WorldWideScience

Sample records for canadian perspective transportation

  1. Climate change impacts and adaptation: a Canadian perspective. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief summary of research over the past five years in the field of climate change, as it relates to key sectors in Canada, is presented in the report entitled: Climate change impacts and adaptation: a Canadian perspective. The emphasis of this chapter is on transportation, the role of adaptation in reducing vulnerabilities, and capitalizing on potential opportunities. Other sectors, such as fisheries, the coastal zone, tourism and human health might be affected by decisions made with regard to transportation. The areas that seem most vulnerable to climate change in transportation include northern ice roads, Great Lakes shipping, coastal infrastructure threatened by sea-level rise, and infrastructure located on permafrost. Most of the attention has been devoted to infrastructure and operations issues in northern Canada, despite most of the transportation activities taking place in southern Canada. Milder and or shorter winters might lead to savings, but additional knowledge is required before quantitative estimates can be made. The changed frequency of extreme climate events, and or changes in precipitation may influence other weather hazards or inefficiencies. If Canadians are prepared to be proactive, the report indicated that the effects of climate change on transportation may be largely manageable. 77 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  2. Climate change impacts and adaptation: a Canadian perspective. Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-01

    A brief summary of research over the past five years in the field of climate change, as it relates to key sectors in Canada, is presented in the report entitled: Climate change impacts and adaptation: a Canadian perspective. The emphasis of this chapter is on transportation, the role of adaptation in reducing vulnerabilities, and capitalizing on potential opportunities. Other sectors, such as fisheries, the coastal zone, tourism and human health might be affected by decisions made with regard to transportation. The areas that seem most vulnerable to climate change in transportation include northern ice roads, Great Lakes shipping, coastal infrastructure threatened by sea-level rise, and infrastructure located on permafrost. Most of the attention has been devoted to infrastructure and operations issues in northern Canada, despite most of the transportation activities taking place in southern Canada. Milder and or shorter winters might lead to savings, but additional knowledge is required before quantitative estimates can be made. The changed frequency of extreme climate events, and or changes in precipitation may influence other weather hazards or inefficiencies. If Canadians are prepared to be proactive, the report indicated that the effects of climate change on transportation may be largely manageable. 77 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  3. Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system : transportation assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system. In addition to regulating the construction and operation of Canada's 45,000 km of pipeline that cross international and provincial borders, Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. The ability of pipelines to delivery this energy is critical to the country's economic prosperity. The pipeline system includes large-diameter, cross-country, high-pressure natural gas pipelines, low-pressure crude oil and oil products pipelines and small-diameter pipelines. In order to assess the hydrocarbon transportation system, staff at the NEB collected data from pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources. The Board also held discussions with members of the investment community regarding capital markets and emerging issues. The assessment focused largely on evaluating whether Canadians benefit from an efficient energy infrastructure and markets. The safety and environmental integrity of the pipeline system was also evaluated. The current adequacy of pipeline capacity was assessed based on price differentials compared with firm service tolls for major transportation paths; capacity utilization on pipelines; and, the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. The NEB concluded that the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system is working effectively, with an adequate capacity in place on existing natural gas pipelines, but with a tight capacity on oil pipelines. It was noted that shippers continue to indicate that they are reasonably satisfied with the services provided by pipeline companies and that the NEB-regulated pipeline companies are financially stable. 14 refs, 11 tabs., 28 figs., 4 appendices

  4. Canadian perspectives in evaluating transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's mission is to regulate the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect the health, safety, and security of Canadians and the environment, as well as to respect Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. In 2001, the CNSC established a vision to be one of the best nuclear regulators in the world and established four strategic priorities of effectiveness, transparency, excellence in staff, and efficiency. While fulfilling a very comprehensive mandate, the CNSC operates with a. very clear vision of its clientele - the Canadian people. That commitment guides every employee and every action of the CNSC and ensures a firm commitment to transparency. The presentation will begin with a brief overview of the worldwide context of transparency and transparency measurement, with a look at what lessons can be learned from other organizations and initiatives. It will look broadly at the Canadian context and the government framework that establishes transparency, including the keystone legislation of the Access to Information Act. The presentation will then focus on the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. The CNSC is firmly committed to putting additional measures in place to ensure transparency, which is being done concurrently with an overall organisational performance measurement system. It is within this framework that the presentation will address the transparency efforts at the CNSC as well transparency measurement activities. And, finally, the presentation will look at future directions for transparency and its measurement at the CNSC. (author)

  5. Chernobyl - a Canadian technical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report we present the design review done to date in Canada by AECL. From the Canadian point of view it covers: 1) relevant information on the Chernobyl design and the accident, both as presented by the Soviets at the Post-Accident Review Meeting (PARM) held in Vienna from August 25-29, 1986, and as deduced from publicly available Soviet documentation; and 2) details of AECL's technical review of the CANDU PHWR (Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) against the background of the Chernobyl accident, and implications of the Chernobyl accident. Reviews of operational aspects are underway by the Canadian electrical utilities and a review by the Canadian regulatory agency (the Atomic Energy Control Board) is near completion

  6. Nuclear communications : A Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Times have changed since the early days of nuclear energy when it was a symbol of a brave new world, Public information strategies have evolved to meet increasing public concerns, and have shifted from being a largely unfocused attempt at publicity to being more concerned with managing issues and solving problems. This paper describes some of the salient features of the Canadian experience in nuclear communications and examines four key aspects: opinion and attitude research; media relations; coeducation; and advertising. It also addresses the challenge of responding to the allegations and tactics of those who are actively hostile to nuclear energy, and recommends that the principles of Total Quality Management and of organizational effectiveness be applied more thorough and more consistently to the public affairs function

  7. International uranium production. An eastern Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Eastern Canadian perspective on uranium production is based on 30 years of continuous mining at Elliot Lake and on the experience of selling uranium over the same time period, mainly to export markets. In Ontario the orebodies are basically contiguous, being part of the same large formation. All the mining is underground. Ore grades are low, but economic extraction is improved by continuity and uniformity of grades, stable ground conditions, and the ability to mine and mill on a large scale. Mining is being carried out by two companies, Denison and Rio Algom. It is unlikely that mine capacity will be increased. Government policies have significant effects on the Eastern Canadian uranium industry in particular, as to U.S. import policies. (L.L.)

  8. Principles in safeguards: A Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L.J. Keen presented the Canadian perspective on safeguards. She noted that the IAEA safeguards system has responded well to challenges and has acted as the effective early warning system that it was intended to be. The exit from the non-proliferation regime by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea has demonstrated how effective safeguards and verification are seen to be in detecting proliferation activity. The main areas of importance for Canada are effectiveness, efficiency and transparency. Effectiveness requires information and access, and assures citizens of the exclusively peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Efficiency requires risk informed decisions for the sound allocation of resources and the early incorporation of proliferation resistance in design and construction, so that IAEA efforts can concentrate on where the risks are greatest. Openness and transparency include the public, and for the IAEA this includes its Member States since ultimately they control its activities and finances. Canada received its broader safeguards conclusion in 2005 and intends to maintain it. This will require continuous improvement in an era of rapid expansion of the nuclear industry. One problem foreseen is the adequate supply of qualified personnel, with the CNSC's resources growing at about 12%. The CNSC is looking at internal training programmes and internships

  9. Pharmacist-led minor ailment programs: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeff Gordon; Joubert, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacists have a long history of helping Canadians with minor ailments. This often has involved management with over-the-counter medications. If pharmacists felt that the best care required something more robust, they would refer the patient to a physician. In hopes of improving the care of such ailments, Canadian provinces have granted pharmacists the option of selecting medications traditionally under physician control. This review examines the Canadian perspective on pharmacists prescribing for minor ailments and the evidence of value for these programs. It might provide guidance for other jurisdictions contemplating such a move. PMID:27570460

  10. A perspective on Canadian shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Mike; Davidson, Jim; Mortensen, Paul

    2010-09-15

    In a relatively new development over just the past few years, shale formations are being targeted for natural gas production. Based on initial results, there may be significant potential for shale gas in various regions of Canada, not only in traditional areas of conventional production but also non-traditional areas. However, there is much uncertainty because most Canadian shale gas production is currently in experimental or early developmental stages. Thus, its full potential will not be known for some time. If exploitation proves to be successful, Canadian shale gas may partially offset projected long-term declines in Canadian conventional natural gas production.

  11. The Canadian nuclear scene - a 1983 perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reviews the previous year's performance and future prospects for the Canadian nuclear industry. Continued economic difficulties have meant continued streamlining of the industry. Basic strength is still the year-after-year record performance of the Ontario Hydro CANDU units. Given this performance, flexibility in the structure of the industry, and strong government support commercial success can be achieved eventually

  12. Family Business Training: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, A. B.; Soufani, K.; Lam, Jose

    2003-01-01

    Family firms play an important role in the working of the Canadian economy; despite their importance to the economic activities and job creation it is observed that family businesses have lower survival rates than non-family firms, some argue that this can possibly be attributed (amongst other factors) to the lack of training. Most of the training…

  13. Indigenous populations health protection: A Canadian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Katya L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The disproportionate effects of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on many Canadian Aboriginal communities have drawn attention to the vulnerability of these communities in terms of health outcomes in the face of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Exploring the particular challenges facing these communities is essential to improving public health planning. In alignment with the objectives of the Pandemic Influenza Outbreak Research Modelling (Pan-InfORM team, a Canadian public health workshop was held at the Centre for Disease Modelling (CDM to: (i evaluate post-pandemic research findings; (ii identify existing gaps in knowledge that have yet to be addressed through ongoing research and collaborative activities; and (iii build upon existing partnerships within the research community to forge new collaborative links with Aboriginal health organizations. The workshop achieved its objectives in identifying main research findings and emerging information post pandemic, and highlighting key challenges that pose significant impediments to the health protection and promotion of Canadian Aboriginal populations. The health challenges faced by Canadian indigenous populations are unique and complex, and can only be addressed through active engagement with affected communities. The academic research community will need to develop a new interdisciplinary framework, building upon concepts from ‘Communities of Practice’, to ensure that the research priorities are identified and targeted, and the outcomes are translated into the context of community health to improve policy and practice.

  14. A Canadian perspective on environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The leading environmental concerns in Canada are acid rain, ozone depletion, toxic substances, climate change, and biodiversity. These concerns have a number of elements in common, including a need for international actions for their solution, a high degree of scientific complexity, long life cycles from a policy point of view, and large differences in priorities between developing and developed countries. Canadians have favorable attitudes toward sustainable development and expect government and industry to be active in protecting the environment. Canadians also demand and expect a secure supply of competitively priced energy. Although industry may be concerned that incorporating environmental considerations into their business may impede competitiveness, this view is shown to be unsound for the following reasons: productivity is closely linked to a healthy environment; pollution prevention is less costly than cleanup; environmental protection can create new business opportunities; and the market is demanding more environmentally friendly industries. In the energy sector, a number of successful initiatives are under way to integrate environmental considerations into their decision making. The challenge is for industries to go beyond individual activities and build a case for sustainable energy development. The role of government includes informing Canadians about environmental risks and government priorities, ensuring that environmental assessment rules are clear and fair, streamlining regulatory processes, and using a balanced mix of legislation and regulation with market-based approaches to environmental protection

  15. Women and nuclear issues: Comments in a Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the Canadian Nuclear industry launched its information program, it was found that women were less supportive of nuclear power. Reasons were difficult to pin-point and hovered around individual perceptions and misunderstandings. The basis of the Canadian Nuclear Association Public Information program lies with its target: men and women equally. The Program Takes Into Consideration The major characteristics and nuances of these two groups. Female Characteristics from Canadian Perspective are: Strong sense of generation continuity; Detail and task oriented; Nontechnical training; Strong sense of individuality (local). Patterns of behavoiur in relation to nuclear industry for women in Canada are: not prone to take risks; micro-economic approach to decisions (local); little confidence in technology; pragmatic and balanced in their choices (local). Major concerns of Canadian women are: Safety of power plants; disposal of waste; peace and environment versus growth and energy need; trustworthiness of the industry. Canadian nuclear association public information program communirations -approach covers: the right message, down to earth language, factual and real information for real choices, effective reach: spokespeople and media buy. Results of polls: show thtt women are less in favour of Nuclear energy in Canada today than men, consider NPPs less important in Meeting Canada's energy need in the years ahead; and think that Nuclear Energy is not a choice for Canada of all sources of energy available for large scale use

  16. Defining Canadian Perspectives on Climate Change Science and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, C.; Byrne, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Despite the overwhelming scientific evidence of potentially disastrous change in global climate, little is being accomplished in climate mitigation or adaptation in Canada. The energy sector in Canada is still primarily oil and gas, with huge tax breaks to the industry in spite of well known harmful regional and global impacts of fossil fuel pollution. One of the largest concerns for the climate science community is the variable and often complacent attitude many Canadians share on the issue of climate change. The objective herein is twofold: (1) a survey tool will be used to assess the views and opinions of Canadians on climate change science and solutions; (2) develop better communication methods for industry, government and NGOs to share the science and solutions with the public. The study results will inform the Canadian public, policy makers and industry of practical, effective changes needed to address climate change challenges. A survey of Canadians' perspectives is an important step in policy changing research. The climate research and application community must know the most effective ways to communicate the science and solutions with a public that is often resistant to change. The AGU presentation will feature the results of the survey, while continued work into 2015 will be towards advancing communication. This study is both timely and crucial for science communicators in understanding how Canadians view climate change, considering, for example, devastatingly extreme weather being experienced of late and its effect on the economy. The results will assist in recognizing how to encourage Canadians to work towards a more sustainable and resilient energy sector in Canada and abroad.

  17. Canadian cardiac surgeons' perspectives on biomedical innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyman, Gretchen; Tucker, Joseph E L; Cimini, Massimo; Narine, Kishan; Fedak, Paul W M

    2012-01-01

    Barriers to successful innovation can be identified and potentially addressed by exploring the perspectives of key stakeholders in the innovation process. Cardiac surgeons in Canada were surveyed for personal perspectives on biomedical innovation. Quantitative data was obtained by questionnaire and qualitative data via interviews with selected survey participants. Surgeons were asked to self-identify into 1 of 3 categories: "innovator," "early adopter," or "late adopter," and data were compared between groups. Most surgeons viewed innovation favourably and this effect was consistent irrespective of perceived level of innovativeness. Key barriers to the innovation pathway were identified: (1) support from colleagues and institutions; (2) Canada's health system; (3) sufficient investment capital; and (4) the culture of innovation within the local environment. Knowledge of the innovation process was perceived differently based on self-reported innovativeness. The majority of surgeons did not perceive themselves as having the necessary knowledge and skills to effectively translate innovative ideas to clinical practice. In general, responses indicate support for implementation of leadership and training programs focusing on the innovation process in an effort to prepare surgeons and enhance their ability to successfully innovate and translate new therapies. The perspectives of cardiac surgeons provide an intriguing portal into the challenges and opportunities for healthcare innovation in Canada. PMID:22902159

  18. A Canadian perspective on the source term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a continuing commitment in Canada to perform research to improve our knowledge of fission-product behaviour, and to understand the consequences of possible nuclear reactor accidents. This work was given additional justification by the accident at the Three Mile Island II nuclear generating station. During this accident, the release of radioactive iodine to the environment was low compared to the predictions of the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400), a study known to be overly conservative in some areas. There has been considerable effort, through both experiments and computer modelling, to re-evaluate the technical bases for predicting fission-product releases during nuclear reactor accidents. The research work is conventionally referred to under the general title of 'source-term' research. The source term is the amount and type of radioactive material that escapes the boundary of a nuclear reactor containment building, and thus could result in possible exposure of the general public. The source term depends on the type of reactor and the accident sequence. In general, fission-product release to the environment depends on the the airborne fission product concentrations within the containment building. This, in turn, depends on all the physical and chemical factors controlling the release from fuel, migration and transport, chemical speciation, surface interactions, and aerosol behaviour. The scope of the factors influencing the behaviour of fission products within the containment is sufficiently broad to include virtually all the research relevant to reactor safety. It includes studies of thermalhydraulics, fission-product releases from fuel under transient conditions, aerosol behaviour, fission-product chemistry, gas/solution partitoning and fission-product/surface interactions. This report will summarize four areas: (1) the use of the source term in the licensing of nuclear power reactors; (2) the methods used to determine the source term; (3) problems in

  19. Hydrogen for transportation: available Canadian technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions deeply while allowing sustainable development, only nuclear power offers an emissions-free way to provide electricity for traditional applications and to provide energy for the transportation sector (using nuclear-produced hydrogen). Applying hydrogen generated from nuclear energy (supplemented where appropriate by other near-zero GHG-emitting energy sources) to transportation doubles or triples nuclear's leverage in reducing GHG emissions. Hydrogen (H2) produced by the steam reforming of natural gas offers little advantage in total cycle GHG emissions over hybrid ICE technology. The technology for replacing hydrocarbons with non-GHG-emitting H2 is available in electrolysis and fuel cells, using existing electric grids to provide distribution. No technical obstacles are evident and the world should be moving urgently towards total emissions-free transportation. (author)

  20. The Canadian Government perspective on cost-effective regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiscal constraint, globalization of markets, and accelerated technological change have resulted in a new focus on the cost-effectiveness of government activities and, in turn, on methods of policy evaluation. An exploration of regulatory problems, and the use of regulation as a public policy instrument, reveals a commonalty of experience in all industrialized countries. This paper provides a brief synopsis of the Government of Canada's perspective on cost-effective regulation. To understand cost-effective regulation, this paper examines the principles of regulatory reform which underlie the current strategy of the federal government (collaborative decision-making mechanisms., methods of clear policy evaluation, and well defined lines of accountability). It discusses the nature of, and rationale for, government regulation, the reasons for regulatory reform in the economy, and the principal aims of Canadian regulatory reform and regulatory policy assessment. It does so by specifically addressing the role of cost-benefit analysis in the process of regulatory assessment - a method which involves systematically identifying, and quantifying where possible, the social benefits and costs associated with alternative public policy actions - with a particular focus on regulation which affects the Canadian nuclear industry. (author). 51 refs

  1. Novel Therapies for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: A Canadian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Carolyn; Assouline, Sarit; Kuruvilla, John; Uchida, Cassandra; Bellingham, Catherine; Sehn, Laurie

    2015-11-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common adult lymphoproliferative disorder in Western countries. The current standard of care for CLL is chemoimmunotherapy, typically with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR). However, most patients with CLL are elderly with comorbidities and are unable to tolerate FCR. In order to choose the best treatment for each individual patient, physicians must balance efficacy with toxicity. In addition, most currently available treatments are ineffective in CLL patients with loss of TP53. Two groups of novel therapeutic agents-anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors-are attempting to address these issues, and 5 of these agents have progressed to phase 3 trials: obinutuzumab, idelalisib, ibrutinib, venetoclax (ABT-199), and duvelisib (IPI-145). We present the current evidence for these novel agents in the treatment of CLL, along with the perspectives of 4 Canadian oncology experts. PMID:26416145

  2. Moving Toward Shibboleth Authentication: A Canadian Academic Library’s Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Moving towards Shibboleth authentication has been a slow process for Canadian academic libraries. This article is intended to provide an overview of the current status of Shibboleth implementation from a Canadian academic library’s perspective. The author will begin with needs analysis for Shibboleth authentication for a Canadian academic library, then proceed to explore the issues and challenges surrounding Shibboleth implementation, and finally discuss the key roles of the stakeholders as w...

  3. Volunteering with Newcomers: The Perspectives of Canadian- and Foreign-born Volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Behnam Behnia

    2012-01-01

    Canadian- and foreign-born volunteers have contributed to the settlement of newcomers into Canadian society. Despite their important contribution, little has been reported about the experiences and perspectives of these volunteers. Using the information collected from face-to-face interviews with 60 Canadian- and foreign-born volunteers who support newcomers, this article discusses factors that motivate people to volunteer with newcomers. The study results revealed among other findings that (...

  4. Canadian Site Visit and Workshop - Summary and International Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The third workshop of the OECD/NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) was hosted by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) for three days in Ottawa, following a one-day visit of the Port Hope area which included meetings with community representatives and project managers and a tour of low-level waste management facilities. The Ottawa workshop examined social concerns regarding radioactive waste management: what the concerns are, how they are identified, and how they can be addressed. Sixty-nine people attended the workshop from fourteen countries and forty-five organizations. They ranged from representatives of municipal governments, non-governmental organizations and private citizens to government policy makers, regulators, implementers, consultants and university, social and media researchers. The participants included stakeholders in large-scale industrial projects (both nuclear and nonnuclear) and stakeholders directly affected by nuclear projects. About one half came from FSC member organisations; the remainders were Canadian stakeholders. The workshop was structured with five half-day sessions. The opening half-day described Canadian policy and the regulatory environment for radioactive waste management and the two central case studies for the workshop: the Port Hope Area Initiative and the Nuclear Fuel Waste Act. Three sessions addressed the topics 'What are the social concerns?', 'How to address social concerns?' and 'Development opportunities for communities'. Each of the sessions began with plenary presentations by five stakeholders. These 'stakeholder voices' were followed by roundtable discussions. The participants were divided into eight tables, each including a mix of Canadian and other attendees. Each table discussed a set of pre-defined questions under the direction of a facilitator/Rapporteur. The discussions from each round table were reported in a follow-up plenary. The final half-day of the workshop was

  5. Radioactive waste disposal - ethical and environmental considerations - A Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with ethical and environmental considerations of radioactive waste disposal in Canada. It begins with the canadian attitudes toward nature and environment. Then are given the canadian institutions which reflect an environmental ethic, the development of a canadian radioactive waste management policy, the establishment of formal assessment and review process for a nuclear fuel waste disposal facility, some studies of the ethical and risk dimensions of nuclear waste decisions, the canadian societal response to issues of radioactive wastes, the analysis of risks associated with fuel waste disposal, the influence of other energy related environmental assessments and some common ground and possible accommodation between the different views. (O.L.). 50 refs

  6. Health risks from acid rain: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, C A; Burnett, R T; Paolini, R J; Raizenne, M E

    1985-11-01

    Acidic deposition, commonly referred to as acid rain, is causing serious environmental damage in eastern Canada. The revenues from forest products, tourism and sport fishing are estimated to account for about 8% of the gross national product. The impact on human health is not as clearcut and a multi-department program on the Long-Range Transport of Airborne Pollutants (LRTAP) was approved by the federal government in June 1980. The objectives of the LRTAP program are to reduce wet sulfate deposition to less than 20 kg/ha per year in order to protect moderately sensitive areas. This will require a 50% reduction in Canadian SO2 emissions east of the Saskatchewan/Manitoba border and concomitant reductions in the eastern U.S.A. The objectives of the health sector of the program are to assess the risk to health posed by airborne pollutants which are subjected to long-range transport and to monitor the influence of abatement programs. Two major epidemiology studies were undertaken in 1983, one in which the health effects related to acute exposure to transported air pollutants were studied in asthmatic and nonasthmatic children, and another in which the effects of chronic exposure to these pollutants were studied in school children living in towns with high and low levels of pollutants. Preliminary analysis of the data do not indicate major health effects, but definitive conclusions must await final analysis. Studies on the indirect effects of acid deposition on water quality have shown that acidified lake water left standing in the plumbing system can adversely affect water quality and that federally set guidelines for copper and lead are exceeded. Flushing of the system before using the water rectifies the situation. Additional studies are planned to further delineate the magnitude of the health effects of acidified lake water. PMID:4076081

  7. Pediatric Clinical Pharmacology and Child Health:A Canadian Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stuart Macleod

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction Canadian academic centres and children's hospitals have had a longstanding interest in the improvement of drug therapy for children through research conducted across the four pillars of activity identified as being of critical importance by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research(viz,basic research,clinical research,population health research,applied health and policy research)[1].

  8. Has Multiculturalism Really Failed? A Canadian Muslim Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Baljit Nagra; Ito Peng

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, claims that multiculturalism has created segregated communities, encouraged terrorism, and failed to foster shared national identities in western nations have gained popularity. In this paper, we use young Canadian Muslims’ lived experience of multiculturalism to reflect on this debate. Contrary to popular rhetoric, our interviews of 50 young Muslim adults show that many maintain a dual Canadian-Muslim identity by utilizing the ideology of multiculturalism, even though they a...

  9. Plagiarism detection software and academic integrity : the canadian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kloda, Lorie A; Nicholson, Karen

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, McGill University, a member of the Canadian “G10” research universities, undertook a limited trial of plagiarism detection software in specific undergraduate courses. While it is estimated that 28 Canadian universities and colleges currently use text-matching software , the McGill trial received considerable attention from student, national and international media after a student refused to submit his work to the service and successfully challenged the university’s policy requiring t...

  10. Has Multiculturalism Really Failed? A Canadian Muslim Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljit Nagra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, claims that multiculturalism has created segregated communities, encouraged terrorism, and failed to foster shared national identities in western nations have gained popularity. In this paper, we use young Canadian Muslims’ lived experience of multiculturalism to reflect on this debate. Contrary to popular rhetoric, our interviews of 50 young Muslim adults show that many maintain a dual Canadian-Muslim identity by utilizing the ideology of multiculturalism, even though they are increasingly stigmatized for their religion. These findings lead us to problematize the discourse surrounding the ‘failure’ of multiculturalism and to highlight the contradictions within it.

  11. A U.S. perspective on Canadian supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of Canadian crude supply on U.S. refiners was discussed. Amoco's refineries run over 1 million barrels per day of crude oil, of which 160,000 b/d is Canadian supply. Exports of Canadian crude oil has increased from 645 kbpd in 1990 to 1090 kbpd in 1996. About half of that increase was in heavy crudes. Synthetic crudes are predicted to offset the decline in light crude production. Recent forecasts indicate that heavy oil supply will exceed the demand of the highest netback markets. Optimistic heavy oil development plans may be hindered by crude pricing, pipeline capacity, limited markets, diluent supply, and competition from Mexico and Venezuela. Exports of Canadian crude to U.S. PADDs 1, 2, 3 and 4 are expected to increase from 1,090,000 b/d in 1996 to 1,415,000 b/d in 2002. About three quarters of the increase will be in heavy crudes. These opportunities have been created by declining U.S. domestic production, a growth in demand, new market opportunities and upgrader facilities. 12 figs

  12. Strategic Planning for Academic Research: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Creso M.; Tamtik, Merli

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on an empirical study of research planning in Canadian universities. Drawing on data compiled during interviews with senior administrators from 27 academic units in 10 universities, the paper analyses how strategic planning has been applied to the research mission over the past decade. Findings reveal variability in processes…

  13. Entrepreneurship and Educational Leadership Development: Canadian and Australian Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Charles F.; Scott, Shelleyann

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the entrepreneurial activities of two university faculties, one Canadian and the other Australian, that were designed to meet the educational needs of students and to garner the resources necessary for program delivery. A conceptual framework for educational entrepreneurship, containing six dimensions, is proposed. The…

  14. The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: A Canadian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réjeanne Gougeon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA is a clinical tool designed to facilitate implementation of therapeutic lifestyle recommendations for people with or at risk for type 2 diabetes. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPG recommendations is essential to address varied patient populations within and among diverse regions worldwide. The Canadian version of tDNA supports and targets behavioural changes to improve nutritional quality and to promote regular daily physical activity consistent with Canadian Diabetes Association CPG, as well as channelling the concomitant management of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and dysglycaemia in primary care. Assessing glycaemic index (GI (the ranking of foods by effects on postprandial blood glucose levels and glycaemic load (GL (the product of mean GI and the total carbohydrate content of a meal will be a central part of the Canadian tDNA and complement nutrition therapy by facilitating glycaemic control using specific food selections. This component can also enhance other metabolic interventions, such as reducing the need for antihyperglycaemic medication and improving the effectiveness of weight loss programs. This tDNA strategy will be adapted to the cultural specificities of the Canadian population and incorporated into the tDNA validation methodology.

  15. Perspective on the current realities confronting Canadian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of the Canadian energy sector is indicated by the large proportion of energy investments in the economy, the significant contribution of energy exports to total exports, the major role of the energy sector in Canada's regional economies, the high per-capita energy consumption, and the high contribution of fossil fuels to Canadian greenhouse gas emissions. The history of Canadian energy policy is characterized by three relatively distinct periods: a period of strong growth and development in the energy sector starting in the late 1940s, a crisis management period starting with the oil crises in the 1970s, and a market orientation in the early 1980s which reduced the role of government in the energy sector. Energy policy has generally focused on two main themes: assuring access to competitively priced energy supplies, and ensuring maximum economic benefit from energy developments. A third theme, environmental responsibility, has emerged since the late 1980s. Current pressures on Canadian energy policies include the increasing integration of energy markets in North America, the influence of international conditions on energy prices, and environmental quality concerns relating to the costs and uncertainties of environmental assessment, climate change, and sustainable development. Further constraints and influences on energy policy come from multilateral agreements with other countries and international agencies, and the need for cooperation among the different levels of Canadian governments. Economic regulation has fallen out of favor with most governments, industry, and the public, and the increased use of regulation to pursue environmental goals in the energy sector seems likely to continue

  16. Current issues in occupational health nursing. A Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, C

    1991-07-01

    The National Association of Occupational Health Nurses is still in its infancy and is striving to become an interest group under the umbrella of the Canadian Nurses Association. This will bring together the provincial associations in a common goal of promoting worker health and safety. The diversity of the country and the sheer magnitude of the various occupations of Canadians reflect the need for the occupational health nurse to be well educated and kept abreast of new developments. Changes in the worksite echo changes in health and safety legislation that will help to improve conditions in the workplace. Future challenges arise from changes in the work force and the nature of work and include: ergonomic issues, job stress, older workers, EAPs, and increased competition. PMID:2069607

  17. Pharmacist-led minor ailment programs: a Canadian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Jeff; Joubert,Ray

    2016-01-01

    Jeff Gordon Taylor,1 Ray Joubert,2 1College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, 2Saskatchewan College of Pharmacy Professionals, Regina, SK, Canada Abstract: Pharmacists have a long history of helping Canadians with minor ailments. This often has involved management with over-the-counter medications. If pharmacists felt that the best care required something more robust, they would refer the patient to a physician. In hopes of improving the care of such ailments, ...

  18. Negotiating value: a Canadian perspective on the international film festival

    OpenAIRE

    Burgess, Diane Louise

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation argues that the Toronto and Vancouver International Film Festivals have been undervalued as showcases and in fact these hybrid public-private institutions are catalysts in the global, local and regional articulation of English-Canadian cinema culture. As a threshold to mainstream release and a non-theatrical venue, the festival operates in the gap between the production and consumption of film commodities. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu’s model of the field of cultural productio...

  19. Good jobs, green jobs, eh? A Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andy

    2009-01-01

    A group of Canadians pondered the dramatic change in momentum in the United States and began to think more concretely about strategies to bring unions and environmentalists together around a common green economic agenda. The campaign against toxic chemicals has proven to be a natural meeting place for labor and environmental activists. We share a common history and concern about the lack of effective regulation. The more challenging areas are about transition, the need for good jobs, and a viable economic strategy. PMID:19608521

  20. Transportation of Western Canadian oil production to market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil sands production is expected to increase from 43 per cent of Western Canadian production in 2003 to 61 per cent in 2010. Twenty-eight billion dollars have been invested to date, with a forecast of $36 billion over the next 10 years. There are 174 billion barrels of established oil. This paper provided details of Enbridge core infrastructure businesses in relation to Western Canadian production of oil sands. A chart of production forecast by crude type was presented, as well as a light to heavy crude differential. Details of North American refining oil pipelines and existing markets were provided, along with maps of market access solutions. Mid-continent, eastern and phased southern access details were presented. A regional oil sands pipeline infrastructure was also presented. West coast access was reviewed, with details of gateway pipelines and export pipeline alternatives. Target markets were also examined in relation to Canadian access to new markets. tabs., figs

  1. The Canadian Management of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in Historical and Scientific Perspective, 1990-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quimby, Alexandra E; Shamy, Michel C F

    2015-11-01

    On February 11, 2015, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency announced that a cow born and raised in Alberta had tested positive for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as mad cow disease. BSE is a prion disease of cattle that, when transmitted to humans, produces a fatal neurodegenerative disease known as variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. We believe that this latest case of BSE in Canadian cattle suggests the timeliness of a review of the management of BSE in Canada from a historically and scientifically informed perspective. In this article, we ask: how did the Canadian management of BSE between 1990 and 2014 engage with the contemporary understanding of BSE's human health implications? We propose that Canadian policies largely ignored the implicit medical nature of BSE, treating it as a purely agricultural and veterinary issue. In this way, policies to protect Canadians were often delayed and incomplete, in a manner disturbingly reminiscent of Britain's failed management of BSE. Despite assurances to the contrary, it is premature to conclude that BSE (and with it the risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease) is a thing of Canada's past: BSE remains very much an issue in Canada's present. PMID:26357946

  2. Success in nuclear technology transfer: A Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology transfer has played a significant part in the expansion of nuclear power to many countries of the world. Canada's involvement in nuclear technology transfer spans four decades. The experience gained through technology transfer, initially to Canadian industry and then to other countries in association with the construction of CANDU nuclear power plants, forms a basis from which to assess the factors which contribute to successful technology transfer. A strong commitment from all parties, in terms of both financial and human resources, is essential to success. Detailed planning of both the scope and timing of the technology transfer program is also required together with an assessment of the impact of the introduction of nuclear power on other sectors of the economy. (author)

  3. Clinical diabetes research using data mining: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Baiju R; Lipscombe, Lorraine L

    2015-06-01

    With the advent of the digitization of large amounts of information and the computer power capable of analyzing this volume of information, data mining is increasingly being applied to medical research. Datasets created for administration of the healthcare system provide a wealth of information from different healthcare sectors, and Canadian provinces' single-payer universal healthcare systems mean that data are more comprehensive and complete in this country than in many other jurisdictions. The increasing ability to also link clinical information, such as electronic medical records, laboratory test results and disease registries, has broadened the types of data available for analysis. Data-mining methods have been used in many different areas of diabetes clinical research, including classic epidemiology, effectiveness research, population health and health services research. Although methodologic challenges and privacy concerns remain important barriers to using these techniques, data mining remains a powerful tool for clinical research. PMID:26004906

  4. The cost of wound debridement: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Kevin Y; Keast, David; Parsons, Nancy; Sibbald, R Gary; Mittmann, Nicole

    2015-08-01

    Debridement is integral to wound bed preparation by removing devitalised tissue, foreign material, senescent cells, phenotypically abnormal/dysfunctional cells (cellular burden) and bacteria sequestrum (biofilm). While the body of evidence to substantiate the benefits of debridement is growing, little is known about the cost-effectiveness of each debridement method. The purpose of this analysis was to compare cost-effectiveness of various debridement methods and clinical outcomes to help inform clinicians and policy makers of the cost-effectiveness associated with the various types of therapies and the impact they can have on the Canadian health care system. Results indicated that sharp debridement was the most cost-effective followed by enzymatic debridement method. PMID:23834451

  5. How much international exposure is advantageous in a domestic portfolio from a Canadian perspective?

    OpenAIRE

    Ghilardi, Jeffry; Currie, John

    2006-01-01

    In a wave of globalization that has overtaken the world in the last decade; many investors are now adding international exposure to their domestic portfolios, but how much International exposure is advantageous? Extensive academic research has been completed on this question. Almost all papers have tackled this problem from a U.S. domestic perspective; the focus in this paper is on how much international exposure is advantageous for a Canadian domestic investor. Drawing upon the work of Roger...

  6. Governance, Globalization, and Political Economy: Perspectives from Canadian Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    The concept of governance has become increasingly popular over the past 15 years signifying its growing acceptance in a number of key sectors of society. Is governance a neutral term that is merely a synonym for government, or does it signify a shift to neoliberalism? Working from a political-economy perspective, this article will explore the…

  7. Trans-Canada Slimeways: Slime mould imitates the Canadian transport network

    CERN Document Server

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Slime mould Physarum polycephalum builds up sophisticated networks to transport nutrients between distant part of its extended body. The slime mould's protoplasmic network is optimised for maximum coverage of nutrients yet minimum energy spent on transportation of the intra-cellular material. In laboratory experiments with P. polycephalum we represent Canadian major urban areas with rolled oats and inoculated slime mould in the Toronto area. The plasmodium spans the urban areas with its network of protoplasmic tubes. We uncover similarities and differences between the protoplasmic network and the Canadian national highway network, analyse the networks in terms of proximity graphs and evaluate slime mould's network response to contamination.

  8. Canadian regulatory perspective on organization and management assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian nuclear industry is undergoing change in response to a variety of internal and external pressures on licensee organizations. Operational experience also indicates that management and human performance aspects are among the leading causes of unplanned events at licensed facilities. These observations have raised the CNSC's awareness of the importance of organization and management processes and human performance to the safety performance of a facility. The CNSC is utilizing quality management and organizational assessment approaches to address this issue. The Organization and Management Review Method has been developed to carry out organizational evaluations. The method has been applied to a number of nuclear facilities in Canada. Results have provided a more complete profile of the organizations and have thereby contributed to the oversight monitoring of licensees. Some of the data are being meta-analyzed to determine what influence culture has on the other organizational dimensions and whether there are performance indicators that can predict future safety performance. We hope that a clear profile of a 'good performer' will allow us to compare and rate facilities against a series of benchmarks or standards yet to be developed. Some of the challenges that the CNSC faces with respect to the implementation of the O and M Method are being addressed. All of the information relevant to safety performance should be taken into account when giving recommendations pertaining to licensing decisions. (author)

  9. Canadian Nurses’ Perspectives on Prostate Cancer Support Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Ko, Wellam F.; Oliffe, John L.; Han, Christina S.; Garrett, Bernie; Henwood, Tim; Tuckett, Anthony G.; Sohrevardi, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer support groups (PCSGs) are community-based organizations that offer information and psychosocial support to men who experience prostate cancer and their families. Nurses are well positioned to refer men to a range of psychosocial resources to help them adjust to prostate cancer; however, little is known about nurses’ perspectives on PCSGs. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe nurses’ views about PCSGs as a means to making recommendations for advancing t...

  10. Trans-Canada Slimeways: Slime mould imitates the Canadian transport network

    OpenAIRE

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Akl, Selim G.

    2011-01-01

    Slime mould Physarum polycephalum builds up sophisticated networks to transport nutrients between distant part of its extended body. The slime mould's protoplasmic network is optimised for maximum coverage of nutrients yet minimum energy spent on transportation of the intra-cellular material. In laboratory experiments with P. polycephalum we represent Canadian major urban areas with rolled oats and inoculated slime mould in the Toronto area. The plasmodium spans the urban areas with its netwo...

  11. Climate change impacts and adaptation : a Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book summarizes the research that has been conducted in Canada over the past five years on the issue of climate change impacts on key sectors such as water resources, agriculture, forestry, fisheries, coastal zones, transportation, and human health and well-being. The book refers to the growing evidence that climate change is occurring. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) believes that these changes have already contributed to increases in annual precipitation, cloud cover and extreme temperatures over the last 50 years. It suggests that it in order to develop an effective strategy for adaptation, it is necessary to understand the vulnerability of each sector to climate change in terms of the nature of climate change, the climatic sensitivity of the region being considered, and the capacity to adapt to the changes. Adaptation will require a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in order to lower the rate of climate change. Problems associated with water resources include water quality issues that relate to water shortages from droughts, or excesses from floods. The impacts of climate change on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Some studies have suggested that higher temperatures would benefit the forestry sector by improving the growth rate of trees, but the increase in the frequency and severity of moisture stress and forest disturbances would create other problems. Adaptations in the fisheries sector may have implications for the water resources, transportation, tourism and human health sectors. The impact of climate change in the coastal zone may include changes in water levels, wave patterns, storm surges, and thickness of seasonal ice cover. The areas that seem most vulnerable to climate change in the transportation sector include northern ice roads, Great Lakes shipping, coastal infrastructure threatened by sea-level rise, and infrastructure located on permafrost

  12. Grain Transportation Policy and Transformation in Western Canadian Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Doan, Darcie; Paddock, Brian; Dyer, Jan

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of grain transportation policy in Canada over the last 100 years, including the inception of the Crow Rate, the replacement of the Crow Rate with the Western Grain Transportation Act(WGTA), and finally, the repeal of the WGTA. Particular emphasis is placed on the structural change to the western agricultural economy that occurred following repeal of the WGTA in 1995. When grain transportation subsidies were removed, industry responded quickly to market signals ...

  13. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj Kumar Azad

    2014-01-01

    In totality, a transport system has to be economically, environmentally and socially sustainable. Economic sustainability means that the transport system and supporting infrastructure should be cost effective and should provide for efficient transport of people and goods/freight. Environmental sustainability includes the dimension of pollution and efficient use of energy. Social sustainability in an urban setting would mean that the transport system is equitably provided to al...

  14. Electrification of the Canadian road transportation sector: A 2050 outlook with TIMES-Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use a newly developed bottom-up model of the entire Canadian energy system (TIMES-Canada) to assess potentials for electrification of the road transport sector. A special emphasis has been put on the modelling of the Canadian road transport, by considering a variety of vehicles for passenger and freight transportation. Besides a business-as-usual (baseline) scenario, we have analysed an energy policy scenario imposing targets for electric vehicle penetration and a climate policy scenario imposing targets for greenhouse gas emission reduction. Our analysis shows on the one hand that electric vehicles penetrate notably the passenger vehicle market after 2040 in the baseline scenario and after 2030 in the energy policy scenario (following the assumed penetration targets). On the other hand, the assumed climate policy forces a stronger penetration of electric vehicles for passenger transportation, with a progressive phasing out of internal combustion engine vehicles, whereas the latter vehicles remain dominant for freight transportation but with a shift away of fossil fuels and in favour of biofuels. A sensitivity analysis on the (assumed) evolution of electric vehicles over time confirms these general trends. -- Highlights: •We use a newly developed TIMES-Canada model of the entire Canadian energy system. •We assess potentials for electrification of the Canadian road transport sector. •We analyse three scenarios: baseline, energy policy and climate policy. •EVs penetrate notably after 2040 in the baseline and after 2030 in the energy policy scenario. •The climate policy forces a stronger penetration of EVs

  15. Report on Canadian alternative transportation programs : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    Existing alternative transportation programs and initiatives in Canada were presented as part of an effort to achieve the Canada-Wide Standards on Particulate Matter and Ground-level Ozone. This document is intended for employers that could implement support services in their workplace that promote methods of commuting that reduce vehicle kilometers traveled and encourage alternative transportation to the single occupant vehicle with the objective or reducing particulate matter and ground-level ozone. Alternative transportation programs such as employers programs, youth programs and institutional programs have environmental, economic, social and community benefits such as reduced emissions and greater transportation efficiency which lead to improved quality of life, health and sustainability of the transportation system. Organizations implement alternative transportation programs because of a commitment to; environmental responsibility, improving air quality, offering employee benefits, GHG reductions and corporate leadership. The programs are often initiated by large urban centres experiencing transportation-related problems such as congestion, air pollution or infrastructure capacity constraints. The U-Pass was presented as example of a very successful program that promotes change in behaviour at institutions to increase transit ridership. Telework also offers the opportunity of eliminating commutes. Ridematching is another key marketing tool employed by many organizations. The most successful programs are those with the greatest financial resources because sustained funding is necessary for program delivery, expansion and community acceptance. refs., tabs., figs.

  16. Active transportation to school in Canadian youth: should injury be a concern?

    OpenAIRE

    Gropp, Kathleen; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William

    2012-01-01

    Active transportation to school provides a means for youth to incorporate physical activity into their daily routines, and this has obvious benefits for child health. Studies of active transportation have rarely focused on the negative health effects in terms of injury. This cross-sectional study is based on the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey. A sample of children aged 11–15 years (n=20 076) was studied. Multi-level logistic regression was used to examine ass...

  17. Generation capacity issues in deregulated markets : a Canadian perspective, volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) to assess generation capacity issues in deregulated electricity markets in Canada. This first volume is based on observations of the restructuring experience in several jurisdictions. It describes how, or if, energy-only markets are succeeding in ensuring capacity additions, and under what conditions. Supply-side and demand-side mechanisms have been proposed as solutions to address these problems. The report focuses on theoretical and practical issues of adequacy that are most relevant from a Canadian perspective. In fully developed energy markets, the price of energy reflects scarcity. Prices are low when generating resources are abundant, and owners make investment decisions based on price expectations. Although deregulated markets may theoretically offer a solution to the capacity adequacy problem, experience has shown that it is not easy to make the rules that make markets operate efficiently. It was concluded that it seems unlikely that deregulated markets in their current state will be able to offer adequate generation for the long term. The challenge lies in moving to competitive markets that encourage long term investment, and adding a capacity mechanism to the market design. refs., tabs., figs

  18. User perspectives in public transport timetable optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Parbo; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    The present paper deals with timetable optimisation from the perspective of minimising the waiting time experienced by passengers when transferring either to or from a bus. Due to its inherent complexity, this bi-level minimisation problem is extremely difficult to solve mathematically, since tim...... applied on the large-scale public transport network in Denmark. The timetable optimisation approach yielded a yearly reduction in weighted waiting time equivalent to approximately 45 million Danish kroner (9 million USD)....

  19. Physicians and euthanasia: a Canadian print-media discourse analysis of physician perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David Kenneth; Karsoho, Hadi; Sandham, Sarah; Macdonald, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent events in Canada have mobilized public debate concerning the controversial issue of euthanasia. Physicians represent an essential stakeholder group with respect to the ethics and practice of euthanasia. Further, their opinions can hold sway with the public, and their public views about this issue may further reflect back upon the medical profession itself. Methods We conducted a discourse analysis of print media on physicians’ perspectives about end-of-life care. Print media, in English and French, that appeared in Canadian newspapers from 2008 to 2012 were retrieved through a systematic database search. We analyzed the content of 285 articles either authored by a physician or directly referencing a physician’s perspective. Results We identified 3 predominant discourses about physicians’ public views toward euthanasia: 1) contentions about integrating euthanasia within the basic mission of medicine, 2) assertions about whether euthanasia can be distinguished from other end-of-life medical practices and 3) palliative care advocacy. Interpretation Our data showed that although some medical professional bodies appear to be supportive in the media of a movement toward the legalization of euthanasia, individual physicians are represented as mostly opposed. Professional physician organizations and the few physicians who have engaged with the media are de facto representing physicians in public contemporary debates on medical aid in dying, in general, and euthanasia, in particular. It is vital for physicians to be aware of this public debate, how they are being portrayed within it and its potential effects on impending changes to provincial and national policies. PMID:26389090

  20. How climate affects ecosystems: A Canadian perspective on what we know

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of climate change on ecosystems is discussed from the Canadian perspective. After a brief definition of terms, the implications of ecosystem theory are elaborated on. Impact models generated from altered climatic regimes can be categorized into two methodological streams: correlation modelling and dynamic modelling. Correlation modelling characterizes change on the basis of transfer functions linking climatic parameters and indices to specific ecological units. Correlation models can be applied at the species level or at the broader ecosystem level. Dynamic models are based on life history characteristics from birth to death, tracking such details as plant abundance, height and leaf area. Such models are most useful at the local rather than global scale. In Canada a number of broad scale correlation models have been attempted. These include the potential impacts of climatic change in the Praire provinces and Northwest Territories, a study relating the growing degree day isolines to ecological boundaries established in the ecoclimatic regions of Canada map, and the incorporation of nine climatic parameters in a correlation exercise, again using the ecoclimatic regions map. 14 refs

  1. Students' Conceptions of the Nature of Science: Perspectives from Canadian and Korean Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeran; Nielsen, Wendy; Woodruff, Earl

    2014-05-01

    This study examined and compared students' understanding of nature of science (NOS) with 521 Grade 8 Canadian and Korean students using a mixed methods approach. The concepts of NOS were measured using a survey that had both quantitative and qualitative elements. Descriptive statistics and one-way multivariate analysis of variances examined the quantitative data while a conceptually clustered matrix classified the open-ended responses. The country effect could explain 3-12 % of the variances of subjectivity, empirical testability and diverse methods, but it was not significant for the concepts of tentativeness and socio-cultural embeddedness of science. The open-ended responses showed that students believed scientific theories change due to errors or discoveries. Students regarded empirical evidence as undeniable and objective although they acknowledged experiments depend on theories or scientists' knowledge. The open responses revealed that national situations and curriculum content affected their views. For our future democratic citizens to gain scientific literacy, science curricula should include currently acknowledged NOS concepts and should be situated within societal and cultural perspectives.

  2. Canadian electricity and the economy : developing a North American energy perspective : a proposal for action on electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presented an overview of the Canadian electric power industry and provided a Canadian industry perspective on what could be done to improve the way in which electricity markets operate in a North American Energy Framework. The measures outlined by the Canadian Electricity Association are based on the solid policy framework already in place in Canada and the United States which have focused on making energy systems more market responsive and reducing environmental impacts. In the past decade, Canadian and U.S. energy markets have become more interdependent regarding oil and gas and electricity in particular. This paper argued the point that while this interdependence has benefited consumers and producers in both countries, it is important to take measures to ensure energy security. In particular, the paper focused on a domestic supply shortage in the U.S. and is aimed at decision-makers and policy advisors in Canada and the United States to strengthen the Canada-U.S electricity partnership

  3. A simulation tool for integrating climate change and Canadian surface transport : towards assessing impacts and adaptations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extreme weather events resulting from climate change will have a significant impact of the performance of the Canadian transportation system. This presentation described a simulation tool designed to investigate the potential ramifications of future climate change on transportation and the economy. The CLIMATE-C tool was designed to simulate future weather scenarios for the years 2020 and 2050 using weather parameters obtained from a global general circulation model. The model accounted for linkages between weather, transportation, and economic systems. A random utility-based multi-regional input-output model was used to predict inter-regional trade flows by truck and rail in Canada. Simulated weather scenarios were used to describe predicted changes in demographic, social, economic, technological and environmental developments to 2100. Various changes in population and economic growth were considered. Six additional scenarios were formulated to consider moderate and high rainfall events, moderate, high and extreme snowfall, and cold temperatures. Results of the preliminary analysis indicated that the model is sensitive to changes in weather events. Future research is needed to evaluate future weather scenarios and analyze weather-transport data in order to quantify travel speed reduction parameters. tabs., figs.

  4. Canadian petroleum industry review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide ranging discussion about the factors that have influenced oil and natural gas prices, the differences of the Canadian market from international markets, the differences between eastern and western Canadian markets, and shareholders' perspectives on recent commodity price developments was presented. Developments in the OPEC countries were reviewed, noting that current OPEC production of 25 mmbbls is about 60 per cent higher than it was in 1985. It is expected that OPEC countries will continue to expand capacity to meet expected demand growth and the continuing need created by the UN embargo on Iraqi oil sales. Demand for natural gas is also likely to continue to rise especially in view of the deregulation of the electricity industry where natural gas may well become the favored fuel for incremental thermal generation capacity. Prices of both crude oil and natural gas are expected to hold owing to unusually low storage levels of both fuels. The inadequacy of infrastructure, particularly pipeline capacity as a key factor in the Canadian market was noted, along with the dynamic that will emerge in the next several years that may have potential consequences for Canadian production - namely the reversal of the Sarnia to Montreal pipeline. With regard to shareholders' expectations the main issues are (1) whether international markets reach back to the wellhead, hence the producer's positioning with respect to transportation capacity and contract portfolios, and (2) whether the proceeds from increased prices are invested in projects that are yielding more than the cost of capital. 28 figs

  5. Demographic and traditional knowledge perspectives on the current status of Canadian polar bear subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Jordan; Dowsley, Martha; Cornwell, Adam; Kuc, Miroslaw; Taylor, Mitchell

    2016-05-01

    Subpopulation growth rates and the probability of decline at current harvest levels were determined for 13 subpopulations of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) that are within or shared with Canada based on mark-recapture estimates of population numbers and vital rates, and harvest statistics using population viability analyses (PVA). Aboriginal traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) on subpopulation trend agreed with the seven stable/increasing results and one of the declining results, but disagreed with PVA status of five other declining subpopulations. The decline in the Baffin Bay subpopulation appeared to be due to over-reporting of harvested numbers from outside Canada. The remaining four disputed subpopulations (Southern Beaufort Sea, Northern Beaufort Sea, Southern Hudson Bay, and Western Hudson Bay) were all incompletely mark-recapture (M-R) sampled, which may have biased their survival and subpopulation estimates. Three of the four incompletely sampled subpopulations were PVA identified as nonviable (i.e., declining even with zero harvest mortality). TEK disagreement was nonrandom with respect to M-R sampling protocols. Cluster analysis also grouped subpopulations with ambiguous demographic and harvest rate estimates separately from those with apparently reliable demographic estimates based on PVA probability of decline and unharvested subpopulation growth rate criteria. We suggest that the correspondence between TEK and scientific results can be used to improve the reliability of information on natural systems and thus improve resource management. Considering both TEK and scientific information, we suggest that the current status of Canadian polar bear subpopulations in 2013 was 12 stable/increasing and one declining (Kane Basin). We do not find support for the perspective that polar bears within or shared with Canada are currently in any sort of climate crisis. We suggest that monitoring the impacts of climate change (including sea ice decline) on polar bear

  6. Characterization of long-range transported Canadian biomass burning over Central Europe - A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Silke; Geiss, Alexander; Heimerl, Katharina; Gasteiger, Josef; Freudenthaler, Volker; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Wiegner, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Aerosols are a major component of the Earth's atmosphere and have substantial impact on the Earth's radiation budget and on the hydrological cycle. Biomass burning smoke is one important component with respect of global climate warming as it is an important source of black carbon, which is a key player in atmospheric heating. As biomass burning smoke layers are often transported over long distances they cannot be considered as local events only but have a global effect. During transport the smoke particles are affected by aging and mixing processes. Thus their microphysical and optical properties change and, as a consequence their effect on the Earth's radiation budget. However, the influence of aging and mixing processes on the particle microphysical and optical properties is still only poorly understood. To improve our knowledge, studies of transport conditions together with measurements of the horizontal and vertical distribution the smoke layers as well as of their microphysical and optical properties are crucial. We present a case study of long-range transported Canadian biomass burning smoke to Central Europe in summer 2013. The smoke layer is characterized by multi-wavelength lidar measurements over Maisach and by continuous Ceilometer measurements over Munich, Germany. Multi-wavelength lidar measurements are an important tool for the characterization of aerosols, as they provide vertically resolved information of their optical properties which serve as input parameters for the determination of microphysical properties of the aerosol layers. Additionally, airborne in-situ measurements of size distribution and black carbon mass concentration onboard the DLR research aircraft Falcon are presented. The source regions and transport conditions are studied using a combination of satellite measurements and model simulations.

  7. An Evaluation of Procedural Training in Canadian Respirology Fellowship Programs: Program Directors’ and Fellows’ Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    David Ryan Stather; Julie Jarand; Silvestri, Gerard A.; Alain Tremblay

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, there has been a rapid growth in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures performed by respirologists.OBJECTIVES: To assess the number and type of procedures performed in Canadian respirology training programs, for comparison with the American College of Chest Physicians minimum competency guidelines, and to assess fellow satisfaction with procedural training during their fellowships.METHODS: Internet-based surveys of Canadian respirology fellows and respirology fell...

  8. Re-examination of diversification benefits from foreign real estate investment: a Canadian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Justin

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the diversification benefits of foreign real estate for Canadian investors. Monthly data from December 1994 to December 2006 are used. The evidence supports that foreign real estate is an effective diversification tool. Its low correlation with Canadian stock was consistent through the time period. During the 2001 “Tech Bubble” volatility period, it even had negative correlation. Adding foreign real estate to a portfolio can help reduce the risk and increase the return. Fur...

  9. Brown snow: A long-range transport event in the Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, H.E.; Muir, D.C.G.; Billeck, B.N.; Lockhart, W.L.; Brunskill, G.J.; Kling, H.J. (Freshwater Inst., Winnipeg (Canada)); Olson, M.P. (Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, Ontario (Canada)); Lemoine, R.M. (Hardy BBT Ltd., Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada))

    1991-02-01

    The authors document the occurrence of a long-range transport event that deposited thousands of tons of fine particulates on the District of Keewatin, central Canadian Arctic, {approximately}63 N. Air mass trajectories, clay mineral composition, soot particles, and visible organic remains point to Asian sources for the brown snow material, probably western China. Semivolatile organic pollutants detected in the brown snow included polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ({Sigma}PAH), PCB congeners, and DDT-related compounds ({Sigma}DDT), polychlorinated camphenes (PCCs), as well as the herbicide trifuluralin and insecticides methoxychlor, endosulfan, and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). {Sigma}PAH, PCB, and PCC concentrations were within the range reported in other studies of Arctic snow but {Sigma}DDT levels were 2-10 times higher than previous reports. High molecular weight PAH may have been associated with soot particles in the brown snow but evidence for Asian sources of the pesticides was not strong because of unknown source signal strengths and possible atmospheric transformations of the compounds. Fluxes of these pollutants were also determined by analyzing sediment cores from two small headwater lakes near the sampling site. The quantities of pollutants deposited in this single event may have comprised a significant fraction (>10%) of total annual input {Sigma}PAH and {Sigma}DDT, as determined from lake sedimentation records.

  10. The Color Purple?: Perspectives of Canadian Parents of Adopted Children from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Bian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, Canadian parents have been regularly adopting infants from China, and have been facing a confusing dilemma on how to introduce their children’s Chinese heritage and language. The aim of this qualitative study is to uncover the beliefs and attitudes of the adopting parents about how to best promote a healthy identify development that includes their Chinese background. Using in-depth interviews, 19 parents of 14 adopted children explored their beliefs about incorporating the Chinese heritage in the development of their girls. The findings reveal that some parents feel that it is best to emphasize Canadian culture - “she is just Canadian.” Some parents feel that it is best to leave it alone and allow the children to choose their “identity” – “she has both feet in both worlds”, whereas, other parents are proactive by introducing Chinese heritage and culture to their children at an early age. Some parents feel that their children created a new identity with the “color purple” – a hybrid and new culture that combines both their Chinese background with a mainstream Canadian lifestyle.

  11. Multiple Perspectives on the Accessibility of E-Learning in Canadian Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asuncion, Jennison V.; Fichten, Catherine S.; Ferraro, Vittoria; Chwojka, Caroline; Barile, Maria; Nguyen, Mai Nhu; Wolforth, Joan

    2010-01-01

    An exploratory study identified and compared the views of 77 campus disability service providers, 38 professors, and 45 e-learning professionals from Canadian colleges and universities regarding their experiences with e-learning and its accessibility to students with disabilities. Findings indicate that all groups saw benefit in having someone who…

  12. Response strategies for the Great Plains: Canadian and U.S. perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From a policy point of view, the sharpest contrast between the five Great Plains states and the three Canadian provinces is the much greater significance of the Prairie provinces in Canadian life and national policymaking. The population of the Prairie provinces is substantial, and continues to grow steadily, with most growth concentrated in urban areas. A significant climate change issue in the boreal forest will be the impact of fire, as the forest is fire and insect dominated. The American solution to low precipitation, irrigation, is currently of relatively small importance on the Canadian Prairies. The main indication of general circulation models is that summer evapotranspiration will be more substantial than modest increases in precipitation, and while irrigation development is possible, there is no Canadian equivalent to the Ogallala aquifer. Adjustment or adaptation is as likely to mean adaptation to social and economic stress as much as to climate stress. Nebraska may provide a model for changes required to deal with climate warming, with a substantial problem area, substantial urban centers, and an aquifer recharge rate comparable with extraction rates. 13 refs

  13. An industry perspective on Canadian patients' involvement in Medical Tourism: implications for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snyder Jeremy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The medical tourism industry, which assists patients with accessing non-emergency medical care abroad, has grown rapidly in recent years. A lack of reliable data about medical tourism makes it difficult to create policy, health system, and public health responses to address the associated risks and shortcomings, such as spread of infectious diseases, associated with this industry. This article addresses this knowledge gap by analyzing interviews conducted with Canadian medical tourism facilitators in order to understand Canadian patients' involvement in medical tourism and the implications of this involvement for public health. Methods Semi-structured phone interviews were conducted with 12 medical facilitators from 10 companies in 2010. An exhaustive recruitment strategy was used to identify interviewees. Questions focused on business dimensions, information exchange, medical tourists' decision-making, and facilitators' roles in medical tourism. Thematic analysis was undertaken following data collection. Results Facilitators helped their Canadian clients travel to 11 different countries. Estimates of the number of clients sent abroad annually varied due to demand factors. Facilitators commonly worked with medical tourists aged between 40 and 60 from a variety of socio-economic backgrounds who faced a number of potential barriers including affordability, fear of the unfamiliar, and lack of confidence. Medical tourists who chose not to use facilitators' services were thought to be interested in saving money or have cultural/familial connections to the destination country. Canadian doctors were commonly identified as barriers to securing clients. Conclusions No effective Canadian public health response to medical tourism can treat medical tourists as a unified group with similar motivations for engaging in medical tourism and choosing similar mechanisms for doing so. This situation may be echoed in other countries with patients

  14. A multilayer perspective for the analysis of urban transportation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Aleta, Alberto; Meloni, Sandro; Moreno, Yamir

    2016-01-01

    Public urban mobility systems are composed by several transportation modes connected together. Most studies in urban mobility and planning often ignore the multi-layer nature of transportation systems considering only aggregated versions of this complex scenario. In this work we present a model for the representation of the transportation system of an entire city as a multiplex network. Using two different perspectives, one in which each line is a layer and one in which lines of the same tran...

  15. Rethinking What Counts. Perspectives on Wellbeing and Genuine Progress Indicator Metrics from a Canadian Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tyedmers

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A prevailing undercurrent of doubt regarding the merits of economic growth has motivated efforts to rethink how we measure the success of economic policy and societal wellbeing. This article comments on efforts to better account for impacts of economic activity emphasizing genuine progress indicator (GPI and wellbeing metrics from a Canadian viewpoint. The authors caution that GPI and related metrics are measures of human and social welfare and not adequate to account for the ecological costs associated with economic growth. In addition, the article discusses the suitability of wellbeing models and metrics for local scale applications, recognizing growing interest in these techniques at the urban and local level. The article concludes with a reflection on the uptake of GPI and wellbeing measures highlighting the Canadian experience.

  16. Challenges and choices : a U.S. refiner's perspective on Western Canadian crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation included a map depicting refineries, pipelines, terminals, coastal terminals and inland terminals in the eastern United States. Major oil trade movements between the United States, Canada, Mexico, South America, Central America, Europe, Middle East, Africa, and Asia-Pacific were also illustrated. A graph depicting Western Canada's long range crude supply forecast shows a decrease in conventional heavy oil supply but an increase in supply of diluent bitumen blend and synthetic bitumen blends. The presentation focused on this shift in refining and how product quality is viewed differently by producers and refiners in terms of gravity, sulfur content, boiling range distribution, distillate cetane, total acid number (TAN), asphalt properties, nitrogen and particulates. Refiners are looking for affordability, quality, consistency, yields and unit balance. Canadian marketing connections to PADD 1, 2, 4 and 5 were outlined. It was noted that more than 45 refineries in over 20 regions in the United States use Western Canadian crude oil. 22 figs

  17. The Color Purple?: Perspectives of Canadian Parents of Adopted Children from China

    OpenAIRE

    Fang Bian; Dongyan Blachford; Douglas Durst

    2015-01-01

    During the past two decades, Canadian parents have been regularly adopting infants from China, and have been facing a confusing dilemma on how to introduce their children’s Chinese heritage and language. The aim of this qualitative study is to uncover the beliefs and attitudes of the adopting parents about how to best promote a healthy identify development that includes their Chinese background. Using in-depth interviews, 19 parents of 14 adopted children explored their beliefs about incorpor...

  18. Intelligent transportation systems problems and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Pamuła, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a discussion of problems encountered in the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). It puts emphasis on the early tasks of designing and proofing the concept of integration of technologies in Intelligent Transport Systems. In its first part the book concentrates on the design problems of urban ITS. The second part of the book features case studies representative for the different modes of transport. These are freight transport, rail transport and aerospace transport encompassing also space stations. The book provides ideas for deployment which may be developed by scientists and engineers engaged in the design of Intelligent Transport Systems. It can also be used in the training of specialists, students and post-graduate students in universities and transport high schools.    .

  19. Canadian upstream oil and gas industry profitability: Historical review and future perspectives [with executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The profitability of the Canadian upstream oil and gas industry is examined by analyzing return on equity and return on capital invested. By all measures and interpretations, the upstream industry has been unprofitable since the mid-1980s; returns generated are far below the industry's own historical cost of capital, and are inadequate relative to other sectors of the Canadian economy and to international oil and gas companies. This poor profitability is attributed to such factors as: overly optimistic price forecasts and healthy cash flows generated in the early 1980s, which led to excess capital spending; poor returns on capital reflective of the physical limitations of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin; high capital and operating costs; and a high royalty burden imposed by provincial governments. The consequences of low profitability include inadequate returns to equity investors, a drop in spending on upstream services such as drilling and exploration, a reduced ability of the industry to generate employment, and an adverse effect on the economy of Alberta. Forecasts indicate that the upstream sector is extremely vulnerable to a scenario of relatively flat prices due to high and increasing operating costs and depletion charges, and the significant royalty payments that still are in effect. Little scope is foreseen for industry profitability to return to acceptable levels over the first half of the 1990s. Reduced royalties have the potential to make a significant contribution to improved profitability. 52 figs., 40 tabs

  20. Economic Perspectives on Transport And Equality

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, David

    2011-01-01

    Poverty, inequality and social exclusion are closely tied to personal mobility and the accessibility of goods and services. Evidence of the economic role of transport in promoting better living standards and greater wellbeing can be seen in the effects of both overall public investment in transport infrastructure, and in the impacts of specific transport policies, projects and multi-project plans.

  1. Academic Librarians and Research: A Study of Canadian Library Administrator Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Selinda Adelle; Jacobs, Heidi L. M.; Cornwall, Dayna

    2013-01-01

    Within the literature exploring the role of research in academic librarianship, very little attention has been paid to the perspectives of upper library administrators. This perspective is critical because library administrators play a key role in hiring, evaluating, supporting, promoting, and tenuring professional librarians. As a way of bringing…

  2. GIS and Transport Modeling—Strengthening the Spatial Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Loidl

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The movement and transport of people and goods is spatial by its very nature. Thus, geospatial fundamentals of transport systems need to be adequately considered in transport models. Until recently, this was not always the case. Instead, transport research and geography evolved widely independently in domain silos. However, driven by recent conceptual, methodological and technical developments, the need for an integrated approach is obvious. This paper attempts to outline the potential of Geographical Information Systems (GIS for transport modeling. We identify three fields of transport modeling where the spatial perspective can significantly contribute to a more efficient modeling process and more reliable model results, namely, geospatial data, disaggregated transport models and the role of geo-visualization. For these three fields, available findings from various domains are compiled, before open aspects are formulated as research directions, with exemplary research questions. The overall aim of this paper is to strengthen the spatial perspective in transport modeling and to call for a further integration of GIS in the domain of transport modeling.

  3. Technology assessment and resource allocation for predictive genetic testing: A study of the perspectives of Canadian genetic health care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einsiedel Edna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With a growing number of genetic tests becoming available to the health and consumer markets, genetic health care providers in Canada are faced with the challenge of developing robust decision rules or guidelines to allocate a finite number of public resources. The objective of this study was to gain Canadian genetic health providers' perspectives on factors and criteria that influence and shape resource allocation decisions for publically funded predictive genetic testing in Canada. Methods The authors conducted semi-structured interviews with 16 senior lab directors and clinicians at publically funded Canadian predictive genetic testing facilities. Participants were drawn from British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia. Given the community sampled was identified as being relatively small and challenging to access, purposive sampling coupled with snowball sampling methodologies were utilized. Results Surveyed lab directors and clinicians indicated that predictive genetic tests were funded provincially by one of two predominant funding models, but they themselves played a significant role in how these funds were allocated for specific tests and services. They also rated and identified several factors that influenced allocation decisions and patients' decisions regarding testing. Lastly, participants provided recommendations regarding changes to existing allocation models and showed support for a national evaluation process for predictive testing. Conclusion Our findings suggest that largely local and relatively ad hoc decision making processes are being made in relation to resource allocations for predictive genetic tests and that a more coordinated and, potentially, national approach to allocation decisions in this context may be appropriate.

  4. Coal-fired boilers for electric power generation : a Canadian perspective on mercury emission management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reduction of atmospheric mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers was discussed with particular focus on the technical issues facing utilities and their attempts to manage mercury emissions. There are several uncertainties about the variability of coal mercury content, the chemical form of the emitted mercury (speciation), the atmospheric transformation and fate of emitted mercury. The effectiveness and cost of mercury control technologies under commercial application to new and existing coal-fired units is also uncertain. This paper also presented some linkages between different national and bi-national regulatory initiatives with emphasis on the state of stack measurement methodologies. The efforts by the Canadian utilities to develop a Canada-side standard for mercury emissions from electric power generation were also described

  5. Genetics and Personal Insurance: the Perspectives of Canadian Cancer Genetic Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Michelle; Ngueng Feze, Ida; Joly, Yann

    2015-12-01

    Genetic discrimination in the context of genetic testing has been identified as a concern for symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals for more than three decades. Genetic counselors are often the health care professionals who discuss risks and benefits of genetic testing with patients, thereby making them most appropriate to address patient concerns about genetics and personal insurance (i.e., life, life as related to mortgage or group insurance, disability, critical illness and travel). A pilot study was conducted to ascertain the current practices of Canadian cancer genetic counselors in regard to their discussions with patients about genetic testing and access to personal insurance. Among the 36 counselors surveyed, 100 % reported discussing the issue of genetic testing and personal insurance with their patients. Several factors influenced the content, depth and length of these discussions including age, cancer status, family members, and patients' current and future insurance needs. Counselors reported discussing with patients the possible impact of genetic test results on access to personal insurance, possible access and use of patient genetic information by insurance companies, and whom patients should contact if they have additional questions. The most commonly reported inquiries from patients included questions about the possible impact of genetic testing on their ability to obtain insurance, and the insurability of family members. While 28 % of counselors reported having been contacted by an insurer requesting access to patient information, only one counselor was aware of or could recall the outcome of such a request. This pilot study revealed that issues concerning genetics and personal insurance are commonly discussed in Canadian cancer genetic counseling sessions. Counselors furthermore expressed a need for additional educational resources on the topic of genetics and personal insurance for themselves and their patients. PMID:25925606

  6. Perceptions, perspectives, proportions: Radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearly a hundred years ago in 1893 - when railroads still monopolized land transport, the first set of international rules governing shipments of hazardous materials were issued to cover their movement by rail. Since then, more than a dozen international bodies, and scores of national regulatory agencies, have published regulations directed at the carriage of dangerous goods by road, sea, air, as well as rail. The regulatory network today covers virtually all kinds of substances and commodities that are used for beneficial purposes, but that under certain conditions are potentially harmful to people and the environment. 'The Problems Encountered by International Road Transport in Multimodal Transport Operations', by M. Marmy, paper presented at the 8th International Symposium on the Transport and Handling of Dangerous Goods by Sea and Associated Modes, Havana, Cuba, 1984. These include the chemical fertilizers farmers spread on their fields, the nuclear fuel now powering electricity plants in some two dozen countries, the drugs physicians use to diagnose and treat illnesses, and the fossil fuels, such as gasoline, routinely used in transport vehicles. All told today, about 21 different international labels are required to identify separate classes of dangerous goods among them, explosives, corrosives, and flammables. Another separate class radioactive materials is the specific subject of feature articles in this issue of the IAEA Bulletin. The evolving regulatory system reflects at once the growth in traffic of hazardous materials, essentially a post-World War II trend. Since the mid-1940s, for example, the transport of all dangerous goods just on the seas has grown 1000%. based on reports at a recent international conference. Overall, years ahead will see further increases

  7. Characterizing aerosol transport into the Canadian High Arctic using aerosol mass spectrometry and Lagrangian modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kuhn

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the analysis of measurements made using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS; Aerodyne Research Inc. that was installed in the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL in summer 2006. PEARL is located in the Canadian high Arctic at 610 m above sea level on Ellesmere Island (80° N 86° W. PEARL is unique for its remote location in the Arctic and because most of the time it is situated within the free troposphere. It is therefore well suited as a receptor site to study the long range tropospheric transport of pollutants into the Arctic. Some information about the successful year-round operation of an AMS at a high Arctic site such as PEARL will be reported here, together with design considerations for reliable sampling under harsh low-temperature conditions. Computational fluid dynamics calculations were made to ensure that sample integrity was maintained while sampling air at temperatures that average −40 °C in the winter and can be as low as −55 °C. Selected AMS measurements of aerosol mass concentration, size, and chemical composition recorded during the months of August, September and October 2006 will be reported. During this period, sulfate was at most times the predominant aerosol component with on average 0.115 μg m−3 (detection limit 0.003 μg m−3. The second most abundant component was undifferentiated organic aerosol, with on average 0.11 μg m−3 detection limit (0.04 μg m−3. The nitrate component, which averaged 0.007 μg m−3, was above its detection limit (0.002 μg m−3, whereas the ammonium ion had an apparent average concentration of 0.02 μg m−3, which was approximately equal to its detection limit. A few episodes having increased mass concentrations and lasting from several hours to several days are apparent in the data. These were investigated further using a statistical analysis to determine their common

  8. DOE perspective on fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, R.

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are one of the most promising technologies for meeting the rapidly growing demand for transportation services while minimizing adverse energy and environmental impacts. This paper reviews the benefits of introducing fuel cells into the transportation sector; in addition to dramatically reduced vehicle emissions, fuel cells offer the flexibility than use petroleum-based or alternative fuels, have significantly greater energy efficiency than internal combustion engines, and greatly reduce noise levels during operation. The rationale leading to the emphasis on proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells for transportation applications is reviewed as are the development issues requiring resolution to achieve adequate performance, packaging, and cost for use in automobiles. Technical targets for power density, specific power, platinum loading on the electrodes, cost, and other factors that become increasingly more demanding over time have been established. Fuel choice issues and pathways to reduced costs and to a renewable energy future are explored. One such path initially introduces fuel cell vehicles using reformed gasoline while-on-board hydrogen storage technology is developed to the point of allowing adequate range (350 miles) and refueling convenience. This scenario also allows time for renewable hydrogen production technologies and the required supply infrastructure to develop. Finally, the DOE Fuel Cells in Transportation program is described. The program, whose goal is to establish the technology for fuel cell vehicles as rapidly as possible, is being implemented by means of the United States Fuel Cell Alliance, a Government-industry alliance that includes Detroit`s Big Three automakers, fuel cell and other component suppliers, the national laboratories, and universities.

  9. Australian and Canadian perspectives and regulations for protecting the polar marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, Donald R.

    1997-01-01

    The report compares Australian and Canadian responses for protecting polar marine environments. Vast areas of the polar seas fall within their potential combined EEZ/continental shelf jurisdiction. The Antarctic Treaty provisions, doubts on the status of the Northwest Passage waters and the capacity to enforce legislative initiatives against foreign vessels have been constraints. Australia's enactment of legislation prohibiting mining within the AAT continental shelf and whaling within the AAT EEZ has tested the Antarctic Treaty. Canada's reaction to the Manhattan and the enactment of the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act is an example of unilateral action. While the countries have made noteworthy initiatives to enhance the protection of their polar marine environments, doubts remain in some instances on their capacity to give effect to the initiatives. However, sovereignty remains at the heart of their response. Failure to address Antarctic marine environmental issues will rebound on the environment and reflect poorly upon Australia's sovereignty claim to the AAT. For Canada it is a sovereignty issue and has directly impact upon its citizens inhabiting the islands and coastal areas of the Canadian Arctic. The Madrid Protocol provides the strongest legal basis for the Antarctic Treaty parties to enact laws and regulations in Antarctica. Conservation measures adopted under the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources focuses increasingly on environmental concerns. The most significant regional initiative adopted by Arctic states is the AEPS which does not have a legal foundation. It's co-operative programs provide basis for co-operation in dealing with environmental problems. It clearly recognises that only co-operative responses will achieve significant outcomes. The 1990s have posed new challenges for marine environmental protection such as ship-based tourism in Antarctica and the growing pressure to use the

  10. Australian and Canadian perspectives and regulations for protecting the polar marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, Donald R.

    1997-12-31

    The report compares Australian and Canadian responses for protecting polar marine environments. Vast areas of the polar seas fall within their potential combined EEZ/continental shelf jurisdiction. The Antarctic Treaty provisions, doubts on the status of the Northwest Passage waters and the capacity to enforce legislative initiatives against foreign vessels have been constraints. Australia`s enactment of legislation prohibiting mining within the AAT continental shelf and whaling within the AAT EEZ has tested the Antarctic Treaty. Canada`s reaction to the Manhattan and the enactment of the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act is an example of unilateral action. While the countries have made noteworthy initiatives to enhance the protection of their polar marine environments, doubts remain in some instances on their capacity to give effect to the initiatives. However, sovereignty remains at the heart of their response. Failure to address Antarctic marine environmental issues will rebound on the environment and reflect poorly upon Australia`s sovereignty claim to the AAT. For Canada it is a sovereignty issue and has directly impact upon its citizens inhabiting the islands and coastal areas of the Canadian Arctic. The Madrid Protocol provides the strongest legal basis for the Antarctic Treaty parties to enact laws and regulations in Antarctica. Conservation measures adopted under the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources focuses increasingly on environmental concerns. The most significant regional initiative adopted by Arctic states is the AEPS which does not have a legal foundation. It`s co-operative programs provide basis for co-operation in dealing with environmental problems. It clearly recognises that only co-operative responses will achieve significant outcomes. The 1990s have posed new challenges for marine environmental protection such as ship-based tourism in Antarctica and the growing pressure to use the Northwest Passage on a

  11. A Canadian perspective on the supply costs, production and economic impacts from oil sands development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article provided a synopsis of oil sands research recently conducted at the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI). The production profiles and capital expenditures that CERI has projected for oil sands projects were explored along with the macroeconomic benefits associated with oil sands development. In addition to rising capital and operating costs, bitumen producers are challenged by labour shortages and environmental concerns. However, CERI warrants continued growth in production from the oil sands industry, given the current high price state of the global oil market and security of supply concerns from oil importing countries. This article also provided background information and analysis to assess the implications of future development. The projected growth in the oil sands industry creates demands for infrastructure, housing, health care, education, and business services. The economic impacts were measured at the local, provincial, national and global levels in terms of changes in gross domestic product; changes in employment; and, changes in government revenues. It was concluded that with continued investment and development, Alberta's oil sands resource is expected to continue to produce oil for decades, and would eventually achieve 6 MMbpd production. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs

  12. Studying illicit drug trafficking on Darknet markets: Structure and organisation from a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broséus, J; Rhumorbarbe, D; Mireault, C; Ouellette, V; Crispino, F; Décary-Hétu, D

    2016-07-01

    Cryptomarkets are online marketplaces that are part of the Dark Web and mainly devoted to the sale of illicit drugs. They combine tools to ensure anonymity of participants with the delivery of products by mail to enable the development of illicit drug trafficking. Using data collected on eight cryptomarkets, this study provides an overview of the Canadian illicit drug market. It seeks to inform about the most prevalent illicit drugs vendors offer for sale and preferred destination countries. Moreover, the research gives an insight into the structure and organisation of distribution networks existing online. In particular, we provide information about how vendors are diversifying and replicating across marketplaces. We inform on the number of listings each vendor manages, the number of cryptomarkets they are active on and the products they offer. This research demonstrates the importance of online marketplaces in the context of illicit drug trafficking. It shows how the analysis of data available online may elicit knowledge on criminal activities. Such knowledge is mandatory to design efficient policy for monitoring or repressive purposes against anonymous marketplaces. Nevertheless, trafficking on Dark Net markets is difficult to analyse based only on digital data. A more holistic approach for investigating this crime problem should be developed. This should rely on a combined use and interpretation of digital and physical data within a single collaborative intelligence model. PMID:26978791

  13. A Canadian perspective on progress in thorium R and D: towards sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently heavy water reactors in Canada and internationally typically operate on a once-through nuclear fuel cycle using mainly natural uranium fuel. Future nuclear power program decisions will be increasingly based on strategic considerations involving the complete nuclear fuel cycle, including requirements related to supply assurances, resource utilization, proliferation resistance and radioactive waste disposal. Heavy water technology is uniquely suited to respond to future needs because of its inherent technical characteristics and associated fuel cycle flexibility. Given its widespread abundance, thorium is expected to play a significant role as nations move towards implementation of advanced fuel cycles. Canadian Nuclear Laboratories (which evolved from Atomic Energy of Canada Limited) has been investigating thorium fuelled reactor concepts and developing thoria (thorium dioxide) fuel technology for more than 55 years, which complements international experience in the development of thorium-based fuel cycles. Although there is a strong foundation based on past experience, gaps exist in the science and technology required to implement the use of thorium-based fuels on an industrial scale. Recent progress and some aspects of the necessary evolution of the technology are outlined in this paper

  14. Investigating Patient and Physician Delays in the Diagnosis of Head and Neck Cancers: a Canadian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghun John; Dhepnorrarat, Chris; Nyhof-Young, Joyce; Witterick, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Diagnostic delays for head and neck cancer (HNC) patients are common. Patients often disregard symptoms for long periods before seeking help, and some family physicians may not be alert to the warning symptoms and signs of HNCs. This study evaluated the factors associated with length of delays in the diagnosis of HNCs in a Canadian population. This was a mixed-method study consisting of patient interviews and surveys in an academic health center. A questionnaire requesting demographic and disease information was completed by HNC patients followed by a 30 min semi-structured interview in a private setting. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, anonymized, and descriptively coded for emergent themes. Twenty-eight head and neck cancer patients participated in the study. More patients experienced physician delay (71 %) than patient delay (36 %). The median physician delay and patient delay were 108 and 31 days, respectively. Two main themes regarding these delays were (1) physician lack of knowledge and (2) lack of patient awareness. Results indicate that physician delay needs to be focused on compared to patient delay, as it is more common and has longer delays. More comprehensive training in head and neck clinical examination skills during undergraduate and residency training is recommended to reduce physician delay. Patient delay could be targeted by public education programs via both physicians and dentists. PMID:25566764

  15. Computed tomography-based preoperative vascular imaging in autologous breast reconstruction: A Canadian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Symonette, Caitlin Jane; Gan, Bing Siang

    2013-01-01

    There appears to be increased use of computed tomography angiography (CTA) in the preoperative planning of autologous perforator flap breast reconstruction. Despite the advantages of providing superior anatomical detail, concerns regarding cost and radiation exposure of this technique remain. In the current study, a paper-based survey was distributed to 44 plastic surgeons with a special interest in breast reconstruction at 19 different centres across Canada to collect their perspectives and ...

  16. The role of colloids and suspended particles in radionuclide transport in the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL Research is developing a concept for the permanent disposal of nuclear fuel waste in a deep engineered vault in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield and is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to document its case for the acceptability of the disposal concept. This report, one in a series of supporting documents for the EIS, addresses the role of particles in radionuclide transport. It summarizes our studies of natural particles in groundwater and presents the arguments used to justify the omission of particle-facilitated transport in the geosphere model that is based on the Whiteshell Research Area (WRA) and used in the postclosure assessment study case. Because radiocolloids formed in the vault will not be able to migrate through the clay buffer, radiocolloid formation in the geosphere will be determined by the sorption of radionuclides onto particles in groundwater. These particles consist of typical fracture-lining minerals, such as clays, micas and quartz; precipitated particles, such as colloidal silica and Fe-Si oxyhydroxides; and organic particles. In groundwater from the WRA, the average concentrations of colloids and suspended particles are 0.34 and 1.4 mg/L respectively. Particle-facilitated transport is not included in the geosphere model because the concentrations of particles in groundwater from the WRA are too low to have a significant impact on radionuclide transport. (author). 92 refs., 11 tabs., 13 figs

  17. Establishing and Advancing Electronic Nuclear Material Accounting Capabilities: A Canadian Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under safeguards agreements that the Government of Canada has with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and nuclear cooperation agreements with other states, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is required to track the inventory and movement of all safeguarded material. As safeguards programmes evolve, including the implementation of Integrated Safeguards, the scope of the reporting requirements for facilities within Canada has also increased. At the same time, ensuring the secure transmission of the associated data continues to be an overarching factor. The changes that are occurring in the nuclear material accounting (NMA) landscape have necessitated a modernization of Canada's accounting and reporting system, with the objective of creating a more effective and efficient system, while at the same time maintaining the security of prescribed information. After a review of the environment, the CNSC embarked on a project that would encourage facilities to transition away from traditional modes of NMA reporting and adopt an electronic approach. This paper will discuss how the changes to Canada's NMA infrastructure were identified and implemented internally to allow for optimized electronic reporting. Improvements included the development of the regulatory and guidance documents, the overhaul of the reporting forms, the upgrade of the CNSC's NMA database, and the development of an electronic reporting platform that leveraged existing technologies. The paper will also discuss the logistics of engaging stakeholders throughout the process, launching the system and soliciting feedback for future system improvements. Special consideration will be given to the benefits realized by both the CNSC and facilities who have voluntarily embraced electronic reporting. The final objective of this paper will be to identify the challenges that were faced by the CNSC and the nuclear industry as the system changes were implemented and to highlight how

  18. Canadian electricity and the economy : developing a North American energy perspective : a proposal for action on electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provided a Canadian industry perspective on strategies to improve the way electricity markets operate in North America, particularly following the events of September 11, 2001 which highlighted how closely the integrated infrastructure between Canada and the United States really is. Other major and recent events that have influenced the process of fundamental change across much of the North American electricity industry include the electricity crisis in California, the downturn in the North American economy, and the collapse of Enron. These events have forced governments to work collaboratively on integrating policy initiatives related to electricity. This report also discussed the impact that the U.S. withdrawal from the Kyoto Protocol would have on Canada. Canada is not yet on a path to meet the greenhouse gas emission reduction target of 6 per cent below 1990 levels by 2008-2012. Should Canada decide to implement Kyoto, the fact that the U.S. plan is much less aggressive than Kyoto, would place Canada at a cost disadvantage relative to its major trading partner. The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) believes that this problem can be solved using a continental approach to climate change with realistic targets to reduce greenhouse gases over a long-term period. The energy strategy delivered by the Bush administration focuses on security of supply. Within Canada, there is no crisis in supply, and to keep it that way, due attention must be given to future demand through investment in new generation and transmission. The CEA believes that an effective partnership between Canada and the United States would ensure security and economic advantages for both countries. This report summarized the following: (1) electricity generation by fuel type in Canada and the United States in 2000, (2) electricity exports from Canada and imports from United States from 1992 to 2001, (3) volume of net exports and imports in 2001, and (4) the status of restructuring in

  19. A multilayer perspective for the analysis of urban transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Aleta, Alberto; Moreno, Yamir

    2016-01-01

    Public urban mobility systems are composed by several transportation modes connected together. Most studies in urban mobility and planning often ignore the multi-layer nature of transportation systems considering only aggregated versions of this complex scenario. In this work we present a model for the representation of the transportation system of an entire city as a multiplex network. Using two different perspectives, one in which each line is a layer and one in which lines of the same transportation mode are grouped together, we study the interconnected structure of 9 different cities in Europe raging from small towns to mega-cities like London and Berlin highlighting their vulnerabilities and possible improvements. Finally, for the city of Zaragoza in Spain, we also consider data about service schedule and waiting times, which allow us to create a simple yet realistic model for urban mobility able to reproduce real-world facts and to test for network improvements.

  20. Advocacy for active transport: advocate and city council perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenby Marieah; Reeder Anthony I; Murdoch Linda; Richards Rosalina

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Effective advocacy is an important part of efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Research about effective health advocacy is scarce, however, the health sector can learn from the experiences and knowledge of community advocates and those who are on the receiving end of this advocacy. The aim of this study is to explore advocacy for active transport from the perspectives of community advocates and representatives from City councils. Methods Cycl...

  1. Outreach at the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission - An Aboriginal Peoples' Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Established by the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA) that came into force in May 2000, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is an independent federal agency that reports to Parliament through the Minister of Natural Resources. The CNSC regulates all uses of nuclear energy and nuclear materials from the production, to use, to the final disposition of any nuclear substances. Under the NSCA, the CNSC has the mandate to: - Regulate the development, production and use of nuclear energy and materials to protect the health, safety, security and environment; - Regulate production, possession and use of nuclear substances, prescribed equipment and prescribed information; - Implement measures respecting international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy and substances; - Disseminate scientific, technical and regulatory information concerning CNSC activities. The main regulatory activities include setting regulatory standards, issuing licenses, verifying compliance and communicating with stakeholders and the public. These activities are accomplished by the work of two independent entities: a commission of up to seven members and a staff of about 500 employees. The Commission is an independent, quasi-judicial tribunal that provides licensing decisions on nuclear-related activities in a public forum. The President of the tribunal is the CEO of the CNSC staff organization. CNSC's regulatory philosophy is based on two principles: - Those persons and organizations subject to the NSCA and its Regulations are directly responsible for ensuring that the regulated activities that they engage in are managed so as to protect health, safety, security and the environment and to respect Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. - The CNSC is responsible to the public for regulating persons and organisations subject to the Nuclear Safety and Control Act and regulations to assure that they are properly discharging their obligations

  2. International Perspectives: Polish Post-Secondary Vocational Schools and Canadian Community Colleges: A Comparison Using an Information Technology Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Norman L.; Davidson, Barry S.; Pachocinski, Ryszard; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    This study compares Polish post-secondary vocational institutions with Canadian community colleges using an information technology conceptual framework. The research concentrated upon programs in information technology delivered by one Polish school Cracow School of Information Technology and two Canadian community colleges Durham (Oshawa,…

  3. Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions from transportation of Canadian oil sands to future markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil sands transportation diversification is important for preventing discounted crude pricing. Current life cycle assessment (LCA) models that assess greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crude oil transportation are linearly-scale and fail to account for project specific details. This research sets out to develop a detailed LCA model to compare the energy inputs and GHG emissions of pipeline and rail transportation for oil sands products. The model is applied to several proposed oils sands transportation routes that may serve as future markets. Comparison between transportation projects suggest that energy inputs and GHG emissions show a high degree of variation. For both rail and pipeline transportation, the distance over which the product is transported has a large impact on total emissions. The regional electricity grid and pump efficiency have the largest impact on pipeline emissions, while train engine efficiency and bitumen blending ratios have the largest impact on rail transportation emissions. LCA-based GHG regulations should refine models to account for the range of product pathways and focus efforts on cost-effective emission reductions. As the climate-change impacts of new oil sands transportation projects are considered, GHG emission boundaries should be defined according to operation control. -- Highlights: •A life cycle model is developed to compare transportation of oil sands products. •The model is applied to several potential future oil sands markets. •Energy inputs and GHG emissions are compared. •Model inputs are explored using sensitivity analysis. •Policy recommendations are provided

  4. Canadian identity: Implications for international social work by Canadians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2011-01-01

    This paper is in response to recent calls to conceptualize and articulate Canadian perspectives and experiences in international social work, given that the Canadian standpoint has been lacking in international social work literature. This paper contends that it is imperative, first of all, to cr...

  5. A Canadian perspective on the safe administration of bendamustine and the prevention and management of adverse events

    OpenAIRE

    Koolwine, J.; Crosbie, T.; Gazzé, G.; Turner, R.; Wiernikowski, J.; Assaily, W.

    2014-01-01

    Although bendamustine has been used to treat lymphoproliferative disorders for decades, it has only recently been approved for use in Canada. Thus, Canadian recommendations on the administration of bendamustine and the management of common adverse events (aes) are needed. This article highlights effective management and assessment strategies recommended by Canadian nurses and pharmacists for the most common aes arising from the use of bendamustine in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia...

  6. Advocacy for active transport: advocate and city council perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenby Marieah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective advocacy is an important part of efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Research about effective health advocacy is scarce, however, the health sector can learn from the experiences and knowledge of community advocates and those who are on the receiving end of this advocacy. The aim of this study is to explore advocacy for active transport from the perspectives of community advocates and representatives from City councils. Methods Cycling and walking advocates were identified from the local contact list of Cycling Advocates Network and Living Streets Aotearoa. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with cycle and walking advocates from throughout New Zealand. Advocates also nominated a suitable council officer at their local City council to be interviewed. Interviews were recorded and transcribed and categories of responses for each of the questions created. Results Several processes were used by advocates to engage with council staff, including formal council submissions, meetings, stakeholder forums and partnership in running community events promoting active transport. Several other agencies were identified as being influential for active transport, some as potential coalition partners and others as potential adversaries. Barriers to improving conditions for active transport included a lack of funding, a lack of will-power among either council staff or councillors, limited council staff capacity (time or training and a culture of providing infrastructure for motor vehicles instead of people. Several suggestions were made about how the health sector could contribute to advocacy efforts, including encouraging political commitment, engaging the media, communicating the potential health benefits of active transport to the general public and being role models in terms of personal travel mode choice and having workplaces that support participation in active transport

  7. The Canadian approach to science-based regulation of the long distance transport of animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Doonan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Government regulators face numerous challenges when considering economic necessities (real and perceived, societal expectations on how animals should be treated, scientific research into the needs of various animal species and daily transport practices in the 'real world'. Do we regulate to promote economic competitiveness, to appease animal welfare interest groups and satisfy industry lobbying organisations, or to meet the needs of the animals? In Canada, a recipe to blend regulatory intervention with voluntary, industry-derived standards is the approach of choice.

  8. A case study of a transported bromine explosion event in the Canadian high arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X.; Strong, K.; Adams, C.; Schofield, R.; Yang, X.; Richter, A.; Friess, U.; Blechschmidt, A.-M.; Koo, J.-H.

    2016-01-01

    Ozone depletion events in the polar troposphere have been linked to extremely high concentrations of bromine, known as bromine explosion events (BEE). However, the optimum meteorological conditions for the occurrence of these events remain uncertain. On 4-5 April 2011, a combination of both blowing snow and a stable shallow boundary layer was observed during a BEE at Eureka, Canada (86.4°W, 80.1°N). Measurements made by a Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy spectrometer were used to retrieve BrO profiles and partial columns. During this event, the near-surface BrO volume mixing ratio increased to ~20 parts per trillion by volume, while ozone was depleted to ~1 ppbv from the surface to 700 m. Back trajectories and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 satellite tropospheric BrO columns confirmed that this event originated from a bromine explosion over the Beaufort Sea. From 30 to 31 March, meteorological data showed high wind speeds (24 m/s) and elevated boundary layer heights (~800 m) over the Beaufort Sea. Long-distance transportation (~1800 km over 5 days) to Eureka indicated strong recycling of BrO within the bromine plume. This event was generally captured by a global chemistry-climate model when a sea-salt bromine source from blowing snow was included. A model sensitivity study indicated that the surface BrO at Eureka was controlled by both local photochemistry and boundary layer dynamics. Comparison of the model results with both ground-based and satellite measurements confirmed that the BEE observed at Eureka was triggered by transport of enhanced BrO from the Beaufort Sea followed by local production/recycling under stable atmospheric shallow boundary layer conditions.

  9. Prosocial Development from Childhood to Adolescence: A Multi-Informant Perspective with Canadian and Italian Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantel-Vivier, Amelie; Kokko, Katja; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Pastorelli, Concetta; Gerbino, Maria Grazia; Paciello, Marinella; Cote, Sylvana; Pihl, Robert O.; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To longitudinally describe prosocial behaviour development from childhood to adolescence, using multiple informants within Canadian and Italian samples. Method: Participants in Study 1 were 1037 boys from low socioeconomic status (SES) areas in Montreal, Canada, for whom yearly teacher and mother reports were obtained between the ages…

  10. Ready or Not...: Perspectives on Literacy and Essential Skills in this Economic Downturn--A Canadian Baseline Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Janet; Yerichuk, Deanna; Murray-Smith, Nick

    2009-01-01

    In March 2009, Movement for Canadian Literacy (MCL) commissioned "Resources for Results", a private research and evaluation firm, to conduct a baseline study to explore the effects of the recent economic downturn on literacy and essential skills programs across Canada. The "Resources for Results" research team interviewed 35 people from across…

  11. Greenhouse gas options, policy and measures for the Canadian Transportation Equipment Manufacturing Industry - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes and analyses the work that have been carried out by the Transportation Equipment Manufacturing Sector (TEMS) Working Group of the National Climate Change Industry Table over the last 14 months, and presents the Group's view of appropriate policies for greenhouse gas emission reduction in Canada. To develop its approach, the Working Group conducted five separate studies which are included in this report as annexes. Annex A is a Foundation Paper, which provides an overview of the sector's performance vis-a-vis energy use and greenhouse gas production. Annex B analyzes the competitive position of the industry by reviewing growth trends in each of the industry sub-sectors and the key factors in maintaining and enhancing the sector's international competitive position. Annex C is a technology assessment. It provides an overview of the uptake of energy saving technology in the sector. Annex D provides a facility level analysis focusing on energy use in the automotive parts manufacturing sector. Annex E is a review of American policies on climate change, summarizing the approach currently being taken towards greenhouse gas emission reduction in the United States. Some of the key findings of this report are: (1) business-as-usual emissions will greatly exceed the implicit Kyoto target of six per cent reduction from 1990 levels, (2) relatively few opportunities exist for major emissions reductions through the use of existing technology, (3) sector-specific policies appear to be ill-advised, but cross-cutting policies provide good opportunities for the transportation equipment manufacturing sector to do its part in helping Canada meeting its Kyoto commitment. The report recommends investigation of barriers to adoption of new technologies and examination of market imperfections, promotion of cogeneration where it makes economic sense, and consideration of the use of flexible instruments such as carbon taxes and tradable emission permits. Overall, the

  12. Natural Radioactivity Accumulated in the Arctic from Long-range Atmospheric Transport - Observations in Canadian Monitoring Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Weihua [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa K1A 1C1 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    In the environment, the main sources of naturally occurring radionuclides come from radionuclides in the uranium decay series. Activity concentrations of uranium decay series radionuclides may vary considerably from place to place depending on the geological characteristics at the location. Their releases to the atmosphere are mainly through radon ({sup 222}Rn), a radioactive noble gas occurring naturally as an indirect decay product of uranium in soils and rocks. Due to the abundance of uranium, radon continuously emanates from continental land masses. With radon as the main source of naturally occurring radioactivity in the environment, one would think that the Arctic should be an area of low background radiation, because a considerable area of the Arctic is covered by glaciers and permafrost, and radon emanation rate has been reported to be negligible from those glacier and permafrost areas. However, available data have shown the opposite. The elevated level of naturally occurring radioactivity in the Arctic is due to natural sources outside of the Arctic, mainly through long-range atmospheric transport of radon and radon progeny. In some cases, natural radioactivity can accumulate to relatively high levels and become a health concern or a limiting factor of country food consumption. By definition, contaminants are undesirable substances which can cause harm to the environment, the biota, and humans. We can call these naturally accumulating radiological burdens to the Arctic 'natural contaminants' to distinguish them from the traditional meaning of contamination, the 'artificial contaminants' which are attributable to industrial or man-made sources. This paper reviews information available in the literature, analyses long-term atmospheric monitoring data in the Canadian high Arctic, sub-Arctic and mid-latitude sites, and provides discussion on research needed to address questions, such as how heavily the Arctic has been impacted by the

  13. Natural Radioactivity Accumulated in the Arctic from Long-range Atmospheric Transport - Observations in Canadian Monitoring Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the environment, the main sources of naturally occurring radionuclides come from radionuclides in the uranium decay series. Activity concentrations of uranium decay series radionuclides may vary considerably from place to place depending on the geological characteristics at the location. Their releases to the atmosphere are mainly through radon (222Rn), a radioactive noble gas occurring naturally as an indirect decay product of uranium in soils and rocks. Due to the abundance of uranium, radon continuously emanates from continental land masses. With radon as the main source of naturally occurring radioactivity in the environment, one would think that the Arctic should be an area of low background radiation, because a considerable area of the Arctic is covered by glaciers and permafrost, and radon emanation rate has been reported to be negligible from those glacier and permafrost areas. However, available data have shown the opposite. The elevated level of naturally occurring radioactivity in the Arctic is due to natural sources outside of the Arctic, mainly through long-range atmospheric transport of radon and radon progeny. In some cases, natural radioactivity can accumulate to relatively high levels and become a health concern or a limiting factor of country food consumption. By definition, contaminants are undesirable substances which can cause harm to the environment, the biota, and humans. We can call these naturally accumulating radiological burdens to the Arctic 'natural contaminants' to distinguish them from the traditional meaning of contamination, the 'artificial contaminants' which are attributable to industrial or man-made sources. This paper reviews information available in the literature, analyses long-term atmospheric monitoring data in the Canadian high Arctic, sub-Arctic and mid-latitude sites, and provides discussion on research needed to address questions, such as how heavily the Arctic has been impacted by the accumulation of naturally

  14. Soil Production and Transport Perspectives on Critical Zone Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimsath, A. M.; Foster, M.; Whipple, K. X.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying soil production and transport rates and processes is a key aspect of most critical zone studies. Methodologies range from relatively straightforward, low cost studies like sediment traps and basin volume estimates to sophisticated and expensive studies using chemical and physical tracers and isotope geochemistry. Inherent in all methodologies are assumptions and simplifications that enable any measurement to be translated to a rate and interpreted in terms of process mechanics. For example, quantifying soil production using in situ cosmogenic nuclides measured in the parent material beneath an upland mobile regolith mantle depends on assuming a locally steady state soil thickness (i.e. neither thinning or thickening with time). Similarly, utilizing hillslope-scale sediment traps or landscape-scale basin analyses depends on assumptions of steady state processes and constraining the timescales represented by the captured sediment. As our analyses of landscapes have expanded into the details of how spatial and temporal gradients of all driving variables (lithology, climate, tectonics, distribution of biota, etc.) influence landscape evolution, our adherence to the assumptions and simplifications necessitated by our methods becomes questionable. Here we provide content analyses of recent and ongoing studies quantifying soil production and transport processes across a range of climatic, geologic and tectonic regimes. We code the studies for their inclusion and use of assumptions and simplifications necessary to ensure that the methodologies apply to their intended use. These analyses provide an important perspective on the use of quantitative methods and offer both a complimentary and cautionary views on critical zone studies in general.

  15. Intimate partner violence in the Canadian territorial north: perspectives from a literature review and a media watch

    OpenAIRE

    Moffitt, Pertice; Fikowski, Heather; Mauricio, Marshirette; Mackenzie, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Family violence is a complex, multidimensional and pervasive presence in many Aboriginal communities. Although practitioners acknowledge that intimate partner violence (IPV) is a grave concern in the North, as in other jurisdictions in Canada, there is a paucity of literature about IPV and the local response to that violence.Objective. The purpose of this study is to report on a synthesis of Northern Territorial literature and a 3-year media watch conducted in the Canadian terri...

  16. Transferability of geodata from European to Canadian (Ontario) sedimentary rocks to study gas transport from nuclear wastes repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. A deep geological repository (DGR) for low and intermediate level waste in southern Ontario is currently proposed, at a depth of approximately 680 m in an argillaceous limestone formation (Cobourg Limestone) overlain by 200 m of low permeability shale (Ordovician Shale). Significant quantities of gas could be generated in the aforementioned DGR from several processes (e.g., degradation of waste forms, corrosion of waste containers). The accumulation and release of such gases from the repository system may affect a number of processes that influence its long-term safety. Consequently, safety assessments of the proposed DGR need to be supported by a solid understanding of the main mechanisms associated with gas generation and migration and the capability to mathematically model those mechanisms. The development of those mathematical models would usually require the consideration of complex coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical- chemical (THMC) processes. A research program is being conducted in the Department of Civil Engineering of the University of Ottawa in collaboration with the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) to model the coupled THMC processes associated with gas migration and their impacts on the safety of DGR in southern Ontario. The development and validation of such model as well as the assessment of the impact of gas migration need the acquisition of sufficient amount of (good quality) data on the geomechanical, geochemical, hydraulic, thermal properties of the sedimentary rocks in Southern Ontario as well as relevant gas transport parameters, such as gas entry pressure, Klinkenberg effect, intrinsic permeability, capillary pressure-water saturation relationship. During the past fifteen years, several laboratory and field investigations have been conducted in several countries to acquire geo-data to study and model the THMC processes associated with gas migration in DGR in sedimentary rocks. However

  17. Intimate partner violence in the Canadian territorial north: perspectives from a literature review and a media watch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertice Moffitt

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Family violence is a complex, multidimensional and pervasive presence in many Aboriginal communities. Although practitioners acknowledge that intimate partner violence (IPV is a grave concern in the North, as in other jurisdictions in Canada, there is a paucity of literature about IPV and the local response to that violence. Objective. The purpose of this study is to report on a synthesis of Northern Territorial literature and a 3-year media watch conducted in the Canadian territories. Design. This review is part of a multidisciplinary 5-year study occurring in the Northwest Territories (NT and northern regions of the Prairie Provinces of Canada. The methods included a review of the literature through CINAHL, PubMed, Academic Search Complete, Social Sciences Index and JSTOR (1990–2012 combined with a media watch from 2009 to 2012. A thematic content analysis was completed. Results. Themes included: colonization; alcohol and substance use; effects of residential schooling; housing inadequacies; help-seeking behaviours; and gaps within the justice system. Identified themes from the media watch were: murders from IPV; reported assaults and criminal charges; emergency protection orders; and awareness campaigns and prevention measures. Conclusion. When synthesized, the results of the literature review and media surveillance depict a starting context and description of IPV in the Canadian territories. There are many questions left unanswered which build support for the necessity of the current research, outline the public outcry for action in local media and identify the current published knowledge about IPV.

  18. Canadian Immersion Education in an Evaluative Perspective : A Synthesis of Research Findings on the Efficiency of French Immersion Programmes (1)

    OpenAIRE

    伊東, 治己

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to synthesize research findings accumulated by numerous evaluation studies on the efficiency of French immersion programmes in Canada. The synthesis has been attempted in terms of the four different, but related perspectives; effects on French language skills, effects on English language skills, effects on general scholastic achievements, and effects on socio-cultural domains. Out of these four perspectives, the present paper, the first of the series of two...

  19. The flow of radionuclides through the Canadian archipelago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of contaminants to the Canadian Arctic by air and in water and their concentration through the marine food web has lead to enhanced levels of contaminants in several foods of Canadian northern inhabitants. Artificial radionuclides in the marine water can be used to determine water circulation and to trace contaminant transport through the Canadian Archipelago

  20. Enabling sustainable urban road transport in China : a policy and institutional perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    This paper is an effort to investigate the approach to sustainable urban road transport in Chinese mega cities with an emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. The study links the major “unsustainabilities” of China’s urban road transport with those deficiencies in urban road transport planning and management and China’s auto industry policy, and gives some suggestions and recommendations for policy change and adjustment. The paper also provides some examples of successful experienc...

  1. An Interpretive Study of Yosemite National Park Visitors' Perspectives Toward Alternative Transportation in Yosemite Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Dave D.

    2007-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) is increasingly focusing on alternative transportation systems in national parks to address environmental and social problems arising from a historical reliance on personal automobiles as the primary means of visitor access. Despite the potential advantages, alternative transportation may require a reorientation in the way that Americans have experienced national parks since the advent of auto-tourism in the early twentieth century. Little research exists, however, on visitor perspectives towards alternative transportation or the rationale underlying their perspectives. It remains unclear how transportation systems affect visitors’ experiences of the park landscape or the factors influencing their travel behavior in the parks. This report presents an interpretive study of visitor perspectives toward transportation management in the Yosemite Valley area of Yosemite National Park, California. Qualitative analysis of 160 semi-structured interviews identified individual psychological factors as well as situational influences that affect visitors’ behavior and perspectives. Individual psychological factors include perceived freedom, environmental values and beliefs, prior experience with Yosemite National Park and other national parks, prior experience with alternative transportation in national parks, and sensitivity to subjective perceptions of crowding. Situational factors included convenience, access, and flexibility of travel modes, as well as type of visit, type of group, and park use level. Interpretive communication designed to encourage voluntary visitor use of alternative transportation should focus on these psychological and situational factors. Although challenges remain, the results of this study suggest approaches for shaping the way Americans visit and experience their national parks to encourage environmental sustainability.

  2. WAYS AND PERSPECTIVES OF TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENT ON AUTOMOBILE TRANSPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Bilichenko, V.; Smyrnov, E.

    2005-01-01

    Modern conditions of enterprise on automobile transport are analyzed. Technical development of enterprise on automobile transport as one of the ways of increasing competitive abilities and there profits is considered.

  3. Perspectives for Sustainable Urban Transport Planning in Irkutsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Engel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobility is a strong demand of urban societies and transport systems are backbones of urban life – in Russian cities like in other cities all over the world. Transport planning has to be understood as an integral part of urban development and urban planning. The report discusses problems and chances for sustainable urban transport planning in Irkutsk.

  4. Canadian hydrogen safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian hydrogen safety program (CHSP) is a project initiative of the Codes and Standards Working Group of the Canadian transportation fuel cell alliance (CTFCA) that represents industry, academia, government, and regulators. The Program rationale, structure and contents contribute to acceptance of the products, services and systems of the Canadian Hydrogen Industry into the Canadian hydrogen stakeholder community. It facilitates trade through fair insurance policies and rates, effective and efficient regulatory approval procedures and accommodation of the interests of the general public. The Program integrates a consistent quantitative risk assessment methodology with experimental (destructive and non-destructive) failure rates and consequence-of-release data for key hydrogen components and systems into risk assessment of commercial application scenarios. Its current and past six projects include Intelligent Virtual Hydrogen Filling Station (IVHFS), Hydrogen clearance distances, comparative quantitative risk comparison of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG) refuelling options; computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling validation, calibration and enhancement; enhancement of frequency and probability analysis, and Consequence analysis of key component failures of hydrogen systems; and fuel cell oxidant outlet hydrogen sensor project. The Program projects are tightly linked with the content of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task 19 Hydrogen Safety. (author)

  5. Enabling sustainable urban road transport in China: A policy and institutional perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is an effort to investigate the approach to sustainable urban road transport in Chinese mega cities with an emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. The study links the major ''unsustainabilities'' of China's urban road transport with those deficiencies in urban road transport planning and management and China's auto industry policy and gives some suggestions and recommendations for policy change and adjustment. The paper also provides some examples of successful experiences from foreign cities in urban road transport development from which Chinese cities can learn. (Author)

  6. Historical perspectives on long distance transport of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancou, Jean; Parsonson, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Since Roman Antiquity, domestic and wild animals have been transported over long distances for purposes as different as improvement of livestock production, food supply, scientific interest, public entertainment, war and numerous other purposes. This long distance transportation was originally limited to the Mediterranean area but, during the Middle Ages extended to the rest of Europe. The conquest of the New World was the first major occasion to transport large numbers of horses and other livestock across the oceans. Domestic animals were necessary for the new colonies and their armies. European expansion to Asia and the Pacific also required the transportation of large numbers of domestic animals. Data, figures and description of the conditions of transport of animals as different as wild beasts, horses, camels, elephants or poultry are reported for each historical period. PMID:20405409

  7. Historical perspectives on long distance transport of animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Blancou

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Since Roman Antiquity, domestic and wild animals have been transported over long distances for purposes as different as improvement of livestock production, food supply, scientific interest, public entertainment, war and numerous other purposes. This long distance transportation was originally limited to the Mediterranean area but, during the Middle Ages extended to the rest of Europe. The conquest of the New World was the first major occasion to transport large numbers of horses and other livestock across the oceans. Domestic animals were necessary for the new colonies and their armies. European expansion to Asia and the Pacific also required the transportation of large numbers of domestic animals. Data, figures and description of the conditions of transport of animals as different as wild beasts, horses, camels, elephants or poultry are reported for each historical period.

  8. Trends and perspectives of the Romanian regional passenger transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristache, S. E.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, passenger transport has become an indispensable life element, because it offers to the society members many travel possibilities. Modern civilisation, characterised by a massive trade of material and spiritual values, claims a continuous movement of goods and people from a place to another. Transport services are strongly influenced by the transition to the market economy, Romania’s geographical position and also by the life standard. The purpose of this paper is to realize a statistical analysis of the main indicators concerning passenger transport for the southern part of Romania, respectively for the historical provinces Muntenia (excluding Bucharest Municipality and Oltenia.

  9. Trends and perspectives of the Romanian regional passenger transport

    OpenAIRE

    Cristache, S. E.; Iacob, A. I.; Serban, D; Frâncu, G.

    2011-01-01

    Today, passenger transport has become an indispensable life element, because it offers to the society members many travel possibilities. Modern civilisation, characterised by a massive trade of material and spiritual values, claims a continuous movement of goods and people from a place to another. Transport services are strongly influenced by the transition to the market economy, Romania’s geographical position and also by the life standard. The purpose of this paper is to realize a statistic...

  10. China's transportation energy consumption and CO2 emissions from a global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapidly growing energy demand from China's transportation sector in the last two decades have raised concerns over national energy security, local air pollution, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and there is broad consensus that China's transportation sector will continue to grow in the coming decades. This paper explores the future development of China's transportation sector in terms of service demands, final energy consumption, and CO2 emissions, and their interactions with global climate policy. This study develops a detailed China transportation energy model that is nested in an integrated assessment model—Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM)—to evaluate the long-term energy consumption and CO2 emissions of China's transportation sector from a global perspective. The analysis suggests that, without major policy intervention, future transportation energy consumption and CO2 emissions will continue to rapidly increase and the transportation sector will remain heavily reliant on fossil fuels. Although carbon price policies may significantly reduce the sector's energy consumption and CO2 emissions, the associated changes in service demands and modal split will be modest, particularly in the passenger transport sector. The analysis also suggests that it is more difficult to decarbonize the transportation sector than other sectors of the economy, primarily owing to its heavy reliance on petroleum products. -- Highlights: •Transport sector in China are analyzed from a global perspective. •Passenger transport turnover reduction and modal shifts is less sensitive to carbon price. •Bio-fuel, electricity and H2 will play an important role for carbon mitigation in transport sector. •The transport sector is more difficult to decarbonize than other sectors

  11. My Experience. My Perspective. Transportation to Work Presents Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegers, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Transportation challenges can often be one of the biggest stumbling blocks to having a successful vocational experience. The author presents a personal account of the difficulties people with disabilities encounter in trying to get themselves to their workplaces due to the limitations of various mobility services.

  12. I Am Canadian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Joe

    "I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness......."I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness....

  13. A trajectory analysis of atmospheric transport of black carbon aerosols to Canadian high Arctic in winter and spring (1990–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Huang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC particles accumulated in the Arctic troposphere and deposited on snow have been calculated to have significant effects on radiative forcing of the Arctic regional climate. Applying cluster analysis technique on 10-day backward trajectories, seven distinct transport pathways (or clusters affecting Alert (82.5° N, 62.5° W, Nunavut in Canada are identified in this work. Transport frequency associated with each pathway is obtained as the fraction of trajectories in that cluster. Based on atmospheric transport frequency and BC surface flux from surrounding regions (i.e. North America, Europe, and former USSR, a linear regression model is constructed to investigate the inter-annual variations of BC observed at Alert in January and April, representative of winter and spring respectively, between 1990 and 2005. Strong correlations are found between BC concentrations predicted with the regression model and measurements at Alert for both seasons (R2 equals 0.77 and 0.81 for winter and spring, respectively. Results imply that atmospheric transport and BC emission are the major contributors to the inter-annual variations in BC concentrations observed at Alert in the cold seasons for the 16-year period. Other factors, such as deposition, could also contribute to the variability in BC concentrations but were not considered in this analysis. Based on the regression model the relative contributions of regional BC emissions affecting Alert are attributed to the Eurasian sector, composed of the European Union and the former USSR, and the North American sector. Considering both seasons, the model suggests that former USSR is the major contributor to the near-surface BC levels at the Canadian high Arctic site with an average contribution of about 67% during the 16-year period, followed by European Union (18% and North America (15%. In winter, the atmospheric transport of BC aerosols from Eurasia is found to be even more

  14. Proceedings of the Canadian Institute conference on maximizing oil sands growth : improving transportation logistics, labour supply and pipeline availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference focused on the development of a transportation infrastructure to accommodate oil sands growth, with particular reference to building a pipeline infrastructure to meet the delivery and supply requirements of oil sands producers. The need for transmission system upgrades and additions to meet the electric power requirements of the oil sands industry was also discussed. The transportation options and new proposed pipeline construction projects that will alleviate the current transportation challenges in the oil sands region were identified. These include the implementation of new infrastructure strategies based on current pipeline availability, Kyoto requirements and downstream market demands. The impact of labour shortages on the oil sands industry was reviewed along with solutions to prevent and overcome these shortages. The conference featured 15 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  15. An Indian perspective for transportation and storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spent fuel discharged from the reactors are temporarily stored at the reactor pool. After a certain cooling time, the spent fuel is moved to the storage locations either on or off reactor site depending on the spent fuel management strategy. As India has opted for a closed fuel cycle for its nuclear energy development, reprocessing of the spent fuel, recycling of the reprocessed plutonium and uranium and disposal of the wastes from the reprocessing operations forms the spent fuel management strategy. Since the reprocessing operations are planned to match the nuclear energy programme, storage of the spent fuel in ponds are adopted prior to reprocessing. Transport of the spent fuel to the storage locations are carried out adhering to international and national guide lines. India is having 14 operating power reactors and three research reactors. The spent fuel from the two safeguarded BWRs are stored at-reactor (AR) storage pond. A separate wet storage facility away-from-reactor (AFR) has been designed, constructed and made operational since 1991 for additional fuel storage. Storage facilities are provided in ARs at other reactor locations to cater to 10 reactor-years of operation. A much lower capacity spent fuel storage is provided in reprocessing plants on the same lines of AR fuel storage design. Since the reprocessing operations are carried out on a need basis, to cater to the increased storage needs two new spent fuel storage facilities (SFSF) are being designed and constructed near the existing nuclear plant sites. India has mastered the technology for design, construction and operation of wet spent fuel storage facility meeting all the international standards Wet storage of the spent fuel is the most commonly adopted mode all over the world. Recently an alternate mode viz. dry storage has also been considered. India has designed, constructed and operated lead shielded dry storage casks and is operational at one site. A dry storage cask made of concrete

  16. Mixed Transportation Network Design under a Sustainable Development Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Qin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixed transportation network design problem considering sustainable development was studied in this paper. Based on the discretization of continuous link-grade decision variables, a bilevel programming model was proposed to describe the problem, in which sustainability factors, including vehicle exhaust emissions, land-use scale, link load, and financial budget, are considered. The objective of the model is to minimize the total amount of resources exploited under the premise of meeting all the construction goals. A heuristic algorithm, which combined the simulated annealing and path-based gradient projection algorithm, was developed to solve the model. The numerical example shows that the transportation network optimized with the method above not only significantly alleviates the congestion on the link, but also reduces vehicle exhaust emissions within the network by up to 41.56%.

  17. Modelling of radionuclide transport in forests: Review and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecological modeling is a powerful tool which can be used to synthesize information on the dynamic processes which occur in ecosystems. Models of radionuclide transport in forests were first constructed in the mid-1960's, when the consequences of global fallout from nuclear weapons tests and waste disposal in the environment were of great concern. Such models were developed based on site-specific experimental data and were designed to address local needs. These models had a limited applicability in evaluating distinct ecosystems and deposition scenarios. Given the scarcity of information, the same experimental data sets were often used both for model calibration and validation, an approach which clearly constitutes a methodological error. Even though the carry modeling attempts were far from being faultless, they established a useful conceptual approach in that they tried to capture general processes in ecosystems and thus had a holistic nature. Later, radioecological modeling attempted to reveal ecosystem properties by separating the component parts from the whole system, as an approach to simplification. This method worked well for radionuclide transport in agricultural ecosystems, in which the biogeochemistry of radionuclide cycling is relatively well understood and can be influenced by fertilization. Several models have been successfully developed and applied to human dose evaluation and emergency response to contaminating events in agricultural lands

  18. China's transportation energy consumption and CO2 emissions from a global perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Xiang; Chen, Wenying; Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.; Kim, Son H.; Patel, Pralit L.; Yu, Sha; Kyle, G. Page

    2015-07-01

    ABSTRACT Rapidly growing energy demand from China's transportation sector in the last two decades have raised concerns over national energy security, local air pollution, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and there is broad consensus that China's transportation sector will continue to grow in the coming decades. This paper explores the future development of China's transportation sector in terms of service demands, final energy consumption, and CO2 emissions, and their interactions with global climate policy. This study develops a detailed China transportation energy model that is nested in an integrated assessment model—Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM)—to evaluate the long-term energy consumption and CO2 emissions of China's transportation sector from a global perspective. The analysis suggests that, without major policy intervention, future transportation energy consumption and CO2 emissions will continue to rapidly increase and the transportation sector will remain heavily reliant on fossil fuels. Although carbon price policies may significantly reduce the sector's energy consumption and CO2 emissions, the associated changes in service demands and modal split will be modest, particularly in the passenger transport sector. The analysis also suggests that it is more difficult to decarbonize the transportation sector than other sectors of the economy, primarily owing to its heavy reliance on petroleum products.

  19. An Indian perspective for transportation and storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The spent fuel discharged from the reactors are temporarily stored at the reactor pool. After a certain cooling time, the spent fuel is moved to the storage locations either on or off reactor site depending on the spent fuel management strategy. As India has opted for a closed fuel cycle for its nuclear energy development, reprocessing of the spent fuel, recycling of the reprocessed plutonium and uranium and disposal of the wastes from the reprocessing operations forms the spent fuel management strategy. Since the reprocessing operations are planned to match the nuclear energy programme, storage of the spent fuel in ponds are adopted prior to reprocessing. Transport of the spent fuel to the storage locations are carried out adhering to international and national guide lines. (author)

  20. Capitalizing on new opportunities in Canada's emerging midstream : processing, transportation, marketing, NGL, storage : proceedings of a Canadian Institute conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Text or speaking notes used at a conference to examine the challenges and opportunities facing Canada's midstream petroleum and natural gas industry are contained in this volume. A total of eight 8 papers were presented, focusing on the wide range of business opportunities that do not fit into the core functions of the upstream business (exploration and production), or into the core functions of the downstream business (distribution and retail marketing). One of the biggest opportunities lies in the development of storage facilities for the natural gas industry. Other aspects of the midstream business addressed included processing, transportation, marketing, and natural gas liquids. tabs., figs

  1. Spent fuel transportation - lessons drawn and ways forward: European utilities perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface contamination that was found on surfaces of spent fuel shipping containers (flasks) in 1998 was treated differently by authorities in different European countries. In two countries, Germany and Switzerland, spent fuel shipments were stopped for an indefinite period by Government authorities. This paper, co-authored by representatives of utilities from four European countries, explains the rationale for surface contamination limits in transport regulations and attempts to place the observed contamination in proper perspective. (author)

  2. Heat transport in low-dimensional materials: A review and perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiping Xu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Heat transport is a key energetic process in materials and devices. The reduced sample size, low dimension of the problem and the rich spectrum of material imperfections introduce fruitful phenomena at nanoscale. In this review, we summarize recent progresses in the understanding of heat transport process in low-dimensional materials, with focus on the roles of defects, disorder, interfaces, and the quantum-mechanical effect. New physics uncovered from computational simulations, experimental studies, and predictable models will be reviewed, followed by a perspective on open challenges.

  3. Chernobyl - a Canadian technical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 26, 1986, the Number 4 reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in the Soviet Union suffered a severe accident which destroyed the reactor core and led to a loss of life. The four reactors at this station are of the RBMK-1000 type - boiling-light-water cooled, graphite moderated, vertical pressure-tube reactors, each generating 1000 MW of electricity through two turbines. AECL has carefully studied the accident, and the design of Chernobyl, to see if anything has been overlooked in the CANDU design. This report reviews the results of that study, in particular the relevant features of the Chernobyl design which exacerbated the accident, and compares them to the CANDU 600 design. A number of issues (the sign of the void coefficent and the pressure-tube design) have also been given some international prominence in the post-Chernobyl analysis; these are discussed in this report and shown to be irrelevant to the CANDU design. Finally this report describes the subjects identified for further design follow-up in Canada

  4. Lyme disease. A Canadian perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Green, L.; Costero, A.

    1993-01-01

    Lyme disease is an expanding community health issue in the United States. This has led to greater public awareness in Canada, although the disease remains rare here. We review the biology of ticks and show how feeding patterns are relevant to disease transmission. Diagnosing Lyme disease is sometimes problematic, but treatment can be effective, particularly in the early stages. Preventive measures are aimed at avoiding tick contact and early tick removal.

  5. Papers of the Canadian Institute's 3. annual conference : oil sands supply and infrastructure : labour supply, upgraders, transportation, pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of this conference was on the development of the oil sands industry, with specific reference to issues concerning supply and infrastructure. Energy source development and transmission issues were discussed, as well as transportation systems. The impact of increased oil sands development on pipelines was also examined. Various fuel options were discussed, including the use of hydrogen, natural gas and alternate fuels in manufacturing and processing plants. Economic drivers and the creation of new markets were examined, and various export opportunities were reviewed. The environmental impact of increased oil sands activity was discussed, with specific reference to the Boreal regions. Management challenges in the oil sands industry were also discussed along with issues concerning human resources, labour supply, training and education. The conference featured 15 presentations, of which 13 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  6. Facilities, breed and experience affect ease of sheep handling: the livestock transporter's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnard, C L; Pitchford, W S; Hocking Edwards, J E; Hazel, S J

    2015-08-01

    An understanding of the perceived importance of a variety of factors affecting the ease of handling of sheep and the interactions between these factors is valuable in improving profitability and welfare of the livestock. Many factors may contribute to animal behaviour during handling, and traditionally these factors have been assessed in isolation under experimental conditions. A human social component to this phenomenon also exists. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the importance of a variety of factors affecting ease of handling, and the interactions between these from the perspective of the livestock transporter. Qualitative interviews were used to investigate the factors affecting sheep behaviour during handling. Interview transcripts underwent thematic analysis. Livestock transporters discussed the effects of attitudes and behaviours towards sheep, helpers, facilities, distractions, environment, dogs and a variety of sheep factors including breed, preparation, experience and sex on sheep behaviour during handling. Transporters demonstrated care and empathy and stated that patience and experience were key factors determining how a person might deal with difficult sheep. Livestock transporters strongly believed facilities (ramps and yards) had the greatest impact, followed by sheep experience (naivety of the sheep to handling and transport) and breed. Transporters also discussed the effects of distractions, time of day, weather, dogs, other people, sheep preparation, body condition and sheep sex on ease of handling. The concept of individual sheep temperament was indirectly expressed. PMID:25874817

  7. Physicians’ attitudes toward medical and ethical challenges for patients in the vegetative state: comparing Canadian and German perspectives in a vignette survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Physicians treating patients in the vegetative state (VS) must deal with uncertainty in diagnosis and prognosis, as well as ethical issues. We examined whether physicians’ attitudes toward medical and ethical challenges vary across two national medical practice settings. Methods A comparative survey was conducted among German and Canadian specialty physicians, based on a case vignette about the VS. Similarities and differences of participants’ attitudes toward medical and ethical challenges between the two samples were analyzed with non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney-U-Test). Results The overall response rate was 13.4%. Eighty percent of all participants correctly applied the diagnostic category of VS with no significant differences between countries. Many of the participants who chose the correct diagnosis of VS attributed capabilities to the patient, particularly the ability to feel pain (70%), touch (51%) and to experience hunger and thirst (35%). A large majority of participants (94%) considered the limitation of life-sustaining treatment (LST) under certain circumstances, but more Canadian participants were in favor of always limiting LST (32% vs. 12%; Chi-square: p < 0.001). Finding long-term care placement was considered more challenging by Canadian participants whereas discontinuing LST was much more challenging for German participants. Conclusions Differences were found between two national medical practice settings with respect to physicians’ experiences and attitudes about treatment limitation about VS in spite of comparable diagnostic knowledge. PMID:24898329

  8. Proceedings of the International Conference on Prospects for Research in Transport and Logisticson a Regional - Global Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ülengin, Füsun

    2009-01-01

    "International Conference on Prospects for Research in Transport and Logistics on a Global - Regional Perspective" has undertaken the challenge to host very important experts and practitioners of Transport and Logistics from a large spectrum of countries. In our opinion, the conference has fulfilled the purpose of establishing an International Society; "Eurasian and Eastern Mediterranean Institute of Transportation and Logistics Association (EMIT)" that is expected to have a very promising ro...

  9. Protest: The Canadian pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This popularly written article compares Canadian attitudes to protests against nuclear power to those in the United States. Canadian protesters are more peaceful, expressing their opinions within the law. The article describes the main anti-nuclear groups in Canada and presents the results of public opinion surveys of Canadians on the use of nuclear power for generating electricity. (TI)

  10. An international perspective on electric transportation. Survey on electric road transport 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeda, M; Kroon, P. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Appels, D. [Agentschap NL, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    To compare the Dutch governmental efforts and developments in the field of electric road transport, the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation has asked ECN Policy Studies and NL Agency to conduct an international assessment on electric mobility. The countries that have been considered are: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, UK, China, USA and South Korea. The Netherlands has a high ambition level with regard to the number of electric vehicles and is one of the leaders as for the envisaged number of charging points. In the field of R and D, Germany, South Korea and China take the lead, followed by France, the UK, the USA and Austria. However, the assessment has only looked at specific funds for electric mobility, and has not looked at general R and D and innovation funds. The Netherlands has several electro-mobility field tests, but is not leading in number. Norway and Austria are leading countries when it comes to implementation of public charging infrastructure.

  11. Ozone seasonality above the tropical tropopause: reconciling the Eulerian and Lagrangian perspectives of transport processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalos, M.; Ploeger, F.; Konopka, P.; Randel, W. J.; Serrano, E.

    2013-11-01

    We aim to reconcile the recently published, apparently contrasting results regarding the relative importance of tropical upwelling versus horizontal transport for the seasonality of ozone above the tropical tropopause. Different analysis methods in the literature (Lagrangian versus Eulerian, and isentropic versus pressure vertical coordinates) yield different perspectives of ozone transport, and the results must be carefully compared in equivalent terms to avoid misinterpretation. By examining the Lagrangian calculations in the Eulerian formulation, we show here that the results are in fact consistent with each other and with a common understanding of the ozone transport processes near and above the tropical tropopause. We further emphasize that the complementary approaches are suited for answering two different scientific questions: (1) what drives the observed seasonal cycle in ozone at a particular level above the tropical tropopause? and (2) how important is horizontal transport from mid-latitudes for ozone concentrations in the tropical lower stratosphere? Regarding the first question, the analysis of the transformed Eulerian mean (TEM) ozone budget shows that the annual cycle in tropical upwelling is the main forcing of the ozone seasonality at altitudes with large vertical gradients in the tropical lower stratosphere. To answer the second question a Lagrangian framework must be used, and the results show that a large fraction (~50%) of the ozone molecules ascending through the tropical lower stratosphere is of extra-tropical origin and has been in-mixed from mid-latitudes.

  12. Radioactive material transportation: The utilities' perspective on the legal and regulatory environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The respective roles of federal and state governments in regulating the transportation of radioactive materials must be better defined if these materials are to move safely and efficiently. Recent increases in shipments of spent fuel, which will accelerate as the Nuclear Waste Policy Act is implemented by the Department of Energy (DOE), has heightened interest in this issue. This paper explains the electric utility industry's perspective on these matters as reflected in the industry's comments on the DOE's Transportation Business Plan and comments in a recent proceeding convened by the Department of Transportation to consider the consistency with federal law of an Illinois law imposing a $1000 per cask fee on shipments of spent fuel through the state. Also discussed are the industry's view on the transportation aspects of the DOE's proposal to include a monitored retrievable storage facility as an integral part of the federal waste management system and the appropriate role of states, localities, and tribal authorities in the regulation of the highway and rail routing of radioactive materials

  13. The healthcare workers' clinical skill set requirements for a uniformed international response to the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa: the Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Dennis; Charlebois, P B; Kao, R

    2016-06-01

    Since December 2013, the Zaire Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic has ravaged West Africa. In collaboration with the Public Health Agency of Canada, healthcare workers (HCWs) and support staff from the Royal Canadian Medical Services (RCMS) of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) were deployed to Kerry Town, Sierra Leone. A total of 79 RCMS personnel deployed over the course of the 6-month mission in collaboration with the British Armed Forces to support efforts in West Africa. The treatment centre was mandated to treat international and local HCWs exposed to the infection. The goal of the Ebola virus disease treatment unit (EVDTU) was to provide care to affected HCWs and a beacon to attract and engage foreign HCWs to work in one of the international non-governmental organisation Ebola treatment centres in Sierra Leone. We focus on the CAF experience at the Kerry Town Ebola treatment unit in Sierra Leone in particular on the various clinical skill sets demonstrated in physicians, nurses and medical technicians deployed to the EVDTU. We outline some of the staffing challenges that arose and suggest that the necessary clinical skills needed to effectively manage patients with EVD in an austere environment can be shared across a small and diverse team of healthcare providers. PMID:26987351

  14. Canadian hydrogen : current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary of hydrogen technology and details of current production and use of hydrogen in Canada were presented. Future demand for hydrogen was discussed. The aim of the report was to enable readers to better understand the significant size of the hydrogen industry. Canada is the largest per capita producer of hydrogen in the OECD, with production currently at 3.09 million tonnes per year. The current hydrogen surplus was attributed to a combination of short-term reductions in demand and excess capacity built in anticipation of growing demand. Mechanical and chemical processes that create hydrogen were reviewed, and details of prospective emerging technologies in hydrogen production, purification, transportation and storage were presented. Technical opportunities for hydrogen were explored. A regionalized inventory of hydrogen production in Canada was provided. Projected demands for 3 scenarios of hydrogen production were presented: (1) a business as usual perspective with no dramatic political or climatic impacts; (2) a carbon conscious agenda where major disturbances due to climate change have resulted in a focus on greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and fuel efficiency; and (3) a hydrogen priority path that promotes North American energy self-sufficiency and concerted actions by government to adopt the hydrogen economy. The production consequences of hydrogen demand under each scenario emphasized the potential size and location of Canada's hydrogen needs. It was concluded that Canadian companies and research facilities have established a strong technical and commercial presence in hydrogen production over the last 10 years. tabs., figs

  15. Warehousing and support activities for transportation in Central and Eastern Europe – regional disproportions and development perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Zimny, Artur; Zawieja-Żurowska, Karina

    2014-01-01

    In the article an attempt to present the differences between some regions of Central and Eastern Europe with regard to warehousing and support activities for transportation has been made and furthermore, the perspectives of development in this branch have been depicted. The results of the analysis based on the data provided by Eurostat (NACE code – H, division 52) indicate that warehousing and support activities for transportation are usually best developed in the regions where there are the ...

  16. 14 CFR 294.3 - General requirements for Canadian charter air taxi operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... air taxi operators. 294.3 Section 294.3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS General § 294.3 General requirements for Canadian charter air taxi operators. A Canadian charter air taxi operator...

  17. Providing cleaner air to Canadians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet is designed to explain salient aspects of the Ozone Annex, negotiated and signed recently by Canada and the United States, in a joint effort to improve air quality in North America. By significantly reducing the transboundary flows of air pollutants that cause smog, the Ozone Annex will benefit some 16 million people in central and eastern Canada and provide an example for a future round of negotiations to address concerns of the millions of Canadians and Americans who live in the border area between British Columbia and Washington State. The brochure provide summaries of the Canadian and American commitments, focusing on transportation, monitoring and reporting. The Ozone Annex complements other air quality initiatives by the Government of Canada enacted under the Environmental Protection Act, 1999. These measures include regulations to reduce sulphur content to 30 parts per million by Jan 1, 2005; proposing to restrict toxic particulate matter (PM) to less than 10 microns; establishing daily smog forecasts in the Maritimes and committing to a national program built upon existing smog advisories and forecasts in Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia; and investing in more clean air research through the newly created Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences

  18. Perspectives for Very High-Resolution Climate Simulations with Nested Models: Illustration of Potential in Simulating St. Lawrence River Valley Channelling Winds with the Fifth-Generation Canadian Regional Climate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélissa Cholette

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available With the refinement of grid meshes in regional climate models permitted by the increase in computing power, the grid telescoping or cascade method, already used in numerical weather prediction, can be applied to achieve very high-resolution climate simulations. The purpose of this study is two-fold: (1 to illustrate the perspectives offered by climate simulations on kilometer-scale grid meshes using the wind characteristics in the St. Lawrence River Valley (SLRV as the test-bench; and (2 to establish some constraints to be satisfied for the physical realism and the computational affordability of these simulations. The cascade method is illustrated using a suite of five one-way nested, time-slice simulations carried out with the fifth-generation Canadian Regional Climate Model, with grid meshes varying from roughly 81 km, successively to 27, 9, 3 and finally 1 km, over domains centered on the SLRV. The results show the added value afforded by very high-resolution meshes for a realistic simulation of the SLRV winds. Kinetic energy spectra are used to document the spin-up time and the effective resolution of the simulations as a function of their grid meshes. A pragmatic consideration is developed arguing that kilometer-scale simulations could be achieved at a reasonable computational cost with time-slice simulations of high impact climate events. This study lends confidence to the idea that climate simulations and projections at kilometer-scale could soon become operationally feasible, thus offering interesting perspectives for resolving features that are currently out of reach with coarser-mesh models.

  19. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Association 35. annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of the thirty-fifth annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association contain 22 papers organized in the following sessions: update on the status of the Canadian nuclear industry, non-proliferation and related political issues, nuclear waste disposal perspectives, regulatory issues, trade development, new markets, economics of nuclear electricity, public acceptance or rejection. In addition one paper from a CNA/CNS special session on nuclear diffraction is included. The individual papers have been abstracted separately

  20. Scenario Modeling Potential Eco-Efficiency Gains from a Transition to Organic Agriculture: Life Cycle Perspectives on Canadian Canola, Corn, Soy, and Wheat Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, N.; Arsenault, N.; Tyedmers, P.

    2008-12-01

    We used Life Cycle Assessment to scenario model the potential reductions in cumulative energy demand (both fossil and renewable) and global warming, acidifying, and ozone-depleting emissions associated with a hypothetical national transition from conventional to organic production of four major field crops [canola ( Brassica rapa), corn ( Zea mays), soy ( Glycine max), and wheat ( Triticum aestivum)] in Canada. Models of these systems were constructed using a combination of census data, published values, and the requirements for organic production described in the Canadian National Organic Standards in order to be broadly representative of the similarities and differences that characterize these disparate production technologies. Our results indicate that organic crop production would consume, on average, 39% as much energy and generate 77% of the global warming emissions, 17% of the ozone-depleting emissions, and 96% of the acidifying emissions associated with current national production of these crops. These differences were almost exclusively due to the differences in fertilizers used in conventional and organic farming and were most strongly influenced by the higher cumulative energy demand and emissions associated with producing conventional nitrogen fertilizers compared to the green manure production used for biological nitrogen fixation in organic agriculture. Overall, we estimate that a total transition to organic production of these crops in Canada would reduce national energy consumption by 0.8%, global warming emissions by 0.6%, and acidifying emissions by 1.0% but have a negligible influence on reducing ozone-depleting emissions.

  1. Site remediation and risk assessment in Canada: current CPPI activities and a vision for the 21. century - a perspective from the Canadian Petroleum Products Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of site remediation in the Canadian petroleum products industry was discussed. It was estimated that the cost to clean up the nearly 100,000 contaminated sites in Canada would be in the order of $20 billion. One alternative to the high cost of clean up is the use of risk assessment for the development of soil remediation criteria that would be appropriate to the real impact of a given contaminated site, instead of the use of arbitrary criteria that are intended to protect all sites. In this way, most dollars would be spent at cleaning up the highest risk sites. Recommendations were made as to how the science and the administration of risk assessments could be improved. It was suggested that a more holistic approach to site remediation must be taken. The issues of risk, risk trade-offs, cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness and prioritization within the site remediation context was also discussed. A comparative study of two risk assessment models, the ASTM-RBCA model used in Atlantic Canada, and the B.C. Vapour Intrusion Model Validation study was described. 23 refs., 3 tabs

  2. Scenario modeling potential eco-efficiency gains from a transition to organic agriculture: life cycle perspectives on Canadian canola, corn, soy, and wheat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, N; Arsenault, N; Tyedmers, P

    2008-12-01

    We used Life Cycle Assessment to scenario model the potential reductions in cumulative energy demand (both fossil and renewable) and global warming, acidifying, and ozone-depleting emissions associated with a hypothetical national transition from conventional to organic production of four major field crops [canola (Brassica rapa), corn (Zea mays), soy (Glycine max), and wheat (Triticum aestivum)] in Canada. Models of these systems were constructed using a combination of census data, published values, and the requirements for organic production described in the Canadian National Organic Standards in order to be broadly representative of the similarities and differences that characterize these disparate production technologies. Our results indicate that organic crop production would consume, on average, 39% as much energy and generate 77% of the global warming emissions, 17% of the ozone-depleting emissions, and 96% of the acidifying emissions associated with current national production of these crops. These differences were almost exclusively due to the differences in fertilizers used in conventional and organic farming and were most strongly influenced by the higher cumulative energy demand and emissions associated with producing conventional nitrogen fertilizers compared to the green manure production used for biological nitrogen fixation in organic agriculture. Overall, we estimate that a total transition to organic production of these crops in Canada would reduce national energy consumption by 0.8%, global warming emissions by 0.6%, and acidifying emissions by 1.0% but have a negligible influence on reducing ozone-depleting emissions. PMID:18574623

  3. Strategies for effective goals of care discussions and decision-making: perspectives from a multi-centre survey of Canadian hospital-based healthcare providers

    OpenAIRE

    Roze des Ordons, Amanda L; Sharma, Nishan; Heyland, Daren K; You, John J

    2015-01-01

    Background Communication gaps impact the quality of patient care. Previous research has focused on communication barriers rather than seeking solutions. Our aim was to identify strategies for effective communication and decision-making about goals of care for medical interventions in serious illness, from the perspectives of hospital-based healthcare providers. Methods A cross-sectional survey composed of closed- and open-ended questions about goals of care communication and decision-making w...

  4. Markets for Canadian oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference presentation presented charts and graphs on the market for Canadian oil. Graphs included crude oil and natural gas prices and heavy oil discount differential. Graphs depicting heavy oil economics such as bitumen blending with condensate were also included along with global crude oil reserves by country. Information on oil sands projects in the Athabasca, Peace River, and Cold Lake deposits was presented along with graphs on oil sands supply costs by recovery type; Canadian production for conventional, oil sands and offshore oil; new emerging oil sands crude types; and 2003 market demand by crude type in the United States and Canada. Maps included Canada and United States crude oil pipelines; western Canadian crude oil markets; long term oil pipeline expansion projects; Canadian and United States crude oil pipeline alternatives; and potential tanker markets for Canadian oil sands production. Lastly, the presentation provided graphs on 2003 refinery crude demand and California market demand. tabs., figs

  5. Roundtable Discussion on the Canadian Economy


    OpenAIRE

    McArthur, Doug; Ivanova, Iglika; Dobrzanski, Chris; Garrosino, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    Since the 2008 global financial earthquake, the world economy has continued to be turbulent.

The roundtable discussion focussed on the Canadian economy within the 2012 global environment, but with a specific Vancouver and BC based perspective. Each of the panellists, from their own vantage point, talked about concerns with the economy, opportunities in the mid and long term for BC, and public policy ideas that they would put forward to improve the BC economy. The discussion was  followe...

  6. Ethical and legal implications of the risks of medical tourism for patients: a qualitative study of Canadian health and safety representatives’ perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Valorie A; Turner, Leigh; Cohen, I Glenn; Bristeir, Janet; Snyder, Jeremy; Casey, Victoria; Whitmore, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Medical tourism involves patients’ intentional travel to privately obtain medical care in another country. Empirical evidence regarding health and safety risks facing medical tourists is limited. Consideration of this issue is dominated by speculation and lacks meaningful input from people with specific expertise in patient health and safety. We consulted with patient health and safety experts in the Canadian province of British Columbia to explore their views concerning risks that medical tourists may be exposed to. Herein, we report on the findings, linking them to existing ethical and legal issues associated with medical tourism. Design We held a focus group in September 2011 in Vancouver, British Columbia with professionals representing different domains of patient health and safety expertise. The focus group was transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Participants Seven professionals representing the domains of tissue banking, blood safety, health records, organ transplantation, dental care, clinical ethics and infection control participated. Results Five dominant health and safety risks for outbound medical tourists were identified by participants: (1) complications; (2) specific concerns regarding organ transplantation; (3) transmission of antibiotic-resistant organisms; (4) (dis)continuity of medical documentation and (5) (un)informed decision-making. Conclusions Concern was expressed that medical tourism might have unintended and undesired effects upon patients’ home healthcare systems. The individual choices of medical tourists could have significant public consequences if healthcare facilities in their home countries must expend resources treating postoperative complications. Participants also expressed concern that medical tourists returning home with infections, particularly antibiotic-resistant infections, could place others at risk of exposure to infections that are refractory to standard treatment regimens and thereby pose

  7. Financial outlook for the Canadian gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The financial outlook for the Canadian natural gas industry is discussed in terms of the price of Canadian gas and its production and transportation costs. Demand growth for natural gas is fairly steady, reflecting economic growth and technological advances. Supply growth is more volatile, overshooting demand growth in an up market and undershooting in a down market. In the past year and a half, gas prices have improved as the supply deliverability surplus has eroded. It is predicted that supply will again exceed demand and prices will decline, the length of this price cycle being a few years. Production costs for western Canadian gas had been declining during the mid-1980s to 1991, and current replacement costs average ca $1.87/GJ. It is doubtful that fieldgate costs will increase to overtake fieldgate market prices and the Canadian gas industry will remain in a healthy state. The availability and cost of gas transport, however, is critically important. The major costs of pipeline transport are fixed demand charges and the value of transport services out of western Canada is determined by the demand and the supply (the location and size of the pipeline infrastructure, which is essentially fixed over short to medium time frames). This value can vary significantly as the demand for pipeline space varies both daily and seasonally. Excess pipeline capacity is generally good for the Canadian producing industry since it lowers transport costs, but excess capacity also plays a role in linking producing-basin and market area prices to one another. This is illustrated for the case of Alberta and Texas gas prices, which show higher correlation with falling load factors on ex-Alberta pipeline capacity. 5 figs

  8. Basic Living Expenses for the Canadian Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnie-Jeanne MacDonald; Doug Andrews; Brown, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Our research undertakes to determine the basic living expenses required by Canadian seniors living in different circumstances in terms of age, gender, city of residence, household size, homeowner or renter, means of transportation and health status. The paper develops required expenses for food, shelter, health care, transportation and miscellaneous. The research identifies the typical expenses of seniors in each of these categories. Using 2001 as our base year, we follow the US Elder Standar...

  9. The Integration Challenge: Connecting International Students with Their Canadian Peers. CBIE Research in Brief #2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Bureau for International Education (CBIE) - Bureau canadien de l’éducation internationale (BCEI), 2015

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of international students themselves, this paper identifies both internal and external barriers that impede the formation of friendships between international students and their Canadian counterparts across Canada's post-secondary campuses. Shedding light on why international students do not make friends with Canadian students…

  10. A new global regime of civil nuclear liability: Canadian membership in the international conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is three-fold: (i) to provide information on the Canadian regime for third party nuclear liability; (ii) to provide an overview of current efforts to revise and update Canadian legislation in this area; and (iii) to present Canada's perspective on international nuclear liability and the prospect of joining one of the international conventions in the area. (author)

  11. Bilingualism: A Canadian Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    Bilingualism in French and English is a much-to-be hoped for common and shared characteristic of Canadian citizenship—even though to date the effect of forty years of the Official Languages Act has been most marked in government services and among various Canadian elites. Although it is important that Canada hold onto a goal of the widest possible bilingualism,more modest objectives are outlined for the years immediately ahead.

  12. Diverse Functional Roles of Monosaccharide Transporters and their Homologs in Vascular Plants: A Physiological Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas L. Slewinski

    2011-01-01

    Vascular plants contain two gene families that encode monosaccharide transporter proteins. The classical monosaccharide transporter(-like)gene superfamily is large and functionally diverse, while the recently identified SWEET transporter family is smaller and, thus far, only found to transport glucose. These transporters play essential roles at many levels, ranging from organelles to the whole plant. Many family members are essential for cellular homeostasis and re-productive success. Although most transporters do not directly participate in long-distance transport, their indirect roles greatly impact carbon allocation and transport flux to the heterotrophic tissues of the plant. Functional characterization of some members from both gene families has revealed their diverse roles in carbohydrate partitioning, phloem function,resource allocation, plant defense, and sugar signaling. This review highlights the broad impacts and implications of monosaccharide transport by describing some of the functional roles of the monosaccharide transporter(-like)superfamily and the SWEET transporter family.

  13. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Association 31. annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the technical sessions from the 31. Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association. Topics of discussion include: the role of nuclear energy in the global energy future, public participation in energy policy making, CANDU 3 in Saskatchewan, new technologies, perspectives on global warming, components of successful nuclear programs, and Canada's nuclear challenges

  14. Canadian competitive advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of the Canadian petrochemical industry was outlined, emphasizing the proximity to feedstocks as the principal advantage enjoyed by the industry over its international competitors. Annual sales statistics for 1995 were provided. Key players in the Canadian petrochemical industry (Nova, Dow, DuPont, Methanex, Esso, Union Carbide, Shell and Celanese), their share of the market and key products were noted. Manufacturing facilities are located primarily in Alberta, southern Ontario and Quebec. The feedstock supply infrastructure, historical and alternative ethane pricing in Canada and the US, the North American market for petrochemicals, the competitiveness of the industry, tax competitiveness among Canadian provinces and the US, the Canada - US unit labour cost ratio, ethylene facility construction costs in Canada relative to the US Gulf Coast, and projected 1997 financial requirements were reviewed. 19 figs

  15. Canadian Irradiation Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Irradiation Centre is a non-profit cooperative project between Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Radiochemical Company and Universite du Quebec, Institut Armand-Frappier, Centre for Applied Research in Food Science. The Centre's objectives are to develop, demonstrate and promote Canada's radiation processing technology and its applications by conducting applied research; training technical, professional and scientific personnel; educating industry and government; demonstrating operational and scientific procedures; developing processing procedures and standards, and performing product and market acceptance trials. This pamphlet outlines the history of radoation technology and the services offered by the Canadian Irradiation Centre

  16. Canadian beef quality audit.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Jewison, G; M. Mann; Cherry, B; Altwasser, B; Lower, R; Wiggins, K; Dejonge, R; Thorlakson, B; Moss, E.; C. Mills; Grogan, H

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted in 4 Canadian processing plants in 1995-96 to determine the prevalence of quality defects in Canadian cattle. One percent of the annual number of cattle processed in Canada were evaluated on the processing floor and 0.1% were graded in the cooler. Brands were observed on 37% and multiple brands on 6% of the cattle. Forty percent of the cattle had horns, 20% of which were scurs, 33% were stubs, 10% were tipped, and 37% were full length. Tag (mud and manure on the hide) wa...

  17. Public transport service quality and sustainable development: a community stakeholder perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Too; George Earl

    2010-01-01

    A key element in achieving sustainability's triple-bottom-line goals is a good public transport system. Many studies have shown the relationship between effective public transport services and sustainable development at the city level. The purpose of this study is to introduce and use a SERVQUAL framework to measure public transport services within a master-planned community in Australia. The stakeholder survey findings suggest a wide gap between community expectations of public transport ser...

  18. Canadian heavy water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews Canadian experience in the production of heavy water, presents a long-term supply projection, relates this projection to the anticipated long-term electrical energy demand, and highlights principal areas for further improvement that form the bulk of our research and development program on heavy water processes

  19. Twitter and Canadian Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Max

    2012-01-01

    An emerging group of leaders in Canadian education has attracted thousands of followers. They've made Twitter an extension of their lives, delivering twenty or more tweets a day that can include, for example, links to media articles, research, new ideas from education bloggers, or to their own, or simply a personal thought. At their best,…

  20. Reform in Canadian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 67 Canadian university vice presidents and 66 deans concerning reform in recent years found that the many changes reported were modest and reactive rather than bold and proactive. Most common changes involved strategic planning, retrenchment, curriculum expansion, response to enrollment changes, administrative restructuring, and more…

  1. Canadian Red Cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian Red Cross is guided by its Fundamental Principles--humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity, and universality--and organized in a traditional geographic hierarchical structure. Among the characteristics that have contributed to its success are a budgeting process that starts at the local level, measurement of program outcomes, and coordinated fundraising activities at the regional level. PMID:18551842

  2. Decoupling urban transport from GHG emissions in Indian cities-A critical review and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How to sustain rapid economic and urban growth with minimised detriment to environment is a key challenge for sustainable development and climate change mitigation in developing countries, which face constraints of technical and financial resources scarcity as well as dearth of infrastructure governance capacity. This paper attempts to address this question by investigating the driving forces of transport demand and relevant policy measures that facilitate mitigating GHG emissions in the urban transport sector in Indian cities based on a critical review of the literature. Our overview of existing literature and international experiences suggests that it is critical to improve urban governance in transport infrastructure quality and develop efficient public transport, coupled with integrated land use/transport planning as well as economic instruments. This will allow Indian cities to embark on a sustainable growth pathway by decoupling transport services demand of GHG emissions in the longer term. Appropriate policy instruments need to be selected to reconcile the imperatives of economic and urban growth, aspiration to higher quality of life, improvements in social welfare, urban transport-related energy consumption and GHG emissions mitigation target in Indian cities. - Highlights: → Investigating the relevant policies that facilitate mitigating GHG emissions in urban transport in Indian cities. → Determining the factors of increase in energy demand and carbon emissions in transport. → Improving urban governance in transport infrastructure with integrated transport planning. → Designing and implementing the policy and economic instruments for low-carbon urban transport in India.

  3. Congestive Traffic Failure: The Case for High-Occupancy and Express Toll Lanes in Canadian Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Dachis

    2011-01-01

    Congestion on Canadian highways is having a significant negative economic impact on major Canadian cities. Rather than face the political challenge of introducing road tolls to discourage traffic, governments have chosen to build carpool lanes on urban highways, despite evidence that these lanes have limited effectiveness in curbing congestion. Policymakers in major Canadian cities need realistic options for reducing the economic cost of congestion and increasing revenue for transportation in...

  4. Probabilistic safety assessment for radioactive material transport - A perspective and example application from the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All the UK legislation to assure the safe transport of radioactive materials (RAM) is closely based on the IAEA Transport Regulations (IAEA 1985). In common with other countries where similar legislation is in place, the UK safety record for both the normal transport of RAM and accident situations is very good. The UK Competent Authority places reliance on the IAEA Transport Regulations to ensure that this record is maintained. What, then, are the reasons for undertaking Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) for UK transport operations? Reasons are advanced in this paper and illustrated with an example of work recently undertaken

  5. The Impact of Oceanic Heat Transport on the Atmospheric Circulation: a Thermodynamic Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Schröder, Alexander; Lunkeit, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates how global thermodynamic properties of the climate system are affected by the changes in the intensity of the imposed oceanic heat transport in an atmospheric general circulation model in aqua-planet configuration. Increasing the poleward oceanic heat transport results in an overall increase in the surface temperature and a decrease in the equator-to-pole surface temperature difference as a result of the ice-albedo feedback. Following the classical ansatz by Stone, the atmospheric heat transport changes in such a way that the total poleward heat transport remains almost unchanged. We also find that the efficiency of the climate machine, the intensity of the Lorenz energy cycle and the material entropy production of the system decline with increased oceanic heat transport which suggests that the climate system becomes less efficient and turns into a state of reduced entropy production, as the enhanced oceanic transport performs a stronger large-scale mixing between geophysical fl...

  6. Policy instruments to limit negative environmental impacts from increased international transport: An economic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dender, Kurt; Crist, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Transport activities have adverse environmental and health impacts, of which local and regional air pollution, climate change, and noise impacts are the most important. This paper is a non-comprehensive overview of existing and potential policies to deal with these negative impacts, with a focus on “international transport”. We define “international transport” as those transport activities that are mainly derived from the globalization of economic activity, not as cross-border transport flows...

  7. A Perspective of Transportation Development for Bintuni Regency in West Papua-Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Jinca, Muhammad Yamin

    2014-01-01

    Bintuni Regency in West Papua Province, can be accessed by sea and air transportation from Manokwari, Sorong and it???s a road tansport from Manokwari. The study aims to analyze regional resources of Bintuni Regency which is supported by transportation, availability of infrastructure and transportation services, to support development. The method used was interview with questionnaires and secondary data collection from relevant institute. Regional potency and availability of infrastructure an...

  8. Power generation choices: a canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada has abundant reserves of all the major energy resources but regional variations in their distribution have shaped the development of the utilities serving these regions. Since the 1970's rising costs have reversed the earlier downward trend and the risks associated with very large projects have changed the approach to planning. Overall, however, environmental requirements have had the greatest impact on utility planning. The rising need to consider residual environmental impacts or externalities and the growing importance of demand side measures are becoming major influences. (authors). 2 tabs

  9. Nuclear industry prospects: A Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada, with its proven, safe and versatile CANDU reactor is well poised for the second half-century of nuclear fission. Canada's nuclear pedigree goes back to the turn-of-the-century work of Ernest Rutherford in Montreal. This year, Canada's nuclear industry celebrates the 50th anniversary of the start-up of its first research reactor at Chalk River. Last year, the pioneering work of Bert ram Blockhouse in Physics was honoured with a Nobel Prize. Future international success for the nuclear industry, such as has been achieved here in Korea, depends on continued cooperative and collaborative team work between the public and private sectors, continued strong research and development backing by the government, and new strategic partnerships. The biggest challenge is financing for the emerging markets. The brightness or dimness of future prospects are relative to the intensity of the lessons learned from history. In Canada we have a fairly long nuclear pedigree, It goes back almost a century to 1898, when Ernest Rutherford set up a world centre at McGill University in Montreal for research into the structure of the atom and into radioactivity

  10. Twentieth century monetary regimes in Canadian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Harley, C. Knick

    2001-01-01

    Three monetary regimes - the gold standard, a regime of 'socialism in many countries' and the post-Bretton Woods regime - and difficult transitions between them have shaped the economic history of the twentieth century. The regimes consisted of coherent sets of government policies and equally importantly, the publics expectations about policy and each made different decisions about which of the trilemma of policy goals - fixed exchange rates, domestic policy independence and integrated capita...

  11. Canadian Perspectives on Sex Stereotyping in Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Alice E.; Whipple, Thomas W.

    Based on research findings that sex stereotyping used for product commercials is offensive and often ineffective, recommendations for change have been proposed to the advertising industry. Women, in particular, have been portrayed in advertising in traditional domestic roles, emphasizing the consumer role, especially in television advertising.…

  12. Women and Education: A Canadian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskell, Jane, Ed.; McLaren, Arlene, Ed.

    This four-part book contains 16 papers that explore the relationship between feminist research and education, especially in Canada. The papers in the first part, "Women as Mothers, Women as Teachers," are as follows: "The Evolution of the Sexual Division of Labour in Teaching" (Danylewycz, Light, Prentice); "More than a Labour of Love" (Task Force…

  13. Forty Years of Kinesiology: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Digby

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a brief history of the world's first two kinesiology programs at the University of Waterloo and Simon Fraser University, and then gives an overview of the development of kinesiology in Canada over the last 40 years. The issues addressed include departmental affiliation and accreditation, the development of provincial and…

  14. Energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions from urban passenger transportation versus availability of renewable energy: The example of the Canadian Lower Fraser Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of all private and transit vehicles from the Lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia, Canada are analysed for the year 2000. The energy figures are then compared with the Province's renewable energy potential. Results indicate that electric trolley buses and the automated rapid transit SkyTrain were eight times as energy efficient as private vehicles. These two modes were also 100 times as emission efficient as private vehicles in terms of greenhouse gas emitted per passenger-kilometer. Analysis of a minimal greenhouse gas emissions scenario, based on local renewable energy resources, electrolytic hydrogen production, and conversion of all private vehicles to fuel-cell technology indicates that such a strategy would utilize between 40% and 60% of the Province's renewable energy resources. We conclude that, if the use of renewable energy resources is chosen to reduce emissions from urban passenger transportation, probability of success will be increased by reducing the sector's energy demand through a transfer of ridership to the most energy efficient modes

  15. Canadian fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Research Council of Canada is establishing a coordinated national program of fusion research and development that is planned to grow to a total annual operating level of about $20 million in 1985. The long-term objective of the program is to put Canadian industry in a position to manufacture sub-systems and components of fusion power reactors. In the near term the program is designed to establish a minimum base of scientific and technical expertise sufficient to make recognized contributions and thereby gain access to the international effort. The Canadian program must be narrowly focussed on a few specializations where Canada has special indigenous skills or technologies. The programs being funded are the Tokamak de Varennes, the Fusion Fuels Technology Project centered on tritium management, and high-power gas laser technology and associated diagnostic instrumentation

  16. Canadian acid rain policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On March 13 of 1991, the Prime Minister of Canada, Brian Mulroney and the President of the United States of America, George Bush, signed an Agreement on Air Quality. This agreement enshrines Principle 21 of the 1972 Stockholm Declaration which states that countries are to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction do not cause damage to the environment of another country. This agreement also includes provisions for controlling acid rain. The Agreement on Air Quality followed years of discussion between the two countries and is a significant milestone in the history of Canadian acid rain policy. This paper begins by describing Canadian acid rain policy and its evolution. The paper also outlines the Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement and the effect of the acid rain provisions on deposition in Canada. Finally, it considers the future work that must be undertaken to further resolve the acid rain problem. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  17. Canadian Mathematical Congress

    CERN Document Server

    1977-01-01

    For two weeks in August, 1975 more than 140 mathematicians and other scientists gathered at the Universite de Sherbrooke. The occasion was the 15th Biennial Seminar of the Canadian Mathematical Congress, entitled Mathematics and the Life Sciences. Participants in this inter­ disciplinary gathering included researchers and graduate students in mathematics, seven different areas of biological science, physics, chemistry and medical science. Geographically, those present came from the United States and the United Kingdom as well as from academic departments and government agencies scattered across Canada. In choosing this particular interdisciplinary topic the programme committee had two chief objectives. These were to promote Canadian research in mathematical problems of the life sciences, and to encourage co-operation and exchanges between mathematical scientists" biologists and medical re­ searchers. To accomplish these objective the committee assembled a stim­ ulating programme of lectures and talks. Six ...

  18. Financing Canadian international operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A primer on financing international operations by Canadian corporations was provided. Factors affecting the availability to project finance (location, political risk), the various forms of financing (debt, equity, and combinations), the main sources of government backed financing to corporations (the International Finance Corporation) (IFC), the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the Overseas Property Insurance Corporation (OPIC), government or agency guarantees, political risk coverage, the use of offshore financial centres, and the where, when and how these various organizations operate, were reviewed. Examples of all of the above, taken from the experiences of Canadian Occidental Petroleum of Calgary in the U.S., in South America, in the Middle and Far East, and in Kazakhstan, were used as illustrations. figs

  19. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  20. THE PERSPECTIVES OF MARITIME TRANSPORT IN EU AND ITS INTEGRATION IN THE SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voicu-Dorobantu Roxana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In a globalised economy transport is one of the most important factors linking the national economies and maritime transport is the main way to deliver goods in international trade. For any international company, choosing the appropriate transportation as part of the logistic solution is vital for its competitiveness. In the context of the economic crisis, CEE strategic location factors play an important role for regional companies which adapt and change their logistic services by developing new scenarios for the shipping industry in order to obtain a better position on the global market. In addition to a favourable geographical location CEE has several other important arguments, like sufficient harbours for developing container terminals to launch extensive container transport transit. The most important recent trends in logistics are shown, as well as the framework of the EU maritime transport.

  1. Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon H Hoeppner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic tuberculosis (TB was almost certainly present in Canadian aboriginal people (aboriginal Canadians denotes status Indians, Inuit, nonstatus Indians and metis as reported by Statistics Canada before the Old World traders arrived. However, the social changes that resulted from contact with these traders created the conditions that converted endemic TB into epidemic TB. The incidence of TB varied inversely with the time interval from this cultural collision, which began on the east coast in the 16th century and ended in the Northern Territories in the 20th century. This relatively recent epidemic explains why the disease is more frequent in aboriginal children than in Canadian-born nonaboriginal people. Treatment plans must account for the socioeconomic conditions and cultural characteristics of the aboriginal people, especially healing models and language. Prevention includes bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and chemoprophylaxis, and must account for community conditions, such as rates of suicide, which have exceeded the rate of TB. The control of TB requires a centralized program with specifically directed funding. It must include a program that works in partnership with aboriginal communities.

  2. Resource Allocation for Sustainable Urban Transit from a Transport Diversity Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Min Feng

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Different transport stakeholders have different needs for transport infrastructure and services. Meeting the needs of all stakeholders implies a trade-off of benefits and costs between supply and demand and creates transport diversity issues. However, the literature has largely ignored these issues. Transport diversity can assess the level to which important needs are satisfied equitably, and monitor whether transportation systems are moving towards sustainability by confirming the targets and basic level of quality of life. Based on the concept of transport diversity, this study utilizes fuzzy multi-objective programming to solve non-linear multi-objective problems involving urban public transit systems to determine the impact of resource allocation on needs satisfaction in relation to stakeholder behaviors. The proposed approach avoids problems of inefficient and inequitable resource allocation. A real-life case is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of applying the proposed methodology. Furthermore, empirical outcomes show that recent investments allocated to public transit systems considered equitable stakeholder satisfaction for both mass rapid transit (MRT and bus, and also promoted transport diversity in the Taipei metropolitan area.

  3. The transport of radioactive material in New Zealand. A regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Radiation Laboratory (NRL), acting as New Zealand's regulatory authority and within a regulatory system that implements the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) transport regulations, has developed an approach to the transport of radioactive materials that takes account of New Zealand's relatively low population (less than 4 million) and its nuclear power free status. Within New Zealand there is, on a world scale, little radioactive material transported. NRL has taken a proactive role in communication, provision of advice and education. This paper discusses NRL's approach and raises issues pertinent to countries similar to New Zealand. (author)

  4. Cadmium transport and tolerance in rice: perspectives for reducing grain cadmium accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Uraguchi, Shimpei; Fujiwara, Toru

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal which harms human health. In Japan, a major source of human Cd-intake is rice grains and contamination of paddy soils by Cd and accumulation of Cd in rice grains are the serious agricultural issues. There also exist Cd contamination of rice and its toxicity in several populations in countries including China and Thailand. Understanding the Cd transport mechanisms in rice can be a basis for regulating rice Cd transport and accumulation by molecular engineeri...

  5. Heat transport in low-dimensional materials: A review and perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiping Xu

    2016-01-01

    Heat transport is a key energetic process in materials and devices. The reduced sample size, low dimension of the problem and the rich spectrum of material imperfections introduce fruitful phenomena at nanoscale. In this review, we summarize recent progresses in the understanding of heat transport process in low-dimensional materials, with focus on the roles of defects, disorder, interfaces, and the quantum-mechanical effect. New physics uncovered from computational simulations, experimental ...

  6. Reforming transport pricing: an economist's perspective on equity, efficiency and acceptability

    OpenAIRE

    Mayeres, Inge; Proost, Stef

    2002-01-01

    This paper applies the traditional definition of equity and efficiency in economics to transport pricing. It is shown how this framework can also be used to define acceptability. The problems and potential of this approach are illustrated by examining the effects for Belgium of replacing current transport pricing by marginal social cost pricing. The welfare effects on different income groups of this pricing reform are shown for different income groups using a computable general equilibr...

  7. Regulatory Perspective on Potential Fuel Reconfiguration and Its Implication to High Burnup Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation - 13042

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    fuel storage and transportation. This paper discusses the staff's preliminary considerations on the safety implication of fuel reconfiguration with respect to nuclear safety (subcriticality control), radiation shielding, containment, the performance of the thermal functions of the packages, and the retrievability of the contents from regulatory perspective. (authors)

  8. Trends in transportation energy use, 1970--1988: An international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L.; Steiner, R.; Meyers, S.

    1992-05-01

    Personal mobility and timely movement of goods have become increasingly important around the world, and energy use for transportation has grown rapidly as a consequence. Energy is used in transportation for two rather different activities: moving people, which we refer to as passenger travel, and moving freight. While freight transport is closely connected to economic activity, much of travel is conducted for personal reasons. In the OECD countries, travel accounts for around 70% of total transportation energy use. In contrast, freight transport accounts for the larger share in the Former East Bloc and the developing countries (LDCs). In our analysis, we focus on three elements that shape transportation energy use: activity, which we measure in passenger-km (p-km) or tonne-km (t-km), modal structure (the share of total activity accounted for by various modes), and modal energy intensities (energy use per p-km or t-km). The modal structure of travel and freight transport is important because there are often considerable differences in energy intensity among modes. The average 1988 average energy use per p-km of different travel modes in the United States (US), West Germany, and Japan are illustrated. With the exception of rail in the US, bus and rail travel had much lower intensity than automobile and air travel. What is perhaps surprising is that the intensity of air travel is only slightly higher than that of automobile travel. This reflects the much higher utilization of vehicle capacity in air travel and the large share of automobile travel that takes place in urban traffic (automobile energy intensity in long-distance driving is much lower than the average over types of driving).

  9. The risk assesment in storage and transportation of dangerous substances - preoccupations and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a risk assessment model for dangerous substance storage and transportation. It will combine also qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods, the results being referred to the lethal risk at individual and social level. The model includes the main tasks to classify the risks and to achieve a scale of priorities. To achieve a proper analysis of a regional risk the following steps should be observed: a list of dangerous substances; the classification of storage and transportation activities in the area; the selection of those activities that can be included in the study; establishing the category of effects ; the estimation of consequences to the environment and people; the calculation of major accidents frequency; the risk level classification. Generally, in the global risk assessment in industrial sector one neglects the risk induced by the transport of dangerous substances. Because of that the decision process in the risk management field can be seriously affected and the initiatives to reduce the risk and to decrease the consequences of potential accidents can be reduced, too. The model will be applied to evaluate the risk due major accidents occurring in the storage of dangerous substances and their transportation on roads, railway or by pipes. It represents a prime action plan at national level to evaluate and analyze the transportation risk. (authors)

  10. Land use and transport relationships: A perspective from the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seskin, S.N.

    1995-12-31

    As transportation and land use planners and policy makers world wide grapple with the increasingly challenging consequences of automobile use, there is a growing need to communicate globally about both the knowledge of interactions between transport and land use and the ability to analyze these relationships in a systematic manner. As the world`s largest consumer of energy in general and petroleum in particular, the United States continues to conduct research and innovate in integrated transportation and land use policy issues. The need for improving the state of knowledge and practice, however, is more compelling in developing nations, such as Chile and Thailand, from which, despite their transportation and environmental problems, the United States in fact has much to learn. Nevertheless it is instructive to take a long and broad look at the way the United States is planning and building urban environments. This paper focuses on four aspects of that effort. The first is the state of knowledge on the relationships between land use and travel demand. The second is the analytic tools used to evaluate these relationships. Third is the array of approaches used by government to integrate transport and land use. The last is the ways in which individuals and organizations outside of the formal structure of government participate in metropolitan planning and development.

  11. Mining Legal and Business Resources on Canadian Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Johal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the distinct nature of the Canadian banking system, it is important for novice researchers to know which business and legal resources to consult in order to quickly find information that is particular to Canadian banking. However, there are very few articles or monographs in the library literature that describe how to find information sources exclusively on this subject from a Canadian perspective. Most available publications tend to specialize in sources for the US banking and Federal Reserve System with little attention to Canada. The paper begins with a brief introduction to Canadian banking. From there, the authors demonstrate where researchers can find primary sources such as legislation, regulations and case law. In addition, this article identifies and discusses the different types of information found on the websites of associations and government agencies such as the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions, which supervises and regulates various areas of Canada’s financial system. Also discussed are secondary sources such as industry research and reports that are available from reliable websites and subscription-based resources. This paper also explores the best business and legal databases for researchers. Based on results from searching in periodical directories and indexes, the paper additionally provides a description of the most pertinent academic, trade and general publications relevant to the Canadian banking system and where their contents are indexed.

  12. Canadian Petroleum Products Institute 1995 annual review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute works on behalf of its member companies involved in the refining, distribution, and marketing of petroleum products. It is involved in the development of industry policy of business, environmental, health and safety issues. The 1995 annual review presented a summary of industry operations and trends. This included a summary of imports and exports of petroleum products, Canadian refining areas and pipelines, refinery utilization rates, and demand versus capacity for refined petroleum products. Demand for petroleum products increased in 1995, with the transportation sector representing over two-thirds of petroleum products sold. The debate concerning the use of the octane enhancing additive MMT in gasoline in Canada, was discussed. The additive reduces air emissions, but has been alleged to cause failures of some new vehicle emission control monitoring systems. A review of institute highlights included a table of average price of regular gasoline in Canada since 1980, gasoline prices for major markets, and average Canadian pump price components. 14 figs

  13. The development of the Canadian peat industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibault, J.J. (New Brunswick Dept. of Natural Resources and Energy, Bathurst, NB (Canada). Mineral Resources Division)

    1994-02-01

    Peatlands occupy 111 million hectares or about 12% of Canada's land surface and are principally located in the boreal region of the country. Most of the bog surveys which were initiated in Canada since 1908 have been prompted by a national interest in gaining fuel self-sufficiency, but the production of peat has almost always been exclusively for horticultural purposes. The birth of the Canadian peat industry dates back to the early 1940s, when the United States' traditional supplies from Europe were cut off during the Second World War. Between 1938 and 1992, the production of horticultural peat has grown from 4,000 and 745,000 tonnes, making Canada the world's third largest producer of horticultural peat. Canadian peat is exported to 25 countries. In 1992, the United States accounted for 89% of all exports, and Japan ranked second with 10%. In 1992, the total value of the production was estimated at 108 million dollars and provided employment for thousands of people in rural areas. The present industry owes its existence to an abundant supply of sphagnum moss located near population centres and in proximity to important transportation corridors. The continued development of the Canadian peat industry depends on establishing sound environmental practices, examining alternate uses for peat and exploring new market opportunities. 27 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Medium and long term perspectives of Inland Waterway Transport in the European Union. Executive Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-01-15

    If inland shipping is to remain the greenest mode of transport, it will need to improve its environmental act in the coming years. If it fails to do so, it will be overtaken by road transport. That is one of the conclusions of the title study. In this study CE Delft performed the analyses of emissions and offers recommendations for reducing them. The key issue in this regard is to create financial incentives for ship owners to invest in modern, clean engines and retrofit technologies, complementing standards for new engines. The study will be used as a basis for drawing up policy on inland shipping towards 2020, in line with the EU White Paper on transport policy.

  15. The environmental assessment of nuclear materials disposition options: A transportation perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy has undertaken a program to evaluate and select options for the long-term storage and disposition of fissile materials declared surplus to defense needs as a result of the end of the Cold War. The transport of surplus fissile material will be an important and highly visible aspect of the environmental impact studies and other planning documents required for implementation of the disposition options. This report defines the roles and requirements for transportation of fissile materials in the program, and discusses an existing methodology for determining the environmental impact in terms of risk. While it will be some time before specific alternatives are chosen that will permit the completion of detailed risk calculations, the analytical models for performing the probabilistic risk assessments already exist with much of the supporting data related to the transportation system. This report summarizes the various types of data required and identifies sources for that data

  16. Canadian photovoltaic industry directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory has been prepared to help potential photovoltaic (PV) customers identify Canadian-based companies who can meet their needs, and to help product manufacturers and distributors identify potential new clients and/or partners within the PV industry for new and improved technologies. To assist the reader, an information matrix is provided that identifies the product and service types offered by each firm and its primary clients served. A list of companies by province or territory is also included. The main section lists companies in alphabetical order. Information presented for each includes address, contact person, prime activity, geographic area served, languages in which services are offered, and a brief company profile

  17. The Canadian safeguards program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Canada provides technical support to the International Atomic Energy Agency for the development of safeguards relevant to Canadian designed and built nuclear facilities. Some details of this program are discussed, including the philosophy and development of CANDU safeguards systems; the unique equipment developed for these systems; the provision of technical experts; training programs; liaison with other technical organizations; research and development; implementation of safeguards systems at various nuclear facilities; and the anticipated future direction of the safeguards program

  18. Hybrid-Electric and Distributed Propulsion Technologies for Large Commercial Transports: A NASA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madavan, Nateri K.; Del Rosario, Ruben; Jankovsky, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    Develop and demonstrate technologies that will revolutionize commercial transport aircraft propulsion and accelerate development of all-electric aircraft architectures. Enable radically different propulsion systems that can meet national environmental and fuel burn reduction goals for subsonic commercial aircraft. Focus on future large regional jets and single-aisle twin (Boeing 737- class) aircraft for greatest impact on fuel burn, noise and emissions. Research horizon is long-term but with periodic spinoff of technologies for introduction in aircraft with more- and all-electric architectures. Research aligned with new NASA Aeronautics strategic R&T thrusts in areas of transition to low-carbon propulsion and ultra-efficient commercial transports.

  19. On Realities of Canadian Multiculturalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦辰

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a multicultural country which was mainly established by immigrants. Just because of that, Canadian govern⁃ment has carried out the policy of multiculturalism since1970s. However, it has encountered many problems such as policy con⁃flicts, national identity, democracy-inquiry and racial discrimination, etc. Hence the Canadian multiculturalism has been in a di⁃lemma.

  20. Modeling conversion and transport phenomena in solid-state fermentation: a review and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahardjo, Y.S.P.; Tramper, J.; Rinzema, A.

    2006-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is accompanied inevitably by development of concentration and temperature gradients within the substrate particles and microbial biofilms. These gradients are needed for driving the transport of substrates and products. In addition, concentration gradients have been su

  1. Importance of interfaces in governing thermal transport in composite materials: modeling and experimental perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ajit K; Farmer, Barry L; Varshney, Vikas; Sihn, Sangwook; Lee, Jonghoon; Ganguli, Sabyasachi

    2012-02-01

    Thermal management in polymeric composite materials has become increasingly critical in the air-vehicle industry because of the increasing thermal load in small-scale composite devices extensively used in electronics and aerospace systems. The thermal transport phenomenon in these small-scale heterogeneous systems is essentially controlled by the interface thermal resistance because of the large surface-to-volume ratio. In this review article, several modeling strategies are discussed for different length scales, complemented by our experimental efforts to tailor the thermal transport properties of polymeric composite materials. Progress in the molecular modeling of thermal transport in thermosets is reviewed along with a discussion on the interface thermal resistance between functionalized carbon nanotube and epoxy resin systems. For the thermal transport in fiber-reinforced composites, various micromechanics-based analytical and numerical modeling schemes are reviewed in predicting the transverse thermal conductivity. Numerical schemes used to realize and scale the interface thermal resistance and the finite mean free path of the energy carrier in the mesoscale are discussed in the frame of the lattice Boltzmann-Peierls-Callaway equation. Finally, guided by modeling, complementary experimental efforts are discussed for exfoliated graphite and vertically aligned nanotubes based composites toward improving their effective thermal conductivity by tailoring interface thermal resistance. PMID:22295993

  2. Japanese perspectives and research on packaging, transport and storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japanese policy on spent fuel is reprocessing. Until, reprocessed, spent fuel shall be stored properly. This paper overviews current status of transport and storage of spent fuel with related research in Japan. The research was partly carried out under a contract of Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of the Japanese government

  3. Distribution of genetic polymorphisms of genes encoding drug metabolizing enzymes & drug transporters - a review with Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurusamy Umamaheswaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase I and II drug metabolizing enzymes (DME and drug transporters are involved in the absorption, distribution, metabolism as well as elimination of many therapeutic agents, toxins and various pollutants. Presence of genetic polymorphisms in genes encoding these proteins has been associated with marked inter-individual variability in their activity that could result in variation in drug response, toxicity as well as in disease predisposition. The emergent field pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics (PGx is a promising discipline, as it predicts disease risk, selection of proper medication with regard to response and toxicity, and appropriate drug dosage guidance based on an individual′s genetic make-up. Consequently, genetic variations are essential to understand the ethnic differences in disease occurrence, development, prognosis, therapeutic response and toxicity. For that reason, it is necessary to establish the normative frequency of these genes in a particular population before unraveling the genotype-phenotype associations. Although a fair amount of allele frequency data are available in Indian populations, the existing pharmacogenetic data have not been compiled into a database. This review was intended to compile the normative frequency distribution of the variants of genes encoding DMEs (CYP450s, TPMT, GSTs, COMT, SULT1A1, NAT2 and UGTs and transporter proteins (MDR1, OCT1 and SLCO1B1 with Indian perspective.

  4. The Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program involves research into the storage and transportation of used nuclear fuel, immobilization of fuel waste, and deep geological disposal of the immobilized waste. The program is now in the fourth year of a ten-year generic research and development phase. The objective of this phase of the program is to assess the safety and environmental aspects of the deep underground disposal of immobilized fuel waste in plutonic rock. The objectives of the research for each component of the program and the progress made to the end of 1983 are described in this report

  5. Axon Transport and Neuropathy: Relevant Perspectives on the Etiopathogenesis of Familial Dysautonomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourtellotte, Warren G

    2016-03-01

    Peripheral neuropathies are highly prevalent and are most often associated with chronic disease, side effects from chemotherapy, or toxic-metabolic abnormalities. Neuropathies are less commonly caused by genetic mutations, but studies of the normal function of mutated proteins have identified particular vulnerabilities that often implicate mitochondrial dynamics and axon transport mechanisms. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies are a group of phenotypically related diseases caused by monogenic mutations that primarily affect sympathetic and sensory neurons. Here, I review evidence to indicate that many genetic neuropathies are caused by abnormalities in axon transport. Moreover, in hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies. There may be specific convergence on gene mutations that disrupt nerve growth factor signaling, upon which sympathetic and sensory neurons critically depend. PMID:26724390

  6. Metabolism and transport of tamoxifen in relation to its effectiveness: new perspectives on an ongoing controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Damkier, Per; Lash, Timothy L

    2014-01-01

    Tamoxifen reduces the rate of breast cancer recurrence by approximately a half. Tamoxifen is metabolized to more active metabolites by enzymes encoded by polymorphic genes, including cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). Tamoxifen is a substrate for ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins. We review tamoxifen's clinical pharmacology and use meta-analyses to evaluate the clinical epidemiology studies conducted to date on the association between CYP2D6 inhibition and tamoxifen effectiveness. Our find...

  7. Long distance coach transport in Italy: state of the art and perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Beria, Paolo; Grimaldi, Raffaele; Laurino, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Long distance coach services in Italy represent an almost unknown mode of transport to the general public, often ignored even by policy markers. The industry has been liberalised since 2007, and service regulation is gradually changing from exclusive concessions to non-exclusive authorisations. This paper aims at shedding a light on this sector, underlining its importance, evidencing its specific strengths and weaknesses starting from the results of the first numerical research specifically f...

  8. The practice of cost benefit analysis in the transport sector: A Mexican perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Soberanis, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Mexico's public investment process is strengthened by an institutional framework that ensures that projects with a high social return are given preference. The Federal Law of Budget and Financial Responsibility establishes as prerequisite for federal investments the obligation to present a Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA), and to get the Investment Unit approval. This paper describes the use of CBA for the social and economic evaluation of transport infrastructure in Mexico and is made from the po...

  9. Commercial Space Transportation and Air Traffic Insertion - SESAR Requirements and the European Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Drescher, Jürgen; Morlang, Frank; Hampe, Jens; Kaltenhäuser, Sven; Jakobi, Jörn; Schmitt, Dirk-Roger

    2016-01-01

    Commercial Space Transportation becomes an international business and requires landing opportunities all over the world. Hence the integration of space vehicles in other airspace than the US NAS is an important topic to be considered. The Single European Sky ATM Research Programme (SESAR) is preparing the implementation of a new ATM system in Europe. The requirements are defined by the concept of the shared Business Trajectory and System Wide Information Management (SWIM).This paper describes...

  10. An examination of the Hazardous Materials Transportation Uniform Safety Act (HMTUSA): A southern perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On November 16,1990, President Bush signed into law the most comprehensive amendments to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA) in 15 years. The Hazardous Materials Transportation Uniform Safety Act of 1990 (HMTUSA) was created by Congress in an effort to strengthen and clarify the HMTA. This paper will discuss the act's provisions as they affect shipments of spent fuel and high-level radioactive materials as well as the impact of those provisions on routing and emergency response issues in the southern region. HMTUSA consists of seven key provisions that affect radioactive materials: clarification of regulatory jurisdiction; highway routing standards; broadened industry registration; safety permits for motor carriers of high risk materials; expanded nuclear transportation requirements; new provisions for emergency response training and planning; and a public process for assessing the feasibility of a federally operated central reporting system and data center. In addition to amending various HMTA provisions, the new HMTUSA act provides appropriations to carry out the specific goals of the legislation. The act authorizes appropriations for the 1991, 1992 and 1993 fiscal years

  11. Dynamics of Air Transport Networks: A Review from a Complex Systems Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Rocha, Luis Enrique Correa

    2016-01-01

    Air transport systems are highly dynamic at temporal scales from minutes to years. This dynamic behavior not only characterizes the evolution of the system but also affect the system's functioning. Understanding the evolutionary mechanisms is thus fundamental in order to better design optimal air transport networks that benefits companies, passengers and the environment. In this review, we briefly present and discuss the state-of-art on time-evolving air transport networks. We distinguish the structural analysis of sequences of network snapshots, ideal for long-term network evolution (e.g. annual evolution), and temporal paths, preferred for short-term dynamics (e.g. hourly evolution). We emphasize that most previous research focused on the first modeling approach (i.e. long-term) whereas only a few studies look at high-resolution temporal paths. We conclude the review highlighting that much research remains to be done, both to apply already available methods and to develop new measures for temporal paths on ...

  12. Satellite Perspective of Aerosol Intercontinental Transport: From Qualitative Tracking to Quantitative Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongbin; Remer, Lorraine A.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Chin, Mian; Zhang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of aerosol intercontinental transport (ICT) is both widespread and compelling. Model simulations suggest that ICT could significantly affect regional air quality and climate, but the broad inter-model spread of results underscores a need of constraining model simulations with measurements. Satellites have inherent advantages over in situ measurements to characterize aerosol ICT, because of their spatial and temporal coverage. Significant progress in satellite remote sensing of aerosol properties during the Earth Observing System (EOS) era offers opportunity to increase quantitative characterization and estimates of aerosol ICT, beyond the capability of pre-EOS era satellites that could only qualitatively track aerosol plumes. EOS satellites also observe emission strengths and injection heights of some aerosols, aerosol precursors, and aerosol-related gases, which can help characterize aerosol ICT. After an overview of these advances, we review how the current generation of satellite measurements have been used to (1) characterize the evolution of aerosol plumes (e.g., both horizontal and vertical transport, and properties) on an episodic basis, (2) understand the seasonal and inter-annual variations of aerosol ICT and their control factors, (3) estimate the export and import fluxes of aerosols, and (4) evaluate and constrain model simulations. Substantial effort is needed to further explore an integrated approach using measurements from on-orbit satellites (e.g., A-Train synergy) for observational characterization and model constraint of aerosol intercontinental transport and to develop advanced sensors for future missions.

  13. Canadian beef quality audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Jewison, G; Mann, M; Cherry, B; Altwasser, B; Lower, R; Wiggins, K; Dejonge, R; Thorlakson, B; Moss, E; Mills, C; Grogan, H

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted in 4 Canadian processing plants in 1995-96 to determine the prevalence of quality defects in Canadian cattle. One percent of the annual number of cattle processed in Canada were evaluated on the processing floor and 0.1% were graded in the cooler. Brands were observed on 37% and multiple brands on 6% of the cattle. Forty percent of the cattle had horns, 20% of which were scurs, 33% were stubs, 10% were tipped, and 37% were full length. Tag (mud and manure on the hide) was observed on 34% of the cattle. Bruises were found on 78% of the carcasses, 81% of which were minor in severity. Fifteen percent of the bruises were located on the round, 29% on the loin, 40% on the rib, 16% on the chuck, and 0.02% on the brisket. Grubs were observed in 0.02% of the steers, and injection sites were observed in 1.3% of whole hanging carcasses. Seventy percent of the livers were passed for human food and 14% for pet food; 16% were condemned. Approximately 71% of the liver condemnations were due to liver abscesses. Four percent of the heads, 6% of the tongues, and 0.2% of whole carcasses were condemned. The pregnancy rate in female cattle was approximately 6.7%. The average hot carcass weight was 357 kg (s = 40) in steers, 325 kg (s = 41) in heifers, 305 kg (s = 53) in cows, 388 kg (s = 62) in virgin bulls and 340 kg (s = 39) in mature bulls. The average ribeye area in all cattle was 84 cm2 (s = 12); range 29 cm2 to 128 cm2. Grade fat was highly variable and averaged 9 mm (s = 4) for steers and heifers, 6 mm (s = 6) for cows, 5 mm (s = 1) for virgin bulls, and 4 mm (s = 0.5) for mature bulls. The average lean meat yield was 59.7% in cattle (s = 3.4); range 39% to 67%. One percent of the carcasses were devoid of marbling, 1% were dark cutters, and 0.05% of the steer carcasses were staggy. Six percent of the carcasses had poor conformation, 3.7% were underfinished, and 0.7% were overfinished. Yellow fat was observed in 4% of the carcasses; 10% of carcasses were

  14. Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport is one of the major causes of environmental damage in Austria. Energy consumption, pollutants emissions, noise emissions, use of surfaces, sealing of surfaces, dissection of ecosystems and impact on landscape are the most significant environmental impacts caused by it. An overview of the transport development of passengers and freight in Austria is presented. Especially the energy consumption growth, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions by type of transport, and the emissions development (HC, particle and carbon monoxide) of goods and passengers transport are analyzed covering the years 1980 - 1999. The health cost resulting from transport-related air pollution in Austria is given and measures to be taken for an effective control of the transport sector are mentioned. Figs. 8, Table 1. (nevyjel)

  15. Railroad perspective on transportation of spent fuel and high level waste and recent ICC decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper attempts to summarize some railroad viewpoints on issues concerning transportation of spent fuel and high-level waste and to outline Interstate Commerce Commission decisions arising over differing opinions about the manner of such transportation. Although the railroad position includes a number of legal arguments, it also involves operating expertise and a number of well-based questions concerning the safety of casks under actual operating conditions in regular trains. The commonly-used estimates of accident frequency and severity in regular trains are severe underestimates based on a mistake in the annual number of railroad car-miles, inadequacies in and misunderstanding of accident reporting, and invalid assumptions, especially concerning fires, which some actual data suggest are far more frequent than assumed. Thus, railroads estimate casks could be involved in at least 12 accidents involving severe fires by 1990. A number of unanswered questions about casks and perceived inadequacies in testing lead to a conservative railroad position. These include the possibility of escape routes of materials other than by breach such as weld and pressure relief valve failures and direct radiation hazards through loss of shielding. These doubts are fostered through experience with accidents more severe than those used in testing or certification as well as these questions. Also, there is doubt concerning the integrity of fuel rod cladding (used as a second level of containment) in credible accident situations. Moreover, the damage estimates of $1,000 per man rem have been shown to have no relationship to damages in a transportation accident.Added safety is expected in special trains for at least 17 reasons involving speed, transit time, routing, train consist, crew alertness, reduced slack and other reduced hazards and accident opportunities

  16. Canadian cogeneration economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aggressive cogeneration industry has developed in Canada, and is becoming a tool for provincial utilities to manage the procurement of independently generated power, while restricting plant size, maximizing socioeconomic benefit, minimizing environmental impacts and managing their own risks. An overview is presented of the economics of cogeneration in Canada. The Canadian cogeneration industry is driven by 3 key economic factors: utility power sale contracts, fuel pricing, and tax benefits. Utility cogeneration purchases, tax benefits, fuel prices, cogeneration efficiency, fuels, fuel strategies, displacement projects, solid fuel vs natural gas, operating flexibility, gas turbines, heat recovery steam generators, industrial and aeroderivative units, combined cycle steam turbines, steam injection, supplementary or duct firing, financial aspects and project management are discussed. 15 figs., 7 tabs

  17. Arctic response strategy: Canadian Coast Guard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revision of the Canadian Coast Guard's Arctic response strategy was described with particular focus on the consultative method used to ensure that all perspectives were taken into consideration. Some tankers used to re-supply fuel to remote Arctic communities carry more than 30,000 tonnes of product, putting them at risk for major spills. The Arctic response strategy was revised to emphasize recommendations for prevention, preparedness and response. Prevention was recognized as the most effective solution to oil spills in the Arctic. The leadership and coordination roles of the Canadian Coast Guard were demonstrated in relation to ship-source oil pollution. The new strategy also outlined the equipment requirements needed to respond to a large spill in the Arctic. Categorization of spill sizes as tier 1 to 4 was determined by examining southern regimes as was the characterization of corresponding equipment. Implementation of the new recommendations of the revised Arctic response strategy will take place over the next 2 years. The prevention aspect will include some legislative changes or stricter guidelines

  18. Arctic response strategy: Canadian Coast Guard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, J.C. [Canadian Coast Guard, Sarnia, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The revision of the Canadian Coast Guard's Arctic response strategy was described with particular focus on the consultative method used to ensure that all perspectives were taken into consideration. Some tankers used to re-supply fuel to remote Arctic communities carry more than 30,000 tonnes of product, putting them at risk for major spills. The Arctic response strategy was revised to emphasize recommendations for prevention, preparedness and response. Prevention was recognized as the most effective solution to oil spills in the Arctic. The leadership and coordination roles of the Canadian Coast Guard were demonstrated in relation to ship-source oil pollution. The new strategy also outlined the equipment requirements needed to respond to a large spill in the Arctic. Categorization of spill sizes as tier 1 to 4 was determined by examining southern regimes as was the characterization of corresponding equipment. Implementation of the new recommendations of the revised Arctic response strategy will take place over the next 2 years. The prevention aspect will include some legislative changes or stricter guidelines.

  19. Choline on the Move: Perspectives on the Molecular Physiology and Pharmacology of the Presynaptic Choline Transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, E A; Blakely, R D

    2016-01-01

    Genetic, biochemical, physiological, and pharmacological approaches have advanced our understanding of cholinergic biology for over 100 years. High-affinity choline uptake (HACU) was one of the last features of cholinergic signaling to be defined at a molecular level, achieved through the cloning of the choline transporter (CHT, SLC5A7). In retrospect, the molecular era of CHT studies initiated with the identification of hemicholinium-3 (HC-3), a potent, competitive CHT antagonist, though it would take another 30 years before HC-3, in radiolabeled form, was used by Joseph Coyle's laboratory to identify and monitor the dynamics of CHT proteins. Though HC-3 studies provided important insights into CHT distribution and regulation, another 15 years would pass before the structure of CHT genes and proteins were identified, a full decade after the cloning of most other neurotransmitter-associated transporters. The availability of CHT gene and protein probes propelled the development of cell and animal models as well as efforts to gain insights into how human CHT gene variation affects the risk for brain and neuromuscular disorders. Most recently, our group has pursued a broadening of CHT pharmacology, elucidating novel chemical structures that may serve to advance cholinergic diagnostics and medication development. Here we provide a short review of the transformation that has occurred in HACU research and how such advances may promote the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:27288078

  20. Solar radiation transport in the cloudy atmosphere: a 3D perspective on observations and climate impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interplay of sunlight with clouds is a ubiquitous and often pleasant visual experience, but it conjures up major challenges for weather, climate, environmental science and beyond. Those engaged in the characterization of clouds (and the clear air nearby) by remote sensing methods are even more confronted. The problem comes, on the one hand, from the spatial complexity of real clouds and, on the other hand, from the dominance of multiple scattering in the radiation transport. The former ingredient contrasts sharply with the still popular representation of clouds as homogeneous plane-parallel slabs for the purposes of radiative transfer computations. In typical cloud scenes the opposite asymptotic transport regimes of diffusion and ballistic propagation coexist. We survey the three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric radiative transfer literature over the past 50 years and identify three concurrent and intertwining thrusts: first, how to assess the damage (bias) caused by 3D effects in the operational 1D radiative transfer models? Second, how to mitigate this damage? Finally, can we exploit 3D radiative transfer phenomena to innovate observation methods and technologies? We quickly realize that the smallest scale resolved computationally or observationally may be artificial but is nonetheless a key quantity that separates the 3D radiative transfer solutions into two broad and complementary classes: stochastic and deterministic. Both approaches draw on classic and contemporary statistical, mathematical and computational physics.

  1. Challenges and perspectives of transport cargo vehicles utilization for performing research in free flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveeva, T. V.; Belyaev, M. Yu.; Tsvetkov, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    Russian Progress transport cargo vehicles have successfully been used in different space station programs since 1978. At present time, they play an important role in the International Space Station (ISS) project. Main tasks performed by the transport cargo vehicle (TCV) in the station program are the following: refueling of the station, delivery of consumables and equipment, waste removal, station attitude control and orbit correction maneuver execution. At the same time, the cargo vehicle basic systems still retain unused resources after the vehicle finishes its work with the station. It makes sense to use these resources to perform research in free flight of TCV after departure from the ISS when possible. The fields of research can be determined not only on the basis of the vehicle capabilities as a research platform but also taking into account needs of the research community. Possible fields could be the following: Earth or other objects remote sensing using additional equipment, Microgravity research aboard TCV, Launch of small satellites and probes after TCV undocking from the station and transfer to the specified orbit, etc. Solution of research tasks using the Progress TCV resources helps to increase efficiency of the ISS research program performance. The paper considers the TCV flight control features and the methods of the solution of the problems arising when various experiments are performed aboard the vehicle.

  2. Electric transport in the Netherlands in an international perspective. Benchmark electric driving 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This international benchmark on electric mobility has been conducted to compare the Dutch governmental efforts and developments in the field of electric road transport. The countries that have been considered in this benchmark are: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, UK, China, USA and South Korea. The Netherlands has a high ambition level with regard to the number of electric vehicles compared to other countries without a large car industry. As for the envisaged number of charging points, the Netherlands is one of the prominent leaders. In the field of R and D, Germany, South Korea and China take the lead, followed by France, the UK, the USA and Austria. However, the benchmark has only looked at specific funds for electric mobility, and has not looked at general R and D and innovation funds. The Netherlands has several electro-mobility field tests, but is not leading in number. However, regarding general market penetration, the Netherlands is one of the leading countries, next to Norway, based on the relative number of passenger cars and commercial vehicles on the road. Norway and Austria are leading countries when it comes to implementation of public charging infrastructure, but also in this field the Netherlands has a prominent position in the group of countries that follow. In the current pre-commercial phase, the introduction of electric transportation in the Netherlands is supported by a high-level advisory group, the so-called Formula E-Team. This group consists of representatives and experts from industry and (scientific) society, and acts as a figurehead for electric transport. The group advises on coordination of actions to stimulate not only electro- mobility, but also innovation which should lead to new economic activities. Currently, about two hundred companies are already active in the field of electro-mobility in the Netherlands, including some top players and many SMEs (Small Medium Enterprises). The

  3. Algal biomass as a global source of transport fuels:Overview and development perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kifayat Ullah; Mushtaq Ahmad; Sofia; Vinod Kumar Sharma; Pengmei Lu; Adam Harvey; Muhammad Zafar; Shazia Sultana; C.N. Anyanwu

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the global fuel crisis of the early 1970s, coupled with concerns for the environment, the use of biofuel has been on the increase in many regions throughout the world. At present, a total of approximately 30 billion (30 × 109) liters of biofuel are utilized worldwide annually, although most countries rely hugely on the first generation biofuel. The limitations of the first and second generation biofuel gave rise to current interest in algae as a promising alternative to these conventional biofuel sources. Algal biomass could provide a lion's share of the global transport fuel requirements in future. The present review highlights some important developments in, and potentials of algaculture as a major biomass resource of the future. However, the major constraint to commercial-scale algae farming for energy production is the cost factor, which must be addressed adequately before its potentials can be harnessed.

  4. Structural and dynamic perspectives on the promiscuous transport activity of P-glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Nandhitha; Condic-Jurkic, Karmen; O'Mara, Megan L

    2016-09-01

    The multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is expressed in the blood-brain barrier endothelium where it effluxes a range of drug substrates, preventing their accumulation within the brain. P-gp has been studied extensively for 40 years because of its crucial role in the absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of a range of pharmaceutical compounds. Despite this, many aspects of the structure-function mechanism of P-gp are unresolved. Here we review the emerging role of molecular dynamics simulation techniques in our understanding of the membrane-embedded conformation of P-gp. We discuss its conformational plasticity in the presence and absence of ATP, and recent efforts to characterize the drug binding sites and uptake pathways. PMID:27180050

  5. Air traffic control resource management strategies and the small aircraft transportation system: A system dynamics perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, James J., Jr.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is leading a research effort to develop a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) that will expand air transportation capabilities to hundreds of underutilized airports in the United States. Most of the research effort addresses the technological development of the small aircraft as well as the systems to manage airspace usage and surface activities at airports. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) will also play a major role in the successful implementation of SATS, however, the administration is reluctant to embrace the unproven concept. The purpose of the research presented in this dissertation is to determine if the FAA can pursue a resource management strategy that will support the current radar-based Air Traffic Control (ATC) system as well as a Global Positioning Satellite (GPS)-based ATC system required by the SATS. The research centered around the use of the System Dynamics modeling methodology to determine the future behavior of the principle components of the ATC system over time. The research included a model of the ATC system consisting of people, facilities, equipment, airports, aircraft, the FAA budget, and the Airport and Airways Trust Fund. The model generated system performance behavior used to evaluate three scenarios. The first scenario depicted the base case behavior of the system if the FAA continued its current resource management practices. The second scenario depicted the behavior of the system if the FAA emphasized development of GPS-based ATC systems. The third scenario depicted a combined resource management strategy that supplemented radar systems with GPS systems. The findings of the research were that the FAA must pursue a resource management strategy that primarily funds a radar-based ATC system and directs lesser funding toward a GPS-based supplemental ATC system. The most significant contribution of this research was the insight and understanding gained of how

  6. Canadian National Vegetation Classification (CNVC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The mandate of the CNVC is to comprehensively classify and describe natural and semi-natural Canadian vegetation in an ecologically meaningful manner. The...

  7. 1944. The Canadians in Normandy

    OpenAIRE

    W.A. Dorning

    2012-01-01

    The story of the Allied invasion of France in June 1944 has been told in countless military-history books. Previous publications on the Allied invasion and the subsequent Normandy campaign have, however, tended to concentrate on the British and American role in the fighting, while the Canadian contribution has received scant attention. This in itself is surprising, as the Canadians played a far from peripheral role in the invasion and the campaign which followed in the hinterland of Normandy....

  8. Results and perspectives of particle transport measurements in gases in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedernikov, Andrei; Balapanov, Daniyar; Beresnev, Sergey

    2016-07-01

    Solid or liquid particles floating in a gas belong to dispersed systems, most often referred to as aerosols or dust clouds. They are widely spread in nature, involving both environmental and technological issues. They attract growing attention in microgravity, particularly in complex plasma, simulation of protoplanetary dust clouds, atmospheric aerosol, etc. Brownian random walk, motion of particles in gravity, electrostatic and magnetic fields, are well defined. We present the survey showing that the quantitative description of a vast variety of other types of motion is much less accurate, often known only in a limited region of parameters, sometimes described by the contradictory models, poorly verified experimentally. It is true even for the most extensively investigated transport phenomena - thermophoresis and photophoresis, not to say about diffusiophoresis, gravito-photophoresis, various other types of particle motion driven by physicochemical transformation and accommodation peculiarities on the particle-gas interface, combination of different processes. The number of publications grow very quickly, only those dealing with thermophoresis exceeded 300 in 2015. Hence, there is a strong need in high quality experimental data on particle transport properties with growing interest to expand the scope for non-isometric particles, agglomerates, dense clouds, interrelation with the two-phase flow dynamics. In most cases, the accuracy and sometimes the entire possibility of the measurement is limited by the presence of gravity. Floating particles have the density considerably different from that of the gas. They sediment, often with gliding and tumbling, that perturbs the motion trajectory, local hydrodynamic environment around particles, all together complicating definition of the response. Measurements at very high or very low Knudsen numbers (rarefied gas or too big particles) are of particular difficulty. Experiments assume creating a well-defined force, i

  9. New perspective on the accessibility of railway transport for the vulnerable traveller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vulnerable travellers experience various problems in the transport environment. These may reduce public travel confidence and consequently lead to decreased mobility. A goal of our research is to find out how to improve the accessibility to railway travelling, especially, for persons with functional limitations. By reducing barriers, the ability of travelling would be improved, and consequently allow for more flexible travel behaviors. In order to develop a model and a method of measurement for accessibility, we (a) constructed a reference group of representative 'typical older persons' (65–85 years) from questionnaire data, and (b) developed an accessibility measure for persons with functional limitations. In this measure barriers have different weights for the different persons depending on their functional ability and travel behavior. This gives the probability of facing a certain barrier when travelling to a certain destination; that is, a measure of accessibility for the individual. The more weight placed on a certain barrier, the less probable it is that the particular journey will take place. These weights will be obtained in forthcoming research on the perception of a set of various travel scenarios representing barriers

  10. Mass-transport deposits and the advantages of a real three-dimensional perspective (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscardelli, L. G.; Wood, L. J.

    2010-12-01

    Mass-transport deposits (MTDs) form a significant component of the stratigraphic record in ancient and modern deepwater basins worldwide. However, the difficulties encountered when performing direct observations of these submarine units, the limited area covered by geophysical surveys acquired by research institutions, and the often surficial nature of seafloor data collected by federal agencies represent major hurdles in understanding submarine mass-movement dynamics. Three-dimensional seismic reflectivity imaging, drawn mainly from energy exploration in deepwater regions of the world, has allowed researchers to describe the architecture of MTDs at unprecedented spatial and temporal scales. In this talk, we present observations made using thousands of square kilometers of three-dimensional seismic data acquired by the oil and gas industry in offshore Trinidad, Morocco, and the Gulf of Mexico, where MTDs are a common occurrence in the stratigraphic record. Detailed mapping of MTD architecture has allowed us to better understand the role that MTDs have in continental-margin evolution. Morphometric data obtained from the mapping of MTDs is used to model tsunamigenic waves and their potential affect of coastal areas. The effect of low permeability MTDs on reservoir and aquifer fluid behavior has important implications, enhancing the economic importance of understanding the occurrence and distribution of these deposits. The recognition of MTD processes and morphology leads to new understanding of the processes possibly active in shaping other planets. Such analogs speak to a possible deepwater origin for features on Mars previously attributed to subaerial events. As industry-quality 3D seismic data become increasingly available to academic institutions, current studies become important bell weathers for future analysis of MTDs and processes in oceans of this planet and beyond.

  11. Canadian fuel development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANDU power reactor fuel has demonstrated an enviable operational record. More than 99.9% of the bundles irradiated have provided defect-free service. Defect excursions are responsible for the majority of reported defects. In some cases research and development effort is necessary to resolve these problems. In addition, development initiatives are also directed at improvements of the current design or reduction of fueling cost. The majority of the funding for this effort has been provided by COG (CANDU Owners' Group) over the past 10 to 15 years. This paper contains an overview of some key fuel technology programs within COG. The CANDU reactor is unique among the world's power reactors in its flexibility and its ability to use a number of different fuel cycles. An active program of analysis and development, to demonstrate the viability of different fuel cycles in CANDU, has been funded by AECL in parallel with the work on the natural uranium cycle. Market forces and advances in technology have obliged us to reassess and refocus some parts of our effort in this area, and significant success has been achieved in integrating all the Canadian efforts in this area. This paper contains a brief summary of some key components of the advanced fuel cycle program. (Author) 4 figs., tab., 18 refs

  12. Canadian leadership in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's energy is complex and an important resource as it fuels and funds the economy. The unique character of Canada's energy production and consumption provides strength to the country. The purpose of this booklet was to highlight Canada's energy production and consumption and to demonstrate Canada's rank globally with other major global energy players. The document also presented information on the value of Canada's energy exports, Canada's relationship with the United States, and Canada's energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. Specifically, the document discussed Canada's energy in a global context; the value of Canada's energy exports; domestic value of energy; Canada's unique energy mix; Canada's electricity mix; Canada's carbon dioxide emissions; energy strategies; and the importance of energy to Canadians. It was concluded that there are 14 federal, provincial and territorial jurisdictions managing their respective energy resources. All of these regions, with the exception of Saskatchewan have produced an energy strategy document or a climate change action plan focusing on 8 areas of action, notably awareness; benefit; efficiency; development; diversification; electricity; and emissions. refs., tabs., figs.

  13. Canadian natural gas and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Gas Association (CGA) has expressed concerns regarding how the goal to reduce greenhouse gas emissions can be met. It also has concerns regarding the possible economic impacts of required measures to reduce emissions to 6 per cent below 1990 levels. The CGA argued that since the initial negotiations of the Kyoto Protocol, Canada's greenhouse gas emissions have increased significantly, meaning that if the agreement were to come into force, Canada would have to reduce emissions by about 29 per cent below the currently-projected 2008-2012 level. The report states that 28 per cent of Canada's energy needs are met by natural gas. Excluding energy use in transportation, natural gas contributes more than 40 per cent to Canada's energy portfolio. More than half of Canadian households rely on pipeline services and distribution companies to deliver natural gas for household use. The manufacturing sector relies on natural gas for more than half of its energy needs. Natural gas is a major energy source for the iron/steel, petroleum refining and chemical manufacturing industries. Natural gas is a cleaner-burning fuel than coal or crude oil, and its use results in fewer environmental impacts than other fossil fuels. Vehicles powered by natural gas produce 20 - 30 per cent less carbon dioxide emissions than vehicles powered by gasoline. Pipelines are also a more efficient way of transporting and distributing natural gas than marine transport, railways or trucks. The CGA recommends that policy development should emphasize the environmental benefits of natural gas and recognize its role as a bridge fuel to a cleaner energy-based economy. It also recommends that policies should be developed to encourage the use of natural gas in electricity generation to lower greenhouse gases and air pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen that cause smog

  14. EMF 9 scenarios Canadian natural gas: Potential demand and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic analytical perspectives of this work are: (1) Canada is a price taker on the US natural gas market; (2) Gas competes with HFO in both markets, and Canada is integrated into the international oil market; (3) Canadian and US income growth rates are consistent with each other, given the major influence of US economic performance on that of the Canadian economy; and (4) Given the price, income and other assumptions, we used the Board's Energy Demand Model to calculate annual demand for natural gas in each price case. We used the Board's models for reserves additions and productive capacity estimation to calculate potential annual supply. The difference between demand and potential supply is the potential exportable volume. The annual productive capacity curve assumes, agnostically, that all potential production is sold yearly

  15. Canadian Food Irradiation Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) began work on the irradiation of potatoes in 1956, using spent fuel rods as the radiation source. In 1958 the first Gammacell 220, a self-contained irradiator, was designed and manufactured by AECL, and cobalt-60 was then used exclusively in the food irradiation programme. In 1960 the first food and drug clearance was obtained for potatoes. The next stage was to demonstrate to the potato industry that cobalt-60 was a safe, simple and reliable tool, and that irradiation would inhibit sprouting under field conditions. A mobile irradiator was designed and produced by AECL in 1961 to carry out this pilot-plant programme. The irradiator was mounted on a fully-equipped road trailer and spent the 1961/1962 season irradiating one million pounds of potatoes at various points in Eastern Canada. In 1965 the first commercial food irradiator was designed and built by AECL for Newfield Products, Ltd. Whilst the potato programme was under way, AECL initiated co-operative programmes with Canadian food research laboratories, using additional Gammacells. In 1960, AECL constructed an irradiation facility in a shielded room at its own plant in Ottawa for the irradiation of larger objects, such as sides of pork and stems of bananas. During 1963 the mobile irradiator, already a most useful tool, was made more versatile when its source strength was increased and it was equipped with a product cooling system and van air conditioning. Following these modifications, the unit was employed in California for the irradiation of a wide spectrum of fruits at the United States Department of Agriculture Station in Fresno. The Gammacell, mobile irradiator, shielded-room facility, the commercial food irradiator and some of the main food programmes are described in detail. There is an increasing amount of interest in irradiation by the food industry, and prospects are encouraging for future installations. (author)

  16. Canadian Petroleum Products Institute 1996 annual review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) is an association of Canadian companies involved in the downstream sector of the petroleum industry which includes refining, distributing and marketing of petroleum products. CPPI's mandate includes: (1) establishing environmental policies, (2) establishing working relationships with governments to develop public policy, (3) developing guidelines for the safe handling of petroleum products, and (4) providing information about the petroleum industry to the public. Canada's 19 refineries processed an average of 1.5 million barrels of crude oil per day in 1996. Domestic sources of crude made up 61 per cent of crude oil processed in 1996. Total exports during the year amounted to 105 million barrels. Some of the issues that the CPPI focused on during 1996 included the controversy over the future of the octane enhancing fuel additive MMT, fuel quality standards for transportation fuels and reformulated fuels, gasoline pricing, air quality and workplace safety. CPPI members' participation in the Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) program towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions was also discussed. The industry was also actively involved in seeking to improve its refinery wastewater discharges

  17. Canadian physical activity guidelines for adults: are Canadians aware?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Leila Pfaeffli; LeBlanc, Allana G; Orr, Krystn; Berry, Tanya; Deshpande, Sameer; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; O'Reilly, Norm; Rhodes, Ryan E; Tremblay, Mark S; Faulkner, Guy

    2016-09-01

    The present study evaluated awareness of the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology's 2011 Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for Adults and assessed correlates. Reported awareness of the physical activity (PA) guidelines was 12.9% (204/1586) of the total sample surveyed. More than half (55%) self-reported meeting PA guidelines of ≥ 150 min of moderate to vigorous PA per week. Awareness of PA guidelines was significantly related to participants' level of PA (χ(2) (1) = 30.63, p < 0.001, φ = -0.14), but not to any demographic variables. PMID:27560541

  18. Assessing Power Issues in Canadian and Jamaican Women's Experiences in Learning via Distance in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouthro, Patricia A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines a qualitative research study which examines the experiences of ten Jamaican and Canadian women engaged in learning via distance in a graduate adult education program. Using a critical feminist perspective, three power issues emerged as topics for discussion that are important for distance educators in higher education to take…

  19. Women of Mystery: Investigating Learning Pathways of Canadian and American Female Crime Fiction Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouthro, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the learning pathways of 15 Canadian and American female crime fiction authors. Using a critical feminist perspective, it argues that despite the neoliberal rhetoric of individual choice, as in most careers, there are social-structural factors that create opportunities and barriers for women mystery writers. The article…

  20. Political Affiliation of Canadian Professors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reza Nakhaie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The social role of universities has been the subject of a lengthy debate as to whether those who teach in the academy are system-legitimizing conservatives or radicals helping to generate critical thinking that challenges the status quo. The aim of this paper is to evaluate political affiliations of Canadian university professors based on a national survey conducted in 2000. The study shows that Canadian professors’ political affiliation can be identified as either left or right depending on how the political orientation of political parties is conceptualized. University professors tend to vote more for the Liberal Party than other parties, and view it as centrist party. Moreover, the study highlights a complex and non-monolithic picture of the Canadian academy. University professors are not politically homogenous and party vote depends on the prestige of their university, their discipline, gender, ethnicity, marital status, generation, and agreement with liberalism.

  1. Responsible Canadian energy progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents oil and gas companies throughout Canada; its members produce over 90% of Canada's natural gas and crude oil output. The aim of the Association is to improve the economics of the Canadian upstream petroleum sector in an environmentally and socially responsible way. The aim of this Responsible Canadian Energy report is to present the performance data of CAPP's members for the year 2009. Data, trends, and performance analyses are provided throughout the document. This analysis makes it possible to determine where progress has been made and where performance improvement is necessary. It also presents success stories and best practices so that other companies can learn from them how to improve their own performance. This paper provides useful information on the performance of the upstream petroleum industry in Canada and highlights where the focus should be for further improvement in its performance.

  2. Transnational archives: the Canadian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Creet

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the concept of the transnational archive as a counterpoint to the idea that a national archive is necessarily a locus of a static idea of nation. The Canadian national archives is used as a case study of an archives that was transnational in its inception, and one that has continued to change in its mandate and materials as a response to patterns in migration and changing notions of multiculturalism as a Canadian federal policy. It introduces the most recent formation of the transnational archive and its denizens: the genealogical archive inhabited by family historians.

  3. Canadian Postcolonialism: Recovering British Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2005-01-01

    The field of Postcolonial Studies is one of the academic fashions that has arisen in an attempt to amend or replace radical theories of social power since the alleged discrediting of Marxism. The Canadian case is more ambiguous. Postcolonialism, already an essentially contested concept, is especially conflicted where Canada is concerned. Canada…

  4. Canadian Government Electronic Information Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Kirsti

    1993-01-01

    Examines development and evolution of Canadian government information policy in response to issues of preservation of data, information industry involvement in government data development and marketing, role of Crown copyright, and public access to government information in electronic formats. Six key information policy instruments are also…

  5. Universal values of Canadian astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

    2012-11-01

    Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

  6. Nuclear regulation - the Canadian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the Atomic Energy Control Board was established 35 years ago the basic philosophy of nuclear regulation in Canada and the underlying principles of the regulatory process remain essentially unchanged. This paper outlines the Canadian approach to nuclear regulation and explains in practical terms how the principles of regulation are applied. (author)

  7. Decisive Conditions for an Effective and Efficient Multi-modal Freight Transport Network in Europe: A Meta-Analytic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bithas, Kostas; Nijkamp, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The paper addresses the issue of intermodality in European transport policy. Its aim is to derive critical factors for an effective and efficient multimodal freight transport network in Europe. The results of a survey among European transport experts are presented, while a new meta-analytic technique - roughset analysis - is deployed to infer testable conclusions.

  8. Toward Revealing the Critical Role of Perovskite Coverage in Highly Efficient Electron-Transport Layer-Free Perovskite Solar Cells: An Energy Band and Equivalent Circuit Model Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Like; Xu, Jie; Sun, Xiaoxiang; Du, Yangyang; Cai, Hongkun; Ni, Jian; Li, Juan; Hu, Ziyang; Zhang, Jianjun

    2016-04-20

    Currently, most efficient perovskite solar cells (PVKSCs) with a p-i-n structure require simultaneously electron transport layers (ETLs) and hole transport layers (HTLs) to help collecting photogenerated electrons and holes for obtaining high performance. ETL free planar PVKSC is a relatively new and simple structured solar cell that gets rid of the complex and high temperature required ETL (such as compact and mesoporous TiO2). Here, we demonstrate the critical role of high coverage of perovskite in efficient ETL free PVKSCs from an energy band and equivalent circuit model perspective. From an electrical point of view, we confirmed that the low coverage of perovskite does cause localized short circuit of the device. With coverage optimization, a planar p-i-n(++) device with a power conversion efficiency of over 11% was achieved, implying that the ETL layer may not be necessary for an efficient device as long as the perovskite coverage is approaching 100%. PMID:27020395

  9. Assessing refinery capacity and readiness to take Canadian product : is Canadian crude pushing or pulling?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation addressed some of the challenges facing oil sands production in Canada. Refinery products and refining investments were discussed, as was the impact of alternative crude supply on the markets and pricing of oil sands. The oils sands products discussed include various qualities of sweet synthetic crude oil produced via upgraders; virgin and cracked intermediate products from oil sands upgraders; mined or Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) produced bitumen blended products; and synthetic heavy crude produced via hydrocracking. Products were listed in terms of ease of production, and a rationale for generic ranking was provided. A chart of 2003 characteristics of non-Canadian imports to the mid-west United States was provided. Various marketing strategies for different oil sands products were discussed, as well as issues concerning logistics. Strategies for the development of a bigger market include producer investment in refining capability; the acquisition of refining assets; investment in refiners' upgrading capability; and securing a long term supply deal. Core and extended markets for Western Canadian oil sands products were reviewed. A chart of North American refining capacity was presented. Details of a refinery with both coking and cracking capacity were examined. An increase in hydro processing capacity and expanded coking capacity, as well as an upgrade of metallurgy were suggested as possible upgrading options. Various refinery configurations were discussed in relation to lower cost feedstocks and clean fuels specifications. Issues concerning crude supply were examined with reference to pricing parity points and declines in traditional crude production. Specific supply issues concerning oil sands production were discussed, including transportation costs; adequate refining capacity; and availability of supply. Various logistic investments were considered. A map of BP's 5 U.S. refineries was presented. A forecast of expected changes in

  10. Canadian regulatory requirements and practices for qualification of computer codes used in safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Code verification and validation are the key elements during any computer program development. Canadian regulatory framework provides requirements and guidelines for conducting code validation activities that are consistent with other jurisdictions. It also ensures that verification and validation process in support of the design and licensing of CANDU power reactors is compliant with regulatory expectations. The paper presents a new Canadian regulatory perspective for key software QA activities: code verification and validation. Also, the regulatory approved practices for planning, conducting and documentation produced to support verification and validation of computer codes are also discussed. (author)

  11. Value of Canadian oil sands... to the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the beginning of the recession in late 2007, the American economy has been subject to great change, affecting the way energy is produced and consumed. The structure of oil imports and exports has changed significantly and U.S. imports are now primarily from Canada. The current study shows how and why the U.S. has become dependent on imports of oil from the Canadian oil sands. Oil from Canadian oil sands is transported to different Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) via the Keystone pipeline. As imports from Canada increased, the U.S. refinery sector was restructured. Small refineries were closed while larger refineries were expanded and investment was made to increase their processing capacity. The increased import and processing of oil from the Canadian oil sands led to an advantageous decrease in oil prices. If the Keystone XL project were to be approved, the pipeline would increase the area with access to the means of transporting oil, allowing the increasing demand for oil to be met and, potentially, stabilizing world oil prices.

  12. An Interactive Perspective on Transportation Function and Demand%基于运输需求互动性的运输职能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭琴

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, on the basis of the findings of previous studies on the interrelationship between transportation and social economy, we analyzed the inadequacies of these researches in methodology and perspective, pointed out the interaction between the demand for transportation and the social economy through which we could have a more accurate grasp of the role played by transportation in economic development, and accordingly argued that transportation could support, guide and control the development of the social economy.%在总结现有运输与社会经济之间相互作用关系研究成果的基础上,分析了目前运输职能研究方法和视角上的不足之处,指出了通过探析运输需求与社会经济之间的互动联系,可以更准确地把握运输在社会经济发展中所起的作用,并据此提出了运输对社会经济具有支撑职能、引导职能和控制职能.

  13. Canadian electricity exports and imports : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This energy market assessment (EMA) report focuses on recent trends in exports and imports of Canadian electricity and the associated revenue and pricing. It also outlines major developments in electricity markets in Canada and the United States in the past decade with reference to the implications of electricity trade for both consumers and the power industry. This guide comes at a time of market openings in Alberta and Ontario, and with recent increases in applications to the National Energy Board for electricity exports and international power lines. The first chapter presents an overview of current Canadian federal regulatory regime for electricity exports and restructuring of the electric power industry in Canada and the United States. The second chapter reviews electricity exports and imports from a national perspective. Provincial analyses were presented in the third chapter which also covered international interconnections, export and import trends, export and import pricing, implications for consumer prices, and factors affecting future trade. The final chapter presents some observations on each of these issues. It is noted that exports have fluctuated significantly from year to year due to specific events including the shutdown of nuclear power plants, high gas prices, and the California electricity crisis in 2000-2001. Canadian international electricity trade has continued to yield net revenues of $1 to $2 billion per year due to strong electricity export prices. The relationship between export and import prices varies from province to province. Canadian utilities have emphasized the need for more transmission to the U.S. to foster future trade and improve transmission reliability. refs., tabs., figs

  14. Japanese steel mills update and expectations to Canadian coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobe Steel's (Kobelco) corporate strategy includes expanding from only-one product such as high tensile strength steel sheet, and enlarging overseas production capacity through joint ventures and technical alliances. A new steel making process from low quality iron ore and steaming coal called ITmk3 has been developed by Kobe Steel that does not require any coke, reduces carbon dioxide emissions by 20 per cent, and reduces the cost of transporting slag. This strategy and technology was presented along with the changes surrounding the Japanese steel industry and raw materials market. These changes include the rise of emerging oil-producing countries; world steel production and exports; the rise in prices of resources; and the slowdown of the United States economy. The current situation of Japanese crude steel production, pig-iron production, and coke expansion plans were also presented. The presentation also outlined expectation's of the Canadian coal industry with reference to Canadian coal imports to Japan. tabs., figs

  15. The prospects for Canadian uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1980s have seen a decline in markets for uranium concentrate, largely as a result of falling estimates for reactor fuel requirements and rising inventories. Spot market prices fell to $44 in September 1982, but have since risen back to $60. World production also fell in 1982 and is not expected to increase significantly before 1990. Some opportunities exist for Canadian producers with new low-cost deposits to replace high-cost producers in Canada and other countries, particularly the United States. There will be strong competition between Canadian producers as well as from Australia. Australia's reserves are somewhat larger than Canada's, although the reported ore grades tend to be lower than those of Saskatchewan

  16. The Canadian safeguards support program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada supports international safeguards as a means by which the proliferation of nuclear weapons can be discouraged. Canada recognizes that,to meet that the IAEA must have effective safeguards techniques and the active cooperation of Member States. Therefore the Canadian Government decided in 1976 to initiate a program in support of IAEA safeguards, known as the Canadian Safeguards Support Program (CSSP). The CSSP is funded and administered by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The CSSP is a co-ordinated program for the development and the application of safeguards instruments and techniques for nuclear facilities and materials on behalf of the IAEA and also in support of Canada's own national nuclear material safeguards system, implemented by the AECB. (author)

  17. Exporting the Canadian licensing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the problems of an overseas regulatory agency in licensing a Canadian-supplied nuclear plant which is referenced to a plant in Canada. Firstly, the general problems associated with the use of a reference plant are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of specific problems which arise from the licensing practices in Canada. The paper concludes with recommendations to simplify the task of demonstrating the licensability of an overseas CANDU plant

  18. Canadian wind energy industry directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The companies and organizations involved, either directly or indirectly, in the wind energy industry in Canada, are listed in this directory. Some U.S. and international companies which are active or interested in Canadian industry activities are also listed. The first section of the directory is an alphabetical listing which includes corporate descriptions, company logos, addresses, phone and fax numbers, e-mail addresses and contact names. The second section contains 54 categories of products and services associated with the industry

  19. Canadian Content in Video Games

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Leonard

    2005-01-01

    THEME: Internationalism: Worlds at Play Topics: Internationalism, Identity in Gaming and Learning to Play Abstract: How does Canada fit into the global cultural context of video games? This paper investigates the culture being reflected in video games being produced in Canada as Canada is one of the world's leading producers of video games. It examines the how Canadian culture is represented in current new media artistic output against the culture, or lack of culture, being represented in vid...

  20. Canadian Energy Research Institute, Board of Directors annual report: Year ended March 31, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Energy Research Institute was established in 1975 to meet a need for independent and non-partisan perspectives on energy matters. The Institute brings together experts and officials from energy industries, universities, and governments to study energy issues and opportunities. Institute sponsors include federal and provincial government departments, a university, the Private Energy Research Association, and a number of foreign governments and corporations. Services provided by the Institute include government/industry liaison, provision of energy information, publication of results of analyses and policy recommendations, and training of energy economists. In 1991/92, the Institute released several important studies, including two on emerging energy technologies and on market-based means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The Institute's financial base was broadened by the addition of sponsorship agreements with Environment Canada and the Northwest Territories energy ministry. A broad range of studies was conducted on such topics as world gas trade, alternative transportation fuels, emissions permit trading, and the world oil market. An annotated listing of studies and reports published in 1990/91 and research projects in 1991/92 is included

  1. Biofuel scenarios in a water perspective: the global blue and green water footprint of road transport in 2030

    OpenAIRE

    Lienden, van, K.P.; Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; A. Y. Hoekstra; Meer, van der, J.

    2010-01-01

    The trend towards substitution of conventional transport fuels by biofuels requires additional water. The EU aims In the last two centuries, fossil fuels have been our major source of energy. However, issues concerning energy security and the quality of the environment have given an impulse to the development of alternative, renewable fuels. Particularly the transport sector is expected to steadily switch from fossil fuels to a larger fraction of biofuels - liquid transport fuels derived from...

  2. Prospects for Research in Transport and Logistics on a Regional: Global Perspective (I: February 2009: İstanbul: Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Ülengin, Füsun

    2009-01-01

    Committees, i -- Words of Welcome and Gratitude, ii -- Introduction, iii -- Chapter 1 Global Issues in Logistics and Transportation, 1 -- Potential to Reduce GHG through Efficient Logistic Concepts, 3 -- Werner Rothengatter -- A methodological framework for the evaluation and prioritisation of multinational transport projects: the Case of euro-asian transport linkages, 21 / Dimitrios TSAMBOULAS, Angeliki KOPSACHEILI -- Container port throughput performance - case study: Far east, north west e...

  3. Canadian fusion fuels technology project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project was launched in 1982 to coordinate Canada's provision of fusion fuels technology to international fusion power development programs. The project has a mandate to extend and adapt existing Canadian tritium technologies for use in international fusion power development programs. 1985-86 represents the fourth year of the first five-year term of the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project (CFFTP). This reporting period coincides with an increasing trend in global fusion R and D to direct more effort towards the management of tritium. This has resulted in an increased linking of CFFTP activities and objectives with those of facilities abroad. In this way there has been a continuing achievement resulting from CFFTP efforts to have cooperative R and D and service activities with organizations abroad. All of this is aided by the cooperative international atmosphere within the fusion community. This report summarizes our past year and provides some highlights of the upcoming year 1986/87, which is the final year of the first five-year phase of the program. AECL (representing the Federal Government), the Ministry of Energy (representing Ontario) and Ontario Hydro, have given formal indication of their intent to continue with a second five-year program. Plans for the second phase will continue to emphasize tritium technology and remote handling

  4. Mercury in Canadian crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates for average mercury concentrations in crude oil range widely from 10 ng/g of oil to 3,500 ng/g of oil. With such a broad range of estimates, it is difficult to determine the contributions of the petroleum sector to the total budget of mercury emissions. In response to concerns that the combustion of petroleum products may be a major source of air-borne mercury pollution, Environment Canada and the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute has undertaken a survey of the average total mercury concentration in crude oil processed in Canadian refineries. In order to calculate the potential upper limit of total mercury in all refined products, samples of more than 30 different types of crude oil collected from refineries were measured for their concentration of mercury as it enters into a refinery before processing. High temperature combustion, cold vapour atomic absorption and cold vapour atomic fluorescence were the techniques used to quantify mercury in the samples. The results of the study provide information on the total mass of mercury present in crude oil processed in Canada each year. Results can be used to determine the impact of vehicle exhaust emissions to the overall Canadian mercury emission budget. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  5. Conference summaries. Canadian Nuclear Association 29. annual conference; Canadian Nuclear Society 10. annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 15 papers from the twenty-ninth Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association. Abstracts were also prepared for the 102 papers from the tenth Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society

  6. Are Canadian Banks Ready for Basel III?

    OpenAIRE

    Imad Kutum; Khaled Hussainey

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze and test the current liquidity coverage ratio of Canadian banks’, and draw conclusions about the readiness of Canadian banks to meet Basel III regulations. Liquidity coverage ratios for six major Canadian banks were calculated using the liquid assets and liabilities listed on their balance sheets from 2009 to 2013. The actual assets that meet Basel III requirements could not be acquired, as this is private information that does not have to be released u...

  7. entering the postindustrial society: the canadian case

    OpenAIRE

    Matejko, Alexander J.

    1986-01-01

    abstract: the canadian federation is based on the substantial autonomy of the provinces constituting it, the welfare orientation of central bodies, the volunteer activities at the grass-root level, and the external policy open to the world. there are no any doubts about the genuinely democratic character of canadian internal politics or the commitment of canadians to the world peace. the economic prosperity of the country is secured by the mineral resources, good agriculture, and the intensiv...

  8. Multi-stakeholder dialogue on formal and informal forms of public transport in Harare, Zimbabwe: Convergence or divergence perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatenda Mbara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cities in the developing world are growing both geographically and demographically. Thisgrowth has increased pressure on services, including the public transport systems used bythe majority of people. In the last two decades public transport provision has undergoneconsiderable changes. Concomitant to these changes there has been debate on the formof public transport to be operated. Such debate has been informal, general, and at timesacademic, and therefore not able to provide substantive understanding of the views of keystakeholders. Zimbabwe has had an explosion of informal transport activity in the formof minibuses, and decision makers appear to be in a policy dilemma because of a need tostrike a balance between maximising passenger welfare whilst protecting the livelihoods ofindigenous minibus operators and striving to build an efficient and environmentally soundurban transport system. Critical questions for policy dialogue in this conundrum include,inter alia: How do stakeholders perceive the current public transport system? How can publictransport be sustainably provided? This study seeks to answer these questions using a casestudy of Harare. A qualitative research approach blended with some quantitative aspects wasused. Initial steps involved the identification and clustering of key urban public passengertransport stakeholders, followed by structured and unstructured interviews. Although thereis lack of consensus on the form of public transport that the City of Harare should adopt, thereis a strong view that a mass transit system is the backbone of sustainable public transport.

  9. The Secret of Canadian Banking: Common Sense?

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence Booth

    2009-01-01

    This article looks at the basic reasons why the Canadian banking system was recently judged by the World Economic Forum to be the soundest in the world. It does so by first examining the basic functions of a financial system and what Canadian banks are allowed to do as intermediaries within that system. It then considers the market structure of Canadian banking and the role of the Canadian government in regulating the financial system. It finishes with a discussion of the four basic managemen...

  10. Corrosion of copper under Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion of copper was studied under Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal conditions. The groundwater in a Canadian waste vault is expected to be saline, with chloride concentrations from 0.1 to 1.0 mol/l. The container would be packed in a sand/clay buffer, and the maximum temperature on the copper surface would be 100C; tests were performed up to 150C. Radiation fields will initially be around 500 rad/h, and conditions will be oxidizing. Sulfides may be present. The minimum design lifetime for the container is 500 years. Most work has been done on uniform corrosion, although pitting has been considered. It was found that the rate of uniform corrosion in aerated NaCl at room temperature is limited by the rate of the anodic reaction, which is controlled mainly by the rate of transport of dissolved metal species away from the copper surface. The rate of corrosion should become controlled by the transport of oxygen to the copper surface only at very low oxygen concentrations. In the presence of gamma radiation the corrosion rate may never become cathodically transport limited. In compacted buffer material, the corrosion rate appears to be limited by the rate of transport of copper species away from the corroding surface. The authors recommend that long-term predictions of container lifetime should be based on the known rate-determining step for the overall corrosion process. 8 refs

  11. Public Transport System Ticketing system using RFID and ARM processor Perspective Mumbai bus facility B.E.S.T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Chatterjee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on ticketing and identification of the passenger in the public transport. In the metropolitan city like Mumbai, Kolkata we have a severe malfunction of public transport and various security problems. Firstly, there is a lot of confusion between the passengers regarding fares which lead to corruption, Secondly due to mismanagement of public transport the passengers faces the problem of traffic jam, thirdly nowadays we have severe security problems in public transport due anti social elements. This paper suggest a user friendly automated ticketing system which will automatically deduct the passenger’s fare according to the distance travelled as well as detect the passenger’s identification. This could be only possible by use of RFID tickets and GPS can be used to make the transaction and travelling very precise. This paper basically deals with the identification and ticketing of the passengers sitting in the bus.

  12. Economic Perspectives on Automated Demand Responsive Transportation and Shared Taxi Services - Analytical models and simulations for policy analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jokinen, Jani-Pekka

    2016-01-01

    The automated demand responsive transportation (DRT) and modern shared taxi services provide shared trips for passengers, adapting dynamically to trip requests by routing a fleet of vehicles operating without any fixed routes or schedules. Compared with traditional public transportation, these new services provide trips without transfers and free passengers from the necessity of using timetables and maps of route networks. Furthermore, automated DRT applies real-time traffic information in ve...

  13. Technical trends and future prospectives of welding technology for transportation, land, sea, air and space; Orientation technique et perspectives de la technologie du soudage pour les transports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-02-01

    The first part of this conference deals more particularly with the analyses of the articles whose subjects are the welding techniques used in the transportation industries. The friction stir welding is particularly described but the traditional techniques are not forgotten. The volume containing all the papers presented at this conference is available from the secretary's office of the IIW. (O.M.)

  14. The Canadian Astronomy Data Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Nicholas M.; Schade, D.; Astronomy Data Centre, Canadian

    2011-01-01

    The Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC) is the world's largest astronomical data center, holding over 0.5 Petabytes of information, and serving nearly 3000 astronomers worldwide. Its current data collections include BLAST, CFHT, CGPS, FUSE, Gemini, HST, JCMT, MACHO, MOST, and numerous other archives and services. It provides extensive data archiving, curation, and processing expertise, via projects such as MegaPipe, and enables substantial day-to-day collaboration between resident astronomers and computer specialists. It is a stable, powerful, persistent, and properly supported environment for the storage and processing of large volumes of data, a condition that is now absolutely vital for their science potential to be exploited by the community. Through initiatives such as the Common Archive Observation Model (CAOM), the Canadian Virtual Observatory (CVO), and the Canadian Advanced Network for Astronomical Research (CANFAR), the CADC is at the global forefront of advancing astronomical research through improved data services. The CAOM aims to provide homogeneous data access, and hence viable interoperability between a potentially unlimited number of different data collections, at many wavelengths. It is active in the definition of numerous emerging standards within the International Virtual Observatory, and several datasets are already available. The CANFAR project is an initiative to make cloud computing for storage and data-intensive processing available to the community. It does this via a Virtual Machine environment that is equivalent to managing a local desktop. Several groups are already processing science data. CADC is also at the forefront of advanced astronomical data analysis, driven by the science requirements of astronomers both locally and further afield. The emergence of 'Astroinformatics' promises to provide not only utility items like object classifications, but to directly enable new science by accessing previously undiscovered or intractable

  15. Canadian environmental sustainability indicators 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2004, the Canadian government committed to reporting annual national indicators of air quality, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and freshwater quality in order to provide Canadians with more regular and consistent information on the state of the environment and how it is linked with human activities. The national air quality indicators in this report focused on human exposure to ground-level ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The report showed that from 1990 to 2004, the ozone indicator showed year-to-year variability, with an averaged increase of 0.9 per cent per year. Stations in southern Ontario reported the highest levels of ozone and PM2.5 in the country in 2004. There was no discernible upward or downward trend in PM2.5 levels at the national level for the 2000 to 2004 period, and GHG emissions rose 27 per cent from 1990 to 2004. In 2004, emissions were 35 per cent above the target to which Canada committed under the Kyoto Protocol. However, while total emissions rose, emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) fell by 14 per cent from 1990 to 2004. GHG emissions also grew faster than the Canadian population, resulting in a 10 per cent rise in emissions per person. The freshwater quality indicator presented in this report covered the period from 2002 to 2004, and focused on the ability of Canada's surface waters to support aquatic life. For the 340 sites selected across southern Canada, water quality was rated as good or excellent at 44 per cent of sites, fair at 34 per cent of sites, and marginal or poor at 22 per cent of sites. The report included a chapter which attempted to integrate the indicators with other environmental impacts, measures of economic performance, and indices of social progress to improve the ability of the report to influence decision-making that fully accounts for environmental sustainability. 63 refs., 18 figs

  16. Sea ice in the Canadian Arctic in the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate warming will occur first and most intensely in Arctic regions, according to the numerical simulations of future climate performed with different Global Climate Models (GCMs). It includes the simulations performed by the Meteorological Service of Canada. The observations gathered in the Arctic indicate that the present warming has no precedent over the past four hundred years. Since the 1970s, data acquired mainly by satellite indicates that the extent of Arctic sea ice decreased at a rate of approximately three per cent per decade. Over the period 1969-2000, a similar rate of decrease has been observed within Canadian Arctic waters. Over the past forty years, estimates of the thickness of ice in the Arctic, based on submarine measurements, show a 40 per cent decrease. By 2050, if all the conditions remain as they are, the Arctic Ocean could be ice free. The most widely held scientific opinion seems to be that in the future there will be less ice in the Arctic than what was observed in the past, an opinion that is still being debated by scientists. The development of local natural resources and trans-shipment between Europe and Asia could increase dramatically in a future with less ice. Marine transportation in the Canadian Arctic would be expanded. Climatological analysis results of Canadian ice information is presented by the authors, and they have chosen to discuss various probable scenarios related to ice conditions during this century. 13 refs., 8 figs

  17. The Canadian National Seismograph Network

    OpenAIRE

    North, R G

    1994-01-01

    The Canadian National Seismograph Network currently consists of 5 very-broadband (VBB) and 15 broadband (BB) stations across Canada, supplemented by 6 short period (SP) stations. When it is completed by the end of 1995, a further 1 VBB, 12 BB and over 40 SP stations will have been added. Data from all sites are telemetered in real time to twin network acquisition, processing and archiving centres in Eastern and Western Canada. All data are continuously archived in SEED format on optical disk ...

  18. REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADIAN ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Modern English is an international language inthe world.Besides Great Britain,English is spokenas first language in 39 countries.These countries arelocated in different regions with different naturalfeatures,history development and cultural character-istics.Thus,English used in these different regionscarries its own regional character—forming Englishregional varieties.The main English regional varieties are:BritishEnglish,American English,Canadian English andSouth African English.Canada is a rich country inNorth America with its own characteristics,which of

  19. Fuels for Canadian research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper includes some statements and remarks concerning the uranium silicide fuels for which there is significant fabrication in AECL, irradiation and defect performance experience; description of two Canadian high flux research reactors which use high enrichment uranium (HEU) and the fuels currently used in these reactors; limited fabrication work done on Al-U alloys to uranium contents as high as 40 wt%. The latter concerns work aimed at AECL fast neutron program. This experience in general terms is applied to the NRX and NRU designs of fuel

  20. The Canadian Hospital Executive Simulation System (CHESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, G H; Knotts, U A; Parrish, L G; Shields, C A

    1991-01-01

    The Canadian Hospital Executive Simulation System (CHESS) is a computer-based management decision-making game designed specifically for Canadian hospital managers. The paper begins with an introduction on the development of business and health services industry-specific simulation games. An overview of CHESS is provided, along with a description of its development and a discussion of its educational benefits. PMID:10109530

  1. Theoretical Analysis of Canadian Lifelong Education Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukan Natalia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the problem of Canadian lifelong education development has been studied. The main objectives of the article are defined as theoretical analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature which highlights different aspects of the research problem; periods of lifelong education development; and determination of lifelong learning role and importance in modern Canadian society.

  2. Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

  3. Looking Back: Tracing Trends in Canadian CALL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Mary-Louise; Sinyor, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    "CCALLNET" ("The Canadian Computer-Assisted Language Learning Network at the Post-Secondary Level") was a semi-annual newsletter published from 1987 to 2002 that was distributed to colleagues across Canada who taught languages to university students. Its objective was to create a network of Canadian faculty interested in CALL by informing them…

  4. Perspectives on EU Transport Guidelines – Evaluation of Purchasing’s Consideration of Outsourcing Transport Route Services to Turkey, a New Gate From the Old Silk Way Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan ADA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of the new member states to the European Union, the study aims to demonstrate awareness of the attendant challenges of increases in the congestion on railroads and motorways in the connections to the developing markets of the Far East and to the development of the Trans European Networks (TEN. There is growing importance for the purchasing source management function of supplier integration and supplier development to include Turkey – at the intersection of the Asian and European transport corridors and once considered in ancient times as the Silk Way Road – as an alternative route to achieve competitive advantage.

  5. Submission to Energy and Mines Ministers Conference by the Canadian Energy Pipeline Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost all of the oil and natural gas in Canada is transported from supply basins to customers across the country through the critical network operated by the members of the Canadian Energy Pipeline Association (CEPA). More than 50 per cent of the liquid hydrocarbons transported last year were exported to the United States. The issues discussed in this paper are pipeline safety and integrity, landowner relations, climate change, Aboriginal consultation, and economic regulation and taxation. Each of these topics is discussed in detail. CEPA members are working closely with industry partners and their associations in both the United States and Canada, especially so since the events of September 11, as well as with federal and provincial governments in the field of critical infrastructure protection. Landowners agree to the tune of 87 per cent with the statement to the effect that Canadians can trust pipelines to safely transport oil and natural gas products across the country. CEPA members continue to strive to meet the communication and information needs of stakeholders. Climate change poses significant challenges to the industry, which is committed to doing its part to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases. Consultation with Aboriginals is taking place in the eight provinces and two territories where CEPA members operate. The issues discussed are environmental protection, preservation of cultural and heritage resources, education and training, employment, contracting, and business opportunities. A vital component of the Canadian economy, the pipeline industry improves the quality of life for all Canadians, but the regulators are awarding low rates of return, creating a disadvantage for Canadians in the marketplace. Adjustments in this field are required, in the opinion of CEPA members. The current Capital Cost Allowance (CCA) rate for pipeline compressor assets is an issue that is being defended by CEPA members along with the Canadian Gas Association and

  6. Perspectives from mexico to achieve more with less: Alternative transport modes and their social and environmental benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Lobo, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    The discussion presented below focuses on improving the decision-making process as the true challenge of mobility we face. It proposes a way of thinking about some of the key topics within each of the layers involved in decision-making at the strategic level, including attributes of the transport system and regulatory frameworks.

  7. Self-reported experience with safe transport of children with special healthcare needs: a rehabilitation therapist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Eileen; Sherman, Keith; Morris, Laura; Lapidus, Garry

    2006-02-01

    Minimal information is available to occupational and physical therapists (rehabilitation therapists) regarding the safe transportation of children who have special healthcare needs (CSHCN). CSHCN may have conditions that impact their ability to be properly restrained in motor vehicles. We conducted an online survey of rehabilitation therapists to determine knowledge, formal training, experience and the amount of counseling provided to families regarding the safe transport of CSHCN before beginning an online training course. Eighteen percent (1075 of 6000) of invited rehabilitation therapists agreed to participate in the online survey. Most of the registered participants were physical therapists (70%) or occupational therapists (18%). A majority reported having little or no knowledge (53%), formal training (79%), or experience (54%), and conducted little or no counseling (61%) with families on the subject. The results of this survey indicate that rehabilitation therapists rate themselves as having low levels of knowledge, training, experience, and counseling of families regarding the subject of safe transportation of CSHCN. We recommend the development and implementation of a continuing educational program for rehabilitation therapists regarding the safe transportation of CSHCN. PMID:16428912

  8. Biofuel scenarios in a water perspective: The global blue and green water footprint of road transport in 2030

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Lienden, van A.R.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Meer, van der T.H.

    2012-01-01

    Concerns over energy security and climate change stimulate developments towards renewable energy. Transport is expected to switch from fossil fuel use to the use of fuel mixtures with a larger fraction of biofuels, e.g. bio-ethanol and biodiesel. Growing biomass for biofuels requires water, a scarce

  9. Canada's upstream petroleum industry - 1996 perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the activities and business prospects of the Canadian petroleum and natural gas industry for 1996 was provided. Canada's hydrocarbon resource base, reserve potential, crude oil and natural gas markets, pipeline transportation system, business and investment climate, deregulation and environmental health and safety concerns were summarized. A profile of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, the principal industry organization representing upstream producers in Canada, was also provided

  10. Assessment of drug metabolism enzyme and transporter pharmacogenetics in drug discovery and early development: perspectives of the I-PWG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, William; Tremaine, Larry M; Arefayene, Million; de Kanter, Ruben; Evers, Raymond; Guo, Yingying; Kalabus, James; Lin, Wen; Loi, Cho-Ming; Xiao, Guangqing

    2016-04-01

    Genetic variants of drug metabolism enzymes and transporters can result in high pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variability, unwanted characteristics of efficacious and safe drugs. Ideally, the contributions of these enzymes and transporters to drug disposition can be predicted from in vitro experiments and in silico modeling in discovery or early development, and then be utilized during clinical development. Recently, regulatory agencies have provided guidance on the preclinical investigation of pharmacogenetics, for application to clinical drug development. This white paper summarizes the results of an industry survey conducted by the Industry Pharmacogenomics Working Group on current practice and challenges with using in vitro systems and in silico models to understand pharmacogenetic causes of variability in drug disposition. PMID:27045656

  11. Emerging Canadian QA standards for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Canada operates a publicly funded health care system in which 70% of health care costs are paid by some level of government. Radiotherapy, indeed most cancer management, falls within the publicly funded realm of Canada's health care system. National legislation (the Canada Health Act) guarantees access to cancer services for all Canadians. However, the financial responsibility for these services is borne by the provinces. Most Canadian provinces manage the cancer management problem through central cancer agencies. In the past few decades, these provincial cancer agencies have formed the Canadian Association of Provincial Cancer Agencies (CAPCA). This association has adopted a broad mandate for cancer management in Canada (see www.capca.ca). Included in this mandate is the adoption of standards and guidelines for all aspects of cancer control. The complexity of radiation therapy has long underscored the need for cooperation at the international and national levels in defining programmes and standards. In recent decades formal quality assurance programme recommendations have emerged in the United States, Europe and Great Britain. When defining quality assurance programs, Canadian radiation treatment centres have referenced U.S. and other program standards since they have been available. Recently, under the leadership of the Canadian Association of Provincial Cancer Agencies (CAPCA), Canadian national quality assurance program recommendations are emerging. A CAPCA sponsored project to harmonize Canadian quality assurance processes has resulted in a draft document entitled 'Standards for Quality Assurance at Canadian Radiation Treatment Centres'. This document provides recommendations for the broad framework of radiation therapy quality assurance programs. In addition, detailed work is currently underway regarding equipment quality control procedures. This paper explores the historical and political landscape in which the quality assurance problem has

  12. Human ABC transporter ABCG2/BCRP expression in chemoresistance: basic and clinical perspectives for molecular cancer therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noguchi K

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Kohji Noguchi, Kazuhiro Katayama, Yoshikazu Sugimoto Division of Chemotherapy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Adenine triphosphate (ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter proteins, such as ABCB1/P-glycoprotein (P-gp and ABCG2/breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, transport various structurally unrelated compounds out of cells. ABCG2/BCRP is referred to as a “half-type” ABC transporter, functioning as a homodimer, and transports anticancer agents such as irinotecan, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38, gefitinib, imatinib, methotrexate, and mitoxantrone from cells. The expression of ABCG2/BCRP can confer a multidrug-resistant phenotype on cancer cells and affect drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in normal tissues, thus modulating the in vivo efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. Clarification of the substrate preferences and structural relationships of ABCG2/BCRP is essential for our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying its effects in vivo during chemotherapy. Its single-nucleotide polymorphisms are also involved in determining the efficacy of chemotherapeutics, and those that reduce the functional activity of ABCG2/BCRP might be associated with unexpected adverse effects from normal doses of anticancer drugs that are ABCG2/BCRP substrates. Importantly, many recently developed molecular-targeted cancer drugs, such as the tyrosine kinase inhisbitors, imatinib mesylate, gefitinib, and others, can also interact with ABCG2/BCRP. Both functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms and inhibitory agents of ABCG2/BCRP modulate the in vivo pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of these molecular cancer treatments, so the pharmacogenetics of ABCG2/BCRP is an important consideration in the application of molecular-targeted chemotherapies. Keywords: kinase inhibitor, SNP, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, molecular target

  13. Asian Outflow and Trans-Pacific Transport of Carbon Monoxide and Ozone Pollution: An Integrated Satellite, Aircraft, and Model Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, Colette L.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Emmons, Louisa K.; Gille, John C.; Deeter, Merritt N.; Warner, Ju-Ying; Edwards, David P.; Crawford, James H.; Hamlin, Amy J.

    2003-01-01

    Satellite observations of carbon monoxide (CO) from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument are combined with measurements from the Transport and Chemical Evolution Over the Pacific (TRACE-P) aircraft mission over the northwest Pacific and with a global three-dimensional chemical transport model (GEOS-CHEM) to quantify Asian pollution outflow and its trans-Pacific transport during spring 2001. Global CO column distributions in MOPITT and GEOS-CHEM are highly correlated (R(exp 2) = 0.87), with no significant model bias. The largest regional bias is over Southeast Asia, where the model is 18% too high. A 60% decrease of regional biomass burning emissions in the model (to 39 Tg/yr) would correct the discrepancy; this result is consistent with TRACE-P observations. MOPITT and TRACE-P also give consistent constraints on the Chinese source of CO from fuel combustion (181 Tg CO/yr). Four major events of trans-Pacific transport of Asian pollution in spring 2001 were seen by MOPITT, in situ platforms, and GEOS-CHEM. One of them was sampled by TRACE-P (26-27 February) as a succession of pollution layers over the northeast Pacific. These layers all originated from one single event of Asian outflow that split into northern and southern plumes over the central Pacific. The northern plume (sampled at 6-8 km off California) had no ozone enhancement. The southern subsiding plume (sampled at 2-4 km west of Hawaii) contained a 8 - 17 ppbv ozone enhancement, driven by decomposition of peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN) to nitrogen oxides (NOx). This result suggests that PAN decomposition in trans-Pacific pollution plumes subsiding over the United States could lead to significant enhancements of surface ozone.

  14. The Canadian National Seismograph Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. North

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian National Seismograph Network currently consists of 5 very-broadband (VBB and 15 broadband (BB stations across Canada, supplemented by 6 short period (SP stations. When it is completed by the end of 1995, a further 1 VBB, 12 BB and over 40 SP stations will have been added. Data from all sites are telemetered in real time to twin network acquisition, processing and archiving centres in Eastern and Western Canada. All data are continuously archived in SEED format on optical disk and access to the most recent three days of data is provided through a mail-based AutoDRM system. Continuous data from the VBB sites are sent to the FDSN Data Management Centre approximately one month after being recorded.

  15. Tritium technology. A Canadian overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the various tritium research and operational activities in Canada is presented. These activities encompass tritium processing and recovery, tritium interactions with materials, and tritium health and safety. Many of these on-going activities form a sound basis for the tritium use and handling aspects of the ITER project. Tritium management within the CANDU heavy water reactor, associated detritiation facilities, research and development facilities, and commercial industry and improving the understanding of tritium behaviour in humans and the environment remain the focus of a long-standing Canadian interest in tritium. While there have been changes in the application of this knowledge and experience over time, the operating experience and the supporting research and development continue to provide for improved plant and facility operations, an improved understanding of tritium safety issues, and improved products and tools that facilitate tritium management. (author)

  16. Canadian natural gas price debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunoco Inc. is a subsidiary of Suncor Energy, one of Canada's largest integrated energy companies having total assets of $2.8 billion. As one of the major energy suppliers in the country, Sunoco Inc has a substantial stake in the emerging trends in the natural gas industry, including the Canadian natural gas price debate. Traditionally, natural gas prices have been determined by the number of pipeline expansions, weather, energy supply and demand, and storage levels. In addition to all these traditional factors which still apply today, the present day natural gas industry also has to deal with deregulation, open competition and the global energy situation, all of which also have an impact on prices. How to face up to these challenges is the subject of this discourse. tabs., figs

  17. THE CANADIAN POLITICAL BUSINESS CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Libby

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss the existence of a Canadian Political Business Cycle (PBC during the period 1946-1989. Logit analysis was used to determine if changes in the unemployment rate, growth of real GNE and the rate of inflation are significantly different in the period before an election than during the rest of the electoral term. It was found that the rate of growth in the unemployment rate declines and the rate of growth of real GNP increases in the four quarters before an election. The behavior of these variables reverses in the period after an election. These findings are consistent with a political business cycle. Policy variables, under a majority government, also behave in a manner associated with a PBC, with the government stimulating the economy approximately two years into its term so that good economic news will occur before it has to call an election. Minority governments tend to simulate the economy immediately after taking office.

  18. Dental fitness classification in the Canadian forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Richard R

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian Forces Dental Services utilizes a dental classification system to identify those military members dentally fit for an overseas deployment where dental resources may be limited. Although the Canadian Forces Dental Services dental classification system is based on NATO standards, it differs slightly from the dental classification systems of other NATO country dental services. Data collected by dental teams on overseas deployments indicate a low rate of emergency dental visits by Canadian Forces members who were screened as dentally fit to deploy. PMID:18277717

  19. Canadian national internal dosimetry performance testing programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design and construction of new Performance Testing programme that was implemented in Canada in 2008. The Canadian Regulator (Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission - CNSC) had determined that their licensees, in addition to the existing In Vivo and In Vitro performance tests, needed to demonstrate their ability in interpreting bioassay results. The program is administered by the Canadian National Calibration Reference Centre for Bioassay and In Vivo Monitoring (NCRC). Currently the NCRC carries out the performance testing for the In Vitro and In Vivo. At time of writing, the first round has not been completed and the pass/fail criteria have not been determined. (author)

  20. Risk-informed decision-making in Canadian nuclear regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of concepts pertaining to risk management and risk-informed decision-making, in order to promote the understanding of their application in the Canadian nuclear regulatory climate. As stated in the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA), the CNSC is required to protect the Canadian public against 'unreasonable risk' posed by activities it regulates. Additionally, the CNSC is expected to respect findings given in reports from the Office of the Auditor General (OAG), and to follow directives issued by the Government of Canada through Cabinet, hence, the Cabinet Directive on Streamlining Regulation (CDSR). The CNSC applies an approach that strives to be easily understandable, adaptable to many situations, supported by tools to gather information, is defensible, respects stakeholder consultations and is founded on open communication. The CNSC's conformance to the NSCA is broken into categories depending on the nature of the regulated facility: Class I power reactor facilities, non-power-reactor Class I facilities and Class II facilities. Internationally, different countries have different perspectives on risk. The paper argues that the CNSC's approach is consistent with practices of other nuclear regulatory bodies, which factor risk into their decision-making process. (author)

  1. Diversity Management in the Canadian Workplace: Towards an Antiracism Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanmala Hiranandani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most diversity management programs in Canada maintain that enhancing workforce diversity is of tremendous significance for business organizations in today’s competitive global urban markets. Since well-meaning diversity management initiatives have been largely ineffective thus far in dealing with workplace discrimination and racism in the Canadian workplace, this paper underscores the need to decenter the focus of diversity management from a business imperative to an antidiscrimination and social justice imperative. Within this latter perspective, the paper examines the strengths and limitations of the antiracism approach that has been implemented in various developed countries in recent years. The antiracism approach is an action-oriented strategy for institutional and systemic change that has at its core the interrogation of privilege, power disparities, and other forms of inequity within the organization. Drawing from the lessons of various initiatives that have utilized this approach, the present paper emphasizes the need for a nuanced antiracism approach in the multicultural Canadian society if diversity management is to attain its goal of greater inclusion of all individuals in informal networks and formal organizational programs.

  2. Canadian conventional gas at a crossroads : a Ziff Energy white paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current low price of natural gas may have a significant and lasting impact on Canada's natural gas industry. This paper discussed the future of Canada's conventional gas industry and presented recommendations for ensuring a competitive and successful industry. Canada's oil and gas producers are increasingly shifting drilling activity towards oil production. The ratio of proven gas reserves to current production is now less than 8 years. As the conventional gas drilling reserve base shrinks, investment levels will also decline. Gas production in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) is expected to decline a further 15 per cent by 2020. The strong Canadian dollar has resulted in extensive monetary losses to Canadian gas producers. Service costs to the industry are also high. Recommendations included increased government involvement, new royalty rates, investment in unconventional gas, and regulatory reviews, and low gas production costs. Industry approaches will require involvement from operators, service companies, mid-stream processors, and transporters. 15 figs.

  3. Understanding the Irony: Canadian Gay Men Living with HIV/AIDS, Their Catholic Devotion, and Greater Well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liboro, Renato M; Walsh, Richard T G

    2016-04-01

    Nine Canadian Catholic HIV-positive gay men were interviewed to obtain a better understanding of why and how they were able to persevere in their faith despite their religion's teachings against homosexuality and contributions to the stigmatization of HIV/AIDS. By examining the lived experiences and personal perspectives of the participants, the study aimed to explore and elucidate the significant role of Catholicism and the Catholic Church both as a continued source of marginalization and oppression, as well as strength and support, for Canadian gay men living with HIV/AIDS today. PMID:26160146

  4. Submission of the Federation of Canadian Municipalities to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Environment, Parliament of Canada in respect of the Standing Committee's study on global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The views of an organization representing Canadian municipalities concerning the effects of global warming and climatic change are presented. Overall concerns include the lack of ready availability of information on future climatic changes and the apparent weak leadership of the federal government with regard to environmental matters. Specific concerns on the direct effects of global warming on municipalities include the effects of flooding and drought on public services, a possible deterioration in water supply and quality, increasing risk of fires, immigration from drought-affected areas of the world, diseases relating to the spread of subtropical plants and animals, and changes in regulations concerning the use of energy and the design of buildings. From the municipal perspective, contributions to the prevention of climatic change would have to come from reducing energy use for transportation, such as encouraging greater use of public transit, and reducing energy use in buildings through improved design and installation of district heating/cooling systems

  5. Perspectives on industry restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An industry association perspective on restructuring in the electrical industry was offered, placing the ongoing debate about deregulation and competition in the industry in Ontario into a Canadian and a global context. It was found that the move towards deregulation was a global phenomenon, fuelled by the emergence of increasingly open and highly competitive global markets, heightened consumer expectations, and new technologies and convergence. Examples from the U.K., Norway, Australia, New Zealand and the United States were cited to indicate the spread of this trend. Canadian utilities, among them B.C. Hydro, Nova Scotia Power and the Alberta utilities being prime examples, also have restructured recently into separate generation, transmission, distribution and consumer service units to better react to changing market needs. Alliances with other utilities or competitors in the energy sector to pursue business opportunities outside traditional markets, are also not uncommon. Therefore, it was only a question of time for Ontario Hydro, the largest Canadian electric utility, to come under public pressure to follow the national and global trend. The MacDonald Committee recommendations provide the foundation for radical change for the industry. If and when implemented, they could have a major impact on how the electricity sector in Canada will operate in the years to come. Sound decisions by the Ontario government as to the appropriate regulatory model may also determine the province's ability to compete in the unfolding restructuring of electricity markets throughout North America

  6. Canadian Law Schools: In Search of Excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakman, Leon E.

    1980-01-01

    Academically, Canadian education is at the crossroads between formalism and functionalism, with the latter prevailing in recent years. There now arises a demand for a more integrated approach, linking legal theory with legal practice. (MSE)

  7. Canadian used fuel disposal concept review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A federal government environmental assessment review of the disposal concept developed under the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is currently underway. The Canadian concept is, simply stated, the placement of used fuel (or fuel waste) in long-lived containers at a depth between 500 m and 1000 m in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited submitted an Environmental Impact Statement in 1994 and the public hearing aspect of the concept review is in its final phase. A unique aspect of the Canadian situation is that government has stipulated that site selection can not commence until the concept has been approved. Hence, the safety and acceptability of the concept is being reviewed in the context of a generic site. Some comments and lessons learned to date related to the review process are discussed. (author)

  8. Canadian Business Schools: Going out of Business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobni, Dawn; Dobni, Brooke

    1996-01-01

    Using Porter's five-forces model (potential entrants, suppliers, buyers, rivalry, substitutes) to analyze competition in Canadian university business schools, the authors conclude that schools are becoming increasingly vulnerable to competitive pressures and that strategic reorientation is necessary. (SK)

  9. Canadian media representations of mad cow disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Amanda D; Jardine, Cynthia G; Driedger, S Michelle

    2009-01-01

    A Canadian case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or "mad cow disease" was confirmed in May, 2003. An in-depth content analysis of newspaper articles was conducted to understand the portrayal of BSE and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the Canadian media. Articles in the "first 10 days" following the initial discovery of a cow with BSE in Canada on May 20, 2003, were examined based on the premise that these initial stories provide the major frames that dominate news media reporting of the same issue over time and multiple occurrences. Subsequent confirmed Canadian cases were similarly analyzed to determine if coverage changed in these later media articles. The results include a prominence of economic articles, de-emphasis of health aspects, and anchoring the Canadian outbreak to that of Britain's crisis. The variation in media representations between those in Canada and those documented in Britain are explored in this study. PMID:19697246

  10. The use of regional advance mitigation planning (RAMP) to integrate transportation infrastructure impacts with sustainability; a perspective from the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Globally, urban areas are expanding, and their regional, spatially cumulative, environmental impacts from transportation projects are not typically assessed. However, incorporation of a Regional Advance Mitigation Planning (RAMP) framework can promote more effective, ecologically sound, and less expensive environmental mitigation. As a demonstration of the first phase of the RAMP framework, we assessed environmental impacts from 181 planned transportation projects in the 19 368 km2 San Francisco Bay Area. We found that 107 road and railroad projects will impact 2411–3490 ha of habitat supporting 30–43 threatened or endangered species. In addition, 1175 ha of impacts to agriculture and native vegetation are expected, as well as 125 crossings of waterways supporting anadromous fish species. The extent of these spatially cumulative impacts shows the need for a regional approach to associated environmental offsets. Many of the impacts were comprised of numerous small projects, where project-by-project mitigation would result in increased transaction costs, land costs, and lost project time. Ecological gains can be made if a regional approach is taken through the avoidance of small-sized reserves and the ability to target parcels for acquisition that fit within conservation planning designs. The methods are straightforward, and can be used in other metropolitan areas. (papers)

  11. Canadian experience with structured clinical examinations.

    OpenAIRE

    Grand'Maison, P.; Lescop, J; Brailovsky, C. A.

    1993-01-01

    The use of structured clinical examinations to improve the evaluation of medical students and graduates has become significantly more common in the past 25 years. Many Canadian medical educators have contributed to the development of this technique. The Canadian experience is reviewed from the introduction of simulated-standardized patients and objective-structured clinical examinations to more recent developments and the use of such examinations for licensure and certification.

  12. South Asian Canadian experiences of depression

    OpenAIRE

    Grewal, Amarjit

    2010-01-01

    This narrative research study explored the socio-cultural context surrounding depression through semi-structured interviews with six South Asian Canadian participants, who self identified as having experienced depression. The study sought to expand on the knowledge of depression and South Asian Canadians by considering the roles of the family, the community, and the culture in the experiences of depression. Thematic analysis of the participant interviews resulted in five major themes: the exp...

  13. Canadian National Identity and Anti-Americanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭万宏

    2015-01-01

    Canadian national identity is closely related to anti-Americanism and for Canadians,comparing with America has become the main way to identify themselves.So some scholars argue that Canada lacks a real national identity and this is the main reason of its anti-American tradition.However,the author remarks Canada has its national identity.In this paper,the author will present three reasons to support her view.

  14. Canadian National Identity and Anti-Americanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭万宏

    2015-01-01

    Canadian national identity is closely related to antiAmericanism and for Canadians,comparing with America has become the main way to identify themselves.So some scholars argue that Canada lacks a real national identity and this is the main reason of its anti-American tradition.However,the author remarks Canada has its national identity.In this paper,the author will present three reasons to support her view.

  15. How Canadians feel about nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey conducted by Decima Research in April 1989 showed that 50% of Canadians were somewhat or strongly in favour of nuclear energy, the percentage varying from 37% in British Columbia to 65% in Ontario. A majority (56%) questioned the nuclear industry's ability to handle its waste safely, but 45% believed that it was working hard to solve the problem. It was evident that an advertising campaign by the Canadian Nuclear Association had an effect

  16. Shocking Aspects of Canadian Labor Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett Sutton; Tamim Bayoumi; Andrew Swiston

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the flexibility of the Canadian labor market across provinces in both an interand intra-national context using macroeconomic data on employment, unemployment, participation, and (for Canada) migration and real wages. We find that Canadian labor markets respond in a similar manner to their U.S. counterparts and are more flexible than those in major euro area countries. Within Canada, the results indicate that labor markets in Ontario and provinces further west are more flexible, par...

  17. Labour Market Progression of Canadian Immigrant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Adsera, Alicia; Ferrer, Ana

    2014-01-01

    We use the confidential files of the 1991-2006 Canadian Census, combined with information from O*NET on the skill requirements of jobs, to explore whether Canadian immigrant women behave as secondary workers, remaining marginally attached to the labour market and experiencing little career progression over time. Our results show that the labor market patterns of female immigrants to Canada do not fit the profile of secondary workers, but rather conform to patterns recently exhibited by marrie...

  18. Canadian Art Partnership Program in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ketovuori, Mikko Mr.

    2011-01-01

    This article is about a multidisciplinary R&D project in which a Canadian Learning Through The Arts (LTTA) program was imported to Finland in 2003–2004. Cultural differences in arts education in Finland and Canada are discussed. While Finland has a national school curriculum with all the arts included. Canada relies more on partnerships to ensure arts education for children in the schools. Despite the fact that Canadian learning methods appeared to be quite similar to the ones Finnish teacher...

  19. Exploring the Efficacy of Endoscopic Ventriculostomy for Hydrocephalus Treatment via a Multicompartmental Poroelastic Model of CSF Transport: A Computational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardakis, John C.; Tully, Brett J.; Ventikos, Yiannis

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes the implementation of a Multiple-Network Poroelastic Theory (MPET) model coupled with finite-volume computational fluid dynamics for the purpose of studying, in detail, the effects of obstructing CSF transport within an anatomically accurate cerebral environment. The MPET representation allows the investigation of fluid transport between CSF, brain parenchyma and cerebral blood, in an integral and comprehensive manner. A key novelty in the model is the amalgamation of anatomically accurate choroid plexuses with their feeding arteries and a simple relationship relaxing the constraint of a unique permeability for the CSF compartment. This was done in order to account for the Aquaporin-4-mediated swelling characteristics. The aim of this varying permeability compartment was to bring to light a feedback mechanism that could counteract the effects of ventricular dilation and subsequent elevations of CSF pressure through the efflux of excess CSF into the blood system. This model is used to demonstrate the impact of aqueductal stenosis and fourth ventricle outlet obstruction (FVOO). The implications of treating such a clinical condition with the aid of endoscopic third (ETV) and endoscopic fourth (EFV) ventriculostomy are considered. We observed peak CSF velocities in the aqueduct of the order of 15.6 cm/s in the healthy case, 45.4 cm/s and 72.8 cm/s for the mild and severe cases respectively. The application of ETV reduced the aqueductal velocity to levels around 16–17 cm/s. Ventricular displacement, CSF pressure, wall shear stress (WSS) and pressure difference between lateral and fourth ventricles (ΔP) increased with applied stenosis, and subsequently dropped to nominal levels with the application of ETV. The greatest reversal of the effects of atresia come by opting for ETV rather than the more complicated procedure of EFV. PMID:24391968

  20. Exploring the efficacy of endoscopic ventriculostomy for hydrocephalus treatment via a multicompartmental poroelastic model of CSF transport: a computational perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Vardakis

    Full Text Available This study proposes the implementation of a Multiple-Network Poroelastic Theory (MPET model coupled with finite-volume computational fluid dynamics for the purpose of studying, in detail, the effects of obstructing CSF transport within an anatomically accurate cerebral environment. The MPET representation allows the investigation of fluid transport between CSF, brain parenchyma and cerebral blood, in an integral and comprehensive manner. A key novelty in the model is the amalgamation of anatomically accurate choroid plexuses with their feeding arteries and a simple relationship relaxing the constraint of a unique permeability for the CSF compartment. This was done in order to account for the Aquaporin-4-mediated swelling characteristics. The aim of this varying permeability compartment was to bring to light a feedback mechanism that could counteract the effects of ventricular dilation and subsequent elevations of CSF pressure through the efflux of excess CSF into the blood system. This model is used to demonstrate the impact of aqueductal stenosis and fourth ventricle outlet obstruction (FVOO. The implications of treating such a clinical condition with the aid of endoscopic third (ETV and endoscopic fourth (EFV ventriculostomy are considered. We observed peak CSF velocities in the aqueduct of the order of 15.6 cm/s in the healthy case, 45.4 cm/s and 72.8 cm/s for the mild and severe cases respectively. The application of ETV reduced the aqueductal velocity to levels around 16-17 cm/s. Ventricular displacement, CSF pressure, wall shear stress (WSS and pressure difference between lateral and fourth ventricles (ΔP increased with applied stenosis, and subsequently dropped to nominal levels with the application of ETV. The greatest reversal of the effects of atresia come by opting for ETV rather than the more complicated procedure of EFV.

  1. Telemedicine and security. Confidentiality, integrity, and availability: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennett, P; Watanabe, M; Igras, E; Premkumar, K; Hall, W

    1996-01-01

    The health care system is undergoing major reform, characterized by organized delivery systems (regionalization, decentralization, devolution, etc); shifts in care delivery sites; changing health provider roles; increasing consumer responsibilities; and accountability. Rapid advances in information technology and telecommunications have led to a new type of information infrastructure which can play a major role in this reform. Compatible health information systems are now being integrated and connected across institutional, regional, and sectorial boundaries. In the near future, these information systems will readily be accessed and shared by health providers, researchers, policy makers, health consumers, and the public. SECURITY is a critical characteristic of any health information system. This paper will address three fields associated with SECURITY: confidentiality, integrity, and availability. These will be defined and examined as they relate to specific aspects of Telemedicine, such as electronic integrated records and clinical databases; electronic transfer of documents; as well as data storage and disposal. The guiding principles, standards, and safeguards being considered and put in place to ensure that telemedicine information intrastructures can protect and benefit all stakeholders' rights and needs in both primary and secondary uses of information will be reviewed. Implemented, proposed, and tested institutional, System, and Network solutions will be discussed; for example, encryption-decryption methods; data transfer standards; individual and terminal access and entry I.D. and password levels; smart card access and PIN number control; data loss prevention strategies; interference alerts; information access keys; algorithm safeguards; and active marketing to users of standards and principles. Issues such as policy, implementation, and ownership will be addressed. PMID:10163762

  2. Stereotactic radiosurgery for acoustic neuroma: a Canadian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, I.B. [Univ. of Manitoba, Section of Neurosurgery, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Tator, C.H. [Univ. of Toronto, Div. of Neurosurgery, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-11-01

    Stereotactically delivered radiation is now an accepted treatment for patients with acoustic neuroma. In some cases, patient preference may be the reason for its selection, while in others neurosurgeons may select it for patients who are elderly or have significant risk factors for conventional surgery. The majority of patients with acoustic neuroma treatment with stereotactic radiosurgery have been treated with the Gamma Knife, with follow ups of over 25 years in some instances. Other radiosurgical modalities utilizing the linear accelerator have been developed and appear promising, but there is no long-term: follow up. Canada does not possess a Gamma Knife facility, and its government-funded hospital and medical insurance agencies have made it difficult for patients to obtain reimbursement for Gamma Knife treatments in other countries. We review the literature to date on the various forms of radiation treatment for acoustic neuroma and discuss the current issues facing physicians and patients in Canada who wish to obtain their treatment of choice. (author)

  3. Fate, weathering, and modelling research: A Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fate and behavior studies are fundamental to oil spill research and their results are important for operational response. Knowledge of the ultimate fate and behavior of oil should drive countermeasures decisions. Research has been conducted around the world on oil fate and behavior. The effort has not been, in this author's opinion, focussed and long-term as it should have been. Unfortunately, research funding for oil spills is very oscillatory. Fate and behavior studies require a long, concerted effort to yield valuable results. Because of this, fate and behavior studies have suffered much more than others from funding spurts. Little research has been maintained at universities because of the lack of sustained funding. Few other research organizations have facilities, equipment and expertise to carry out fundamental studies. A second difficulty in the field has been the tendency to fund one-year studies. In many cases little can be answered in a year. Specialized apparatus take 6-12 months to build or to acquire. Little time is left to operate these. The learning curve is also a factor. It is generally accepted in a specialized field that it takes a new scientist 6 months to produce any useful work, 2 years to become productive, and 5 years to be fully productive. Hopefully, future efforts will allow for longer-term studies on fate and behavior. The state-of-the-art in the field of fate, behavior, weathering and modelling could be summarized as variable. There are many deficiencies in our knowledge about the fate, weathering and modelling of oil spills. The fate, behavior and transformation of oil is dominated by the reality that oil is a varying mixture of hundreds of compounds

  4. School-Based Practices for Asperger Syndrome: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrimmon, Adam W.; Altomare, Alyssa A.; Matchullis, Ryan L.; Jitlina, Katia

    2012-01-01

    Educators face increasing demands to provide quality education in their classrooms, particularly to students with exceptional needs. Students with Asperger syndrome (AS) represent a population experiencing significant nonacademic barriers to learning (e.g., social, emotional, and behavioural needs). However, educational policies that identify and…

  5. Barriers to palliative radiotherapy referral: A Canadian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samant, Rajiv S.; Fitzgibbon, Edward; Meng, Joanne; Graham, Ian D. [Univ. of Ottawa. Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-15

    Radiotherapy is an effective but underutilized treatment modality for cancer patients. We decided to investigate the factors influencing radiotherapy referral among family physicians in our region. A 30-item survey was developed to determine palliative radiotherapy knowledge and factors influencing referral. It was sent to 400 physicians in eastern Ontario (Canada) and the completed surveys were evaluated. The overall response rate was 50% with almost all physicians seeing cancer patients recently (97%) and the majority (80%) providing palliative care. Approximately 56% had referred patients for radiotherapy previously and 59% were aware of the regional community oncology program. Factors influencing radiotherapy referral included the following: waiting times for radiotherapy consultation and treatment, uncertainty about the benefits of radiotherapy, patient age, and perceived patient inconvenience. Physicians who referred patients for radiotherapy were more than likely to provide palliative care, work outside of urban centres, have hospital privileges and had sought advice from a radiation oncologist in the past. A variety of factors influence the referral of cancer patients for radiotherapy by family physicians and addressing issues such as long waiting times, lack of palliative radiotherapy knowledge and awareness of Cancer Centre services could increase the rate of appropriate radiotherapy patient referral.

  6. Citizenship Education in the Era of Globalization:Canadian Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Pashby

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Important and challenging theoretical debates and questions arising from considerations of the role of citizenship education in the current “global era” are evident in academic literature. Ultimately, our scholarly work must also engage with what happens in our elementary, secondary, and post-secondary classrooms. Much important scholarly attention is being directed to debates about the nature of globalization, and about national and, increasingly, global concepts of citizenship, multiculturalism, and social movements of global resistance. However, much of this work is done outside of a direct engagement with teachers, students, and classroom practices and is consequently left at a level of abstraction that appears disconnected from the day-to-day work of public schooling. Indeed, when working through significant theoretical interjections and conversations that engage with the complexities and possibilities to which we are drawn, we can never forget that the “what” and “how” of teaching and learning, and the values that circulate within classrooms, reflect the global movements of contemporary history and are shaped by a sense that we must take-up global issues. We must, therefore, recognize what Pashby (this issue refers to as the global imperative that exerts particular pressure on educational theory, practice, policy, and politics. To do this we must struggle with questions of theory that inform our scholarly and our practical work as educators, be that practice in faculties of education or in K to 12 classrooms. This special themed issue presents important questions, concerns, and possibilities that mark both theoretical discourses and classroom practice.

  7. Canadian cancer screening disparities: a recent historical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kerner, J.; Liu, J; Wang, K.; Fung, S; Landry, C; Lockwood, G.; Zitzelsberger, L; Mai, V

    2015-01-01

    Across Canada, introduction of the Pap test for cervical cancer screening, followed by mammography for breast cancer screening and, more recently, the fecal occult blood test for colorectal cancer screening, has contributed to a reduction in cancer mortality. However, another contribution of screening has been disparities in cancer mortality between certain populations. Here, we explore the disparities associated with breast and cervical cancer screening and preliminary data concerning dispar...

  8. Human donor milk for the vulnerable infant: a Canadian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Panczuk, Julia; Unger, Sharon; O’Connor, Deborah; Lee, Shoo K.

    2014-01-01

    Breast milk is the normal way to feed infants and is accepted worldwide as the optimal first source of nutrition. Though the majority intend to breastfeed, many mothers of sick, hospitalized newborns, particularly those of very low birth weight, are unable to provide a full volume of milk due to numerous physical and emotional barriers to breastfeeding. This vulnerable population of infants may benefit most from receiving breast milk nutrition and thus pasteurized donor milk should be the fir...

  9. Communications strategy for irradiator siting approvals: a Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a new public attitudes survey and a communications strategy developed during a 2-year period, during which a proposal for the installation of a unique cobalt 60 sourced sludge irradiator was being considered. This Sludge Recycling Facility proposal was supported by a plan that addressed knowledge needs of five target audiences -politicians, neighbours, regulatory and licensing agencies, city staff and future plant workers, and special interest groups. (author)

  10. Barriers to palliative radiotherapy referral: A Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy is an effective but underutilized treatment modality for cancer patients. We decided to investigate the factors influencing radiotherapy referral among family physicians in our region. A 30-item survey was developed to determine palliative radiotherapy knowledge and factors influencing referral. It was sent to 400 physicians in eastern Ontario (Canada) and the completed surveys were evaluated. The overall response rate was 50% with almost all physicians seeing cancer patients recently (97%) and the majority (80%) providing palliative care. Approximately 56% had referred patients for radiotherapy previously and 59% were aware of the regional community oncology program. Factors influencing radiotherapy referral included the following: waiting times for radiotherapy consultation and treatment, uncertainty about the benefits of radiotherapy, patient age, and perceived patient inconvenience. Physicians who referred patients for radiotherapy were more than likely to provide palliative care, work outside of urban centres, have hospital privileges and had sought advice from a radiation oncologist in the past. A variety of factors influence the referral of cancer patients for radiotherapy by family physicians and addressing issues such as long waiting times, lack of palliative radiotherapy knowledge and awareness of Cancer Centre services could increase the rate of appropriate radiotherapy patient referral

  11. Canadian Attitudes toward Labour Market Issues: A Survey of Canadian Opinion. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, Human Resources and Social Development Canada commissioned Environics Research Group Limited to conduct a public opinion survey on labour market issues among 3,000 adult Canadians. The objective of the public opinion survey was to better understand the perceptions of Canadians regarding labour market challenges and opportunities in order…

  12. Canadian photovoltaic industry directory --1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The directory is intended to help potential PV customers identify Canadian-based companies who can meet their needs, and to help product manufacturers and distributors identify potential new clients and/or partners within the PV industry for new and improved technologies leading to greater end-use customer satisfaction. The principal feature of the directory is an information matrix that identifies the product and service types offered by each firm and the primary clients served. There is also a list of companies by province and territory, followed by an alphabetical listing of all companies, with detailed information including, mailing address, contact person, prime activity, geographic area served, languages in which services are provided, and a brief company profile. Additional information provided by the companies themselves, dealing with items such as number of systems sold, the total installed capacity, etc., is included in an 'experience matrix' for each firm. Sources of additional information on photovoltaic systems are included in a list at the end of the directory

  13. The Canadian mobile satellite program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, P. M.; Breithaupt, R. W.; McNally, J. L.

    The progressions and selection of design features for the Canadian segment of a mobile satellite (MSAT) communications system are traced. The feasibility study for a satellite-based public and government mobile communications service to underserved areas was carried out between 1980-82. The results covered the market demand, commercial viability, user cost-benefit, and spacecraft concepts. A subsequent 2 yr study was initiated to proceed with project definition. A market of 1.1 million users was identified in all of Canada, with MSAT replacing other systems for 50 percent of the market. Operations would be in the 806-890 MHz range. Traffic will be routed through gateway links functioning in the 8/7 GHz SHF band while the mobile units will be connected through an 821-825 MHz up link and an 866-870 MH downlink. New technologies will be needed for a central control station, the gateway stations, and the base stations for the mobile radio service, the mobile user terminals, and data collection platforms.

  14. The Canadian nuclear power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review of the Canadian nuclear power program is presented. Domestically developed CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactors account for all of Canada's nuclear electric capacity (5000 MWe in operation and 10,000 MWe under construction or in commissioning) and have also been exported. CANDU reactors are reliable, efficient, and consistently register in the world's top ten in performance. The safety record is excellent. Canada has excess capability in heavy water and uranium production and can easily service export demands. The economic activity generated in the nuclear sector is high and supports a large number of jobs. The growth in nuclear commitments has slowed somewhat as a result of the worldwide recession; however, the nuclear share of expected electricity demand is likely to continue to rise in the next decade. Priorities in the future direction of the program lie in the areas of maintaining high response capability to in-service problems, improving technology, high-level waste management, and advanced fuel cycles. (author)

  15. Canadian landmine detection research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFee, John E.; Das, Yogadhish; Faust, Anthony A.

    2003-09-01

    Defence R&D Canada (DRDC), an agency within the Department of National Defence, has been conducting research and development (R&D) on the detection of landmines for countermine operations and of unexploded ordnance (UXO) for range clearance since 1975. The Canadian Centre for Mine Action Technologies (CCMAT), located at DRDC Suffield, was formed in 1998 to carry out R&D related to humanitarian demining. The lead group responsible for formulating and executing both countermine and humanitarian R&D programs in detection is the Threat Detection Group at DRDC Suffield. This paper describes R&D for both programs under the major headings of remote minefield detection, close-in scanning detection, confirmation detection and teleoperated systems. Among DRDC's achievements in landmine and UXO detection R&D are pioneering work in electromagnetic and magnetic identification and classification; the first military-fielded multisensor, teleoperated vehicle-mounted landmine detection system; pioneering use of confirmation detectors for multisensor landmine detection systems; the first fielded thermal neutron activation landmine confirmation sensor; the first detection of landmines using a real-time hyperspectral imager; electrical impedance imaging detection of landmines and UXO and a unique neutron backscatter landmine imager.

  16. Canadian guidelines for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide a clinical summary of the Canadian clinical practice guidelines for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) that includes relevant considerations for family physicians. Quality of evidence Guideline authors performed a systematic literature search and drafted recommendations. Recommendations received both strength of evidence and strength of recommendation ratings. Input from external content experts was sought, as was endorsement from Canadian medical societies (Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada, Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Canadian Society of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians, and the Family Physicians Airways Group of Canada). Main message Diagnosis of ABRS is based on the presence of specific symptoms and their duration; imaging or culture are not needed in uncomplicated cases. Treatment is dependent on symptom severity, with intranasal corticosteroids (INCSs) recommended as monotherapy for mild and moderate cases, although the benefit might be modest. Use of INCSs plus antibiotics is reserved for patients who fail to respond to INCSs after 72 hours, and for initial treatment of patients with severe symptoms. Antibiotic selection must account for the suspected pathogen, the risk of resistance, comorbid conditions, and local antimicrobial resistance trends. Adjunct therapies such as nasal saline irrigation are recommended. Failure to respond to treatment, recurrent episodes, and signs of complications should prompt referral to an otolaryngologist. The guidelines address situations unique to the Canadian health care environment, including actions to take during prolonged wait periods for specialist referral or imaging. Conclusion The Canadian guidelines provide up-to-date recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of ABRS that reflect an evolving understanding of the disease. In addition, the guidelines offer useful tools to help

  17. Long-range-transported Saharan dust in the Caribbean - an electron microscopy perspective of aerosol composition and modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Konrad; Hartmann, Markus; Ebert, Martin; Weinbruch, Stephan; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Walser, Adrian; Sauer, Daniel; Wadinga Fomba, Khanneh

    2015-04-01

    From June to July in 2013, the Saharan Aerosol Long-range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud-Interaction Experiment (SALTRACE) was performed in the Caribbean. Airborne aerosol sampling was performed onboard the DLR Falcon aircraft in altitudes between 300 m and 5500 m. Ground-based samples were collected at Ragged Point (Barbados, 13.165 °N, 59.432 °W) and at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (Sao Vicente, 16.864 °N, 24.868 °W). Different types of impactors and sedimentation samplers were used to collect particles between 0.1 µm and 4 µm (airborne) and between 0.1 µm and 100 µm (ground-based). Particles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy with attached energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, yielding information on particle size, particle shape and chemical composition for elements heavier than nitrogen. A particle size correction was applied to the chemical data to yield better quantification. A total of approximately 100,000 particles were analyzed. For particles larger than 0.7 µm, the aerosol in the Caribbean during the campaign was a mixture of mineral dust, sea-salt at different aging states, and sulfate. Inside the Saharan dust plume - outside the marine boundary layer (MBL) - the aerosol is absolutely dominated by mineral dust. Inside the upper MBL, sea-salt exists as minor component in the aerosol for particles smaller than 2 µm in diameter, larger ones are practically dust only. When crossing the Soufriere Hills volcano plume with the aircraft, an extremely high abundance of small sulfate particles could be observed. At Ragged Point, in contrast to the airborne measurements, aerosol is frequently dominated by sea-salt particles. Dust relative abundance at Ragged Point has a maximum between 5 µm and 10 µm particles diameter; at larger sizes, sea-salt again prevails due to the sea-spray influence. A significant number of dust particles larger than 20 µm was encountered. The dust component in the Caribbean - airborne as well as ground

  18. Safeguards and security aspects of a potential Canadian used-fuel disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large quantities of highly radioactive used fuel have been produced by Canadian nuclear generating stations. Conceptual design and development is under way to assess a means of disposing of this used fuel within a vault located 500 to 1000 m deep in plutonic rock in the Canadian Shield. In parallel with this work, the safeguards and physical security measures that will be required for this used fuel during transportation, packaging, and containment in a disposal vault are being studied in Canada, in several other countries that have similar requirements and by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Canadian commitments and regulations applicable to used-fuel transportation and disposal are described. The experience gained from applying safeguards and physical security measures at similar facilities is considered together with the availability of equipment that might be used in applying these measures. Possible safeguards and physical security measures are outlined and considered. These measures are based on the conceptual design studies for a reference Used-Fuel Disposal Centre and associated transportation systems undertaken by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and Ontario Hydro. These studies show that effective and practical safeguards, which meet present IAEA objectives, can be applied to the used fuel in transportation and at a disposal facility. They also show that physical security measures can be employed that have a high probability of preventing theft or sabotage. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs., glossary, 2 appendices

  19. Canadian environmental sustainability indicators: highlights 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadians' health and their social and economic well-being are fundamentally linked to the quality of their environment. Recognizing this, in 2004 the Government of Canada committed to establishing national indicators of freshwater quality, air quality and greenhouse gas emissions. The goal of these new indicators is to provide Canadians with more regular and reliable information on the state of their environment and how it is linked with human activity. Canadians need clearly defined environmental indicators - measuring sticks that can track the results that have been achieved through the efforts of governments, industries and individuals to protect and improve the environment. Environment Canada, Statistics Canada and Health Canada are working together to further develop and communicate these indicators. Reflecting the joint responsibility for environmental management in Canada, this effort has benefited from the cooperation and input of the provinces and territories. The indicators are: air quality; greenhouse gas emissions; and, freshwater quality. Air quality tracks Canadians' exposure to ground-level ozone - a key component of smog. The indicator measures one of the most common, harmful air pollutants to which people are exposed. The use of the seasonal average of ozone concentrations reflects the potential for long-term health effects. Greenhouse gas emissions tracks the annual releases of the six greenhouse gases that are the major contributors to climate change. The indicator comes directly from the greenhouse gas inventory report prepared by Environment Canada for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol. The data are widely used to report on progress toward Canada's Kyoto target for reduced emissions. Freshwater quality reports the status of surface water quality at selected monitoring sites across the country. For this first report, the focus of the indicator is on the protection of aquatic life, such as

  20. 2009 Canadian Radiation Oncology Resident Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Statistics from the Canadian post-MD education registry show that numbers of Canadian radiation oncology (RO) trainees have risen from 62 in 1999 to approximately 150 per year between 2003 and 2009, contributing to the current perceived downturn in employment opportunities for radiation oncologists in Canada. When last surveyed in 2003, Canadian RO residents identified job availability as their main concern. Our objective was to survey current Canadian RO residents on their training and career plans. Methods and Materials: Trainees from the 13 Canadian residency programs using the national matching service were sought. Potential respondents were identified through individual program directors or chief resident and were e-mailed a secure link to an online survey. Descriptive statistics were used to report responses. Results: The eligible response rate was 53% (83/156). Similar to the 2003 survey, respondents generally expressed high satisfaction with their programs and specialty. The most frequently expressed perceived weakness in their training differed from 2003, with 46.5% of current respondents feeling unprepared to enter the job market. 72% plan on pursuing a postresidency fellowship. Most respondents intend to practice in Canada. Fewer than 20% of respondents believe that there is a strong demand for radiation oncologists in Canada. Conclusions: Respondents to the current survey expressed significant satisfaction with their career choice and training program. However, differences exist compared with the 2003 survey, including the current perceived lack of demand for radiation oncologists in Canada.

  1. VLF propagation measurements in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, Wilfred R.; Bertrand, Jean M.

    1993-05-01

    For the past three years, during a period of high sun spot numbers, propagation measurements were made on the reception of VLF signals in the Canadian Arctic. Between Aug. and Dec. 1989, the received signal strengths were measured on the Canadian Coast Guard icebreaker, John A. MacDonald in the Eastern Canadian Arctic. Between Jul. 1991 and Jun. 1992, the received signal strengths were measured at Nanisivik, Baffin Island. The purposes of this work were to check the accuracy and estimate variances of the Naval Ocean Systems Center's (NOSC) Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) predictions in the Canadian Arctic and to gather ionospheric storm data. In addition, the NOSC data taken at Fort Smith and our data at Nanisivik were used to test the newly developed Longwave Noise Prediction (LNP) program and the CCIR noise predictions, at 21.4 and 24.0 kHz. The results of the work presented and discussed in this paper show that in general the LWPC predicts accurate values of received signal strength in the Canadian Arctic with standard deviations of 1 to 2 dB over several months. Ionospheric storms can gauge the received signal strengths to decrease some 10 dB for a period of several hours or days. However, the effects of these storms are highly dependent on the propagation path. Finally the new LNP atmospheric noise model predicts lower values of noise in the Arctic than the CCIR model and our limited measurements tend to support these lower values.

  2. Patient engagement in radiation therapy: The development of guidelines for current Canadian practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purificacion, Sunshine; Brown, Erika; Anne-Davis, Carol; French, John

    2016-09-01

    Radiation therapy service quality is not only defined by the technical aspects of care-the patient's involvement and satisfaction also contribute largely to determining the quality of care received. Although there have been recent increases in support for the development of patient engagement activities throughout Canada, the lack of guidance and knowledge of patient engagement techniques within the radiotherapy context limits implementation. Without processes to obtain first-hand insight from patients, the need for these programs is overlooked. With a commitment to improving quality and consistency of care, the Canadian Partnership for Quality Radiotherapy recognized the need for a set of national guidelines on patient engagement in radiation therapy service delivery. Making use of the perspectives and first-hand experience of patient representatives, this initiative aims to develop a pan-Canadian guidance document that radiation therapy centres can adopt for successful integration of patient engagement through core activities of service delivery. PMID:27576854

  3. JUDGING SELECTION: APPOINTING CANADIAN JUDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McCormick

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s, the appointment of trial judges in Canada has generally involved an arms-length committee of professionals, although the structure of these committees and their role in the process has varied from province to province, as well as evolving over time. Yet these “new” structures and “new” processes did not prevent a major judicial appointment scandal in the province of Quebec in 2010, culminating in the formation of the Bastarache Committee to recommend changes. This paper summarizes the forty-year history of Canadian judicial appointment committees, identifies the major challenges that face those committees, and suggests the basic values toward which reforms to the appointment process might be directed. Depuis les années 1970, la nomination des juges de première instance au Canada a généralement mis à contribution un comité de professionnels indépendants, bien que la structure de ce comité et son rôle dans le processus de nomination aient varié d’une province à l’autre et évolué avec le temps. Ces « nouvelles » structures et « nouveaux » processus n’ont certes pas empêché l’éclatement du scandale sur la nomination des juges au Québec en 2010. Ce scandale a donné lieu à la formation de la Commission Bastarache qui avait notamment le mandat de recommander des changements. La présent document résume les quarante ans d’histoire des comités canadiens de nomination des juges, recense les principaux défis que ces comités doivent relever, et propose les valeurs fondamentales qui devraient inspirer les réformes du processus de nomination.

  4. The dirty oil card and Canadian foreign policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discussed Canada's oil sands industry in relation to its international reputation as the source of an unacceptable amount of pollution. Environmental lobbyists and awareness groups have targeted Canada's oil sands industry as an example of how the oil industry contributes to pollution during the production phase. Media attention has focused on the oil sands as a heavy grade of crude oil that requires significant upgrading and refining before it can be produced as a barrel of usable oil. Canadian exports of oil sands to the United States have been the target of consumer boycotts and proposed legislation. A lack of available alternative energy sources and infrastructure for the transportation sector, and the continued global demand for petroleum mean that oil sands will continue to be exported to the United States as well as to other export markets such as China and India. The United States is likely to remain the largest importer of Canadian crude oils. However, policy-makers must ensure that the discourse about oil sands does not devolve into an argument in which energy security is pitted against the need for increased environmental protection. 49 refs.

  5. The dirty oil card and Canadian foreign policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chastko, P. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). International Relations Program

    2010-10-15

    This paper discussed Canada's oil sands industry in relation to its international reputation as the source of an unacceptable amount of pollution. Environmental lobbyists and awareness groups have targeted Canada's oil sands industry as an example of how the oil industry contributes to pollution during the production phase. Media attention has focused on the oil sands as a heavy grade of crude oil that requires significant upgrading and refining before it can be produced as a barrel of usable oil. Canadian exports of oil sands to the United States have been the target of consumer boycotts and proposed legislation. A lack of available alternative energy sources and infrastructure for the transportation sector, and the continued global demand for petroleum mean that oil sands will continue to be exported to the United States as well as to other export markets such as China and India. The United States is likely to remain the largest importer of Canadian crude oils. However, policy-makers must ensure that the discourse about oil sands does not devolve into an argument in which energy security is pitted against the need for increased environmental protection. 49 refs.

  6. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. In 1991, the Atlantic Petroleum Association, the Quebec Petroleum Association, the Ontario Petroleum Association, the Canada West Petroleum Association, and the Petroleum Association for Conservation of the Canadian Environment (PACE) were integrated into the CPPI. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. An industry overview is provided, as well as highlights of environmental achievements and challenges, and economics and operations for the year. Lists of CPPI publications, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs

  7. A Roadmap for Canadian Submillimetre Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Tracy; Di Francesco, James; Matthews, Brenda; Murray, Norm; Scott, Douglas; Wilson, Christine

    2013-01-01

    We survey the present landscape in submillimetre astronomy for Canada and describe a plan for continued engagement in observational facilities to ~2020. Building on Canada's decadal Long Range Plan process, we emphasize that continued involvement in a large, single-dish facility is crucial given Canada's substantial investment in ALMA and numerous PI-led submillimetre experiments. In particular, we recommend: i) an extension of Canadian participation in the JCMT until at least the unique JCMT Legacy Survey program is able to realize the full scientific potential provided by the world-leading SCUBA-2 instrument; and ii) involvement of the entire Canadian community in CCAT, with a large enough share in the partnership for Canadian astronomers to participate at all levels of the facility. We further recommend continued participation in ALMA development, involvement in many focused PI-led submillimetre experiments, and partnership in SPICA.

  8. Introducing Western Canadian Spill Services Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This special issue of OSCAR introduced the newly created Western Canadian Spill Services Ltd. (WCSS). The organizations known as PROSCARAC and the oil spill co-ops WCOC have been dissolved and their operations have merged into the WCSS. The history of PROSCARAC and the WCOC, the process leading to their merger, and the new organization's plans to increase the petroleum industry's spill response capabilities were described. WCSS is run by a board of directors representing the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, the Small Explorers and Producers Association of Canada, the Canadian Petroleum Products Association, Trans Mountain Pipe Line Company Ltd., and Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc. Organizations with similar objectives in Manitoba and Saskatchewan have been invited to join

  9. Peacock: 100 years of servicing Canadian industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997 Peacock Inc., a supplier of pipeline, filtration, pumping, materials handling and mechanical equipment of all kinds to the Canadian oil and natural gas industries, will celebrate its 100th year of servicing Canadian industry, and 50th year in the oil patch. The company has outlets in several Canadian cities from Halifax to Vancouver. It manufactures, distributes, maintains and repairs all types of industrial equipment. It also manages the Naval Engineering Test Establishment at LaSalle, PQ, for the Department of Defence. Peacock service centres provide 24-hour service response to emergency breakdowns anywhere in Canada; its engineers and technicians are ISO 9003 qualified or better, and are experts in turnarounds and planned maintenance outages, major overhauls of critical equipment, supplying mechanical crews for emergency equipment breakdowns, and grouting of heavy machinery. By close coordination of its four divisions, and by maintaining their dedication to service, the company looks to the future with pride and confidence

  10. The Canadian oil and gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is provided of the global oil and gas market, industry, reserves, and factors affecting the market's instability. The Canadian oil and gas sector is then profiled. Research and technology strategies in the global oil and gas sector are reviewed in the areas of increasing supplies, improving energy efficiency, developing alternative energy sources, mitigating environmental impacts, and developing new products and services. Finally, research, development, and technology strategies in the Canadian oil and gas sector are evaluated, including private sector research and development (R ampersand D) government support programs, and technology opportunities for the industry in refining, in-situ oil sands production, ultrasour gas production, and downstream gas processing. Total R ampersand D spending by the Canadian oil and gas industry is only ca $300 million/y, with most small to medium-size companies doing little R ampersand D. Since 64% of the Canadian petroleum sector is foreign owned, decisions to increase R ampersand D investment must involve foreign decision makers. The focus of Canadian R ampersand D tends to be upstream-oriented and on the exploitation of unconventional resources, notably the oil sands. Opportunities also exist in downstream R ampersand D such as alternative fuels and energy systems management. Since upstream R ampersand D is a risky long-term proposition, the roles of resource companies, refiners, research institutions, and Canadian and overseas governments must be defined to ensure that research efforts are coordinated and costs are shared equitably. This will likely require a concerted action plan specifying technology goals, memoranda of understanding between all the players, and reasonable accountability levels. 19 refs., 10 tabs

  11. 生态创业、绿色交通与城市公交政策:一种红绿观点∗%Ecological Entrepreneurship, Green Transportation and Urban Public Transportation Policy:A Conflict of Perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郇庆治

    2015-01-01

    The construction of a real green urban transportation system could not be realized without appropriate policies or some political prerequisite and promotion. It is not a mere problem of technology and management in ̄novation within an industry. However,over the past 20 years,China′s urban transportation policy and its reform include that of Beijing is increasingly moving toward a″depoliticalization″direction,with the result that the con ̄struction and operation of capital ̄oriented infrastructures are especially popular, while non ̄profit transportation projects failed to get attention and development. Accordingly,urban traffic congestion and environmental pollution,especially frequent fog and haze,has become a difficult public and political issue of management and the people′s livelihood. From the perspective of Green ̄left,we could never provide the proper context and soil for green urban transportation until we are committed to a more extensive and profound social ecological transformation.%一种真正意义上的城市绿色交通体系的构建,离不开适当的政策与政治前提和推动,而不单纯是一个行业内部的技术与管理创新问题。然而,过去20多年来,包括北京市在内的我国城市交通政策及其改革却日益走向了一种“去政治化”的方向,结果是,更容易采取资本化运作和市场化经营的某些交通设施建设及其运营受到特别青睐,而更多具有社会公益性质的大众公共交通却未能获得应有的重视和发展,相应地,城市交通拥堵和环境污染成为一个十分棘手的公共管理与民生政治议题,尤其在城市雾霾天气频发的新背景下更是如此。从绿色左翼的视角看,只有致力于一种更为广泛与深刻的社会—生态转型,才能为我们城市绿色交通的创建提供合适的背景和土壤。

  12. The Canadian approach to nuclear power safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the Canadian nuclear power safety philosophy and practice is traced from its early roots at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratory to the licensing of the current generation of power reactors. Basic to the philosophy is a recognition that the primary responsibility for achieving a high standard of safety resides with the licensee. As a consequence, regulatory requirements have emphasized numerical safety goals and objectives and minimized specific design or operating rules. The Canadian licensing process is described along with a discussion of some of the difficulties encountered. Examples of specific licensing considerations for each phase of a project are included

  13. Statistics in action a Canadian outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Lawless, Jerald F

    2014-01-01

    Commissioned by the Statistical Society of Canada (SSC), Statistics in Action: A Canadian Outlook helps both general readers and users of statistics better appreciate the scope and importance of statistics. It presents the ways in which statistics is used while highlighting key contributions that Canadian statisticians are making to science, technology, business, government, and other areas. The book emphasizes the role and impact of computing in statistical modeling and analysis, including the issues involved with the huge amounts of data being generated by automated processes.The first two c

  14. Management of hereditary angioedema: 2010 Canadian approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowen Tom

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract C1-inhibitor (C1-INH deficiency is a rare blood disorder resulting in angioedema attacks that are debilitating and may be life-threatening. Prophylaxis and therapy of events has changed since our first Canadian Consensus Conference on the diagnosis, therapy and management of HAE. We have formed the Canadian Hereditary Angioedema Network (CHAEN/Réseau Canadien d'Angioédème Héréditaire (RCAH - http://www.haecanada.com to advance care of patients with this disorder in Canada. We here present a review of management of HAE in Canada.

  15. Open Access Funds: A Canadian Library Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Fernandez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of Canadian research libraries was conducted to determine the extent of funding support for open access publications in these institutions. Results indicate that there is substantial support for open access publishing, and a diversity of approaches is being used to fund open access resources. The reasons for funding support along with policy and promotional issues are explored. The broader implications of funding open access are discussed in the context of a changing scholarly publishing landscape. This paper will be especially relevant to Canadian academic libraries that are exploring options for funding open access publications.

  16. A Demographic and Career Profile of Canadian Research University Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an up-to-date career and demographic profile of Canadian research university librarians by comparing newly derived data from the 8Rs Study: The "Future of Human Resources in Canadian Libraries", with corresponding information from the author's 2006 survey: "The Scholarship of Canadian Research University Librarians", and other…

  17. Transnational Education -- An Opportunity and a Canadian Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Transnational education is a huge growth industry and a potential source of considerable income for Canadian educational institutions. Canadian educational establishments seem to be missing out on this, and this seems short sighted. Canada has a very good reputation globally; this could be utilized when selling Canadian educational institutions in…

  18. Women in the Canadian Economy: A Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Sylvia; Staunton, Ted, Ed.

    One of a series of teaching units designed to introduce secondary school students to the Canadian economy, this handbook contains activities on the economic status and roles of Canadian women. The first of 4 sections presents a profile of male and female occupations. Section 2 contains statistics on females in the Canadian labor force. Section 3,…

  19. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Society 2. international conference on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings contain 136 papers on waste management from 19 countries. An index of the delegates and their affiliations is included. Emphasis was laid on the Canadian program for geologic disposal in hard rock. Sessions dealt with the following: storage and disposal, hydrogeology and geochemistry, transportation, buffers and backfill, public attitudes, tailings, site investigations and geomechanics, concrete, economics, licensing, matrix materials and container design, durability of fuel, biosphere modelling, radioactive waste processing, and future options

  20. Canadian municipal carbon trading primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trading of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is being suggested as an effective economic way to meet Canada's Kyoto target. Emissions trading is a market-based instrument that can help achieve environmental improvements while using the market to absorb the economical and effective measures to achieve emissions reductions. Placing a value on emissions means that in order to minimize costs, companies will be motivated to apply the lowest-cost emission reductions possible for regulatory approval. The two main types of emissions trading that exist in Canada are the trading of emissions that lead to the formation of smog or acid rain, and the trading of greenhouse gas emissions that lead to climate change. Since carbon dioxide is the most prevalent GHG, making up approximately 75 per cent of Canadian GHG emissions, the trading of units of GHGs is often referred to as carbon trading. The impact that emissions trading will have on municipal operations was the focus of this primer. The trading of GHG involves buying and selling of allowances of GHGs between contracting parties, usually between one party that is short of GHG credits and another that has excess credits. The 3 common approaches to emissions trading include allowance trading (cap and trade), credit trading (baseline and credit), and a hybrid system which combines both credit and allowance trading systems. The issues that impact municipalities include the debate regarding who owns the credits from landfills, particularly if power is generated using landfill gas and the power is sold as green power. Other viable questions were also addressed, including who can claim emission reduction credits if a city implements energy efficiency projects, or fuel substitution programs. Also, will municipalities be allowed to trade internationally, for example, with municipalities in the United States, and how should they spend their money earned from selling credits. This report also presents highlights from 3 emissions

  1. Canadian Occidental joins Hunt as Yemen oil producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 23 September 1993, the Canadian Occidental Petroleum Company initiated the export of 120,000 b/d (barrels a day) of low sulphur, medium gravity crude oil from its Masila Block concession in Yemen. The oil is transported from Masila via a pipeline built by CanOxy and its partners to a new terminal at Ash Shihr, near Mukalla, in the Gulf of Aden. CanOxy is the third operator oil company to produce oil commercially in Yemen. The first, the Hunt Oil Company, began production in December 1987 and its output now totals about 187,000 b/d. The second, Nimir Petroleum, a Saudi venture which took over the facilities developed in the 1980s by two Soviet companies, is currently producing about 10,000 b/d and expects to increase its output to 25,000 b/d during this year. (Author)

  2. Detecting, locating and identifying failed fuel in Canadian power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes how defected fuel elements are detected, located and identified in Canadian CANDU power reactors. Fuel defects are detected by monitoring the primary coolant for gaseous fission products and radioiodines, while location in core is usually performed on-power by delayed neutron monitoring of coolant samples from individual fuel channels or off-power by gamma-ray monitoring of the channel feeder pipes. The systems and techniques used to detect and locate defected fuel in both Ontario Hydro and CANDU 6 power stations are described, along with examples provided by station experience. The ability to detect and locate defected fuel in power stations was greatly enhanced by a fundamental R and D program, which provided an understanding and models of fission-product release and transport, and the post-defect deterioration of failed fuel. Techniques and equipment used to identify and store defected fuel after it has been discharged from the reactor are briefly reviewed

  3. Human security and Canadian foreign policy: the new face of Canadian internationalism

    OpenAIRE

    DeJong, Melissa Joy

    2011-01-01

    In the late 1990s, human security was promoted as a new idea to guide the formation of Canadian foreign policy in the post-Cold War era. However, a review of the ideas which have influenced foreign policymaking in Canada since the end of the Second World War demonstrates that human security is rooted in internationalism, the dominant Canadian foreign policy tendency. Internationalism prescribes that cooperation, multilateralism, responsibility, international law and a consideration of the v...

  4. Bidi and Hookah Use Among Canadian Youth: Findings From the 2010 Canadian Youth Smoking Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Czoli, Christine D; Leatherdale, Scott T; Rynard, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although cigarette use among Canadian youth has decreased significantly in recent years, alternative forms of tobacco use are becoming increasingly popular. Surveillance of youth tobacco use can help inform prevention programs by monitoring trends in risk behaviors. We examined the prevalence of bidi and hookah use and factors associated with their use among Canadian youth by using data from the 2010–2011 Youth Smoking Survey (YSS). Methods We analyzed YSS data from 28,416 studen...

  5. Forecasting Canadian nuclear power station construction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the huge volume of capital required to construct a modern electric power generating station, investment decisions have to be made with as complete an understanding of the consequences of the decision as possible. This understanding must be provided by the evaluation of future situations. A key consideration in an evaluation is the financial component. This paper attempts to use an econometric method to forecast the construction costs escalation of a standard Canadian nuclear generating station (NGS). A brief review of the history of Canadian nuclear electric power is provided. The major components of the construction costs of a Canadian NGS are studied and summarized. A database is built and indexes are prepared. Based on these indexes, an econometric forecasting model is constructed using an apparently new econometric methodology of forecasting modelling. Forecasts for a period of 40 years are generated and applications (such as alternative scenario forecasts and range forecasts) to uncertainty assessment and/or decision-making are demonstrated. The indexes, the model, and the forecasts and their applications, to the best of the author's knowledge, are the first for Canadian NGS constructions. (author)

  6. Asian and Pacific Migration: The Canadian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, T. John

    1994-01-01

    Examines the characteristics of landed immigrants (permanent settlers) from Asia, and explores their settlement, adaptation, and integration experience in Canada. It suggests that access to Canadian land does not always translate into equal opportunity in the economy and society, but notes that Canada may be more successful at assimilating Asian…

  7. Canadian Adult Education: Still a Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbit, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Writing recently in this journal, two of Canada's veteran adult educators contemplated the "death" of the Canadian adult education movement. I disagree and argue that adult education in Canada is as vital an activity as ever and one that still fully justifies being called a movement. Specifically, Selman and Selman (2009) list five trends that…

  8. Canadian export potential for EMF 9 study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Energy Board staff study of Canadian export potential for EMF-9 considers conventionally producible gas from western Canada, northern Canada and eastern offshore regions. The supply is limited only by the size and physical characteristics of the resource base, economic factors, and the ability of the industry to drill and equip the required number of wells. A potential for additional supply from the very low permeability reservoirs of west-central Alberta and the adjacent sector of northeastern British Columbia is recognized, but because there has been very little experience in producing this gas we do not feel we have enough information to estimate with confidence either the size of the resource base or future levels of production. To the extent that supply from this source does prove to be available, our projections will be understated. Canadian Hunter Exploration, Ltd., in its submission to the EMF-9 study estimates that under the price assumptions of the study production in excess of 1 Tcf/year could be achieved by about the year 2000 from the better quality low permeability sands, those having in situ permeabilities between 0.006 and 0.05 millidarcies. The Canadian Energy Research Institute in a report made public recently includes about 300 Bcf/year of tight sand production by 2005 in its projection of Canadian supply

  9. 2003 survey of Canadian radiation oncology residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation oncology's popularity as a career in Canada has surged in the past 5 years. Consequently, resident numbers in Canadian radiation oncology residencies are at all-time highs. This study aimed to survey Canadian radiation oncology residents about their opinions of their specialty and training experiences. Methods and Materials: Residents of Canadian radiation oncology residencies that enroll trainees through the Canadian Resident Matching Service were identified from a national database. Residents were mailed an anonymous survey. Results: Eight of 101 (7.9%) potential respondents were foreign funded. Fifty-two of 101 (51.5%) residents responded. A strong record of graduating its residents was the most important factor residents considered when choosing programs. Satisfaction with their program was expressed by 92.3% of respondents, and 94.3% expressed satisfaction with their specialty. Respondents planning to practice in Canada totaled 80.8%, and 76.9% plan to have academic careers. Respondents identified job availability and receiving adequate teaching from preceptors during residency as their most important concerns. Conclusions: Though most respondents are satisfied with their programs and specialty, job availability and adequate teaching are concerns. In the future, limited time and resources and the continued popularity of radiation oncology as a career will magnify the challenge of training competent radiation oncologists in Canada

  10. Computer Language Settings and Canadian Spellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleworth, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The language settings used on personal computers interact with the spell-checker in Microsoft Word, which directly affects the flagging of spellings that are deemed incorrect. This study examined the language settings of personal computers owned by a group of Canadian university students. Of 21 computers examined, only eight had their Windows…

  11. Heat exposure in the Canadian workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Ollie; Kenny, Glen P

    2010-08-01

    Exposure to excessive heat is a physical hazard that threatens Canadian workers. As patterns of global climate change suggest an increased frequency of heat waves, the potential impact of these extreme climate events on the health and well-being of the Canadian workforce is a new and growing challenge. Increasingly, industries rely on available technology and information to ensure the safety of their workers. Current Canadian labor codes in all provinces employ the guidelines recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) that are Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) based upon Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT). The TLVs are set so that core body temperature of the workers supposedly does not exceed 38.0 degrees C. Legislation in most Canadian provinces also requires employers to install engineering and administrative controls to reduce the heat stress risk of their working environment should it exceed the levels permissible under the WBGT system. There are however severe limitations using the WGBT system because it only directly evaluates the environmental parameters and merely incorporates personal factors such as clothing insulation and metabolic heat production through simple correction factors for broadly generalized groups. An improved awareness of the strengths and limitations of TLVs and the WGBT index can minimize preventable measurement errors and improve their utilization in workplaces. Work is on-going, particularly in the European Union to develop an improved individualized heat stress risk assessment tool. More work is required to improve the predictive capacity of these indices. PMID:20623643

  12. An Overview of Canadian Education. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayfer, Margaret

    An overview of Canadian education is provided in this book. Chapter 1 presents basic facts and figures on the educational system's general structure and diversity and the role of the federal government. The second chapter describes provincial/territorial structure, specifically: the role of the departments of education and school board, financing,…

  13. After Access: Canadian Education and Copyright Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Michael

    2006-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of the Internet in the 1990s, the Canadian government developed a well-regarded strategy for addressing the emerging issues posed by the "information highway." The strategy featured legal reforms to address privacy and e-commerce, administrative reforms for the government online initiative, and connectivity programs such…

  14. In the Field: The Canadian Ecology Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Clare

    2000-01-01

    The Canadian Ecology Centre (Ontario) offers year-round residential and day programs in outdoor and environmental education for secondary students, field placement and internship opportunities for college students, and ecotourism programs, while providing employment and tax revenues to the local community. Dubbed consensus environmentalism, the…

  15. Canadian Art Partnership Program in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketovuori, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    This article is about a multidisciplinary R&D project in which a Canadian Learning Through The Arts (LTTA) program was imported to Finland in 2003-2004. Cultural differences in arts education in Finland and Canada are discussed. While Finland has a national school curriculum with all the arts included. Canada relies more on partnerships to ensure…

  16. Heroes and Canadian History. Current Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Penney

    1999-01-01

    Believes that social studies teachers should encourage young people to learn about Canadian heroes but simultaneously assist them in developing skepticism as opposed to only idealizing heroes. Explains that when students understand the qualities of heroes they will be able to cope when someone they hold as a hero falters. (CMK)

  17. Diversity management in the Canadian workplace: Towards an anti-racism approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2012-01-01

    Most diversity management programs in Canada maintain that enhancing workforce diversity is of tremendous significance for business organizations in today’s competitive global urban markets. Since well-meaning diversity management initiatives have been largely ineffective thus far in dealing with...... workplace discrimination and racism in the Canadian workplace, this paper underscores the need to decenter the focus of diversity management from a business imperative to an antidiscrimination and social justice imperative. Within this latter perspective, the paper examines the strengths and limitations of...

  18. Enhancing Canadian Teacher Education Using a Story Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Drake

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Accord on Initial Teacher Education was created by the Canadian Deans of Education in 2006 to guide teacher educators across Canada. The Story Model (Drake et al., 1992 is aligned with the principles in the Accord and has proven useful in teacher education. Here it is explored as a framework for curriculum development and as an instructional strategy for students to analyze complex educational issues. This framework uses an inside-outside/past- future approach to analyze current issues and includes personal, cultural and global perspectives. Literacy and emerging new literacies are explored within the framework, as well as traditional assessment and assessment for and as learning. The Story Model looks toward creating a dynamic pan-Canadian “new story” in teacher education.En 2006, l’Association canadienne des doyens et doyennes des facultés d’éducation a créé l’Accord sur la formation initiale à l’enseignement afin de guider les formateurs des enseignants au Canada. Le modèle du récit (Story Model – Drake et al., 1992 correspond aux principes de l’Accord et a démontré son utilité en matière de formation des enseignants. Dans cet article, les auteurs le présentent à titre de cadre de référence pour l’élaboration de programmes d’enseignement, de même qu’à titre de stratégie d’enseignement permettant aux étudiants d’analyser des enjeux pédagogiques complexes. Ce cadre utilise une méthode intérieur-extérieur/ passé-présent pour analyser les enjeux actuels et considère les perspectives personnelles, culturelles et globales. Les auteurs étudient la littéracie et les nouvelles littéracies, tout comme l’évaluation traditionnelle et celle qui est au service de l’apprentissage. Le modèle du récit (Story Model vise à créer un « nouveau récit » pancanadien dynamique en matière d’éducation des enseignants.

  19. What Clinical Instructors Want: Perspectives on a New Assessment Tool for Students in the Clinical Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Charlotte; Cosgrove, Meaghan; Lees, Dalyce; Chan, Gigi; Gibson, Barbara E; Hall, Mark; Mori, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Many Canadian physical therapy education programs use the 1997 version of the Physical Therapist Clinical Performance Instrument (PT-CPI) to evaluate students in their clinical placements. Recent evidence that clinical instructors (CIs) are unsatisfied with the PT-CPI, however, suggests a need to develop a new assessment tool. The purpose of this study was to gather Canadian CIs' perspectives on rating scales, preferred training methods, and format for future tool development. Method...

  20. Canadian natural gas : review of 1997 and outlook to 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North American and Canadian natural gas industry trends, such as supply, demand, storage, gas flows, prices and transportation capacities are summarized. The focus is on regional natural gas markets, as the issues of natural gas price differentials, gas market integration and the need for large expansions of natural gas pipeline capacity between markets will continue to hold center stage. Analysis of trends indicate that in 1997, the Canadian natural gas industry continued to be one of the two most important supply regions in North America although natural gas demand growth was weak (+0.3 per cent) due to a mild winter. Supply growth kept pace with poor demand growth. It was noted that over the next eight years, gas demand is expected to increase by an average annual rate of 2 per cent, down from the recent pace of 3 per cent annually. The sectors of the economy that are expected to lead the growth will be electricity generation and industrial use. The largest new demand will be seen in the U.S. Gulf Coast, Midwest, West, Northeast, and South Atlantic. Prices are expected to remain volatile but will not return to the low prices of 1995. Prices are expected to stay close to finding and development costs. The demand analysis provided much detail on the drivers of gas consumption by sector for each region in Canada and the United States. A regulatory analysis section was also included, given that recent regulatory events will have notable effects on natural gas markets. The National Energy Board and the U.S. Energy Information Administration were the main sources of statistical information, but private consultants, industry association and other federal government agencies in Canada and the U.S. also provided information. 19 refs., 12 tabs., 43 figs

  1. Seeing Oneself in a Book: The Changing Face of Canadian Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Fayjean, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Takes a look at children's literature over time, and its recent emergence as a respected body of literary work. Discusses what is Canadian about Canadian children's literature. Annotates six picture books. Notes that Canadian literature reflects the diversity of the Canadian population, the vast differences in the Canadian landscape, and the…

  2. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. CPPI conducts research to develop industry policy on a wide variety of environmental, health, safety and business issues. Key activities include: developing guidelines for the safe handling of petroleum products, establishing environmental policies, managing a national environmental protection network of over 100 centers across Canada; providing information on industry activities to the public; and developing working partnerships with government and public interest groups to address issues of common concern. An overview is provided of industry operations, economics and financial performance, and environmental protection and safety. Lists of CPPI publications, awards, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs

  3. Survey of Canadian hospitals radiation emergency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the findings of a survey of Canadian hospitals conducted by Social Data Research Ltd. during the Spring and Summer, 1995. The main objective of the survey was to determine the state of readiness of Canadian hospitals in respect of radiation emergency planning. In addition, the AECB was interested in knowing the extent to which a report by the Group of Medical Advisors, 'GMA-3: Guidelines on Hospital Emergency Plans for the Management of Minor Radiation Accidents', which was sponsored and distributed in 1993, was received and was useful to hospital administrators and emergency personnel. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 598 acute care hospitals, and 274 responses were received. The main conclusion of this study is that, with the exception of a few large institutions, hospitals generally do not have specific action plans to handle minor radiation accidents. (author)

  4. Canadian oil and gas survey : 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An outlook of the Canadian Petroleum Industry, financial and operating statistics of the top 100 Canadian public oil and gas companies and 15 energy income trusts, were summarized for the fiscal year ending in 1996. In general, 1996 was a good year for the industry. Greater industry financing resulted in increased drilling activity and good stock market returns for investors. However, strong commodity prices also resulted in record levels of hedging activity, which meant lost revenues for the industry. The top 100 companies recorded losses of about $800 million in 1996, largely on crude oil hedges. The fact that volumes hedged forward to 1997 are down from 1996 indicate that many companies are rethinking their commitment to risk management. Details of crude oil and natural gas prices and production levels during 1996 were provided. A list of significant corporate mergers and acquisitions during the year under review rounded out the presentation

  5. Canadian Clinical Practice Guidelines for Rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Yuka; Tan, Jerry; Baibergenova, Akerke; Barankin, Benjamin; Cochrane, Chris L; Humphrey, Shannon; Lynde, Charles W; Marcoux, Danielle; Poulin, Yves; Rivers, Jason K; Sapijaszko, Mariusz; Sibbald, R Gary; Toole, John; Ulmer, Marcie; Zip, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    Rosacea is a chronic facial inflammatory dermatosis characterized by background facial erythema and flushing and may be accompanied by inflammatory papules and pustules, cutaneous fibrosis and hyperplasia known as phyma, and ocular involvement. These features can have adverse impact on quality of life, and ocular involvement can lead to visual dysfunction. The past decade has witnessed increased research into pathogenic pathways involved in rosacea and the introduction of novel treatment innovations. The objective of these guidelines is to offer evidence-based recommendations to assist Canadian health care providers in the diagnosis and management of rosacea. These guidelines were developed by an expert panel of Canadian dermatologists taking into consideration the balance of desirable and undesirable outcomes, the quality of supporting evidence, the values and preferences of patients, and the costs of treatment. The 2015 Cochrane review "Interventions in Rosacea" was used as a source of clinical trial evidence on which to base the recommendations. PMID:27207355

  6. Canadian petroleum history bibliography. Release update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2010-01-07

    The petroleum history bibliography was created over several years as a record dedicated to preserving the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. It comprises a list of more than 5000 publications, including books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles and stories of the many companies that have come and gone. It aims to include all publications and audio visual products from the Social Sciences and Humanities on company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry and humour. An author index is included. Most government documents are excluded as they are accessible through Library and Archives Canada. This bibliography is an ongoing piece of work, and welcomes any additions relating to the study and preservation of Canadian petroleum industry history.

  7. Canadian gas surplus to linger through 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Canada's natural gas surplus will persist at least through 1995, although the gap between production and deliverability will narrow. Meantime, prices will slowly rise, the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) predicts. The Calgary firm says surplus productive capacity will fall to 426 bcf in 1992 from 874 bcf in 1990. Those volumes amount to 12% and 25%, respectively, of deliverability. Prices for a processing plant's outlet stream, pegged at $1.38 (Canadian)/Mcf in 1991, will inch up to $1.53 in 1994, then climb to $1.69 in 1995, all in current dollars. Prices will firm as a reduced surplus reduces sales competition among producers. Increasing sales as a result of expanded export pipeline capacity will be a major factor in reducing surplus capacity. The study says after 1995 increased drilling will raise productive capacity and create some downward pressure on prices

  8. Hepatitis E in a Canadian Traveller

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Hepatitis E is clinically indistinguishable from hepatitis A and is caused by an enterically transmitted rna virus that is endemic in developing countries of Asia, Africa, the Middle East and North America. This report describes a Canadian traveller to Nepal, Thailand and India with one of the first confirmed cases of hepatitis E reported in Canada. Although this disease is usually self-limited with no known sequelae, it may produce fulminant hepatitis with a high case fatality rate in pregna...

  9. Electronic fetal monitoring: a Canadian survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, B L; Niday, P A; Nimrod, C A; Drake, E R; Sprague, A E; Trépanier, M J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the current status of electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) in Canadian teaching and nonteaching hospitals, to review the medical and nursing standards of practice for EFM and to determine the availability of EFM educational programs. DESIGN: National survey in 1989. PARTICIPANTS: The directors of nursing at the 737 hospitals providing obstetric care were sent a questionnaire and asked to have it completed by the most appropriate staff member. The response rate was 80.5% ...

  10. The Development of the Canadian Veterinary Profession

    OpenAIRE

    Prescott, J F

    1985-01-01

    A proposal for the development of Canadian veterinary education and of the organization of the profession is described. There should be one veterinary school with four branches (the current colleges). A student would train at any college in comparative medicine for two and one-half years and then train for 12 months or more in a specialty taught at one or more colleges. These specialties are general veterinary practice, poultry practice, public health and regulatory medicine, ruminant practic...

  11. Development options for Canadian natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haughey, D.J.; Varangu, K.

    1982-01-01

    This work provides a methodology for, and preliminary economic examination of, alternative development options for Western Canadian natural gas. Four development options are addressed: pipeline exports to the U.S., domestic pipeline expansion to the Maritimes, liquefied natural gas exports to Japan, and methanol manufacturing in Alberta. Each option was evaluated in terms of the costs and benefits which accrue as producer returns, project sponsor returns, and government returns.

  12. Canadians trying to join US transmission groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various competition problems faced by Canadian utilities and attempts to solve them, were described. E.g. B.C. Hydro and its electricity trade subsidiary Powerex have moved to become members of the Western Regional Transmission Association (WRTA), an association of about 40 utilities which serve part of the western United States. Through the WRTA, Powerex seeks fair terms to ensure its access to the U.S. market. Membership allows fast dispute resolution and enhances sales to California and other western states. Concern was expressed by the U.S Dept.of Energy about the lack of reciprocity.In the year ending March 1994, Powerex exported 2,600 gigawatt-hours of electricity, over 90% to the U.S. This was a low water year for hydroelectric-based BC Hydro, in which surplus energy available for export was only about half of what is usually available. Ontario Hydro and other provincially owned utilities were said to be challenged by U.S. industry deregulation and open transmission policies. If Canadian utilities fail to initiate structural changes leading to open access policies, their economic competitiveness may well decline. If on the other hand Canadian utilities decided to adopt open access policies, they would need to shed their monopolistic practices and accelerate restructuring in the face of wholesale competition. They could face direct retail competition in their currently captive provincial markets from U.S. and alternative Canadian suppliers. In an open competition scenario up to 20% of Ontario Hydro's domestic sales were said to be in danger of being displaced by imports from New York and Michigan

  13. Tornado Mitigation in the Canadian Prairie Region

    OpenAIRE

    Durage, Samanthi, Prof.

    2014-01-01

    Tornadoes are a destructive form of the extreme weather associated with thunderstorms. Canada gets more tornadoes than any other country with the exception of the US. This paper presents some results of a study on tornado mitigation in the Canadian Prairie region. Initially, a regression-based analysis of the Prairie tornado database was conducted, and the trend for the number of tornadoes reported in each year is discussed in this paper. The detection, warning, communication, and evacuation ...

  14. Canadian Multiculturalism, Same as it ever Was?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Hoyos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available After the Second World War ended, Canada was no longer mainly composed of its two dominant ethnocultural groups, French and English, but rather constituted by polyethnicity; meaning, Canadian culture was made up of many different ethnic groups. Since then, Canada has actively embraced multiculturalism and on 12 July 1988, the House of Commons passed Bill C-93, ‘An Act for the preservation and enhancement of multiculturalism in Canada’. The Canadian multicultural experience has been much portrayed as a celebration of ethnicity where different cultural groups share their customs and learn from each other. However, it is recently being rumoured that the multiculturalism hype is not all it is cut out to be and segregates communities rather than integrate. According to Canadian authors Keith Banting and Will Kymlicka, “in much of the world and particularly in Europe, there is a widespread perception that multiculturalism has failed” (44. In this paper, I examine some recent common issues of concern, especially, racism and discrimination, through the literary expression of Canadian playwrights and writers such as George F. Walker, Cecil Foster, and Mordecai Richler. These writers are not meant to represent any ethnic group as a whole, but rather try to project a general feeling about the nation in individual ways. I will finally explore the idea of how perhaps multiculturalism in Canada is evolving into another state since migratory patterns and the social circumstances that Canada is facing in the 21st century have changed. Today, the idea of celebrating different ethnicities and customs is no longer as important as celebrating the transcultural or “transnational” aspects of relations between individuals and groups of immigrants.

  15. Canadian mercury inventories: the missing pieces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagreen, L.A.; Lourie, B.A. [Summerhill Group, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Research was conducted to determine the significance of the deliberate use of mercury in products in Canada and the associated releases from these sources. Through a combination of literature review and new calculations, the reservoir, flux, and releases of mercury from eight product sources were calculated, and these results compared to historical Canadian inventories. Mercury contributions from the waste sector were also assessed and compared to total Canadian mercury releases and to mercury releases from coal-fired generating stations. Results suggest the use and release of mercury associated with its use in products is 4.5 times what previous inventories indicate. Including dental amalgam and sewage sludge, the total releases of mercury to all environmental compartments in Canada totals 20 tonnes per year. This accounts for less than one-half of the 44 tonnes per year of mercury released from mercury waste disposal each year in Canada. Waste mercury contributions from hazardous waste imports, unknown product sources, and incomplete information on the use of mercury in known products may account for this discrepancy. Waste-related mercury releases and transfers for disposal and recycling are 11 times greater than that of electricity generation in Canada. Results indicate that Canadian inventories have underestimated the significance of mercury use and release associated with products, calling into question the current priorities for mercury management. This paper was developed as part of a panel session at the International Joint Commission 'Mercury in the Ecosystem' workshop, February 26-27, 2003, Windsor, ON, Canada, as a complement to the information on Canadian Inventories presented by Luke Trip (Senes Consulting, Ottawa, ON, Canada).

  16. The Canadian Lung Cancer Conference 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Melosky, B.; Ho, C

    2016-01-01

    Each February, the Canadian Lung Cancer Conference brings together lung cancer researchers, clinicians, and care professionals who are united in their commitment to improve the care of patients with lung cancer. This year’s meeting, held 11–12 February, featured a resident education session, a welcome dinner, networking sessions, lectures, breakout sessions, debates, and a satellite symposium. Key themes from this year’s meeting included innovations across the care spectrum and results of rec...

  17. Competition in the Canadian Mortgage Market

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Allen

    2011-01-01

    This article begins with a brief examination of the Canadian mortgage market, focusing on the market’s evolution following changes to the Bank Act in 1992, which allowed chartered banks to enter the trust business, and the subsequent entrance of virtual banks and mortgage brokers. It then summarizes key research currently being undertaken by the Bank of Canada. This research suggests that the mortgage rates paid by borrowers depend on their observable characteristics, their local market, and ...

  18. Morbidity Experiences and Disability Among Canadian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Linda

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Women are more frequently affected by chronic conditions and disability than men. Although some of these sex differences have been in part attributed to biological susceptibility, social determinants of health and other factors, these gaps have not been fully explained in the current literature. This chapter presents comparisons of hospitalization rates, and the prevalence of chronic conditions and physical disability between Canadian women and men and between various subgroups of women, adjusting for selected risk factors. The Canadian Hospital Morbidity Database (2000–2001 and Canadian Community Health Survey (2000–2001 were used to examine inpatient hospital morbidity, prevalence of chronic conditions and disability. Key Findings Hospitalization rates were 20% higher among women than men. This was due to the large number of hospitalizations for pregnancies and childbirth. When "normal" deliveries were excluded, hospitalization rates remained higher among women. Women had slightly lower rates of hospitalizations for ambulatory-care sensitive conditions than men. Prevalence of activity limitation (mild and severe was higher among women than men, and differences remained after adjusting for age, chronic conditions, socio-economic status, and smoking. Women who reported a disability were less likely than men to be in a partnered relationship, have less tangible social support, and have lower income and employment rates. Data Gaps and Recommendations The impact of morbidity and disability on Canadian women is substantial. These results identify areas for interventions among more vulnerable subgroups, and point to the need for further research in the area of risk factors for the prevention of morbidity and disability in the population.

  19. Immunization policies in Canadian medical schools.

    OpenAIRE

    Rowan, M S; Carter, A O; Walker, V J

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the policies of Canadian medical schools concerning immunization of students and the methods used to promote these policies. DESIGN: Mail survey with the use of a 12-item, self-administered questionnaire; telephone follow-up to ensure response. SETTING: All 16 medical schools in Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Deans of Canada's 16 medical schools or their designates. All of them responded to the questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Policies on vaccination of students against di...

  20. Fatal falciparum malaria in Canadian travellers

    OpenAIRE

    Humar, A.; Sharma, S.; Zoutman, D; Kain, K. C.

    1997-01-01

    The authors report 2 cases of severe falciparum malaria in Canadians that had fatal outcomes. In the first case a man presented to a local hospital shortly after returning from Africa, but a diagnosis of malaria was not considered. He was transferred to a secondary and then to a tertiary care facility, where he subsequently died. Intravenous quinidine therapy, the treatment of choice, was unavailable at all 3 hospitals. In the second case, a woman taking chloroquine prophylaxis while visiting...

  1. Globalization, health, and the future Canadian metropolis.

    OpenAIRE

    Schrecker, Ted

    2010-01-01

    This chapter represents a preliminary effort to understand the health implications of transnsational economic integration (globalization) for population health in Canadian metropolitan areas, and to inform the development of policy responses and strategies of resistance. Special emphasis is placed on health equity as it is affected by social determinants of health. I first provide a stylized description of the rationale for concentrating on major metropolitan areas, rather than on...

  2. Canadian survey on pandemic flu preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy CS; Guglietti C; Gibson JL; Wilson Kumanan; Ritvo Paul; Nie JX; Jadad AR; Upshur REG

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The management of pandemic influenza creates public health challenges. An ethical framework, 'Stand on Guard for Thee: ethical considerations in pandemic influenza preparedness' that served as a template for the World Health Organization's global consultation on pandemic planning, was transformed into a survey administered to a random sample of 500 Canadians to obtain opinions on key ethical issues in pandemic preparedness planning. Methods All framework authors and additi...

  3. Industry analysis - Canadian medical doctoral universities

    OpenAIRE

    Crighton, Lyla Eileen

    2005-01-01

    Most public sector and non-profit entities do not undergo standard business analysis that is typically found in their private sector counterparts, however such approaches may provide administrators with information to better understand their industry. A high-level industry analysis of Canadian medical-doctoral universities, based on Porter's five forces and value chain analysis, combined with an analysis of pertinent issues indicated that universities are greatly affected by strategic decisio...

  4. A Canadian Medical Team in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Caldwell, J. Paul; Kain, Brian F.; Robert C. McDonald

    1985-01-01

    In February 1985, a Canadian medical relief team was established in a northern Ethiopia refugee camp. Volunteer physicians, nurses, and support staff have worked in the camp since February 1985. Their activities range from supervising intensive feeding programs, to controlling infections, to educating patients. About 300-400 patients visit the outpatient clinics daily. Malnutrition, vitamin A and B deficiencies, scurvy, rickets, gastroenteritis, malaria, leprosy, tuberculosis, pneumonia, trac...

  5. Open Access Funds: A Canadian Library Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Fernandez; Rajiv Nariani

    2011-01-01

    A survey of Canadian research libraries was conducted to determine the extent of funding support for open access publications in these institutions. Results indicate that there is substantial support for open access publishing, and a diversity of approaches is being used to fund open access resources. The reasons for funding support along with policy and promotional issues are explored. The broader implications of funding open access are discussed in the context of a changing scholarly publis...

  6. Canadian mercury inventories: the missing pieces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research was conducted to determine the significance of the deliberate use of mercury in products in Canada and the associated releases from these sources. Through a combination of literature review and new calculations, the reservoir, flux, and releases of mercury from eight product sources were calculated, and these results compared to historical Canadian inventories. Mercury contributions from the waste sector were also assessed and compared to total Canadian mercury releases and to mercury releases from coal-fired generating stations. Results suggest the use and release of mercury associated with release of mercury associated with its use in products is 4.5 times what previous inventories indicate. Including dental amalgam and sewage sludge, the total releases of mercury to all environmental compartments in Canada totals 20 tonnes per year. This accounts for less than one-half of the 44 tonnes per year of mercury released from mercury waste disposal each year in Canada. Waste mercury contributions from hazardous waste imports, unknown product sources, and incomplete information on the use of mercury in known products may account for this discrepancy. Waste-related mercury releases and transfers for disposal and recycling are 11 times greater than that of electricity generation in Canada. Results indicate that Canadian inventories have underestimated the significance of mercury use and release associated with products, calling into question the current priorities for mercury management. This paper was developed as part of a panel session at the International Joint Commission 'Mercury in the Ecosystem' workshop, February 26-27, 2003, Windsor, ON, Canada, as a complement to the information on Canadian Inventories presented by Luke Trip (Senes Consulting, Ottawa, ON, Canada)

  7. Medium Term Outlook for Canadian Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Charlebois, Pierre; Gagne, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the features of the Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) Medium Term Outlook for Canadian Agriculture (previously entitled Medium Term Policy Baseline) covering the period 2007 to 2017. The outlook is an attempt to outline a plausible future of the international and domestic agri-food sectors. It serves as a benchmark for discussion and scenario analysis. The outlook makes specific assumptions and outlines their implications. Since it assumes tha...

  8. Viewpoint: Canadian competition policy: progress and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Ross

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the state of competition policy - in particular the economics of competition policy - in Canada today and considers its prospects going forward. It argues that: (i) the importance of competition policy has become accepted widely in Canada and indeed throughout much of the world; (ii) competition policy design and enforcement is in general well done in Canada; (iii) economists, including many Canadians, have played a central role in the development of an efficient and effe...

  9. Canadian oil and gas survey 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The year 1997 brought record levels of financing for the Canadian oil and gas industry which led to record levels of capital spending and unprecedented merger and acquisition activity. Production records were achieved, but soft commodity prices in the fourth quarter resulted in a significant downturn in the equity markets. El Nino reduced demand for natural gas and heating oil, resulting in increased storage levels for both commodities. Record drilling and capital spending fueled the Canadian oilfield service industry as total market capitalization rose to $10 billion. As for the 1998 outlook, the industry has turned to natural gas as the favoured commodity, as indicated by the conclusion of the Alliance pipeline hearings and the Nova/TCPL merger. This survey presents a review of crude oil and natural gas production, prices, and capital spending for development and exploratory wells, and the financial and operating results for fiscal year 1997 of selected oil and gas companies and income trusts. All listed companies are Canadian public companies, or publicly traded income trusts, traded on one of the country's four major stock exchanges. They are ranked according to gross oil and gas production revenue only (before royalties). Syncrude and oil sands production is also included. The remaining data in the financial statistics tables includes all business segments of each company included. The survey excluded companies that were wholly-owned subsidiaries, divisions or U.S. subsidiaries and private companies. tabs., figs

  10. Deep saline groundwater within the Canadian Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwaters have been sampled from depths greater than 1000 m within the Canadian Shield. The samples were obtained from boreholes in mines and from test drilling programs carried out as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. At the depths explored, water is found in fractures, shear zones and similar structural features. The salinity of the water is frequently very high, with total dissolved solids often exceeding 200 g.L-1. These saline waters can be classified as Ca-Na-Cl brines. Isotopic analyses for 2H and 18O show that these fluids are not modern, local meteoric waters which dissolve salts in sedimentary, metasedimentary or metamorphic rocks. The chemical and isotopic data suggest that all saline waters analyzed to date have a similar origin. This source is not well-understood but could be highly modified Paleozoic seawater, residual metamorphic fluids, or less likely, groundwaters that have been in contact with the rocks in the Canadian Shield for millions of years. In all cases the fluids appear to have been isolated from the biosphere for geological time periods. The existence of these highly saline fluids influences the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program in several areas. A major concern is the corrosion resistance of the radioactive waste containers. Saline waters may also influence the buffer and backfill and vault sealing materials, the rock mass and the waste form itself, although the effects may not always be deleterious. Corrosion of underground test equipment during the geoscience research phase is also a concern

  11. Papers of the Canadian Energy Pipeline Association's 7. annual climate change workshop : energy efficiency and greenhouse gas reduction opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference focused on the role that Canadian pipeline companies will play in addressing greenhouse gas emissions. Ninety-five per cent of Canada's oil and gas is transported by pipeline. The Canadian Energy Pipeline Association (CEPA) is a national association representing all the major crude oil and natural gas transportation companies in Canada which operate 100,000 kilometres of pipeline in the country. CEPA's ongoing commitment to climate change includes a commitment to participate in the climate change process, share best management practices, develop energy efficient technology, and position Canadian companies so that they can be part of the solution. It was emphasized that a strong commitment to an effective innovation strategy will be crucial to a successful long term energy policy that meets both economic and environmental objectives. One of the key messages at the conference was that Canada's climate change policies should be consistent with those of the United States, its major trading partner, to ensure that Canada is not placed at a competitive disadvantage within North American and world energy markets. It was also noted that greenhouse gas emissions should be reduced in all consuming and producing sectors of the economy through energy efficiency practices and not through reductions in Canadian industry output for domestic or export markets. Five presentations were indexed separately for inclusion in the database. tabs., figs

  12. Political Ideology and Economic Freedom across Canadian Provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Potrafke, Niklas

    This paper examines how political ideology influenced economic freedom in the Canadian provinces. We analyze the dataset of economic freedom indicators compiled by the Fraser Institute in 10 Canadian provinces over the 1981-2005 period and introduce two different indices of political ideology...... leftist and rightwing governments concerning the role of government in the economy and (2) indicates that ideological polarization concerns governments but less parliamentary fractions in the Canadian provinces. ...

  13. Social relations and remittances: evidence from Canadian micro data

    OpenAIRE

    Vadean, Florin P.; DeVoretz, Don J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper models transfers outside the household for both the Canadian- born and foreign-born Canadian populations in a traditional expenditure framework with an unique composition of goods to illustrate the special motivations to remit by immigrants. We theorise that remittances to persons outside the households represent transfers to maintain social relations with relatives and friends and religious/charitable remittances are expenditures which foster group membership. Using Canadian surve...

  14. Predicting Canadian Recessions Using Financial Variables: A Probit Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Atta-Mensah, Joseph; Tkacz, Greg

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the ability of a number of financial variables to predict Canadian recessions. Regarding methodology, we follow closely the technique employed by Estrella and Mishkin (1998), who use a probit model to predict U.S. recessions up to eight quarters in advance. Our main finding is that the spread between the yield on Canadian long bonds and the 90-day commercial paper rate is particularly useful in predicting Canadian recessions. This result is consistent with those of Estrell...

  15. Beyond "medical tourism": Canadian companies marketing medical travel

    OpenAIRE

    Turner Leigh

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite having access to medically necessary care available through publicly funded provincial health care systems, some Canadians travel for treatment provided at international medical facilities as well as for-profit clinics found in several Canadian provinces. Canadians travel abroad for orthopaedic surgery, bariatric surgery, ophthalmologic surgery, stem cell injections, “Liberation therapy” for multiple sclerosis, and additional interventions. Both responding to publi...

  16. Endoscopy training in Canadian general surgery residency programs

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, Nori L.; Bazzerelli, Amy; Lim, Jenny; Ying, Valerie Wu Chao; Steigerwald, Sarah; Strickland, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Currently, general surgeons provide about 50% of endoscopy services across Canada and an even greater proportion outside large urban centres. It is essential that endoscopy remain a core component of general surgery practice and a core competency of general surgery residency training. The Canadian Association of General Surgeons Residents Committee supports the position that quality endoscopy training for all Canadian general surgery residents is in the best interest of the Canadian public. H...

  17. Canadian capital spending to slip 4.7% in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total capital and exploration spending by the Canadian petroleum industry is estimated at $6.579 billion in 1993, a drop of 4.7% from estimated 1992 outlays. Last year Canadian capital spending of $6.9 billion represented a drop of 8.9% from 1991 outlays, according to an Oil and Gas Journal survey. All survey related spending estimates in this paper are in U.S. dollars. All individual company spending estimates are in Canadian dollars

  18. Foldable Containers to Reduce the Costs of Empty Transport? A Cost–Benefit Analysis from a Chain and Multi-Actor Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Rob Konings

    2005-01-01

    Transport of empty containers, which arises from the need to reposition containers, is an expensive business. This holds in particular for shipping lines, which are usually responsible for container repositioning and have to bear these container management costs. Shipping lines are known to follow various strategies to reduce the costs of empty transport. A rather unfamiliar, but interesting option to save costs is the possibility to fold empty containers. This could save transport costs, but...

  19. The utility industry's perspective on OCRWM's plans for developing the system for transporting spent fuel under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electric utility industry has a vital interest in the transport program to be developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The industry's interest stems in part from the fact that the DOE's transportation program is financed by the Nuclear Waste Fund which is made up of ratepayer funds. However, the industry is also vitally interested in the DOE's transportation program because it could impact the ongoing transportation operations of all nuclear utilities, and, perhaps most importantly, without the utility industry's input, DOE is not able to develop an optimal transportation program. The NWPA contemplates that the DOE conducts its transportation program in accordance with the existing federal and state regulatory structure. DOE has significant discretion, however, in creating and implementing the business, operational and institutional aspects of its NWPA transportation program. The utility industry intends to ensure that the DOE meets the challenge to develop a safe, efficient and economically sound program to transport spent fuel and high-level waste to the appropriate federal facilities

  20. 加拿大法裔少数民族心理形成的阶段性特征--以魁北克分离主义为视角%Formation of Canadian Francophone National Minority’s Psychology In Different Phases--On the Perspective of Quebec Separatism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建波

    2012-01-01

      加拿大法裔少数民族心理是在十八世纪中期至十九世纪中期加拿大的历史演进、政治变革和社会变迁中形成的,它具有被异族征服的屈辱和对其统治的敌对、文化生存的焦虑、社会经济地位导致的自卑和弱势的敏感等特征.20世纪60年代得到矫枉过正的自我修复,进入90年代,法裔民族心态渐趋平和,但是少数心理仍十分敏感,弱势心理定势没有得到克服.这种心理成为魁北克分离主义至今不息的心理基础.%  From the mid-eighteenth century to the mid-nineteenth century Canadian Francophone National Minority’s Psychology took shape,with the evolution of Canadian history,politics and society. It includes the following characteristics,humiliation from alien subjugation,hostile to its rule,anxiety of cultural survival,inferiority of socio-economic status and sensitivity of weakness,etc. The psychology have self-repaired in 1960s,time to the 1990s,it is gradually peace,but a small number of psychological still very sensitive and the weakness of mental set does not get to overcome. Today,this psychology still became the psychological basis of Quebee separatism.

  1. Canadian natural gas market: dynamics and pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication by the National Energy Board is part of a continuing program of assessing applications for long-term natural gas export licences. The market-based procedure used by the Board is based on the premise that the marketplace will generally operate in a way that will ensure that Canadian requirements for natural gas will be met at fair market prices. The market--based procedure consists of a public hearing and a monitoring component. The monitoring component involves the on-going assessment of Canadian energy markets to provide analyses of major energy commodities on either an individual or integrated commodity basis. This report is the result of the most recent assessment . It identifies factors that affect natural gas prices and describes the functioning of regional markets in Canada. It provides an overview of the energy demand, including recent trends, reviews the North American gas supply and markets, the natural gas pricing dynamics in Canada, and a regional analysis of markets, prices and dynamics in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and the Atlantic provinces. In general, demand growth outstripped growth in supply, but natural gas producers throughout North America have been responding to the current high price environment with aggressive drilling programs. The Board anticipates that in time, there will be a supply and demand response and accompanying relief in natural gas prices. A review of the annual weighted average border price paid for Alberta gas indicates that domestic gas users paid less than export customers until 1998, at which point the two prices converged, suggesting that Canadians have had access to natural gas at prices no less favourable than export customers. The influence of electronic trading systems such as NYMEX and AECO-C/NIT have had significant impact on the pricing of natural gas. These systems, by providing timely information to market participants. enables them to manage price

  2. Refugees and education in Canadian schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaprielian-Churchill, Isabel

    1996-07-01

    This article summarizes some of the findings and recommendations of a research project focusing on the nature and needs of refugee students in Canadian schools. The school performance of refugee students is examined under the following headings: immigration regulations; initial identification, assessment, placement and monitoring; unaccompanied youngsters; "at risk" students; academic needs; the conflict of cultures. In particular, the article discusses the changing role of the school in the light of recent immigration trends. Many of the findings are applicable to other national settings.

  3. Chinese Oil Giants Eye Canadian Oil Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Bin

    2005-01-01

    @@ SinoCanada, a subsidiary of Sinopec International Petroleum Exploration and Development Corporation, and Canada-based Synenco Energy Inc announced on May 31 that they have inked a series of agreements to launch a joint venture for common development of the oil sand project located in Athabasca region of Northeast Canada's Alberta Province. Based on the agreements, Sinopec will pay 105 million Canadian dollars (US$84 million) for a stake in Canada's Northern Lights oil sands project while Synenco owns the remaining 60 percent share,and will operate the project as the managing partner.

  4. 2007: A Canadian Corporate Ownership Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsan, Calin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study documents a decline in the levels of corporate ownership concentration between 1996 and 2007. When compared to previous studies, the incidence of ownership stakes of 20% or larger has decreased form 60% to 41% of the total population of publicly listed Canadian firms. Regional disparities among provinces remain important. Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia have the most widely-held firms, while Quebec and Atlantic Canada show the most concentrated corporate ownership patterns. The interpretation of these results requires a complex understanding of historical, demographic, cultural, political and institutional factors.

  5. Radiocesium body burdens in northern Canadians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole body measurements were carried out on 1117 Canadians living in five Arctic communities during 1989 and 1990 in order to assess the uptake of radiocesium, from the lichen-caribou-human food chain. The Cs-137 body burdens increased with age, and were twice as high for men as for women. There was a discrepancy between the reported meat consumption and the measured body burdens. Average radiation doses from ingested radiocesium varied from 0.01 to 0.10 mSv/a. (author)

  6. Airborne organochlorines in the Canadian High Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    PATTON, G. W.; HINCKLEY, D. A.; Walla, M D; T. F. Bidleman; HARGRAVE, B. T.

    2011-01-01

    In 1984, the Canadian Polar Continental Shelf Project established a research camp on a floating ice island in the Beaufort Sea. The 7 × 4 km island is presently located about 50 km off Ellesmere Island at about 81°N, 100°W. Air samples of 1400–3000 m3 were collected on the island in August-September 1986 and June 1987, using a filter-solid adsorbent train. Organochlorines in melted snow and Arctic Ocean surface water were preconcentrated using solid adsorbent cartridges. Samples were analyzed...

  7. The Canadian Lung Cancer Conference 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melosky, B.; Ho, C.

    2016-01-01

    Each February, the Canadian Lung Cancer Conference brings together lung cancer researchers, clinicians, and care professionals who are united in their commitment to improve the care of patients with lung cancer. This year’s meeting, held 11–12 February, featured a resident education session, a welcome dinner, networking sessions, lectures, breakout sessions, debates, and a satellite symposium. Key themes from this year’s meeting included innovations across the care spectrum and results of recent clinical trials with targeted agents, immuno-oncology agents, and novel drug combinations.

  8. Tax Effects in Canadian Equity Option Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Moshe Arye Milevsky; Eliezer Z. Prisman

    1997-01-01

    The Canadian Income Tax Act induces individual investors to close their short equity option positions at the end of the year and, if necessary, reopen them at the beginning of next year. This article analyzes the conditions under which it is optimal to close or leave open a short option position over the tax year boundary. The analysis shows that the latter decision depends on transaction costs, the investor’s marginal tax rate, the interest rates, the initial and end-of-the-year option price...

  9. A cost-utility analysis of cervical cancer vaccination in preadolescent Canadian females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merid Maraki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the fact that approximately 70% of Canadian women undergo cervical cancer screening at least once every 3 years, approximately 1,300 women were diagnosed with cervical cancer and approximately 380 died from it in 2008. This study estimates the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of vaccinating 12-year old Canadian females with an AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine. The indirect effect of vaccination, via herd immunity, is also estimated. Methods A 12-health-state 1-year-cycle Markov model was developed to estimate lifetime HPV related events for a cohort of 12-year old females. Annual transition probabilities between health-states were derived from published literature and Canadian population statistics. The model was calibrated using Canadian cancer statistics. From a healthcare perspective, the cost-effectiveness of introducing a vaccine with efficacy against HPV-16/18 and evidence of cross-protection against other oncogenic HPV types was evaluated in a population undergoing current screening practices. The base-case analysis included 70% screening coverage, 75% vaccination coverage, $135/dose for vaccine, and 3% discount rate on future costs and health effects. Conservative herd immunity effects were taken into account by estimated HPV incidence using a mathematical model parameterized by reported age-stratified sexual mixing data. Sensitivity analyses were performed to address parameter uncertainties. Results Vaccinating 12-year old females (n = 100,000 was estimated to prevent between 390-633 undiscounted cervical cancer cases (reduction of 47%-77% and 168-275 undiscounted deaths (48%-78% over their lifetime, depending on whether or not herd immunity and cross-protection against other oncogenic HPV types were included. Vaccination was estimated to cost $18,672-$31,687 per QALY-gained, the lower range representing inclusion of cross-protective efficacy and herd immunity. The cost per QALY-gained was most

  10. Ecknomic benefits arising from the Canadian nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a collection of surveys of the Canadian nuclear industry, with forecasts covering a number of possible scenarios. Topics covered include uranium mining and processing; economic benefits arising from the design, manufacture and construction of CANDU generating stations; employment and economic activity in the Canadian nqclear industry; and an overview of the remainder of the industry

  11. Self-Help Book Prescription Practices of Canadian University Counsellors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Ronald E.

    1991-01-01

    Surveyed 80 Canadian university counselors to determine whether they prescribed self-help books and to compare titles of most prescribed books to those selected by Canadian psychologists. Found that 74.4 percent of 78 counselors answering question responded affirmatively to recommending books with 56 titles being prescribed. Lists 10 books most…

  12. How Canadian Universities Use Social Media to Brand Themselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Charles H.; Bali, Suchita; Longden, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores social media marketing strategies applied by Canadian universities as a tool for institutional branding, recruitment and engagement of home and international students. The target sample involves the total population of Canadian university-status institutions ("N" = 106). Qualitative data were collected from two major…

  13. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Society 15. annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of the 15. annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society cover a wide range of nuclear topics, but the emphasis is on CANDU reactors and Canadian experience. The 89 papers are arranged in 17 sessions dealing with the following subjects: thermalhydraulics, fuel channels, operations, reactor physics, fuel, new technology, safety, training, waste management. The individual papers have been abstracted separately

  14. Canadian Educational Development Centre Websites: More Ebb than Flow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines information portrayed on Canadian educational development (ED) centre websites and, in particular, whether information that corresponds to questions compiled from a literature search of ED centre practices is readily available from centre websites. This study phase is part of a larger national study of Canadian educational…

  15. Trends: The Canadian University in Profile. 1991 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This report offers an overview of Canadian universities primarily by means of statistical data on enrollment, degrees, faculty, finance, and research. The report uses data from Statistics Canada and from the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development. An introduction provides an analysis of the financial status of Canadian universities…

  16. Seeking Internationalization: The State of Canadian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the internationalization of Canadian universities, with a focus on the rise of foreign postsecondary students in Canada, the economic impacts, and the various benefits, challenges, and adjustments that have been influenced by the continuing demographic shifts on Canadian campuses since 2000. Rooted in recent global and…

  17. The Dividend and Share Repurchase Policies of Canadian Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Jong (Abe); R. van Dijk (Ronald); C.H. Veld

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe empirically investigate dividend and share repurchase policies of Canadian firms. We have sent a questionnaire to the 500 largest non-financial Canadian companies listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange, of which 191 usable responses were returned. These data are used to measure firm cha

  18. Atlantic Canada : recipe for ruin, loophole in Canadian tanker laws questioned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a storm in December 2000, the captain of a leaking supertanker named the Eastern Power requested permission to dock his 339-metre ship at Come by Chance in Newfoundland. The request was denied by Transport Canada and the barge carrying 1.9 million barrels of oil had to ride out the storm just outside Canada's 200-mile limit. The concern was that the hull might split and spill huge amounts of oil. The Eastern Power has only one hull and is twice the age that the Prevention of Pollution from Ships considers reasonable for the lifespan of a vessel. Tankers built after 1993 are required to have an inside and an outside frame in order to enter Canadian waters. Those that are not double hulled and built before 1993 will be phased out by 2015. The spokesman for Transport Canada explained that the concern regarding the Eastern Power was for the Canadian environment. Owners are responsible for making sure that their ships do not risk our environment. An added precaution requires that all ships radio the Canadian Coast Guard 24 hours before reaching the 200-mile limit to report on their course, destination and seaworthiness. While Transport Canada makes the ultimate decision on entry, it shares the information with the Department of National Defense, Environment Canada and the coast guard. In this case, the crew of the Eastern Power was able to pump cargo into a safer tank and repaired the rupture. It was then given permission to dock at Come By Chance, but it instead headed for the Caribbean. Newfoundland is still recovering from the collapse of the cod fishery and is trying to build an eco-tourism industry given that its Atlantic offshore is a marine ecological treasure. Environmentalists view some of the present marine laws, or lack of laws, as a gateway to a disaster which could wipe out some water fowl species and further reduce fish stocks. 1 fig

  19. The abortion battle: the Canadian scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, P

    1994-01-01

    In January 1988 the Supreme Court of Canada struck down the country's archaic abortion law on the ground that it imposed arbitrary delays and unfair disparities in access to abortion across the country. Since then, the conservative government of Canada has made a few attempts to introduce a new abortion policy, but it did not get passed in the parliament because the revised bills failed to protect women's right to 'life, liberty, and security of the person' within the meaning of the Canadian Charter. Canada has been without an abortion law for over four years and there has been a wide range of provincial policies and confusion in the country. Despite the legal vacuum, Canadian women are not frenziedly having abortions. However, the militancy of the anti-abortion groups has steadily intensified with continued assault on a woman's right to make reproductive choices. Since no law, short of banning abortions altogether, is going to satisfy abortion opponents, the abortion battle will rage on in Canada. PMID:8065237

  20. Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial information from Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd. and a review of their 1998 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. The company's core oil and gas business activities include exploration, development, production and marketing of crude oil and natural gas. The company produces oil and gas in Canada, Yemen, the Gulf of Mexico and Nigeria. Canadian Occidental also owns a 7.23 per cent share in the Syncrude joint venture. The company is developing new production in Hay, British Columbia, offshore west Africa and offshore northwest Australia. They are also one of North America's top three manufacturers of sodium chlorate. The report presents a summary of operations, a thorough management discussion and analysis of results and provides the customary consolidated financial statements and notes. Overall, 1998 was described as a difficult year financially, due to falling commodity prices. On the operations side, the company experienced its best results to date, producing more oil and gas than ever before. The company also invested over $ 950 million in new projects and opportunities. Some of the Company's most promising projects are located offshore Nigeria, offshore northwest Australia, in the Gulf of Mexico and in western Canada. These projects are expected to add 40,000 BOE of production by early 2000, with promise of attractive returns even at current low oil prices. tabs., figs

  1. Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project activities report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project was formally established in 1982. The project is directed toward the further development of Canadian capabilities in five major areas: tritium technology, breeder technology, materials technology, equipment development and safety and the environment. The project is funded by three partners - Government of Canada (50%), Ontario Provincial Government (25%) and Ontario Hydro (25%). The fiscal year 1984/85 represents the third year of operation of the project. In 1984/85, 108 contracts were awarded totalling $4 million. Supplementary funding by subcontractors added approximately $1.9 million to the total project value. More than 200 people participated in the technical work involved in the project. Sixteen people were on attachment to foreign facilities for terms ranging from 1 month to 2.5 years. Five patents were applied for including a tritium discrimination monitor, a new radio-chemical tritium separation method, a new variation of fuel cleanup by gas chromatography, a passive tritium permeation system using bimetallic membranes, and a new breeder process using lithium salts dissolved in heavy water

  2. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-01-01

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups. PMID:23618638

  3. Controlling the temperature in Canadian homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Programmable thermostats can be used to optimize the operation of heating and cooling systems by reducing system usage when occupants are asleep or when dwellings are unoccupied. This paper used the results of a 2006 households and the environment survey to examine how programmable thermostats are currently being used in Canadian households. The demographic factors associated with thermostat use were discussed, as well as how their usage varied in different areas of Canada. The study showed that most Canadian households set their temperature at between 20 to 22 degrees C during times when they are home and awake. Home temperatures were reduced to between 16 and 18 degrees C when household members were away or asleep. Only 4 out of 10 households used programmable thermostats. Of those who used programmable thermostats, only 7 in 10 programmed the thermostat to lower the temperature when occupants were asleep. Senior citizens and people with lower levels of education were less likely to use programmable thermostats. It was concluded that incentive programs and the distribution of free programmable thermostats will increase their use in households. Assistance in programming during the installation process should also be provided. Factor analyses must also be conducted to examine the influence of age, education, and income and the decisions made by households in relation to temperature regulation. 7 tabs

  4. Controlling the temperature in Canadian homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewis, G.

    2008-09-15

    Programmable thermostats can be used to optimize the operation of heating and cooling systems by reducing system usage when occupants are asleep or when dwellings are unoccupied. This paper used the results of a 2006 households and the environment survey to examine how programmable thermostats are currently being used in Canadian households. The demographic factors associated with thermostat use were discussed, as well as how their usage varied in different areas of Canada. The study showed that most Canadian households set their temperature at between 20 to 22 degrees C during times when they are home and awake. Home temperatures were reduced to between 16 and 18 degrees C when household members were away or asleep. Only 4 out of 10 households used programmable thermostats. Of those who used programmable thermostats, only 7 in 10 programmed the thermostat to lower the temperature when occupants were asleep. Senior citizens and people with lower levels of education were less likely to use programmable thermostats. It was concluded that incentive programs and the distribution of free programmable thermostats will increase their use in households. Assistance in programming during the installation process should also be provided. Factor analyses must also be conducted to examine the influence of age, education, and income and the decisions made by households in relation to temperature regulation. 7 tabs.

  5. Canadian resources of uranium and thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada has been one of the world's leading producers of uranium since the metal became important as a raw material in the development and production of atomic energy. One of the largest known deposits in the world is in Canada where present reserves represent about 37 per cent of the total among those countries that have published reserve statistics. The production of uranium has been characterized by features which are unique in Canadian mining, because the industry was created by the government at a time of emergency and, unlike other minerals, the sale of its product is controlled by the state. The rapid growth of the uranium-mining industry since World War II has been a remarkable achievement. In 1958, Canada was the world's leading producer of uranium and the value of U3O8 produced in both 1958 and 1959 exceeded the value of any other Canadian-produced metal. As an export commodity, uranium ranked fourth in value in 1959 following newsprint, wheat, and lumber. Production from 25 mines in that year was 14 462 tonnes of U3O8 valued at $345 million (all monetary values are in U.S. dollars). Since 1959, however, the decline in production, resulting from declining export markets, has been almost as rapid as the spectacular rise from 1953 to 1959. At the end of 1963 only seven mines were in production and by the end of 1965 only two mines are expected to remain in operation. (author)

  6. Global change and Canadians: A teacher's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report called Global Change and Canadians has been produced by the Royal Society of Canada to answer basic questions being asked about global change issues. A teacher's guide is presented to help teachers make effective use of the report in developing programs with students concerning global change. A basic set of teaching and learning activities related to the major topics in the report is provided, curricular connections between global change topics and school programs are suggested, and some additional resources on global change are listed. The guide is divided into six chapters, each corresponding to the chapters of the global change report. Each chapter contains a summary of the major concepts from the report, some of the learning outcomes that occur when those concepts are addressed, a series of suggested activities or ideas, and a guide for assessing students' abilities relative to the concepts of the chapter. The topics of the chapters cover the nature of global change, the importance of global change to Canada, the causes of global change, the consequences of global change (including climate change and the greenhouse effect), the effects of global change on society, and Canadian responses to global change. 64 refs., 3 figs

  7. Markets for Canadian bitumen-based feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The best types of refineries for processing western Canadian bitumen-based feedstock (BBF) were identified and a potential market for these feedstock for year 2007 was calculated. In addition, this power point presentation provided an estimation of potential regional and total demand for BBF. BBF included Athabasca bitumen blend, de-asphalted blend, coked sour crude oil (SCO), coked sweet SCO, hydrocracked SCO and hydrocracked/aromatic saturated SCO (HAS). Refinery prototypes included light and mixed prototypes for primary cracking units, light and heavy prototypes for primary coking units, as well as no coking, coking severe and residuum prototypes for primary hydrocracking units. The presentation included graphs depicting the natural market for Western Canadian crudes as well as U.S. crude oil production forecasts by PADD districts. It was forecasted that the market for bitumen-based feedstock in 2007 will be tight and that the potential demand for bitumen-based blends would be similar to expected production. It was also forecasted that the potential demand for SCO is not as promising relative to the expected production, unless price discounting or HAS will be available. 11 figs

  8. Canadian experience with uranium tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the first years of uranium production in Canada uranium tailings were discharged directly into valleys or lakes near the mill. Treatment with barium chloride to precipitate radium began in 1965 at the Nordic Mine at Elliot Lake, Ontario. In the mid-60s and early 70s water quality studies indicated that discharges from uranium tailings areas were causing degradation to the upper part of the Serpent River water system. Studies into acid generation, revegetation, and leaching of radium were initiated by the mining companies and resulted in the construction of treatment plants at a number of sites. Abandoned tailings sites were revegetated. At hearings into the expansion of the Elliot Lake operations the issue of tailings management was a major item for discussion. As a result federal and provincial agencies developed guidelines for the siting and development of urnaium tailings areas prior to issuing operating licences. Western Canadian uranium producers do not have the acid generation problem of the Elliot Lake operations. The Rabbit Lake mill uses settling ponds followed by filtration. High-grade tailings from Cluff Lake are sealed in concrete and buried. Uranium producers feel that the interim criteria developed by the Atomic Energy Control Board, if adopted, would have a harmful effect on the viability of the Canadian uranium industry

  9. Canadian energy. The next 20 years and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of energy in Canada is analyzed and several scenarios for future direction in energy policy are discussed. It is concluded that the most striking characteristic of current energy supply is domination by a single source: oil. As oil production declines conservation, consistent with the main features of Canadian way of life, and other sources must fill the gap. Natural gas cannot substantially increase its current market share of 22 percent. Electricity is unique in that it does not have a single source constraint and use can be expanded to about 26 percent from the current 15 percent market share. In-situ tar sands extraction, coal-fired district heating, solar energy and methanol from biomass for transport are seen as supplying smaller market shares. Likely, an energy supply mix without any single dominant source will be the best route. Low growth scenarios are not seen to be pracitcal without considerable economic and social dislocation. Yet without a firm policy this is what will result. (OT)

  10. Recent acoustic studies of western Canadian continental margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornhold, B.D.; Brandon, M.T.; Clowes, R.M.; Currie, R.G.; Davis, E.E.; Hussong, D.M.; Hyndman, R.D.; Riddihough, R.P.; Rogers, G.C.; Yorath, C.J.

    1986-07-01

    A regional survey of the western Canadian continental margin from the central Queen Charlotte Island, 52/sup 0/40'N, to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, 47/sup 0/40'N, has been completed with the acoustic imaging system SeaMARC II. These data, combined with single-channel and multichannel seismic reflection data, reveal many new insights concerning the deep structure of the subduction margin off Vancouver Island. Clearly evident in the imagery are the deformation of sediments at the base of the slope, the surface expression of seismically active faults, the mass wasting of sediment frequently observed at the base of the slope, and the erosional canyons and sediment transport channels on the slope and adjacent abyssal plain. The variability in the surficial and deep structures along the length of the margin is great and corresponds well with the postulated variations in the local ocean/continent motion vectors: motion along the southern Queen Charlotte Islands margin is primarily transform (about 55 mm/year) with a small component of convergence (about 10 mm/year); motion south of the triple junction at the Wilson Knolls is convergent but at a very slow rate (about 10 mm/year); and motion along the central and southern Vancouver Island margin is nearly orthogonal to the coast and more rapid (about 40 mm/year).

  11. Euro plays : Canadian companies find success in England and France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A growing list of Canadian companies are searching for oil and gas onshore in England and France. Cirque Energy Corp., Vermilion Resources Ltd., Morrison Middlefield Resources Ltd., and Bow Valley Energy Ltd., are among the companies that are taking advantage of the underexplored basins, little competition, availability of land, and (in the case of the United Kingdom) a superior fiscal regime. Cirque Energy Corp. entered the U.K. in 1995 and currently has a 220,000 acre land position in the East Midlands basin, 250 km north of London. The main producing reservoirs are Permo-Carboniferous in age. The geology is similar to that in the North Sea. In November 1998, Cirque plans to build a 2,500 metre, six inch pipeline to transport up to 1,500 gross bbls of oil per day. Vermilion Resources Ltd. acquired oil and gas assets in the Paris and Aquitaine basin. The company has executed a $10.1 million workover and recompletion program on 42 wells which has increased production to more than 6,000 BOE per day from the previous 4,000 BOE per day. 3 figs

  12. Diesel exhaust exposure in the Canadian railroad work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dave K; Finkelstein, Murray M; Kurtz, Lawrence; Smolynec, Kathy; Eyre, Susan

    2003-01-01

    An investigation of occupational exposure to diesel exhaust, in terms of elemental carbon, was conducted as part of a feasibility study in the Canadian railroad industry. Both personal and area samples were collected from three major operating divisions of the railways: mechanical service, transportation, and engineering. A total of 255 elemental carbon samples have been described. The results show that all but six elemental carbon concentrations, expressed as size-selective respirable air samples taken using a 10 mm nylon cyclone, are well below the 2001 proposed American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) of 20 microg/m3. The concentration of diesel exhaust, expressed as elemental carbon, in the railroad industry is much lower than that in some other major industries such as mining and forklift truck operations. If the TLV is to be applicable to a broad range of workplace settings such as railroad, construction, and mining, the use of a TLV that is based on an elemental carbon measurement of size selective respirable samples, as recommended in the 2001 ACGIH proposal, would appear to be the most valid strategy for control of exposure to diesel exhaust. PMID:12650546

  13. Potential vorticity dynamics in the Canadian Climate Centre GCM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global distribution of Ertel potential vorticity (PV), simulated by the Canadian Climate Centre general circulation model (CCC GCM) is examined. An expression for PV in terms of an arbitrary vertical coordinate is formulated. This expression is used to calculate temporally averaged PV from the model temperature and wind fields. It is shown that a good approximation to the temporally averaged PV can be obtained from temporally averaged temperature and wind fields. An equation governing the time evolution of PV in the model vertical coordinate system is also derived. This equation is written in flux form and the associated flux is examined in a lower stratographic region of enhanced gravity-wave drag, above the Tibetan plateau. In this region, the southward transport of PV effected by gravity-wave drag is balanced to a large degree by the advection of PV northward. Finally, results from a recent experimental version of the CCC GCM, with an uppermost level at 1 mb, are used to examine PV dynamics associated with a spontaneous model stratospheric sudden warming. The warming is preceded by 2 successive large amplitude wavenumber 1 disturbances in the lower stratosphere. The second of these leads to splitting of the mid-stratospheric vortex into a double vortex pattern, as is clearly evident on maps of the 850K PV field during the warming period

  14. Competitiveness and viability impact on the Canadian refining industry of reducing sulphur in Canadian gasoline and diesel. Phase II: Pricing dynamics of the Canadian and international product markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of Canadian and international petroleum product pricing are discussed. Petroleum product prices are developed for use in assessing the competitiveness of the Canadian refining industry, both before and after the impact of the various sulphur reduction scenarios. In assessing the competitiveness of the Canadian refining industry, five critical factors have been taken into account. These are product prices, feedstock costs, capacity utilization, operating costs, and future capital requirements. Refining margin is considered to be the best indicator of refining performance. In Canada, refining margins are directly influenced by refining margins at the U.S. Gulf Coast (USGC). U.S. impact, European impact and the resulting Canadian grade gasoline and low sulphur diesel prices were examined in great detail. It was found that current returns are below acceptable rates in both the Canadian and U. S. industries. Separate price determinations were made for Ontario, Montreal, the Atlantic provinces, the Prairie provinces and British Columbia for gasoline and diesel fuel taking into account future sulphur scenario prices, the impact of legislation on fuel pricing, and crude oil pricing practices. Criteria for addressing future refinery viability, the advent of unique Canadian quality specifications starting in 1999, and the effects of these changes on independent marketers were also discussed

  15. Oxidative release of chromium from Archean ultramafic rocks, its transport and environmental impact – A Cr isotope perspective on the Sukinda valley ore district (Orissa, India)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulukat, Cora Stefanie; Døssing, Lasse Nørbye; Mondal, Sisir K.;

    2015-01-01

    negatively fractionated values as low as δ53Cr = −1.29 ± 0.04‰. Local surface waters are isotopically heavy relative to the soils. This supports the hypothesis that during oxidative weathering isotopically heavy Cr(VI) is leached from the soils to runoff. The impact of mining pollution is observed downstream...... transport to the sea. Isotopically lighter Cr(VI) downstream from the mine is probably back-reduced to Cr(III) during riverine transport leading to similar Cr-isotope values in the estuary as observed upstream from the mine....

  16. Canadian oil and gas industry competitiveness and financial performance update 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an independent assessment of profitability in the upstream Canadian petroleum industry. The upstream sector includes exploration and production of oil and gas reserves. This report offers a historical and a forward looking perspective on the financial performance of the industry in 2001. The performance of the industry is compared with other industries in Canada and around the world. The report is divided into the following 4 sections: (1) how capital flows in the Canadian upstream oil and gas economy, (2) the analysis of sector profitability based on the efficiency of capital flow in section 1, (3) how the profitability of the Canadian upstream oil and gas sector stands up compared to other industries, and (4) appendices and other supplementary information. It was noted that as geologic basins are developed, non-renewable resources continue to become more capital intense, a phenomenon that is very evident in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The industry must provide financial incentives for investors to participate in exploration and development. The return on capital must exceed the cost of capital in order to maintain that incentive. The principal findings of this report include: (1) a higher than average uncertainty and volatility expected in 2003, (2) operating costs vary with production, but finding and developing costs are still increasing, (3) declining conventional reserves, (4) growing non-conventional expenditures, (5) current taxes cut into margins, (6) cost of capital only achievable with firm commodity prices, (7) in comparison to other industries, years 2000 and 2001 are exceptional for the industry with high commodity prices catalyzing returns greater than other countries. tabs., figs

  17. The final fifteen feet of hose : the Canadian gasoline industry in the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An up-to-date profile of the Canadian gasoline industry was presented with an effort to address some of the preoccupations of industry stakeholders and the perceptions of Canadian motorists. This study provides new insights into the workings of the industry by providing a balanced perspective on the many contentious issues that affect the industry, particularly retail pricing. The Conference Board's empirical analysis makes use of a new approach which provides a better understanding of how retail prices react to changes in wholesale prices. Competition is the reason why a retail market outcome margin exists in each city based on local conditions. This margin is the basis for price changes in that market and reflects a margin at which most competitors are able to sustain themselves. When changes occur in the wholesale price of crude, the retail price is adjusted depending on whether the actual margin in place is higher or lower than the market outcome margin. Crude oil and taxes make up about 84 per cent of the average price of a litre of regulated unleaded gasoline. The main reason for rising Canadian gasoline prices is the rapid increase in world crude oil prices. The volatility in gasoline prices is a direct result of the competitive nature of the business at the street level and the uniformity of prices reflects the rapid response of individual dealers to the actions of their competitors. Each outlet has fixed costs to cover, therefore average sales volumes per outlet have an important impact on retail margins and prices. It was also emphasized that there is no empirical proof that gasoline prices increase before long weekends, nor is there any proof of asymmetry in price adjustment in the retail market. It was noted that the price of gasoline in Canada and the United States, excluding taxes, is very similar. 15 tabs., 59 figs

  18. Change in Corporal Punishment Over Time in a Representative Sample of Canadian Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréchette, Sabrina; Romano, Elisa

    2015-08-01

    Corporal punishment is a controversial form of discipline. Although its prevalence appears high, legal reforms and public education efforts to limit corporal punishment may be resulting in a decrease in its prevalence and frequency of use. This study drew on Canadian nationally representative data to understand the social change that might be happening and to characterize parents who continue to use corporal punishment. The study relied on cross-sectional data from Cycles 1 (1994) to 8 (2008) of the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth to examine parental reports of corporal punishment for children ages 2–11 years. Analyses were conducted separately for 2- to 5-, 6- to 9-, and 10- to 11-year-olds, and sociodemographics associated with corporal punishment were examined. A significant decrease in the prevalence and frequency of corporal punishment use was observed across time for all age groups. Child sex, parent age, employment status, family structure, household size, immigration status, ethnicity, and religion significantly distinguished parents who use corporal punishment from those who do not, but there was variability across the age groups. Effect sizes question the relevance of the observed decrease in corporal punishment from an applied perspective. Approximately 25% of Canadian parents still use corporal punishment with children ages 2–11 years; therefore, it remains an issue that merits continued attention. Certain child, parent, and family characteristics seem to characterize parents who use corporal punishment, but other more dynamic variables may be important to consider, such as parental stress and their attitudes toward corporal punishment. PMID:26053343

  19. Markets for Canadian bitumen-based feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken in an effort to determine the market potential for crude bitumen and derivative products from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin in 2007. As part of the study, CERI assessed the economic viability of a wide range of bitumen-based feedstock based on their refining values, investigated the sensitivity of refinery demand to the prices of these feedstocks, and examined the competitiveness of bitumen-based feedstocks and conventional crudes. A US$18.00 per barrel price for West Texas Intermediate at Cushing, Oklahoma, was assumed in all calculations, including other crude prices, as well as for Western Canadian and US crude oil production forecasts. Four different scenarios have been considered, but only the 'most plausible' scenario is discussed in the report. Consequently, Hydrocracked/Aromatics Saturated Synthetic Crude Oil, which is currently only a hypothetical product, is excluded from consideration. The availability of historical price differentials for the various competing crudes was another assumption used in developing the scenario. Proxy prices for the bitumen-based feedstock were based on their respective supply costs. The study concludes that the principal dilemma facing bitumen producers in Western Canada is to determine the amount of upgrading necessary to ensure an economic market for their product in the future. In general, the greater the degree of upgrading, the higher is the demand for bitumen-based feedstock. However, it must be kept in mind that the upgrading decisions of other bitumen producers, along with many other factors, will have a decisive impact on the economics of any individual project. The combination of coking capacity and asphalt demand limits the market for heavy and extra-heavy crudes. As a result, the researchers concluded that major expansion of heavy crude conversion capacity may have to wait until the end of the current decade. The economic market for bitumen-based blends in 2007 is estimated at

  20. The business acumen of Canadian plastic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, J A; Caputy, G G

    1995-08-01

    We as plastic surgeons are engrossed and consumed by our quest to optimize patient care. In so doing, we are often distracted by that aspect of our practice which has direct bearing on patient care yet for which we are the least prepared--the business aspect. The entire population of Canadian plastic surgeons was surveyed in an effort to establish real and perceived needs of this group with respect to the business management of their practices. The survey elicited demographic information, information on business educational background, interest, and current commitment in acquiring business knowledge, and a final category of questions dealing with how well these surgeons function as business managers. Of the 315 plastic surgeons surveyed, 122 (39 percent) responded, which, in and of itself, indicates an interest in this aspect of their practices. Twelve respondents were excluded from the study for various reasons. Eighty of the 110 remaining respondents (72 percent) used a hospital-integrated facility for both emergency and elective outpatient procedures. Eighty-four of the 110 respondents (76 percent) indicated that 10 percent of their hours per week of inpatient booked operating time was canceled. Ninety-three percent of respondents felt that a business course to familiarize surgeons with common business situations and areas of personal finance would be beneficial. Few were previously educated in business, and similarly, few had great ongoing interest in business, although the majority of respondents used publications specifically dealing with financial matters (provided by the Canadian Medical Association). Twenty-three percent of respondents saw themselves in a growing role as businesspeople; 24 percent felt this dual role was enjoyable, while 29 percent felt this role was forced on them. A total of 21 percent of respondents did not see themselves as businesspeople at all. The six basic functions of a manager (planning, acquiring, organizing, actuating

  1. A transport network for a City network in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region: linking the performance of the public transport service with the perspectives of a monocentric or a polycentric urban system

    OpenAIRE

    BAPTISTE,H; LHOSTIS, A

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this contribution is to establish a method linking the performance of the regional rail transport network and two principles of territorial organisation around a central pole (monocentric option) or in a city network (polycentric option), applied to the Région Nord-Pas-de-Calais in France. The first step here is to define a set of urban centres, on which the spatial organisation principles are applied. The analysis of the quality of transport service is established from an in...

  2. Global standardization of the calculation of CO2 emissions along transport chains-gaps, approaches, perspectives of the global alignment process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehrler, V.; Engel, A. van den; Davydenko, I.; Diekmann, D.; Kiel, J.; Lewis, A.; Seidel, S.

    2015-01-01

    The transport industry, consumers, shippers and political bodies are all pressing for a global standard for the calculation of emissions along supply chains. Comparability of the chains’ efficiency, reduction of energy consumption, transparency of the carbon footprint of products and identification

  3. A REVIEW OF ASSESSMENTS CONDUCTED ON BIO-ETHANOL AS A TRANSPORTATION FUEL FROM A NET ENERGY, GREENHOUSE GAS, AND ENVIRONMENTAL LIFE CYCLE PERSPECTIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in producing ethanol from bio-mass in an attempt to make transportation ecologically sustainable continues to grow. In recent years, a large number of assessments have been conducted to assess the environmental merit of biofuels. Two detailed reviews that looked at the s...

  4. The Canadian nuclear power industry. Background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power, the production of electricity from uranium through nuclear fission, is by far the most prominent segment of the nuclear industry. The value of the electricity produced, $3.7 billion in Canada in 1992, far exceeds the value of any other product of the civilian nuclear industry. Power production employs many more people than any other sector, the capital investment is much greater, and nuclear power plants are much larger and more visible than uranium mining and processing facilities. They are also often located close to large population centres. This paper provides an overview of some of the enormously complex issues surrounding nuclear power. It describes the Canadian nuclear power industry, addressing i particular its performance so far and future prospects. (author). 1 tab

  5. Prospects for the Canadian uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada became the world's largest uranium producer in 1984. That leadership position is likely to be maintained for many years into the future because of a firm production base, many undeveloped known deposits with commercial promise, and a large geological potential for new discoveries. There are some uncertainties on the horizon, principally because of restrictive actions in process within the USA, which are aimed at preserving a deteriorating domestic uranium industry. Should such actions result in import restriction, for example, there would be a negative effect on foreign producers at least in the short term. Canada may avoid such difficulties under a tentative U.S.-Canada free-trade agreement where restrictions on the import of Canadian uranium into the United States would be eliminated. Over the longer term, demand for Canada's uranium resources will grow because of the foreseen growth in the world's installed nuclear power capacity

  6. Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's intern program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Intern Program was introduced at the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Canada's Nuclear Regulator in response to the current competitive market for engineers and scientists and the CNSC's aging workforce. It is an entry level staff development program designed to recruit and train new engineering and science graduates to eventually regulate Canada's nuclear industry. The program provides meaningful work experience and exposes the interns to the general work activities of the Commission. It also provides them with a broad awareness of the regulatory issues in which the CNSC is involved. The intern program is a two-year program focusing on the operational areas and, more specifically, on the generalist functions of project officers. (author)

  7. A Canadian Indian Health Status Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connop, P J

    1983-01-01

    Health care services for registered "band" Indians in Ontario are provided primarily by the Canadian Federal Government. Complex management methods preclude the direct involvement of Indian people in the decisions for their health resource allocation. Health indicators, need, and health status indexes are reviewed. The biostatistics of mortality and demography of the Indian and reference populations are aggregated with hospitalization/morbidity experience as the Chen G'1 Index, as an indicator of normative and comparative need. This is weighted by linear measurements of perceived need for preventive medicine programs, as ranked and scaled values of priorities, Zj. These were determined by community survey on 11 Indian reserves using a non-probabilistic psychometric method of "pair comparisons," based upon "Thurstone's Law of Comparative Judgement.," The calculation of the aggregate single unit Indian Health Status Index [Log.G'1].Zj and its potential application in a "zero-base" budget is described. PMID:6601223

  8. Adaptation of the ITER facility design to a Canadian site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the status of Canadian efforts to adapt the newly revised ITER facility design to suit the specific characteristics of the proposed Canadian site located in Clarington, west of Toronto, Ontario. ITER Canada formed a site-specific design team in 1999, comprising participants from three Canadian consulting companies to undertake this work. The technical aspects of this design activity includes: construction planning, geotechnical investigations, plant layout, heat sink design, electrical system interface, site-specific modifications and tie-ins, seismic design, and radwaste management. These areas are each addressed in this paper. (author)

  9. Research and Production Corporation Radiy activities within Canadian nuclear market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents key results of RPC Radiy activities within Canadian nuclear market. RPC Radiy (located in Kirovograd, Ukraine) is a vendor which designs and produces digital safety I and C platform as well as turnkey applications, based on the platform, for NPPs (safety systems). The main feature of the Radiy Platform is the application of Field Programmable Gates Arrays (FPGA) as programmable components for logic control operations. Since 2009 RPC Radiy started to explore the possibility to conduct the expansion to Canadian nuclear market. The activities performed by RPC Radiy related to this direction are resulted in several joint projects with Canadian companies. (author)

  10. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Society 12. annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the seventeen Technical Sessions from the Twelfth Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society held in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, June 9 to 12, 1991. As in previous years, the Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society was held in conjunction with the Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association. The major topics of discussion included: reactor physics; thermal hydraulics; industrial irradiation; computer applications; fuel channel analysis; small reactors; severe accidents; fuel behaviour under accident conditions; reactor components; safety related computer software; nuclear fuel management; nuclear waste management; and, uranium mining processing

  11. If it bleeds, it leads: the construction of workplace injury in Canadian newspapers, 2009–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnetson, Bob; Foster, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Background: Public perceptions of workplace injuries are shaped by media reports, but the accuracy of such reports is unknown. Objective: This study identifies differences between workers' compensation claims data and newspaper reports of workplace injuries in Canadian newspapers and media sources. Methods: This study applies quantitative content analysis to 245 Canadian English-language newspaper articles from 2009 to 2014. Workers' compensation claims data is drawn from the Association of Workers' Compensation Boards of Canada. Results: Newspapers dramatically overreport fatalities, injuries to men, injuries in the construction and mining/quarrying/oil industries, injuries stemming from contact with objects/equipment and fires/explosions, and acute physical injuries such as burns, fractures, intracranial injuries, and traumatic injuries. Newspaper reporters tend to rely upon government, police/firefighter, and employer accounts, rarely recounting the perspectives of workers. Conclusion: Newspapers overreported fatalities, injuries to men, and injuries in the construction and mining/quarrying/oil industries. This results in a misleading picture of occupational injuries in Canada. PMID:26070326

  12. The isotope crisis - a Canadian viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the fall of 2007 the summer of 2010 there were repeated cries in the media of North America and Europe of an -isotope crisis-. This concerned the on-going shortage of the isotope Molybdenum 99 and more specifically of its daughter product Technetium Mo 99. The latter is used in about 80 percent of medical imagining procedures in North America, Europe, Japan and a number of other countries. Both isotopes are short-lived and can not be stock-piled. Mo 99 is produced in only a handful of reactors around the world. The fifty-year old Nru reactor in Canada and the equally old Hfr reactor in the Netherlands have each traditionally supplied about a third of the world's supply. In late 2007 the Canadian nuclear regulator ordered the owner and operator of Nru, to shut down the reactor over a matter that was not a clear licence condition. Sensing the impending shortage of Mo 99, the nuclear medicine community raised a major concern sufficient to convince the Canadian government to overrule the regulator. Then in early 2009 a major leak was observed in the Nru reactor vessel. Although it did not present a safety concern it was decided to shut down the reactor to conduct an inspection. This proved to be extremely difficult since the leaks were near the bottom of the 10 metre tall vessel and the only access was through a 20 cm diameter hole at the top of the vessel. The reactor was finally restarted in August 2010, just as the Hfr reactor was shut down for a lengthy overhaul. The paper provides a background on Canada's pioneering involvement in the production and use of radioactive isotopes for medical purposes, a brief account of the Nru repair and an overview of Mo 99 production. (Author)

  13. The isotope crisis - a Canadian viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    From the fall of 2007 the summer of 2010 there were repeated cries in the media of North America and Europe of an -isotope crisis-. This concerned the on-going shortage of the isotope Molybdenum 99 and more specifically of its daughter product Technetium Mo 99. The latter is used in about 80 percent of medical imagining procedures in North America, Europe, Japan and a number of other countries. Both isotopes are short-lived and can not be stock-piled. Mo 99 is produced in only a handful of reactors around the world. The fifty-year old Nru reactor in Canada and the equally old Hfr reactor in the Netherlands have each traditionally supplied about a third of the world's supply. In late 2007 the Canadian nuclear regulator ordered the owner and operator of Nru, to shut down the reactor over a matter that was not a clear licence condition. Sensing the impending shortage of Mo 99, the nuclear medicine community raised a major concern sufficient to convince the Canadian government to overrule the regulator. Then in early 2009 a major leak was observed in the Nru reactor vessel. Although it did not present a safety concern it was decided to shut down the reactor to conduct an inspection. This proved to be extremely difficult since the leaks were near the bottom of the 10 metre tall vessel and the only access was through a 20 cm diameter hole at the top of the vessel. The reactor was finally restarted in August 2010, just as the Hfr reactor was shut down for a lengthy overhaul. The paper provides a background on Canada's pioneering involvement in the production and use of radioactive isotopes for medical purposes, a brief account of the Nru repair and an overview of Mo 99 production. (Author)

  14. Canadian heavy water production - 1970 to 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decade, heavy water production in Canada has progressed from the commissioning of a single unit plant in Nova Scotia to a major production industry employing 2200 persons and operating three plants with an aggregate annual production capability in excess of 1800 Mg. The decade opened with an impending crisis in the supply of heavy water due to failure of the first Glace Bay Heavy Water Plant and difficulty in commissioning the second Canadian plant at Port Hawkesbury. Lessons learned at this latter plant were applied to the Bruce plant where the first two units were under construction. When the Bruce units were commissioned in 1973 the rate of approach to design production rates was much improved, renewing confidence in Canada's ability to succeed in large scale heavy water production. In the early 1970's a decision was made to rehabilitate the Glace Bay plant using a novel flowsheet and this rebuilt plant commenced production in 1976. The middle of the decade was marked by two main events: changes in ownership of the operating plants and initiation of a massive construction program to support the forecast of a rapidly expanding CANDU power station construction program. New production units embodying the best features of their predecessors were committed at Bruce by Ontario Hydro and at La Prade, Quebec, by AECL. The high growth rate in electrical demand did not continue and some new plant construction was curtailed. The present installed production capacity will now probably be adequate to meet anticipated demand for the next decade. Canadian plants have now produced more than 7800 Mg of heavy water at a commercially acceptable cost and with a high degree of safety and compliance with appropriate environmental regulations

  15. Canadian consumer battery baseline study : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provided information about the estimated number of consumer and household batteries sold, re-used, stored, recycled, and disposed each year in Canada. The report discussed the ways in which different batteries posed risks to human health and the environment, and legislative trends were also reviewed. Data used in the report were obtained from a literature review as well as through a series of interviews. The study showed that alkaline batteries are the most common primary batteries used by Canadians, followed by zinc carbon batteries. However, lithium primary batteries are gaining in popularity, and silver oxide and zinc air button cell batteries are also used in applications requiring a flat voltage and high energy. Secondary batteries used in laptop computers, and cell phones are often made of nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal-hydroxide, and lithium ion. Small sealed lead batteries are also commonly used in emergency lighting and alarm systems. Annual consumption statistics for all types of batteries were provided. Results of the study showed that the primary battery market is expected to decline. Total units of secondary batteries are expected to increase to 38.6 million units by 2010. The report also used a spreadsheet model to estimate the flow of consumer batteries through the Canadian waste management system. An estimated 347 million consumer batteries were discarded in 2004. By 2010, it is expected that an estimated 494 million units will be discarded by consumers. The study also considered issues related to lead, cadmium, mercury, and nickel disposal and the potential for groundwater contamination. It was concluded that neither Canada nor its provinces or territories have initiated legislative or producer responsibility programs targeting primary or secondary consumer batteries. 79 refs., 37 tabs., 1 fig

  16. Canadian petroleum industry: 1991 [annual] monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are provided on the financial performance of the oil and gas industry in Canada during 1991. The report is based on data from 154 companies accounting for ca 90% of total revenues of the petroleum industry. The report lists noteworthy happenings in the industry, gives highlights of the year, then details financial performance, sources and uses of funds, comparative performance with other industries, ownership and control trends, research and development expenditures, and income tax-related data for the current and previous years. In 1991, the overall industry experienced a fall in cash flow of 22% to $7.6 billion, and net income dropped from a profit of $2.3 billion in 1990 to a loss of $2.4 billion in 1991. Upstream revenues fell $2.8 billion as a result of lower crude oil and marketable natural gas prices. The drop in natural gas prices to their lowest level in over a decade resulted in many companies taking asset write-offs totalling almost $2 billion. Rate of return on average shareholder's equity was -6% in 1991 against +5.6% in 1990. The industry increased overall capital expenditures by 10% to $9.7 billion, largely on the strength of participation in major projects such as Caroline gas field development, Hibernia, Cohasset/Panuke and the Bi-Provincial Upgrader. Canadian ownership of upstream revenues increased to 45.2% from 44% in 1990, while Canadian control rose from 40.9% to 42.8%. 24 figs., 56 tabs

  17. Drought, Climate Change and the Canadian Prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R. E.

    2010-03-01

    The occurrence of drought is a ubiquitous feature of the global water cycle. Such an extreme does not necessarily lead to an overall change in the magnitude of the global water cycle but it of course affects the regional cycling of water. Droughts are recurring aspects of weather and climate extremes as are floods and tornadoes, but they differ substantially since they have long durations and lack easily identified onsets and terminations. Drought is a relatively common feature of the North American and Canadian climate system and all regions of the continent are affected from time-to-time. However, it tends to be most common and severe over the central regions of the continent. The Canadian Prairies are therefore prone to drought. Droughts in the Canadian Prairies are distinctive in North America. The large scale atmospheric circulations are influenced by blocking from intense orography to the west and long distances from all warm ocean-derived atmospheric water sources; growing season precipitation is generated by a highly complex combination of frontal and convective systems; seasonality is severe and characterized by a relatively long snow-covered and short growing seasons; local surface runoff is primarily produced by snowmelt water; there is substantial water storage potential in the poorly drained, post-glacial topography; and aquifers are overlain by impermeable glacial till, but there are also important permeable aquifers. One example of Prairie drought is the recent one that began in 1999 with cessation of its atmospheric component in 2004/2005 and many of its hydrological components in 2005. This event produced the worst drought for at least a hundred years in parts of the Canadian Prairies. Even in the dust bowl of the 1930s, no single year over the central Prairies were drier than in 2001. The drought affected agriculture, recreation, tourism, health, hydro-electricity, and forestry in the Prairies. Gross Domestic Product fell some 5.8 billion and

  18. View from the market : the refiners' perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The western Canadian crude market area is vast, ranging from Puget Sound to Oklahoma to western Pennsylvania. The three main challenges facing western Canadian crude oil producers are high crude production volumes of heavy sour grades, strong competition for market share from the United States and offshore crudes, and the inability to access offshore global crude markets in meaningful volumes. The paper includes a map depicting core markets which have historically processed most of the crude produced in western Canada. The map also includes extended market areas where western Canadian crude sales are expected to increase as production increases. These regions will become the price setting areas for Canadian crude. Currently more than 40 per cent of the total crude produced in western Canada flows into the upper Midwest market. This paper summarized Canadian crude pricing mechanisms, noting that more than half of the oil consumed in North America is imported, linking North America with the pricing dynamics and supply/demand considerations of the global crude markets. The two key points that have to be considered in the Canadian crude pricing mechanisms is the economics of refining and parity point location. Crude grades such as light sweet or medium sour, are priced relative to one another depending on their differing values as a feedstock. The greatest determinant of relative crude grade value is the proportion produced of high value, light transportation fuels compared to low value, heavy products such as asphalt and heavy fuel oil. The value of crude oil is also influenced by the level of sulphur and metal content. A section of the paper was devoted to the pricing of heavy sour conventional and bitumen blend crudes, which is different than for lighter crude grades because of the near lack of competition from similar imported crude grades. A market optimization model used to analyze the future price relationships for Canadian crudes showed that the Canadian crude

  19. The Canadian experience with risperidone for the treatment of schizophrenia: an overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Iskedjian, M; Hux, M; Remington, G J

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize published data to date by Canadian authors and from Canadian sources on risperidone, a novel neuroleptic indicated in the management of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. It was introduced in Canada in 1993. DATA SOURCES: A MEDLINE search was performed using "risperidone" as a keyword. Three Canadian journals were also searched manually. STUDY SELECTION: Articles published between January 1991 and June 1996 by Canadian authors or involving Canadian patients...

  20. Survive Bravely——Main Features of Contemporary Canadian Literature Themes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳

    2015-01-01

    The classic works in Canadian Literatures that advantageously elaborated the characteristics of sublimation under the background for Canada's particular history,geograph y,climate,religion,demographic factors,generation,development and continuous construction of Canadian literatures.The greatest masterpieces can highlight powerfully the certain mindset of Canadian and the permanent theme for Canadian Literature:keep working hard for survival and love bravely.Meanwhile,modern people will learn a lot from reading Canadian classic literary works.