矫枉过正的自我修复,进入90年代,法裔民族心态渐趋平和,但是少数心理仍十分敏感,弱势心理定势没有得到克服.这种心理成为魁北克分离主义至今不息的心理基础.%  From the mid-eighteenth century to the mid-nineteenth century Canadian Francophone National Minority’s Psychology took shape,with the evolution of Canadian history,politics and society. It includes the following characteristics,humiliation from alien subjugation,hostile to its rule,anxiety of cultural survival,inferiority of socio-economic status and sensitivity of weakness,etc. The psychology have self-repaired in 1960s,time to the 1990s,it is gradually peace,but a small number of psychological still very sensitive and the weakness of mental set does not get to overcome. Today,this psychology still became the psychological basis of Quebee separatism.

  1. 2007: A Canadian Corporate Ownership Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsan, Calin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study documents a decline in the levels of corporate ownership concentration between 1996 and 2007. When compared to previous studies, the incidence of ownership stakes of 20% or larger has decreased form 60% to 41% of the total population of publicly listed Canadian firms. Regional disparities among provinces remain important. Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia have the most widely-held firms, while Quebec and Atlantic Canada show the most concentrated corporate ownership patterns. The interpretation of these results requires a complex understanding of historical, demographic, cultural, political and institutional factors.

  2. Chinese Oil Giants Eye Canadian Oil Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Bin

    2005-01-01

    @@ SinoCanada, a subsidiary of Sinopec International Petroleum Exploration and Development Corporation, and Canada-based Synenco Energy Inc announced on May 31 that they have inked a series of agreements to launch a joint venture for common development of the oil sand project located in Athabasca region of Northeast Canada's Alberta Province. Based on the agreements, Sinopec will pay 105 million Canadian dollars (US$84 million) for a stake in Canada's Northern Lights oil sands project while Synenco owns the remaining 60 percent share,and will operate the project as the managing partner.

  3. Airborne organochlorines in the Canadian High Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    PATTON, G. W.; HINCKLEY, D. A.; Walla, M D; T. F. Bidleman; HARGRAVE, B. T.

    2011-01-01

    In 1984, the Canadian Polar Continental Shelf Project established a research camp on a floating ice island in the Beaufort Sea. The 7 × 4 km island is presently located about 50 km off Ellesmere Island at about 81°N, 100°W. Air samples of 1400–3000 m3 were collected on the island in August-September 1986 and June 1987, using a filter-solid adsorbent train. Organochlorines in melted snow and Arctic Ocean surface water were preconcentrated using solid adsorbent cartridges. Samples were analyzed...

  4. Refugees and education in Canadian schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaprielian-Churchill, Isabel

    1996-07-01

    This article summarizes some of the findings and recommendations of a research project focusing on the nature and needs of refugee students in Canadian schools. The school performance of refugee students is examined under the following headings: immigration regulations; initial identification, assessment, placement and monitoring; unaccompanied youngsters; "at risk" students; academic needs; the conflict of cultures. In particular, the article discusses the changing role of the school in the light of recent immigration trends. Many of the findings are applicable to other national settings.

  5. The Dividend and Share Repurchase Policies of Canadian Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Jong (Abe); R. van Dijk (Ronald); C.H. Veld

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe empirically investigate dividend and share repurchase policies of Canadian firms. We have sent a questionnaire to the 500 largest non-financial Canadian companies listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange, of which 191 usable responses were returned. These data are used to measure firm cha

  6. 47 CFR 101.1423 - Canadian and Mexican coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Canadian and Mexican coordination. 101.1423... GHz Band § 101.1423 Canadian and Mexican coordination. Pursuant to § 2.301 of this chapter, MVDDS... sector of 200 degrees toward the border without coordination with Canada. MVDDS licensees shall...

  7. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Society 15. annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of the 15. annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society cover a wide range of nuclear topics, but the emphasis is on CANDU reactors and Canadian experience. The 89 papers are arranged in 17 sessions dealing with the following subjects: thermalhydraulics, fuel channels, operations, reactor physics, fuel, new technology, safety, training, waste management. The individual papers have been abstracted separately

  8. Indigenous knowledge in Canadian science curricula: cases from Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijung

    2016-09-01

    To enhance Aboriginal students' educational opportunities in sciences, culturally relevant science curriculum has been examined and practiced in Western Canadian science classrooms. This article shares some examples of inclusion of indigenous knowledge in science curricula and discusses the improvement and challenges of culturally relevant science curricula in Canadian contexts.

  9. The Canadian Context: Monolingual Education in an "Officially" Multilingual Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Julia E.

    2011-01-01

    This article will examine the sociopolitical language contexts that exist in institutions of Canadian post-secondary education, through investigating how government policies affect the consumption and teaching of language in writing classrooms. A survey of Canadian multiculturalist policy, multilingualism, and post-secondary education in terms of…

  10. Canadian Educational Development Centre Websites: More Ebb than Flow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines information portrayed on Canadian educational development (ED) centre websites and, in particular, whether information that corresponds to questions compiled from a literature search of ED centre practices is readily available from centre websites. This study phase is part of a larger national study of Canadian educational…

  11. How Canadian Universities Use Social Media to Brand Themselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Charles H.; Bali, Suchita; Longden, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores social media marketing strategies applied by Canadian universities as a tool for institutional branding, recruitment and engagement of home and international students. The target sample involves the total population of Canadian university-status institutions ("N" = 106). Qualitative data were collected from two major…

  12. Seeking Internationalization: The State of Canadian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the internationalization of Canadian universities, with a focus on the rise of foreign postsecondary students in Canada, the economic impacts, and the various benefits, challenges, and adjustments that have been influenced by the continuing demographic shifts on Canadian campuses since 2000. Rooted in recent global and…

  13. A cost-utility analysis of cervical cancer vaccination in preadolescent Canadian females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merid Maraki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the fact that approximately 70% of Canadian women undergo cervical cancer screening at least once every 3 years, approximately 1,300 women were diagnosed with cervical cancer and approximately 380 died from it in 2008. This study estimates the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of vaccinating 12-year old Canadian females with an AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine. The indirect effect of vaccination, via herd immunity, is also estimated. Methods A 12-health-state 1-year-cycle Markov model was developed to estimate lifetime HPV related events for a cohort of 12-year old females. Annual transition probabilities between health-states were derived from published literature and Canadian population statistics. The model was calibrated using Canadian cancer statistics. From a healthcare perspective, the cost-effectiveness of introducing a vaccine with efficacy against HPV-16/18 and evidence of cross-protection against other oncogenic HPV types was evaluated in a population undergoing current screening practices. The base-case analysis included 70% screening coverage, 75% vaccination coverage, $135/dose for vaccine, and 3% discount rate on future costs and health effects. Conservative herd immunity effects were taken into account by estimated HPV incidence using a mathematical model parameterized by reported age-stratified sexual mixing data. Sensitivity analyses were performed to address parameter uncertainties. Results Vaccinating 12-year old females (n = 100,000 was estimated to prevent between 390-633 undiscounted cervical cancer cases (reduction of 47%-77% and 168-275 undiscounted deaths (48%-78% over their lifetime, depending on whether or not herd immunity and cross-protection against other oncogenic HPV types were included. Vaccination was estimated to cost $18,672-$31,687 per QALY-gained, the lower range representing inclusion of cross-protective efficacy and herd immunity. The cost per QALY-gained was most

  14. Euro plays : Canadian companies find success in England and France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A growing list of Canadian companies are searching for oil and gas onshore in England and France. Cirque Energy Corp., Vermilion Resources Ltd., Morrison Middlefield Resources Ltd., and Bow Valley Energy Ltd., are among the companies that are taking advantage of the underexplored basins, little competition, availability of land, and (in the case of the United Kingdom) a superior fiscal regime. Cirque Energy Corp. entered the U.K. in 1995 and currently has a 220,000 acre land position in the East Midlands basin, 250 km north of London. The main producing reservoirs are Permo-Carboniferous in age. The geology is similar to that in the North Sea. In November 1998, Cirque plans to build a 2,500 metre, six inch pipeline to transport up to 1,500 gross bbls of oil per day. Vermilion Resources Ltd. acquired oil and gas assets in the Paris and Aquitaine basin. The company has executed a $10.1 million workover and recompletion program on 42 wells which has increased production to more than 6,000 BOE per day from the previous 4,000 BOE per day. 3 figs

  15. Canadian energy. The next 20 years and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of energy in Canada is analyzed and several scenarios for future direction in energy policy are discussed. It is concluded that the most striking characteristic of current energy supply is domination by a single source: oil. As oil production declines conservation, consistent with the main features of Canadian way of life, and other sources must fill the gap. Natural gas cannot substantially increase its current market share of 22 percent. Electricity is unique in that it does not have a single source constraint and use can be expanded to about 26 percent from the current 15 percent market share. In-situ tar sands extraction, coal-fired district heating, solar energy and methanol from biomass for transport are seen as supplying smaller market shares. Likely, an energy supply mix without any single dominant source will be the best route. Low growth scenarios are not seen to be pracitcal without considerable economic and social dislocation. Yet without a firm policy this is what will result. (OT)

  16. Experimental Forecasts of Wildfire Pollution at the Canadian Meteorological Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Radenko; Beaulieu, Paul-Andre; Chen, Jack; Landry, Hugo; Cousineau, Sophie; Moran, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Environment and Climate Change Canada's Canadian Meteorological Centre Operations division (CMCO) has been running an experimental North American air quality forecast system with near-real-time wildfire emissions since 2014. This system, named FireWork, also takes anthropogenic and other natural emission sources into account. FireWork 48-hour forecasts are provided to CMCO forecasters and external partners in Canada and the U.S. twice daily during the wildfire season. This system has proven to be very useful in capturing short- and long-range smoke transport from wildfires over North America. Several upgrades to the FireWork system have been made since 2014 to accommodate the needs of operational AQ forecasters and to improve system performance. In this talk we will present performance statistics and some case studies for the 2014 and 2015 wildfire seasons. We will also describe current limitations of the FireWork system and ongoing and future work planned for this air quality forecast system.

  17. Recent acoustic studies of western Canadian continental margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornhold, B.D.; Brandon, M.T.; Clowes, R.M.; Currie, R.G.; Davis, E.E.; Hussong, D.M.; Hyndman, R.D.; Riddihough, R.P.; Rogers, G.C.; Yorath, C.J.

    1986-07-01

    A regional survey of the western Canadian continental margin from the central Queen Charlotte Island, 52/sup 0/40'N, to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, 47/sup 0/40'N, has been completed with the acoustic imaging system SeaMARC II. These data, combined with single-channel and multichannel seismic reflection data, reveal many new insights concerning the deep structure of the subduction margin off Vancouver Island. Clearly evident in the imagery are the deformation of sediments at the base of the slope, the surface expression of seismically active faults, the mass wasting of sediment frequently observed at the base of the slope, and the erosional canyons and sediment transport channels on the slope and adjacent abyssal plain. The variability in the surficial and deep structures along the length of the margin is great and corresponds well with the postulated variations in the local ocean/continent motion vectors: motion along the southern Queen Charlotte Islands margin is primarily transform (about 55 mm/year) with a small component of convergence (about 10 mm/year); motion south of the triple junction at the Wilson Knolls is convergent but at a very slow rate (about 10 mm/year); and motion along the central and southern Vancouver Island margin is nearly orthogonal to the coast and more rapid (about 40 mm/year).

  18. Potential vorticity dynamics in the Canadian Climate Centre GCM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global distribution of Ertel potential vorticity (PV), simulated by the Canadian Climate Centre general circulation model (CCC GCM) is examined. An expression for PV in terms of an arbitrary vertical coordinate is formulated. This expression is used to calculate temporally averaged PV from the model temperature and wind fields. It is shown that a good approximation to the temporally averaged PV can be obtained from temporally averaged temperature and wind fields. An equation governing the time evolution of PV in the model vertical coordinate system is also derived. This equation is written in flux form and the associated flux is examined in a lower stratographic region of enhanced gravity-wave drag, above the Tibetan plateau. In this region, the southward transport of PV effected by gravity-wave drag is balanced to a large degree by the advection of PV northward. Finally, results from a recent experimental version of the CCC GCM, with an uppermost level at 1 mb, are used to examine PV dynamics associated with a spontaneous model stratospheric sudden warming. The warming is preceded by 2 successive large amplitude wavenumber 1 disturbances in the lower stratosphere. The second of these leads to splitting of the mid-stratospheric vortex into a double vortex pattern, as is clearly evident on maps of the 850K PV field during the warming period

  19. Canadian resources of uranium and thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada has been one of the world's leading producers of uranium since the metal became important as a raw material in the development and production of atomic energy. One of the largest known deposits in the world is in Canada where present reserves represent about 37 per cent of the total among those countries that have published reserve statistics. The production of uranium has been characterized by features which are unique in Canadian mining, because the industry was created by the government at a time of emergency and, unlike other minerals, the sale of its product is controlled by the state. The rapid growth of the uranium-mining industry since World War II has been a remarkable achievement. In 1958, Canada was the world's leading producer of uranium and the value of U3O8 produced in both 1958 and 1959 exceeded the value of any other Canadian-produced metal. As an export commodity, uranium ranked fourth in value in 1959 following newsprint, wheat, and lumber. Production from 25 mines in that year was 14 462 tonnes of U3O8 valued at $345 million (all monetary values are in U.S. dollars). Since 1959, however, the decline in production, resulting from declining export markets, has been almost as rapid as the spectacular rise from 1953 to 1959. At the end of 1963 only seven mines were in production and by the end of 1965 only two mines are expected to remain in operation. (author)

  20. The abortion battle: the Canadian scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, P

    1994-01-01

    In January 1988 the Supreme Court of Canada struck down the country's archaic abortion law on the ground that it imposed arbitrary delays and unfair disparities in access to abortion across the country. Since then, the conservative government of Canada has made a few attempts to introduce a new abortion policy, but it did not get passed in the parliament because the revised bills failed to protect women's right to 'life, liberty, and security of the person' within the meaning of the Canadian Charter. Canada has been without an abortion law for over four years and there has been a wide range of provincial policies and confusion in the country. Despite the legal vacuum, Canadian women are not frenziedly having abortions. However, the militancy of the anti-abortion groups has steadily intensified with continued assault on a woman's right to make reproductive choices. Since no law, short of banning abortions altogether, is going to satisfy abortion opponents, the abortion battle will rage on in Canada. PMID:8065237

  1. HIV outcomes at a Canadian remand centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Yazhini; Khan, Muhammad Naeem; Berger, Sara; Foisy, Michelle; Singh, Ameeta; Woods, Dan; Pyne, Diane; Ahmed, Rabia

    2016-09-12

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of short-term incarceration on antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, virologic suppression, and engagement and retention in community care post-release. Design/methodology/approach A retrospective chart review of patients who attended the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Outreach Clinic at a Canadian remand center between September 2007 and December 2011 was carried out. Data extraction included CD4 lymphocyte count, HIV viral load, ART prescription refills, and community engagement and retention during and one-year pre- and post-incarceration. Findings Outpatient engagement increased by 23 percent ( p=0.01), as did ART adherence (55.2-70.7 percent, p=0.01), following incarceration. Retention into community care did not significantly improve following incarceration (22.4 percent pre-incarceration to 25.9 percent post-release, p=0.8). There was a trend toward improved virologic suppression (less than 40 copies/ml; 50-77.8 percent ( p=0.08)) during incarceration and 70. 4 percent sustained this one-year post-incarceration ( p=0.70). Originality/value The impact of short-term incarceration in a Canadian context of universal health coverage has not been previously reported and could have significant implications in optimizing HIV patient outcomes given the large number of HIV-positive patients cycling through short-term remand centers. PMID:27548017

  2. Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project activities report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project was formally established in 1982. The project is directed toward the further development of Canadian capabilities in five major areas: tritium technology, breeder technology, materials technology, equipment development and safety and the environment. The project is funded by three partners - Government of Canada (50%), Ontario Provincial Government (25%) and Ontario Hydro (25%). The fiscal year 1984/85 represents the third year of operation of the project. In 1984/85, 108 contracts were awarded totalling $4 million. Supplementary funding by subcontractors added approximately $1.9 million to the total project value. More than 200 people participated in the technical work involved in the project. Sixteen people were on attachment to foreign facilities for terms ranging from 1 month to 2.5 years. Five patents were applied for including a tritium discrimination monitor, a new radio-chemical tritium separation method, a new variation of fuel cleanup by gas chromatography, a passive tritium permeation system using bimetallic membranes, and a new breeder process using lithium salts dissolved in heavy water

  3. Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial information from Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd. and a review of their 1998 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. The company's core oil and gas business activities include exploration, development, production and marketing of crude oil and natural gas. The company produces oil and gas in Canada, Yemen, the Gulf of Mexico and Nigeria. Canadian Occidental also owns a 7.23 per cent share in the Syncrude joint venture. The company is developing new production in Hay, British Columbia, offshore west Africa and offshore northwest Australia. They are also one of North America's top three manufacturers of sodium chlorate. The report presents a summary of operations, a thorough management discussion and analysis of results and provides the customary consolidated financial statements and notes. Overall, 1998 was described as a difficult year financially, due to falling commodity prices. On the operations side, the company experienced its best results to date, producing more oil and gas than ever before. The company also invested over $ 950 million in new projects and opportunities. Some of the Company's most promising projects are located offshore Nigeria, offshore northwest Australia, in the Gulf of Mexico and in western Canada. These projects are expected to add 40,000 BOE of production by early 2000, with promise of attractive returns even at current low oil prices. tabs., figs

  4. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-01-01

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups. PMID:23618638

  5. Canadian experience with uranium tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the first years of uranium production in Canada uranium tailings were discharged directly into valleys or lakes near the mill. Treatment with barium chloride to precipitate radium began in 1965 at the Nordic Mine at Elliot Lake, Ontario. In the mid-60s and early 70s water quality studies indicated that discharges from uranium tailings areas were causing degradation to the upper part of the Serpent River water system. Studies into acid generation, revegetation, and leaching of radium were initiated by the mining companies and resulted in the construction of treatment plants at a number of sites. Abandoned tailings sites were revegetated. At hearings into the expansion of the Elliot Lake operations the issue of tailings management was a major item for discussion. As a result federal and provincial agencies developed guidelines for the siting and development of urnaium tailings areas prior to issuing operating licences. Western Canadian uranium producers do not have the acid generation problem of the Elliot Lake operations. The Rabbit Lake mill uses settling ponds followed by filtration. High-grade tailings from Cluff Lake are sealed in concrete and buried. Uranium producers feel that the interim criteria developed by the Atomic Energy Control Board, if adopted, would have a harmful effect on the viability of the Canadian uranium industry

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions from Canadian prairie agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellert, B.H.; Janzen, H.H. [Agriculture and Agri-food Canada Research Centre, Lethbridge, AB, (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    There is a close relationship between soil and air quality, on the one hand, and the exchange of greenhouse gases between the earth and atmosphere, on the other. International efforts by people such as soil conservationists and climatologists to control emissions of these gases and negotiations surrounding the Kyoto Protocol have increased the debate regarding the role of agricultural activities. From evaluation of both data available before global change became important and recent research efforts, much information on greenhouse gas emissions from Canadian agriculture has been gained. A summary is included of the contribution of Canadian prairie agriculture to emissions of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane gas. A stress is placed on the subject of the carbon cycle and on how land management practices could influence soil carbon storage capacity. The potential for increasing this carbon storage capacity is described in relation to land use, historical changes in agricultural land, and recent observations on the influence of agricultural parctices, and obstacles to estimating changes in soil carbon dioxide emissions and carbon storage, and extending the estimates to large land areas are examined. Emissions of nitrous oxide and methane gas are considered in relation to the influence of agricultural management practices. (Abstract only)

  7. A transport network for a City network in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region: linking the performance of the public transport service with the perspectives of a monocentric or a polycentric urban system

    OpenAIRE

    BAPTISTE,H; LHOSTIS, A

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this contribution is to establish a method linking the performance of the regional rail transport network and two principles of territorial organisation around a central pole (monocentric option) or in a city network (polycentric option), applied to the Région Nord-Pas-de-Calais in France. The first step here is to define a set of urban centres, on which the spatial organisation principles are applied. The analysis of the quality of transport service is established from an in...

  8. Competitiveness and viability impact on the Canadian refining industry of reducing sulphur in Canadian gasoline and diesel. Phase II: Pricing dynamics of the Canadian and international product markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of Canadian and international petroleum product pricing are discussed. Petroleum product prices are developed for use in assessing the competitiveness of the Canadian refining industry, both before and after the impact of the various sulphur reduction scenarios. In assessing the competitiveness of the Canadian refining industry, five critical factors have been taken into account. These are product prices, feedstock costs, capacity utilization, operating costs, and future capital requirements. Refining margin is considered to be the best indicator of refining performance. In Canada, refining margins are directly influenced by refining margins at the U.S. Gulf Coast (USGC). U.S. impact, European impact and the resulting Canadian grade gasoline and low sulphur diesel prices were examined in great detail. It was found that current returns are below acceptable rates in both the Canadian and U. S. industries. Separate price determinations were made for Ontario, Montreal, the Atlantic provinces, the Prairie provinces and British Columbia for gasoline and diesel fuel taking into account future sulphur scenario prices, the impact of legislation on fuel pricing, and crude oil pricing practices. Criteria for addressing future refinery viability, the advent of unique Canadian quality specifications starting in 1999, and the effects of these changes on independent marketers were also discussed

  9. Global standardization of the calculation of CO2 emissions along transport chains-gaps, approaches, perspectives of the global alignment process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehrler, V.; Engel, A. van den; Davydenko, I.; Diekmann, D.; Kiel, J.; Lewis, A.; Seidel, S.

    2015-01-01

    The transport industry, consumers, shippers and political bodies are all pressing for a global standard for the calculation of emissions along supply chains. Comparability of the chains’ efficiency, reduction of energy consumption, transparency of the carbon footprint of products and identification

  10. A REVIEW OF ASSESSMENTS CONDUCTED ON BIO-ETHANOL AS A TRANSPORTATION FUEL FROM A NET ENERGY, GREENHOUSE GAS, AND ENVIRONMENTAL LIFE CYCLE PERSPECTIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in producing ethanol from bio-mass in an attempt to make transportation ecologically sustainable continues to grow. In recent years, a large number of assessments have been conducted to assess the environmental merit of biofuels. Two detailed reviews that looked at the s...

  11. Markets for Canadian bitumen-based feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken in an effort to determine the market potential for crude bitumen and derivative products from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin in 2007. As part of the study, CERI assessed the economic viability of a wide range of bitumen-based feedstock based on their refining values, investigated the sensitivity of refinery demand to the prices of these feedstocks, and examined the competitiveness of bitumen-based feedstocks and conventional crudes. A US$18.00 per barrel price for West Texas Intermediate at Cushing, Oklahoma, was assumed in all calculations, including other crude prices, as well as for Western Canadian and US crude oil production forecasts. Four different scenarios have been considered, but only the 'most plausible' scenario is discussed in the report. Consequently, Hydrocracked/Aromatics Saturated Synthetic Crude Oil, which is currently only a hypothetical product, is excluded from consideration. The availability of historical price differentials for the various competing crudes was another assumption used in developing the scenario. Proxy prices for the bitumen-based feedstock were based on their respective supply costs. The study concludes that the principal dilemma facing bitumen producers in Western Canada is to determine the amount of upgrading necessary to ensure an economic market for their product in the future. In general, the greater the degree of upgrading, the higher is the demand for bitumen-based feedstock. However, it must be kept in mind that the upgrading decisions of other bitumen producers, along with many other factors, will have a decisive impact on the economics of any individual project. The combination of coking capacity and asphalt demand limits the market for heavy and extra-heavy crudes. As a result, the researchers concluded that major expansion of heavy crude conversion capacity may have to wait until the end of the current decade. The economic market for bitumen-based blends in 2007 is estimated at

  12. The final fifteen feet of hose : the Canadian gasoline industry in the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An up-to-date profile of the Canadian gasoline industry was presented with an effort to address some of the preoccupations of industry stakeholders and the perceptions of Canadian motorists. This study provides new insights into the workings of the industry by providing a balanced perspective on the many contentious issues that affect the industry, particularly retail pricing. The Conference Board's empirical analysis makes use of a new approach which provides a better understanding of how retail prices react to changes in wholesale prices. Competition is the reason why a retail market outcome margin exists in each city based on local conditions. This margin is the basis for price changes in that market and reflects a margin at which most competitors are able to sustain themselves. When changes occur in the wholesale price of crude, the retail price is adjusted depending on whether the actual margin in place is higher or lower than the market outcome margin. Crude oil and taxes make up about 84 per cent of the average price of a litre of regulated unleaded gasoline. The main reason for rising Canadian gasoline prices is the rapid increase in world crude oil prices. The volatility in gasoline prices is a direct result of the competitive nature of the business at the street level and the uniformity of prices reflects the rapid response of individual dealers to the actions of their competitors. Each outlet has fixed costs to cover, therefore average sales volumes per outlet have an important impact on retail margins and prices. It was also emphasized that there is no empirical proof that gasoline prices increase before long weekends, nor is there any proof of asymmetry in price adjustment in the retail market. It was noted that the price of gasoline in Canada and the United States, excluding taxes, is very similar. 15 tabs., 59 figs

  13. Change in Corporal Punishment Over Time in a Representative Sample of Canadian Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréchette, Sabrina; Romano, Elisa

    2015-08-01

    Corporal punishment is a controversial form of discipline. Although its prevalence appears high, legal reforms and public education efforts to limit corporal punishment may be resulting in a decrease in its prevalence and frequency of use. This study drew on Canadian nationally representative data to understand the social change that might be happening and to characterize parents who continue to use corporal punishment. The study relied on cross-sectional data from Cycles 1 (1994) to 8 (2008) of the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth to examine parental reports of corporal punishment for children ages 2–11 years. Analyses were conducted separately for 2- to 5-, 6- to 9-, and 10- to 11-year-olds, and sociodemographics associated with corporal punishment were examined. A significant decrease in the prevalence and frequency of corporal punishment use was observed across time for all age groups. Child sex, parent age, employment status, family structure, household size, immigration status, ethnicity, and religion significantly distinguished parents who use corporal punishment from those who do not, but there was variability across the age groups. Effect sizes question the relevance of the observed decrease in corporal punishment from an applied perspective. Approximately 25% of Canadian parents still use corporal punishment with children ages 2–11 years; therefore, it remains an issue that merits continued attention. Certain child, parent, and family characteristics seem to characterize parents who use corporal punishment, but other more dynamic variables may be important to consider, such as parental stress and their attitudes toward corporal punishment. PMID:26053343

  14. Canadian oil and gas industry competitiveness and financial performance update 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an independent assessment of profitability in the upstream Canadian petroleum industry. The upstream sector includes exploration and production of oil and gas reserves. This report offers a historical and a forward looking perspective on the financial performance of the industry in 2001. The performance of the industry is compared with other industries in Canada and around the world. The report is divided into the following 4 sections: (1) how capital flows in the Canadian upstream oil and gas economy, (2) the analysis of sector profitability based on the efficiency of capital flow in section 1, (3) how the profitability of the Canadian upstream oil and gas sector stands up compared to other industries, and (4) appendices and other supplementary information. It was noted that as geologic basins are developed, non-renewable resources continue to become more capital intense, a phenomenon that is very evident in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The industry must provide financial incentives for investors to participate in exploration and development. The return on capital must exceed the cost of capital in order to maintain that incentive. The principal findings of this report include: (1) a higher than average uncertainty and volatility expected in 2003, (2) operating costs vary with production, but finding and developing costs are still increasing, (3) declining conventional reserves, (4) growing non-conventional expenditures, (5) current taxes cut into margins, (6) cost of capital only achievable with firm commodity prices, (7) in comparison to other industries, years 2000 and 2001 are exceptional for the industry with high commodity prices catalyzing returns greater than other countries. tabs., figs

  15. Change in Corporal Punishment Over Time in a Representative Sample of Canadian Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréchette, Sabrina; Romano, Elisa

    2015-08-01

    Corporal punishment is a controversial form of discipline. Although its prevalence appears high, legal reforms and public education efforts to limit corporal punishment may be resulting in a decrease in its prevalence and frequency of use. This study drew on Canadian nationally representative data to understand the social change that might be happening and to characterize parents who continue to use corporal punishment. The study relied on cross-sectional data from Cycles 1 (1994) to 8 (2008) of the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth to examine parental reports of corporal punishment for children ages 2–11 years. Analyses were conducted separately for 2- to 5-, 6- to 9-, and 10- to 11-year-olds, and sociodemographics associated with corporal punishment were examined. A significant decrease in the prevalence and frequency of corporal punishment use was observed across time for all age groups. Child sex, parent age, employment status, family structure, household size, immigration status, ethnicity, and religion significantly distinguished parents who use corporal punishment from those who do not, but there was variability across the age groups. Effect sizes question the relevance of the observed decrease in corporal punishment from an applied perspective. Approximately 25% of Canadian parents still use corporal punishment with children ages 2–11 years; therefore, it remains an issue that merits continued attention. Certain child, parent, and family characteristics seem to characterize parents who use corporal punishment, but other more dynamic variables may be important to consider, such as parental stress and their attitudes toward corporal punishment.

  16. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Society 12. annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the seventeen Technical Sessions from the Twelfth Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society held in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, June 9 to 12, 1991. As in previous years, the Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society was held in conjunction with the Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association. The major topics of discussion included: reactor physics; thermal hydraulics; industrial irradiation; computer applications; fuel channel analysis; small reactors; severe accidents; fuel behaviour under accident conditions; reactor components; safety related computer software; nuclear fuel management; nuclear waste management; and, uranium mining processing

  17. CanWEA Pan-Canadian wind integration study paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, Martin [GL Garrad Hassan Canada Inc, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Gardner, Paul [GL Garrad Hassan and Partners, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Price, Doug; Le, Don [GL Garrad Hassan America, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    GL Garrad Hassan has been contracted by CanWEA to undertake a scoping study for a future Pan-Canadian Wide-Scale Wind Integration Study. The scoping study provides the methodology and the rationale on which the actual wind integration study and request for proposals will be based on. Major system operators and owners of each Canadian Province along with experts involved in major US wind integration studies have been consulted and contributed to the decisional process. This paper provides a summary of the factors considered in the study and outline the actual methodology that was adopted for the future Pan-Canadian wind integration study. (orig.)

  18. (4,4')-Bipyridine in Vacuo and in Solvents: A Quantum Chemical Study of a Prototypical Floppy Molecule From a Molecular Transport Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Bâldea, Ioan; Wenzel, Wonfgang

    2015-01-01

    We report results of quantum chemical calculations for the neutral and anionic species of (4,4{'})-bipyridine (44BPY), a prototypical molecule with a floppy degree of freedom, placed in vacuo and in solvents. In addition to equilibrium geometries and vibrational frequencies and spectra, we present adiabatic energy curves for the vibrational modes with significant intramolecular reorganization upon charge transfer. Special attention is paid to the floppy strongly anharmonic degree of freedom of 44BPY, which is related to the most salient structural feature, namely the twist angle $\\theta$ between the two pyridine rings. The relevance of the present results for molecular transport will be emphasized. We show that the solvent acts as an effective gate electrode and propose a scissor operator to account for solvent effects on molecular transport. Our result on the conductance $G$ vs. $\\cos^2\\theta$ is consistent with a significant transmission in perpendicular conformation indicated by previous microscopic analys...

  19. Oxidative release of chromium from Archean ultramafic rocks, its transport and environmental impact – A Cr isotope perspective on the Sukinda valley ore district (Orissa, India)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulukat, Cora Stefanie; Døssing, Lasse Nørbye; Mondal, Sisir K.;

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates Cr isotope fractionation during soil formation from Archean (3.1–3.3 Ga) ultramafic rocks in a chromite mining area in the southern Singhbhum Craton (Orissa, India). The Cr-isotope signatures of two studied weathering profiles, range from non-fractionated mantle values...... in controlling the hazardous impact of Cr(VI) on health and environment. The positive Cr isotope signatures of the Brahmani estuary and coastal seawater collected from the Bay of Bengal further indicate that the positively fractionated Cr isotope signal from the catchment area is preserved during its transport...... to the sea. Isotopically lighter Cr(VI) downstream from the mine is probably back-reduced to Cr(III) during riverine transport leading to similar Cr-isotope values in the estuary as observed upstream from the mine....

  20. Canadian petroleum industry: 1991 [annual] monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are provided on the financial performance of the oil and gas industry in Canada during 1991. The report is based on data from 154 companies accounting for ca 90% of total revenues of the petroleum industry. The report lists noteworthy happenings in the industry, gives highlights of the year, then details financial performance, sources and uses of funds, comparative performance with other industries, ownership and control trends, research and development expenditures, and income tax-related data for the current and previous years. In 1991, the overall industry experienced a fall in cash flow of 22% to $7.6 billion, and net income dropped from a profit of $2.3 billion in 1990 to a loss of $2.4 billion in 1991. Upstream revenues fell $2.8 billion as a result of lower crude oil and marketable natural gas prices. The drop in natural gas prices to their lowest level in over a decade resulted in many companies taking asset write-offs totalling almost $2 billion. Rate of return on average shareholder's equity was -6% in 1991 against +5.6% in 1990. The industry increased overall capital expenditures by 10% to $9.7 billion, largely on the strength of participation in major projects such as Caroline gas field development, Hibernia, Cohasset/Panuke and the Bi-Provincial Upgrader. Canadian ownership of upstream revenues increased to 45.2% from 44% in 1990, while Canadian control rose from 40.9% to 42.8%. 24 figs., 56 tabs

  1. Canadian heavy water production - 1970 to 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decade, heavy water production in Canada has progressed from the commissioning of a single unit plant in Nova Scotia to a major production industry employing 2200 persons and operating three plants with an aggregate annual production capability in excess of 1800 Mg. The decade opened with an impending crisis in the supply of heavy water due to failure of the first Glace Bay Heavy Water Plant and difficulty in commissioning the second Canadian plant at Port Hawkesbury. Lessons learned at this latter plant were applied to the Bruce plant where the first two units were under construction. When the Bruce units were commissioned in 1973 the rate of approach to design production rates was much improved, renewing confidence in Canada's ability to succeed in large scale heavy water production. In the early 1970's a decision was made to rehabilitate the Glace Bay plant using a novel flowsheet and this rebuilt plant commenced production in 1976. The middle of the decade was marked by two main events: changes in ownership of the operating plants and initiation of a massive construction program to support the forecast of a rapidly expanding CANDU power station construction program. New production units embodying the best features of their predecessors were committed at Bruce by Ontario Hydro and at La Prade, Quebec, by AECL. The high growth rate in electrical demand did not continue and some new plant construction was curtailed. The present installed production capacity will now probably be adequate to meet anticipated demand for the next decade. Canadian plants have now produced more than 7800 Mg of heavy water at a commercially acceptable cost and with a high degree of safety and compliance with appropriate environmental regulations

  2. Canadian consumer battery baseline study : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provided information about the estimated number of consumer and household batteries sold, re-used, stored, recycled, and disposed each year in Canada. The report discussed the ways in which different batteries posed risks to human health and the environment, and legislative trends were also reviewed. Data used in the report were obtained from a literature review as well as through a series of interviews. The study showed that alkaline batteries are the most common primary batteries used by Canadians, followed by zinc carbon batteries. However, lithium primary batteries are gaining in popularity, and silver oxide and zinc air button cell batteries are also used in applications requiring a flat voltage and high energy. Secondary batteries used in laptop computers, and cell phones are often made of nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal-hydroxide, and lithium ion. Small sealed lead batteries are also commonly used in emergency lighting and alarm systems. Annual consumption statistics for all types of batteries were provided. Results of the study showed that the primary battery market is expected to decline. Total units of secondary batteries are expected to increase to 38.6 million units by 2010. The report also used a spreadsheet model to estimate the flow of consumer batteries through the Canadian waste management system. An estimated 347 million consumer batteries were discarded in 2004. By 2010, it is expected that an estimated 494 million units will be discarded by consumers. The study also considered issues related to lead, cadmium, mercury, and nickel disposal and the potential for groundwater contamination. It was concluded that neither Canada nor its provinces or territories have initiated legislative or producer responsibility programs targeting primary or secondary consumer batteries. 79 refs., 37 tabs., 1 fig

  3. Natural Gas Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Correa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the present and future on natural gas transportation options, from oil and gas fields to markets, including liquefied natural gas, gas pipeline, compressed natural gas, natural gas hydrates, and gas to liquids and the perspectives of using them in Colombia, since this is the main fuel alternative to supply the world in at least the next 50 years.

  4. Sediment transport modelling in the Gulf of Lion with the perspective of studying the fate of radionuclides originated by the Rhone River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the various contaminants introduced in the environment, artificial radionuclides appear particularly important to consider because of their chemical toxicity and / or of their radio-toxicity. Some radionuclides present a high affinity with particles so that the study of the sediment dynamics is a useful preliminary to the study of their dispersion on the open sea. This thesis is focused on the fate of sediments in the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean sea) and in particular on the impact of the Rhone River, which is the main source of particulate matter in the Gulf of Lion. In order to study the sediment transport mechanisms on various space and time scales, this thesis is based on mathematical modelling. The hydro-sedimentary model set up in the Gulf of Lion, which takes into account the gathered effect of waves and currents, was supported by recent hydro-sedimentary data analyses. CARMA (winter 2006/2007) and SCOPE (winter 2007/2008) experiments were used to better understand the physical processes which control the sediment transport on the Rhone pro-delta and to validate the model. The period of the centennial Rhone River flood of December 2003 was also simulated in order to determine the impact of such extreme events on the fate of sediments. Both observations and simulations of the studied periods highlight the high capacity of erosion and transport induced by south-eastern storms on the pro-delta

  5. Drought, Climate Change and the Canadian Prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R. E.

    2010-03-01

    The occurrence of drought is a ubiquitous feature of the global water cycle. Such an extreme does not necessarily lead to an overall change in the magnitude of the global water cycle but it of course affects the regional cycling of water. Droughts are recurring aspects of weather and climate extremes as are floods and tornadoes, but they differ substantially since they have long durations and lack easily identified onsets and terminations. Drought is a relatively common feature of the North American and Canadian climate system and all regions of the continent are affected from time-to-time. However, it tends to be most common and severe over the central regions of the continent. The Canadian Prairies are therefore prone to drought. Droughts in the Canadian Prairies are distinctive in North America. The large scale atmospheric circulations are influenced by blocking from intense orography to the west and long distances from all warm ocean-derived atmospheric water sources; growing season precipitation is generated by a highly complex combination of frontal and convective systems; seasonality is severe and characterized by a relatively long snow-covered and short growing seasons; local surface runoff is primarily produced by snowmelt water; there is substantial water storage potential in the poorly drained, post-glacial topography; and aquifers are overlain by impermeable glacial till, but there are also important permeable aquifers. One example of Prairie drought is the recent one that began in 1999 with cessation of its atmospheric component in 2004/2005 and many of its hydrological components in 2005. This event produced the worst drought for at least a hundred years in parts of the Canadian Prairies. Even in the dust bowl of the 1930s, no single year over the central Prairies were drier than in 2001. The drought affected agriculture, recreation, tourism, health, hydro-electricity, and forestry in the Prairies. Gross Domestic Product fell some 5.8 billion and

  6. If it bleeds, it leads: the construction of workplace injury in Canadian newspapers, 2009–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnetson, Bob; Foster, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Background: Public perceptions of workplace injuries are shaped by media reports, but the accuracy of such reports is unknown. Objective: This study identifies differences between workers' compensation claims data and newspaper reports of workplace injuries in Canadian newspapers and media sources. Methods: This study applies quantitative content analysis to 245 Canadian English-language newspaper articles from 2009 to 2014. Workers' compensation claims data is drawn from the Association of Workers' Compensation Boards of Canada. Results: Newspapers dramatically overreport fatalities, injuries to men, injuries in the construction and mining/quarrying/oil industries, injuries stemming from contact with objects/equipment and fires/explosions, and acute physical injuries such as burns, fractures, intracranial injuries, and traumatic injuries. Newspaper reporters tend to rely upon government, police/firefighter, and employer accounts, rarely recounting the perspectives of workers. Conclusion: Newspapers overreported fatalities, injuries to men, and injuries in the construction and mining/quarrying/oil industries. This results in a misleading picture of occupational injuries in Canada. PMID:26070326

  7. Geographical variations in the correlates of blood donor turnout rates: An investigation of Canadian metropolitan areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newbold K Bruce

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Like other countries, Canada's population is aging, and the implications of this demographic change need to be better understood from the perspective of blood supply. Analysis of donor data will help to identify systematic patterns of donation and its correlates. Data Geo-coded blood donor and donor clinic data are provided by Canadian Blood Services. Blood donor data is provided for the fiscal year 2006-2007 indicating the total number of donors for each Canadian postal code, excluding the province of Québec. Potential correlates of blood donation are selected based on social and economic characteristics, as well as descriptors of city size and geographical location in the urban hierarchy measures of accessibility, and capacity of donor clinics. Methods Data is aggregated to n = 3,746 census tracts in 40 Census Metropolitan Areas (CMA across the country. The number of donors per population in a census tract is regressed against the set of potential donation correlates. Autocorrelation is tested for and results adjusted to provide parsimonious models. Results A number of factors are found to influence donation across the country, including the proportion of younger residents, English ability, proportion of people with immigrant status, higher education, and a population-based measure of accessibility. Conclusion While a number of correlates of blood donation are observed across Canada, important contextual effects across metropolitan areas are highlighted. The paper concludes by looking at policy options that are aimed toward further understanding donor behaviour.

  8. Survive Bravely——Main Features of Contemporary Canadian Literature Themes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳

    2015-01-01

    The classic works in Canadian Literatures that advantageously elaborated the characteristics of sublimation under the background for Canada's particular history,geograph y,climate,religion,demographic factors,generation,development and continuous construction of Canadian literatures.The greatest masterpieces can highlight powerfully the certain mindset of Canadian and the permanent theme for Canadian Literature:keep working hard for survival and love bravely.Meanwhile,modern people will learn a lot from reading Canadian classic literary works.

  9. Survive Bravely——Main Features of Contemporary Canadian Literature Themes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Fang

    2015-01-01

    The classic works in Canadian Literatures that advantageously elaborated the characteristics of sublimation under the background for Canada’s particular history,geograph y,climate,religion,demographic factors,generation,development and continuous construction of Canadian literatures.The greatest masterpieces can highlight powerfully the certain mindset of Canadian and the permanent theme for Canadian Literature:keep working hard for survival and love bravely.Meanwhile,modern people will learn a lot from reading Canadian classic literary works.

  10. Conference summaries of the Canadian Nuclear Association 30. annual conference, and the Canadian Nuclear Society 11. annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains conference summaries for the 30. annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association, and the 11. annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society. Topics of discussion include: energy needs and challenges facing the Canadian nuclear industry; the environment and nuclear power; the problems of maintaining and developing industrial capacity; the challenges of the 1990's; programmes and issues for the 1990's; thermalhydraulics; reactor physics and fuel management; nuclear safety; small reactors; fuel behaviour; energy production and the environment; computer applications; nuclear systems; fusion; materials handling; and, reactor components

  11. Similarities and Differences Between Yoruba Traditional Healers (YTH) and Native American and Canadian Healers (NACH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekson, Mary Olufunmilayo

    2016-10-01

    Indigenous people of the world have used the services of medicine men and traditional healers from time immemorial. According to the World Health Organization, 80 % of the world's populations consult traditional healers. With an emerging globalization of health services in the world, there is a need for western mental health practitioners to learn and understand the practices of indigenous healers across the globe. This paper will not only highlight the similarities and differences between Yoruba traditional healers of Western Nigeria and Native American and First Nation Canadian traditional healers, but it will also allow practitioners to gain clearer perspectives of indigenous clients from Yoruba land and those from the United States of America and Canada. This ultimately will inform culturally sensitive clinical practice with these populations. PMID:27272331

  12. Similarities and Differences Between Yoruba Traditional Healers (YTH) and Native American and Canadian Healers (NACH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekson, Mary Olufunmilayo

    2016-10-01

    Indigenous people of the world have used the services of medicine men and traditional healers from time immemorial. According to the World Health Organization, 80 % of the world's populations consult traditional healers. With an emerging globalization of health services in the world, there is a need for western mental health practitioners to learn and understand the practices of indigenous healers across the globe. This paper will not only highlight the similarities and differences between Yoruba traditional healers of Western Nigeria and Native American and First Nation Canadian traditional healers, but it will also allow practitioners to gain clearer perspectives of indigenous clients from Yoruba land and those from the United States of America and Canada. This ultimately will inform culturally sensitive clinical practice with these populations.

  13. Sustainable Transport and Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2004-01-01

    ustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators in f...

  14. Local Transport Policy and Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    The Ph. D. thesis describes and analyses how environmental obejctives and strategies have materialised in the real-life context of local transport policies and plans, how environmental perspectives have been picked up by policy makers concerned with transport issues, how policy and planning...

  15. Neighborhood crime and adolescent cannabis use in Canadian adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Looze, Margreet; Janssen, I; Elgar, Frank J.; Craig, Wendy; Pickett, W.

    2015-01-01

    Although neighbourhood factors have been proposed as determinants of adolescent behaviour, few studies document their relative etiological importance. We investigated the relationship between neighbourhood crime and cannabis use in a nationally representative sample of Canadian adolescents. Data fro

  16. Canadian advanced life support capacities and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamsey, M.; Graham, T.; Stasiak, M.; Berinstain, A.; Scott, A.; Vuk, T. Rondeau; Dixon, M.

    2009-07-01

    Canada began research on space-relevant biological life support systems in the early 1990s. Since that time Canadian capabilities have grown tremendously, placing Canada among the emerging leaders in biological life support systems. The rapid growth of Canadian expertise has been the result of several factors including a large and technically sophisticated greenhouse sector which successfully operates under challenging climatic conditions, well planned technology transfer strategies between the academic and industrial sectors, and a strong emphasis on international research collaborations. Recent activities such as Canada's contribution of the Higher Plant Compartment of the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant and the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic continue to demonstrate Canadian capabilities with direct applicability to advanced life support systems. There is also a significant latent potential within Canadian institutions and organizations with respect to directly applicable advanced life support technologies. These directly applicable research interests include such areas as horticultural management strategies (for candidate crops), growth media, food processing, water management, atmosphere management, energy management, waste management, imaging, environment sensors, thermal control, lighting systems, robotics, command and data handling, communications systems, structures, in-situ resource utilization, space analogues and mission operations. With this background and in collaboration with the Canadian aerospace industry sector, a roadmap for future life support contributions is presented here. This roadmap targets an objective of at least 50% food closure by 2050 (providing greater closure in oxygen, water recycling and carbon dioxide uptake). The Canadian advanced life support community has chosen to focus on lunar surface infrastructure and not low Earth orbit or transit systems (i.e. microgravity

  17. Assurer la maitrise du ruissellement grâce aux zones humides au voisinage des infrastructures de transport dans une perspective de conservation de la biodiversité

    OpenAIRE

    Fressignac, Camille; Breil, Pascal; Matillon, Yannick; Nullans, Andréa; Chazelle, Blandine; Sarrazin, Benoît; Vallod, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    La conservation de la biodiversité est actuellement un enjeu majeur qui s’insère progressivement dans les politiques publiques d’aménagement d’un territoire de gestion administrative, ceci dans le but de maitriser l’impact de l’activité humaine sur son environnement naturel. Les infrastructures de transport terrestre créent des ruptures sur les écosystèmes et paysages. Le projet exploratoire RHIZU (Ruissellement Intense et Zones HUmides) a pour objet d’évaluer les conditions de coexistence en...

  18. 47 CFR 101.1527 - Canadian and Mexican coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Canadian and Mexican coordination. 101.1527... Canadian and Mexican coordination. (a) A licensee of bands 71.0-76.0, 81.0-86.0, 92-94 GHz and 94.1-95 GHz must comply with § 1.928(f) of this chapter, which pertains to coordination with Canada. (b) A...

  19. VAT Treatment of public sector bodies: the Canadian model

    OpenAIRE

    Gendron, Pierre-Pascal

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines alternatives to the exempt VAT treatment of public bodies, non-profit organizations and charitable organizations (public service bodies). It focuses in particular on the Canadian VAT (the federal Goods and Services Tax) and its treatment of transactions involving public service bodies, including government to government transactions. Under the Canadian Goods and Services Tax rebate system, most supplies made by public service bodies are exempt but such bodies may claim a r...

  20. Does the Canadian economy suffer from Dutch Disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Beine, M; Bos, C.S.; Coulombe, S.

    2009-01-01

    We argue that the failure to disentangle the evolution of the Canadian currency from the U.S. currency leads to potentially incorrect conclusions regarding the case of Dutch disease in Canada. We propose a new approach that is aimed at extracting both currency components and energy- and commodity-price components from observed exchange rates and prices. We first analyze the separate influence of commodity prices on the Canadian and the U.S. currency components. We then estimate the separate i...

  1. The politics of gun control: comparing Canadian and American patterns

    OpenAIRE

    G A Mauser; Margolis, M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper two questions are asked: to what extent do the Canadian and US publics differ in their beliefs about firearms-control legislation, and to what extent do these differences help to account for the stricter firearms legislation found in Canada? Surveys indicate that Canadians and Americans have remarkably similar attitudes towards firearms and gun control. Linear regression is used to analyze the factors that underlie the popular support for (or opposition to) stricter gun-control ...

  2. Laboratory animal medicine — Needs and opportunities for Canadian veterinarians

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Patricia V; Baar, Michael; Olfert, Ernest D.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory animal medicine is a growing field of veterinary practice that emphasizes animal welfare and refinement of research animal care. The Canadian Association for Laboratory Animal Medicine/L’association canadienne de la medecine des animaux de laboratoire (CALAM/ACMAL) and the Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC) provide a framework within which laboratory animal veterinarians practise. Numerous continuing education and post-graduate training opportunities exist in Canada for veterin...

  3. Measuring intelligence of minority children in Canadian multicultural contexts

    OpenAIRE

    TAMAOKA, Katsuo

    1991-01-01

    Canadianization for the items of WISC and WISC-R would not guarantee the proper difficulty level for the substituted items. Failure of adjusting the questioning items of Information subtest indicate an American cultural bias with respect to a main-stream Canadian population. For Native children, cultural content bias against Native children is indicated in the question items of the WISC-R Information subtest. The degree of acculturation seems to influence, to a certain degree, IQ tests' resul...

  4. An Analysis of the Earnings of Canadian Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Bloom, David E.; Morley Gunderson

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports estimates of simple wage equations fit to cross-sectional and pseudo-longitudinal data for Canadian immigrants in the 1971 and 1981 Canadian censuses. The estimates are used to assess (1) the usefulness of cross-sectional analyses for measuring the pace of immigrant earnings growth, (2) the labor market implications of admissions policies that place different weights on the work skills possessed by prospective entrants, and (3) the relative impact of selective outmigration ...

  5. Do We Need an Annual Canadian Respiratory Conference?

    OpenAIRE

    Louis-Philippe Boulet

    2000-01-01

    Beginning in the fall of 2001, as decided at the 1999 Annual General Meeting of the Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS), the Society's annual and scientific meeting will take place jointly with the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP). In the past, this annual event was held in conjunction with the Royal College of Physicians' meeting. Unfortunately, attendance at the Royal College meetings was quite low, and the event did not seem to fulfil the needs and interests of the Canadian respirat...

  6. Whither Chinese involvement in the Canadian oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese oil companies have become increasingly focused on securing Canadian oil. However, most of the oil sands leases with good geological and economic prospects are owned by Canadian or Canadian subsidiary companies that have proven unwilling to sell future revenue and reserves bases to the Chinese. The opportunity for a trade of Canadian oil assets for improved Chinese market entry has been limited to Husky, which has existing Chinese connections, as well as to global companies such as Exxon, Shell and BP. In May 2005, the Chinese company Sinopec completed a $105 million deal with Calgary-based Synenco and formed a joint venture for oil sands production and an upgrader. Chinese interests are also involved in the Calgary-based Value Creation Group of Companies as well as in BA Energy. Enbridge has recently invested $25 million in the Heartland upgrader project, presumably with the aim of building pipelines to move new products to Asia. The most significant problem for Canadian oil sands companies and the greatest opportunity for Chinese companies involves the utilization of trained Chinese workers for the $100 billion in oil sands construction planned for the next decade. Significant immigration barriers exist for Chinese workers in Canada, and there is a legitimate concern that Chinese workers may want to stay in Canada. It was concluded that while there may be mutual opportunities for collaboration between Chinese and Canadian energy companies, the Alberta government currently faces challenges in work shortages, immigration, and pressures from unions and environmental lobbyists. 1 fig

  7. Implications of globalization on pricing for Canadian crudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of globalization on Canadian crude oil prices was discussed. Since deregulation in October 1985, Canadian crude oil has competed directly against international crude oil through the use of the NYMEX contract price for light sweet crude oil as the base for establishing the price for Canadian crudes. Prior to that date, Alberta crude was marketed by the Alberta Petroleum Marketing Commission using the old block matrix which was loosely tied to the world market price. In addition to world crude oil prices other factors that affect the price of Canadian crude oil include technology impacts and global integration. Also, when the Sarnia to Montreal pipeline (Line 9) is reversed to bring offshore crude oil into the Ontario refining community, Canadian producers can expect some adverse effects on the price they are paid for their products leading up to the reversal as refiners start to swing over to their alternate suppliers. The offshore supply is expected to be about 140,000 barrels/day of light sweet crude oil, but all grades of Canadian crude oil will be affected

  8. Word Segmentation in Monolingual Infants Acquiring Canadian English and Canadian French: Native Language, Cross-Dialect, and Cross-Language Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polka, Linda; Sundara, Megha

    2012-01-01

    In five experiments, we tested segmentation of word forms from natural speech materials by 8-month-old monolingual infants who are acquiring Canadian French or Canadian English. These two languages belong to different rhythm classes; Canadian French is syllable-timed and Canada English is stress-timed. Findings of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 show that…

  9. Wuskwatim generation project : Canadian Environmental Assessment Act comprehensive study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study report described the plan by Manitoba Hydro and the Nisichawayasihk Cree Nation (NCN) to construct a new 200- megawatt (MW) generating station at Taskinigup Falls on the Burntwood River, near the outlet of Wuskwatim Lake. This hydroelectric power project will allow Manitoba Hydro to meet its projected energy needs within the next two decades as identified in its 2002/03 Power Resource Plan. It will also allow Manitoba Hydro and NCN to obtain additional export revenues and profits by advancing the in-service date of the Project from 2020 to 2009. A formal environmental assessment is required under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA) because Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) has determined that the Project would cause fish habitat losses requiring an authorization under the Fisheries Act. Many of the structures to be built in navigable waters would also require formal approval under the Navigable Waters Protection Act (NWPA), which has prompted this application of the CEAA. This environmental assessment report has been prepared by DFO in consultation with Transport Canada and other federal authorities concerned. It provides a summary of the Wuskwatim Generation Project and the environment in which it will be built and operated. In addition, the results of public consultations are discussed. It presents an assessment of the Project's influence on fish and fish habitat, birds, species at risk, human health (local air quality, quality of drinking water and consumption of fishery products), navigation, use of renewable resources, and current use of lands and resources for traditional purposes by Aboriginal persons (hunting, trapping, gathering, subsistence fishing and heritage sites). It was concluded that the proposed Project, as defined by the scope of the study, is not likely to cause significant adverse environmental effects. 45 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs., 3 appendices

  10. Canadian plans for participation in GSETT 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. North

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC is making preparations for Canadian participation in GSETT 3 but will be unable to make a formal commitment until the necessary resources have been secured. As Canada is expected to provide at least four alpha stations, and a significant number of beta stations, the financial resources that will be needed are substantial, even though in many respccts the GSC is, with the recent modernization of the Yellowknife array and the ongoing installation of the Canadian National Seismograph Network (CNSN, well positioned to make a significant contribution to GSETT 3. The CNSN currently (October 1993 consists of 17 broad band stations and will grow to 23 and 33 such stations by December 1993 and December 1994 respectively. Some 40 50 short period stations will complete the network. Data from all sites are continuously telemetered in real time to network acquisition centres in Ottawa and Sidney, British Columbia, archived to optical disk, and kept on line in a 72 h ring buffer. Most of the broadband sites could serve as either alpha or beta stations once the necessary software for continuous data transfer, or on request provision, of data from the selected sites has been completed. This software wili be configured so that changes in station selection are easy to implement, and this will provide considerable flexibility to the GSETT 3 planning and operations working groups in selecting the optimum network. Backup stations can be designated in the case of station failures, and the network centre in British Columbia will serve, at least for beta stations, as a backup NDC to that in Ottawa. Data from. the Yellowknife array are collected in Yellowknife and forwarded in ten minute files to Ottawa, where processing is completed and the results archived. This arrangement would not meet the deadlines for receipt of alpha station data at the IDC and new hardware and software will be needed to forward the data more immediately from

  11. Fuel condition in Canadian CANDU 6 reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, R.H.; Macici, N [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gibb, R. [New Brunswick Power, Lepreau, NB (Canada); Purdy, P.L.; Manzer, A.M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Kohn, E. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    The cornerstone of the CANDU concept is its natural uranium fuel, and the success of its reactor operation hinges on the fuel condition in the reactor. Neutron economy, on power refuelling, and simple fuel design are among the unique characteristics of CANDU fuel. In Canadian CANDU 6 reactors (Gentilly 2 and Point Lepreau), the 37-element fuel has provided an enviable record of safe, economic and reliable plant operation for 29 reactor years to date. The fuelling cost is among the lowest in the world - a corollary of high neutron economy, simple fuel design, and judicial fuelling scheme. The reliability of fuel is high: only 21 of the 60000 bundles discharged from Gentilly 2 were confirmed defective and the five-year period from March 1992 to February 1997 saw no defect at all at Gentilly-2. Also, thanks to the inherent on-power refuelling capability and an effective defect detection and removal system, the primary coolant loops are kept extremely clean (very low activity level) - benefiting both maintenance and safety. Moreover, the inventories of fission products in the core and in the channel are maintained within the safety analysis envelope, due to on-power fuelling and sophisticated fuel management. In this paper, CANDU 6 fuel performance is reviewed against the feedback from post-irradiation examinations, and the findings from our ongoing R and D program. The results suggest that the fuel behavior m reactor are basically as originally anticipated, despite an evolutionary 3% increase in bundle uranium mass in the 1980's. For operating conditions within the CANDU 6 37-element experience, the average strains are typically 0.09%; and fission gas release, 2.7%. The UO{sub 2} fuel remains stoichiometric after irradiation. In-core measurements of pressure tube fitting are generally low. All these observations are consistent with the excellent fuel performance statistics coming out of the two Canadian CANDU 6 reactors. Additionally, this paper will briefly

  12. Fuel condition in Canadian CANDU 6 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cornerstone of the CANDU concept is its natural uranium fuel, and the success of its reactor operation hinges on the fuel condition in the reactor. Neutron economy, on power refuelling, and simple fuel design are among the unique characteristics of CANDU fuel. In Canadian CANDU 6 reactors (Gentilly 2 and Point Lepreau), the 37-element fuel has provided an enviable record of safe, economic and reliable plant operation for 29 reactor years to date. The fuelling cost is among the lowest in the world - a corollary of high neutron economy, simple fuel design, and judicial fuelling scheme. The reliability of fuel is high: only 21 of the 60000 bundles discharged from Gentilly 2 were confirmed defective and the five-year period from March 1992 to February 1997 saw no defect at all at Gentilly-2. Also, thanks to the inherent on-power refuelling capability and an effective defect detection and removal system, the primary coolant loops are kept extremely clean (very low activity level) - benefiting both maintenance and safety. Moreover, the inventories of fission products in the core and in the channel are maintained within the safety analysis envelope, due to on-power fuelling and sophisticated fuel management. In this paper, CANDU 6 fuel performance is reviewed against the feedback from post-irradiation examinations, and the findings from our ongoing R and D program. The results suggest that the fuel behavior m reactor are basically as originally anticipated, despite an evolutionary 3% increase in bundle uranium mass in the 1980's. For operating conditions within the CANDU 6 37-element experience, the average strains are typically 0.09%; and fission gas release, 2.7%. The UO2 fuel remains stoichiometric after irradiation. In-core measurements of pressure tube fitting are generally low. All these observations are consistent with the excellent fuel performance statistics coming out of the two Canadian CANDU 6 reactors. Additionally, this paper will briefly discuss our

  13. Exploring the "Situation" of Situational Willingness to Communicate: A Volunteer Youth Exchange Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mady, Callie; Arnott, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the perspectives of youth participating in the Society for Educational Visits and Exchanges in Canada's Volunteer Youth Experience (VYE) as gathered by way of pre- and post-program questionnaires, observations, interviews, and journals. The pan-Canadian questionnaire results suggest that this short, bilingual volunteer…

  14. Perspectives on Official English. The Campaign for English as the Official Language of the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karen L., Ed.; Brink, Daniel T., Ed.

    Essays on the campaign to establish English as the United States' official language include: "Official Languages and Language Planning" (Richard Ruiz); "Una lingua, una patria?: Is Monolingualism Beneficial or Harmful to a Nation's Unity?" (David F. Marshall and Roseann D. Gonzalez); "Canadian Perspectives on Official English" (Joseph E. Magnet);…

  15. Transport, energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Transportation demands a large and increasing share of total energy consumption in Europe. At the same time many European countries are facing difficult decisions in achieving their long term environmental goals. Therefore energy policy, environmental policy and transport policy should be seen and discussed in a common perspective. In particular the relative contribution from the transport sector and the energy sector involves a number of important and difficult issues. The aim of the conference was to bring together economists, scientists, manufactures, energy planners, transport planners, and decision makers in order to discuss the importance of the transport sector in relation to energy demand and long term environmental goals. General conference sessions covered. Trends in Transport Energy Demand and Environmental constraints, Technological Development and New Transport Systems, Lifestyle Changes and the Transport Sector, Megacities: Solutions to the Transport and Air Pollution Problems, Effectiveness of Public Policies, Transport and Energy sector, and Methods, Models and Data. The conference took place at Hotel Marienlyst, Elsinore, Denmark and attracted wide interest. The participants represented 14 different countries covering international organisations, ministries, universities, research centres, consulting firms, industry etc. (EG)

  16. The Strategy Researched on Development of City Public Transportation from the Perspective of Low Carbon Economy%现代城市公共交通低碳发展战略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边晓霞; 康在龙; 边晓艳

    2013-01-01

    With the global climate crisis increasingly prominent, the continuing rise in international oil prices and conventional energy supply pressures continue to increase, the countries take action to deal with the deepening of global issues. Low carbon development concept is concerned about the international communities. Low carbon economy is the only way for China's economic development and transformation. As a heavy energy user, the urban public transport is also usher in a new round of global "Green and Low Carbon" revolution. With theoretical perspective in low-carbon economy, how to promote energy saving efficiently energy emission reduction, achieve energy saving and emission reduction targets of the "12th Five-Year Plan" to promote the urban public transport development into an energy saving mode are analyzed.%随着全球气候问题的日渐突出、国际油价的持续上涨和传统能源供应压力的不断加大,低碳发展理念在国际上受到越来越广泛的关注.低碳经济是中国经济发展和转型的必由之路,作为“能耗大户”的城市公共交通也正在迎来新一轮全球性“绿色与低碳”革命.在低碳经济理论视角下,如何快捷高效的节能减排,实现“十二五”节能减排降耗目标,使城市公共交通在节能减排模式下发展,文章做出了系统的分析与研究.

  17. Interactions between reactive nitrogen and the Canadian landscape: A budget approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clair, Thomas A.; Pelletier, Nathan; Bittman, Shabtai; Leip, Adrian; Arp, Paul; Moran, Michael D.; Dennis, Ian; Niemi, David; Sterling, Shannon; Drury, Craig F.; Yang, Jingyi

    2014-11-01

    The movement of excess reactive nitrogen (Nr) from anthropogenic activities to natural ecosystems has been described as one of the most serious environmental threats facing modern society. One of the approaches for tracking this movement is the use of budgets that quantify fluxes. We constructed an Nr budget for Canada using measured and modeled values from the scientific literature, government databases, and data from new agri-environmental indicators, in order to produce information for policy makers and scientists to understand the major flows of nitrogen to allow a better assessment of risks to the Canadian environment. We divided the Canadian territory south of 60°N into areas dominated by natural ecosystems, as well as by agricultural and urban/industrial activities to evaluate Nr flows within, between, and out of these units. We show that Canada is a major exporter of Nr due to the availability of inexpensive commercial fertilizers. The large land area suitable for agriculture makes Canada a significant agricultural Nr exporter of both grain crops and livestock. Finally, Canada exports petroleum N mainly to the United States. Because of its location and prevailing atmospheric transport patterns, Canada is a net receptor of Nr air pollution from the United States, receiving approximately 20% of the Nr leaving the U.S. airshed. We found that overall, terrestrial natural ecosystems as well as the atmosphere are in balance between Nr inputs and outputs when all N reactive and nonreactive fluxes are included. However, when only reactive forms are considered, almost 50% of N entering the Canadian atmosphere cannot be accounted for and is assumed to be lost to the Atlantic and Arctic oceans or to unmeasured dry deposition. However, agricultural and freshwater landscapes are showing large differences between measured inputs and outputs of N as our data suggest that denitrification in soils and aquatic systems is larger than what models predict. Our work also shows

  18. Spatial and temporal distribution of pesticide air concentrations in Canadian agricultural regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Tuduri, Ludovic; Harner, Tom; Blanchard, Pierrette; Waite, Don; Poissant, Laurier; Murphy, Clair; Belzer, Wayne; Aulagnier, Fabien; Li, Yi-Fan; Sverko, Ed

    The Canadian Pesticide Air Sampling Campaign was initiated in 2003 to assess atmospheric levels of pesticides, especially currently used pesticides (CUPs) in agricultural regions across Canada. In the first campaign during the spring to summer of 2003, over 40 pesticides were detected. The spatial and temporal distribution of pesticides in the Canadian atmosphere was shown to reflect the pesticide usage in each region. Several herbicides including triallate, bromoxynil, MCPA, 2,4-D, dicamba, trifluralin and ethalfluralin were detected at highest levels at Bratt's Lake, SK in the prairie region. Strong relationships between air concentrations and dry depositions were observed at this site. Although no application occurred in the Canadian Prairies in 2003, high air concentrations of lindane ( γ-hexachlorocyclohexane) were still observed at Bratt's Lake and Hafford, SK. Two fungicides (chlorothalonil and metalaxyl) and two insecticides (endosulfan and carbofuran) were measured at highest levels at Kensington, PEI. Maximum concentrations of chlorpyrifos and metolachlor were found at St. Anicet, QC. The southern Ontario site, Egbert showed highest concentration of alachlor. Malathion was detected at the highest level at the west coast site, Abbotsford, BC. In case of legacy chlorinated insecticides, high concentrations of DDT, DDE and dieldrin were detected in British Columbia while α-HCH and HCB were found to be fairly uniform across the country. Chlordane was detected in Ontario, Québec and Prince Edward Island. This study demonstrates that the sources for the observed atmospheric occurrence of pesticides include local current pesticide application, volatilization of pesticide residues from soil and atmospheric transport. In many instances, these data represent the first measurements for certain pesticides in a given part of Canada.

  19. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E.; Ooi, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services. PMID:12894328

  20. Canadian survey on pandemic flu preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy CS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of pandemic influenza creates public health challenges. An ethical framework, 'Stand on Guard for Thee: ethical considerations in pandemic influenza preparedness' that served as a template for the World Health Organization's global consultation on pandemic planning, was transformed into a survey administered to a random sample of 500 Canadians to obtain opinions on key ethical issues in pandemic preparedness planning. Methods All framework authors and additional investigators created items that were pilot-tested with volunteers of both sexes and all socioeconomic strata. Surveys were telephone administered with random sampling achieved via random digit dialing (RDD. Eligible participants were adults, 18 years or older, with per province stratification equaling provincial percent of national population. Descriptive results were tabulated and logistic regression analyses were used to assess whether demographic factors were significantly associated with outcomes. Results 5464 calls identified 559 eligible participants of whom 88.5% completed surveys. Over 90% of subjects agreed the most important goal of pandemic influenza preparations was saving lives, with 41% endorsing saving lives solely in Canada and 50% endorsing saving lives globally as the highest priority. Older age (OR = 8.51, p Conclusions Results suggest trust in public health officials to make difficult decisions, providing emphasis on reciprocity and respect for individual rights.

  1. Equity in dental care among Canadian households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grootendorst Paul

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in third party financing, whether public or private, are linked to a household's ability to access dental care. By removing costs at point of purchase, changes in financing influence the need to reach into one's pocket, thus facilitating or limiting access. This study asks: How have historical changes in dental care financing influenced household out-of-pocket expenditures for dental care in Canada? Methods This is a mixed methods study, comprised of an historical review of Canada's dental care market and an econometric analysis of household out-of-pocket expenditures for dental care. Results We demonstrate that changes in financing have important implications for out-of-pocket expenditures: with more financing come drops in the amount a household has to spend, and with less financing come increases. Low- and middle-income households appear to be most sensitive to changes in financing. Conclusions Alleviating the price barrier to care is a fundamental part of improving equity in dental care in Canada. How people have historically spent money on dental care highlights important gaps in Canadian dental care policy.

  2. Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) Pathfinder

    CERN Document Server

    Bandura, Kevin; Amiri, Mandana; Bond, J Richard; Campbell-Wilson, Duncan; Connor, Liam; Cliche, Jean-Francois; Davis, Greg; Deng, Meiling; Denman, Nolan; Dobbs, Matt; Fandino, Mateus; Gibbs, Kenneth; Gilbert, Adam; Halpern, Mark; Hanna, David; Hincks, Adam D; Hinshaw, Gary; Hofer, Carolin; Klages, Peter; Landecker, Tom L; Masui, Kiyoshi; Mena, Juan; Newburgh, Laura B; Pen, Ue-Li; Peterson, Jeffrey B; Recnik, Andre; Shaw, J Richard; Sigurdson, Kris; Sitwell, Michael; Smecher, Graeme; Smegal, Rick; Vanderlinde, Keith; Wiebe, Don

    2014-01-01

    A pathfinder version of CHIME (the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment) is currently being commissioned at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) in Penticton, BC. The instrument is a hybrid cylindrical interferometer designed to measure the large scale neutral hydrogen power spectrum across the redshift range 0.8 to 2.5. The power spectrum will be used to measure the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) scale across this poorly probed redshift range where dark energy becomes a significant contributor to the evolution of the Universe. The instrument revives the cylinder design in radio astronomy with a wide field survey as a primary goal. Modern low-noise amplifiers and digital processing remove the necessity for the analog beamforming that characterized previous designs. The Pathfinder consists of two cylinders 37\\,m long by 20\\,m wide oriented north-south for a total collecting area of 1,500 square meters. The cylinders are stationary with no moving parts, and form a transit instrument ...

  3. Canadian oncology nurse work environments: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Debra; Conlon, Michael; Fitch, Margaret; Green, Esther; Butler, Lorna; Olson, Karin; Cummings, Greta

    2012-03-01

    In the aftermath of healthcare restructuring, it is important to pay attention to nurses' perceptions of workplace and professional practice factors that attract nurses and influence their retention. Continuing constraints on cancer care systems make the issue of health human resources an ongoing priority. This paper presents the findings of a follow-up study of a cohort of Canadian oncology nurses that aimed to compare nurses' perceptions of their work environment, job satisfaction and retention over a two-year period. Participants of the follow-up survey represented 65% (397/615) of the initial cohort. Many similar perceptions about the work environment were found over two years; however, at follow-up a larger proportion of nurses reported an absence of enough RNs to provide quality care and a lack of support for innovative ideas. With respect to career status, only 6% (25/397) of the follow-up sample had left oncology nursing. However, the proportion of nurses declaring an intention to leave their current job increased from 6.4% (39/615) on the initial survey to 26% (102/397) on the follow-up survey. Findings suggest that decision-makers need to use both the growing body of workplace knowledge and the input from staff nurses to implement changes that positively influence nurse recruitment and retention. Future research should focus on the implementation and evaluation of strategies that address workplace issues such as nurse staffing adequacy, leadership and organizational commitment. PMID:22469763

  4. The bituminous sands : a Canadian mirage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousse, D.R. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada). Dept. des Sciences Appliquees; Nasr, G.J. [Lebanese Univ., Roumieh (Lebanon). Faculty of Engineering; Turcotte, S.F. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Centre d' Etudes Internationales et Mondialisation; Salah, N.B. [Ecole Superieure des Sciences et Techniques De Tunis, Tunis (Tunisia). LMMP

    2009-07-01

    This paper examined the controversy about the potential role of a significant increase in Canadian oil sands production in order to bridge the upcoming gap between the world's increasing energy demand and the total recoverable oil supply. The paper presented the actual potential of different scenarios and considered the prediction cost forecasts. A brief overview of environmental impacts and the real return on investments were also provided. Environmental impacts that were considered included land degradation; water contamination; ecosystem damage; and air pollution. Nuclear energy was also presented as a possible solution. The paper demonstrated that even in a very optimistic scenario, Canada's oil sands accelerated production has a negligible effect on the aforementioned gap, has a considerable impact on environment that has yet to be accounted for. Energy ratios that were presented included energy return on energy investment; energy available on energy used; and energy payback. It was concluded that enhanced recovery techniques are clearly needed for future sustainable exploitation of these bituminous sands. 32 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Confidence-building and Canadian leadership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Confidence-building has come into its own as a 'tool of choice' in facilitating the non-proliferation, arms control and disarmament (NACD) agenda, whether regional or global. From the Middle East Peace Process (MEPP) to the ASEAN Intersessional Group on Confidence-Building (ARF ISG on CBMS), confidence-building has assumed a central profile in regional terms. In the Four Power Talks begun in Geneva on December 9, 1997, the United States identified confidence-building as one of two subject areas for initial discussion as part of a structured peace process between North and South Korea. Thus, with CBMs assuming such a high profile internationally, it seems prudent for Canadians to pause and take stock of the significant role which Canada has already played in the conceptual development of the process over the last two decades. Since the Helsinki accords of 1975, Canada has developed a significant expertise in this area through an unbroken series of original, basic research projects. These have contributed to defining the process internationally from concept to implementation. Today, these studies represent a solid and unique Departmental investment in basic research from which to draw in meeting Canada's current commitments to multilateral initiatives in the area of confidence-building and to provide a 'step up' in terms of future-oriented leadership. (author)

  6. Electric transport in the Netherlands in an international perspective. Benchmark electric driving 2012; Elektrisch vervoer in Nederland in internationaal perspectief. Benchmark elektrisch rijden 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroon, P.; Weeda, M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Appels, D. [Agentschap NL, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-07-15

    This international benchmark on electric mobility has been conducted to compare the Dutch governmental efforts and developments in the field of electric road transport. The countries that have been considered in this benchmark are: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, UK, China, USA and South Korea. The Netherlands has a high ambition level with regard to the number of electric vehicles compared to other countries without a large car industry. As for the envisaged number of charging points, the Netherlands is one of the prominent leaders. In the field of R and D, Germany, South Korea and China take the lead, followed by France, the UK, the USA and Austria. However, the benchmark has only looked at specific funds for electric mobility, and has not looked at general R and D and innovation funds. The Netherlands has several electro-mobility field tests, but is not leading in number. However, regarding general market penetration, the Netherlands is one of the leading countries, next to Norway, based on the relative number of passenger cars and commercial vehicles on the road. Norway and Austria are leading countries when it comes to implementation of public charging infrastructure, but also in this field the Netherlands has a prominent position in the group of countries that follow. In the current pre-commercial phase, the introduction of electric transportation in the Netherlands is supported by a high-level advisory group, the so-called Formula E-Team. This group consists of representatives and experts from industry and (scientific) society, and acts as a figurehead for electric transport. The group advises on coordination of actions to stimulate not only electro- mobility, but also innovation which should lead to new economic activities. Currently, about two hundred companies are already active in the field of electro-mobility in the Netherlands, including some top players and many SMEs (Small Medium Enterprises). The

  7. Canadians, nuclear weapons, and the Cold War security dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation provides a history of Canadian ideas about nuclear weapons from the late 1950s until the end of the Trudeau era in 1984. Throughout this period, Canadians reacted to the insecurity they felt in the world around them by expressing many conflicting, often irreconcilable views about a range of nuclear weapon issues, including Canada's acquisition of nuclear warheads in 1963, the U.S. ABM program in the 1960s and early 1970s, the role of Canadian nuclear technology in the development of India's first nuclear explosion, and the Trudeau government's decision to allow the U.S. military to test cruise missiles in northern Canada The dissertation concludes with an examination of the emergence of a broadly-based, increasingly mainstream and influential anti-nuclear movement in the early 1980s, the clearest manifestation of the insecurity Canadians experienced at the time. .The nuclear debates examined in this dissertation reveal that Canadians were divided over nuclear weapons, nuclear strategy, the arms race, proliferation, and arms control and disarmament. In particular, they came to fundamentally different conclusions about how Canada's nuclear weapon policies, and its support for the nuclear policies of its alliances, would contribute to international stability and order. Some believed that their security rested on the maintenance of a strong Western nuclear deterrent and supported Canada contributing to its credibility; others believed that the constant modernisation of nuclear arsenals fuelled by the superpower arms race posed a serious threat to their security. This conceptual dilemma-the security through nuclear strength argument versus the fear that the quest for security through quantitative and qualitative improvements of nuclear stockpiles increased the likelihood of nuclear war-left Canadians divided over the value and utility of nuclear weapons and the strategies developed around them. At the same time, Canadians' ideas about nuclear weapons

  8. Transportation Technology Change from the Perspective of Ecological Environment History --With Transportation Evolution as the Center%生态环境史视阈下的交通技术变迁——以交通工具的演进为中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琦珂; 曹幸穗

    2012-01-01

    With rapid change of modern transportation technology, more and more environmental problems arise as a result. If you examine the evolution of the traffic tool from the perspective of the ecological environmental history, you will find that traffic technology advances at the expenses of ecological environmental alienation. Transportation means have undergone the stages of biological force load, natural force bearing, to mechanical force to drive, and then to the energy used to power the in its evolution, which is actually a history of how human tries to counterbalance nature and continuously alienate itself from nature with transportation means as medium. Advocates for bicycle traffic and calls for clean environment protection traffic should be every conscientious citizen's obligation.%现代交通科技日新月异,由此引发的环境问题也愈来愈多。将交通工具的演进历程置于生态环境史的视阈之下去作观察,就会发现交通技术的进步是以生态环境的异化为代价的。交通工具由生物力负荷、自然力承载,到机械力驱动,再到能源做动力的进化过程,其实就是一部人类以交通工具为媒介,与环境日益抗衡、同自然不断疏离的历史。倡导自行车交通,呼唤清洁环保交通,应该是每个社会公民的职责。

  9. International Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kenn; Habermann, Ulla; Chowdhury, Omar Faruque; Guerra, Iraida Manzanilla

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Introduction to International Perspectives" (Allen); "Volunteerism in the Welfare State: The Case of Denmark" (Habermann); "Grassroots Organizing in Bangladesh" (Chowdhury); and "Volunteerism in Latin America" (Guerra). (SK)

  10. Implementing e-Health through CHI: A Very Canadian Solution to a Very Canadian Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Daniels

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Canada Health Infoway (CHI was established as an arms-length body by the federal government in 2001 to provide funding to provinces for the development of interoperable e-health systems. CHI was established in response to a number of reports calling on the government to act to make use of technological advances to improve health care quality and provide more rigorous data. In addition to these explicit goals, through establishing CHI the federal government also sought to avoid potential criticism if the implementation of e-health failed, increase its own popularity ahead of the 2000 election and subtly redistribute wealth between the provinces. The paper suggests that the major influence behind the policy to establish CHI came from Canadian institutions and the fact that the federal government was hamstrung by the Canadian Constitution and Canada Health Act. Evaluation of the reform shows that progress has been made by CHI in implementing e-health solutions, but that Canada still lags behind other comparable health systems in the use of technologies. SWOT analysis of the CHI implementation highlights the criticism that CHI could stifle provincial innovation but recognizes that it also offers the opportunity for best practice dissemination across Canada and ensures that ring-fenced funding is available for e-health implementation across the provinces. In conclusion, the paper suggests that, because of constitutional constraints, the federal government was limited in options to implement e-health and that CHI represents a fair compromise.

  11. Gasoline and other transportation fuels from natural gas in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ways in which natural gas might displace cude oil as a source of fuels for the Canadian transportation market are reviewed. Three approaches are possible: (1) direct use as compressed natural gas; (2)conversion of natural gas to methanol; and (3) further conversion of methanol to synthetic gasoline. (author)

  12. Tidal resuspension and transport processes of fine sediment within the river plume in the partially-mixed Changjiang River estuary, China: A personal perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, John Z.

    2010-09-01

    This paper summarizes process-oriented field and numerical studies undertaken on the river plume in the partially-mixed Changjiang River estuary. Both estuarine circulation and tidal asymmetry are of great importance to the fine sediment processes. Mean suspended sediment concentration (C¯) and bottom shear stress are the dominant physical parameters controlling the flocculation and settling velocities ( ws) of mud flocs in suspension. Two important physical processes are revealed by acoustic imaging, i.e. (i) the near-bed impulsive resuspension and (ii) the transport processes driven by fine sediment-induced plumes during a spring tide. A turbidity maximum, associated with a suspended sediment front, is observed. Its formation is caused mainly by tidal asymmetry, near-bed periodic tidal resuspension and turbulence suppression by suspension/salinity stratifications. A conceptual sketch of the turbidity maximum is cautiously proposed for the Changjiang River estuary. Four different settling velocity equations, taking flocculation into account, have different effects on the modeled concentration profiles of fine sediment: apparently, Cao and Wang (1994, pp. 252-253) would be the best for spring tide and Thorn (1982, Fig. 3/page 66) for neap tide. Both tidal acceleration and tidal deceleration have strong effects on the concentration profiles of fine sediment within the Changjiang River estuary.

  13. Ming Dynasty’s Prohibit to Marine Transportation under New Institutional Economics Perspective%新制度经济学视阈下的明朝禁海政策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    逯宇; 荣朝和

    2014-01-01

    Ming Dynasty rigorously enforced a threatened ban on marine transportation, totally ignoring its developing achievements from Song and Yuan Dynasty. This leaded to a series of consequences. On the one hand, the nongovernmental marine transportation industry collapsed at once, pirates’ hazards lasted very long time, and ocean trade experienced huge loses. On the other hand, under new institutional economics perspective, the brilliant navigation of Zheng He couldn’t conceal the huge regime cost, especially that China partly lost the sea supremacy and the right to speech, and lost the evolution opportunity to enter the modern society. The policy which distorts economical inner rule and incentive structure will heavily affect the cost of exchange and production. The social cost will be very huge. This is the institutional heritage of Ming Dynasty’s prohibit to Marine Transportation.%明朝漠视宋元以来海运业的发展成果而强制禁海,一方面,重创民间海运业,海盗绵延,沿海“不治”,海洋贸易损失巨大;另一方面,漕粮由海运改回为河运后弊病深重,寻租丛生,漕运日益艰难,成为政府的沉重负担,并激化了社会矛盾。在新制度经济学的视阈下,郑和下西洋的辉煌不能掩盖明朝禁海高昂的制度成本,特别是中国部分地失去了全球贸易中的制海权和话语权,失去了进入现代社会的演进机遇。扭曲内在规律和激励结构的政策,必将严重影响交换和生产成本,代价将异常惨重,这是明朝禁海留下的制度遗产。

  14. Evolving perspectives on lyme borreliosis in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Jlh; Middelveen, Mj; Klein, D; Sperling, Fah

    2012-01-01

    With cases now documented in every province, Lyme borreliosis (LB) is emerging as a serious public health risk in Canada. Controversy over the contribution of LB to the burden of chronic disease is maintained by difficulty in capturing accurate Canadian statistics, especially early clinical cases of LB. The use of dogs as sentinel species demon-strates that potential contact with Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes, as detected by C6 peptide, extends across the country. Dissemination of infected ticks by migratory birds and rapid establishment of significant levels of infection have been well described. Canadian public health response has focused on identification of established populations of the tick vectors, Ixodes scapularis and I. pacificus, on the assumption that these are the only important vectors of the disease across Canada. Strains of B. burgdorferi circulating in Canada and the full range of their reservoir species and coinfections remain to be explored. Ongoing surveys and historical records demonstrate that Borrelia-positive Ixodes species are regu-larly present in regions of Canada that have previously been considered to be outside of the ranges of these species in re-cent modeling efforts. We present data demonstrating that human cases of LB are found across the nation. Consequently, physician education and better early diagnoses are needed to prevent long term sequelae. An international perspective will be paramount for developing improved Canadian guidelines that recognize the complexity and diversity of Lyme borreliosis.

  15. Transfer prices and the excess cost of Canadian oil imports: New evidence on Bertrand versus Rugman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transfer pricing can be a source for contention between governments and multinational corporations, with suspicion that transfer prices are set so as to report higher income in countries where corporations are taxed more lightly. The first systematic empirical evidence on transfer pricing in multinational corporations is presented, through examination of the Canadian petroleum industry, which is dominated by foreign multinationals. The data cover the period 1974-84 and allow analysis of the allegation of excess cost paid by Canada for crude oil imports. After taking into account crude oil quality indicators, transaction characteristics, and countries of export, the merging of a comparable set of U.S. and Canadian data demonstrates evidence of transfer-price setting at levels significantly different from arm's-length prices for crude oil imports to Canada from 1974-84. However, the evidence runs contrary to Bertrand's assessment: the crude oil prices for affiliate transactions were found to be, in general, lower than comparable prices for third-party transactions. As to transport costs, the converse was found to be the case, however, the effect is much less important than transfer pricing. The overall result is that transfer prices have worked in Canada's favour. 15 refs., 7 tabs

  16. “社会投资”理论视角下加拿大社会政策改革考析及其对我国的启示%A Study on Canadian Social Policy Reform and Its Enlightenments to China in the Perspective of Social Investment Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季丽新

    2014-01-01

    加拿大在20世纪70年代初建成高福利国家,然而高福利导致加拿大政府在医疗、社会服务等方面的支出急剧增长,带来了沉重的负担。面对全球化的竞争压力和消除财政赤字的社会呼声,20世纪90年代中期以来,在“社会投资”理论指导和影响下,加拿大从削减福利开支、投资于人民、投资儿童、多元参与四个方面进行了社会政策改革,从而在一定程度上促进了社会经济的发展。虽然加拿大的社会政策改革仍在进行当中,在某些方面并没有达到预期的效果。但是,以社会投资为导向的加拿大社会政策的改革,对当代中国社会政策的改革和完善,仍然具有重要的启示和借鉴价值。在当代中国,社会投资也应成为社会政策改革的重要价值取向,我国的社会政策改革应坚持以人为本,强化政府的主导责任,积极鼓励社会参与,扩大社会政策的覆盖面,提高社会政策的适应性和实效性。%In the early 1970s ,the high welfare state has been established in Canada .However ,the high welfare led to sharp increasing spending in terms of health care ,social services ,and so on ,and brought a heavy burden .In the face of the competitive pressure of globalization and the social voices of eliminating financial deficit ,since mid-1990s ,Canada has been reforming its social policies in cutting down welfare spending , investing in people , investing in children , and pluralistic participation under the theoretical guidance and influence of “social investment” ,which ,to some extent ,has promoted the social and economic development .Although the social policy reform in Canada is in progress and even in some aspects it does not achieved the desired results ,the social investment oriented reform of Canadian social policy still has an important enlightenment and reference value to the reform and improvement of the Chinese contemporary social

  17. A scoping review of interprofessional education within Canadian nursing literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Rachel Elizabeth; Goldman, Joanne; LeGrow, Karen; MacMillan, Kathleen M; van Soeren, Mary; Kitto, Simon

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this scoping review is to examine the nature of the interprofessional education (IPE) discussion that the Canadian nursing profession is having within the Canadian peer-reviewed nursing literature. An electronic database search of CINAHL was conducted using a modified Arksey & O'Malley scoping review framework. Peer-reviewed, English-language articles published in Canadian nursing journals from January 1981 to February 2016 were retrieved. Articles were included if they discussed IPE, or described an educational activity that met our conceptual definition of IPE. A total of 88 articles were screened, and 11 articles were eligible for analysis. Analysis revealed that this body of literature does not seem to be purposefully engaging Canadian nurses in a critical discourse about the role of IPE. The majority of articles located were reflective or commentaries. At the time of this review, there was a paucity of theoretically informed empirical research articles on IPE in the nursing literature. While IPE may be viewed by some critical scholars as a means of shifting the control of healthcare delivery traditionally held by medicine to other professions, our results suggest that this may not be the case in the Canadian nursing profession.

  18. A scoping review of interprofessional education within Canadian nursing literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Rachel Elizabeth; Goldman, Joanne; LeGrow, Karen; MacMillan, Kathleen M; van Soeren, Mary; Kitto, Simon

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this scoping review is to examine the nature of the interprofessional education (IPE) discussion that the Canadian nursing profession is having within the Canadian peer-reviewed nursing literature. An electronic database search of CINAHL was conducted using a modified Arksey & O'Malley scoping review framework. Peer-reviewed, English-language articles published in Canadian nursing journals from January 1981 to February 2016 were retrieved. Articles were included if they discussed IPE, or described an educational activity that met our conceptual definition of IPE. A total of 88 articles were screened, and 11 articles were eligible for analysis. Analysis revealed that this body of literature does not seem to be purposefully engaging Canadian nurses in a critical discourse about the role of IPE. The majority of articles located were reflective or commentaries. At the time of this review, there was a paucity of theoretically informed empirical research articles on IPE in the nursing literature. While IPE may be viewed by some critical scholars as a means of shifting the control of healthcare delivery traditionally held by medicine to other professions, our results suggest that this may not be the case in the Canadian nursing profession. PMID:27352001

  19. Canadian EdGEO National Workshop Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, L. A.; Haidl, F. M.; Hymers, L. A.; van der Flier-Keller, E.

    2009-05-01

    Established in the early 1970s, EdGEO supports locally driven geosciences workshops for Canadian teachers. Workshops are organized by geoscientists and teachers, and typically have field, laboratory and classroom components. Grants of up to $3000 per workshop are available from the National EdGEO Program. By providing educational opportunities for today's teachers and, through them, their students, EdGEO seeks to cultivate a heightened awareness of our planet. EdGEO workshops provide teachers with potential fieldtrip sites for their students and the knowledge, enthusiasm and materials to inspire their students to engage in geoscience. Networking opportunities with local experts promote the importance of the geoscience profession. The expected result is an improved capacity on the part of Canadians to understand the Earth and to make informed decisions, especially with regard to the use of mineral and energy resources, the maintenance and remediation of the environment, and response to geological hazards. There exists a critical need to provide teachers with training and resources to tackle their Earth science curricula. In 2008, EdGEO supported fourteen workshops, with an unprecedented 521 teachers attending. These teachers then used our resources to reach an estimated 14,000 students during that single academic year. EdGEO workshops are locally driven and are therefore very diverse. Workshops are strongly tied to the provincial curriculum, focus on a specific geoscience topic, or may be largely field-based to demonstrate and practice how field activities could be incorporated into Earth science teaching. Many strive to include all of these important components. Geoscientists and teachers work collaboratively to develop and deliver EdGEO workshops to ensure that the activities can be effectively used in the classroom. The length of these professional development opportunities range from two-hour sessions to several days, and can generally accommodate up to twenty

  20. Canadian study of cancer following multiple fluoroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Records of patients treated in Canadian Sanatoria during the period 1930-1952 have been linked with the National Death Index maintained by Statistics Canada to provide fact and cause of death information for the years 1950-1980. Of 31,710 women known to be under observation on January 1, 1950, 13,795 were exposed to fluoroscopy for control of collapse therapy, while the remaining 17,915 were unexposed. The unexposed had the similar mortality from breast cancer to that expected from general population rates. Those exposed to fluoroscopy had increasing mortality with increasing radiation dose to the breast, the best fit to the dose-response curve being a quadratic function. Estimates of risk at doses above 300 rads were largely derived from patients treated in Nova Scotia, where fluoroscopy was administered antero-posterior, as distinct from the more usual postero-antero practiced elsewhere. There is evidence of age-related susceptibility to radiation-induced breast cancer. The risk was maximal for those who first received fluoroscopy in their teens or twenties, but it was similar to expectation for those first exposed at age 30 or more. The latent period from onset of exposure to first increase in the death rate from breast cancer was 15 years for those first exposed at ages 10-24 and 10 years for those first exposed at ages 25 or more. However, these periods coincide with years when mortality from breast cancer normally rises and may therefore not be a true latent period effect. Estimates of predicted excess deaths from breast cancer per million women first exposed at ages 10-29 vary depending on the model used to represent the effect and whether or not data from the Nova Scotia Series are included in the computations

  1. The Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is presented of the status of the research and development program, under rsponsibility of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), for assessing the concept of nuclear fuel waste disposal deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. A passive multi-barrier concept has been adopted for disposal that combines the containment provided by the structural, hydraulic and geochemical characteristics of the rock mass with a series of engineered barriers. The conceptual disposal vault consists of an array of disposal rooms excavated in plutonic rock at a depth between 500 and 1000 m. Prior to disposal, the waste would be placed in cylindrical containers surrounded by a buffer, which is a mixture of bentonite cla and sand. The rooms would be backfilled with mixture of clay, and crushed granite or san. Bulkheads would seal the entrances. Closure would be achieved by backfilling the access tunnels in the same manner as the rooms and than backfilling the shafts with compacted clay and crushed granite separated by a series of supporting bulkheads. Very preliminary results from the case study indicate that the good rock provides the most effective barrier to movement of radionuclides to the surface. The most significant pathways through the geosphere involve diffusion through the good rock to the major fracture intersecting the vault, convection upward along the fracture, and discharge either at topographic lows or through a domestic water supply well used by the critical group. Long-lived non-sorbing radionuclides, available in the gaps between the fuel pellets and the fuel cladding or at the grain boundaries, contribute most to the radiological dose. With appropriate constraints on the location of the waste packages relative to the major fracture zones, radiological risk is expected to satisfy the regulatory criteria. (H.W.) 5 figs

  2. Canadian Experience in Nuclear Power Technology Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology transfer has and will continue to play a major role in the development of nuclear power programs. From the early beginnings of the development of the peaceful uses of nuclear power by just a few nations in the mid-1940s there has been a considerable transfer of technology and today 34 countries have nuclear programs in various stages of development. Indeed, some of the major nuclear vendors achieves their present position through a process of technology transfer and subsequent development. Canada, one of the early leaders in the development of nuclear power, has experience with a wide range of programs bout within its own borders and with other countries. This paper briefly describes this experience and the lessons learned from Canada's involvement in the transfer of nuclear power technology. Nuclear technology is complex and diverse and yet it can be assimilated by a nation given a fire commitment of both suppliers and recipients of technology to achieve success. Canada has reaped large benefits from its nuclear program and we believe this has been instrumentally linked to the sharing of goals and opportunity for participation over extended periods of time by many interests within the Canadian infrastructure. While Canada has accumulated considerable expertise in nuclear technology transfer, we believe there is still much for US to learn. Achieving proficiency in any of the many kinds of nuclear related technologies will place a heavy burden on the financial and human resources of a nation. Care must be taken to plan carefully the total criteria which will assure national benefits in industrial and economic development. Above all, effective transfer of nuclear technology requires a long term commitment by both parties

  3. Worksite health and wellness programs: Canadian achievements & prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Després, Jean-Pierre; Alméras, Natalie; Gauvin, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Canada has experienced a substantial reduction in mortality related to cardiovascular disease (CVD). There is a general consensus that more effective and widespread health promotion interventions may lead to further reductions in CVD risk factors and actual disease states. In this paper, we briefly outline the prevalence of selected risk factors for CVD in Canada, describe characteristics of the Canadian labor market and workforce, and depict what is known about health and wellness program delivery systems in Canadian workplaces. Our review indicates that there have been numerous and diverse relevant legislative and policy initiatives to create a context conducive to improve the healthfulness of Canadian workplaces. However, there is still a dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of the delivery system and the actual impact of workplace health and wellness programs in reducing CVD risk in Canada. Thus, while a promising model, more research is needed in this area. PMID:24607012

  4. Internationalization at Canadian Universities: Where are we Now?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Weber

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Internationalization is powerfully impacting the missions, planning documents, and learning environments of Canadian universities. Internationalization within Canadian universities is viewed from a local as well as global context. Accounts of the composition of domestic students studying abroad and international students studying in Canada, and the implications of these statistics, are related. Emphasis is given to a discussion of the contribution that economic factors play in internationalization decisions. Economic factors have undeniably shaped the face of internationalization at Canadian universities. Complexities of the relationship between global context and educational goals are outlined and educators are challenged to responsibly interpret and implement university changes resulting from internationalization while prioritizing the learning needs of students.

  5. Worksite health and wellness programs: Canadian achievements & prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Després, Jean-Pierre; Alméras, Natalie; Gauvin, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Canada has experienced a substantial reduction in mortality related to cardiovascular disease (CVD). There is a general consensus that more effective and widespread health promotion interventions may lead to further reductions in CVD risk factors and actual disease states. In this paper, we briefly outline the prevalence of selected risk factors for CVD in Canada, describe characteristics of the Canadian labor market and workforce, and depict what is known about health and wellness program delivery systems in Canadian workplaces. Our review indicates that there have been numerous and diverse relevant legislative and policy initiatives to create a context conducive to improve the healthfulness of Canadian workplaces. However, there is still a dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of the delivery system and the actual impact of workplace health and wellness programs in reducing CVD risk in Canada. Thus, while a promising model, more research is needed in this area.

  6. First Canadian workshop on engineering structural integrity : CWESI. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The First Canadian Workshop on Engineering Structural Integrity (CWESI) was held on October 16 and 17, 2002, in Toronto, Canada. The purpose of the Workshop was to review strategies for ESI in a number of key industries, and to attempt to plot a course for co-operation in ESI activities and implementation of ESI initiatives in Canadian industry, together with support for appropriate educational, research and development activities. The Workshop consisted of presentations by speakers from a number of industries. Presentations focused on in-service experience under service conditions related to the Canadian environment. This Workshop was attended by practising structural integrity engineers, managers with the responsibility for delivery of safe and reliable operation, and researchers in the structural integrity area

  7. The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Education Committee Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald J Bridges

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available I am pleased to provide an update regarding the activities and future directions of the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG Education Committee. The mandate of the CAG Education Committee is to facilitate, develop and promote excellence as it pertains to educational initiatives for the Canadian gastroenterology community. Professional education has long remained a priority of the CAG - a fact well recognized by the membership. The 2002 CAG Strategic Planning Survey showed that members rate Canadian Digestive Diseases Week (CDDW as the most important CAG service, on par with Digestive Diseases Week regarding its usefulness (1. CDDW 2004 offered delegates a variety of basic science and clinical symposia, the popular and well received 'Breakfast with the Expert' sessions and a comprehensive Postgraduate Course reviewing key developments in gastroenterology, nutrition and hepatology.

  8. Reference Values of Pulmonary Function Tests for Canadian Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gutierrez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A multicentre, cross-sectional study was carried out in six centres across Canada to establish a national standard for pulmonary function tests using healthy, lifetime nonsmokers, with each centre aiming to test 10 men and 10 women from each decade from 20 to 80 years of age. Data from each centre were used to derive prediction equations for each centre, and pooled data from all centres (total: 327 women and 300 men were used to derive Canadian predicted equations. The predictive models were compared with three widely used published models for selected tests. It was found that, in general, the equations modelled for each centre could be replaced by the models obtained when pooling all data (Canadian model. Comparisons with the published references showed good agreement and similar slopes for most tests. The results suggest that pulmonary function test results obtained from different centres in Canada were comparable and that standards currently used remain valid for Canadian Caucasians.

  9. Residential water demand with endogenous pricing: The Canadian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Arnaud; Renzetti, Steven; Villeneuve, Michel

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, we show that the rate structure endogeneity may result in a misspecification of the residential water demand function. We propose to solve this endogeneity problem by estimating a probabilistic model describing how water rates are chosen by local communities. This model is estimated on a sample of Canadian local communities. We first show that the pricing structure choice reflects efficiency considerations, equity concerns, and, in some cases, a strategy of price discrimination across consumers by Canadian communities. Hence estimating the residential water demand without taking into account the pricing structures' endogeneity leads to a biased estimation of price and income elasticities. We also demonstrate that the pricing structure per se plays a significant role in influencing price responsiveness of Canadian residential consumers.

  10. Coal deposits in the front ranges and foothills of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, southern Canadian Cordillera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustin, R.M.; Smith, G.G. (University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Department of Geological Sciences)

    1993-09-01

    Over one-third of Canada's coal resources occurs in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains, with major deposits in the Front Ranges, Inner Foothills and Outer Foothills. In the Front Ranges, deposits of metallurgical and thermal, high-volatile bituminous to semi-anthracite coal occur in the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Mist Mountain Formation. In the Inner Foothills of northeastern British Columbia and west-central Alberta, resources of metallurgical and thermal medium- and low-volatile bituminous coal occur in Early Cretaceous strata of the Gething and Gates Formations. In the Outer Foothills resources of thermal, high-volatile bituminous coal occur in Late Cretaceous and Paleocene strata of the Belly River Coalspur and Paskapoo Formations. The major deposits of the Front Ranges and Inner Foothills accumulated within the coastal plains of the Fernie and Moosebar-Clearwater seas. Shorelines prograded to the north and northeast into a foreland basin that evolved in advance of the evolving Colombian Orogen. In the Outer Foothills, coal deposits of the Belly River Formation originated within coastal plains during the withdrawal of the Pakowki Sea. The major coal deposits of the Coalspur and Paskapoo Formations accumulated in the alluvial plain of the foreland basin during the Laramide orogeny. Coal measures of the region were folded and faulted during the Laramide orogeny. Structural deformation has affected the mineability and quality of the coals. Shearing of the seams in adjacent strata has led to oxidation, resulting in weak coal pillars and roofs in underground mines. Faulting and folding has partitioned many coal deposits into discrete structural domains of varying style and complexity. The variation in coal rank in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains reflects the preorogenic depth of burial. There is some evidence for syn-and post-orogenic coalification. 46 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  11. The economic impact of Canadian biodiesel production on Canadian grains, oilseeds and livestock producers : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to provide the Canadian Canola Growers Association with an understanding of the economic effects of a mandated use of biodiesel blends produced in Canada, focusing on canola and canola oil. A literature review was performed to determine what has been found elsewhere in terms of biodiesel. An overview of the feedstock markets was also conducted along with an empirical analysis to determine likely feedstock purchasing behaviour under biodiesel blend requirements. The analysis also considered the rendered animal fats industry. The objectives were to identify the economic impacts of biodiesel development; determine the nature of markets for candidate feedstocks that could be used in manufacturing biodiesel; estimate the economic effects of a 2 per cent biodiesel blend requirement in petroleum diesel; estimate the economic effects of a 5 per cent biodiesel blend requirement in petroleum diesel; and, determine the ultimate impact on the Canadian canola industry of the mandated biodiesel blend. It was shown that biodiesel can be made from a range of feedstocks and that the 2 key factors influencing the success of biodiesel manufacturing facilities were feedstock prices and feedstock availability. The key competitors facing canola oil in the biodiesel market are rendered oils, rendered animal fats, palm oil, and soybean oil. Canola and soybean oil are likely to be relatively high cost feedstocks for biodiesel production, while yellow grease, tallow, and palm oil would be better priced as feed for industrial uses. Two conceptions of market dynamic were considered. In the first, the feedstock prices remained constant, while in the other the feedstock prices fluctuated with volume consumed. It was concluded that if total fat and oil supplies are fixed at historic levels, biodiesel blend requirements of just over 2 per cent are feasible. It was concluded that a cluster of widely available, low-priced feedstocks for biodiesel production exists. These

  12. Assessing Canadian Bank Branch Operating Efficiency Using Data Envelopment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zijiang

    2009-10-01

    In today's economy and society, performance analyses in the services industries attract more and more attention. This paper presents an evaluation of 240 branches of one big Canadian bank in Greater Toronto Area using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Special emphasis was placed on how to present the DEA results to management so as to provide more guidance to them on what to manage and how to accomplish the changes. Finally the potential management uses of the DEA results were presented. All the findings are discussed in the context of the Canadian banking market.

  13. Global reach: international doors wide open to Canadians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opportunities available to Canadian companies abroad, particularly in the oil and gas field service sector, are reviewed. The overall conclusion is that while in some parts of the world, such as the Middle East negotiating contracts may be a challenge, the problem can be overcome by hiring a reliable local agent who speaks the language and is familiar with local business practices. The process is often time-consuming and requires a great deal of patience, but the opportunities are there to exploit. The excellent reputation of Canadian businessmen for for honesty and high quality of service makes it all possible

  14. Writing on Boundaries: The Split Subject in Chinese Canadian Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Shaobo

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a conceptual grasp of the corpus of work produced by Chinese Canadian writers and a framework for analysing its tropes and interpreting their political resonance. It defines the Chinese Canadian work as a three-phase counterhegemonic discourse: Writing back into a forbidden past; negotiating into the present; writing on boundaries. For the ambivalent, split diasporic subject to negotiate into the present from the forbidden past is to reinscribe itself as a locus of crisis, a non-identity, a doubling, a third term. Writing on boundaries can be read as a strategy of decolonization deployed by the subaltern in striving for self-vindication and self-fulfilment.

  15. Advancing intercultural competency: Canadian engineering employers' experiences with immigrant engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Marcia; Ingram, Sandra

    2013-05-01

    This paper explores Canadian engineering employers' perceptions of and experiences with internationally educated engineers (recent immigrants to Canada) employed in their organisations for varying lengths of time. Qualitative data were collected from employers using focus group methodology. Findings reflected employers' observations of culturally different behaviours and characteristics in their internationally educated employees, employers' reactions to cultural differences ranging from negative attributions to tolerance, and the implementation of largely ad hoc intra-organisational strategies for managing cultural differences in employer-employee relationships. Findings exposed the lack of corporate intercultural competency in the Canadian engineering profession. Equity and gatekeeping implications are discussed.

  16. Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Launches Human Resource Planning Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    In 2002, the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG) conducted a survey of the membership, the results of which were reviewed and developed by the Past Presidents' Council into a long term strategic plan. Survey findings and the resulting strategic plan were published earlier this year in The Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology and can be reviewed on the CAG Web site at http://www.pulsus.com/Gastro/18_01/Pdf/newe_ed.pdf and http://www.pulsus.com/Gastro/18_02/Pdf/newe_ed.pdf. Members r...

  17. Implications and Challenges to Using Data Mining in Educational Research in the Canadian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElAtia, Samira; Ipperciel, Donald; Hammad, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Canadian institutions of higher education are major players on the international arena for educating future generations and producing leaders around the world in various fields. In the last decade, Canadian universities have seen an influx in their incoming international students, who contribute over $3.5 billion to the Canadian economy (Madgett &…

  18. Boys are Reading, but their Choices are not Valued by Teachers and Librarians. A Review of: McKechnie, Lynne (E.F.. “ ‘Spiderman is not for Babies’ (Peter, 4 Years: The ‘Boys and Reading Problem’ from the Perspective of the Boys Themselves.” The Canadian Journal of Information and Library Science 30.1/2 (2006: 57‐67.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Wilson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This study looks at what constitutes legitimate reading material for boys and how this material is defined in light of assessed gender differences in reading, and is part of a larger, ongoing research project on the role of public libraries in the development of youth as readers.Design – Semi‐structured, qualitative interviews and book inventories.Setting – The research originated from the MLIS 566 (Literature for Children and Young Adults class at the Faculty of Information and Media Studies, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.Subjects – Forty‐three boys, ages four through twelve, were interviewed. Most of the boys lived in Ontario, although a few came from other Canadian provinces.Methods – Library school students who were registered in a Literature for Children and Young Adults class interviewed children and young adults about their reading and information practice as part of a “Book Ownership Case Study” assignment. The researcher also interviewed children and young adults, for a total of 137 case studies. For the purpose of this article, a data subset for the 43 boys included in the larger project was analyzed. The boys ranged in age from four to twelve years. The mean age was eight and the median age was nine. The theoretical perspective of reader response theory was used to situate the study. This theory has the relationship between the text and the reader as its focus, and it suggests that to understand the reading habits of boys, there needs to be recognition that the experts about their reading are the boys themselves. The interviews, which explored reading preferences and practices, were qualitative, semi‐structured, and took thirty minutes to complete. In addition to the interview, each boy’s personal book and information material collection was inventoried. The researcher used a grounded theory approach to analyze the inventory and interview data to pull out themes related to the

  19. Circulating metals and persistent organic pollutant concentrations in Canadian and non-Canadian born primiparous women from five Canadian centres: Results of a pilot biomonitoring study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Warren G., E-mail: fosterw@mcmaster.ca [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Cheung, Anthony P. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Davis, Karelyn [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada (Canada); Graves, Gillian [Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Jarrell, John [University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Leblanc, Alain [Institut national de sante publique, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Liang, Chun Lei [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada (Canada); Leech, Tara [Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Walker, Mark [University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Weber, Jean Philippe [Institut national de sante publique, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Van Oostdam, Jay [Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-10-01

    The developing foetus is thought to be at increased risk from exposure to environmental contaminants; however, developmental exposure data is notably lacking for many contaminants. Moreover, potential regional differences or effect of place of birth on residue levels measured in pregnant women is also unknown. Therefore, as part of a multinational biomonitoring study, 125 primiparous pregnant Canadian women were recruited from five Canadian centres (Vancouver, Calgary, Hamilton, Ottawa, and Halifax). Metals in whole blood and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in plasma were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS), respectively. Of the 125 women recruited to this study, complete data sets were available for 123 of which 103 were Canadian born. Data were analysed by analysis of covariance and linear mixed models using age and body mass index as covariates. The metals cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and total mercury (Hg) were detected in more than 93% of the samples tested. {beta}-Hexachlorohexane ({beta}-HCH), oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p Prime -DDE), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (PBDE-153, PBDE-47), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (PCB-138, -153, and -180), and the dioxin-like PCB congener PCB-118 were quantified in greater than 70% of the samples tested. Significant differences in the concentrations of Cd, Ni, PCB-153, and p,p Prime -DDE were found between the centres studied. Furthermore, foreign-born pregnant women had significantly higher concentrations of Cd, {beta}-HCH, PBDE-47, PCB-138, -153, -180, and p,p Prime -DDE compared to Canadian born pregnant women. Taken together, the data suggest that there are potential regional differences in contaminant body burden and place of birth may also contribute to differences in maternal residue concentrations. -- Highlights: Black

  20. Literature on the periphery of capitalism: Brazilian theory, Canadian culture Literature on the periphery of capitalism: Brazilian theory, Canadian culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Szeman

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to get past the blind spots that have developed in contemporary postcolonial theory, it is essential to seek out complementarities and solidarities in different national situations and in different modernities. This essay undertakes this task by exploring the homologous situations faced in Brazil and Canada in their respective attempts to create genuine national cultures. As in many postcolonial situations, the problem of creating an authentic culture is directly related to the sense that postcolonial culture is necessarily imitative and belated. In Misplaced Ideas, Roberto Schwarz exposes the hidden class character of the problem of cultural authenticity in Brazil, and in so doing, shows that the trauma of national-cultural identity merely reflects the contradictory structural position of Brazil’s postcolonial elite. Using Schwarz’s insights to explore the Canadian situation, the author shows that the same forces are at work in Canada. Though the crisis of a lack of an authentic Canadian culture has recently been surmounted as a result of the apparent international success of Canadian culture (especially literary fiction, that author cautions that this “success” story hides the class basis of Canadian culture in both its belated and isochronic phases (the latter being the moment when cultural belatedness is overcome. Making use of Brazilian theory to examine problems in Canadian culture allows us to see that Canadian modernity, long thought to be simply a derivative of the UK and USA, has similarities with Brazilian modernity that are essential to understanding the space and place Canada occupies in globalization. In order to get past the blind spots that have developed in contemporary postcolonial theory, it is essential to seek out complementarities and solidarities in different national situations and in different modernities. This essay undertakes this task by exploring the homologous situations faced in Brazil

  1. Historiografia do cinema canadense: balanço inicial * Historiography of Canadian cinema: starting survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ ALEXANDRE PINHEIRO KOSTECZKA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente artigo apresenta os principais e mais referenciados estudiosos canadenses que se dedicaram ao estudo das elaborações audiovisuais do Canadá. Narra os percursos dessa historiografia e indica os principais eixos interpretativos utilizados para a análise de uma filmografia que perpassa mais de um século de intensa produção. Esses textos indicam uma diversidade de perspectivas, porém, apresentam um fio condutor comum que aloca esses trabalhos na envergadura do pensamento acerca da identidade canadense. Inferir a respeito da possibilidade/impossibilidade do conceito de nação nesse país é um elemento constituinte desses textos. Dessa forma, este artigo perscruta os meios e métodos utilizados nessas bibliografias para responder aos intermitentes dilemas da identidade nacional no cinema produzido no Canadá.Palavras-chave: Historiografia – Cinema – Canadá. Abstract: This paper presents the leading and most referenced Canadian scholars who have devoted themselves to the study of cinema production in Canada. It lists the movements of such historiography and point out the main interpretative axes used for the analysis of a filmography that pervades more than a century of powerful production. These several texts show a variety of perspectives; however, they have a common thread that allocates these works in the current of thought on the Canadian identity. To infer about the possibility/impossibility of the concept of nation in this country is a constitutive component of these texts. Therefore, this article aims to scrutinize the proceedings and methods used in these bibliographies to answer to the intermittent dilemmas of national identity in the cinema produced in Canada.Keywords: Historiography – Cinema – Canada.

  2. Discourses of Blame and Responsibility: U.S./Canadian Media Representations of Palestinian-Israeli Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Baltodano

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available To test the assumption of a deep cultural divide between Canada and the United States, the researchers employed critical discourse analysis to examine the texts of one U.S. and one Canadian newspaper as artifacts and productions of the two countries' cultural inclinations toward international conflict and peace. The authors found differences in the intensity and pervasiveness of pro-militaristic discourse in the two nations' media texts but did not find evidence to support the thesis that Canada and the United States are divided by profound and intractable distinctions of values, beliefs or cultures. Instead the two newspapers demonstrated a noteworthy similarity of language, tone and text that presented shared perspectives on distant political and electoral initiatives in Israel and Palestine. Several strong similarities appeared across some two years of news coverage and political statements in Canada and the United States about the Palestinian parliamentary and presidential elections as well as the Israeli withdrawal from Gaza. Five familiar themes emerged to present Israelis and Palestinians in largely dichotomous and oppositional terms. When the news context was an election or a withdrawal from occupied territory, rather than military aggression, media nevertheless represented the two parties as engaged in a zero-sum game. The consistent narratives of "othering" established and re-enforced narrow roles for both parties, placed blame and responsibility, and charged Palestinians with the (often unilateral obligation to resolve the conflict. This media coverage demonstrates a convergence rather than a division of cultures across the longest undefended border in the world. These findings also support earlier work establishing the prevalence of "war journalism" in mainstream news coverage by the West. In news contexts that might have provided an opportunity to embrace significant components of Johan Galtung's concept of peace journalism, neither

  3. On the importance of sublimation to an alpine snow mass balance in the Canadian Rocky Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. MacDonald

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A modelling study was undertaken to evaluate the contribution of sublimation to an alpine snow mass balance in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Snow redistribution and sublimation by wind, snowpack sublimation and snowmelt were simulated for two winters over an alpine ridge transect located in the Canada Rocky Mountains. The resulting snowcover regimes were compared to those from manual snow surveys. Simulations were performed using physically based blowing snow (PBSM and snowpack ablation (SNOBAL models. A hydrological response unit (HRU-based spatial discretization was used rather than a more computationally expensive fully-distributed one. The HRUs were set up to follow an aerodynamic sequence, whereby eroded snow was transported from windswept, upwind HRUs to drift accumulating, downwind HRUs. That snow redistribution by wind can be adequately simulated in computationally efficient HRUs over this ridge has important implications for representing snow transport in large-scale hydrology models and land surface schemes. Alpine snow sublimation losses, in particular blowing snow sublimation losses, were significant. Snow mass losses to sublimation as a percentage of cumulative snowfall were estimated to be 20–32% with the blowing snow sublimation loss amounting to 17–19% of cumulative snowfall. This estimate is considered to be a conservative estimate of the blowing snow sublimation loss in the Canadian Rocky Mountains because the study transect is located in the low alpine zone where the topography is more moderate than the high alpine zone and windflow separation was not observed. An examination of the suitability of PBSM's sublimation estimates in this environment and of the importance of estimating blowing snow sublimation on the simulated snow accumulation regime was conducted by omitting sublimation calculations. Snow accumulation in HRUs was overestimated by 30% when neglecting blowing snow sublimation calculations.

  4. Potential effects of climatic change on radiological doses from disposal of Canadian nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental assessment of deep geologic disposal of Canadian nuclear fuel waste considers many processes that could affect radionuclide transport to humans over thousands of years. Climatic change is an important feature that will occur over these long times. Glaciation will likely occur within the next 100,000 years over much of Canada, and its impact on radiological doses has been assessed previously. In the present study, we investigate the potential effect of short- term climatic change, usually associated with global warming caused by increases in atmospheric trace gases. We study the main biosphere transport pathways causing a radiological dose to humans from 129I, which is the most important radionuclide in disposal of Canadian used nuclear fuel. Irrigation of a garden with contaminated well water is the main pathway and it can be affected by changes in temperature and precipitation. A cold, wet climate decreases the need for irrigation, and this decreases the radiological dose. A drastic climatic change, such as an increase in temperature from 10 to 20 degrees C and decrease in precipitation from 0.3 to 0.2 m during the growing season, is estimated to increase the dose by a factor of four. This is a relatively small change compared to the range of doses that arise from the variability and uncertainty in many of the parameters used in the environmental assessment models. Therefore, it is likely that the results of probabilistic dose assessment models can include the consequences of short-term climatic change. 39 refs., 3 figs

  5. Summertime sources of dimethyl sulfide in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and Baffin Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungall, E. L.; Croft, B.; Lizotte, M.; Thomas, J. L.; Murphy, J. G.; Levasseur, M.; Martin, R. V.; Wentzell, J. J. B.; Liggio, J.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2015-12-01

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) plays a major role in the global sulfur cycle. In addition, its atmospheric oxidation products contribute to the formation and growth of atmospheric aerosol particles, thereby influencing cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) populations and thus cloud formation. The pristine summertime Arctic atmosphere is a CCN-limited regime, and is thus very susceptible to the influence of DMS. However, atmospheric DMS mixing ratios have only rarely been measured in the summertime Arctic. During July-August 2014, we conducted the first high time resolution (10 Hz) DMS mixing ratio measurements for the Eastern Canadian Archipelago and Baffin Bay as one component of the Network on Climate and Aerosols: Addressing Key Uncertainties in Remote Canadian Environments (NETCARE). DMS mixing ratios ranged from below the detection limit of 4 to 1155 pptv (median 186 pptv). A set of transfer velocity parameterizations from the literature coupled with our atmospheric and coincident seawater DMS measurements yielded air-sea DMS flux estimates ranging from 0.02-12 μmol m-2 d-1, the first published for this region in summer. Airmass trajectory analysis using FLEXPART-WRF and chemical transport modeling using GEOS-Chem indicated that local sources (Lancaster Sound and Baffin Bay) were the dominant contributors to the DMS measured along the 21 day ship track, with episodic transport from the Hudson Bay System. After adjusting GEOS-Chem oceanic DMS values in the region to match measurements, GEOS-Chem reproduced the major features of the measured time series, but remained biased low overall (median 67 pptv). We investigated non-marine sources that might contribute to this bias, such as DMS emissions from lakes, biomass burning, melt ponds and coastal tundra. While the local marine sources of DMS dominated overall, our results suggest that non-local and possibly non-marine sources episodically contributed strongly to the observed summertime Arctic DMS mixing ratios.

  6. Summertime sources of dimethyl sulfide in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and Baffin Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Mungall

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dimethyl sulfide (DMS plays a major role in the global sulfur cycle. In addition, its atmospheric oxidation products contribute to the formation and growth of atmospheric aerosol particles, thereby influencing cloud condensation nuclei (CCN populations and thus cloud formation. The pristine summertime Arctic atmosphere is a CCN-limited regime, and is thus very susceptible to the influence of DMS. However, atmospheric DMS mixing ratios have only rarely been measured in the summertime Arctic. During July–August 2014, we conducted the first high time resolution (10 Hz DMS mixing ratio measurements for the Eastern Canadian Archipelago and Baffin Bay as one component of the Network on Climate and Aerosols: Addressing Key Uncertainties in Remote Canadian Environments (NETCARE. DMS mixing ratios ranged from below the detection limit of 4 to 1155 pptv (median 186 pptv. A set of transfer velocity parameterizations from the literature coupled with our atmospheric and coincident seawater DMS measurements yielded air-sea DMS flux estimates ranging from 0.02–12 μmol m−2 d−1, the first published for this region in summer. Airmass trajectory analysis using FLEXPART-WRF and chemical transport modeling using GEOS-Chem indicated that local sources (Lancaster Sound and Baffin Bay were the dominant contributors to the DMS measured along the 21 day ship track, with episodic transport from the Hudson Bay System. After adjusting GEOS-Chem oceanic DMS values in the region to match measurements, GEOS-Chem reproduced the major features of the measured time series, but remained biased low overall (median 67 pptv. We investigated non-marine sources that might contribute to this bias, such as DMS emissions from lakes, biomass burning, melt ponds and coastal tundra. While the local marine sources of DMS dominated overall, our results suggest that non-local and possibly non-marine sources episodically contributed strongly to the observed summertime Arctic DMS mixing

  7. Adapting to climate change : an introduction for Canadian municipalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change studies have indicated that Canada will experience large shifts in weather patterns in the next few decades due to both natural variations as well as human activities that release greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the world's average surface temperature is expected to increase by 1.4 to 5.8 degrees C over the period 1990-2100. The use of fossils fuels in transportation, manufacturing, heating, cooling, and electricity generation is the biggest source of GHGs such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. The rest comes from land use activities, such as agriculture and forestry. Total GHG emissions in Canada amounted to 740 megatonnes in 2003. Municipalities are directly and indirectly responsible for almost half of those emissions. This document outlined decision-making processes to help municipal governments make informed decisions and take appropriate mitigative action. Topics of discussion focused on the effect of global warming on public health, agriculture, water, coastline and marine management. Among the impacts of climate change are droughts; diminished and lower quality surface water; a higher incidence of vector-borne diseases; more frequent heat waves with discomfort in urban centres; and, an increase in storm surges in coastal regions. The greatest concerns for most municipalities are intense precipitation, heavy winds, or ice storms. Examples of how 6 Canadian communities are starting to address climate change adaptation were presented in the hope that these examples will help raise awareness of climate change impacts in other communities and provide ideas as to how these challenges might be addressed. The Toronto Heat-Health Alert System, the Greater Vancouver Regional District Stormwater Management Program, the Halifax Regional Municipality ClimateSMART Initiative, Sept-Iles' Shoreline Erosion Program, the City of Iqaluit Sustainable Development strategy and the Tidal

  8. Evolution of health technology assessment: best practices of the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocchi A

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Angela Rocchi,1 Isabelle Chabot,2 Judith Glennie3 1Athena Research Inc., Burlington, ON, 2EvAccess Inc., Vaudreuil-Dorion, QC, 3JL Glennie Consulting Inc., Aurora, ON, Canada Background: In 2007, Canada chose to develop a separate and distinct path for oncology drug health technology assessment (HTA. In 2013, the decision was made to transfer the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (pCODR to the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH, to align the pCODR and CADTH Common Drug Review processes while building on the best practices of both. The objective of this research was to conduct an examination of the best practices established by the pCODR. Methods: A qualitative research approach was taken to assess the policies, processes, and practices of the pCODR, based on internationally accepted best practice “principles” in HTA, with a particular focus on stakeholder engagement. Publicly available information regarding the approach of the pCODR was used to gauge the agency's performance against these principles. In addition, stakeholder observations and real-world experiences were gathered through key informant interviews to be inclusive of perspectives from patient advocacy groups, provincial and/or cancer agency decision-makers, community and academic oncologists, industry, expert committee members, and health economists. Results: This analysis indicated that, through the pCODR, oncology stakeholders have had a voice in and have come to trust the quality and relevance of oncology HTA as a vital tool to ensure the best decisions for Canadians with cancer and their health care system. It could be expected that adoption of the principles and processes of the pCODR would bring a similar level of engagement and trust to other HTA organizations in Canada and elsewhere. Conclusion: The results of this research led to recommendations for improvement and potential extrapolation of these best practices to other HTA organizations

  9. Innovations for sustainable public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hrelja, Robert; Hansson, Lisa; Richardson, Tim;

    The aim of the project has been to analyse institutional and planning conditions for public transport in the Scandinavian countries from a comparative perspective, looking at the county of Skåne (Sweden) and the municipalities of Aarhus (Denmark) and Trondheim (Norway). The report considers...... qualitative case- studies of public transport in Skåne, Aarhus, and Trondheim, and uses an empirical material consisting of written material and interviews. It concludes that: (i) new forms of coordination between organizations and policy areas are called for in a number of critical areas, if public transport...... is to contribute effectively to the development of an efficient and sustainable transport system (for example, forms for the coordination of public transport, land use, and infrastructure planning); (ii) public transport must not be seen as an end in itself, or as merely a technical transport system; (iii...

  10. Product through pipelines : transportation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballyntyne, R. [Terasen Pipelines, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation provided a brief overview of the corporate structure of Terasen Pipelines along with a map displaying the locations of the pipelines it operates and new directions for growth. It also presented a proposal to deliver petroleum products from Alberta's oilsand fields to markets via the Corridor and Express pipeline systems, and evaluated the issue of transporting petrochemicals via rail transport rather than pipeline. Industry is also examining the option of shipping refined products through a trans mountain system from Alberta to British Columbia and California. A chart highlighting Canadian crude oil production was presented along with an oil sands pipeline capacity chart. It was noted that significant investment in refining capacity is needed and that new pipeline facilities will be required to meet the needs of oil sands developments. tabs., figs.

  11. The Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, the fifth of a series of annual reports, reviews the progress that has been made in the research and development program for the safe management and disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The report summarizes activities over the past year in the following areas: public interaction; used fuel storage and transportation; immobilization of used fuel and fuel recycle waste; geoscience research related to deep underground disposal; environmental research; and environmental and safety assessment

  12. Movement for Canadian Literacy: Statistics Show Millions Struggle with Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movement for Canadian Literacy, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The International Adult Literacy and Skills Survey (IALSS), released on November 9, takes a closer look at Canadians' ability to deal with everyday literacy demands. In today's information-based society and economy, literacy is more important than ever. IALSS defines literacy as one's capacity to "use printed and written information to function in…

  13. A Primer on Accent Discrimination in the Canadian Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Murray J.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews aspects of the Canadian human rights process as they pertain to language and accent, and identifies three types of accent discrimination arising in human rights cases: discrimination in employment due to inappropriate concern with accent; discrimination due to accent stereotyping, and harassment based on accent. (Author/VWL)

  14. Educational Goal-Setting in a Native-Canadian Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, H. Joseph

    A revitalization of Canadian Indian culture occurred as a result of the 1967 Hawthorn Report, which advocated the integration of Canada natives into white society. On the Eskasoni Indian Reserve, home of 1700 Micma Indians in Nova Scotia, the revitalization was shown in the results of two questionnaires about local education. On the first…

  15. TV Across the Canadian Border: Does It Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkes, Verone

    1977-01-01

    Discusses a survey of Canadians and Americans who regularly view television from both countries concerning media habits, attitudes toward the United States and Canada, and perceptions of current issues. Results indicate that there is very little if any attitudinal difference or effect associated with watching the foreign television signals. (JMF)

  16. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Society sixth annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of the Sixth Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society comprise 103 papers on the following subjects: fuel technology, nuclear plant safety, instrumentation, public and regulatory matters, fusion, fuel behaviour under normal and accident conditions, nuclear plant design and operations, thermal hydraulics, reactor physics, accelerators, waste management, new reactor concepts

  17. [The Canadian Institute of Aging: knowledge, innovation and action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Sophie

    2006-03-01

    Led by innovation, leadership, transparency and excellence, the Institute of Aging provides a focal point for Canadian research on aging and pursues the fundamental goal of advancing knowledge in the field of aging to improve the quality of life and health of older Canadians. The Institute has carried out a range of important national and international strategic initiatives in aging, and has become influential in leveraging funding, enhancing research capacity and creating a new impetus in research on aging in Canada. The Institute engages and supports the scientific community, encourages interdisciplinary and integrative health research and fosters not only on the creation of new knowledge, but also on the translation of that knowledge into improved health, a strengthened health care system, and new health products and services for Canadians. The IA focuses on five priority areas of research: healthy and successful aging, biological mechanisms of aging, cognitive impairment in aging, aging and maintenance of autonomy, and finally, health services and policies relating to older people. The efforts of the IA are guided by five strategic orientations: to lead in the development and definition of strategic directions for Canadian research on aging ; to build research capacity in the field of aging ; to foster the dissemination, transfer and translation of research findings in policies, interventions, services and products ; to promote the importance of, and the need for, a research community in aging ; and to develop and support capacity-building and strategic research initiatives in the field of aging. PMID:16527218

  18. Negotiated Independence: How a Canadian Writing Program Became a Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Judith; Turner, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Describes the transformation of a writing program at a small Canadian university from a subdivision of the English department into a separate, interdisciplinary Centre for Academic Writing. Describes the origins of the program and recounts the processes of review and transition the program underwent. Notes how curricular and…

  19. Canadian natural gas industry : the regulation to competition spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential impact of the 1998 Trans Canada PipeLine/NOVA Accord on the Canadian natural gas industry was discussed with particular emphasis on tolling structures, tolls, pipeline access, competition and competitiveness. The current status of the Accord was discussed and current incentive agreements for 8 pipeline companies were listed. 1 tab

  20. Return on Investment for Workplace Training: The Canadian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, Jennifer C.; Cozzarin, Brian P.; Formaneck, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    One of the central problems in managing technological change and maintaining a competitive advantage in business is improving the skills of the workforce through investment in human capital and a variety of training practices. This paper explores the evidence on the impact of training investment on productivity in 14 Canadian industries from 1999…