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Sample records for canadian penning trap

  1. Mass Measurements with the Canadian Penning Trap at CARIBU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orford, Rodney

    2017-01-01

    Roughly half of the elements heavier than iron are thought to be produced through the astrophysical r process of nucleosynthesis. Despite its large influence in explaining the observed abundance of heavy elements, much of the r process is still poorly understood. A more thorough library of nuclear data of neutron-rich nuclei is needed to improve the accuracy and progression of r-process calculations. In particular, accurate mass measurements are in demand due to the strong coupling between mass and other nuclear properties such as β-decay and neutron-capture rates. For nearly three decades, direct mass measurements conducted by Penning trap mass spectrometers have proven to be an accurate method of determining masses to a precision suitable for r-process calculations (Δm / m Science User Facility.

  2. Penning trap at IGISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szerypo, J. E-mail: jerzy.szerypo@phys.jyu.fi; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V.S.; Nieminen, A.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Aeystoe, J

    2002-04-22

    The IGISOL facility at the Department of Physics of the University of Jyvaeskylae (JYFL) is delivering radioactive beams of short-lived exotic nuclei, in particular the neutron-rich isotopes from the fission reaction. These nuclei are studied with the nuclear spectroscopy methods. In order to substantially increase the quality and sensitivity of such studies, the beam should undergo beam handling: cooling, bunching and isobaric purification. The first two processes are performed with the use of an RFQ cooler/buncher. The isobaric purification will be made by a Penning trap placed after the RF-cooler element. This contribution describes the current status of the Penning trap project and its future prospects. The latter comprise the precise nuclear mass measurements, nuclear spectroscopy in the Penning trap interior as well as the laser spectroscopy on the extracted beams.

  3. Nonlinear PIC simulation in a Penning trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenta, G.; Delzanno, G. L.; Finn, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    We study the nonlinear dynamics of a Penning trap plasma, including the effect of the finite length and end curvature of the plasma column. A new cylindrical PIC code, called KANDINSKY, has been implemented by using a new interpolation scheme. The principal idea is to calculate the volume of each cell from a particle volume, in the same manner as it is done for the cell charge. With this new method, the density is conserved along streamlines and artificial sources of compressibility are avoided. The code has been validated with a reference Eulerian fluid code. We compare the dynamics of three different models: a model with compression effects, the standard Euler model and a geophysical fluid dynamics model. The results of our investigation prove that Penning traps can really be used to simulate geophysical fluids.

  4. Damping effects in Penning trap mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    George, S; Kowalska, M; Dworschak, M; Neidherr, D; Blaum, K; Schweikhard, L; Ramirez, E M; Breitenfeldt, M; Kretzschmar, M; Herfurth, F; Schwarz, S; Herlert, A

    2011-01-01

    Collisions of ions with residual gas atoms in a Penning trap can have a strong influence on the trajectories of the ions, depending on the atom species and the gas pressure. We report on investigations of damping effects in time-of-flight ion-cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry with the Penning trap mass spectrometers ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) and SHIPTRAP at GSI (Darmstadt, Germany). The work focuses on the interconversion of the magnetron and cyclotron motional modes, in particular the modification of the resonance profiles for quadrupolar excitation due to the damping effect of the residual gas. Extensive experiments have been performed with standard and Ramsey excitation schemes. The results are in good agreement with predictions obtained by analytical continuation of the formulae for the undamped case.

  5. Instrumentation Upgrades to TITAN's Cooler Penning Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascar, Daniel; Titan Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The use of Highly Charged Ions (HCIs) is critical to improving the precision of Penning trap mass measurements of nuclides with half-lives substantially less than 100 ms, but the process of charge breeding imparts an unacceptably high energy spread to the ion bunch sent to TITAN's precision Penning trap for mass measurement. TITAN's Cooler PEnning Trap (CPET) at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada was designed to cool HCIs with a plasma of simultaneously trapped electrons. CPET is currently undergoing commissioning offline at TRIUMF. In order to prepare CPET for full operation, several technical challenges associated with the use of electrons in a strong magnetic field had to be overcome. First among these was the detection of electrons outside of CPET. A novel, thin charge-collecting detector was successfully developed. Known as the mesh detector, it is charge-agnostic and can be made effectively transparent to allow for the passage of any charged particle at the user's request. The second challenge, moving CPET's electron source off the central beam axis was overcome by the creation of an electron source which would allow for electron injection into CPET and the passage of cooled ions out of CPET. CPET's 7 T solenoid generates a stray field far outside of the magnet's central bore that forced the design of a set of electron injection optics that bend, steer and focus the beam in three dimensions. Results from the successful installation of these upgrades as well as a report on future work will be discussed. This work was partially supported by NSERC, the CFI and the DFG.

  6. Penning trap for isobaric mass separation at IGISOL

    CERN Document Server

    Kolhinen, V; Hakala, J; Jokinen, A; Kopecky, S; Rinta-Antila, S; Szerypo, J; Äystö, J

    2003-01-01

    A cylindrical Penning trap has been built at the ion guide isotope separator facility IGISOL of the University of Jyvaeskylae. The main goal of the Penning trap application is to purify low-energy radioactive ion beams. The aim is to make isobarically pure beams. The technical description is presented.

  7. Penning trap for isobaric mass separation at IGISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolhinen, V.S. E-mail: veli.kolhinen@phys.jyu.fi; Eronen, T.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kopecky, S.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Szerypo, J.; Aeystoe, J

    2003-05-01

    A cylindrical Penning trap has been built at the ion guide isotope separator facility IGISOL of the University of Jyvaeskylae. The main goal of the Penning trap application is to purify low-energy radioactive ion beams. The aim is to make isobarically pure beams. The technical description is presented.

  8. Poly-anion production in Penning and RFQ ion traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandelow, Steffi; Martinez, Franklin; Marx, Gerrit; Schweikhard, Lutz [Institute for Physics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University, 17487 Greifswald (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The poly-anion production is being investigated in Penning and linear radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) traps at the ClusterTrap setup. The range of anionic charge states produced with the electron-bath technique in a Penning trap is restricted by the upper mass limit of this trap. By installation of a cylindrical Penning trap with a 12-Tesla superconducting magnet, the mass and thus cluster-size range is enhanced by a factor of 20 compared to the previously used hyperbolic 5-Tesla Penning trap. For first experimental tests with the 12-Tesla cylindrical Penning trap, gold cluster mono-anions Au{sup n-1}, n=330-350, have been exposed to an electron bath. As a result, higher negative charge states up to hexa-anionic clusters have been observed for the first time. In a parallel effort, di- and tri-anionic gold clusters have been produced in an RFQ-trap. To this end, an electron beam is guided through the RFQ-trap, which is operated by 2- or 3-state digital driving voltages. In addition, both polyanion-production techniques have been combined by pre-charging clusters in the RFQ-trap, transferring the resulting dianions into the Penning trap and applying the electron-bath technique to produce higher charge states.

  9. Lorentz-violating spinor electrodynamics and Penning traps

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Yunhua

    2016-01-01

    The prospects are explored for testing Lorentz- and CPT-violating quantum electrodynamics in experiments with Penning traps. We present the Lagrange density of Lorentz-violating spinor electrodynamics with operators of mass dimensions up to six, and we discuss some of its properties. The theory is used to derive Lorentz- and CPT-violating perturbative shifts of the energy levels of a particle confined to a Penning trap. Observable signals are discussed for trapped electrons, positrons, protons, and antiprotons. Existing experimental measurements on anomaly frequencies are used to extract new or improved bounds on numerous coefficients for Lorentz and CPT violation, using sidereal variations of observables and comparisons between particles and antiparticles.

  10. A Brief Presentation of Lanzhou Penning Trap Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田玉林; 黄文学; 王均英; 孙宇梁; 王玥; 朱志超; 赵建民; 徐瑚珊; 肖国青

    2012-01-01

    LPT (Lanzhou Penning Trap) is an ion-trap facility in Lanzhou, China. As ions can be cooled to an extremely small phase space and can be stored for a very long time, ion traps are a perfect instrument for high precision mass measurements. A system with specialized electronics for LPT is under construction now. This system could be used for voltage and timing control to make ions moving in a special mode, and the data acquisition and analysis online/offline could be achieved in the mean time. The requirements of control system, the distribution of hardware, the overview of software, and the latest progress of LPTCtrlSys (Lanzhou Penning Trap Control System) are presented.

  11. Testing Lorentz and CPT Symmetries in Penning Traps

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Yunhua

    2016-01-01

    A modified Dirac equation with general Lorentz- and CPT-violating operators in the electromagnetic field is studied. Constraints on and possible sensitivities to Lorentz-violating coefficients in the nonminimal sector up to mass-dimension six can be obtained by analyzing Penning-trap results involving anomaly frequencies.

  12. Modified Penning-Malmberg Trap for Storing Antiprotons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, William H.; Martin, James; Lewis, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    A modified Penning-Malmberg trap that could store a small cloud of antiprotons for a relatively long time (weeks) has been developed. This trap is intended for use in research on the feasibility of contemplated future matter/antimatter-annihilation systems as propulsion sources for spacecraft on long missions. This trap is also of interest in its own right as a means of storing and manipulating antiprotons for terrestrial scientific experimentation. The use of Penning-Malmberg traps to store antiprotons is not new. What is new here is the modified trap design, which utilizes state-of-the-art radiofrequency (RF) techniques, including ones that, heretofore, have been used in radio-communication applications but not in iontrap applications. A basic Penning-Malmberg trap includes an evacuated round tube that contains or is surrounded by three or more collinear tube electrodes. A steady axial magnetic field that reaches a maximum at the geometric center of the tube is applied by an external source, and DC bias voltages that give rise to an electrostatic potential that reaches a minimum at the center are applied to the electrodes. The combination of electric and magnetic fields confines the charged particles (ions or electrons) for which it was designed to a prolate spheroidal central region. However, geometric misalignments and the diffusive cooling process prevent the steady fields of a basic Penning- Malmberg trap from confining the particles indefinitely. In the modified Penning-Malmberg trap, the loss of antiprotons is reduced or eliminated by use of a "rotating-wall" RF stabilization scheme that also heats the antiproton cloud to minimize loss by matter/antimatter annihilation. The scheme involves the superposition of a quadrupole electric field that rotates about the cylindrical axis at a suitably chosen radio frequency. The modified Penning-Malmberg trap (see Figure 1) includes several collinear sets of electrodes inside a tubular vacuum chamber. Each set

  13. Status and Outlook of CHIP-TRAP: the Central Michigan University High Precision Penning Trap

    CERN Document Server

    Redshaw, Matthew; Hawks, Paul; Gamage, Nadeesha D; Hunt, Curtis; Kandegedara, Rathnayake M E B; Ratnayake, Ishara S; Sharp, Lance

    2015-01-01

    At Central Michigan University we are developing a high-precision Penning trap mass spectrometer (CHIP-TRAP)that will focus on measurements with long-lived radioactive isotopes. CHIP-TRAP will consist of a pair of hyperbolic precision-measurement Penning traps, and a cylindrical capture/?filter trap in a 12 T magnetic field. Ions will be produced by external ion sources, including a laser ablation source, and transported to the capture trap at low energies enabling ions of a given m=q ratio to be selected via their time-of-flight. In the capture trap, contaminant ions will be removed with a mass-selective rf dipole excitation and the ion of interest will be transported to the measurement traps. A phase-sensitive image charge detection technique will be used for simultaneous cyclotron frequency measurements on single ions in the two precision traps, resulting in a reduction in statistical uncertainty due to magnetic field fluctuations.

  14. Lorentz-violating spinor electrodynamics and Penning traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yunhua; Kostelecký, V. Alan

    2016-09-01

    The prospects are explored for testing Lorentz- and C P T -violating quantum electrodynamics in experiments with Penning traps. We present the Lagrange density of Lorentz-violating spinor electrodynamics with operators of mass dimensions up to 6, and we discuss some of its properties. The theory is used to derive Lorentz- and C P T -violating perturbative shifts of the energy levels of a particle confined to a Penning trap. Observable signals are discussed for trapped electrons, positrons, protons, and antiprotons. Existing experimental measurements on anomaly frequencies are used to extract new or improved bounds on numerous coefficients for Lorentz and C P T violation, using sidereal variations of observables and comparisons between particles and antiparticles.

  15. Recent developments in Penning-trap mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, M.

    2016-06-01

    Penning-trap mass spectrometry provides atomic masses with the highest precision. At accelerator-based on-line facilities it is applied to investigate exotic radionuclides in the context of tests of fundamental symmetries, nuclear structure studies, and nuclear astrophysics research. Recent progress in slowing down radioactive ion-beams in buffer-gas cells in combination with advanced ion-manipulation techniques has paved the way to reach nuclides ever-more far from stability. In this endeavor many efforts are underway to increase the sensitivity, the efficiency, and the precision of Penning-trap mass spectrometry. In this article some recent experimental developments are addressed with the focus on the phase-imaging ion-cyclotron-resonance technique and the Fourier transform ion-cyclotron-resonance technique.

  16. Non-linear PIC simulation in a penning trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delzanno, G. L. (Gian L.); Lapenta, G. M. (Giovanni M.); Finn, J. M. (John M.)

    2001-01-01

    We study the non-linear dynamics of a Penning trap plasma, including the effect of the finite length and end curvature of the plasma column. A new cylindrical PIC code, called KANDINSKY, has been implemented by using a new interpolation scheme. The principal idea is to calculate the volume of each cell from a particle volume, in the same manner as it is done for the cell charge. With this new method, the density is conserved along streamlines and artificial sources of compressibility are avoided. The code has been validated with a reference Eulerian fluid code. We compare the dynamics of three different models: a model with compression effects, the standard Euler model and a geophysical fluid dynamics model. The results of our investigation prove that Penning traps can really be used to simulate geophysical fluids.

  17. Determining isotopic distributions of fission products with a penning trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penttilae, H.; Karvonen, P.; Eronen, T.; Elomaa, V.V.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Moore, I.D.; Peraejaervi, K.; Rahaman, S.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Saastamoinen, A.; Sonoda, T.; Aeystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Rubchenya, V. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2010-04-15

    A novel method to determine independent yields in particle-induced fission employing the ion guide technique and ion counting after a Penning trap has been developed. The method takes advantage of the fact that a Penning trap can be used as a precision mass filter, which allows an unambiguous identification of the fission fragments. The method was tested with 25MeV and 50MeV proton-induced fission of {sup 238}U. The data is internally reproducible with an accuracy of a few per cent. A satisfactory agreement was obtained with older ion guide yield measurements in 25MeV proton-induced fission. The results for Rb and Cs yields in 50MeV proton-induced fission agree with previous measurements performed at an isotope separator equipped with a chemically selective ion source. (orig.)

  18. Mass measurements with a Penning trap mass spectrometer at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Bollen, G; Audi, G; Beck, D; Herfurth, F; Kluge, H J; Kohl, A; Lunney, M D; Moore, R B; De Saint-Simon, M; Schark, E; Schwarz, S; Szerypo, J

    1998-01-01

    Penning trap mass measurements on radioactive isotopes are performed with the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN. In the last years the applicability of the spectrometer has been considerably extended. The most recent measurements were carried out on isotopes of rare earth elements and on isotopes with Z=80-85. An accuracy of $\\delta$ m/m approximately=1$\\cdot$10$^{-7}$was achieved. (19 refs).

  19. The Penning trap system used by the BASE experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcastel, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    A cut-away schematic of the Penning trap system used by BASE. The experiment receives antiprotons from CERN's AD; negative hydrogen ions are formed during injection into the apparatus. The set-up works with only a pair of particles at a time, while a cloud of a few hundred others are held in the reservoir trap, for future use. Here, an antiproton is in the measurement trap, while the negative hydyrogen ion is in held by the downstream park electrode. When the antiproton has been measured, it is moved to the upstream park electrode and the hydrogen ion is brought in to the measurement trap. This is repeated thousands of times, enabling a high-precision comparison of the charge-to-mass ratios of the two particles.

  20. Broad-band FT-ICR detection at the Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuth, Konstantin; Eibach, Martin; Ketelaer, Jens; Ketter, Jochen; Sturm, Sven [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Blaum, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg Heidelberg (Germany); Block, Michael; Herfurth, Frank [GSI, Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Eberhardt, Klaus [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Nagy, Szilard [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Repp, Julia [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Smorra, Christian [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg Heidelberg (Germany); Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Ulmer, Stefan [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg Heidelberg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The double Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP will perform high-precision mass measurements on exotic neutron-rich nuclides, which are produced via neutron-induced fission of actinide targets at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz. In order to determine which ion species are present in the ion bunch delivered to the Penning trap system, a non-destructive ion detection technique will be implemented in the cylindrical purification trap. This so called broad-band Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) detection technique is based on the detection of image currents, induced by the ions in the trap electrodes. To this end, a new cryogenic low-noise broad-band amplifier is being designed and tested. With this system the identification of contaminations will be possible without the need to eject ions from the trap as usually done at other facilities. The setup as well as its present status are presented.

  1. Infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy of ions in Penning traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyler, John R

    2009-01-01

    The ability of Paul and Penning traps to contain ions for time periods ranging from milliseconds to minutes allows the trapped ions to be subjected to laser irradiation for extended lengths of time. In this way, relatively low-powered tunable infrared lasers can be used to induce ion fragmentation when a sufficient number of infrared photons are absorbed, a process known as infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD). If ion fragmentation is monitored as a function of laser wavelength, a photodissociation action spectrum can be obtained. The development of widely tunable infrared laser sources, in particular free electron lasers (FELs) and optical parametric oscillators/amplifiers (OPO/As), now allows spectra of trapped ions to be obtained for the entire "chemically relevant" infrared spectral region. This review describes experiments in which tunable infrared lasers have been used to irradiate ions in Penning traps. Early studies which utilized tunable carbon dioxide lasers with a limited output range are first reviewed. More recent studies with either FEL or OPO/A irradiation sources are then covered. The ionic systems examined have ranged from small hydrocarbons to multiply charged proteins, and they are discussed in approximate order of increasing complexity.

  2. Recent results from the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP

    CERN Document Server

    Blaum, Klaus; Beck, D; Bollen, Georg; Delahaye, P; Guenaut, C; Herfurth, F; Kellerbauer, Alban G; Kluge, H J; Lunney, M D; Rodríguez, D; Schwarz, S; Schweikhard, L; Weber, C; Yazidjian, C

    2004-01-01

    In the last few years a number of new scientific highlights have been obtained by ISOLTRAP, the tandem Penning trap mass spectrometer for on-line mass measurements of short-lived radionuclides. The precise determination of nuclear binding energies far from stability includes nuclei that are produced at rates of 100 ions/s and with half-lives below 100 ms. The mass resolving power reaches 10$^{7}$ and the uncertainty of the resulting mass values has been pushed down to $1 \\times 10^{-8}$. In this article recent ISOLTRAP mass measurements are summarized and the current status of ISOLTRAP is presented.

  3. Demonstration of the Double Penning Trap Technique with a Single Proton

    CERN Document Server

    Mooser, A; Franke, K.; Kracke, H.; Leiteritz, C.; Rodegheri, C.C.; Nagahama, H.; Schneider, G.; Smorra, C.; Blaum, K.; Matsuda, Y.; Quint, W.; Walz, J.; Yamazaki, Y.; Ulmer, S.; Yamazaki, Y; Ulmer, S

    2013-01-01

    Spin flips of a single proton were driven in a Penning trap with a homogeneous magnetic field. For the spin-state analysis the proton was transported into a second Penning trap with a superimposed magnetic bottle, and the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect was applied. This first demonstration of the double Penning trap technique with a single proton suggests that the antiproton magnetic moment measurement can potentially be improved by three orders of magnitude or more.

  4. Carbon cluster mass calibration at the double Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smorra, Christian [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Blaum, Klaus [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Max-Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Eberhardt, Klaus [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Eibach, Martin; Ketelaer, Jens; Ketter, Jochen; Knuth, Konstantin [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Herfurth, Frank [GSI, Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Nagy, Szilard [Max-Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    TRIGA-TRAP is a facility which aims for mass measurements on neutron-rich short-lived fission products and actinides with relative mass uncertainties of 10{sup -7} and below. To this end the cyclotron frequency of a stored ion in a Penning trap is determined. In high-precision mass spectrometry the investigation of systematic errors is of utmost importance. In order to demonstrate the accuracy of the measured values, various carbon cluster ions have been used in cross reference measurements. The results are presented and the accuracy limit of TRIGA-TRAP is discussed.

  5. Rapid crystallization of externally produced ions in a Penning trap

    CERN Document Server

    Murboeck, T; Birkl, G; Noertershaeuser, W; Thompson, R C; Vogel, M

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the cooling dynamics, formation process and geometric structure of mesoscopic crystals of externally produced magnesium ions in a Penning trap. We present a cooling model and measurements for a combination of buffer gas cooling and laser cooling which has been found to reduce the ion kinetic energy by eight orders of magnitude from several hundreds of eV to micro-eV and below within seconds. With ion numbers of the order of 1000 to 100000, such cooling leads to the formation of ion Coulomb crystals which display a characteristic shell structure in agreement with theory of non-neutral plasmas. We show the production and characterization of two-species ion crystals as a means of sympathetic cooling of ions lacking a suitable laser-cooling transition.

  6. Cooling of highly charged ions in a Penning trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, L

    2000-03-31

    Highly charged ions are extracted from an electron beam ion trap and guided to Retrap, a cryogenic Penning trap, where they are merged with laser cooled Be{sup +} ions. The Be{sup +} ions act as a coolant for the hot highly charged ions and their temperature is dropped by about 8 orders of magnitude in a few seconds. Such cold highly charged ions form a strongly coupled nonneutral plasma exhibiting, under such conditions, the aggregation of clusters and crystals. Given the right mixture, these plasmas can be studied as analogues of high density plasmas like white dwarf interiors, and potentially can lead to the development of cold highly charged ion beams for applications in nanotechnology. Due to the virtually non existent Doppler broadening, spectroscopy on highly charged ions can be performed to an unprecedented precision. The density and the temperature of the Be{sup +} plasma were measured and highly charged ions were sympathetically cooled to similar temperatures. Molecular dynamics simulations confirmed the shape, temperature and density of the highly charged ions. Ordered structures were observed in the simulations.

  7. Verifying the accuracy of the TITAN Penning-trap mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Brodeur, M; Brunner, T; Ettenauer, S; Gallant, A T; Simon, V V; Smith, M J; Lapierre, A; Ringle, R; Delheij, P; Good, M; Lunney, D; Dilling, J

    2011-01-01

    TITAN (TRIUMF's Ion Traps for Atomic and Nuclear science) is an online facility designed to carry out high-precision mass measurements on singly and highly charged radioactive ions. The TITAN Penning trap has been built and optimized in order to perform such measurements with an accuracy in the sub ppb-range. A detailed characterization of the TITAN Penning trap is presented and a new compensation method is derived and demonstrated, verifying the performance in the range of sub-ppb.

  8. Ion bunch stacking in a Penning trap after purification in an electrostatic mirror trap

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenbusch, M; Blaum, K; Borgmann, Ch; Kreim, S; Lunney, D; Manea, V; Schweikhard, L; Wienholtz, F; Wolf, R N

    2014-01-01

    The success of many measurements in analytical mass spectrometry as well as in precision mass determinations for atomic and nuclear physics is handicapped when the ion sources deliver ``contaminations'', i.e., unwanted ions of masses similar to those of the ions of interest. In particular, in ion-trapping devices, large amounts of contaminant ions result in significant systematic errors-if the measurements are possible at all. We present a solution for such cases: The ions from a quasi-continuous source are bunched in a linear radio-frequency-quadrupole ion trap, separated by a multi-reflection time-of-flight section followed by a Bradbury-Nielsen gate, and then captured in a Penning trap. Buffer-gas cooling is used to damp the ion motion in the latter, which allows a repeated opening of the Penning trap for a stacking of mass-selected ion bunches. Proof-of-principle demonstrations have been performed with the ISOLTRAP setup at ISOLDE/CERN, both with Cs-133(+) ions from an off-line ion source and by applicati...

  9. TRIGA-TRAP: A penning trap mass spectrometer at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smorra, Christian [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Blaum, Klaus [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Block, Michael; Herfurth, Frank [GSI, Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Eberhardt, Klaus [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Eibach, Martin; Ketelaer, Jens; Ketter, Jochen; Knuth, Konstantin; Repp, Julia [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Nagy, Szilard [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear masses represent the binding energies and, therefore, the sum of all interactions in the nucleus. They provide an important input parameter to nuclear structure models. Presently, a tremendous interest in masses of very exotic neutron-rich nuclides exists to support theoretical models for the nucleosynthesis via the rapid neutron capture process. The research reactor TRIGA Mainz provides access to a large variety of neutron-rich nuclides produced by thermal-neutron induced fission of an actinide target. The double-Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP will perform high-precision mass measurements in this region of the nuclear chart as well as on actinides from uranium to californium. It also serves as a test facility for the development of new techniques that will be implemented in future facilities like MATS at FAIR (GSI, Darmstadt). The layout of TRIGA-TRAP as well as recent mass measurements are presented.

  10. An in situ trap capacitance measurement and ion-trapping detection scheme for a Penning ion trap facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Ashif; Banerjee, Kumardeb; Das, Parnika; Ray, Kalyankumar; Bandyopadhyay, Subhankar; Dam, Bivas

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an in situ measurement setup for the capacitance of a five electrode Penning ion trap (PIT) facility at room temperature. For implementing a high Q resonant circuit for the detection of trapped electrons/ions in a PIT, the value of the capacitance of the trap assembly is of prime importance. A tunable Colpitts oscillator followed by a unity gain buffer and a low pass filter is designed and successfully implemented for a two-fold purpose: in situ measurement of the trap capacitance when the electric and magnetic fields are turned off and also providing RF power at the desired frequency to the PIT for exciting the trapped ions and subsequent detection. The setup is tested for the in situ measurement of trap capacitance at room temperature and the results are found to comply with those obtained from measurements using a high Q parallel resonant circuit setup driven by a standard RF signal generator. The Colpitts oscillator is also tested successfully for supplying RF power to the high Q resonant circuit, which is required for the detection of trapped electrons/ions.

  11. Mass measurements on radioactive isotopes with a Penning trap mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Bollen, G; Audi, G; Beck, D; Herfurth, F; Kluge, H J; Kohl, A; Lunney, M D; Moore, R B; De Saint-Simon, M; Schark, E; Schwarz, S; Szerypo, R B

    1999-01-01

    Penning trap mass measurements on short-lived isotopes are performed with the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at the radioactive beam facility ISOLDE/CERN. In the last years the applicability of the spectrometer has been considerably extended by the installation of an RFQ trap ion beam buncher and a new cooler Penning trap, which is operated as an isobar separator. These improvements allowed for the first time measurements on isotopes of rare earth elements and on isotopes with Z=80-85. In all cases an accuracy of $\\delta$m/m approximately =1$\\cdot$10$^{-7}$was achieved. (20 refs).

  12. CrossRef Space-charge effects in Penning ion traps

    CERN Document Server

    Porobić, T; Breitenfeldt, M; Couratin, C; Finlay, P; Knecht, A; Fabian, X; Friedag, P; Fléchard, X; Liénard, E; Ban, G; Zákoucký, D; Soti, G; Van Gorp, S; Weinheimer, Ch; Wursten, E; Severijns, N

    2015-01-01

    The influence of space-charge on ion cyclotron resonances and magnetron eigenfrequency in a gas-filled Penning ion trap has been investigated. Off-line measurements with View the MathML source using the cooling trap of the WITCH retardation spectrometer-based setup at ISOLDE/CERN were performed. Experimental ion cyclotron resonances were compared with ab initio Coulomb simulations and found to be in agreement. As an important systematic effect of the WITCH experiment, the magnetron eigenfrequency of the ion cloud was studied under increasing space-charge conditions. Finally, the helium buffer gas pressure in the Penning trap was determined by comparing experimental cooling rates with simulations.

  13. Classical calculation of relativistic frequency-shifts in an ideal Penning trap

    CERN Document Server

    Ketter, Jochen; Höcker, Martin; Schuh, Marc; Streubel, Sebastian; Blaum, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The ideal Penning trap consists of a uniform magnetic field and an electrostatic quadrupole potential. In the classical low-energy limit, the three characteristic eigenfrequencies of a charged particle trapped in this configuration do not depend on the amplitudes of the three eigenmotions. No matter how accurate the experimental realization of the ideal Penning trap, its harmonicity is ultimately compromised by special relativity. Using a classical formalism of first-order perturbation theory, we calculate the relativistic frequency-shifts associated with the motional degrees of freedom for a spinless particle stored in an ideal Penning trap, and we compare the results with the simple but surprisingly accurate model of relativistic mass-increase.

  14. Fabrication of a segmented micro Penning trap and numerical investigations of versatile ion positioning protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Hellwig, M; Singer, K; Werth, G; Schmidt-Kaler, F

    2009-01-01

    We describe a versatile planar Penning trap structure, which allows to dynamically modify the trapping configuration almost arbitrarily. The trap consists of 37 hexagonal electrodes, each of 300 mikron diameter, fabricated in a gold-on-sapphire lithographic technique. Every hexagon can be addressed individually, thus shaping the electric potential. The fabrication of such a device with clean room methods is demonstrated. We illustrate the variability of the device by a detailed numerical simulation of a lateral and a vertical transport and we simulate trapping in racetrack and artificial-crystal configurations. The trap may be used for ions or electrons, as a versatile container for quantum optics and quantum information experiments.

  15. Penning traps with unitary architecture for storage of highly charged ions

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Joseph N; Guise, Nicholas D; 10.1063/1.3685246

    2012-01-01

    Penning traps are made extremely compact by embedding rare-earth permanent magnets in the electrode structure. Axially-oriented NdFeB magnets are used in unitary architectures that couple the electric and magnetic components into an integrated structure. We have constructed a two- magnet Penning trap with radial access to enable the use of laser or atomic beams, as well as the collection of light. An experimental apparatus equipped with ion optics is installed at the NIST electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility, constrained to fit within 1 meter at the end of a horizontal beamline for transporting highly charged ions. Highly charged ions of neon and argon, extracted with initial energies up to 4000 eV per unit charge, are captured and stored to study the confinement properties of a one-magnet trap and a two-magnet trap. Design considerations and some test results are discussed.

  16. Penning traps with unitary architecture for storage of highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Joseph N; Brewer, Samuel M; Guise, Nicholas D

    2012-02-01

    Penning traps are made extremely compact by embedding rare-earth permanent magnets in the electrode structure. Axially-oriented NdFeB magnets are used in unitary architectures that couple the electric and magnetic components into an integrated structure. We have constructed a two-magnet Penning trap with radial access to enable the use of laser or atomic beams, as well as the collection of light. An experimental apparatus equipped with ion optics is installed at the NIST electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility, constrained to fit within 1 meter at the end of a horizontal beamline for transporting highly charged ions. Highly charged ions of neon and argon, extracted with initial energies up to 4000 eV per unit charge, are captured and stored to study the confinement properties of a one-magnet trap and a two-magnet trap. Design considerations and some test results are discussed.

  17. Cylindrical Penning traps with dynamic orthogonalized anharmonicity compensation for precision experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Fei Xiang

    1999-01-01

    Harmonic potentials can be produced in cylindrical ion traps by means of dynamic orthogonalized anharmonicity compensation with use of two (or multiple) sets of compensation electrodes. One special example is for traps with multiple identical electrodes which are not only easy to construct and allow access to the center region of the trap for particle loading and releasing, laser beams, and microwaves, but also flexible in forming harmonic potential wells in many locations. The nested trap configuration and the side-by-side trap configuration are readily available in this special scheme. Analytical solutions for cylindrical traps with multiple sets of compensation potentials are presented. This work will be useful for studies involving Penning trap diagnostics, atomic and molecular interactions (including the production of antihydrogen atoms), accurate mass measurements of exotic particles, and precision measurements of the spin precession frequencies of trapped particles.

  18. Fabrication of High Aspect Ratio Micro-Penning-Malmberg Gold Plated Silicon Trap Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Narimannezhad, Alireza; Weber, Marc H; Lynn, Kelvin G

    2013-01-01

    Acquiring a portable high density charged particles trap might consist of an array of micro-Penning-Malmberg traps (microtraps) with substantially lower end barriers potential than conventional Penning-Malmberg traps [1]. We report on the progress of the fabrication of these microtraps designed for antimatter storage such as positrons. The fabrication of large length to radius aspect ratio (1000:1) microtrap arrays involved advanced techniques including photolithography, deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) of silicon wafers to achieve through-vias, gold sputtering of the wafers on the surfaces and inside the vias, and thermal compression bonding of the wafers. This paper describes the encountered issues during fabrication and addresses geometry errors and asymmetries. In order to minimize the patch effects on the lifetime of the trapped positrons, the bonded stacks were gold electroplated to achieve a uniform gold surface. We show by simulation and analytical calculation that how positrons confinement time depen...

  19. PENTATRAP. A novel Penning-trap system for high-precision mass measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerr, Andreas

    2015-01-21

    The novel Penning-trap mass spectrometer PENTATRAP aims at mass-ratio determinations of medium-heavy to heavy ions with relative uncertainties below 10{sup -11}. From the mass ratios of certain ion species, the corresponding mass differences will be determined with sub-eV/c{sup 2} uncertainties. These mass differences are relevant for neutrino-mass experiments, a test of special relativity and tests of bound-state QED. Means to obtain the required precision are very stable trapping fields, the use of highly-charged ions produced by EBITs, a non-destructive cyclotron-frequency determination scheme employing detectors with single-ion sensitivity and a five-trap tower, that allows for measurement schemes being insensitive to magnetic field drifts. Within this thesis, part of the detection electronics was set up and tested under experimental conditions. A single-trap setup was realized. A Faraday cup in the trap tower enabled the proper adjustment of the settings of the beamline connecting the EBIT and the Penning-trap system, resulting in the first trapping of ions at PENTATRAP. A stabilization of switched voltages in the beamline and detailed studies of ion bunch characteristics allowed for reproducible loading of only a few ions. Detection of the axial oscillation of the trapped ions gave hints that in some cases, even single ions had been trapped. Furthermore, valuable conclusions about necessary modifications of the setup could be drawn.

  20. SMILETRAP - A Penning trap facility for precision mass measurements using highly charged ions

    CERN Document Server

    Bergström, I; Fritioff, T; Douysset, G; Schoenfelder, J; Schuch, R

    2002-01-01

    The precision of mass measurements in a Penning trap increases linearly with the charge of the ion. Therefore we have attached a Penning trap, named SMILETRAP, to the electron beam ion source CRYSIS at MSL. CRYSIS is via an isotope separator connected to an ion source that can deliver singly charged ions of practically any element. In CRYSIS charge state breeding occurs by intense electron bombardment. We have shown that it is possible to produce, catch and measure the cyclotron frequencies of ions in the charge region 1+ to 52+. The relevant observable in mass measurements using a Penning trap is the ratio of the cyclotron frequencies of the ion of interest and ion used as a mass reference. High precision requires that the two frequencies are measured after one another in the shortest possible time. For reasons of convenience the precision trap operates at room temperature. So far it has been believed that warm traps working at 4 K are required for high mass precision with exactly one ion in the trap at a ti...

  1. A preparation Penning trap for the TRAPSENSOR project with prospects for MATS at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, J. M.; Rodríguez, D.

    2016-06-01

    Most of the Penning trap spectrometers for precision measurements at radioactive ion beam facilities make use of another Penning trap, located upstream in the experimental set up, to perform isobaric separation and deliver cooled and pure ion samples to be measured. The preparation trap for the project TRAPSENSOR at the University of Granada has been built to prepare ions, produced off-line with a laser-desorption ion source, using firstly the buffer-gas cooling technique. The system has been built following the geometrical specifications given in the Technical Design Report for the MATS Penning-trap system to be built at the future Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt. So far, cooling resonances have been obtained for stable nuclides, with mass-to-charge ratios ranging from 40 to about 200, with a performance similar to those systems already in operation at radioactive ion beam facilities. In this contribution, the preparation trap, built and commissioned at the University of Granada, will be briefly described. First results on buffer-gas cooling will be presented.

  2. LEBIT II: Upgrades and developments for high precision Penning trap mass measurements with rare isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redshaw, M., E-mail: redsh1m@cmich.edu [Department of Physics, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Bollen, G.; Bustabad, S.; Kwiatkowski, A.A.; Lincoln, D.L.; Novario, S.J. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI 48224 (United States); Department of Physics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48224 (United States); Ringle, R.; Schwarz, S. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI 48224 (United States); Valverde, A.A. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI 48224 (United States); Department of Physics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48224 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Development and implementation of new experimental techniques at the Low Energy Beam and Ion Trap (LEBIT) facility at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL). • Development of a laser ablation ion source for the production of carbon clusters for use as mass references and stable isotopes for offline mass measurement programs. • Implementation of stored waveform inverse Fourier transform (SWIFT) for efficient removal of contaminant ions. • Development of a miniature Penning trap to be installed in the LEBIT magnet and used as a magnetometer for monitoring temporal variations in the magnetic field strength. • Development of a new 7 T single-ion Penning trap (SIPT) at the NSCL that will use image charge detection for ultra-high sensitivity measurements of short-lived rare isotopes with very low production rates. -- Abstract: During the next several years and decades the extension of high-precision Penning trap mass spectrometry measurements to more-exotic isotopes, lying far from the valley of stability will continue to provide significant contributions to nuclear physics. However, such measurements must overcome the challenges of working with isotopes that have low production rates and short lifetimes. At the Low Energy Beam and Ion Trap (LEBIT) facility at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, a number of developments have been implemented or are underway to meet these challenges by minimizing rare-isotope preparation and measurement time, maximizing use of available beam time, and increasing sensitivity. These developments and the current status of the LEBIT facility will be discussed.

  3. Micro Penning Trap for Continuous Magnetic Field Monitoring in High Radiation Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Javiera; Bollen, Georg; Gulyuz, Kerim; Ringle, Ryan; Bado, Philippe; Dugan, Mark; Lebit Team; Translume Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    As new facilities for rare isotope beams, like FRIB at MSU, are constructed, there is a need for new instrumentation to monitor magnetic fields in beam magnets that can withstand the higher radiation level. Currently NMR probes, the instruments used extensively to monitor magnetic fields, do not have a long lifespans in radiation-high environments. Therefore, a radiation-hard replacement is needed. We propose to use Penning trap mass spectrometry techniques to make high precision magnetic field measurements. Our Penning microtrap will be radiation resistant as all of the vital electronics will be at a safe distance from the radiation. The trap itself is made from materials not subject to radiation damage. Penning trap mass spectrometers can determine the magnetic field by measuring the cyclotron frequency of an ion with a known mass and charge. This principle is used on the Low Energy Beam Ion Trap (LEBIT) minitrap at NSCL which is the foundation for the microtrap. We have partnered with Translume, who specialize in glass micro-fabrication, to develop a microtrap in fused-silica glass. A microtrap is finished and ready for testing at NSCL with all of the electronic and hardware components setup. DOE Phase II SBIR Award No. DE-SC0011313, NSF Award Number 1062410 REU in Physics, NSF under Grant No. PHY-1102511.

  4. High-precision masses of neutron-deficient rubidium isotopes using a Penning trap mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerbauer, A G; Beck, D; Blaum, K; Bollen, G; Guénaut, C; Herfurth, F; Herlert, A; Kluge, H J; Lunney, D; Schwarz, S; Schweikhard, L; Weber, C; Yazidjian, C

    2007-01-01

    The atomic masses of the neutron-deficient radioactive rubidium isotopes $^{74-77,79,80,83}$Rb have been measured with the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. Using the time-of-flight cyclotron resonance technique, relative mass uncertainties ranging from $1.6 \\times 10^{-8}$ to $5.6 \\times 10^{-8}$ were achieved. In all cases, the mass precision was significantly improved as compared with the prior Atomic-Mass Evaluation; no significant deviations from the literature values were observed. The exotic nuclide $^{74}$Rb with a half-life of only 65 ms, is the shortest-lived nuclide on which a high-precision mass measurement in a Penning trap has been carried out. The significance of these measurements for a check of the conserved-vector-current hypothesis of the weak interaction and the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix is discussed.

  5. Highly charged ions in Penning traps, a new tool for resolving low lying isomeric states

    CERN Document Server

    Gallant, A T; Brunner, T; Chowdhury, U; Ettenauer, S; Simon, V V; Mané, E; Simon, M C; Andreoiu, C; Delheij, P; Gwinner, G; Pearson, M R; Ringle, R; Dilling, J

    2011-01-01

    The use of highly charged ions greatly increases the precision and resolving power, in particular for short-lived species produced at on-line radio-isotope beam facilities, achievable with Penning trap mass spectrometers. This increase in resolving power provides a new and unique access to resolving low-lying long-lived ($T_{1/2} > 50$ ms) nuclear isomers. Recently, the $111.19(22)$ keV (determined from $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy) isomeric state in $^{78}$Rb has been resolved from the ground state, in a charge state of $q=8+$ with the TITAN Penning trap at the TRIUMF-ISAC facility. The energy level of the isomer was measured to be $108.7(6.4)$ keV above the ground state. The extracted masses for both the ground and isomeric states, and their difference, agree with the AME2003 and Nuclear Data Sheet values. This proof of principle measurement demonstrates the feasibility of using Penning trap mass spectrometers coupled to charge breeders to study nuclear isomers and opens a new route for isomer searches.

  6. Evaporative cooling and coherent axial oscillations of highly charged ions in a penning trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobein, M; Solders, A; Suhonen, M; Liu, Y; Schuch, R

    2011-01-07

    Externally, in an electron beam ion trap, generated Ar16+ ions were retrapped in a Penning trap and evaporatively cooled in their axial motion. The cooling was observed by a novel extraction technique based on the excitation of a coherent axial oscillation which yields short ion bunches of well-defined energies. The initial temperature of the ion cloud was decreased by a factor of more than 140 within 1 s, while the phase-space density of the coldest extracted ion pulses was increased by a factor of up to about 9.

  7. A Modified MeVVA Ion Source for a Malmberg-Penning Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, David K.; Peterson, Bryan G.; Hart, Grant W.

    2006-10-01

    We have designed a new type of plasma gun ion source for a Malmberg-Penning trap based on Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc (MeVVA) ion source designs. Our primary intent with this MeVVA-type source is to create a confinable beryllium-7 (7Be) plasma. The radioactivity of 7Be requires us to replace the sample inside the ion source on a regular basis. Our design makes it possible to easily remove the cathode of the ion source from an ultra-high vacuum trap and exchange 7Be samples while only needing to repressurize a small chamber rather than the entire trap. This design has an added benefit of being capable of generating plasmas from a wide variety of metals by simply exchanging the source target in the removable cathode. Because of this wide compatibility, we will be able to use our trap for studying any number of different plasmas, including other radioactive types.

  8. JYFLTRAP: a penning trap for precision mass spectroscopy and isobaric purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eronen, T.; Kolhinen, V.S.; Elomaa, V.V.; Gorelov, D.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Karvonen, P.; Kopecky, S.; Moore, I.D.; Penttilae, H.; Rahaman, S.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Rissanen, J.; Saastamoinen, A.; Szerypo, J.; Weber, C.; Aeystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2012-04-15

    In this article a comprehensive description and performance of the double Penning-trap setup JYFLTRAP will be detailed. The setup is designed for atomic mass measurements of both radioactive and stable ions and additionally serves as a very high-resolution mass separator. The setup is coupled to the IGISOL facility at the accelerator laboratory of the University of Jyvaeskylae. The trap has been online since 2003 and it was shut down in the summer of 2010 for relocation to the upgraded IGISOL facility. Numerous atomic mass and decay energy measurements have been performed using the time-of-flight ion-cyclotron resonance technique. The trap has also been used in several decay spectroscopy experiments as a high-resolution mass filter. (orig.)

  9. Loading Detection and Number Estimation of an Electron Plasma in a Penning Trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.T.SATYAJIT; Anita GUPTA; Gopal JOSHI; Shyam MOHAN; Pushpa RAO; Sharath ANANTHAMURTHY

    2009-01-01

    A quadrupole Penning trap for spectroscopy and investigations of non-neutral plasmas was designed and built.In this work we provide details of the trap design and a discussion of a simple design and procedure for convenient electron loading from an aligned filament.Electrons from thermionic emission which form a low-energy diffuse beam are trapped in weak magnetic fields.They are detected through a non-destructive electronic detection scheme,the details of which are discussed.The detection signal is diminished when the electron beam energy is increased while the electron flux is kept constant.This is explained by considering the energy shift in the distribution function of electrons emitted from the filament and entering the trap.We present a calculation of the number of trapped electrons from the shape of the detection signal.This calculation,based on a model of a driven damped harmonic oscillator to describe the axial motion of the electrons,compares favourably with the numbers obtained by measurements of the space charge induced shift in the trap potential.

  10. Behavior of many ions in a Penning trap and results of the WITCH experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Porobic, Tomica

    Precision measurements of the beta−neutrino angular correlation in nuclear beta-decay provide a unique window into the physics beyond the Standard model. The WITCH (Weak Interaction Trap for CHarged particles) experiment aims to measure this correlation, a(beta-nu), in order to impose a more stringent constraint on the exotic scalar current admixture in the beta-decay Hamiltonian. The apparatus is situated at CERN/ISOLDE laboratory and consists of a unique combination of a retardation spectrometer and two Penning traps, with one of them serving as a scattering-free source. This configuration is suited for a precise measurement of the energy spectrum of 35Ar recoiled daughter ions. The shape of the spectrum then allows a determination of a(beta-nu) and consequently of the presence or absence of a scalar current. Radioactive 35Ar ions are created at ISOLDE by impinging 1.2 GeV protons on the target material. After being separated by a magnetic separator and bunched by REXTRAP, a high-capacity Penning trap, th...

  11. JYFLTRAP: a cylindrical Penning trap for isobaric beam purification at IGISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolhinen, V.S.; Kopecky, S. E-mail: kopecky@phys.jyu.fi; Eronen, T.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Huikari, J.; Jokinen, A.; Nieminen, A.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Szerypo, J.; Aeystoe, J

    2004-08-11

    A Penning trap has been installed for isobaric beam purification at the IGISOL-facility at the University of Jyvaeskylae. In this paper, the technical details of this new device together with results of the first tests are presented. The mass resolving power, depending on the excitation parameters and the ion species, can be as high as 145 000 and the total transmission has been determined to be 17%. In addition, it is shown that with this experimental setup it is possible to measure atomic masses up to A=120 with accuracies of approximately 50 keV.

  12. Mass measurements of neutron-deficient nuclides close to A=80 with a Penning trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankainen, A.; Elomaa, V.-V.; Eronen, T.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Moore, I.; Penttilae, H.; Peraejaervi, K.; Rahaman, S.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Ronkanen, P.; Saastamoinen, A.; Sonoda, T.; Aeystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (Finland); Batist, L.; Novikov, Yu.N.; Popov, A.V.; Seliverstov, D.M. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Eliseev, S.A.; Vorobjev, G.K. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    The masses of {sup 80,} {sup 81,} {sup 82,} {sup 83}Y, {sup 83,} {sup 84,} {sup 85,} {sup 86,} {sup 88}Zr and {sup 85,} {sup 86,} {sup 87,} {sup 88}Nb have been measured with a typical precision of 7keV by using the Penning trap setup at IGISOL. The mass of {sup 84}Zr has been measured for the first time. These precise mass measurements have improved S{sub p} and Q{sub EC} values for astrophysically important nuclides. (orig.)

  13. High-accuracy mass determination of unstable nuclei with a Penning trap mass spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The mass of a nucleus is its most fundamental property. A systematic study of nuclear masses as a function of neutron and proton number allows the observation of collective and single-particle effects in nuclear structure. Accurate mass data are the most basic test of nuclear models and are essential for their improvement. This is especially important for the astrophysical study of nuclear synthesis. In order to achieve the required high accuracy, the mass of ions captured in a Penning trap is determined via their cyclotron frequency $ \

  14. Mathematical Descriptions of Axially Varying Penning Traps for the Antimatter Experiment: gravity, Interferometry, and Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Stephanie, Brown

    2015-01-01

    Antimatter, though proposed in 1933, is still not well understood. AEgIS aims to study the interaction of antihydrogen with the earth's gravitational field. This information will add to our understanding of the matter-antimatter asymmetry present in our universe. This paper discusses a Penning-Malmberg with a magnetic mirror that will hold $C_{2}^{-}$ that will be used for sympathetic cooling of antiprotons before the antihydrogen is created. The trap, which is critical to the cooling process of the antihydrogen, can be characterized by the separatrix between trapped and untrapped particles. This paper applies analytical processes used to define the separatrix of pure electron plasmas to a molecular plasma. Our work is based on the desire conditions (density, particle number, field strength, trap size) of the high field region. The initial application of a semi-analytical method applied to our trap defines the trap potential difference at \\~ 0.6V. The separatrix is defined in both the high and low fiel...

  15. Electron cooling of highly charged ions in penning traps; Elektronenkuehlung hochgeladener Ionen in Penningfallen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moellers, B.

    2007-02-08

    For many high precision experiments with highly charged ions in ion traps it is necessary to work with low energy ions. One possibility to slow ions down to a very low energy in a trap is electron cooling, a method, which is already successfully used in storage rings to produce ion beams with high phase space density. Fast ions and a cold electron plasma are inserted into a Penning trap. The ions lose their energy due to Coulomb interaction with the electrons while they cross the plasma, the electrons are heated. The cooling time is the time, which is needed to cool an ion from a given initial energy to a low final energy. To calculate cooling times it is necessary to solve coupled differential equations for the ion energy and electron temperature. In a Penning trap the strong external magnetic field constitutes a theoretical challenge, as it influences the energy loss of the ions in an electron plasma, which can no longer be calculated analytically. In former estimates of cooling times this influence is neglected. But simulations show a dramatic decrease of the energy loss in the presence of a strong magnetic field, so it is necessary to investigate the effect of the magnetic field on the cooling times. This work presents a model to calculate cooling times, which includes both the magnetic field and the trap geometry. In a first step a simplified model without the external trap potential is developed. The energy loss of the ions in the magnetized electron plasma is calculated by an analytic approximation, which requires a numerical solution of integrals. With this model the dependence of the cooling time on different parameters like electron and ion density, magnetic field and the angle between ion velocity and magnetic field is studied for fully ionized uranium. In addition the influence of the electron heating is discussed. Another important topic in this context is the recombination between ions and electrons. The simplified model for cooling times allows to

  16. Penning trap assisted decay spectroscopy of neutron-rich {sup 115}Ru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurpeta, J.; Plochocki, A.; Urban, W. [Warsaw University, Faculty of Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Elomaa, V.V.; Eronen, T.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Karvonen, P.; Moore, I.; Penttilae, H.; Rahaman, S.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Rissanen, J.; Ronkainen, J.; Saastamoinen, A.; Sonoda, T.; Weber, C.; Aeystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics (Finland)

    2007-03-15

    Exotic, neutron-rich {sup 111}Mo and {sup 115}Ru nuclei, produced in proton-induced fission of {sup 238}U target, were separated with the IGISOL mass separator. The separator was coupled to the JYFLTRAP Penning trap to select the ions of a single, desired element out of the isobaric IGISOL beam. Monoisotopic samples of {sup 115}Ru and {sup 111}Mo ions were observed with a microchannel plate detector after the trap or were implanted on a catcher foil for gamma- and beta-ray coincidence spectroscopy. In spite of short data taking time new gamma transitions were identified in the beta decay of very neutron-rich {sup 115}Ru. (orig.)

  17. In situ electromagnetic field diagnostics with an electron plasma in a Penning-Malmberg trap

    CERN Document Server

    Amole, C; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Capra, A.; Cesar, C.L.; Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Evetts, N.; Eriksson, S.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M.C.; Gill, D.R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J.S.; Hardy, W.N.; Hayden, M.E.; Isaac, C.A.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Little, A.; Madsen, N.; McKenna, J.T.K.; Menary, S.; Napoli, S.C.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Pusa, P.; Rasmussen, C.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D.M.; So, C.; Stracka, S.; Tharp, T.; Thompson, R.I.; van der Werf, D.P.; Wurtele, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel detection method for the cyclotron resonance frequency of an electron plasma in a Penning-Malmberg trap. With this technique, the electron plasma is used as an in situ diagnostic tool for measurement of the static magnetic field and the microwave electric field in the trap. The cyclotron motion of the electron plasma is excited by microwave radiation and the temperature change of the plasma is measured non-destructively by monitoring the plasma's quadrupole mode frequency. The spatially-resolved microwave electric field strength can be inferred from the plasma temperature change and the magnetic field is found through the cyclotron resonance frequency. These measurements were used extensively in the recently reported demonstration of resonant quantum interactions with antihydrogen.

  18. Decay study of neutron-rich zirconium isotopes employing a Penning trap as a spectroscopy tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinta-Antila, S.; Eronen, T.; Elomaa, V.V.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Karvonen, P.; Penttilae, H.; Rissanen, J.; Sonoda, T.; Saastamoinen, A.; Aeystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics (Finland)

    2007-01-15

    A new technique to produce isobarically pure ion beams for decay spectroscopy by using a gas-filled Penning trap was commissioned at the ion guide isotope separator on-line facility, IGISOL. {beta}-decays of neutron-rich {sup 100}Zr, {sup 102}Zr and {sup 104}Zr isotopes were studied with this technique. In addition, the Q{sub {beta}{sup -}} values of {sup 100,102,104}Zr {beta}-decays were determined from the direct mass measurements of zirconium and niobium isotopes performed with a high-precision Penning trap. The mass of {sup 104}Nb was directly measured for the first time and the obtained mass excess value for the longer-living (1{sup +}) state is -71823{+-}10 keV. For the ground states of {sup 100}Nb and {sup 102}Nb the obtained mass excess values were -79802{+-}20 keV and -76309{+-}10 keV, respectively. The observed distribution of the {beta} strength supports a prolate deformation assignment for {sup 100,102,104}Zr isotopes. (orig.)

  19. Nuclear structure research with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neidherr, Dennis [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    At the double-Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN the cyclotron frequency of short-lived radionuclides is measured in order to determine their mass with a relative uncertainty in the order of 10{sup -8} and below. This ground state property plays an important role in many fields of modern physics from nuclear-structure research to nuclear astrophysics and tests of the weak interaction of the Standard Model. An example for the first one is the evolution of the nuclear shape as a function of the number of neutrons and protons. In 2008 the masses of {sup 223-229}Rn and {sup 143-146}Xe were measured for the first time directly, whereas {sup 229}Rn was even discovered by our Penning trap based experiment. With this mass values one can study the proton-neutron interaction and therefore get information about the nuclear structure like collectivity, the onset of deformation or the geometrical shapes in atomic nuclei. The experimental results as well as the impact on the theoretical models will be presented.

  20. A Technical Review of Penning Trap based Investigations in Neutron Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, J

    2014-01-01

    This review is concerned with a detailed analysis of some of the technical problems which arise in the application of the Penning trap method to the experimental study of neutron $\\beta $ -decay,a technique which was first successfully tested on the low-flux swimming-pool reactor LIDO (capture flux =3$\\cdot 10^6$cm$^(-2)$s$^(-1)$) at AERE Harwell in the 1970's. It does not discuss the scientific merits or demerits of these studies. Of particular importance are the trapping and release of neutron decay protons, and the influence of magnetic mirror effects and radial drifting on the trapped particles. Since these have energies < 1 keV they must be accelerated to energies of order 20-30 keV following release, at which point they are recorded in a silicon surface barrier detector. However serious difficulties were encountered in the post-release acceleration process with vacuum breakdown in the presence of crossed electric and magnetic fields.

  1. CryoMPET: the Cryogenic Upgrade to TITAN's Mass Measurement Penning Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistenschneider, Erich; Titan Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    Atomic masses are key tools to understand the nature of nuclear forces. With the availability of beams of very exotic species, mass spectroscopy techniques have become more challenging. They need to be faster, more efficient, and still have to provide high enough precision to be of scientific value. The TITAN facility at TRIUMF has been performing precision mass measurements of radioactive nuclei for almost a decade. Its main equipment, the Measurement Penning Trap (MPET), employs the Time-of-Flight Ion Cyclotron Resonance technique to probe atomic masses of ions living as short as 10ms. A powerful way to increase the precision of such technique is to charge-breed the inspected ion, which, in order to prevent charge state decay through a typical measurement cycle, requires trap's vacuum level to be in the order of 1E-11 Torr. Otherwise, the ion's charge state will most likely decay via electron recapture from the trap's background gas. MPET is being redesigned to perform mass measurements of ions at charge states over +20. It will be integrated into a new cryogenic vacuum system and should be ready for commissioning in 2017. We will present the details of TITAN's new CryoMPET upgrade including its design concept and the status of its development.

  2. A broad-Band FT-ICR Penning TRap System for KATRIN

    CERN Document Server

    Ubieto-Diaz, M; Lukic, S; Nagy, Sz; Stahl, S; Blaum, K

    2009-01-01

    The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment KATRIN aims at improving the upper limit of the mass of the electron antineutrino to about 0.2 eV (90% c.l.) by investigating the beta-decay of tritium gas molecules. The experiment is currently under construction to start first data taking in 2012. One source of systematic uncertainties in the KATRIN experiment is the formation of ion clusters when tritium decays and decay products interact with residual tritium molecules. It is essential to monitor the abundances of these clusters since they have different final state energies than tritium ions. For this purpose, a prototype of a cylindrical Penning trap has been constructed and tested at the Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, which will be installed in the KATRIN beam line. This system employs the technique of Fourier-Transform Ion-Cyclotron-Resonance in order to measure the abundances of the different stored ion species.

  3. First direct mass measurements on nobelium and lawrencium with the Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dworschak, Michael Gerhard

    2009-12-08

    The Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP at GSI Darmstadt was set up for high-precision mass measurements of heavy radionuclides produced in fusion evaporation reactions and separated from the primary beam by the velocity filter SHIP. It consists of a gas stopping cell for the deceleration of the high energetic reaction products, an RFQ cooler and buncher for cooling and accumulation of the ions, and a double Penning trap system to perform mass measurements. The mass is determined by measuring the cyclotron frequency of the ion of interest in a strong homogeneous magnetic field and comparing it to the frequency of a well-known reference ion. With this method relative uncertainties in the order of 10{sup -8} can be achieved. Recently, mass measurements of the three nobelium isotopes {sup 252-254}No (Z=102) and the lawrencium isotope {sup 255}Lr (Z=103) were performed successfully. These were the first direct mass measurements of transuranium elements ever per- formed. The production rate of the atoms of interest was about one per second or less. The results of the measurements on nobelium confirm the previous mass values which were deduced from Q{sub {alpha}} values. In the case of {sup 255}Lr the mass excess value, which was previously only estimated from systematic trends, was for the first time directly measured. These results mark the first step in the exploration of the region of transuranium elements which is planned at SHIPTRAP. The main objective is to fix the endpoints of {alpha} decay chains which are originating from superheavy elements close to the predicted island of stability. (orig.)

  4. Precision Comparison of $\\bar{p}$ and $ p $ Masses in a Penning Trap

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    PS196 : Precision Comparison of $\\bar{p}$ and p Masses in a Penning Trap For the first time, antiprotons with energies 10$^{10}$ times lower than those in LEAR can be stored and studied over long times in a small apparatus. The first measurement at this new, low energy frontier is a 1000-fold improvement in the measured antiproton mass. The mass dependent cyclotron frequencies, first for antiprotons then for protons orbiting in the same magnetic field, are compared to establish that the antiproton and proton masses are the same to at least 4~parts in 10$^8$. This is the most stringent test of whether a baryon system is invariant under CPT transformations. A special trap geometry and a superconducting solenoid which cancels fluctuations in the magnetic field in the accelerator hall were crucial to this greatly improved measurement. The current objective is to improve the precision by one or two orders of magnitude. Antiprotons from LEAR at 5.9~MeV, slow below 3~keV via collisions in a thin metal window, and ar...

  5. Control of the conformations of ion Coulomb crystals in a Penning trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R. C.; Mavadia, S.; Goodwin, J. F.; Stutter, G.; Bharadia, S.; Crick, D. R.; Segal, D. M. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-29

    Ion Coulomb crystals containing small numbers of ions have been created and manipulated in a wide range of configurations in a Penning trap, from a linear string, through various three-dimensional conformations, to a planar crystal. We show that the dynamics of the system simplifies enormously in a frame which rotates at half the cyclotron frequency and we discuss the effect of the radial cooling laser beam in this frame. Simulations show that the crystal conformations can be reproduced by finding the minimum energy configuration in a frame whose radial potential is modified by the rotation of the ion crystal. The rotation frequency of the crystal deduced from the simulations is consistent with the known laser parameters. We also show that even though the number of ions in our system is small (typically less than 20), the system still behaves like a plasma and its static properties can be calculated using the standard model for a single-component plasma in a trap.

  6. First Use of High Charge States for Mass Measurements of Short-lived Nuclides in a Penning Trap

    CERN Document Server

    Ettenauer, S; Gallant, A T; Brunner, T; Chowdhury, U; Simon, V V; Brodeur, M; Chaudhuri, A; Mané, E; Andreoiu, C; Audi, G; López-Urrutia, J R Crespo; Delheij, P; Gwinner, G; Lapierre, A; Lunney, D; Pearson, M R; Ringle, R; Ullrich, J; Dilling, J

    2011-01-01

    Penning trap mass measurements of short-lived nuclides have been performed for the first time with highly-charged ions (HCI), using the TITAN facility at TRIUMF. Compared to singly-charged ions, this provides an improvement in experimental precision that scales with the charge state q. Neutron-deficient Rb-isotopes have been charge bred in an electron beam ion trap to q = 8 - 12+ prior to injection into the Penning trap. In combination with the Ramsey excitation scheme, this unique setup creating low energy, highly-charged ions at a radioactive beam facility opens the door to unrivalled precision with gains of 1-2 orders of magnitude. The method is particularly suited for short-lived nuclides such as the superallowed {\\beta} emitter 74Rb (T1/2 = 65 ms). The determination of its atomic mass and an improved QEC-value are presented.

  7. Shaping of nested potentials for electron cooling of highly-charged ions in a cooler Penning trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Stefan; Kootte, Brian; Lascar, Daniel; Gwinner, Gerald; Dilling, Jens; Titan Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN) is dedicated to mass spectrometry and decay spectroscopy of short-lived radioactive nuclides in a series of ion traps including a precision Penning trap. In order to boost the achievable precision of mass measurements TITAN deploys an Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) providing Highly-Charged Ions (HCI). However, the charge breeding process in the EBIT leads to an increase in the ion bunch's energy spread which is detrimental to the overall precision gain. To reduce this effect a new cylindrical Cooler PEnning Trap (CPET) is being commissioned to sympathetically cool the HCI via a simultaneously trapped electron plasma. Simultaneous trapping of ions and electrons requires a high level of control over the nested potential landscape and sophisticated switching schemes for the voltages on CPET's multiple ring electrodes. For this purpose, we are currently setting up a new experimental control system for multi-channel voltage switching. The control system employs a Raspberry Pi communicating with a digital-to-analog board via a serial peripheral interface. We report on the implementation of the voltage control system and its performance with respect to electron and ion manipulation in CPET. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

  8. Detection of individual spin transitions of a single proton confined in a cryogenic Penning trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kracke, Holger

    2013-02-27

    The presented experiment for the determination of the magnetic moment of the proton is based on the measurement of the ratio of cyclotron frequency and Larmor frequency of a single proton confined in a cryogenic double-Penning trap. In the course of this thesis, the simultaneous non-destructive measurement of two of the three eigenfrequencies of the proton in thermal equilibrium with corresponding detection systems was demonstrated, which reduces the measurement time of the cyclotron frequency by a factor of two. Furthermore, this thesis presents the first detection of individual spin transitions of a single proton, which allows for the determination of the Larmor frequency. The continuous Stern-Gerlach effect is utilized to couple the magnetic moment to the axial mode of the trapped proton by means of a magnetic bottle. Thus, a spin flip causes a jump of the axial frequency, which can be measured non-destructively with highly-sensitive detection systems. However, not only the spin momentum is coupled to the axial motion but also the angular momentum. Thus, the main experimental challenge is the elimination of energy fluctuations in the radial modes in order to maintain spin flip resolution. Due to systematic studies on the stability of the axial frequency and a complete revision of the experimental setup, this goal was achieved. The spin state of the proton can be determined with very high fidelity for the very first time. Thus, this thesis represents an important step towards a high-precision determination of the magnetic moment of the proton.

  9. Electron Trapping in the Penning Fusion Experiment - Ions (PFX-I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, D. C.

    1999-11-01

    PFX-I is a table-top, magneto-electrostatic confinement device. Nonneutral confinement and spherical focussing combine to achieve fusion conditions. PFX-I began operation in late '98 as a follow-on to PFX.(T.B. Mitchell, M.M. Schauer, and D.C. Barnes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 58 (1997).) (D.C. Barnes, T.B. Mitchell, and M.M. Schauer, Phys. Plasmas 4, 1745 (1997).) (M.M. Schauer, T.B. Mitchell, M.H. Holzscheiter, and D.C. Barnes, Rev. Sci. Instr. 68, 3340 (1997).) A Penning-type trap confines electrons. Electron space-charge field E confines and spherically focuses high-energy deuterium ions to produce neutrons. Design parameters are: 1 cm spherical radius, applied DC voltage V to 100 kV, steady (superconducting) magnetic field B to over 2 T. The spherical confinement region is axially separated from two end cathodes at -HV, one supplying electrons. We have applied voltages up to 75 kV to the trap, operated the electron gun to 40 kV, and the instrument rack to the full 100 kV. The physical basis and arrangement are briefly described. Initial operation is described. Electron inventory and lifetime t vs. V and B are measured by dumping the electron inventory to a MCP. Up to 3 x 10^8 electrons have been trapped, with t greater than 100 ms. Mechanical alignment may limit t. Results using an improved alignment design are contrasted with the earlier design. E is inferred from electron inventory. Also, an optical diagnostic directly measures E by Stark splitting at low neutral hydrogen pressure (10-5 to 10-8Torr). Light produced by impact excitation is brought out by a fiber to the entrance slit of a spectrometer. Expected splitting of the atomic hydrogen lines of 1 to several Angstroms is compared to initial observations. POPS, a high Q operating mode, has been proposed[4] and an electron configuration for supporting POPS in PFX-I has been described.[5] Plans for future testing of these theoretical predictions are described briefly. An RF system to provide the required 10

  10. The construction of TRIGA-TRAP and direct high-precision Penning trap mass measurements on rare-earth elements and americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelaer, Jens

    2010-06-14

    The construction of TRIGA-TRAP and direct high-precision Penning trap mass measurements on rare-earth elements and americium: Nuclear masses are an important quantity to study nuclear structure since they reflect the sum of all nucleonic interactions. Many experimental possibilities exist to precisely measure masses, out of which the Penning trap is the tool to reach the highest precision. Moreover, absolute mass measurements can be performed using carbon, the atomic-mass standard, as a reference. The new double-Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP has been installed and commissioned within this thesis work, which is the very first experimental setup of this kind located at a nuclear reactor. New technical developments have been carried out such as a reliable non-resonant laser ablation ion source for the production of carbon cluster ions and are still continued, like a non-destructive ion detection technique for single-ion measurements. Neutron-rich fission products will be available by the reactor that are important for nuclear astrophysics, especially the r-process. Prior to the on-line coupling to the reactor, TRIGA-TRAP already performed off-line mass measurements on stable and long-lived isotopes and will continue this program. The main focus within this thesis was on certain rare-earth nuclides in the well-established region of deformation around N {proportional_to} 90. Another field of interest are mass measurements on actinoids to test mass models and to provide direct links to the mass standard. Within this thesis, the mass of {sup 241}Am could be measured directly for the first time. (orig.)

  11. Discovery of $^{229}$Rn and the structure of the heaviest Rn and Ra isotopes from Penning-trap mass measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Neidherr, D; Beck, D; Blaum, K; Böhm, Ch; Breitenfeldt, M; Cakirli, R B; Casten, R F; George, S; Herfurth, F; Herlert, A; Kellerbauer, A G; Kowalska, M; Lunney, D; Minaya-Ramirez, E; Naimi, S; Noah, E; Penescu, L; Rosenbusch, M; Schwarz, S; Schweikhard, L; Stora, T

    2009-01-01

    The masses of the neutron-rich radon isotopes $^{223–229}$Rn have been determined for the first time, using the ISOLTRAP setup at CERN ISOLDE. In addition, this experiment marks the first discovery of a new nuclide,$^{229}$Rn, by Penning-trap mass measurement. The new, high-accuracy data allow a fine examination of the mass surface, via the valence-nucleon interaction ${\\delta}$V$_{pn}$. The results reveal intriguing behavior, possibly reflecting either a N=134 subshell closure or an octupolar deformation in this region.

  12. Direct observation of a single proton in a Penning trap. Towards a direct measurement of the proton g-factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreim, Susanne Waltraud

    2009-08-25

    This PhD thesis presents experiments performed on a single proton stored in a Penning trap. The eigenmotion of an isolated, free proton could be detected electronically via a coupling to a resonance circuit. This represents a non-destructive measurement, i.e. the particle is not lost during the measurement. The free cyclotron frequency emerging from the measured eigenfrequencies is one of the two frequencies required for the determination of the magnetic moment. This enables a direct determination of the g-factor contrary to already existing works. Design, developing, and commissioning of the experimental setup have been accomplished within the scope of this work leading to a measuring accuracy of 10{sup -7}. The technical challenges for the determination of the second frequency (the Larmor frequency) arising from the smallness of the magnetic moment were mastered. Since the spin state required for this measurement is an internal degree of freedom, it can only be accessed through a coupling of the magnetic moment to the eigenmotion. A novel, hybrid penning trap is presented in this work, which imprints the spin information onto the eigenmotion, thus, realizing a quantum jump spectrometer. Therewith, the frequency shift of the two spin states resulting from the magnetic coupling reaches for the first time an electronically detectable range. (orig.)

  13. Development of an experiment for ultrahigh-precision g-factor measurements in a Penning-trap setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Otamendi, J.

    2007-07-13

    This thesis is concerned with the design and construction of an experimental setup aiming to perform ultrahigh-precision g-factor measurements on a bound electron in highly-charged ions. The g-factor of a particle is a dimensionless constant which determines the strength of its interaction with a magnetic field. In the case of an electron bound to a highly-charged ion, it serves as one of the most stringent tests of bound-state quantum electrodynamics (BS-QED). The measurement is based on a triple-Penning-trap system and the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect. The first part of the thesis is devoted to the current knowledge on magnetic moments and motivates the techniques and experimental setup used during the work described. As a major challenge to overcome, the charge breeding of the ions is dealt with in detail, along with the solution found, based on a field-emission-point array. The tools included allow for the measurement of ionization cross-sections by electron impact. The last part of the thesis is dedicated to the design and operation of the triple-Penning-trap setup and the detection schemes implemented. At present, all the experimental setup for the production of highly-charged ions and the corresponding g-factor measurement is completely finalized, including the control system needed for the first measurement stages, so the ion-creation and charge-breeding processes will be the next steps to be taken. (orig.)

  14. Penning trap mass measurements of $^{99-109}$Cd with the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer, and implications for the rp process

    CERN Document Server

    Breitenfeldt, M; Beck, D; Blaum, K; George, S; Herfurth, F; Herlert, A; Kellerbauer, A G; Kluge, H-J; Kowalska, M; Lunney, D; Naimi, S; Neidherr, D; Schatz, H; Schwarz, S; Schweikhard, L

    2009-01-01

    Penning trap mass measurements on neutron-deficient Cd isotopes $^{99-109}$Cd have been performed with the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN, all with relative mass uncertainties below $3 \\times 10^{-8}$. A new mass evaluation has been performed. The mass of $^{99}$Cd has been determined for the first time which extends the region of accurately known mass values towards the doubly magic nucleus $^{100}$Sn. The implication of the results on the reaction path of the $rp$ process in stellar X-ray bursts is discussed. In particular, the uncertainty of the abundance and the overproduction created by the $rp$-process for the mass A = 99 is demonstrated by reducing the uncertainty of the proton-separation energy of $^{100}$In $S_{p}(^{100}$In) by a factor of 2.5.

  15. Penning-trap Q-value determination of the Ga-71(v, e(-))Ge-71 reaction using threshold charge breeding of on-line produced isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frekers, D.; Simon, M.C.; Andreoiu, C.; Bale, J. C.; Brodeur, M.; Brunner, T.; Chaudhuri, A.; Chowdhury, U.; Lopez-Urrutia, J. R. Crespo; Delheij, P.; Ejiri, H.; Ettenauer, S.; Gallant, A. T.; Gavrin, V.; Grossheim, A.; Harakeh, M. N.; Jang, F.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Lassen, J.; Lennarz, A.; Luichtl, M.; Ma, T.; Macdonald, T. D.; Mane, E.; Robertson, D.; Schultz, B. E.; Simon, V. V.; Teigelhoefer, A.; Dilling, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a first direct Q-value measurement of the Ga-71(v, e(-))Ge-71 reaction using the TITAN mass-measurement facility at ISAC/TRIUMF. The measurements were performed in a Penning trap on neon-like Ga-71(21+) and Ge-71(22+) using isobar separation of the on-line produced mother and daughter nuc

  16. Sideband cooling an ion to the quantum ground state in a Penning trap with very low heating rate

    CERN Document Server

    Goodwin, J F; Thompson, R C; Segal, D M

    2014-01-01

    We report the laser cooling of a single $^{40}\\text{Ca}^+$ ion in a Penning trap to the motional ground state in one dimension. Cooling is performed in the strong binding limit on the 729-nm electric quadrupole $S_{1/2}\\leftrightarrow D_{5/2}$ transition, broadened by a quench laser coupling the $D_{5/2}$ and $P_{3/2}$ levels. We find the final phonon number to be $\\bar{n}=0.012\\pm0.009$. We measure the heating rate of the trap to be exceptionally low with $\\dot{\\bar{n}}=0.08\\pm 0.12~\\textrm{s}^{-1}$ and a scaled spectral noise density of $\\omega S_{\\omega}<1.6\\times10^{-10}~\\textrm{V}^{2}\\textrm{m}^{-2}\\textrm{Hz}^{-1}\\textrm{s}^{-1}$, which is consistent with the large ion-electrode distance. We perform Rabi oscillations on the sideband-cooled ion and observe a coherence time of $0.7\\pm 0.1~\\textrm{ms}$, noting that the practical performance is limited primarily by the intensity noise of the probe laser.

  17. First-order perturbative calculation of the frequency-shifts caused by static cylindrically-symmetric electric and magnetic imperfections of a Penning trap

    CERN Document Server

    Ketter, Jochen; Höcker, Martin; Streubel, Sebastian; Blaum, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The ideal Penning trap consists of a uniform magnetic field and an electrostatic quadrupole potential. Cylindrically-symmetric deviations thereof are parametrized by the coefficients Bn and Cn, respectively. Relativistic mass-increase aside, the three characteristic eigenfrequencies of a charged particle stored in an ideal Penning trap are independent of the three motional amplitudes. This three-fold harmonicity is a highly-coveted virtue for precision experiments that rely on the measurement of at least one eigenfrequency in order to determine fundamental properties of the stored particle, such as its mass. However, higher-order contributions to the ideal fields result in amplitude-dependent frequency-shifts. In turn, these frequency-shifts need to be understood for estimating systematic experimental errors, and eventually for correcting them by means of calibrating the imperfections. The problem of calculating the frequency-shifts caused by small imperfections of a near-ideal trap yields nicely to perturbat...

  18. Novel cryogenic Penning trap for the detection of spin transitions of a proton and determination of its g-factor; Neuartige kryogene Penning-Falle fuer den Nachweis von Spin-Uebergaengen eines Protons und Bestimmung seines g-Faktors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho Rodegheri, Cricia de

    2014-07-31

    This thesis presents the design, development, commissioning and characterization of a novel Penning trap in the framework of the experiment for the direct Determination of the g-factor of a single proton. This trap is distinguished by the fact that the field lines of an external homogeneous magnetic field are distorted around the trap Center by means of a ferromagnetic ring electrode. The inhomogeneous part of the resulting magnetic field, the so-called magnetic bottle, can be quantified by the the coefficient B{sub 2}=297(10) mT/mm{sup 2} of the second-order term in the series expansion describing the field. Such an exceptionally strong field inhomogeneity is a fundamental prerequisite for the detection of the proton spin orientation via the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect. This effect is based upon the coupling of the spin degree of freedom of the trapped proton to one of its eigenfrequencies, which occurs in the presence of the inhomogeneous magnetic field. Thus, a transition between the spin states can be detected as a frequency jump. The measurable change in frequency is proportional to B{sub 2} and to the in the case of the Proton extremely small ratio between its magnetic moment and its mass. The technical challenges due to the needed high magnetic inhomogeneity require a well-founded understanding and control of the the properties of the Penning trap and experimental conditions. The Penning trap developed in the present work allowed the first non-destructive detection of spin quantum jumps of a single trapped proton, which represented a breakthrough in the experiment for the direct determination of the g-factor with the aimed relative uncertainty of 10{sup -9}. By means of a statistical method the Larmor and the cyclotron frequency of the proton could be measured in the inhomogeneous magnetic field of the trap, from which the g-factor could be determined with a relative uncertainty of 8.9 x 10{sup -6}.The experimental techniques and setup presented here can

  19. Capture, Electron-Cooling and Compression of Antiprotons in a Large Penning-Trap for Physics Experiments with an Ultra-Low Energy Extracted Antiproton Beam

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % PS200 \\\\ \\\\The availability of ultra-low energy antiprotons is a crucial ingredient for the execution of the gravity measurements PS200. We have developed a method to provide such low energy antiprotons based on a large Penning trap (the PS200 catching trap). This system can accept a fast-extracted pulse from LEAR, reduce the energy of the antiprotons in the pulse from 5.9~MeV to several tens of kilovolts using a degrading foil, and then capture the antiprotons in a large Penning trap. These antiprotons are cooled by electrons previously admitted to the trap and are collected in a small region at the center of the trap. We have demonstrated our capability to capture up to 1~million antiprotons from LEAR in a single shot, electron cool these antiprotons, and transfer up to 95\\% of them into the inner, harmonic region. A storage time in excess of 1 hour was observed. These results have been obtained with the cryogenic trap vacuum coupled to a room temperature vacuum at about l0$ ^- ^{1} ^0 $ Torr, which is an...

  20. Preparatory studies for a high-precision Penning-trap measurement of the {sup 163}Ho electron capture Q-value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, F. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernchemie, Mainz (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik, Mainz (Germany); Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Eibach, M.; Eliseev, S.; Nagy, Sz. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Block, M. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernchemie, Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Chenmarev, S.; Novikov, Yu.N. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Saint Petersburg State University, Physical Faculty, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Dorrer, H. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernchemie, Mainz (Germany); Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Universitaet Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Duellmann, C.E. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernchemie, Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Mainz (Germany); Eberhardt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernchemie, Mainz (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Grund, J. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernchemie, Mainz (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Mainz (Germany); Koester, U. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Renisch, D. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernchemie, Mainz (Germany); Tuerler, A. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Universitaet Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik, Mainz (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Mainz (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    The ECHo Collaboration (Electron Capture {sup 163}Ho) aims to investigate the calorimetric spectrum following the electron capture decay of {sup 163}Ho to determine the mass of the electron neutrino. The size of the neutrino mass is reflected in the endpoint region of the spectrum, i.e., the last few eV below the transition energy. To check for systematic uncertainties, an independent determination of this transition energy, the Q-value, is mandatory. Using the TRIGA-TRAP setup, we demonstrate the feasibility of performing this measurement by Penning-trap mass spectrometry. With the currently available, purified {sup 163}Ho sample and an improved laser ablation mini-RFQ ion source, we were able to perform direct mass measurements of {sup 163}Ho and {sup 163}Dy with a sample size of less than 10{sup 17} atoms. The measurements were carried out by determining the ratio of the cyclotron frequencies of the two isotopes to those of carbon cluster ions using the time-of-flight ion cyclotron resonance method. The obtained mass excess values are ME({sup 163}Ho)= -66379.3(9) keV and ME({sup 163}Dy)= -66381.7(8) keV. In addition, the Q-value was measured for the first time by Penning-trap mass spectrometry to be Q = 2.5(7) keV. (orig.)

  1. Numerical analysis of applied magnetic field dependence in Malmberg-Penning Trap for compact simulator of energy driver in heavy ion fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T.; Park, Y.; Soga, Y.; Takahashi, K.; Sasaki, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Harada, Nob

    2016-05-01

    To simulate a pulse compression process of space charge dominated beams in heavy ion fusion, we have demonstrated a multi-particle numerical simulation as an equivalent beam using the Malmberg-Penning trap device. The results show that both transverse and longitudinal velocities as a function of external magnetic field strength are increasing during the longitudinal compression. The influence of space-charge effect, which is related to the external magnetic field, was observed as the increase of high velocity particles at the weak external magnetic field.

  2. Experimental studies of highly charged ions in a Penning trap for the measurement of electron magnetic moments by double-resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindenfels, David-Friedrich von

    2015-11-18

    A precise measurement of bound-electron g factors in highly charged ions provides stringent tests for state-of-the-art theoretical calculations, such as relativistic electron-correlation, bound-state QED, and higher-order Zeeman effects. We excite the fine-structure transition of boronlike argon ({sup 40}Ar{sup 13+}) with laser radiation and probe microwave transitions between Zeeman sub-levels in the magnetic field of a Penning trap. From this laser-microwave double-resonance technique the g factor can be determined on a ppb level of accuracy in our apparatus. We have built a novel 'half-open' Penning trap with high fluorescence-detection efficiency and an integrated electron-beam ion source for production of highly charged ions from gas, injected through a cryogenic valve. In the future, heavier ions shall be captured from the HITRAP facility at GSI and the method shall be applied to hyperfine-structure transitions of hydrogenlike bismuth ({sup 209}Bi{sup 82+}) in order to measure electronic and nuclear magnetic moments. This thesis presents experimental developments as well as production, cooling, transport, and long-term storage of highly charged argon ions.

  3. Penning-trap mass spectrometry of highly charged, neutron-rich Rb and Sr isotopes in the vicinity of $A\\approx100$

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, V V; Chowdhury, U; Eberhardt, B; Ettenauer, S; Gallant, A T; Mané, E; Simon, M C; Delheij, P; Pearson, M R; Audi, G; Gwinner, G; Lunney, D; Schatz, H; Dilling, J

    2012-01-01

    The neutron-rich mass region around $A\\approx100$ presents challenges for modeling the astrophysical $r$-process because of rapid shape transitions. We report on mass measurements using the TITAN Penning trap at TRIUMF-ISAC to attain more reliable theoretical predictions of $r$-process nucleosynthesis paths in this region. A new approach using highly charged ($q=15+$) ions has been applied which considerably saves measurement time and preserves accuracy. New mass measurements of neutron-rich $^{94,97,98}$Rb and $^{94,97-99}$Sr have uncertainties of less than 4 keV and show deviations of up to 11$\\sigma$ to previous measurements. An analysis using a parameterized $r$-process model is performed and shows that mass uncertainties for the A=90 abundance region are eliminated.

  4. Penning-trap mass spectrometry of neutron-rich copper isotopes for probing the Z = 28 and N = 50 shell closures

    CERN Multimedia

    Manea, V

    We propose to perform a Penning-trap mass measurement of $^{79}$Cu. This exotic N = 50 isotone is the last frontier before the doubly-magic $^{78}$Ni and will greatly improve our knowledge of shell evolution. In the same run, we propose $^{77-78}$Cu mass measurements, as well as the search for a possible isomer in $^{76m}$Cu. The data will help to clarify the structure of the odd proton in the Cu isotopes, the influence on the Z = 28 proton core of the νg$_{9/2}$ orbital filling and the impact of the proton-neutron residual interaction on the strength of the N = 50 shell closure.

  5. Penning trap mass measurements and laser spectroscopy on neutron-rich fission products extracted from the research reactor TRIGA-Mainz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eibach, Martin; Ketelaer, Jens; Ketter, Jochen; Knuth, Konstantin [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Blaum, Klaus; Nagy, Szilard [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Eberhardt, Klaus; Noertershaeuser, Wilfried [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Herfurth, Frank [GSI, Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Smorra, Christian [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    TRIGA-SPEC is a setup for Penning trap mass spectrometry and collinear laser spectroscopy on short-lived neutron-rich nuclides located at the research reactor TRIGA-Mainz. It is dedicated to the determination of nuclear ground-state properties like masses and charge-radii. The nuclides are produced by neutron-induced fission of an actinide target located in a target chamber near the reactor core. It is required to extract the nuclides fast and with high efficiency from the target chamber in order to make precision experiments on short-living species with half-lives in the order of 1s. To this end, they are flushed out with a helium gas jet containing carbon aerosols and transported through a skimmer region to an ECR ion source. The characterisation of the carbon aerosol generator and the verification of transported fission products are presented.

  6. Nuclear structure studies in the xenon and radon region and the discovery of a new radon isotope by Penning trap mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neidherr, Dennis

    2010-04-28

    Nowadays high-precision mass measurements based on Penning traps allow a deep insight into the fundamental properties of nucleonic matter. To this end, the cyclotron frequency {nu}{sub c}=qB=(2{pi}m) of an ion confined in a strong, homogeneous magnetic field B is determined. At the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE / CERN the masses of short-lived radioactive nuclei with half-lives down to several ten ms can be measured with an uncertainty in the order of 10{sup -8} and below. ISOLTRAP consists of an RFQ cooler and buncher to cool and accumulate the ions coming from ISOLDE and a double Penning trap system to first clean the ion samples and finally perform the mass measurements. Within this thesis the masses of neutron rich xenon and radon isotopes, namely {sup 138-146}Xe and {sup 223-229}Rn were determined, eleven of them for the first time. {sup 229}Rn was even discovered in this experiment and its half-life could be determined to 12{sub -1.3}{sup +1.2} s. Since the mass reflects all interactions inside the nucleus it is a unique fingerprint of the nuclide of interest. One of these interactions, the proton-neutron interaction, leads for example to the onset of deformation. The aim of this thesis is to investigate a possible connection be- tween collective effects in nuclei, like the onset of deformation, and double-differences of binding energies, so called {delta}V{sub pn} values. Especially in the here presented areas these {delta}V{sub pn} values show a very unusual behavior and can not be explained with simple orbital overlapping arguments. One explanation could be the occurrence of octupolar deformation in these regions, which is usually probed with other experimental techniques. However, a quantitative description of the influence of such type of deformation on {delta}V{sub pn} is still not possible with modern theories. (orig.)

  7. Conception of PIPERADE: A high-capacity Penning-trap mass separator for high isobaric contamination at DESIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minaya Ramirez, E., E-mail: minaya@ipno.in2p3.fr [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Alfaurt, P.; Aouadi, M.; Ascher, P.; Blank, B. [Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan (France); Blaum, K. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Cam, J.-F. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen (France); Chauveau, P. [Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds CEA/DSM-CNRS-IN2P3, Caen (France); Daudin, L. [Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan (France); Delahaye, P. [Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds CEA/DSM-CNRS-IN2P3, Caen (France); Delalee, F. [Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan (France); Dupré, P. [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière, Orsay (France); El Abbeir, S.; Gerbaux, M.; Grévy, S.; Guérin, H. [Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan (France); Lunney, D. [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière, Orsay (France); Metz, F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Naimi, S. [Riken, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Perrot, L. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Orsay (France); and others

    2016-06-01

    The DESIR (decay, excitation and storage of radioactive ions) facility at GANIL-SPIRAL2 will receive a large variety of exotic nuclei at low energy (up to 60 keV) with high intensities. However, the production methods of radioactive beams are non selective, limiting the purity of the beams of interest. Moreover, the high precision needed for nuclear structure and astrophysics studies using beta decay spectroscopy, laser spectroscopy and trap-based experiments at DESIR requires highly pure samples of exotic nuclei. The aim of the double-Pennig-trap mass separator PIPERADE is to deliver large and very pure samples of exotic nuclei to the different experiments in DESIR. New excitation schemes and a large inner diameter of the first trap will mitigate space charge effects to attempt trapping of up to 10{sup 5} ions per pulse. The purification cycle will be performed in a few milliseconds so that short-lived nuclei can be purified. To extract the nuclides of interest from the large amount of isobaric contaminants, a resolving power of 10{sup 5} is mandatory. Afterwards the ions of interest will be accumulated in the second trap until they constitute a sufficiently pure sample for the measurements. The status of the project is presented.

  8. Measurement of the Kr XVIII 3d $^2D_{5/2}$ lifetime at low energy in a unitary Penning trap

    CERN Document Server

    Guise, Nicholas D; Brewer, Samuel M; Fischer, Charlotte F; Jönsson, Per

    2014-01-01

    A different technique is used to study the radiative decay of a metastable state in multiply ionized atoms. With use of a unitary Penning trap to selectively capture Kr$^{17+}$ ions from an ion source at NIST, the decay of the 3d $^2D_{5/2}$ metastable state is measured in isolation at low energy, without any active cooling. The highly ionized atoms are trapped in the fine structure of the electronic ground configuration with an energy spread of 4(1) eV, which is narrower than within the ion source by a factor of about 100. By observing the visible 637 nm photon emission of the forbidden transition from the 3d $^2D_{5/2}$ level to the ground state, we measured its radiative lifetime to be $\\tau=$ 24.48 ms +/- 0.28(stat.) ms +/- 0.14(syst.) ms. Remarkably, various theoretical predictions for this relativistic Rydberg atom are in agreement with our measurement at the 1% level.

  9. Axial heating and temperature of RF-excited non-neutral plasmas in Penning-Malmberg traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maero, G.; Pozzoli, R.; Romé, M.; Chen, S.; Ikram, M.

    2016-09-01

    Electro-magnetostatic traps have been used for decades to provide long-term storage of charged particle samples or non-neutral plasmas. The dynamics and equilibrium states of these ideally simple systems can be strongly diverted from the usual working conditions (i.e. single-species, quiescent samples) in the presence of oppositely charged particles or external electric field perturbations. Both these conditions occur when the plasma is generated by means of a radio-frequency (RF) excitation continuously applied on a trap electrode. The application of RF drives of some volts over periods larger than typical collisional time scales leads to residual-gas ionization and to the accumulation of an electron plasma, a process that has previously been exploited as an alternative to thermionic or photoemission electron sources. The analysis of the axial energy distribution shows a deviation of the continuously excited final state from maxwellianity dependent on the radial position and the subsequent relaxation to equilibrium after the interruption of the drive. Systematic measurements also indicate the high sensitivity to the residual gas pressure of both the total confined charge and of the attainable densities and plasma profiles. The results are compared to the information obtained from a very simple one-dimensional electron heating model and show the validity of its most basic features together with its shortcomings.

  10. Simultaneous monitoring of the radial modes of the ion motion and their manipulation in Penning traps by FT-ICR mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Breitenfeldt, M; Herlert, A; Marxa, G; Schweikhard, L

    2007-01-01

    It is demonstrated how FT-ICR MS can be used to monitor both the coherent magnetron motion and the cyclotron motion of ions stored in a Penning trap. By use of the ICR signal intensity at the magnetron frequency, ν−, and the reduced cyclotron frequency, ν+, the manipulation of the ion motion by dipolar, quadrupolar, and octupolar excitation has been followed. In particular, the conversion between the magnetron and the cyclotron motion by quadrupolar and octupolar excitation at the corresponding resonance frequencies νc = ν+ + ν− and 2νc, respectively, has been observed by detection of the magnetron and the cyclotron signal. While the ion motion under the influence of a quadrupolar excitation has already been studied extensively, the octupolar excitation has been introduced only recently. As compared to other techniques, such as the time-of-flight ion-cyclotron-resonance detection method, FT-ICR MS allows to simultaneously investigate the influence of an excitation on the cyclotron und the magnetron ...

  11. Penning-trap mass measurements of exotic rubidium and gold isotopes for a mean-field study of pairing and quadrupole correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Manea, Vladimir

    2015-09-14

    The most complex nuclei are situated between the magic and the mid-shell ones, in regions known for sudden changes of the trends of nuclear observables. These are the so-called shape-transition regions, where the nuclear paradigm changes from the vibrational liquid drop to the static rotor. With few exceptions, nuclei in these regions are radioactive, with half-lives dropping into the millisecond range. Complementing the information obtained from the low-lying excitation spectrum, nuclear binding energies and mean-square charge radii are among the observables most sensitive to these changes of nuclear structure. In the present work, a study of the shape- transition phenomenon is performed by measurements of radioactive nuclides produced by the ISOLDE facility at CERN. The masses of the neutron-rich rubidium isotopes $^{98-100}$Rb and of the neutron-deficient gold isotopes $^{180, 185, 188, 190, 191}$Au are determined using the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. The mass of $^{100}$Rb is determined for t...

  12. First direct determination of the superallowed β-decay QEC-value for O-14 via Penning trap mass spectrometry at the LEBIT facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringle, Ryan; Bollen, Georg; Brodeur, Maxime; Cooper, Kortney; Eibach, Martin; Gulyuz, Kerim; Izzo, Chris; Morrissey, David; Redshaw, Matthew; Sandler, Rachel; Schwarz, Stefan; Sumithrarachchi, Chandana; Valverde, Adrian; Villari, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Low-Z, superallowed β-emitters like O-14 are particularly significant for setting limits on the existence of scalar currents in the electroweak interaction. While the Conserved Vector Current (CVC) hypothesis states that Ft should be the same for all superallowed 0 + -> 0 + β -decays, if there is a scalar interaction, an additional term approximately inversely proportional to QEC would be present in Ft. As QEC-values are smaller for lower-Z isotopes, these isotopes would be most sensitive to the presence of a scalar current, showing the largest deviation in Ft. To date, 14 Ft values are used to calculate the world average. Of these 14 decays, only O-14 had not been measured in a Penning trap, despite multiple attempts at other facilities. At LEBIT we have performed the first direct measurement of the ground state β-decay QEC value. This measurement provides an order of magnitude improvement in precision, and it no longer makes a significant contribution to the uncertainty of its associated Ft value. This work was conducted with the support of Michigan State University and the National Science Foundation under Contracts No. PHY-1102511 and No. PHY-1307233.

  13. High-precision Penning trap mass measurements of 9,10Be and the one-neutron halo nuclide 11Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringle, R.; Brodeur, M.; Brunner, T.; Ettenauer, S.; Smith, M.; Lapierre, A.; Ryjkov, V. L.; Delheij, P.; Drake, G. W. F.; Lassen, J.; Lunney, D.; Dilling, J.

    2009-05-01

    Penning trap mass measurements of 9Be, 10Be (t1 / 2 = 1.51 My), and the one-neutron halo nuclide 11Be (t1 / 2 = 13.8 s) have been performed using TITAN at TRIUMF. The resulting 11Be mass excess (ME = 20 177.60 (58) keV) is in agreement with the current Atomic Mass Evaluation (AME03) [G. Audi, et al., Nucl. Phys. A 729 (2003) 337] value, but is over an order of magnitude more precise. The precision of the mass values of 9,10Be have been improved by about a factor of four and reveal a ≈ 2 σ deviation from the AME mass values. Results of new atomic physics calculations are presented for the isotope shift of 11Be relative to 9Be, and it is shown that the new mass values essentially remove atomic mass uncertainties as a contributing factor in determining the relative nuclear charge radius from the isotope shift. The new mass values of 10,11Be also allow for a more precise determination of the single-neutron binding energy of the halo neutron in 11Be.

  14. Penning-trap Q-value determination of the {sup 71}Ga(ν,e{sup −}){sup 71}Ge reaction using threshold charge breeding of on-line produced isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frekers, D., E-mail: Frekers@Uni-Muenster.de [Institut für Kernphysik, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, 48149 Münster (Germany); Simon, M.C. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Andreoiu, C. [Department of Chemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6 (Canada); Bale, J.C. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6 (Canada); Brodeur, M. [NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Brunner, T. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Physik Department E12, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Chaudhuri, A. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Chowdhury, U. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Crespo López-Urrutia, J.R. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Delheij, P. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Ejiri, H. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 560-0047 (Japan); Ettenauer, S.; Gallant, A.T. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Gavrin, V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 1173122 (Russian Federation); Grossheim, A. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Harakeh, M.N. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, NL-9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Jang, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Kwiatkowski, A.A. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); and others

    2013-05-24

    We present a first direct Q-value measurement of the {sup 71}Ga(ν,e{sup −}){sup 71}Ge reaction using the TITAN mass-measurement facility at ISAC/TRIUMF. The measurements were performed in a Penning trap on neon-like {sup 71}Ga{sup 21+} and {sup 71}Ge{sup 22+} using isobar separation of the on-line produced mother and daughter nuclei through threshold charge breeding in an electron-beam ion trap. In addition, isoionic samples of {sup 71}Ga{sup 21+} and {sup 71}Ge{sup 21+} were stored concurrently in the Penning trap and provided a separate Q-value measurement. Both independent measurements result in a combined Q-value of 233.5±1.2 keV, which is in agreement with the previously accepted Q-value for the ν cross-section calculations. Together with a recent measurement of the ν-response from the excited states in {sup 71}Ge, we conclude that there are no further uncertainties in the nuclear structure, which could remove the persistent discrepancy between the SAGE and GALLEX calibration measurements performed with neutrinos from reactor-produced {sup 51}Cr and {sup 37}Ar sources and the theoretical expectation.

  15. Intense photooxidative degradation of planktonic and bacterial lipids in sinking particles collected with sediment traps across the Canadian Beaufort Shelf (Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Rontani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The lipid content of seven samples of sinking particles collected with sediment traps moored at ~100 m depth in summer and fall across the Canadian Beaufort Shelf (Arctic Ocean was investigated. Our main goal was to quantify and characterize the biotic and abiotic degradation processes that acted on sinking material during these periods. Diatoms, which dominated the phytoplanktonic assemblage in every trap sample, appeared to be remarkably sensitive to Type II (i.e. involving singlet oxygen photodegradation processes in summer, but seemed to be relatively unaffected by biotic degradation at the same time. Hence, the relative recalcitrance of phytodetritus towards biodegradation processes during the Arctic midnight sun period was attributed to the strong photodegradation state of heterotrophic bacteria, which likely resulted from the efficient transfer of singlet oxygen from photodegraded phytoplanktonic cells to attached bacteria. In addition, the detection in trap samples of photoproducts specific to wax ester components found in herbivorous copepods demonstrated that zooplanktonic faecal material exported out of the euphotic zone in summer were as well affected by Type II photodegradation processes. By contrast, sinking particles collected during the autumn were not influenced by any light-driven stress. Further chemical analyses showed that photodegraded sinking particles contained an important amount of intact hydroperoxides, which could then induce a strong oxidative stress in underlying sediments.

  16. Precision mass measurements for studies of nucleosynthesis via the rapid neutron-capture process. Penning-trap mass measurements of neutron-rich cadmium and caesium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanasov, Dinko

    2016-07-06

    Although the theory for the rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) was developed more than 55 years ago, the astrophysical site is still under a debate. Theoretical studies predict that the r-process path proceeds through very neutron-rich nuclei with very asymmetric proton-to-neutron ratios. Knowledge about the properties of neutron-rich isotopes found in similar regions of the nuclear chart and furthermore suitable for r-process studies is still little or even not existing. The basic nuclear properties such as binding energies, half-lives, neutron-induced or neutron-capture reaction cross-sections, play an important role in theoretical simulations and can vary or even drastically alternate results of these studies. Therefore, a considerable effort was put forward to access neutron-rich isotopes at radioactive ion-beam facilities like ISOLDE at CERN. The goal of this PhD thesis is to describe the experimental work done for the precision mass measurements of neutron-rich cadmium ({sup 129-131}Cd) and caesium ({sup 132,146-148}Cs) isotopes. Measurements were done at the on-line radioactive ion-beam facility ISOLDE by using the four-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. The cadmium isotopes are key nuclides for the synthesis of stable isotopes around the mass peak A = 130 in the Solar System abundance.

  17. My New Pen Pal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This is my new pen pal. Her name is Annie. She is 14 years old. Her birthday is in August. She is from China. What does she look like? She is of medium height and thin. Site has beautiful long black hair. She can speak Chinese and a little English.

  18. 笔%Pen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Small as it is,the pen has changed the course of history,shaped the destiny of nations,facilitated the commerce of peoples,imprisoned the elusive thoughts of man,recorded events,carried news,and done more work for mankind than all other tools or weapons.

  19. A reservoir trap for antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    Smorra, Christian; Franke, Kurt; Nagahama, Hiroki; Schneider, Georg; Higuchi, Takashi; Van Gorp, Simon; Blaum, Klaus; Matsuda, Yasuyuki; Quint, Wolfgang; Walz, Jochen; Yamazaki, Yasunori; Ulmer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We have developed techniques to extract arbitrary fractions of antiprotons from an accumulated reservoir, and to inject them into a Penning-trap system for high-precision measurements. In our trap-system antiproton storage times > 1.08 years are estimated. The device is fail-safe against power-cuts of up to 10 hours. This makes our planned comparisons of the fundamental properties of protons and antiprotons independent from accelerator cycles, and will enable us to perform experiments during long accelerator shutdown periods when background magnetic noise is low. The demonstrated scheme has the potential to be applied in many other precision Penning trap experiments dealing with exotic particles.

  20. Trapping radioactive ions

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, Heinz-Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    Trapping devices for atomic and nuclear physics experiments with radioactive ions are becoming more and more important at accelerator facilities. While about ten years ago only one online Penning trap experiment existed, namely ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN, meanwhile almost every radioactive beam facility has installed or plans an ion trap setup. This article gives an overview on ion traps in the operation, construction or planing phase which will be used for fundamental studies with short-lived radioactive nuclides such as mass spectrometry, laser spectroscopy and nuclear decay spectroscopy. In addition, this article summarizes the use of gas cells and radiofrequency quadrupole (Paul) traps at different facilities as a versatile tool for ion beam manipulation like retardation, cooling, bunching, and cleaning.

  1. Improvement of penning ion sources

    CERN Document Server

    Bizyukov, A A; Kashaba, A Y; Sereda, K N

    2000-01-01

    It is shown that the loss of a longitudinal symmetry of magnetic field distribution in respect to the centre of the Penning discharge system causes change of electrostatic potential distribution in the discharge gap leads to appearance of asymmetry of current magnitude to the cathodes of the Penning cell,change of magnitude of current density and energy distribution of the ion beam extracted in a longitudinal direction.The use of an inhomogeneous magnetic field which is longitudinally asymmetrical concerning electrodes of the system allows to increase current efficiency of Penning ion sources from 0,2 to 0,55.

  2. An introduction to the trapping of clusters with ion traps and electrostatic storage devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredy, R; Bernard, J; Chen, L; Montagne, G; Li, B; Martin, S [Universite de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS, UMR 5579, LASIM (France)

    2009-08-14

    This paper presents an introduction to the application of ion traps and storage devices for cluster physics. Some experiments involving cluster ions in trapping devices such as Penning traps, Paul traps, quadrupole or multipole linear traps are briefly discussed. Electrostatic ion storage rings and traps which allow for the storage of fast ion beams without mass limitation are presented as well. We also report on the recently developed mini-ring, a compact electrostatic ion storage ring for cluster, molecular and biomolecular ion studies. (review)

  3. Adventures of a Pen Pal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Myrtle"Cookie"Potter; 谢琼

    2000-01-01

    By the time I was in junior high schoolI had 15 pen pals with whom I correspond-ed faithfully. I found that being a pen palwas a nonthreatening way of makingfriends. All my correspondents lived in SanFrancisco, while I was about 15 miles south inBurlingame. They were all too young to drive,so the chances we d meet were slim. Since Iwas extremely bashful, this suited me fine. I found my correspondents in the 1928 San

  4. Exploring Canadian Identity through Canadian Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleo, Sylvia

    2001-01-01

    Considers what commonplaces of culture and identity are being, could be, transmitted through the use of children's literature in classrooms. Explores what is Canadian about Canadian children's literature. Describes a study which involved Canadian elementary school children who read Canadian children's books. Concludes that literature plays a…

  5. In-trap conversion electron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissman, L. E-mail: weissman@nscl.msu.edu; Ames, F.; Aeysto, J.; Forstner, O.; Reisinger, K.; Rinta-Antila, S

    2002-10-21

    The Penning trap REXTRAP at ISOLDE was used to test the feasibility of in-trap conversion electron spectroscopy. The results of simulations, experiments with solid conversion electron sources as well as first on-line tests with trapped radioactive ions are presented. In addition to obtaining high-resolution spectroscopic data, the detection of conversion electrons was found to be a useful tool for the diagnostics of the trap operation. The tests proved the feasibility of in-trap spectroscopy but also revealed some potential problems to be addressed in the future.

  6. In-trap conversion electron spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Weissman, L; Äystö, J; Forstner, O; Reisinger, K; Rinta-Antila, S

    2002-01-01

    The Penning trap REXTRAP at ISOLDE was used to test the feasibility of in-trap conversion electron spectroscopy. The results of simulations, experiments with solid conversion electron sources as well as first on-line and tests with trapped radioactive ions are presented. In addition to obtaining high-resolution spectroscopic data, the detection of conversion electrons was found to be a useful tool for the diagnostics of the trap operation. The tests proved the feasibility of in-trap spectroscopy but also revealed some potential problems to be addressed in the future.

  7. Mylan to Offer Generic EpiPen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_160669.html Mylan to Offer Generic EpiPen Manufacturer responds to mounting criticism about price hikes ... cheaper generic version of the emergency allergy treatment EpiPen will be made available within the next few ...

  8. 9 CFR 89.5 - Feeding pens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding pens. 89.5 Section 89.5... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.5 Feeding pens. (a) Stock pens and other enclosures for feeding, watering, and... same time, (2) properly designed facilities for feeding and watering the livestock, (3) reasonably...

  9. Sow postural changes, responsiveness to piglet screams, and their impact on piglet mortality in pens and crates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melišová, M; Illmann, G; Chaloupková, H; Bozděchová, B

    2014-07-01

    Free farrowing pens (pens) improve the welfare of sows but may increase sow activity and negatively influence piglet production. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of pens and crates on sow postural changes, piglet trapping, sow responses to piglet screams, piglet mortality, and piglet BW gain. It was predicted that provision of greater space (in pens) would increase not only the frequency of sow postural changes and the probability of trappisng but also sow responses to the screams of piglets; thus, the outcome would be no differences in fatal piglet crushing or overall mortality between the housing systems. Sows were randomly moved to either a farrowing pen (n = 20) or farrowing crate (n = 18). Sow behavior was recorded and analyzed for 72 h from the birth of the first piglet (BFP). Sow postural changes included rolling from a ventral to lateral position and vice versa and going from standing to sitting, standing to lying, and sitting to lying. Occurrences of piglet trapping and sow responsiveness to real crushing situations were analyzed. Sow responsiveness was assessed in response to audio playbacks (PB) of piglet screams on d 3 postpartum (48 to 72 h after BFP; PB crush calls) and real piglet crushing during the first 72 h after BFP (real crush calls). Piglet BW gain was estimated 24 h after BFP, piglet BW was recorded at weaning, and piglet crushing and piglet mortality were recorded during the 72 h after BFP. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED and PROC GENMOD of SAS. Sows in pens showed more postural changes (P = 0.04) and tended to have greater incidences of piglet trapping (P = 0.07) than those in crates. Sow response to PB crush calls was greater in pens (P = 0.04) but did not differ for real crush calls between pens and crates (P = 0.62). There was no effect on the probability of piglet crushing (P = 0.38) and mortality (P = 0.41) during the 72 h after BFP nor in piglet mortality at weaning (P = 0.81) between pens and crates. Piglet BW gain

  10. I Am Canadian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Joe

    2011-01-01

    "I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness......."I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness....

  11. Demonstration of Thermodynamics and Kinetics Using FriXion Erasable Pens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dean J.; Bosma, Wayne B.; Bannon, Stephen J.; Gunter, Molly M.; Hammar, Margaret K.

    2012-01-01

    FriXion erasable pens contain thermochromic inks that have colored low-temperature forms and colorless high-temperature forms. Liquid nitrogen can be used to kinetically trap the high-temperature forms of the ink at temperatures at which ordinarily the low-temperature forms are more thermodynamically stable. (Contains 2 figures.)

  12. Hard Transparent Arrays for Polymer Pen Lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, James L; Brown, Keith A; Kluender, Edward J; Cabezas, Maria D; Chen, Peng-Cheng; Mirkin, Chad A

    2016-03-22

    Patterning nanoscale features across macroscopic areas is challenging due to the vast range of length scales that must be addressed. With polymer pen lithography, arrays of thousands of elastomeric pyramidal pens can be used to write features across centimeter-scales, but deformation of the soft pens limits resolution and minimum feature pitch, especially with polymeric inks. Here, we show that by coating polymer pen arrays with a ∼175 nm silica layer, the resulting hard transparent arrays exhibit a force-independent contact area that improves their patterning capability by reducing the minimum feature size (∼40 nm), minimum feature pitch (<200 nm for polymers), and pen to pen variation. With these new arrays, patterns with as many as 5.9 billion features in a 14.5 cm(2) area were written using a four hundred thousand pyramid pen array. Furthermore, a new method is demonstrated for patterning macroscopic feature size gradients that vary in feature diameter by a factor of 4. Ultimately, this form of polymer pen lithography allows for patterning with the resolution of dip-pen nanolithography across centimeter scales using simple and inexpensive pen arrays. The high resolution and density afforded by this technique position it as a broad-based discovery tool for the field of nanocombinatorics.

  13. Antimatter Plasmas in a Multipole Trap for Antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, G B; Boston, A; Bowe, P D; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Chartier, M; Deutsch, A; Fajans, J; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Gill, D R; Gomberoff, K; Hangst, J S; Hayano, R S; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Jørgensen, L V; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Telle, H H; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2007-01-01

    We have demonstrated storage of plasmas of the charged constituents of the antihydrogen atom, antiprotons and positrons, in a Penning trap surrounded by a minimum-B magnetic trap designed for holding neutral antiatoms. The neutral trap comprises a superconducting octupole and two superconducting, solenoidal mirror coils. We have measured the storage lifetimes of antiproton and positron plasmas in the combined Penning-neutral trap, and compared these to lifetimes without the neutral trap fields. The magnetic well depth was 0.6 T, deep enough to trap ground state antihydrogen atoms of up to about 0.4 K in temperature. We have demonstrated that both particle species can be stored for times long enough to permit antihydrogen production and trapping studies.

  14. Quantum-state-controlled Penning-ionization reactions between ultracold alkali-metal and metastable helium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, A. S.; Vassen, W.; Knoop, S.

    2016-11-01

    In an ultracold, optically trapped mixture of 87Rb and metastable triplet 4He atoms we have studied trap loss for different spin-state combinations, for which interspecies Penning ionization is the main two-body loss process. We observe long trapping lifetimes for the purely quartet spin-state combination, indicating strong suppression of Penning-ionization loss by at least two orders of magnitude. For the other spin mixtures we observe short lifetimes that depend linearly on the doublet character of the entrance channel. We compare the extracted loss rate coefficient with recent predictions of multichannel quantum-defect theory for reactive collisions involving a strong exothermic loss channel and find near-universal loss for doublet scattering. Our work demonstrates control of Penning-ionization reactive collisions by internal atomic state preparation.

  15. Defining the Pen Islands Caribou Herd of southern Hudson Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth F. Abraham

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the Pen Islands Herd of caribou, the largest aggregation of caribou in Ontario (it also occupies a portion of northeastern Manitoba. Photographic counts showed the herd had a minimum population of 2300 in 1979, 4660 in 1986, 7424 in 1987 and 10 798 in 1994. Throughout the 1980s, the Pen Islands caribou exhibited population behaviour similar to migratory barren-ground caribou herds, although morphology suggests they are woodland caribou or possibly a mixture of subspecies. The herd had well-defined traditional tundra calving grounds, formed nursery groups and large mobile post-calving aggregations, and migrated over 400 km between tundra summer habitats and boreal forest winter habitats. Its migration took it into three Canadian jurisdictions (Ontario, Manitoba, Northwest Territories and it was important to residents of both Manitoba and Ontario. It is clear that the herd should be managed as a migratory herd and the critical importance of both the coastal and variable large winter ranges should be noted in ensuring the herd's habitat needs are secure.

  16. Electron attachment to anionic clusters in ion traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Franklin, E-mail: franklin.martinez@uni-rostock.de [University of Rostock, Institute of Physics (Germany); Bandelow, Steffi; Marx, Gerrit; Schweikhard, Lutz; Vass, Albert [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University, Institute of Physics (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Ion traps are versatile tools for the investigation of gas-phase cluster ions, allowing, e.g., cluster-size selection and extended reaction times. Taking advantage of their particular storage capability of simultaneous trapping of electrons and clusters, Penning traps have been applied for the production of clusters with high negative charge states. Recently, linear radio-frequency quadrupole traps have been demonstrated to be another candidate to produce polyanionic clusters. Operation with rectangular, rather than harmonic, radio-frequency voltages provides field-free time slots for unhindered electron passage through the trap. Several aspects of electron-attachment techniques by means of Penning and radio-frequency traps are addressed and recent experimental results are presented.

  17. Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizes a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.

  18. The "Canadian" in Canadian Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Wolodko, Brenda

    2001-01-01

    Notes that a rich body of Canadian children's literature exists that reflects the country's literary and socio-cultural values, beliefs, themes and images, including those of geography, history, language and identity. Discusses how Canadians tend to identify themselves first by region or province and then by nation. (SG)

  19. Canadian Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Libraries in Canada, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Includes 15 articles that relate to Canadian children's literature, including the power of literature; using Canadian literature in Canada; the principal's role in promoting literacy; Canadian Children's Book Centre; the National Library of Canada's children's literature collection; book promotion; selection guide; publisher's perspective; and…

  20. Negative Ion Sources: Magnetron and Penning

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, D C

    2013-01-01

    The history of the magnetron and Penning electrode geometry is briefly outlined. Plasma generation by electrical discharge-driven electron impact ionization is described and the basic physics of plasma and electrodes relevant to magnetron and Penning discharges are explained. Negative ions and their applications are introduced, along with their production mechanisms. Caesium and surface production of negative ions are detailed. Technical details of how to build magnetron and Penning surface plasma sources are given, along with examples of specific sources from around the world. Failure modes are listed and lifetimes compared.

  1. Ion trap system for radioactive ions at JYFL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolhinen, V.S.; Jokinen, A.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Szerypo, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics (Finland); Aeystoe, J. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    The goal of the ion trap project in Jyvaeskylae is to improve the quality of radioactive beams at IGISOL (Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line), in terms of transverse emittance, energy spread and purity. This improvement is achieved with an aid of an RFQ cooler/buncher and a mass-selective cylindrical Penning trap (mass resolving power up to 10{sup 5}). Their final purpose is to produce cooled isobarically pure beams of exotic radioactivities mainly of exotic neutron-rich isotopes from fission (including refractory elements). In the Penning trap ions are confined in three dimensions in a superposition of static quadrupole electric and homogeneous magnetic fields. The magnetic field confines the ions in two dimensions in a plane perpendicular to the field direction. A confinement in the third, magnetic field direction (parallel to the trap axis) is done by a quadrupole electric field. The Penning trap system in Jyvaeskylae (JYFLTRAP) will contain two cylindrical Penning traps placed inside the same superconducting magnet (B=7 T). The first, purification trap, will accept cooled (continuous or bunched) beams from the RFQ cooler/buncher and perform the isobaric purification. The latter is - done using a combination of a buffer gas cooling and an azimuthal quadrupole RF-field providing mass- dependent centering of ions. This, in turn, allows mass-selective ejection of ions in short pulses. Clean monoisotopic bunched beams will be delivered for the nuclear spectroscopy studies, collinear laser spectroscopy experiments and precise nuclear mass measurements (10{sup -7} precision). The latter will be performed in the second, precision Penning trap (author)

  2. Tips for Traveling with HomePEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Fullest Coping Strategies Emergency Preparedness Ideas & Products Restaurant/Bathroom Cards Swimming Travel Medical Air Transport Serivces ... experience a difficulties with your homePEN. For your convenience and peace of mind, Oley produces a complication ...

  3. Pen- Name in Persian and Arabic Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Khodayar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pen-name (Takhalloss is one of the main features of Persian poetry. It has been a matter of concern among many of Persian language geography poets in the orient at least up to the Mashrouteh era. Pen-name has been promoted among the other Muslim nations throuph Persian poetry. Although it is not as famous in the Arab nations as in the Persian speaking nations, it is known as “Alqab-o-shoara” among the Arab nations and, through this way, it has affected the poetrical wealth of the Arabic poets.   The Present paper, using description-analystic approach, compares the pen-names of Persian and Arabic poets under the title of “pen-names” and investigates their features in both cultures. The main research question is: What are the similarities and differences of poetic-names, in Persian and Arabic poets in terms of the type of name, position and importance? The results showed that Pseudonym by its amazing expansion in Persian poetry has also influenced Arabic poetry. In addition to the factors affecting in the choice of pen-names (like pseudonym, pen-name, nickname..., sometimes such external factors as events, commends, community benefactors and climate, as well as internal factors including the poets’ inner beliefs are associated too. .

  4. Single Microwave Photon Detection with a Trapped Electron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April Cridland

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate theoretically the use of an electron in a Penning trap as a detector of single microwave photons. At the University of Sussex we are developing a chip Penning trap technology, designed to be integrated within quantum circuits. Microwave photons are guided into the trap and interact with the electron’s quantum cyclotron motion. This is an electric dipole transition, where the near field of the microwave radiation induces quantum jumps of the cyclotron harmonic oscillator. The quantum jumps can be monitored using the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect, providing the quantum non demolition signal of the microwave quanta. We calculate the quantum efficiency of photon detection and discuss the main features and technical challenges for the trapped electron as a quantum microwave sensor.

  5. Pen-and-Paper User Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Steimle, Jurgen

    2012-01-01

    Even at the beginning of the 21st century, we are far from becoming paperless. Pen and paper is still the only truly ubiquitous information processing technology. Pen-and-paper user interfaces bridge the gap between paper and the digital world. Rather than replacing paper with electronic media, they seamlessly integrate both worlds in a hybrid user interface. Classical paper documents become interactive. This opens up a huge field of novel computer applications at our workplaces and in our homes. This book provides readers with a broad and extensive overview of the field, so as to provide a fu

  6. Trapped charged particles a graduate textbook with problems and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Niels; Thompson, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    At Les Houches in January 2015, experts in the field of particle trapping came together to discuss the fundamental physics of traps and the different types of applications. This textbook collates the lectures delivered there; the Second Winter School on Physics with Trapped Charged Particles. Taken as a whole, the book gives an overview of why traps for charged particles are important, how they work, their special features and limitations, and their application in areas such as precision measurements, mass spectrometry, optical clocks, plasma physics, antihydrogen creation, quantum simulation and quantum information processing. Chapters from various world experts include those on the basic properties of Penning traps, RF traps and particle accelerators, as well as those covering important practical aspects such as vacuum systems, detection techniques, and different types of particle cooling including laser cooling. Finally, individual chapters deal with the different areas of application listed above. Each ...

  7. Pen of Health Care Worker as Vector of Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Patil

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections are the major concern in tertiary hospitals. Health care workers and their belonging are known to act as vector in transmission of infections. In present study, the writing pen of health care workers was worked out for carrying infection. The swab from writing pen of health care workers were cultured for any growth of microorganism and compared with swab from pen of the non health care workers. It was found that the rate of growth of microorganism were more in pen of health care workers. Similarly the organism attributed to the nosocomial infection was grown from the pens of health care workers. These organisms might be transmitted from the hands of health care workers. The writing pen which health care worker are using became the vectors of transmission of infection. So to prevent it, the most important way is to wash the hands and pen properly after examining the patients.

  8. Plasma-beam traps and radiofrequency quadrupole beam coolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiore, M; Cavenago, M; Comunian, M; Chirulotto, F; Galatà, A; De Lazzari, M; Porcellato, A M; Roncolato, C; Stark, S; Caruso, A; Longhitano, A; Cavaliere, F; Maero, G; Paroli, B; Pozzoli, R; Romé, M

    2014-02-01

    Two linear trap devices for particle beam manipulation (including emittance reduction, cooling, control of instabilities, dust dynamics, and non-neutral plasmas) are here presented, namely, a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) beam cooler and a compact Penning trap with a dust injector. Both beam dynamics studies by means of dedicated codes including the interaction of the ions with a buffer gas (up to 3 Pa pressure), and the electromagnetic design of the RFQ beam cooler are reported. The compact multipurpose Penning trap is aimed to the study of multispecies charged particle samples, primarily electron beams interacting with a background gas and/or a micrometric dust contaminant. Using a 0.9 T solenoid and an electrode stack where both static and RF electric fields can be applied, both beam transport and confinement operations will be available. The design of the apparatus is presented.

  9. Maximum Likelihood Analysis in the PEN Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Martin

    2013-10-01

    The experimental determination of the π+ -->e+ ν (γ) decay branching ratio currently provides the most accurate test of lepton universality. The PEN experiment at PSI, Switzerland, aims to improve the present world average experimental precision of 3 . 3 ×10-3 to 5 ×10-4 using a stopped beam approach. During runs in 2008-10, PEN has acquired over 2 ×107 πe 2 events. The experiment includes active beam detectors (degrader, mini TPC, target), central MWPC tracking with plastic scintillator hodoscopes, and a spherical pure CsI electromagnetic shower calorimeter. The final branching ratio will be calculated using a maximum likelihood analysis. This analysis assigns each event a probability for 5 processes (π+ -->e+ ν , π+ -->μ+ ν , decay-in-flight, pile-up, and hadronic events) using Monte Carlo verified probability distribution functions of our observables (energies, times, etc). A progress report on the PEN maximum likelihood analysis will be presented. Work supported by NSF grant PHY-0970013.

  10. A CF4 based positron trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanović, Srdjan; Banković, Ana; Cassidy, David; Cooper, Ben; Deller, Adam; Dujko, Saša; Petrović, Zoran Lj

    2016-11-01

    All buffer-gas positron traps in use today rely on N2 as the primary trapping gas due to its conveniently placed {{{a}}}1{{\\Pi }} electronic excitation cross-section. The energy loss per excitation in this process is 8.5 eV, which is sufficient to capture positrons from low-energy moderated beams into a Penning-trap configuration of electric and magnetic fields. However, the energy range over which this cross-section is accessible overlaps with that for positronium (Ps) formation, resulting in inevitable losses and setting an intrinsic upper limit on the overall trapping efficiency of ∼25%. In this paper we present a numerical simulation of a device that uses CF4 as the primary trapping gas, exploiting vibrational excitation as the main inelastic capture process. The threshold for such excitations is far below that for Ps formation and hence, in principle, a CF4 trap can be highly efficient; our simulations indicate that it may be possible to achieve trapping efficiencies as high as 90%. We also report the results of an attempt to re-purpose an existing two-stage N2-based buffer-gas positron trap. Operating the device using CF4 proved unsuccessful, which we attribute to back scattering and expansion of the positron beam following interactions with the CF4 gas, and an unfavourably broad longitudinal beam energy spread arising from the magnetic field differential between the source and trap regions. The observed performance was broadly consistent with subsequent simulations that included parameters specific to the test system, and we outline the modifications that would be required to realise efficient positron trapping with CF4. However, additional losses appear to be present which require further investigation through both simulation and experiment.

  11. The Study of Canadian Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Eli

    1971-01-01

    Discussed are Canadian novels, short stories, poems and a film which revolve around man's confrontation with nature, the depression, the problem of isolation, realism in Canadian literature. (Author/AF)

  12. Usability of the Stylus Pen in Mobile Electronic Documentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunil Park

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Stylus pens are often used with mobile information devices. However, few studies have examined the stylus’ simple movements because the technical expertise to support documentation with stylus pens has not been developed. This study examined the usability of stylus pens in authentic documentation tasks, including three main tasks (sentence, table, and paragraph making with two types of styluses (touchsmart stylus and mobile stylus and a traditional pen. The statistical results showed that participants preferred the traditional pen in all criteria. Because of inconvenient hand movements, the mobile stylus was the least preferred on every task. Mobility does not provide any advantage in using the stylus. In addition, the study also found inconvenient hand support using a stylus and different feedback between a stylus and a traditional pen.

  13. Trapped antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, E; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Jonsell, S; Jørgensen, L V; Kemp, S L; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Rasmussen, C Ø; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Seif el Nasr, S; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki,Y

    2012-01-01

    Precision spectroscopic comparison of hydrogen and antihydrogen holds the promise of a sensitive test of the Charge-Parity-Time theorem and matter-antimatter equivalence. The clearest path towards realising this goal is to hold a sample of antihydrogen in an atomic trap for interrogation by electromagnetic radiation. Achieving this poses a huge experimental challenge, as state-of-the-art magnetic-minimum atom traps have well depths of only ∼1 T (∼0.5 K for ground state antihydrogen atoms). The atoms annihilate on contact with matter and must be ‘born’ inside the magnetic trap with low kinetic energies. At the ALPHA experiment, antihydrogen atoms are produced from antiprotons and positrons stored in the form of non-neutral plasmas, where the typical electrostatic potential energy per particle is on the order of electronvolts, more than 104 times the maximum trappable kinetic energy. In November 2010, ALPHA published the observation of 38 antiproton annihilations due to antihydrogen atoms that had been ...

  14. Teaching Canadian Literature: An Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, W. John

    1984-01-01

    Suggests granting greater recognition to the artistic integrity of Canadian literature by removing it from the broader context of Canadian studies. Indicates that understanding and appreciation of Canadian literature as a representation of reality filtered through the perception of an author should be focus of literature in schools. (NEC)

  15. Coefficient of variation and Power Pen's parade computation

    OpenAIRE

    Sadefo Kamdem, Jules

    2011-01-01

    Under the the assumption that income y is a power function of its rank among n individuals, we approximate the coefficient of variation and gini index as functions of the power degree of the Pen's parade. Reciprocally, for a given coefficient of variation or gini index, we propose the analytic expression of the degree of the power Pen's parade; we can then compute the Pen's parade.

  16. French Pen Pals Made Easy KS3

    CERN Document Server

    Leleu, Sinéad

    2010-01-01

    French Pen Pals Made Easy provides an easy way for pupils to communicate in French with other French speakers. It contains fill-in-the-gap letters, so even pupils just beginning to learn French can have the satisfaction of being able to communicate effectively in French. The format is ideal for non-specialist teachers as it does not require fluency and little or no preparation is required. English translations of the letters are included, as are lists of vocabulary, key grammar points and exten

  17. Improvement of extraction system geometry with suppression of possible Penning discharge ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delferrière, O.; Gobin, R.; Harrault, F.; Nyckees, S.; Tuske, O.

    2014-02-01

    During the past two years, a new ECR 2.45 GHz type ion source has been developed especially dedicated to intense light ion injector project like IPHI (Injecteur Proton Haute Intensité), IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility), to reduce beam emittance at RFQ entrance by shortening the length of the LEBT. This new ALISES concept (Advanced Light Ion Source Extraction System) is based on the use of an additional LEBT short length solenoid very close to the extraction aperture. The fringe field of this new solenoid produces the needed magnetic field to create the ECR resonance in the plasma chamber. Such geometry allows first putting the solenoid at ground potential, while saving space in front of the extraction to move the first LEBT solenoid closer and focus earlier the intense extracted beam. During the commissioning of the source in 2011-2012, ALISES has produced about 20 mA extracted from a 6 mm diameter plasma extraction hole at 23 kV. But the magnetic configuration combined to the new extraction system geometry led to important Penning discharge conditions in the accelerator column. Lots of them have been eliminated by inserting glass pieces between electrodes to modify equipotential lines with unfavorable ExB vacuum zones where particles were produced and trapped. To study Penning discharge location, several 3D calculations have been performed with OPERA-3D/TOSCA code to simulate the possible production and trapping of electrons in the extraction system. The results obtained on different sources already built have shown very good agreement with sparks location observed experimentally on electrodes. The simulations results as well as experimental measurements are presented and solutions to prevent possible Penning discharge in future source geometries are established.

  18. Twitter and Canadian Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Max

    2012-01-01

    An emerging group of leaders in Canadian education has attracted thousands of followers. They've made Twitter an extension of their lives, delivering twenty or more tweets a day that can include, for example, links to media articles, research, new ideas from education bloggers, or to their own, or simply a personal thought. At their best,…

  19. Canadian Adult Basic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, W. Michael, Comp.

    "Trends," a publication of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, is a collection of abstracts on selected subjects affecting adult education; this issue is on adult basic education (ABE). It covers teachers and teacher training, psychological factors relating to the ABE teacher and students, manuals for teachers, instructional…

  20. Ion cyclotron resonance detection techniques at TRIGA-TRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuth, K.; Eberhardt, K.; Ketelaer, J. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Beyer, T.; Blaum, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, Heidelberg (Germany); Block, M.; Herfurth, F. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Eibach, M.; Smorra, C. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, Heidelberg (Germany); Nagy, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In Penning trap mass spectrometry the mass of stored ions is obtained via a determination of the cyclotron frequency ({nu}{sub c}=qB/(2 {pi} m)), for which two different techniques are available. The destructive time-of-flight ion cyclotron resonance (TOF-ICR) technique, based on the measurement of the flight time of excited ions, is the established method for measurements on short-lived radionuclides. It is not ideally suited for rarely produced ion species, since typically some hundred ions are required for a single resonance spectrum. At the Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP therefore a non-destructive narrow-band Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) detection system is being developed. It is based on the detection of the image currents induced by the stored ions in the trap electrodes and will ultimately reach single ion sensitivity. TRIGA-TRAP also features broad-band FT-ICR detection for the coarse identification of the trap content. Additionally, the TOF-ICR detection system has been recently improved to utilize the Ramsey excitation technique to gain in precision, and the position information of the ion impact to further suppress background events in the final time-of-flight spectrum.

  1. Dosing Accuracy of Insulin Pens Versus Conventional Syringes and Vials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.M. Luijf; J.H. Devries

    2010-01-01

    Pen injection devices have acquired a pivotal role in insulin delivery, surpassing the use of conventional insulin syringes in many parts of the world. In this review we sought to determine differences in dosing accuracy between insulin pens and conventional syringes and vials, also touching on pati

  2. CANLIT (Canadian Literature) Teachers' Crash Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CANLIT, Toronto (Ontario).

    As a result of a study of the situation of Canadian literature in Canadian high schools and universities, this course was developed to provide teachers with useful information about Canadian literature. Included in this kit are sections on Canadian literature (the great debate about the importance of Canadian content), history and sources…

  3. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from feedlot pen surface materials as affected by within pen location, moisture, and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effects of pen location, moisture, and temperature on emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from surface materials obtained from feedlot pens where beef cattle were fed a diet containing 30% wet distillers grain plus solubles. Surface material...

  4. Canadian Mathematical Congress

    CERN Document Server

    1977-01-01

    For two weeks in August, 1975 more than 140 mathematicians and other scientists gathered at the Universite de Sherbrooke. The occasion was the 15th Biennial Seminar of the Canadian Mathematical Congress, entitled Mathematics and the Life Sciences. Participants in this inter­ disciplinary gathering included researchers and graduate students in mathematics, seven different areas of biological science, physics, chemistry and medical science. Geographically, those present came from the United States and the United Kingdom as well as from academic departments and government agencies scattered across Canada. In choosing this particular interdisciplinary topic the programme committee had two chief objectives. These were to promote Canadian research in mathematical problems of the life sciences, and to encourage co-operation and exchanges between mathematical scientists" biologists and medical re­ searchers. To accomplish these objective the committee assembled a stim­ ulating programme of lectures and talks. Six ...

  5. Charge Breeding Techniques in an Electron Beam Ion Trap for High Precision Mass Spectrometry at TITAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, T. D.; Simon, M. C.; Bale, J. C.; Chowdhury, U.; Eibach, M.; Gallant, A. T.; Lennarz, A.; Simon, V. V.; Chaudhuri, A.; Grossheim, A.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Schultz, B. E.; Dilling, J.

    2012-10-01

    Penning trap mass spectrometry is the most accurate and precise method available for performing atomic mass measurements. TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear science is currently the only facility to couple its Penning trap to a rare isotope facility and an electron beam ion trap (EBIT). The EBIT is a valuable tool for beam preparation: since the precision scales linearly with the charge state, it takes advantage of the precision gained by using highly charged ions. However, this precision gain is contingent on fast and efficient charge breeding. An optimization algorithm has been developed to identify the optimal conditions for running the EBIT. Taking only the mass number and half-life of the isotope of interest as inputs, the electron beam current density, charge breeding time, charge state, and electron beam energy are all specified to maximize this precision. An overview of the TITAN charge breeding program, and the results of charge breeding simulations will be presented.

  6. Canadian identity: Implications for international social work by Canadians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2011-01-01

    This paper is in response to recent calls to conceptualize and articulate Canadian perspectives and experiences in international social work, given that the Canadian standpoint has been lacking in international social work literature. This paper contends that it is imperative, first of all......, to critically examine and unpack our ‘Canadian’ identity in order to practice international work that is socially just and anti-imperialist. Drawing on the work of post-colonial authors, critical race theorists, and those who study national myth-making, this essay revisits Canadian identity because...... it is this identity that Canadian social workers often carry into their international work....

  7. Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon H Hoeppner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic tuberculosis (TB was almost certainly present in Canadian aboriginal people (aboriginal Canadians denotes status Indians, Inuit, nonstatus Indians and metis as reported by Statistics Canada before the Old World traders arrived. However, the social changes that resulted from contact with these traders created the conditions that converted endemic TB into epidemic TB. The incidence of TB varied inversely with the time interval from this cultural collision, which began on the east coast in the 16th century and ended in the Northern Territories in the 20th century. This relatively recent epidemic explains why the disease is more frequent in aboriginal children than in Canadian-born nonaboriginal people. Treatment plans must account for the socioeconomic conditions and cultural characteristics of the aboriginal people, especially healing models and language. Prevention includes bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and chemoprophylaxis, and must account for community conditions, such as rates of suicide, which have exceeded the rate of TB. The control of TB requires a centralized program with specifically directed funding. It must include a program that works in partnership with aboriginal communities.

  8. Annual Trapping Proposal 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Annual Trapping Plan for the 1984-1985 trapping season at Clarence Cannon NWR outlines rules and regulations for the trapping of beaver and muskrat on the...

  9. Search for new physics in $\\beta$-neutrino correlations using trapped ions and a retardation spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    Coeck, S; Lienard, E; Zboril, M; Zakoucky, D; Severijns, N

    2002-01-01

    The WITCH set-up is a combination of two Penning ion traps and a retardation spectrometer for recoil ions from $\\beta$-decay. It was installed at ISOLDE in the past four years. In this addendum the present status of the experiment is described and beam time is asked to further improve the set-up and perform first measurements.

  10. On Realities of Canadian Multiculturalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦辰

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a multicultural country which was mainly established by immigrants. Just because of that, Canadian govern⁃ment has carried out the policy of multiculturalism since1970s. However, it has encountered many problems such as policy con⁃flicts, national identity, democracy-inquiry and racial discrimination, etc. Hence the Canadian multiculturalism has been in a di⁃lemma.

  11. Doctor--how do I use my EpiPen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehr, Sam; Robinson, Marnie; Tang, Mimi

    2007-08-01

    Parents and children who have been prescribed an Epipen are often unable to demonstrate its correct administration. One contributory factor may be that doctors are unfamiliar with the EpiPen and are unable to demonstrate the correct administration of the pen to the family. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of correct EpiPen demonstration by junior and Senior Medical Staff at a major tertiary paediatric Hospital. Junior and Senior medical staff were scored on their ability to correctly use the EpiPen trainer. A 6 step scoring system was used. One-hundred doctors were recruited (Residents n = 31, Senior Residents n = 39, Fellow/Consultants n = 30). Junior and Senior Medical staff had similar scores for EpiPen demonstration, the number that needed to read the EpiPen instructions prior to use and the frequancy of accidental self-injection into the thumb. Only two doctors (2%) demonstrated all 6 administration steps correctly. The most frequent errors made were not holding the pen in place for >5 seconds (57%), failure to apply pressure to activate (21%), and self-injection into the thumb (16%). Ninety five doctors needed to read the instructions, and of these, only 39 (41%) then proceeded to correctly demonstrate the remaining 5 steps. Forty-five doctors had previously dispensed an EpiPen, but only three demonstrated its use to parents/children with a trainer. The majority of doctors do not know how to use an Epipen and are unable to provide appropriate education to parents/children. In 37% of cases, the demonstration would not have delivered adrenaline to a patient.

  12. In-trap decay spectroscopy for {beta}{beta} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Thomas

    2011-01-18

    The presented work describes the implementation of a new technique to measure electron-capture (EC) branching ratios (BRs) of intermediate nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. This technique has been developed at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. It facilitates one of TRIUMF's Ion Traps for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN), the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) that is used as a spectroscopy Penning trap. Radioactive ions, produced at the radioactive isotope facility ISAC, are injected and stored in the spectroscopy Penning trap while their decays are observed. A key feature of this technique is the use of a strong magnetic field, required for trapping. It radially confines electrons from {beta} decays along the trap axis while X-rays, following an EC, are emitted isotropically. This provides spatial separation of X-ray and {beta} detection with almost no {beta}-induced background at the X-ray detector, allowing weak EC branches to be measured. Furthermore, the combination of several traps allows one to isobarically clean the sample prior to the in-trap decay spectroscopy measurement. This technique has been developed to measure ECBRs of transition nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. Detailed knowledge of these electron capture branches is crucial for a better understanding of the underlying nuclear physics in {beta}{beta} decays. These branches are typically of the order of 10{sup -5} and therefore difficult to measure. Conventional measurements suffer from isobaric contamination and a dominating {beta} background at theX-ray detector. Additionally, X-rays are attenuated by the material where the radioactive sample is implanted. To overcome these limitations, the technique of in-trap decay spectroscopy has been developed. In this work, the EBIT was connected to the TITAN beam line and has been commissioned. Using the developed beam diagnostics, ions were injected into the Penning trap and systematic studies on injection and storage optimization were performed. Furthermore, Ge

  13. Shrew trap efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gambalemoke, Mbalitini; Mukinzi, Itoka; Amundala, Drazo

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of four trap types (pitfall, Sherman LFA, Victor snap and Museum Special snap traps) to capture shrews. This experiment was conducted in five inter-riverine forest blocks in the region of Kisangani. The total trapping effort was 6,300, 9,240, 5,280 and 5,460 trap-ni...

  14. Analysis of roller pen inks by capillary zone electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Pengcheng; WANG Yanji; XU Yuanyuan; YAO Lijuan

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of roller pen inks has become more and more important in fraudulent document examination because of the extensive use of roller pens in financial documents.Capillary electrophoresis with powerful resolution was applied for the analysis of roller pen inks.The experiment focused on the optimization of the separation of the extract from commercially available roller pen entries.A better separation electropherogram was obtained when a 20 mM borate buffer at pH 8.5 and a fused silica capillary with an inner diameter of 100 μm with a total length of 47 (40 cm to the detector window)were used.Five inks from roller pens of different manufacturers and countries were analyzed,and their electropherograms showed that most patterns are distinctly different from each other.Capillary with inner diameter of 100 μm increased the intensity of determination;therefore,color dyes were identified in the visible range and were able to provide more information for comparing types of roller pen inks.

  15. Canadian construction industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, M.

    2001-07-01

    The principal sectors of the Canadian construction industry - commercial, industrial, institutional and residential - are examined with regard to their technical considerations concerning the subject of sustainability. Apart from the different needs of each of the sectors of the industry there are also regional differences caused by population distribution, and differences in climate, that have to be identified and accommodated in considering attitudes to recycling and sustainable development. Some indications that there is growing awareness of recycling and reuse are: the increasing frequency of life cycle costing in the commercial and institutional sectors, the use of recycled or otherwise waste materials in concrete, examples of using steel supporting structures and roof joists salvaged from previous uncompleted projects in the industrial sector, improved building envelope and indoor air quality concerns, collective ground source heating, and new basement and framing technologies and construction materials in the residential sector. These improvements notwithstanding, there remains much to be done. The new objective-based National Building Code, for which comments are now being solicited across the country, is expected to identify new and innovative solutions and to kick-start serious efforts to come up with solutions towards increasing overall sustainability in all sectors of the Canadian construction industry.

  16. Ion traps for precision experiments at rare-isotope-beam facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Anna

    2016-09-01

    Ion traps first entered experimental nuclear physics when the ISOLTRAP team demonstrated Penning trap mass spectrometry of radionuclides. From then on, the demand for ion traps has grown at radioactive-ion-beam (RIB) facilities since beams can be tailored for the desired experiment. Ion traps have been deployed for beam preparation, from bunching (thereby allowing time coincidences) to beam purification. Isomerically pure beams needed for nuclear-structure investigations can be prepared for trap-assisted or in-trap decay spectroscopy. The latter permits studies of highly charged ions for stellar evolution, which would be impossible with traditional experimental nuclear-physics methods. Moreover, the textbook-like conditions and advanced ion manipulation - even of a single ion - permit high-precision experiments. Consequently, the most accurate and precise mass measurements are now performed in Penning traps. After a brief introduction to ion trapping, I will focus on examples which showcase the versatility and utility of the technique at RIB facilities. I will demonstrate how this atomic-physics technique has been integrated into nuclear science, accelerator physics, and chemistry. DOE.

  17. Grade 3 Students Explore the Question, "What's Canadian about Canadian Children's Literature?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleo, Sylvia

    2000-01-01

    Explores third graders' responses to the question "What's Canadian about Canadian Children's Literature?" Describes 6 picture books and summarizes students' responses to each. Finds students mentioned geographical aspects as characteristic of Canadian literature, and they felt Canadian children's literature should reflect Canadian "experiences."…

  18. Problems in the Study of Canadian Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Barry

    1980-01-01

    Considers reasons for studying Canadian literature. Notes the relative infancy of Canadian literature and the need for maintaining objectivity in the study of Canadian literature. Proposes that teachers of Canadian literature focus on individual, contemporary works, examining language, form, and craftsmanship. (RL)

  19. [Canadian Literature. "Featuring: CanLit."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycock, Ken, Ed.; Haycock, Carol-Ann, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    The feature articles in this journal issue deal with various aspects of Canadian literature. The articles include: (1) a discussion of who's who and what's what in Canadian literature; (2) reviews of worthwhile but overlooked Canadian children's literature; (3) a list of resource guides to Canadian literature and a short quiz over famous first…

  20. A carbon-cluster laser ion source for TRIGA-TRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smorra, C; Eberhardt, K [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Kernchemie, Fritz-Strassmann Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Blaum, K [Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Physikalisches Institut, Philosophenweg 12, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Eibach, M; Ketelaer, J; Ketter, J; Knuth, K [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik, Staudingerweg 7, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Nagy, Sz, E-mail: smorrac@uni-mainz.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2009-08-14

    A new laser ablation ion source was developed and tested for the Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP in order to provide carbon-cluster ions for absolute mass calibration. Ions of different cluster sizes up to C{sup +}{sub 24} were successfully produced, covering the mass range up to the heavy actinide elements. The ions were captured in a Penning trap, and their time-of-flight cyclotron resonances recorded in order to determine their cyclotron frequency. Furthermore, the same ion source was used to produce GdO{sup +} ions from a gadolinium target in sufficient amount for mass spectrometry purposes. The design of the source and its characteristics are presented.

  1. AC Stark cooling of C 2 - ion in penning trap using Simbuca

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Hao

    2016-01-01

    This article is going to summarize work I did in my 2 month project on AC Stark cooling simulation, and the object is to help my colleague carry on it and make further progress. In this article, I will meanly explain the formula I used, the content and flowchart of my c++ code, some conclusion and knowledge we obtained about cooling efficiency from our simulation, and some important tips we noticed before.

  2. Searching for Physics Beyond the Standard Model with the World's Largest Penning Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, B. Lee

    2015-05-01

    Measurements of the magnetic moments of the electron and muon were intertwined with the development of the modern physics of the 20th century, where μ --> = g(Qeℏ / 2 m) s --> with Q = +/- 1 and e > 0 . The g-value consists of a Dirac piece and the anomaly, g = 2(1 + a) or a =(g - 2) / 2 . For point-like particles, a arises from radiative corrections. The simplest correction, a = α / 2 π ~= 0 . 00116 ... , was first obtained by Schwinger. This result was also found to describe the muon's magnetic moment, indicating that the muon behaved like a heavy electron in a magnetic field. Loops containing all virtual particles that interact with the muon, including as yet undiscovered ones, can contribute to the muon anomaly. The relative contribution from heavier particles to the muon and electron anomalies scales as (mμ /me) 2 ~= 43 , 000 , giving the muon a distinct advantage in the search for effects from New Physics. E821 at the Brookhaven AGS obtained a relative precision of +/- 0 . 54 ppm, half the magnitude of the contributions from the Z and W gauge bosons. This result differs from the Standard-Model prediction by > 3 σ . To clarify whether this difference is a harbinger of New Physics beyond the Standard Model, E989 is being mounted at Fermilab with a design precision of 140 ppb. The 700 ton, 14 m diameter storage ring magnet will be shimmed to a point-to-point magnetic dipole field uniformity of +/- 25 ppm over the 1.137 m3 volume where the muon beam is stored, with the azimuthal averaged uniformity theory and the motivation for this new experiment, along with the experimental technique and outlook. This work supported in part by the US DOE and NSF.

  3. Characterization of recombinant shrimp allergen Pen a 1 (tropomyosin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, G; Jeoung, B J; Daul, C B; Lehrer, S B

    1997-01-01

    Tropomyosin (Pen a 1) from brown shrimp, Penaeus aztecus, has been identified as the only major shrimp allergen. Since beef, pork and chicken are other tropomyosin-containing foods that are not very allergenic, tropomyosins can serve to investigate the contribution of the structural properties of a protein to its allergenicity. The aim of this study was to determine the primary structure of Pen a 1 and to identify IgE-binding epitopes. The screening of a unidirectional expression cDNA library from shrimp tail muscle with the Pen-a-1-specific monoclonal antibody 4.9.5 resulted in 4 positive Escherichia coli clones. Immunoblot analysis with human sera from shrimp-allergic subjects demonstrated IgE binding of all 4 recombinant shrimp proteins. Three of 4 expressed recombinant proteins have a molecular weight of approximately 36 kD, consistent with the molecular weight of natural Pen a 1. The DNA sequence analysis identified these recombinant shrimp proteins as tropomyosin and could be aligned with the sequence of greasyback shrimp (Metapenaeus ensis) tropomyosin (Met e 1). In order to characterize contiguous IgE-binding epitopes of Pen a 1, a peptide library (Novagen epitope mapping system) expressing 10-30 amino-acid-residue-long recombinant Pen a 1 peptides was constructed and screened with human IgE. Four recombinant, IgE-reactive Pen a 1 peptides were selected and sequenced. They show various degrees of sequence identity with tropomyosins of other arthropods, such as fruitfly and house dust mite, helminths and vertebrates.

  4. Picking among pen-reared quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, R.B.; Coburn, D.R.; Titus, H.W.

    1945-01-01

    During five years (1939-43) of nutritional research on pen-reared bobwhite quail at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, observations on picking among birds of all ages showed the following results: 1. Picking occurred on all grains tested: corn, wheat, oats, oat groats, barley, millet, buckwheat, kaffir, and mixtures of cereals. The lowest incidence was with buckwheat as the sole grain in a growing diet....2. Picking occurred on all levels of fiber from one to 11per cent in a growing diet....3. Picking occurred on various grinds of corn, barley, and oats, but was least when these cereals were ground in a hammer mill with 3/32 inch mesh screen....4. The incidence was as high on diets containing animal protein as on those containing no animal protein. ....5. After picking began, the addition of one or two per cent of salt to the diet for several days was effective, in many instances, in checking the disorder. Results at the Refuge and the answers to questionnaires from 222 private propagators of gamebirds showed that in two-thirds. of the cases, treatment with an increased quantity of salt successfully stopped the trouble. As a preventative, however, salt was of little value. Picking occurred on both low and high levels of salt.....6. Supplementing the regular diet with certain feed concentrates such as fishmeal, soybean oil meal, liver meal, or chopped greens offered in a separate feeder for a day or two, was as efficacious as the addition of salt.....7. More picking occurred among quail chicks on a 22 per cent level of protein than on higher levels.....8. There was less picking on diets relished by the birds than on those seemingly unpalatable.....9. There was no correlation. between the amount of floor space per chick and the incidence of picking.....10. Increasing the feeding and drinking space seemed to have a marked beneficial effect.....11. Some adult birds on wire floors resorted to self-picking of their feet after the toes were frost-bitten.

  5. Canadian National Vegetation Classification (CNVC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The mandate of the CNVC is to comprehensively classify and describe natural and semi-natural Canadian vegetation in an ecologically meaningful manner. The...

  6. Canadian Literature Is Comparative Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, E. D.

    1988-01-01

    Argues that the way out of worn out analogies of Canadian literature is found not only by acquiring knowledge of other cultures, but also by abandoning the deceptive parallelisms that overcome differences only by hiding them. (RAE)

  7. St. Croix trap study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains detailed information about the catch from 600 trap stations around St. Croix. Data fields include species caught, size data, trap location...

  8. Small Mammal Trapping 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Small mammal traps were placed in the Baring division and in the Edmunds division of Moosehom National Wildlife Refuge. There were a total of 98 traps set for up to...

  9. Study of Ammonia Emissions in a Ventilated Pig Pen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Li

    Pig productions cause a wide emission of odors, such as ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and methane (CH4). Ammonia is one of the most important emissions for evaluating the air quality either in animal buildings or atmospheric environment. In studies of ammonia emission from animal buildings...... solution temperatures. The results show that the diffusive ceiling ventilation system can provide a relative low velocity in the pig pen and decrease ammonia emissions from the pig pen, but this ventilation system causes high ammonia concentration distribution in the animal occupied zone. Further, our...... reported in literature, little effort has been made to investigate the accuracy of current Henry’s law constant for modeling ammonia mass transfer process and study ammonia emissions in a full scale pig pen from fluid dynamics by CFD simulations. This will be the main objectives of this study. The ammonia...

  10. Early warning of diarrhea and pen fouling in growing pigs using sensor-based monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, D. B.; Toft, N.; Kristensen, A. R.

    Introduction: Today, pig farmers typically asses the health of their pigs while walking through their herd as part of the daily routine. In modern pig production, however, a herd will consists of thousands of pigs in a few hundred pens. If a farmer were to spend just two minutes observing each pen...... positions per pen (hourly), water flow per double-pen (liters/hour/pig) and drinking frequency per pen (activations/hour/pig). Staff registrations of diarrhea and pen fouling were the events of interest. The data were divided into a learning set (15 events) and a test set (18 events). The data were modeled...

  11. Global Liquidity Trap

    OpenAIRE

    Fujiwara, Ippei; NAKAJIMA Tomoyuki; Sudo, Nao; Teranishi, Yuki

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider a two-country New Open Economy Macroeconomics model, and analyze the optimal monetary policy when countries cooperate in the face of a "global liquidity trap" -- i.e., a situation where the two countries are simultaneously caught in liquidity traps. The notable features of the optimal policy in the face of a global liquidity trap are history dependence and international dependence. The optimality of history dependent policy is confirmed as in local liquidity trap. A ...

  12. Ion trap simulation tools.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Benjamin Roger

    2009-02-01

    Ion traps present a potential architecture for future quantum computers. These computers are of interest due to their increased power over classical computers stemming from the superposition of states and the resulting capability to simultaneously perform many computations. This paper describes a software application used to prepare and visualize simulations of trapping and maneuvering ions in ion traps.

  13. Fabrication of Luminescent Nanostructures by Dip-Pen Nanolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noy, A; Miller, A E; Klare, J E; Weeks, B L; Woods, B W; DeYoreo, J J

    2002-06-25

    We used a combination of dip-pen nanolithography and scanning optical confocal microscopy to fabricate and visualize luminescent nanoscale patterns of various materials on glass substrates. We show that this method can be used successfully to push the limits of dip-pen nanolithography down to controlled deposition of single molecules. We also demonstrate that this method is able to create and visualize protein patterns on surfaces. Finally, we show that our method can be used to fabricate polymer nanowires of controlled size using conductive polymers. We also present a kinetic model that accurately describes the deposition process.

  14. Miniaturized Sources and Traps for Spectroscopy of Multicharged Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Joseph; Guise, Nicholas

    2013-05-01

    Penning traps made extremely compact (earth (NdFeB) magnets have been used recently to isolate highly charged ions (HCI) for spectroscopy. For example, radiative lifetimes of metastable states are measured by observing the visible fluorescence emitted by isolated Ar XIV (441 nm, 2p 2P3/2 --> 2p 2P1/2) and Kr XVIII (637 nm, 3d 2D3/2 --> 3d 2D1/2) . These measurements use HCIs extracted from an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at NIST. For planned experiments, a new apparatus is being developed which will incorporate a ``mini-EBIT'' source using similar permanent-magnet structures. It combines a mini-EBIT and a compact Penning trap to facilitate production of multicharged ions including bare nuclei with nuclear charge in the range Z =1 to Z =10, in a cryogen-free setup with multiple ports for laser and atomic beam access to the isolated HCI. One goal is to produce one-electron ions in Rydberg states with transitions accessible to an optical frequency comb. Such engineered atomic systems are sought to enable tests of theory that could illuminate the proton radius puzzle. J.N. Tan, S.M. Brewer, and N.D. Guise, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 023103 (2012).

  15. Superconducting microfabricated ion traps

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shannon X; Labaziewicz, Jaroslaw; Dauler, Eric; Berggren, Karl; Chuang, Isaac L

    2010-01-01

    We fabricate superconducting ion traps with niobium and niobium nitride and trap single 88Sr ions at cryogenic temperatures. The superconducting transition is verified and characterized by measuring the resistance and critical current using a 4-wire measurement on the trap structure, and observing change in the rf reflection. The lowest observed heating rate is 2.1(3) quanta/sec at 800 kHz at 6 K and shows no significant change across the superconducting transition, suggesting that anomalous heating is primarily caused by noise sources on the surface. This demonstration of superconducting ion traps opens up possibilities for integrating trapped ions and molecular ions with superconducting devices.

  16. Experimental study on dipole motion of an ion plasma confined in a linear Paul trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, K., E-mail: kzito@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Okano, T.; Moriya, K.; Fukushima, K.; Higaki, H.; Okamoto, H. [Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    The compact non-neutral plasma trap systems named “S-POD” have been developed at Hiroshima University as an experimental simulator of beam dynamics. S-POD is based either on a linear Paul trap or on a Penning trap and can approximately reproduce the collective motion of a relativistic charged-particle beam observed in the center-of-mass frame. We here employ the Paul trap system to investigate the behavior of an ion plasma near a dipole resonance. A simple method is proposed to calibrate the data of secular frequency measurements by using the dipole instability condition. We also show that the transverse density profile of an ion plasma in the trap can be estimated from the time evolution of ion losses caused by the resonance.

  17. Harvey Cushing's Canadian connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feindel, William

    2003-01-01

    During his surgical career between 1896 and 1934, Harvey Cushing made eight visits to Canada. He had a broad impact on Canadian medicine and neurosurgery. Cushing's students Wilder Penfield and Kenneth McKenzie became outstanding leaders of the two major centers in Canada for neurosurgical treatment and training. On his first trip to Canada, shortly after completing his surgical internship in August 1896, Cushing traveled with members of his family through the Maritime Provinces and visited hospitals in Quebec and Montreal. Eight years later, in February 1904, as a successful young neurosurgeon at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, he reported to the Montreal Medico-Chirurgical Society on his surgical experience in 20 cases of removal of the trigeminal ganglion for neuralgia. In 1922, as the Charles Mickle Lecturer at the University of Toronto, Cushing assigned his honorarium of $1000 to support a neurosurgical fellowship at Harvard. This was awarded to McKenzie, then a general practitioner, for a year's training with Cushing in 1922-1923. McKenzie returned to initiate the neurosurgical services at the Toronto General Hospital, where he developed into a master surgeon and teacher. On Cushing's second visit to McGill University in October 1922, he and Sir Charles Sherrington inaugurated the new Biology Building of McGill's Medical School, marking the first stage of a Rockefeller-McGill program of modernization. In May 1929, Cushing attended the dedication of the Osler Library at McGill. In September 1934, responding to the invitation of Penfield, Cushing presented a Foundation Lecture-one of his finest addresses on the philosophy of neurosurgery-at the opening of the Montreal Neurological Institute. On that same trip, Cushing's revisit to McGill's Osler Library convinced him to turn over his own treasure of historical books to Yale University.

  18. Development of a 3-D Pen Input Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    other form of eLearning portal. However with a pen-type input device, the professors are saved the trouble of either rewriting their notes or copying...and scanning the notes then uploading them into a form of eLearning , then broadcasting them for the distance learning students. Instead, the

  19. Where's your pen pal from?教学设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘淑霞

    2005-01-01

    @@ 教材:新课标七年级(下册) Unit One Where's your pen pal from? Section A 教学目标: 1.学习表示一些国家名称和城市名称的词汇.如:Canada,France,Australia,the United Kingdom,Paris,Toronto,Sydney等.

  20. Le Pen õigustas natside tegevust Prantsusmaal / Margo Pajuste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pajuste, Margo

    2005-01-01

    Prantsuse paremäärmusliku partei juht Jean-Marie Le Pen väitis, et Saksa okupatsioon II maailmasõja ajal Prantsusmaal ei olnud eriti ebainimlik ja et kui väited massimõrvade kohta Prantsusmaal vastaksid tõele, poleks olnud vaja luua koonduslaagreid poliitvangidele. Reageeringutest Le Peni väidete kohta Prantsusmaal

  1. Notas sobre la Penélope de la Odisea

    OpenAIRE

    López Férez, Juan Antonio

    2011-01-01

    27 p. Penélope aparece mencionada ochenta y tres veces en la Odisea. En este artículo se revisan los pasajes más destacados, subrayando los detalles que puedan contribuir a esclarecer la figura de la heroina desde distintos puntos de vista

  2. Novel dip-pen nanolithography strategies for nanopatterning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Chien-Ching

    2010-01-01

    Dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) is an atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based lithography technique offering the possibility of fabricating patterns with feature sizes ranging from micrometers to tens of nanometers, utilizing either top-down or bottom-up strategies. Although during its early development s

  3. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... animal may be injured shall be repaired. (b) Floors of livestock pens, ramps, and driveways shall be constructed and maintained so as to provide good footing for livestock. Slip resistant or waffled floor... the opinion of the inspector, to protect them from the adverse climatic conditions of the locale...

  4. How Should Canadian Literature Be Taught?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colborne, Garnet

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the rationale for and several approaches to teaching Canadian literature, including a cultural and regional approach to Canadian literature, a comparative approach, and a language study approach. (HTH)

  5. Responsible Canadian energy progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents oil and gas companies throughout Canada; its members produce over 90% of Canada's natural gas and crude oil output. The aim of the Association is to improve the economics of the Canadian upstream petroleum sector in an environmentally and socially responsible way. The aim of this Responsible Canadian Energy report is to present the performance data of CAPP's members for the year 2009. Data, trends, and performance analyses are provided throughout the document. This analysis makes it possible to determine where progress has been made and where performance improvement is necessary. It also presents success stories and best practices so that other companies can learn from them how to improve their own performance. This paper provides useful information on the performance of the upstream petroleum industry in Canada and highlights where the focus should be for further improvement in its performance.

  6. Birth of the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Ivan T.

    2004-01-01

    The Canadian Digestive Disease Foundation, renamed the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation -- Fondation canadienne pour la promotion de la santé digestive -- in December 2001, is the culmination of ongoing efforts by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology to establish an independent charitable organization. In February 2001, it was officially endorsed as the Foundation for the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology. The initial efforts to establish this Foundation, led by Dr Richa...

  7. Possible contamination with clenbuterol from treated veal calves to untreated pen mates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.; Lasaroms, J.J.P.; Bennekom, van E.O.; Hende, van J.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether clenbuterol-treated calves could contaminate untreated pen mates, three animal experiments were performed. (1) One calf of a pen of five was treated with clenbuterol by injection (Ventipulmin injection, REG NL 2532, 2.5 mL/100 kg) twice a day for 10 days. (2) In two pens, one

  8. Economic evaluation of the administration of follitropin-beta with a pen device.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruynesteyn, K.; Bonsel, G.J.; Braat, D.D.M.; Fauser, B.C.J.M.; Devroey, P.; Genugten, M.L.L van

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that administration of follitropin-beta with a pen device (Puregon Pen(R)) is more convenient, less painful and 16-18% more efficient. The aim of this study was to perform an economic evaluation of the administration of follitropin-beta by this pen device against follitropin

  9. A Topography for Canadian Curriculum Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Cynthia

    1999-01-01

    Presents challenges to Canadian curriculum theorists: (1) to create curriculum languages and genres that represent all of Canada; (2) to use Canadian scholars and indigenous languages to find these curriculum languages and genres; (3) to seek interpretive tools to understand what it means to be Canadian; and (4) to create curriculum theory that…

  10. Canadian Children's Literature: An Alberta Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Carbonaro, Mike; Green, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the findings of an online survey administered to Alberta elementary school teachers in 2000-2001. The survey explored the teachers' knowledge and use of Canadian children's literature and their thoughts about the role of Canadian literature in elementary school classrooms. Canadian children's trade books espouse particular…

  11. The Ideological Orientations of Canadian University Professors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhaie, M. Reza; Brym, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the ideological orientations of Canadian university professors based on a unique 2000 study of a representative sample of Canadian academics (n=3,318). After summarizing methodological problems with extant research on this subject, and tentatively comparing the political views of Canadian and American academics, the paper…

  12. Trap style influences wild pig behavior and trapping success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B.L.; Holtfreter, R.W.; Ditchkoff, S.S.; Grand, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the efforts of many natural resource professionals, wild pig (Sus scrofa) populations are expanding in many areas of the world. Although many creative techniques for controlling pig populations are being explored, trapping has been and still is themost commonly usedmethod of population control formany public and private land managers. We conducted an observational study to examine the efficiency of 2 frequently used trap styles: a small, portable box-style trap and a larger, semi-permanent, corral-style trap.We used game cameras to examine patterns of trap entry by wild pigs around each style of trap, and we conducted a trapping session to compare trapping success between trap styles. Adult female and juvenile wild pigs entered both styles of trap more readily than did adult males, and adult males seemed particularly averse to entering box traps. Less than 10% of adult male visits to box traps resulted in entries, easily the least percentage of any class at any style of trap. Adult females entered corral traps approximately 2.2 times more often per visit than box traps and re-entered corral traps >2 times more frequently. Juveniles entered and reentered both box and corral traps at similar rates. Overall (all-class) entry-per-visit rates at corral traps (0.71) were nearly double that of box traps (0.37). Subsequent trapping data supported these preliminary entry data; the capture rate for corral traps was >4 times that of box traps. Our data suggest that corral traps are temporally and economically superior to box traps with respect to efficiency; that is, corral traps effectively trap more pigs per trap night at a lower cost per pig than do box traps. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  13. Transnational archives: the Canadian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Creet

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the concept of the transnational archive as a counterpoint to the idea that a national archive is necessarily a locus of a static idea of nation. The Canadian national archives is used as a case study of an archives that was transnational in its inception, and one that has continued to change in its mandate and materials as a response to patterns in migration and changing notions of multiculturalism as a Canadian federal policy. It introduces the most recent formation of the transnational archive and its denizens: the genealogical archive inhabited by family historians.

  14. Microfabricated ion trap array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Matthew G.; Fleming, James G.

    2006-12-26

    A microfabricated ion trap array, comprising a plurality of ion traps having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale ion traps to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microfabricated ion trap array with on-chip circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of the microfabricated ion trap array can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  15. Towards trapped antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, L V; Bertsche, W; Boston, A; Bowe, P D; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Fajans, J; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Gill, D R; Hangst, J S; Hayano, R S; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Page, R D; Povilus, A; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2008-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in the last few years in the nascent field of antihydrogen physics. The next big step forward is expected to be the trapping of the formed antihydrogen atoms using a magnetic multipole trap. ALPHA is a new international project that started to take data in 2006 at CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator facility. The primary goal of ALPHA is stable trapping of cold antihydrogen atoms to facilitate measurements of its properties. We discuss the status of the ALPHA project and the prospects for antihydrogen trapping.

  16. Towards in-trap-spectroscopy at MATS/FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Christine; Moazzami-Fallah, Jasmin; Mueller, Peter; Szerypo, Jurek; Thirolf, Peter [Fakultaet fuer Physik, LMU - Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    A novel in-trap spectroscopy setup is developed at MLLTRAP/Garching to be implemented in the future MATS facility at FAIR/GSI. It combines the high-resolution purification capabilities of a Penning trap with a customized detector trap setup, providing both, storage and detection. In this way, decay-spectroscopy experiments of purified nuclides, free from any background or scattering effects, will become feasible. Here, the main trapping electrodes are replaced by position-sensitive Si-strip detectors and emitted electrons are efficiently guided by the strong field of the trap magnet towards distant electron detectors. Possible experiments are conversion-electron spectroscopy and intrap {alpha}-decay experiments of heavy actinides. Moreover, a coincident detection of an {alpha} decay with an electron detection allows to reconstruct the original positions of electron clouds initiated by shake-off as well as from subsequent conversion decay. Via this decay length, the half-lives of excited (2{sup +}) states populated by {alpha} decay can be derived in a unique type of recoil-distance method. In this presentation, possible physics experiments and the design of the setup are presented.

  17. Canadian contributions studies for the WFIRST instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, J.-F.; Rowlands, N.; Grandmont, F. J.; Lafrenière, D.; Marois, C.; Daigle, O.; Thibault, S.; Schade, D.; Artigau, É.; Brousseau, D.; Maire, J.; Cretot-Richert, G.; Ducharme, M.-È.; Levesque, L. E.; Laurin, D.; Dupuis, J.

    2016-07-01

    WFIRST-AFTA is the NASA's highest ranked astrophysics mission for the next decade that was identified in the New World, New Horizon survey. The mission scientific drivers correspond to some of the deep questions identified in the Canadian LRP2010, and are also of great interest for the Canadian scientists. Given that there is also a great interest in having an international collaboration in this mission, the Canadian Space Agency awarded two contracts to study a Canadian participation in the mission, one related to each instrument. This paper presents a summary of the technical contributions that were considered for a Canadian contribution to the coronagraph and wide field instruments.

  18. The 1998 Canadian Contraception Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William A.; Boroditsky, Richard; Bridges, Martha L.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the 1998 Canadian Contraception Study, a mailed survey which asked women about contraceptive practices past, present, and future (including use of oral contraceptives, condoms, and sterilization); familiarity with and opinion about different contraception methods; and general sexual and reproductive health. The paper also examines…

  19. Universal values of Canadian astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

    2012-11-01

    Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

  20. Canadian Government Electronic Information Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Kirsti

    1993-01-01

    Examines development and evolution of Canadian government information policy in response to issues of preservation of data, information industry involvement in government data development and marketing, role of Crown copyright, and public access to government information in electronic formats. Six key information policy instruments are also…

  1. Canadian Literature in American Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A. Robert

    1973-01-01

    Acquisition of Canadian literature by American libraries was investigated in three ways: questionnaires were sent to selected large libraries, titles were checked against the National Union Catalog'' and published literature describing major collections was examined. With the exception of the Library of Congress, American libraries purchase…

  2. Penning ionization of doped helium nanodroplets following EUV excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Buchta, D; Brauer, N B; Drabbels, M; O'Keeffe, P; Devetta, M; DiFraia, M; Callegari, C; Richter, R; Coreno, M; Prince, K; Stienkemeier, F; Moshammer, R; Mudrich, M

    2013-01-01

    Helium nanodroplets are widely used as a cold, weakly interacting matrix for spectroscopy of embedded species. In this work we excite or ionize doped He droplets using synchrotron radiation and study the effect onto the dopant atoms depending on their location inside the droplets (rare gases) or outside at the droplet surface (alkali metals). Using photoelectron-photoion coincidence imaging spectroscopy at variable photon energies (20-25 eV), we compare the rates of charge-transfer to Penning ionization of the dopants in the two cases. The surprising finding is that alkali metals, in contrast to the rare gases, are efficiently Penning ionized upon excitation of the (n=2)-bands of the host droplets. This indicates rapid migration of the excitation to the droplet surface, followed by relaxation, and eventually energy transfer to the alkali dopants.

  3. Tako-tsubo-like cardiomyopathy after EpiPen administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrinich, C M; Farouque, H M Omar; Rochford, S E; Sutherland, M F

    2008-11-01

    Tako-tsubo-like cardiomyopathy is characterized by acute chest pain, electrocardiographic changes and increased cardiac enzymes in the absence of obstructive coronary vessel disease. We describe the development of tako-tsubo-like cardiomyopathy in an elderly woman after the use of an EpiPen for generalized urticaria and angioedema. As adrenaline may participate in the pathogenesis of this condition, the need for careful patient selection and education in the use of adrenaline self-injectors remains imperative.

  4. The EpiPen and the ischaemic finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Talvinder; Randhawa, Susheelwant; Khanna, Rakesh

    2007-08-01

    We present a case of a 24-year-old with a history of accidental injection of adrenaline from an EpiPen into the proximal aspect of her left index finger. Various methods were advocated to treat digital ischaemia but were of no benefit. Topical infiltration of phentolamine in 1 ml of lignocaine 2% was given at the puncture site with immediate results of resolution of digital ischaemia.

  5. Thermoplastic polymers surfaces for Dip-Pen Nanolithography of oligonucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suriano, Raffaella [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Biella, Serena, E-mail: serena.biella@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Cesura, Federico; Levi, Marinella; Turri, Stefano [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    Different thermoplastic polymers were spin-coated to prepare smooth surfaces for the direct deposition of end-group modified oligonucleotides by Dip-Pen Nanolithography. A study of the diffusion process was done in order to investigate the dependence of calibration coefficient and quality of deposited features on environmental parameters (temperature, relative humidity) and ink's molecular weight and functionality. The optimization of the process parameters led to the realization of high quality and density nanoarrays on plastics.

  6. Pen harvester for powering a pulse rate sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedekar, Vishwas [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, UT Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Oliver, Josiah; Priya, Shashank [CEHMS, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States)], E-mail: spriya@mse.vt.edu

    2009-05-21

    Rapid developments in the area of micro-sensors for various applications such as structural health monitoring, bio-chemical sensors and pressure sensors have increased the demand for portable, low cost, high efficiency energy harvesting devices. In this paper, we describe the scheme for powering a pulse rate sensor with a vibration energy harvester integrated inside a pen commonly carried by humans in the pocket close to the heart. Electromagnetic energy harvesting was selected in order to achieve high power at lower frequencies. The prototype pen harvester was found to generate 3 mW at 5 Hz and 1 mW at 3.5 Hz operating under displacement amplitude of 16 mm (corresponding to an acceleration of approximately 1.14 g{sub rms} at 5 Hz and 0.56 g{sub rms} at 3.5 Hz, respectively). A comprehensive mathematical modelling and simulations were performed in order to optimize the performance of the vibration energy harvester. The integrated pen harvester prototype was found to generate continuous power of 0.46-0.66 mW under normal human actions such as jogging and jumping which is enough for a small scale pulse rate sensor.

  7. Pen Branch Delta and Savannah River Swamp Hydraulic Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, K.F.

    1999-05-13

    The proposed Savannah River Site (SRS) Wetlands Restoration Project area is located in Barnwell County, South Carolina on the southwestern boundary of the SRS Reservation. The swamp covers about 40.5 km2 and is bounded to the west and south by the Savannah River and to the north and east by low bluffs at the edge of the Savannah River floodplain. Water levels within the swamp are determined by stage along the Savannah River, local drainage, groundwater seepage, and inflows from four tributaries, Beaver Dam Creek, Fourmile Branch, Pen Branch, and Steel Creek. Historic discharges of heated process water into these tributaries scoured the streambed, created deltas in the adjacent wetland, and killed native vegetation in the vicinity of the delta deposits. Future releases from these tributaries will be substantially smaller and closer to ambient temperatures. One component of the proposed restoration project will be to reestablish indigenous wetland vegetation on the Pen Branch delta that covers about 1.0 km2. Long-term predictions of water levels within the swamp are required to determine the characteristics of suitable plants. The objective of the study was to predict water levels at various locations within the proposed SRS Wetlands Restoration Project area for a range of Savannah River flows and regulated releases from Pen Branch. TABS-MD, a United States Army Corps of Engineer developed two-dimensional finite element open channel hydraulic computer code, was used to model the SRS swamp area for various flow conditions.

  8. Quantum information experiments with 2D arrays of hundreds of trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Kevin; Bohnet, Justin; Sawyer, Brian; Britton, Joseph; Wall, Michael; Foss-Feig, Michael; Rey, Ana Maria; Bollinger, John

    2016-05-01

    We summarize recent experimental work with 2D arrays of hundreds of trapped 9 Be+ ions stored in a Penning trap. Penning traps utilize static magnetic and electric fields to confine ions, and enable the trapping and laser cooling of ion crystals larger than typically possible in RF ion traps. We work with single-plane ion crystals where the ions form a triangular lattice through minimization of their Coulomb potential energy. The crystals rotate, and we present numerical studies that determine optimal operating parameters for producing low temperature, stable 2-dimensional crystals with Doppler laser cooling and a rotating wall potential. Our qubit is the electron spin-flip transition in the ground state of 9 Be+ and is sensitive to magnetic field fluctuations. Through mitigation of part-per-billion, vibration-induced magnetic field fluctuations we demonstrate T2 coherence times longer than 50 ms. We engineer long-range Ising interactions with spin-dependent optical dipole forces, and summarize recent measurements that characterize the entanglement generated through single-axis twisting. Supported by: JILA-NSF-PFC-1125844, NSF-PHY-1521080, ARO, AFOSR, AFOSR-MURI.

  9. 1985-86 Trapping Proposal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Annual Trapping Plan for the 1985-1986 trapping season at Clarence Cannon NWR outlines rules and regulations for the trapping of beaver and muskrat on the...

  10. Effect of calcium hydroxide application to cattle feedlot pens on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and total E. coli in pen surface manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Cattle and beef products are sources of the pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7. Lime products have a long history of use in cattle production as disinfectants for sick pens, calving pens, and muddy areas, to control the spread of diseases. Lime may also be useful as a preharvest trea...

  11. Canadian Content in Video Games

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Leonard

    2005-01-01

    THEME: Internationalism: Worlds at Play Topics: Internationalism, Identity in Gaming and Learning to Play Abstract: How does Canada fit into the global cultural context of video games? This paper investigates the culture being reflected in video games being produced in Canada as Canada is one of the world's leading producers of video games. It examines the how Canadian culture is represented in current new media artistic output against the culture, or lack of culture, being represented in vid...

  12. Contexts for Ethnic Identity of Japanese Canadians

    OpenAIRE

    浦田, 葉子; Yoko, URATA

    1997-01-01

    In this paper I reviewed the literature in order to gain a broad understanding of the contexts for ethnic identity of Japanese Canadians guided by the premise that ethnic identity is a situational as well as a primordial phenomenon. Two main areas were reviewed - the pattern of distribution of resources in Canadian society and the particular situation in which Japanese Canadians are placed. In the distribution of material resources, individual meritocracy for mass and social closure for elite...

  13. Non-destructive ion detection at TRIGA-TRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eibach, Martin; Smorra, Christian [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Beyer, Thomas; Ketter, Jochen; Blaum, Klaus [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Block, Michael; Herfurth, Frank [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Eberhardt, Klaus [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Ketelaer, Jens; Knuth, Konstantin [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Nagy, Szilard [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Tests of nuclear mass models, studies of the nuclear structure of heavy elements and calculations of the astrophysical r-process require high precision atomic mass data. For this purpose the double Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP has recently been set up in order to explore the less-known neutron-rich area of the nuclide chart. Certain nuclides of interest are produced by thermal neutron-induced fission of an actinoide target with low rates, in the order of a few nuclides per second or less. Thus, the implementation of very efficient means of detection are necessary, such as the non-destructive Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) technique where ultimately a single trapped ion, with a half-life of longer than one second is sufficient for the entire mass measurement. The present status of the implementation of the FT-ICR detection at TRIGA-TRAP is presented. The potential benefit for other experiments is discussed.

  14. Attitudes towards the Canadian quality milk program and use of good production practices among Canadian dairy producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I; Rajić, A; Hendrick, S; Parker, S; Sanchez, J; McClure, J T; McEwen, S A

    2010-04-01

    To harmonize good production practices (GPP) for dairy producers in Canada, the Canadian dairy industry has developed and is implementing a program called Canadian Quality Milk (CQM). A postal questionnaire was administered to all Canadian dairy producers enrolled in dairy herd-improvement organizations in 2008 (n=10,474) to investigate their attitudes towards the program and to establish baseline information on their use of GPP. The response percentage was 20.9% (2185/10,474). Two-thirds of producers (67.6%) reported participation in CQM and 61.4% of these indicated that the requirements were easy to implement. Most producers (85.0%) reported the use of cats as a pest-control method in their barns. For dead-livestock disposal, 65.0% and 38.0% indicated use of a collection service and burial, respectively. Nearly 40.0% of respondents indicated that they purchase replacement cattle, and somatic cell-count score was the main health indicator considered before purchase. Over 70% of producers reported that they clean and disinfect maternity, calf and weaned-calf pens, while only 34.1% and 53.1% reported that they provide visitors and employees, respectively, with clean clothes and boots. Through latent-class analysis, five groups (classes) of producers with distinctive patterns of reported use of GPP were identified. These were labelled as "minimal", "sanitation-only", "employee-visitor hygiene", "typical" and "ideal" user groups, with 11.1%, 23.8%, 20.2%, 37.1% and 7.7% of respondents, respectively. Respondents in the "ideal users" group had a higher probability of reporting the use of each GPP and were more likely to have completed an educational course in food safety compared to respondents in each other group. They were also more likely to have a herd size in the uppermost quartile (>65 cows) and report participation in CQM compared to each other group except the "employee-visitor hygiene users". The greatest differences were observed when compared to the "minimal

  15. Search For Trapped Antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, Gorm B; Baquero-Ruiz, Marcelo; Bertsche, William; Bowe, Paul D; Bray, Crystal C; Butler, Eoin; Cesar, Claudio L; Chapman, Steven; Charlton, Michael; Fajans, Joel; Friesen, Tim; Fujiwara, Makoto C; Gill, David R; Hangst, Jeffrey S; Hardy, Walter N; Hayano, Ryugo S; Hayden, Michael E; Humphries, Andrew J; Hydomako, Richard; Jonsell, Svante; Jørgensen, Lars V; Kurchaninov, Lenoid; Lambo, Ricardo; Madsen, Niels; Menary, Scott; Nolan, Paul; Olchanski, Konstantin; Olin, Art; Povilus, Alexander; Pusa, Petteri; Robicheaux, Francis; Sarid, Eli; Nasr, Sarah Seif El; Silveira, Daniel M; So, Chukman; Storey, James W; Thompson, Robert I; van der Werf, Dirk P; Wilding, Dean; Wurtele, Jonathan S; Yamazaki, Yasunori

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of an experiment to search for trapped antihydrogen atoms with the ALPHA antihydrogen trap at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator. Sensitive diagnostics of the temperatures, sizes, and densities of the trapped antiproton and positron plasmas have been developed, which in turn permitted development of techniques to precisely and reproducibly control the initial experimental parameters. The use of a position-sensitive annihilation vertex detector, together with the capability of controllably quenching the superconducting magnetic minimum trap, enabled us to carry out a high-sensitivity and low-background search for trapped synthesised antihydrogen atoms. We aim to identify the annihilations of antihydrogen atoms held for at least 130 ms in the trap before being released over ~30 ms. After a three-week experimental run in 2009 involving mixing of 10^7 antiprotons with 1.3 10^9 positrons to produce 6 10^5 antihydrogen atoms, we have identified six antiproton annihilation events that are consist...

  16. Microfabricated cylindrical ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Matthew G.

    2005-03-22

    A microscale cylindrical ion trap, having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale cylindrical ion trap to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The microscale CIT has a reduced ion mean free path, allowing operation at higher pressures with less expensive and less bulky vacuum pumping system, and with lower battery power than conventional- and miniature-sized ion traps. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microscale cylindrical ion trap with on-chip integrated circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of microscale cylindrical ion traps can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  17. Examining Factors That Impact Inpatient Management of Diabetes and the Role of Insulin Pen Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Chelsea; Lamarche, Danièle; Chevrier, Annie

    2017-02-01

    Insulin administration in the acute care setting is an integral component of inpatient diabetes management. Although some institutions have moved to insulin pen devices, many acute care settings continue to employ the vial and syringe method of insulin administration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of insulin pen implementation in the acute care setting on patients, healthcare workers and health resource utilization. A review of published literature, including guidelines, was conducted to identify how insulin pen devices in the acute care setting may impact inpatient diabetes management. Previously published studies have revealed that insulin pen devices have the potential to improve inpatient management through better glycemic control, increased adherence and improved self-management education. Furthermore, insulin pen devices may result in cost savings and improved safety for healthcare workers. There are benefits to the use of insulin pen devices in acute care and, as such, their implementation should be considered.

  18. Mechanism of force mode dip-pen nanolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Haijun, E-mail: yanghaijun@sinap.ac.cn, E-mail: swguo@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: wanghuabin@cigit.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of the Ministry of Education, Research Institute of Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Interfacial Water Division and Key Laboratory of Interfacial Physics and Technology, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, CAS, Shanghai 201800 (China); Xie, Hui; Rong, Weibin; Sun, Lining [State Key Laboratory of Robotics and Systems, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Wu, Haixia; Guo, Shouwu, E-mail: yanghaijun@sinap.ac.cn, E-mail: swguo@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: wanghuabin@cigit.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of the Ministry of Education, Research Institute of Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang, Huabin, E-mail: yanghaijun@sinap.ac.cn, E-mail: swguo@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: wanghuabin@cigit.ac.cn [Centre for Tetrahertz Research, Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 400714 (China)

    2014-05-07

    In this work, the underlying mechanism of the force mode dip-pen nanolithography (FMDPN) is investigated in depth by analyzing force curves, tapping mode deflection signals, and “Z-scan” voltage variations during the FMDPN. The operation parameters including the relative “trigger threshold” and “surface delay” parameters are vital to control the loading force and dwell time for ink deposition during FMDPN. A model is also developed to simulate the interactions between the atomic force microscope tip and soft substrate during FMDPN, and verified by its good performance in fitting our experimental data.

  19. Web Mining: Penning an Era of Information Age

    OpenAIRE

    Anshika Goel; Dinesh Sahu; Manish Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Today's age is rightly pronounced as "Information Age" which stands on the edifice of Information Technology and is operated by the Internet through the concept of web mining and is maintained & evolved through the high-speed technology of cloud computing. In short, if we try to summarize the situation, we would find that web mining concept has fuelled the entire process. This paper is an attempt to put light on the aspect of how web mining has penned the information age by co...

  20. Squid Pen Chitin Chitooligomers as Food Colorants Absorbers

    OpenAIRE

    Tzu-Wen Liang; Chih-Ting Huang; Nguyen Anh Dzung; San-Lang Wang

    2015-01-01

    One of the most promising applications of chitosanase is the conversion of chitinous biowaste into bioactive chitooligomers (COS). TKU033 chitosanase was induced from squid pen powder (SPP)-containing Bacillus cereus TKU033 medium and purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatography. The enzyme was relatively more thermostable in the presence of the substrate and had an activity of 93% at 50 °C in a pH 5 buffer solution for 60 min. Furthermore, the enzyme used for the COS ...

  1. Analysis of the NovoTwist pen needle in comparison with conventional screw-thread needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Tandy

    2011-11-01

    Administration of insulin via a pen device may be advantageous over a vial and syringe system. Hofman and colleagues introduce a new insulin pen needle, the NovoTwist, to simplify injections to a small group of children and adolescents. Their overall preferences and evaluation of the handling of the needle are reported in the study. This new needle has the potential to ease administration of insulin via a pen device that may increase both the use of a pen device and adherence to insulin therapy.

  2. An evaluation of exercise pen use by circus tigers (Pathera tigris tigris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, Christian H; Friend, Ted H; Windom, Amy G

    2010-01-01

    This study quantified the behavior of 11 tigers during periodic access to an exercise pen throughout the day and night. The study determined the amount of time spent in the pen and the percentage of time spent performing stereotypic pacing, normal locomotor behavior, and lying down while in the pen. Average access to the exercise pen was 10 hr 49 min overnight and 5 hr 30 min during the day. At night, the tigers spent 29.1% of their time in the exercise pen, during which they paced 19.6% and performed normal locomotor behavior for 23.1% of that time. By day, they spent 40.4% of their time in the exercise pen, during which they paced 10.0% and performed normal locomotor behavior 35.7% of that time. The tigers spent the rest of the time in the pen lying down. Overall, tigers will utilize an exercise pen, spending a greater percentage of time in the pen during the day than at night and also performing less stereotyped pacing than at night.

  3. An all-at-once factorial method to optimize dip-pen deposition of liquid protein inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, A. K.; Rozhok, S.; Fragala, J.; Shile, R.; Ouyang, K.

    2013-03-01

    An all-at-once factorial method is presented, which optimizes protein ink deposition using microfabricated pens by identifying the pen design which writes the greatest number of uniform-size spots or droplets without re-inking. Pen features associated with capillary ink transport are varied according to statistical design-of-experiment (SDOE) principles, and evaluated using a special 1D pen array of twelve pens. Variable parameter pens are bracketed by control pens. Each pen array element embodies one component of the SDOE matrix. All parameters are evaluated simultaneously with a single droplet writing pass. Results can also be evaluated simultaneously, leading to rapid choice of those pen parameters which deliver the greatest number of printed features having the smallest coefficient of variation.

  4. Developments for the HITRAP cooler trap and mass measurements around A = 96 at SHIPTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koszudowski, Stephen

    2009-07-08

    The HITRAP (Highly charged Ions Trap) facility is currently being set up and commissioned at GSI in Darmstadt. It will provide bunches of 10{sup 5} heavy highly-charged ions, for example hydrogen-like uranium (U{sup 91+}), to high-precision atomic physics experiments. The ions are produced by the GSI accelerator complex and decelerated to 4 MeV/u in the Experimental Storage Ring. Then the ions are decelerated by a two-step linear decelerator down to 6 keV/u. The first deceleration step down to 500 keV/u was successfully commissioned. The decelerated ions are injected into a Penning trap (the Cooler Trap), where they are cooled to 4 K by electron and resistive cooling. Resonant circuits for non-destructive detection and the resistive cooling of the trapped particles were designed and tested. The time control of the trap-cycle (trapping, cooling, extraction) with a time resolution of 25 ns was implemented into the control system CS. CS is also used at the mass measurement Penning trap SHIPTRAP, where the new time control is successfully operated. SHIPTRAP measures radioactive ions stemming from fusion evaporation reactions at the velocity filter SHIP. The masses of 9 nuclides ({sup 93,94,95}Technetium, {sup 94,96}Ruthenium, {sup 95,96,97,98}Rhodium) near the line of stability were precisely measured and compared with the Atomic Mass Evaluation. The detection of isomeric states with the present SHIPTRAP set-up was studied. (orig.)

  5. A Cross-Sectional Study to Compare Caregiver Distress Among Korean Canadian, Chinese Canadian, and Other Canadian Home Care Clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Wook Chang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the health of elderly Korean Canadians in home care and investigates the risk factors for caregiver distress of families caring for their elderly relatives. Korean Canadians, Chinese Canadians, and other Canadian home care clients were compared using the Resident Assessment Instrument–Home Care (RAI-HC. The assessments were done as a part of normal clinical practice between January 2002 and December 2010 within Ontario. A sample of 58,557 home care clients was analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis at the bivariate level and multiple logistic regression models. The major finding of the present study is that Korean clients had higher physical impairments and higher prevalence of major chronic diseases, but they were less likely to receive personal support or nursing services. Moreover, the results provide clear evidence of the importance of language barriers for all linguistic minorities, including Korean Canadians.

  6. Development of hollow anode penning ion source for laboratory application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, B. K.; Shyam, A.; Das, R.; Rao, A. D. P.

    2012-03-01

    The research work presented here focuses for the development of miniature penning type ion source. One hollow anode penning type ion source was developed in our laboratory. The size of the ion source is 38 mm diameter and 55 mm length. The ion source consists of two cathodes, a hollow anode and one piece of rare earth permanent magnet. The plasma was created in the plasma region between cathodes and the hollow anode. The J × B force in the region helps for efficient ionization of the gas even in the high vacuum region˜1×10 -5 Torr. The ions were extracted in the axial direction with help of the potential difference between the electrodes and the geometry of the extraction angle. The effect of the extraction electrode geometry for efficient extraction of the ions from the plasma region was examined. This ion source is a self extracted ion source. The self extracted phenomena reduce the cost and the size of the ion source. The extracted ion current was measured by a graphite probe. An ion current of more than 200 μA was observed at the probe placed 70 mm apart from the extraction electrode. In this paper, the structure of the ion source, effect of operating pressure, potential difference and the magnetic field on the extracted ion current is reported.

  7. Spontaneous release of bacteriophage particles by Lactobacillus rhamnosus pen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarocki, Piotr; Podleśny, Marcin; Pawelec, Jarosław; Malinowska, Agata; Kowalczyk, Sylwia; Targoński, Zdzisław

    2013-03-01

    The identification of bacteriophage proteins on the surface of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Pen was performed by LC-MS/MS analysis. Among the identified proteins, we found a phage-derived major tail protein, two major head proteins, a portal protein, and a host specificity protein. Electron microscopy of a cell surface extract revealed the presence of phage particles in the analyzed samples. The partial sequence of genes encoding the major tail protein for all tested L. rhamnosus strains was determined with specific primers designed in this study. Next, RT-PCR analysis allowed detection of the expression of the major tail protein gene in L. rhamnosus strain Pen at all stages of bacterial growth. The transcription of genes encoding the major tail protein was also proved for other L. rhamnosus strains used in this study. The present work demonstrates the spontanous release of prophage-encoded particles by a commercial probiotic L. rhamnosus strain, which did not significantly affect the bacterial growth of the analyzed strain.

  8. Vegetation survey of Pen Branch and Four Mile Creek wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    One hundred-fifty plots were recently sampled (vegetational sampling study) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). An extensive characterization of the vascular flora, in four predetermined strata (overstory, Understory, shrub layer, and ground cover), was undertaken to determine dominance, co-dominance, and the importance value (I.V.) of each species. These results will be used by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to evaluate the environmental status of Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, and two upland pine stands. Objectives of this study were to: Describe in detail the plant communities previously mapped with reference to the topography and drainage, including species of plants present: Examine the successional trends within each sampling area and describe the extent to which current vegetation communities have resulted from specific earlier vegetation disturbances (e.g., logging and grazing); describe in detail the botanical field techniques used to sample the flora; describe the habitat and location of protected and/or rare species of plants; and collect and prepare plant species as herbarium quality specimens. Sampling was conducted at Four Mile Creek and Pen Branch, and in two upland pine plantations of different age growth.

  9. Vegetation survey of Pen Branch and Four Mile Creek wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    One hundred-fifty plots were recently sampled (vegetational sampling study) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). An extensive characterization of the vascular flora, in four predetermined strata (overstory, Understory, shrub layer, and ground cover), was undertaken to determine dominance, co-dominance, and the importance value (I.V.) of each species. These results will be used by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to evaluate the environmental status of Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, and two upland pine stands. Objectives of this study were to: Describe in detail the plant communities previously mapped with reference to the topography and drainage, including species of plants present: Examine the successional trends within each sampling area and describe the extent to which current vegetation communities have resulted from specific earlier vegetation disturbances (e.g., logging and grazing); describe in detail the botanical field techniques used to sample the flora; describe the habitat and location of protected and/or rare species of plants; and collect and prepare plant species as herbarium quality specimens. Sampling was conducted at Four Mile Creek and Pen Branch, and in two upland pine plantations of different age growth.

  10. Monte Carlo Simulations for Likelihood Analysis of the PEN experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Charles; PEN Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The PEN collaboration performed a precision measurement of the π+ ->e+νe(γ) branching ratio with the goal of obtaining a relative uncertainty of 5 ×10-4 or better at the Paul Scherrer Institute. A precision measurement of the branching ratio Γ(π -> e ν (γ)) / Γ(π -> μ ν (γ)) can be used to give mass bounds on ``new'', or non V -A, particles and interactions. This ratio also proves to be one of the most sensitive tests for lepton universality. The PEN detector consists of beam counters, an active target, a mini-time projection chamber, multi-wire proportional chamber, a plastic scintillating hodoscope, and a CsI electromagnetic calorimeter. The Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation is used to construct ultra-realistic events by digitizing energies and times, creating synthetic target waveforms, and fully accounting for photo-electron statistics. We focus on the detailed detector response to specific decay and background processes in order to sharpen the discrimination between them in the data analysis. Work supported by NSF grants PHY-0970013, 1307328, and others.

  11. Medication use among Canadian seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Mark; Ji, Hong; Hunt, Jordan; Ranger, Rob; Gula, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    As they age, many seniors develop a progressively more complex mix of health conditions. Multiple prescription medications are often required to help manage these conditions and control symptoms, with the goal of maintaining seniors' health for as long as possible. This article explores trends in the number and types of medications used by seniors on public drug programs in Canada. Our findings suggest that a high proportion of Canadian seniors are taking several medications, highlighting the need for medication management systems focusing on this population.

  12. REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADIAN ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Modern English is an international language inthe world.Besides Great Britain,English is spokenas first language in 39 countries.These countries arelocated in different regions with different naturalfeatures,history development and cultural character-istics.Thus,English used in these different regionscarries its own regional character—forming Englishregional varieties.The main English regional varieties are:BritishEnglish,American English,Canadian English andSouth African English.Canada is a rich country inNorth America with its own characteristics,which of

  13. Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

  14. DATA MINING IN CANADIAN LYNX TIME SERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Karnaboopathy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper sums up the applications of Statistical model such as ARIMA family timeseries models in Canadian lynx data time series analysis and introduces the method of datamining combined with Statistical knowledge to analysis Canadian lynx data series.

  15. A Boost for Sino-Canadian Ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU XUECHENG

    2010-01-01

    @@ If Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper's visit to China last December led to a thaw in the frozen Sino-Canadian relations in recent years, Chinese President Hu Jintao's latest trip to Ottawa appeared to usher in yet another warm period for these deep-rooted relations.

  16. Canadian Library Integrated Systems: Second Annual Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merilees, Bobbie

    1988-01-01

    Reports the results of a survey of the Canadian integrated library systems market. The analysis includes comparisons of large versus microcomputer-based installations by type of library and across all libraries, foreign sales by Canadian vendors, and trends in the library systems market. (CLB)

  17. Trapping molecules on chips

    CERN Document Server

    Santambrogio, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    In the last years, it was demonstrated that neutral molecules can be loaded on a microchip directly from a supersonic beam. The molecules are confined in microscopic traps that can be moved smoothly over the surface of the chip. Once the molecules are trapped, they can be decelerated to a standstill, for instance, or pumped into selected quantum states by laser light or microwaves. Molecules are detected on the chip by time-resolved spatial imaging, which allows for the study of the distribution in the phase space of the molecular ensemble.

  18. The Reusable Astronomy Portal (TRAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, T.; Rogers, A.; Wallace, G.

    2012-09-01

    The Reusable Astronomy Portal (TRAP) aims to provide a common platform for rapidly deploying Astronomy Archives to the web. TRAP is currently under development for both the VAO Data Discovery Portal and the MAST Multi-Mission Portal (Figure 1). TRAP consists of 2 major software packages: the TRAP Client and the TRAP Server. The TRAP framework allows developers to deploy the Server, connect to data resources, then focus on building custom tools for the Client. TRAP is built upon proven industry technologies including the Ext/JS JavaScript Component Library, Mono.NET Web Services, and JSON message based APIs. The multi-layered architecture of TRAP decouples each layer: Client, Service and Data Access, enabling each to evolve independently over time. Although currently deployed to provide astronomy science data access, the TRAP architecture is flexible enough to thrive in any distributed data environment.

  19. Assessing usability, label comprehension, pen robustness and pharmacokinetics of a self-administered prefilled autoinjector pen of methotrexate in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A Pachon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess usability, bioavailability, and safety of subcutaneous self-administration of 0.3 mL of methotrexate 50 mg/mL solution via a prefilled autoinjector pen (methotrexate pen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: The study enrolled methotrexate-naïve and methotrexate-experienced patients aged ≥16 years. Visit 1 (Day 1 included methotrexate pen usage training with documentation, patient self-injection, and a patient-training questionnaire completed by the healthcare professional. Visit 2 (Days 8–10 included evaluation of patient self-injection through four scenarios: holding needle in place for 5 s, confirming methotrexate delivery, skin pinch, and pen disposal. At Visit 2, patient opinion and training retention (since Visit 1 were also assessed. Pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed in 25 patients, who were stratified by body weight and randomized to receive injections in the abdomen or the upper thigh. Results: At Visit 1, 12 of 106 patients had questions about the pen, and 4 required self-injection assistance. At Visit 2, the mean performance rating for all scenarios was ≥9.8 (scale: 1 (very difficult−10 (very easy. Successful completion rates were 96.2%–100%; 91.3%–100% of patients required no assistance. Impressions of the pen were favorable; 98.1% of patients passed the written examination. All methotrexate pens effectively delivered 0.3 mL methotrexate and were intact after use. Body weight >100 kg significantly decreased total and peak methotrexate exposure when administered abdominally. No adverse effects resulted in drug discontinuation. Conclusion: The methotrexate pen was used with a high degree of effectiveness, satisfaction, and safety, indicating that this delivery system may be a viable option for patients requiring subcutaneous methotrexate.

  20. 9 CFR 309.1 - Ante-mortem inspection in pens of official establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ante-mortem inspection in pens of... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.1 Ante-mortem inspection in...) Such ante-mortem inspection shall be made in pens on the premises of the establishment at which...

  1. Rap van tong, scherp van pen. Literaire discussiecultuur in Nederlandse praatjespamfletten (circa 1600-1750)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemanse, C.W.

    2008-01-01

    In the early modern period pamphlets constituted the most important medium to influence public opinion in the Netherlands. The thesis Rap van tong, scherp van pen (Glib tongues, sharp pens) focuses on the literary and rhetorical aspects of a remarkable type of pamphlet called praatje (small-talk), w

  2. Lessons from the operation of the `Penning-Fluorescent' TPC and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Diego; Castel, J; Cebrian, S; Dafni, T; Garcia, J A; Gomez, H; Herrera, D C; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Lagraba, A; Luzon, G; Rodriguez, A; Ruiz-Choliz, E; Ferrer-Ribas, A Tomas E; Giomataris, I

    2015-01-01

    We have recently reported the development of a new type of high-pressure Xenon time projection chamber operated with an ultra-low diffusion mixture and that simultaneously displays Penning effect and fluorescence in the near-visible region (300 nm). The concept, dubbed `Penning-Fluorescent' TPC, allows the simultaneous reconstruction of primary charge and scintillation with high topological and calorimetric fidelity.

  3. Gender Representation in an Electronic City Hall: Female Adoption of Santa Monica's PEN System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins-Jarvis, Lori A.

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of the use of electronic networking systems by women focuses on a study of their use of the Public Electronic Network (PEN) in Santa Monica (California). Characteristics of PEN that contributed to female adoption are described; gender, political participation, and motivation are examined; and future research is suggested. (46…

  4. Use of Reading Pen Assistive Technology to Accommodate Post-Secondary Students with Reading Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Ara J.; McCallum, Elizabeth; Hennessey, Jenna; Lovelace, Temple; Hawkins, Renee O.

    2012-01-01

    Reading pens are a form of assistive technology that may be used to bypass weak word decoding and vocabulary skills of students with reading disabilities. Only two known studies have examined the effects of reading pens on the comprehension of school-aged students, and no known studies have been published regarding post-secondary students. The…

  5. A Context-Aware Infrastructure for Supporting Applications with Pen-Based Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yang(栗阳); GUAN ZhiWei(关志伟); DAI GuoZhong(戴国忠); REN XiangShi(任向实); HAN Yong(韩勇)

    2003-01-01

    Pen-based user interfaces which leverage the affordances of the pen provide userswith more flexibility and natural interaction. However, it is difficult to construct usable pen-baseduser interfaces because of the lack of support for their development. Toolkit-level support has beenexploited to solve this problem, but this approach makes it hard to gain platform independence,easy maintenance and easy extension. In this paper a context-aware infrastructure is created,called WEAVER, to provide pen interaction services for both novel pen-based applications andlegacy GUI-based applications. WEAVER aims to support the pen as another standard interactivedevice along with the keyboard and mouse and present a high-level access interface to pen input.It employs application context to tailor its service to different applications. By modeling theapplication context and registering the relevant action adapters, WEAVER can offer services,such as gesture recognition, continuous handwriting and other fundamental ink manipulations, toappropriate applications. One of the distinct features of WEAVER is that off-the-shelf GUI-basedsoftware packages can be easily enhanced with pen interaction without modifying the existing code.In this paper, the architecture and components of WEAVER are described. In addition, examplesand feedbacks of its use are presented.

  6. Performance study on touch-pens size in three screen tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fong-Gong; Luo, Shuyi

    2006-03-01

    Experiments were aimed at investigating the performance of various sizes of touch-pens. The touch-pens were of three different lengths (80, 110 and 140 mm) and four different diameters (5.5, 8, 11 and 15 mm). Three screen tasks were used for determining a reference of ideal dimensions of a pen-based product. Sixteen subjects used 12 touch-pens to perform pointing-and-clicking, writing and drawing tasks. The subjects were asked to rank their preference after each task in the test. The results showed that the length of touch-pens should be designed to extend beyond the handbreadth when gripped. A touch-pen that facilitates natural pointing-and-clicking, writing and drawing tasks each requires a suitable diameter size. However, these tasks are typically performed together, in particular, the pointing-and-clicking and writing tasks. The recommended diameter for all three combined tasks is 8 mm. This finding indicates that selecting a touch-pen with a diameter of 8 mm and a length of 100 mm or longer is suitable for all pen-based devices.

  7. Redesigning octopus traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduarda Gomes

    2014-06-01

    In order to minimise the identified problems in the actual traps, the present work proposes a new design with the aim of reducing the volume and weight during transport, and also during onshore storage. Alternative materials to avoid corrosion and formation of encrustations were also proposed.

  8. Social Workers' Role in the Canadian Mental Health Care System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Ashley M.; Schwartz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Using Canadian survey data this research provides social workers in Canada with a better understanding of their role in the Canadian mental health care system. Methods: By analyzing data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 Mental Health and Well-being, the role of social workers in the Canadian mental health system was…

  9. Fabrication of anode supported PEN for solid oxide fuel cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢淑红; 崔崑; 夏风; 肖建中

    2004-01-01

    Fabrication process for anode supported planar PEN of intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) was introduced, in which tape casting and screen printing methods were used. Gd2O3 doped CeO2(GDC) powders were prepared by solid reaction method. Anode tape was produced by tape casting. Electrolyte and cathode were produced by screen printing. The GDC powder's component, thermal expand coefficient, the porosity, density and microstructure of anode and electrolyte were investigated . It was shown that an bi-layer with dense thin electrolyte film and porous anode support and with good coherency of the electrolyte film to the anode could be realized after co-sintering the green tape at 1 350℃ by optimizing the power characteristics of the starting materials in the slurry.

  10. Dip-pen nanolithography-assisted protein crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ielasi, Francesco S; Hirtz, Michael; Sekula-Neuner, Sylwia; Laue, Thomas; Fuchs, Harald; Willaert, Ronnie G

    2015-01-14

    We demonstrate the use of dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) to crystallize proteins on surface-localized functionalized lipid layer arrays. DOPC lipid layers, containing small amounts of biotin-DOPE lipid molecules, were printed on glass substrates and evaluated in vapor diffusion and batch crystallization screening setups, where streptavidin was used as a model protein for crystallization. Independently of the crystallization system used and the geometry of the lipid layers, nucleation of streptavidin crystals occurred specifically on the DPN-printed biotinylated structures. Protein crystallization on lipid array patches is also demonstrated in a microfluidic chip, which opens the way toward high-throughput screening to find suitable nucleation and crystal growth conditions. The results demonstrate the use of DPN in directing and inducing protein crystallization on specific surface locations.

  11. Operation of the CSNS Penning surface H~- ion source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The accelerator complex of the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) consists of a H- linear accelerator (linac) and a rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS). The linac contains a Penning surface H- ion source. The designed energy and the beam current of the source are 50 keV and 20 mA respectively, with a normalized root mean square (norm. rms.) emittance of 0.2π mm mrad. The manufactures and tests of the discharge chamber are in great progress. The construction of H- ion source test stand has been completed, and the operation of the source is also in progress. Stable H- ion beams with energy of 50 keV and current up to 50 mA are attained. Emittance measurement for the H- beam is being prepared.

  12. A perspective on Canadian shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Mike; Davidson, Jim; Mortensen, Paul

    2010-09-15

    In a relatively new development over just the past few years, shale formations are being targeted for natural gas production. Based on initial results, there may be significant potential for shale gas in various regions of Canada, not only in traditional areas of conventional production but also non-traditional areas. However, there is much uncertainty because most Canadian shale gas production is currently in experimental or early developmental stages. Thus, its full potential will not be known for some time. If exploitation proves to be successful, Canadian shale gas may partially offset projected long-term declines in Canadian conventional natural gas production.

  13. Chinese Feelings Cherished By Canadians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On March 30, "The Chinese Feelings Across the Pacific-The Century Exhibition of the Old Photos Treasured by the Canadians" was open in the Lu Xun Museum in Beijing. The exhibition lasted for one week. At the exhibition some old photos taken in the early 20th century were on display, showing James G. Endicott, envoy of world peace, together with Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai; the family of O. L. Kilborn, one of the founders of West China Union University, together with Chinese women with bound feet: O. L. Kilborn treating the wounded soldiers during the Revolution of 1911; Leslie Earl Willmott in Chinese tunic suit and his wife reluctant to bid farewell to China, as well as photos of Ashley Woodward Lindesay, founder of China’s modern

  14. THE CANADIAN POLITICAL BUSINESS CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Libby

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss the existence of a Canadian Political Business Cycle (PBC during the period 1946-1989. Logit analysis was used to determine if changes in the unemployment rate, growth of real GNE and the rate of inflation are significantly different in the period before an election than during the rest of the electoral term. It was found that the rate of growth in the unemployment rate declines and the rate of growth of real GNP increases in the four quarters before an election. The behavior of these variables reverses in the period after an election. These findings are consistent with a political business cycle. Policy variables, under a majority government, also behave in a manner associated with a PBC, with the government stimulating the economy approximately two years into its term so that good economic news will occur before it has to call an election. Minority governments tend to simulate the economy immediately after taking office.

  15. Characterizing optical dipole trap via fluorescence of trapped cesium atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tao; GENG Tao; YAN Shubin; LI Gang; ZHANG Jing; WANG Junmin; PENG Kunchi; ZHANG Tiancai

    2006-01-01

    Optical dipole trap (ODT) is becoming an important tool of manipulating neutral atoms. In this paper ODT is realized with a far-off resonant laser beam strongly focused in the magneto-optical trap (MOT) of cesium atoms. The light shift is measured by simply monitoring the fluorescence of the atoms in the magneto-optical trap and the optical dipole trap simultaneously. The advantages of our experimental scheme are discussed, and the effect of the beam waist and power on the potential of dipole trap as well as heating rate is analyzed.

  16. Detection of Trapped Antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Hydomako, Richard Allan

    The ALPHA experiment is an international effort to produce, trap, and perform precision spectroscopic measurements on antihydrogen (the bound state of a positron and an antiproton). Based at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) facility at CERN, the ALPHA experiment has recently magnetically confined antihydrogen atoms for the first time. A crucial element in the observation of trapped antihydrogen is ALPHA’s silicon vertexing detector. This detector contains sixty silicon modules arranged in three concentric layers, and is able to determine the three-dimensional location of the annihilation of an antihydrogen atom by reconstructing the trajectories of the produced annihilation products. This dissertation focuses mainly on the methods used to reconstruct the annihilation location. Specifically, the software algorithms used to identify and extrapolate charged particle tracks are presented along with the routines used to estimate the annihilation location from the convergence of the identified tracks. It is shown...

  17. Trapping ions with lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Cormick, Cecilia; Morigi, Giovanna

    2010-01-01

    This work theoretically addresses the trapping an ionized atom with a single valence electron by means of lasers, analyzing qualitatively and quantitatively the consequences of the net charge of the particle. In our model, the coupling between the ion and the electromagnetic field includes the charge monopole and the internal dipole, within a multipolar expansion of the interaction Hamiltonian. Specifically, we perform a Power-Zienau-Woolley transformation, taking into account the motion of the center of mass. The net charge produces a correction in the atomic dipole which is of order $m_e/M$ with $m_e$ the electron mass and $M$ the total mass of the ion. With respect to neutral atoms, there is also an extra coupling to the laser field which can be approximated by that of the monopole located at the position of the center of mass. These additional effects, however, are shown to be very small compared to the dominant dipolar trapping term.

  18. Coherence in Microchip Traps

    CERN Document Server

    Treutlein, P; Steinmetz, T; Hänsch, T W; Reichel, J; Treutlein, Philipp; Hommelhoff, Peter; Steinmetz, Tilo; H\\"ansch, Theodor W.; Reichel, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    We report the coherent manipulation of internal states of neutral atoms in a magnetic microchip trap. Coherence lifetimes exceeding 1 s are observed with atoms at distances of $4-130 \\mu$m from the microchip surface. The coherence lifetime in the microtrap is independent of atom-surface distance and agrees well with the results of similar measurements in macroscopic magnetic traps. Due to the absence of surface-induced decoherence, a miniaturized atomic clock with a relative stability in the $10^{-13}$ range can be realized. For applications in quantum information processing, we propose to use microwave near-fields in the proximity of chip wires to create potentials that depend on the internal state of the atoms.

  19. Ion Trap Quantum Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    an inspiring speech at the MIT Physics of Computation 1st Conference in 1981, Feynman proposed the development of a computer that would obey the...on ion trap based 36 quantum computing for physics and computer science students would include lecture notes, slides, lesson plans, a syllabus...reading lists, videos, demonstrations, and laboratories. 37 LIST OF REFERENCES [1] R. P. Feynman , “Simulating physics with computers,” Int. J

  20. Canadian national nuclear forensics capability project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, J.; Dimayuga, I., E-mail: joanne.ball@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Summerell, I. [Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Totland, M. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Jonkmans, G. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Whitlock, J. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); El-jaby, A. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Inrig, E. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Following the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit, Canada expanded its existing capability for nuclear forensics by establishing a national nuclear forensics laboratory network, which would include a capability to perform forensic analysis on nuclear and other radioactive material, as well as on traditional evidence contaminated with radioactive material. At the same time, the need for a national nuclear forensics library of signatures of nuclear and radioactive materials under Canadian regulatory control was recognized. The Canadian Safety and Security Program, administered by Defence Research and Development Canada's Centre for Security Science (DRDC CSS), funds science and technology initiatives to enhance Canada's preparedness for prevention of and response to potential threats. DRDC CSS, with assistance from Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, formerly Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, is leading the Canadian National Nuclear Forensics Capability Project to develop a coordinated, comprehensive, and timely national nuclear forensics capability. (author)

  1. Canadian Law Schools: In Search of Excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakman, Leon E.

    1980-01-01

    Academically, Canadian education is at the crossroads between formalism and functionalism, with the latter prevailing in recent years. There now arises a demand for a more integrated approach, linking legal theory with legal practice. (MSE)

  2. Facts about Canadian musk-oxen

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses the historical and current status of the Canadian musk-oxen. The musk-oxen's distribution, social structure, food and range, and breeding...

  3. Canadian Business Schools: Going out of Business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobni, Dawn; Dobni, Brooke

    1996-01-01

    Using Porter's five-forces model (potential entrants, suppliers, buyers, rivalry, substitutes) to analyze competition in Canadian university business schools, the authors conclude that schools are becoming increasingly vulnerable to competitive pressures and that strategic reorientation is necessary. (SK)

  4. Identification of colorants in pigmented pen inks by laser desorption mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papson, Kaitlin; Stachura, Sylwia; Boralsky, Luke; Allison, John

    2008-01-01

    Pigments are rapidly replacing dyes as colorants in pen and printer inks, due to their superior colors and stability. Unfortunately, tools commonly used in questioned document examination for analyzing pen inks, such as TLC, cannot be used for the analysis of insoluble pigments on paper. Laser desorption mass spectrometry is demonstrated here as a tool for analyzing pigment-based pen inks. A pulsed nitrogen laser can be focused onto a pen stroke from a pigmented ink pen on paper, and positive and negative ions representative of the pigment can be generated for subsequent mass spectrometric analysis. Targeted pens for this work were a set of Uni-ball 207 pigmented ink pens containing blue, light blue, orange, green, violet, red, pink, and black inks. Copper phthalocyanine was identified as the pigment used to make both blue inks. A mixture of halogenated copper phthalocyanines were identified in the green ink. Unexpectedly, the pink ink was found to contain a red pigment, Pigment Red 12, treated with a mixture of water-soluble dyes. Each sample yielded ions representative of the pigments present.

  5. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE MAIN REPRODUCTION INDICATORS DETERMINATED IN SOWS, STAND GESTATION PEN TIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMONA UNTARU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Current researches were carried out with the goal to quantisize the lost from the weaning to early gestation at the sows housed in open pen gestation. In this trail we tested two pen types, different not only by size, but also by feeders’ emplacement. The main reproduction indicators that we calculated until the 28 gestation day were the proportion of sows in heat after weaning, the weaning to estrus interval and the gestation rates. The weaning to estrus interval was about 4 to 7 days, most sows were in heat in the day 5 and 6 days after weaning. The percent of heat detection after weaning was 71.42% for the small pens and 70.71% for the big pens (differences statistically non significant, chi test value was 0.983. The gestation rate at 28 days after insemination was 91.62% for the small pens and 94.72% for the large pens (chi test value 0,959, statistically non significant differences. The overpopulation for heat induction and after that chipping animals together in those pens, show that the lost are up to 40.47%, between weaning – day 28 of gestation.

  6. Tono-Pen XL tonometry during application of a suction ring in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kounis Georgios A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of Tono-Pen XL in measuring IOP during the application of a suction ring in rabbit eyes with manometrically controlled IOP. Methods Tono-Pen XL was calibrated against direct manometry in 10 rabbit eyes. A suction ring was then applied in 4 rabbit eyes and the IOP was determined manometrically during suction ring application at 350 mmHg vacuum pressure. Finally, in 6 catheterized rabbit eyes the IOP was measured with Tono-Pen XL during suction ring application at suction vacuum from 350 to 650 mmHg, while keeping actual IOP stable at 30 mmHg and 60 mmHg. Results Linear regression analysis revealed that the Tono-pen XL was reliable for IOPs between 10 and 70 mmHg (R2 = 0.9855. Direct manometry during suction ring application showed no statistically significant variation of Tono-Pen XL readings when the incanulation manometry intraocular pressure changed from 30 mmHg to 60 mmHg and no statistically significant correlation between suction vacuum and IOP measurements. Conclusion Tono-Pen XL measurements are unreliable during the application of a suction ring on living rabbit eyes even when the actual IOP is forced to be within the validated range of Tono-Pen XL measurements. This inaccuracy is probably related to altered corneal and scleral geometry and stress.

  7. Water-Trapped Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Menou, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Although tidally-locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO2 as dayside ocean basins dry-up. Water-tr...

  8. Canadian National Identity and Anti-Americanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭万宏

    2015-01-01

    Canadian national identity is closely related to antiAmericanism and for Canadians,comparing with America has become the main way to identify themselves.So some scholars argue that Canada lacks a real national identity and this is the main reason of its anti-American tradition.However,the author remarks Canada has its national identity.In this paper,the author will present three reasons to support her view.

  9. Canadian National Identity and Anti-Americanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭万宏

    2015-01-01

    Canadian national identity is closely related to anti-Americanism and for Canadians,comparing with America has become the main way to identify themselves.So some scholars argue that Canada lacks a real national identity and this is the main reason of its anti-American tradition.However,the author remarks Canada has its national identity.In this paper,the author will present three reasons to support her view.

  10. Extending and refining the mass surface around $^{208}$Pb by high-precision Penning-trap mass spectrometry with ISOLTRAP

    CERN Multimedia

    Herfurth, F; Stora, T; Blaum, K; Beck, D; Kowalska, M; Schwarz, S; Stanja, J; Herlert, A J; Yamaguchi, T

    We propose high-precision mass spectrometry of nuclides around the doubly magic $^{208}$Pb. On the neutron-rich side, we aim to extend the knowledge of Fr, At, Hg, and Au masses to study the robustness of the N = 126 shell closure and to provide mass data necessary for modeling the rapid-neutron-capture process. On the proton-rich side, we aim at high-resolution mass spectrometry of selected Au, At, and Fr isotopes to verify the predicted existence of very low-lying isomeric states. The proposal will make use of newly-available laser-ionization schemes for Au and At. Finally, the recently implemented multi-reflection time-of-flight mass separator for auxiliary isobaric purification now allows measurements which were not feasible before.

  11. Nest building and posture changes and activity budget of gilts housed in pens and crates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Inger Lise; Vasdal, Guro; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2014-01-01

    was born until 8 h after the birth of the first piglet. There was no significant effect of the sows breeding value on any of the sow behaviours. Sows housed in pens spent significantly more time nest building than crated sows from 4 to 12 h prepartum (P ... for the lack of space in the crate compared to the pens. Sows in pens spent more time nest building from 4 to 12 h post partum compared to crated sows, and crated sows showed more behaviours related to frustration and restlessness....

  12. Update on PEN: A Precise Measurement of the π+ ->e+ ν(γ) Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frlez, Emil; PEN Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The PEN experiment acquired an ensemble of 2 . 1 .107 π+ and 2 . 8 .108 μ+ decays at rest during 2008-2010 data collection at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland. The PEN detector comprises a non-magnetic 3 π solid-angle pure 240-module CsI calorimeter, supplemented with mini-TPC beam particle tracking, beam degrader and active target counters, 20-stave segmented plastic hodoscope and two concentric MWPCs for charged particle tracking and discrimination. We present an update of the status of the PEN data analysis, and of the associated systematic effects. Work supported by NSF Grants PHY-1307328, 1614839 and others.

  13. Chitinolytic Bacteria-Assisted Conversion of Squid Pen and Its Effect on Dyes and Pigments Adsorption

    OpenAIRE

    Tzu-Wen Liang; Bo-Chang Lo; San-Lang Wang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to produce chitosanase by fermenting from squid pen, and recover the fermented squid pen for dye removal by adsorption. One chitosanase induced from squid pen powder (SPP)-containing medium by Bacillus cereus TKU034 was purified in high purification fold (441) and high yield of activity recovery (51%) by ammonium sulfate precipitation and combined column chromatography. The SDS-PAGE results showed its molecular mass to be around 43 kDa. The TKU034 chitosanase used for...

  14. Canadian suppliers of mining goods and services: Links between Canadian mining companies and selected sectors of the Canadian economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemieux, A. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Economic links between Canada's minerals and metals industry and Canadian suppliers of mining goods and services are examined to provide an insight into the interdependencies of these two key resource-related components of Canada's economy. The impact of globalization of the mining industry, estimates of its economic potential and the potential for exporting goods and services in conjunction with Canadian mining projects abroad are also assessed. The study concludes that the links between Canadian mining companies and the rest of the economy are difficult to quantify, due to the absence of statistical data that would differentiate supplier transactions with mining companies from those with other areas of the economy. At best, the approaches used in this study give but an imperfect understanding of the complex relationships between mining companies and their suppliers. It is clear, however, that as much of the demand for mining products is global, so is the supply, therefore, globalization of the mining industry, while creating unprecedented opportunities for Canadian suppliers to provide expertise, goods and services to Canadian and other customers offshore, the fact remains that mining multinationals buy a lot of their supplies locally. As a result, only some of the opportunities created by mining companies based in Canada and elsewhere will translate into sales for Canadian suppliers. Nevertheless, Canadian suppliers appear to have considerable depth in products related to underground mining, environment protection, exploration, feasibility studies, mineral processing, and mine automation. There appear to be considerable opportunities to derive further benefits from these areas of expertise. Appendices contain information about methodological aspects of the survey. 8 tabs., 32 figs., 6 appendices.

  15. Spectroscopy and Thermometry of Drumhead Modes in a Mesoscopic Trapped-Ion Crystal using Entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Sawyer, Brian C; Keith, Adam C; Wang, C -C Joseph; Freericks, James K; Uys, Hermann; Biercuk, Michael J; Bollinger, John J

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate spectroscopy and thermometry of individual motional modes in a mesoscopic 2D ion array using entanglement-induced decoherence as a method of transduction. Our system is a $\\sim$400 $\\mu$m-diameter planar crystal of several hundred $^9$Be$^+$ ions exhibiting complex drumhead modes in the confining potential of a Penning trap. Exploiting precise control over the $^9$Be$^+$ valence electron spins, we apply a homogeneous spin-dependent optical dipole force to excite arbitrary transverse modes with an effective wavelength approaching the interparticle spacing ($\\sim$20 \

  16. Theorizing Gender in Contemporary Canadian Citizenship: Lessons Learned from the CBC's "Greatest Canadian" Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubas, Kaela

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I have used the 2004 Greatest Canadian contest as an example of media's educational function. Contrary to mainstream discourse of gender-neutral citizenship, this contest reiterates a notion of Canadian citizenship as masculinized, classed, and raced. Gramsci's concepts of "hegemony," "ideology", and…

  17. Medical cannabis - the Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gordon D; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol - the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. Despite this, barriers exist to use from both the patient perspective (cost, addiction, social stigma, lack of understanding regarding safe administration) and the physician perspective (credibility, criminality, clinical evidence, patient addiction, and policy from the governing medical colleges). This review addresses these barriers and draws attention to key concerns in the Canadian medical system, providing updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic medication use, and enhanced quality of life. This review also includes case studies demonstrating the use of medical marijuana by patients with neuropathic low-back pain, neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. While significant preclinical data have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis for treating pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, further studies are needed with randomized controlled trials and larger study populations to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts.

  18. Atom trap trace analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Z.-T.; Bailey, K.; Chen, C.-Y.; Du, X.; Li, Y.-M.; O' Connor, T. P.; Young, L.

    2000-05-25

    A new method of ultrasensitive trace-isotope analysis has been developed based upon the technique of laser manipulation of neutral atoms. It has been used to count individual {sup 85}Kr and {sup 81}Kr atoms present in a natural krypton sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10{sup {minus}11} and 10{sup {minus}13}, respectively. The atom counts are free of contamination from other isotopes, elements,or molecules. The method is applicable to other trace-isotopes that can be efficiently captured with a magneto-optical trap, and has a broad range of potential applications.

  19. Nonresonance adiabatic photon trap

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, S S; Burdakov, A V; Ushkova, M Yu

    2016-01-01

    Concept of high efficiency photon storage based on adiabatic confinement between concave mirrors is presented and experimentally investigated. The approach is insensitive to typical for Fabri-Perot cells requirements on quality of accumulated radiation, tolerance of resonator elements and their stability. Experiments have been carried out with the trap, which consists from opposed concave cylindrical mirrors and conjugated with them spherical mirrors. In result, high efficiency for accumulation of radiation with large angular spread and spectrum width has been confirmed. As radiation source a commercial fiber laser has been used.

  20. Interdigitated multicolored bioink micropatterns by multiplexed polymer pen lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Falko; Hirtz, Michael; Greiner, Alexandra M; Weschenfelder, Markus; Waterkotte, Björn; Bastmeyer, Martin; Fuchs, Harald

    2013-10-11

    Multiplexing, i.e., the application and integration of more than one ink in an interdigitated microscale pattern, is still a challenge for microcontact printing (μCP) and similar techniques. On the other hand there is a strong demand for interdigitated patterns of more than one protein on subcellular to cellular length scales in the lower micrometer range in biological experiments. Here, a new integrative approach is presented for the fabrication of bioactive microarrays and complex multi-ink patterns by polymer pen lithography (PPL). By taking advantage of the strength of microcontact printing (μCP) combined with the spatial control and capability of precise repetition of PPL in an innovative way, a new inking and writing strategy is introduced for PPL that enables true multiplexing within each repetitive subpattern. Furthermore, a specific ink/substrate platform is demonstrated that can be used to immobilize functional proteins and other bioactive compounds over a biotin-streptavidin approach. This patterning strategy aims specifically at application by cell biologists and biochemists addressing a wide range of relevant pattern sizes, easy pattern generation and adjustment, the use of only biofriendly, nontoxic chemicals, and mild processing conditions during the patterning steps. The retained bioactivity of the fabricated cm(2) area filling multiprotein patterns is demonstrated by showing the interaction of fibroblasts and neurons with multiplexed structures of fibronectin and laminin or laminin and ephrin, respectively.

  1. Aracnologias - As tecituras de Penélope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Stevens

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Análise da personagem Penélope, de Homero, e a transformação ousada de Joyce dessa representação clássica da fidelidade feminina em Molly Bloom, a esposa infiel, sexualizada, trivial, lírica. Essas duas personagens são comparadas com sua mais recente recriação em The Penelopiad (2005, da escritora canadense Margaret Atwood. Uma importante categoria analítica dos estudos feministas e de gênero, a questão da voz é enfatizada na presente análise; essa personagem feminina é objeto da narrativa masculina (A Odisseia e Ulisses, mas no romance de Atwood essa personagem é sujeito de sua narrativa, elaborando uma tecitura “penelopeana” transgressora da versão clássica. Focalizaremos também o poder do silêncio na narrativa de autoria feminina, através do monólogo interior de Molly e da voz que fala do mundo dos mortos em The Penelopiad. Os conceitos de “abjeto” e “linguagem semiótica” de Kristeva são base para nosso trabalho, o qual problematiza a aparente imagem de passividade dessas mulheres que buscam o controle sobre suas vidas.

  2. Possible ctenophoran affinities of the Precambrian "sea-pen" Rangea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzik, Jerzy

    2002-06-01

    The Namibian Kuibis Quartzite fossils of Rangea are preserved three-dimensionally owing to incomplete collapse of the soft tissues under the load of instantaneously deposited sand. The process of fossilization did not reproduce the original external morphology of the organism but rather the inner surface of collapsed organs, presumably a system of sacs connected by a medial canal. The body of Rangea had tetraradial symmetry, a body plan shared also by the White Sea Russian fossil Bomakellia and possibly some other Precambrian frond-like fossils. They all had a complex internal anatomy, smooth surface of the body, and radial membranes, making their alleged colonial nature unlikely. Despite a different style of preservation, the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale frond-like Thaumaptilon shows several anatomical similarities to Rangea. The body plan of the Burgess Shale ctenophore Fasciculus, with its numerous, pinnately arranged comb organs, is in many respects transitional between Thaumaptilon and the Early Cambrian ctenophore Maotianoascus from the Chengjiang fauna of South China. It is proposed that the irregularly distributed dark spots on the fusiform units of the petaloid of Thaumaptilon represent a kind of macrocilia and that the units are homologous with the ctenophoran comb organs. These superficial structures were underlain by the complex serial organs, well represented in the fossils of Rangea. The Precambrian "sea-pens" were thus probably sedentary ancestors of the ctenophores.

  3. Squid Pen Chitin Chitooligomers as Food Colorants Absorbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Wen Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most promising applications of chitosanase is the conversion of chitinous biowaste into bioactive chitooligomers (COS. TKU033 chitosanase was induced from squid pen powder (SPP-containing Bacillus cereus TKU033 medium and purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatography. The enzyme was relatively more thermostable in the presence of the substrate and had an activity of 93% at 50 °C in a pH 5 buffer solution for 60 min. Furthermore, the enzyme used for the COS preparation was also studied. The enzyme products revealed various mixtures of COS that with different degrees of polymerization (DP, ranging from three to nine. In the culture medium, the fermented SPP was recovered, and it displayed a better adsorption rate (up to 96% for the disperse dyes than the water-soluble food colorants, Allura Red AC (R40 and Tartrazne (Y4. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopic (FT-IR analysis proved that the adsorption of the dyes onto fermented SPP was a physical adsorption. Results also showed that fermented SPP was a favorable adsorber and could be employed as low-cost alternative for dye removal in wastewater treatment.

  4. Robot Guided 'Pen Skill' Training in Children with Motor Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Katy A; Hill, Liam J B; Snapp-Childs, Winona; Bingham, Geoffrey P; Kountouriotis, Georgios K; Barber, Sally; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Motor deficits are linked to a range of negative physical, social and academic consequences. Haptic robotic interventions, based on the principles of sensorimotor learning, have been shown previously to help children with motor problems learn new movements. We therefore examined whether the training benefits of a robotic system would generalise to a standardised test of 'pen-skills', assessed using objective kinematic measures [via the Clinical Kinematic Assessment Tool, CKAT]. A counterbalanced, cross-over design was used in a group of 51 children (37 male, aged 5-11 years) with manual control difficulties. Improved performance on a novel task using the robotic device could be attributed to the intervention but there was no evidence of generalisation to any of the CKAT tasks. The robotic system appears to have the potential to support motor learning, with the technology affording numerous advantages. However, the training regime may need to target particular manual skills (e.g. letter formation) in order to obtain clinically significant improvements in specific skills such as handwriting.

  5. Robot Guided 'Pen Skill' Training in Children with Motor Difficulties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy A Shire

    Full Text Available Motor deficits are linked to a range of negative physical, social and academic consequences. Haptic robotic interventions, based on the principles of sensorimotor learning, have been shown previously to help children with motor problems learn new movements. We therefore examined whether the training benefits of a robotic system would generalise to a standardised test of 'pen-skills', assessed using objective kinematic measures [via the Clinical Kinematic Assessment Tool, CKAT]. A counterbalanced, cross-over design was used in a group of 51 children (37 male, aged 5-11 years with manual control difficulties. Improved performance on a novel task using the robotic device could be attributed to the intervention but there was no evidence of generalisation to any of the CKAT tasks. The robotic system appears to have the potential to support motor learning, with the technology affording numerous advantages. However, the training regime may need to target particular manual skills (e.g. letter formation in order to obtain clinically significant improvements in specific skills such as handwriting.

  6. The global diversity of sea pens (Cnidaria: Octocorallia: Pennatulacea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary C Williams

    Full Text Available Recent advances in deep-sea exploration technology coupled with an increase in worldwide biotic surveys, biological research, and underwater photography in shallow water marine regions such as coral reefs, has allowed for a relatively rapid expansion of our knowledge in the global diversity of many groups of marine organisms. This paper is part of the PLoS ONE review collection of WoRMS (the Worldwide Register of Marine Species, on the global diversity of marine species, and treats the pennatulacean octocorals, a group of cnidarians commonly referred to as sea pens or sea feathers. This also includes sea pansies, some sea whips, and various vermiform taxa. Pennatulaceans are a morphologically diverse group with an estimated 200 or more valid species, displaying worldwide geographic and bathymetric distributions from polar seas to the equatorial tropics and from intertidal flats to over 6100 m in depth. The paper treats new discoveries and taxa new to science, and provides greater resolution in geographic and bathymetric distributions data than was previously known, as well as descriptions of life appearances in life and in situ observations at diverse depth.

  7. Squid pen chitin chitooligomers as food colorants absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tzu-Wen; Huang, Chih-Ting; Dzung, Nguyen Anh; Wang, San-Lang

    2015-01-20

    One of the most promising applications of chitosanase is the conversion of chitinous biowaste into bioactive chitooligomers (COS). TKU033 chitosanase was induced from squid pen powder (SPP)-containing Bacillus cereus TKU033 medium and purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatography. The enzyme was relatively more thermostable in the presence of the substrate and had an activity of 93% at 50 °C in a pH 5 buffer solution for 60 min. Furthermore, the enzyme used for the COS preparation was also studied. The enzyme products revealed various mixtures of COS that with different degrees of polymerization (DP), ranging from three to nine. In the culture medium, the fermented SPP was recovered, and it displayed a better adsorption rate (up to 96%) for the disperse dyes than the water-soluble food colorants, Allura Red AC (R40) and Tartrazne (Y4). Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopic (FT-IR) analysis proved that the adsorption of the dyes onto fermented SPP was a physical adsorption. Results also showed that fermented SPP was a favorable adsorber and could be employed as low-cost alternative for dye removal in wastewater treatment.

  8. Psychometric Assessment of the Injection Pen Assessment Questionnaire (IPAQ: measuring ease of use and preference with injection pens for human growth hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleil Andreas M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To examine the psychometric properties of the Injection Pen Assessment Questionnaire (IPAQ including the following: 1 item and scale characteristics (e.g., frequencies, item distributions, and factor structure, 2 reliability, and 3 validity. Methods Focus groups and one-on-one dyad interviews guided the development of the IPAQ. The IPAQ was subsequently tested in 136 parent–child dyads in a Phase 3, 2-month, open-label, multicenter trial for a new Genotropin® disposable pen. Factor analysis was performed to inform the development of a scoring algorithm, and reliability and validity of the IPAQ were evaluated using the data from this two months study. Psychometric analyses were conducted separately for each injection pen. Results Confirmatory factor analysis provides evidence supporting a second order factor solution for four subscales and a total IPAQ score. These factor analysis results support the conceptual framework developed from previous qualitative research in patient dyads using the reusable pen. However, the IPAQ subscales did not consistently meet acceptable internal consistency reliability for some group level comparisons. Cronbach’s alphas for the total IPAQ score for both pens were 0.85, exceeding acceptable levels of reliability for group comparisons. Conclusions The total IPAQ score is a useful measure for evaluating ease of use and preference for injection pens in clinical trials among patient dyads receiving hGH. The psychometric properties of the individual subscales, mainly the lower internal consistency reliability of some of the subscales and the predictive validity findings, do not support the use of subscale scores alone as a primary endpoint.

  9. Atomic Coherent Trapping and Properties of Trapped Atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guo-Jian; XIA Li-Xin; XIE Min

    2006-01-01

    Based on the theory of velocity-selective coherent population trapping, we investigate an atom-laser system where a pair of counterpropagating laser fields interact with a three-level atom. The influence of the parametric condition on the properties of the system such as velocity at which the atom is selected to be trapped, time needed for finishing the coherent trapping process, and possible electromagnetically induced transparency of an altrocold atomic medium,etc., is studied.

  10. Cryogenic resonator design for trapped ion experiments in Paul traps

    CERN Document Server

    Brandl, Matthias F; Monz, Thomas; Blatt, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Trapping ions in Paul traps requires high radio-frequency voltages, which are generated using resonators. When operating traps in a cryogenic environment, an in-vacuum resonator showing low loss is crucial to limit the thermal load to the cryostat. In this study, we present a guide for the design and production of compact, shielded cryogenic resonators. We produced and characterized three different types of resonators and furthermore demonstrate efficient impedance matching of these resonators at cryogenic temperatures.

  11. penORNL: a parallel Monte Carlo photon and electron transport package using PENELOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekar, Kursat B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, Thomas Martin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patton, Bruce W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Weber, Charles F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The parallel Monte Carlo photon and electron transport code package penORNL was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to enable advanced scanning electron microscope (SEM) simulations on high-performance computing systems. This paper discusses the implementations, capabilities and parallel performance of the new code package. penORNL uses PENELOPE for its physics calculations and provides all available PENELOPE features to the users, as well as some new features including source definitions specifically developed for SEM simulations, a pulse-height tally capability for detailed simulations of gamma and x-ray detectors, and a modified interaction forcing mechanism to enable accurate energy deposition calculations. The parallel performance of penORNL was extensively tested with several model problems, and very good linear parallel scaling was observed with up to 512 processors. penORNL, along with its new features, will be available for SEM simulations upon completion of the new pulse-height tally implementation.

  12. Update on insulin treatment for dogs and cats: insulin dosing pens and more

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ann Thompson,1 Patty Lathan,2 Linda Fleeman3 1School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton, QLD, Australia; 2College of Veterinary Medicine Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS, USA; 3Animal Diabetes Australia, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Insulin therapy is still the primary therapy for all diabetic dogs and cats. Several insulin options are available for each species, including veterinary registered products and human insulin preparations. The insulin chosen depends on the individual patient's requirements. Intermediate-acting insulin is usually the first choice for dogs, and longer-acting insulin is the first choice for cats. Once the insulin type is chosen, the best method of insulin administration should be considered. Traditionally, insulin vials and syringes have been used, but insulin pen devices have recently entered the veterinary market. Pens have different handling requirements when compared with standard insulin vials including: storage out of the refrigerator for some insulin preparations once pen cartridges are in use; priming of the pen to ensure a full dose of insulin is administered; and holding the pen device in place for several seconds during the injection. Many different types of pen devices are available, with features such as half-unit dosing, large dials for visually impaired people, and memory that can display the last time and dose of insulin administered. Insulin pens come in both reusable and disposable options. Pens have several benefits over syringes, including improved dose accuracy, especially for low insulin doses. Keywords: diabetes, mellitus, canine, feline, NPH, glargine, porcine lente

  13. Pen size and parity effects on maternal behaviour of Small-Tail Han sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, S-J; Yang, Y; Dwyer, C M; Li, F-K

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of pen size and parity on maternal behaviour of twin-bearing Small-Tail Han ewes. A total of 24 ewes were allocated to a 2×2 design (six per pen), with parity (primiparous or multiparous) and pen size (large: 6.0×3.0 m; small: 6.0×1.5 m) as main effects at Linyi University, Shandong Province, China. Behaviour was observed from after parturition until weaning. All ewes were observed for 6 h every 5 days from 0700 to1000 h and from 1400 to 1700 h. Continuous focal animal sampling was used to quantify the duration of maternal behaviours: sucking, grooming and following as well as the frequency of udder accepting, udder refusing and low-pitched bleating. Oestradiol and cortisol concentrations in the faeces (collected in the morning every 5 days) were detected using EIA kits. All lambs were weighed 24 h after parturition and again at weaning at 35 days of age. The small pen size significantly reduced following (Pprimiparous ewes (Pprimiparous ewes (P<0.001), and ewes in small pens had higher faecal cortisol levels compared with ewes in larger pens (P<0.001). As lambs increased in age, the duration of maternal grooming, following and suckling as well as frequency of udder acceptance and low-pitched bleating all declined, and the frequency of udder refusing increased (P<0.001 for all). Ewe parity, but not pen size, affected lamb weight gain during the period of observation (P<0.001). This is the first study to show that pen size, interacting with parity, can affect the expression of maternal behaviour in sheep during lactation. The study is also the first to report on the maternal behaviour of Chinese native sheep breeds (Small-Tail Han sheep), with implications for the production of sheep in China.

  14. Processing and Analyzing Assessment Test Logs provided by Digital Pen and Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Barhoumi, Zaara; Tort, Françoise

    2011-01-01

    In an educational context, the use of new technologies can influence and change teaching practices. Digital pen and paper, as man-machine interface, appears familiar and do not require any specific training. Analyzing logs recorded by this technology, especially time, seems interesting in order to provide new indicators for evaluation or observation. As far as we know, time stamped logs recorded by digital pen is barely studied in an educational context by researchers. We explore the use of d...

  15. 中性笔绿色设计研究%Green Design Study of Gel Pen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贝广霞; 何盛; 刘世豪

    2015-01-01

    The problems of environmental pollution are increasingly serious with the widely use of Gel Pen,Gel Pen pollution has become a large white pollution as the same as the plastic bag . This paper analyzes the effects of various component and harm on environment of the abandoned Gel Pen, focusing on the structure of Gel pen , the research proposed a green design method . Through the redesign for the structure of Gel Pen , it is convenient to fill ink into the pen and to replace the damaged pen tip ,which can extend the life of Gel Pen , reduce the waste of resources and environmental pollution, and realize the purpose of environmental protection.%随着中性笔的推广,由此带来的环境污染问题也日益严重,“中性笔污染”已经成为继塑料袋之后的又一大白色污染。在分析废弃中性笔各零部件对环境所带来的影响及危害的基础上,从中性笔本身的设计结构出发,提出了中性笔的绿色设计方案。通过对中性笔芯结构的改进,使笔杆和笔头的连接为密封螺纹连接,大大延长了中性笔芯的使用寿命,达到节能减排,保护环境的目的。

  16. Nanofriction in cold ion traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, A; Vanossi, A; Tosatti, E

    2011-01-01

    Sliding friction between crystal lattices and the physics of cold ion traps are so far non-overlapping fields. Two sliding lattices may either stick and show static friction or slip with dynamic friction; cold ions are known to form static chains, helices or clusters, depending on the trapping conditions. Here we show, based on simulations, that much could be learnt about friction by sliding, through, for example, an electric field, the trapped ion chains over a corrugated potential. Unlike infinite chains, in which the theoretically predicted Aubry transition to free sliding may take place, trapped chains are always pinned. Yet, a properly defined static friction still vanishes Aubry-like at a symmetric-asymmetric structural transition, found for decreasing corrugation in both straight and zig-zag trapped chains. Dynamic friction is also accessible in ringdown oscillations of the ion trap. Long theorized static and dynamic one-dimensional friction phenomena could thus become accessible in future cold ion tribology.

  17. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE MAIN REPRODUCTION INDICATORS DETERMINATED IN SOWS, STAND GESTATION PEN TIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TELEA ADA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Current researches were carried out with the goal to quantisize the lost from the weaning to early gestation at the sows housed in open pen gestation. In this trail wetested two pen types, different not only by size, but also by feeders’ emplacement.The main reproduction indicators that we calculated until the 28 gestation day werethe proportion of sows in heat after weaning, the weaning to estrus interval and thegestation rates. The weaning to estrus interval was about 4 to 7 days, most sowswere in heat in the day 5 and 6 days after weaning. The percent of heat detectionafter weaning was 71.42% for the small pens and 70.71% for the big pens(differences statistically non significant, chi test value was 0.983. The gestation rateat 28 days after insemination was 91.62% for the small pens and 94.72% for thelarge pens (chi test value 0,959, statistically non significant differences. Theoverpopulation for heat induction and after that chipping animals together in thosepens, show that the lost are up to 40.47%, between weaning – day 28 of gestation.

  18. Breakdown Voltage Research of Penning Gas Mixture in Plasma Display Panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Bingang; Liu Chunliang; Song Zhongxiao; Fan Yufeng; Xia Xing; Liu Liu; Fan Duowang

    2005-01-01

    Paschen law and equations, which ignore the influence of the Penning ionization on the electron ionization coefficient (α), are always used as the approximation of the breakdown voltage criterion of the Penning gas mixture in current researches of discharge characteristics of the plasma display panel (PDP). It is doubtful that whether their results match the facts. Based on the Townsend gas self-sustaining discharge condition and the chemical kinetics analysis of the Penning gas mixture discharging in PDP, the empirical equation to describe the breakdown of the Penning gas mixture is given. It is used to calculate the breakdown voltage curves of Ne-Xe/MgO and Ne-Ar/MgO in a testing macroscopic discharge cell of AC-PDP. The effective secondary electron emission coefficients (γeff) of the MgO protective layers are derived by comparing the breakdown voltage curves obtained from the empirical equation with the experimental data of breakdown voltages. In comparison with the results calculated by the Paschen law and the equation which ignore the influence of the Penning ionization on α , the results calculated by the empirical equation have better conformity with experimental data. The empirical equation characterizes the breakdown of the Penning gas mixture in PDP effectively, and gives a convenient way to study its breakdown characteristics and the secondary electron emission behaviors.

  19. JUDGING SELECTION: APPOINTING CANADIAN JUDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McCormick

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s, the appointment of trial judges in Canada has generally involved an arms-length committee of professionals, although the structure of these committees and their role in the process has varied from province to province, as well as evolving over time. Yet these “new” structures and “new” processes did not prevent a major judicial appointment scandal in the province of Quebec in 2010, culminating in the formation of the Bastarache Committee to recommend changes. This paper summarizes the forty-year history of Canadian judicial appointment committees, identifies the major challenges that face those committees, and suggests the basic values toward which reforms to the appointment process might be directed. Depuis les années 1970, la nomination des juges de première instance au Canada a généralement mis à contribution un comité de professionnels indépendants, bien que la structure de ce comité et son rôle dans le processus de nomination aient varié d’une province à l’autre et évolué avec le temps. Ces « nouvelles » structures et « nouveaux » processus n’ont certes pas empêché l’éclatement du scandale sur la nomination des juges au Québec en 2010. Ce scandale a donné lieu à la formation de la Commission Bastarache qui avait notamment le mandat de recommander des changements. La présent document résume les quarante ans d’histoire des comités canadiens de nomination des juges, recense les principaux défis que ces comités doivent relever, et propose les valeurs fondamentales qui devraient inspirer les réformes du processus de nomination.

  20. Electron traps in semiconducting polymers: exponential versus Gaussian trap distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolai, H.T.; Mandoc, M.M.; Blom, P.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The low electron currents in poly(dialkoxy-p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) derivatives and their steep voltage dependence are generally explained by trap-limited conduction in the presence of an exponential trap distribution. Here we demonstrate that the electron transport of several PPV derivatives can

  1. Electron traps in semiconducting polymers : Exponential versus Gaussian trap distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolai, H. T.; Mandoc, M. M.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2011-01-01

    The low electron currents in poly(dialkoxy-p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) derivatives and their steep voltage dependence are generally explained by trap-limited conduction in the presence of an exponential trap distribution. Here we demonstrate that the electron transport of several PPV derivatives can

  2. A Roadmap for Canadian Submillimetre Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Tracy; Di Francesco, James; Matthews, Brenda; Murray, Norm; Scott, Douglas; Wilson, Christine

    2013-01-01

    We survey the present landscape in submillimetre astronomy for Canada and describe a plan for continued engagement in observational facilities to ~2020. Building on Canada's decadal Long Range Plan process, we emphasize that continued involvement in a large, single-dish facility is crucial given Canada's substantial investment in ALMA and numerous PI-led submillimetre experiments. In particular, we recommend: i) an extension of Canadian participation in the JCMT until at least the unique JCMT Legacy Survey program is able to realize the full scientific potential provided by the world-leading SCUBA-2 instrument; and ii) involvement of the entire Canadian community in CCAT, with a large enough share in the partnership for Canadian astronomers to participate at all levels of the facility. We further recommend continued participation in ALMA development, involvement in many focused PI-led submillimetre experiments, and partnership in SPICA.

  3. The Honey Trap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    Michael F. Wagner: The Honey Trap –The democratization of leisure through automobilism The automobile has achieved a central position in modern everyday life as an essential artefact to mobility. This raises the question how automobiles have been mediated for mass consumption? The central thesis...... in the article is that the culture of Danish automobilism was constructed around and appropriated through leisure activities conducted primarily by the automobile consumer’s organisation Touring Club de Danemark (FDM). The general purpose for the consumer organisation has been to create a cultural identity...... and a material reality of democratic participation linking ‘Car and Leisure’, a term that has been a central motto for the organization during many decades. The keyword in this activity was ‘Free’ celebrating the manner in which the privately owned automobile secured a maximum of freedom to the owner. The paper...

  4. Quantum spin dynamics and entanglement generation with hundreds of trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Bohnet, Justin G; Britton, Joseph W; Wall, Michael L; Rey, Ana Maria; Foss-Feig, Michael; Bollinger, John J

    2015-01-01

    Quantum simulation of spin models can provide insight into complex problems that are difficult or impossible to study with classical computers. Trapped ions are an established platform for quantum simulation, but only systems with fewer than 20 ions have demonstrated quantum correlations. Here we study non-equilibrium, quantum spin dynamics arising from an engineered, homogeneous Ising interaction in a two-dimensional array of $^9$Be$^+$ ions in a Penning trap. We verify entanglement in the form of spin-squeezed states for up to 219 ions, directly observing 4.0$\\pm$0.9 dB of spectroscopic enhancement. We also observe evidence of non-Gaussian, over-squeezed states in the full counting statistics. We find good agreement with ab-initio theory that includes competition between entanglement and decoherence, laying the groundwork for simulations of the transverse-field Ising model with variable-range interactions, for which numerical solutions are, in general, classically intractable.

  5. Quantum spin dynamics and entanglement generation with hundreds of trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnet, Justin G.; Sawyer, Brian C.; Britton, Joseph W.; Wall, Michael L.; Rey, Ana Maria; Foss-Feig, Michael; Bollinger, John J.

    2016-06-01

    Quantum simulation of spin models can provide insight into problems that are difficult or impossible to study with classical computers. Trapped ions are an established platform for quantum simulation, but only systems with fewer than 20 ions have demonstrated quantum correlations. We studied quantum spin dynamics arising from an engineered, homogeneous Ising interaction in a two-dimensional array of 9Be+ ions in a Penning trap. We verified entanglement in spin-squeezed states of up to 219 ions, directly observing 4.0 ± 0.9 decibels of spectroscopic enhancement, and observed states with non-Gaussian statistics consistent with oversqueezed states. The good agreement with ab initio theory that includes interactions and decoherence lays the groundwork for simulations of the transverse-field Ising model with variable-range interactions, which are generally intractable with classical methods.

  6. Birth of the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Ivan T

    2004-01-01

    The Canadian Digestive Disease Foundation, renamed the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation--Fondation canadienne pour la promotion de la santé digestive--in December 2001, is the culmination of ongoing efforts by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology to establish an independent charitable organization. In February 2001, it was officially endorsed as the Foundation for the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology. The initial efforts to establish this Foundation, led by Dr Richard McKenna in 1963, were unsuccessful. In 1991, Glaxo Canada (now GlaxoSmithKline) became a founding donor, and with the four founding physicians--Drs Ivan T Beck, Richard H Hunt, Suzanne E Lemire and Alan BR Thomson--the expenses to establish the Foundation were met. A charitable number was obtained in 1995 (0997427-11). The second founding donor was Janssen Canada (now Janssen-Ortho), and public education support came from Astra Canada (now AstraZeneca Canada). The Foundation initially relied on corporate donors, but now approaches physicians, patients and the general public. The objectives of the Foundation are to advance the science of gastroenterology and to provide knowledge of digestive diseases and nutrition to the general public, to enhance the quality of life of persons who are afflicted with these disorders. The major achievements of the Foundation are the provision of one-year operating grants to new investigators, which have allowed them to accumulate early data and subsequently obtain support from other major granting organizations. It also provides Fellowships and studentship support grants, in conjunction with the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the pharmaceutical industry. The education committee found that there was little research support in this field, considering the large economic burden of digestive disease and the amount of outstanding work done by Canadian researchers. A bilingual Web site, a web-based specialist's discussion program and bilingual

  7. A Course in Canadian Film for U.S. Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenko, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Canadian Film will be a new course in the Communications Studies department at the University of Missouri at Kansas City particularly designed for non-Canadian Midwestern US students. It will not only introduce students to the richness and significance of Canadian film as both art and entertainment (which is virtually unrecognized around here),…

  8. 47 CFR 101.1423 - Canadian and Mexican coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Canadian and Mexican coordination. 101.1423... GHz Band § 101.1423 Canadian and Mexican coordination. Pursuant to § 2.301 of this chapter, MVDDS systems in the United States within 56 km (35 miles) of the Canadian and Mexican border will be...

  9. BX-U linear trap for one-way production and confinement of Li+ and e- plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himura, Haruhiko

    2016-03-01

    A modified version of the Penning-Malmberg trap was developed wherein both positive and negative harmonic potential wells were created by using multi-ring electrodes. The sequence of particle injection, particle trapping, and plasma extraction from the potential wells was controlled by a set of switching circuits. All the guns launching charged particles were collected together in one side of the linear trap. Nevertheless, pure electron (e-) and lithium-ion (Li+) plasmas were not only separately produced on the machine axis but also confined simultaneously. Preliminary data show that for B ≈ 0.13 T the e- plasma lasted for 15 s and the Li+ plasma lasted for ~ 4 s.

  10. Management of hereditary angioedema: 2010 Canadian approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowen Tom

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract C1-inhibitor (C1-INH deficiency is a rare blood disorder resulting in angioedema attacks that are debilitating and may be life-threatening. Prophylaxis and therapy of events has changed since our first Canadian Consensus Conference on the diagnosis, therapy and management of HAE. We have formed the Canadian Hereditary Angioedema Network (CHAEN/Réseau Canadien d'Angioédème Héréditaire (RCAH - http://www.haecanada.com to advance care of patients with this disorder in Canada. We here present a review of management of HAE in Canada.

  11. Statistics in action a Canadian outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Lawless, Jerald F

    2014-01-01

    Commissioned by the Statistical Society of Canada (SSC), Statistics in Action: A Canadian Outlook helps both general readers and users of statistics better appreciate the scope and importance of statistics. It presents the ways in which statistics is used while highlighting key contributions that Canadian statisticians are making to science, technology, business, government, and other areas. The book emphasizes the role and impact of computing in statistical modeling and analysis, including the issues involved with the huge amounts of data being generated by automated processes.The first two c

  12. Quantum computing with trapped ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    The significance of quantum computation for cryptography is discussed. Following a brief survey of the requirements for quantum computational hardware, an overview of the ion trap quantum computation project at Los Alamos is presented. The physical limitations to quantum computation with trapped ions are analyzed and an assessment of the computational potential of the technology is made.

  13. The ALPHA antihydrogen trapping apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amole, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON Canada, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Andresen, G.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ashkezari, M.D. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC Canada, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Bertsche, W. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Bowe, P.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Butler, E. [Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Capra, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON Canada, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Carpenter, P.T. [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5311 (United States); Cesar, C.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Escallier, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Fajans, J. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Friesen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary AB, Canada, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Fujiwara, M.C.; Gill, D.R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Gutierrez, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 1Z4 (Canada); and others

    2014-01-21

    The ALPHA collaboration, based at CERN, has recently succeeded in confining cold antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic minimum neutral atom trap and has performed the first study of a resonant transition of the anti-atoms. The ALPHA apparatus will be described herein, with emphasis on the structural aspects, diagnostic methods and techniques that have enabled antihydrogen trapping and experimentation to be achieved.

  14. Accretion discs trapped near corotation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Angelo, C.R.; Spruit, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    We show that discs accreting on to the magnetosphere of a rotating star can end up in a trapped state, in which the inner edge of the disc stays near the corotation radius, even at low and varying accretion rates. The accretion in these trapped states can be steady or cyclic; we explore these states

  15. Cryogenic silicon surface ion trap

    CERN Document Server

    Niedermayr, Michael; Kumph, Muir; Partel, Stefan; Edlinger, Johannes; Brownnutt, Michael; Blatt, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Trapped ions are pre-eminent candidates for building quantum information processors and quantum simulators. They have been used to demonstrate quantum gates and algorithms, quantum error correction, and basic quantum simulations. However, to realise the full potential of such systems and make scalable trapped-ion quantum computing a reality, there exist a number of practical problems which must be solved. These include tackling the observed high ion-heating rates and creating scalable trap structures which can be simply and reliably produced. Here, we report on cryogenically operated silicon ion traps which can be rapidly and easily fabricated using standard semiconductor technologies. Single $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ions have been trapped and used to characterize the trap operation. Long ion lifetimes were observed with the traps exhibiting heating rates as low as $\\dot{\\bar{n}}=$ 0.33 phonons/s at an ion-electrode distance of 230 $\\mu$m. These results open many new avenues to arrays of micro-fabricated ion traps.

  16. MATS and LaSpec: High-precision experiments using ion traps and lasers at FAIR

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, D; Scheidenberger, C; Kreim, S; Gomez-Hornillos, M B; Aysto, J; Dickel, T; Geppert, C; Novikov, Y N; Tain, J L; Garcia-Ramos, J E; Bollen, G; Hobein, M; Audi, G; Beck, D; Winkler, M; Jesch, C; Vasiliev, A; Sanchez, R; Neidherr, D; Huber, G; Weber, C; Suhonen, M; Reinhard, P G; Jokinen, A; Lapierre, A; Bender, M; Martinez, T; Solders, A; Huyse, M; Matos, M; Szerypo, J; Seliverstov, M; Cortes, G; Cakirli, R B; Van Duppen, P; George, S; Block, M; Ahammed, M; Herfurth, F; Neyens, G; Habs, D; Thirolf, P G; Flanagan, K T; Roux, C; Schneider, D; Brodeur, M; Yordanov, D; Marx, G; Koudriavtsev, I; De, A; Boehm, C; Noertershaeuser, W; Blaum, K; Schabinger, B; Ettenauer, S; Plass, W R; Wendt, K; Nagy, S; Vorobjev, G; Minaya-Ramirez, E; Heenen, P-H; Quint, W; Kester, O; Le Blanc, F; Ray, A; Billowes, J; Kuehl, T; Kraemer, J; Lunney, D; Kolhinen, V; Rubio, B; Brunner, T; Nesterenko, D; Ferrer, R; Algora, A; Repp, J; Naimi, S; Eberhardt, K; Ziegler, F; Popov, A; Krieger, A; Campbell, P; Gartzke, E; Ketelaer, J; Heinz, S; Delheij, P; Ullrich, J; Dax, A; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J R; Eliseev, S; Das, P; Cano-Ott, D; Petrick, M; Moore, I; Litvinov, Y A; Schwarz, S; Dilling, J; Geissel, H; Bushaw, B A; Gusev, Y; Lallena, A M; Schweikhard, L; Schuch, R; Herlert, A

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear ground state properties including mass, charge radii, spins and moments can be determined by applying atomic physics techniques such as Penning-trap based mass spectrometry and laser spectroscopy. The MATS and LaSpec setups at the low-energy beamline at FAIR will allow us to extend the knowledge of these properties further into the region far from stability. The mass and its inherent connection with the nuclear binding energy is a fundamental property of a nuclide, a unique ``fingerprint{''}. Thus, precise mass values are important for a variety of applications, ranging from nuclear-structure studies like the investigation of shell closures and the onset of deformation, tests of nuclear mass models and mass formulas, to tests of the weak interaction and of the Standard Model. The required relative accuracy ranges from 10(-5) to below 10(-8) for radionuclides, which most often have half-lives well below 1 s. Substantial progress in Penning trap mass spectrometry has made this method a prime choice for ...

  17. The trapped human experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, R; Agapiou, A; Bocos-Bintintan, V; Brown, L J; Burns, C; Creaser, C S; Devenport, N A; Gao-Lau, B; Guallar-Hoyas, C; Hildebrand, L; Malkar, A; Martin, H J; Moll, V H; Patel, P; Ratiu, A; Reynolds, J C; Sielemann, S; Slodzynski, R; Statheropoulos, M; Turner, M A; Vautz, W; Wright, V E; Thomas, C L P

    2011-12-01

    This experiment observed the evolution of metabolite plumes from a human trapped in a simulation of a collapsed building. Ten participants took it in turns over five days to lie in a simulation of a collapsed building and eight of them completed the 6 h protocol while their breath, sweat and skin metabolites were passed through a simulation of a collapsed glass-clad reinforced-concrete building. Safety, welfare and environmental parameters were monitored continuously, and active adsorbent sampling for thermal desorption GC-MS, on-line and embedded CO, CO(2) and O(2) monitoring, aspirating ion mobility spectrometry with integrated semiconductor gas sensors, direct injection GC-ion mobility spectrometry, active sampling thermal desorption GC-differential mobility spectrometry and a prototype remote early detection system for survivor location were used to monitor the evolution of the metabolite plumes that were generated. Oxygen levels within the void simulator were allowed to fall no lower than 19.1% (v). Concurrent levels of carbon dioxide built up to an average level of 1.6% (v) in the breathing zone of the participants. Temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide levels and the physiological measurements were consistent with a reproducible methodology that enabled the metabolite plumes to be sampled and characterized from the different parts of the experiment. Welfare and safety data were satisfactory with pulse rates, blood pressures and oxygenation, all within levels consistent with healthy adults. Up to 12 in-test welfare assessments per participant and a six-week follow-up Stanford Acute Stress Response Questionnaire indicated that the researchers and participants did not experience any adverse effects from their involvement in the study. Preliminary observations confirmed that CO(2), NH(3) and acetone were effective markers for trapped humans, although interactions with water absorbed in building debris needed further study. An unexpected observation from the NH(3

  18. Canadian Association of Gastroenterology and the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation: Guidelines on Colon Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond Leddin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent cancer affecting both men and women in Canada. Many of these cancers are preventable, and the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG and the Canadian Digestive Health Foundation (CDHF strongly support the establishment of screening programs for colorectal cancer. These guidelines discuss a number of screening options, listing the advantages and disadvantages of each. Ultimately, the test that is used for screening should be determined by patient preference, current evidence and local resources.

  19. The Canadian Hypertension Education Program – a unique Canadian knowledge translation program

    OpenAIRE

    Tobe, Sheldon W; Touyz, Rhian M.; Campbell, Norm RC

    2007-01-01

    The Canadian Hypertension Education Program annually appraises data from hypertension research and updates clinical practice recommendation for the diagnosis and management of hypertension. Enormous effort is devoted to disseminating these recommendations to target groups throughout the country and, through the use of institutional databases, to evaluating their effectiveness in improving the health of Canadians by lowering blood pressure in people with hypertension. The mission of the Canadi...

  20. 1986-87 Annual Trapping Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Annual Trapping Plan for the 1986-87 trapping season at Clarence Cannon NWR outlines rules and regulations for the trapping of beaver, muskrat, raccoon,...

  1. Field-scale evaluation of water fluxes and manure solution leaching in feedlot pen soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Ana R; Maisonnave, Roberto; Massobrio, Marcelo J; Fabrizio de Iorio, Alicia R

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of beef cattle manure on feedlot pen surfaces generates large amounts of dissolved solutes that can be mobilized by water fluxes, affecting surface and groundwater quality. Our objective was to examine the long-term impacts of a beef cattle feeding operation on water fluxes and manure leaching in feedlot pens located on sandy loam soils of the subhumid Sandy Pampa region in Argentina. Bulk density, gravimetric moisture content, and chloride concentration were quantified. Rain simulation trials were performed to estimate infiltration and runoff rates. Using chloride ion as a tracer, profile analysis techniques were applied to estimate the soil moisture flux and manure conservative chemical components leaching rates. An organic stratum was found over the surface of the pen soil, separated from the underlying soil by a highly compacted thin layer (the manure-soil interface). The soil beneath the organic layer showed greater bulk density in the A horizon than in the control soil and had greater moisture content. Greater concentrations of chloride were found as a consequence of the partial sealing of the manure-soil interface. Surface runoff was the dominant process in the feedlot pen soil, whereas infiltration was the main process in control soil. Soil moisture flux beneath pens decreased substantially after 15 yr of activity. The estimated minimum leaching rate of chloride was 13 times faster than the estimated soil moisture flux. This difference suggests that chloride ions are not exclusively transported by advective flow under our conditions but also by solute diffusion and preferential flow.

  2. The Possible Role of Penning Ionization Processes in Planetary Atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Falcinelli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we suggest Penning ionization as an important route of formation for ionic species in upper planetary atmospheres. Our goal is to provide relevant tools to researchers working on kinetic models of atmospheric interest, in order to include Penning ionizations in their calculations as fast processes promoting reactions that cannot be neglected. Ions are extremely important for the transmission of radio and satellite signals, and they govern the chemistry of planetary ionospheres. Molecular ions have also been detected in comet tails. In this paper recent experimental results concerning production of simple ionic species of atmospheric interest are presented and discussed. Such results concern the formation of free ions in collisional ionization of H2O, H2S, and NH3 induced by highly excited species (Penning ionization as metastable noble gas atoms. The effect of Penning ionization still has not been considered in the modeling of terrestrial and extraterrestrial objects so far, even, though metastable helium is formed by radiative recombination of He+ ions with electrons. Because helium is the second most abundant element of the universe, Penning ionization of atomic or molecular species by He*(23S1 is plausibly an active route of ionization in relatively dense environments exposed to cosmic rays.

  3. Behavioral, thermoregulatory, and operational aspects of shallow pool pens used in gilts production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heverton Michael Biazzi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work was conducted to assess behaviors, thermoregulatory, and operational aspects of gilt breeding (Body weight, 25–110 kg whilst the animals were housed in 2-cm deep shallow pool pens (SPP, without the addition of water, compared to the use of fully compact floor pens (TSF during the winter and summer seasons. Commercial female strains for high lean tissue accretion were used, housed in grower/finisher pens for 108 days (11 animals/pen, 1.2 m2/animal. Instantaneous observations of behavior were carried out every 12 min between 7:00 and 19:00 hours throughout the six days of the raising period. At the end of the raising period, the operational aspects of cleaning the facilities were analyzed. A 2 × 2 factorial scheme design was used, with two types of floors and two seasons, with three replicates. The average temperatures in winter and summer were 19.9 ± 2.2°C and 24.5 ± 2.3°C, respectively. The use of SPP reduced aggressive behavior and increased exploratory behavior, increased the time for the daily cleaning, and reduced the time for the final cleaning of the pens.

  4. [Histopathology of meibomian gland abnormalities in experimental PenCB intoxicated beagle treated with squalane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, T; Ohnishi, Y

    1989-05-01

    In order to examine the effect of squalane to excrete PCB from the intoxicated animals, histopathological studies of Meibomian gland abnormalities were carried out in experimental PenCB (3,4,5,3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl) intoxicated beagles treated with squalane. All experimental animals except a control group showed characteristic changes of Meibomian glands: dilation of the duct and squamous metaplasia of the alveolar cells. According to the degree of these findings, five stages were divided in the processes of Medibomian gland changes. The PenCB intoxicated dogs initially showed mild pathological changes of the glands and later moderate to severe degrees of findings. In the PenCB intoxicated animals treated with squalane, severe degree of Meibomian gland findings were found in the early stage and mild to moderate abnormalities in the late stage. The concentration of PenCB in blood varied in each animal, and the animals with advanced Medibomian gland abnormalities tended to have high level of PenCB concentration in blood. In conclusion, the effect of squalane to excrete PCB from the intoxicated animals were not determined in this study.

  5. Microstructural control over soluble pentacene deposited by capillary pen printing for organic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wi Hyoung; Min, Honggi; Park, Namwoo; Lee, Junghwi; Seo, Eunsuk; Kang, Boseok; Cho, Kilwon; Lee, Hwa Sung

    2013-08-28

    Research into printing techniques has received special attention for the commercialization of cost-efficient organic electronics. Here, we have developed a capillary pen printing technique to realize a large-area pattern array of organic transistors and systematically investigated self-organization behavior of printed soluble organic semiconductor ink. The capillary pen-printed deposits of organic semiconductor, 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS_PEN), was well-optimized in terms of morphological and microstructural properties by using ink with mixed solvents of chlorobenzene (CB) and 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB). Especially, a 1:1 solvent ratio results in the best transistor performances. This result is attributed to the unique evaporation characteristics of the TIPS_PEN deposits where fast evaporation of CB induces a morphological evolution at the initial printed position, and the remaining DCB with slow evaporation rate offers a favorable crystal evolution at the pinned position. Finally, a large-area transistor array was facilely fabricated by drawing organic electrodes and active layers with a versatile capillary pen. Our approach provides an efficient printing technique for fabricating large-area arrays of organic electronics and further suggests a methodology to enhance their performances by microstructural control of the printed organic semiconducting deposits.

  6. Indigenous populations health protection: A Canadian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Katya L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The disproportionate effects of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on many Canadian Aboriginal communities have drawn attention to the vulnerability of these communities in terms of health outcomes in the face of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Exploring the particular challenges facing these communities is essential to improving public health planning. In alignment with the objectives of the Pandemic Influenza Outbreak Research Modelling (Pan-InfORM team, a Canadian public health workshop was held at the Centre for Disease Modelling (CDM to: (i evaluate post-pandemic research findings; (ii identify existing gaps in knowledge that have yet to be addressed through ongoing research and collaborative activities; and (iii build upon existing partnerships within the research community to forge new collaborative links with Aboriginal health organizations. The workshop achieved its objectives in identifying main research findings and emerging information post pandemic, and highlighting key challenges that pose significant impediments to the health protection and promotion of Canadian Aboriginal populations. The health challenges faced by Canadian indigenous populations are unique and complex, and can only be addressed through active engagement with affected communities. The academic research community will need to develop a new interdisciplinary framework, building upon concepts from ‘Communities of Practice’, to ensure that the research priorities are identified and targeted, and the outcomes are translated into the context of community health to improve policy and practice.

  7. Canadian Ethnohistory: A Source for Social Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickwire, Wendy

    1998-01-01

    Presents an overview of ethnohistory, a relatively new area of historical investigation that draws on anthropology, geography, and linguistics, as well as history, to document the pasts of predominantly indigenous peoples. Encourages social studies teachers to take notice of a major body of work being produced by Canadian ethnohistorians. (DSK)

  8. Who Are the Players in Canadian Curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Geoffrey

    1987-01-01

    Labels range of persons advocating different theoretical positions of Canadian curriculum as "players." Describes players as "managers,""predictors,""transformers,""sleuths,""analysts." Values varied viewpoints for attention to language regarding curriculum, critical review of ideas/concepts, examination of current policies, awareness of history…

  9. Canadian Art Partnership Program in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketovuori, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    This article is about a multidisciplinary R&D project in which a Canadian Learning Through The Arts (LTTA) program was imported to Finland in 2003-2004. Cultural differences in arts education in Finland and Canada are discussed. While Finland has a national school curriculum with all the arts included. Canada relies more on partnerships to…

  10. International surgery: definition, principles and Canadian practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, Ronald

    2003-10-01

    This article is dedicated to the Canadian international surgeon, Norman Bethune (1890-1939). International surgery is defined as a humanitarian branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of bodily injuries or disorders by incision or manipulations, emphasizing cooperation and understanding among nations and involving education, research, development and advocacy. In this article I review the colonial past, the dark ages following the Declaration of Alma-Ata, the progress made and the present challenges in international surgery. I present a definition of international surgery that recognizes the current era of surgical humanitarianism, validates a global understanding of surgical issues and promotes cooperation among nations. Included are the principles of international surgery: education, research, infrastructure development and advocacy. International surgical projects are classified according to type (clinical, relief, developmental) and integration strategy (vertical or horizontal). Also reviewed are the Canadian practice of international surgery by nongovernmental, professional and academic organizations and the requirements of international and Canadian funding agencies, the development concepts basic to all projects, including results-based management and the cross-cutting themes of gender equity, environmental protection and human safety. I recommend formalizing international surgery into a discipline as a means of promoting surgical care in low-income countries. If international surgery is to be sustained in Canada, infrastructure and support from Canadian surgeons is particularly important. An understanding of the history, definition and classification of international surgery should promote surgical care in low-income countries.

  11. Canadian Adult Education: Still a Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbit, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Writing recently in this journal, two of Canada's veteran adult educators contemplated the "death" of the Canadian adult education movement. I disagree and argue that adult education in Canada is as vital an activity as ever and one that still fully justifies being called a movement. Specifically, Selman and Selman (2009) list five…

  12. Canadian Adult Education: Still a Movement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In this journal's Fall 2009 issue, the Forum section included an article by Gordon Selman and Mark Selman arguing that although Canadian adult education had existed as a social movement in the middle part of the 20th century, it is no longer a social movement. They also speculated about the causes of this change. In the Spring 2011 issue, Tom…

  13. Canadian Children's Perceptions of Spirituality: Diverse Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kelsey; Talwar, Victoria; Bosacki, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Few researchers have explored children's understandings of spirituality. Thus, Canadian children from different religious, spiritual and cultural backgrounds were asked open-ended questions concerning their spiritual thoughts, beliefs and experiences. Parents of participants completed a demographic questionnaire and reported children's religious…

  14. Canadian Perspectives on Equity in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowlby, Brenda; Komlen, Mile

    2000-01-01

    Canadian school board administrators are increasingly expected to meet the needs of disabled or other students requiring specific types of accommodation. The duty to accommodate arises when otherwise legitimate school rules or policies affect the customs and observances of nonmajoritarian religions. (Contains 12 references.) (MLH)

  15. Asian and Pacific Migration: The Canadian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, T. John

    1994-01-01

    Examines the characteristics of landed immigrants (permanent settlers) from Asia, and explores their settlement, adaptation, and integration experience in Canada. It suggests that access to Canadian land does not always translate into equal opportunity in the economy and society, but notes that Canada may be more successful at assimilating Asian…

  16. Heat exposure in the Canadian workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Ollie; Kenny, Glen P

    2010-08-01

    Exposure to excessive heat is a physical hazard that threatens Canadian workers. As patterns of global climate change suggest an increased frequency of heat waves, the potential impact of these extreme climate events on the health and well-being of the Canadian workforce is a new and growing challenge. Increasingly, industries rely on available technology and information to ensure the safety of their workers. Current Canadian labor codes in all provinces employ the guidelines recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) that are Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) based upon Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT). The TLVs are set so that core body temperature of the workers supposedly does not exceed 38.0 degrees C. Legislation in most Canadian provinces also requires employers to install engineering and administrative controls to reduce the heat stress risk of their working environment should it exceed the levels permissible under the WBGT system. There are however severe limitations using the WGBT system because it only directly evaluates the environmental parameters and merely incorporates personal factors such as clothing insulation and metabolic heat production through simple correction factors for broadly generalized groups. An improved awareness of the strengths and limitations of TLVs and the WGBT index can minimize preventable measurement errors and improve their utilization in workplaces. Work is on-going, particularly in the European Union to develop an improved individualized heat stress risk assessment tool. More work is required to improve the predictive capacity of these indices.

  17. Family Business Training: A Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, A. B.; Soufani, K.; Lam, Jose

    2003-01-01

    Family firms play an important role in the working of the Canadian economy; despite their importance to the economic activities and job creation it is observed that family businesses have lower survival rates than non-family firms, some argue that this can possibly be attributed (amongst other factors) to the lack of training. Most of the training…

  18. Canadian suicide mortality rates: first-generation immigrants versus Canadian-born.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, J; Johansen, H; Nair, C; Nargundkar, M

    1990-01-01

    This article examines suicide mortality rates and trends in Canada for first-generation immigrants and the Canadian-born population. Data are analyzed by age, sex and country of birth. Since 1950, suicide rates worldwide for both men and women have been increasing. In North America and most of Europe, suicide has been one of the major causes of death for many years. In Canada, suicide rates are also rising. However, this increase is due entirely to a rise in the rate for men; the rate for women has remained relatively stable. Several differences are apparent between the rates for the Canadian-born population and those for first-generation immigrants. For example, three times as many Canadian-born men as women commit suicide. For first-generation immigrants, the ratio is two to one. Suicide mortality rates for the Canadian-born are higher than those for first-generation immigrants in every age group except for the 65 and over groups. Canadian born males have higher ASMR than first generation immigrant males. The rates for women show that first-generation immigrant women have higher suicide mortality rates than their Canadian-born counterparts, and that the highest rate for all women is for immigrants born in Asia.

  19. Feedback traps for virtual potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilov, Momčilo

    2016-01-01

    Feedback traps are tools for trapping and manipulating single charged objects, such as molecules in solution. An alternative to optical tweezers and other single-molecule techniques, they use feedback to counteract the Brownian motion of a molecule of interest. The trap first acquires information about a molecule's position and then applies an electric feedback force to move the molecule. Since electric forces are stronger than optical forces at small scales, feedback traps are the best way to trap single molecules without "touching" them. Feedback traps can do more than trap molecules: They can also subject a target object to forces that are calculated to be the gradient of a desired potential function U(x). If the feedback loop is fast enough, it creates a virtual potential whose dynamics will be very close to those of a particle in an actual potential U(x). But because the dynamics are entirely a result of the feedback loop--absent the feedback, there is only an object diffusing in a fluid--we are free to ...

  20. Trapping tsetse flies on water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laveissière C.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Riverine tsetse flies such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides are the vectors of human and animal trypanosomoses in West Africa. Despite intimate links between tsetse and water, to our knowledge there has never been any attempt to design trapping devices that would catch tsetse on water. In mangrove (Guinea one challenging issue is the tide, because height above the ground for a trap is a key factor affecting tsetse catches. The trap was mounted on the remains of an old wooden dugout, and attached with rope to nearby branches, thereby allowing it to rise and fall with the tide. Catches showed a very high density of 93.9 flies/”water-trap”/day, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than all the catches from other habitats where the classical trap had been used. In savannah, on the Comoe river of South Burkina Faso, the biconical trap was mounted on a small wooden raft anchored to a stone, and catches were compared with the classical biconical trap put on the shores. G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides densities were not significantly different from those from the classical biconical one. The adaptations described here have allowed to efficiently catch tsetse on the water, which to our knowledge is reported here for the first time. This represents a great progress and opens new opportunities to undertake studies on the vectors of trypanosomoses in mangrove areas of Guinea, which are currently the areas showing the highest prevalences of sleeping sickness in West Africa. It also has huge potential for tsetse control using insecticide impregnated traps in savannah areas where traps become less efficient in rainy season. The Guinean National control programme has already expressed its willingness to use such modified traps in its control campaigns in Guinea, as has the national PATTEC programme in Burkina Faso during rainy season.

  1. A New Atom Trap The Annular Shell Atom Trap (ASAT)

    CERN Document Server

    Pilloff, H S; Pilloff, Herschel S.; Horbatsch, Marko

    2002-01-01

    In the course of exploring some aspects of atom guiding in a hollow, optical fiber, a small negative potential energy well was found just in front of the repulsive or guiding barrier. This results from the optical dipole and the van der Waals potentials. The ground state for atoms bound in this negative potential well was determined by numerically solving the Schrodinger eq. and it was found that this negative well could serve as an atom trap. This trap is referred to as the Annular Shell Atom Trap or ASAT because of the geometry of the trapped atoms which are located in the locus of points defining a very thin annular shell just in front of the guiding barrier. A unique feature of the ASAT is the compression of the atoms from the entire volume to the volume of the annular shell resulting in a very high density of atoms in this trap. This trap may have applications to very low temperatures using evaporative cooling and possibly the formation of BEC. Finally, a scheme is discussed for taking advantage of the d...

  2. Efficacy of monensin against turkey coccidiosis in laboratory and floor-pen experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W I; Reid, W M; McDougald, L R

    1976-01-01

    Monensin at 60, 80, or 100 ppm in feed reduced mortality and lesion scores while protecting against weight loss of turkeys infected with the major pathogenic species: Eimeria adenoides, E. meleagrimitis, and E. gallopavonis. With single and mixed infections in battery-cage experiments, the death rate of unmedicated turkey poults was 33-75%. Weight gains were significantly (P is less than or equal to 0.05) better with 100 ppm monensin than 60 ppm, as were also lesion scores. Under floor-pen conditions there were no significant differences among monensin treatments. Moisture content of the litter was significantly lower in all monensin-medicated pens (40%, compared with 52% moisture in pens of unmedicated controls).

  3. A Prototype of Mathematical Treatment of Pen Pressure Data for Signature Verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chi-Keung; Wong, Siu-Kay; Chim, Lai-Chu Joyce

    2017-03-26

    A prototype using simple mathematical treatment of the pen pressure data recorded by a digital pen movement recording device was derived. In this study, a total of 48 sets of signature and initial specimens were collected. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to compare the data of the pen pressure patterns. From the 820 pair comparisons of the 48 sets of genuine signatures, a high degree of matching was found in which 95.4% (782 pairs) and 80% (656 pairs) had rPA > 0.7 and rPA > 0.8, respectively. In the comparison of the 23 forged signatures with their corresponding control signatures, 20 of them (89.2% of pairs) had rPA values prototype could be used as a complementary technique to improve the objectivity of signature examination and also has a good potential to be developed as a tool for automated signature identification.

  4. High resolution, shallow seismic reflection survey of the Pen Branch fault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stieve, A.

    1991-05-15

    The purpose of this project, at the Savannah River River Site (SRS) was to acquire, process, and interpret 28 km (17.4 miles) of high resolution seismic reflection data taken across the trace of the Pen Branch fault and other suspected, intersecting north-south trending faults. The survey was optimized for the upper 300 ft of geologic strata in order to demonstrate the existence of very shallow, flat lying horizons, and to determine the depth of the fault or to sediments deformed by the fault. Field acquisition and processing parameters were selected to define small scale spatial variability and structural features in the vicinity of the Pen Branch fault leading to the definition and the location of the Pen Branch fault, the shallowest extent of the fault, and the quantification of the sense and magnitude of motion. Associated geophysical, borehole, and geologic data were incorporated into the investigation to assist in the determination of optimal parameters and aid in the interpretation.

  5. Reliability of short form-36 in an Internet- and a pen-and-paper version

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basnov, Maja; Kongsved, Sissel Marie; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    Use of Internet versions of questionnaires may have several advantages in clinical and epidemiological research, but we know little about if Internet versions differ with respect to validity and reliability. We aimed to compare Internet- and pen-and-paper versions of short form-36 (SF-36......) with respect to test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Women referred to mammography (n = 782) were randomised to receive either a paper version with a prepaid return envelope or a guideline on how to fill in the Internet version. A subgroup was asked to answer the questionnaire once again...... 0.75 and 0.93 with minor differences between the Internet- and the pen-and-paper version. We found little or no evidence of a difference in test-retest reliability and internal consistency when we compared an Internet- and a pen-and-paper version of SF-36....

  6. Skin Blood Perfusion and Cellular Response to Insertion of Insulin Pen Needles With Different Diameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstmark, Kezia Ann; Stallknecht, Bente Merete; Bo Jensen, Casper;

    2014-01-01

    Today most research on pen needle design revolves around pain perception statements through clinical trials, but these are both costly, timely, and require high sample sizes. The purpose of this study was to test if tissue damage, caused by different types of needles, can be assessed by evaluating...... skin blood perfusion response around needle insertion sites. Three common sized pen needles of 28G, 30G, and 32G as well as hooked 32G needles, were inserted into the neck skin of pigs and then removed. Laser Speckle Contrast Analysis was used to measure skin blood perfusion for 20 minutes after......, but there was a trend of an increased response with increasing needle diameter. Skin blood perfusion response to pen needle insertions rank according to needle diameter, and the tissue response caused by hooked 32G needles corresponds to that of 28G needles. The relation between needle diameter and trauma when...

  7. Innovation: the classic traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2006-11-01

    these traps.

  8. EpiPen epidemic: suggestions for rational prescribing in childhood food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, A S

    2003-07-01

    There has been a marked increase in community concerns of the risk of food induced anaphylaxis in children and a consequent increase in the provision of the self or carer injectable epinephrine (EpiPen) (CSL Ltd, Parkville, Victoria, Australia)). The Australian use of EpiPens in children under 10 years has increased by 300% over 5 years with a crude rate of EpiPen provision of 1 per 544 Australian children aged under 10 years. However, the risk of a fatal reaction to food, particularly in preschool children, is remote (in Australia, an estimated one fatality in 30 years in the under 5-year-old population and two deaths in 10 years in the entire child population). It is therefore important to provide a perspective on the risk of death from food induced anaphylactic to parents and carers in view of the anxiety generated on this issue. The indications for provision of an EpiPen to children are not well defined. Six risk factors, which can be considered in evaluating the risk of a life-threatening reaction (age over 5 years; a history of respiratory tract involvement with the initial or subsequent reactions; a history of asthma requiring preventer medication; peanut or tree nut sensitivity; reactions induced by traces or small amounts of allergen; a strongly positive skin prick test) are proposed. It is suggested that the greater the number that are positive, the lower the threshold for provision of an EpiPen. In addition, instruction in EpiPen administration and the provision of both a clear and simple anaphylaxis action plan and a rational perspective on the remote risk of death is just as important as the provision of the device itself.

  9. Innovation & evaluation of tangible direct manipulation digital drawing pens for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tai-Hua; Wu, Fong-Gong; Chen, Huei-Tsz

    2017-04-01

    Focusing on the theme of direct manipulation, in this study, we proposed a new and innovative tangible user interface (TUI) design concept for a manipulative digital drawing pen. Based on interviews with focus groups brainstorming and experts and the results of a field survey, we selected the most suitable tangible user interface for children between 4 and 7 years of age. Using the new tangible user interface, children could choose between the brush tools after touching and feeling the various patterns. The thickness of the brush could be adjusted by changing the tilt angle. In a subsequent experimental process we compared the differences in performance and subjective user satisfaction. A total of sixteen children, aged 4-7 years participated in the experiment. Two operating system experiments (the new designed tangible digital drawing pen and traditional visual interface-icon-clicking digital drawing pens) were performed at random and in turns. We assessed their manipulation performance, accuracy, brush stroke richness and subjective evaluations. During the experimental process we found that operating functions using the direct manipulation method, and adding shapes and semantic models to explain the purpose of each function, enabled the children to perform stroke switches relatively smoothly. By using direct manipulation digital pens, the children could improve their stroke-switching performance for digital drawing. Additionally, by using various patterns to represent different brushes or tools, the children were able to make selections using their sense of touch, thereby reducing the time required to move along the drawing pens and select icons (The significant differences (p = 0.000, p digital drawing pens.

  10. Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novotny, Jerry F.; Macy, Thomas L.; Gardenier, James T.

    1985-05-01

    Upriver bright fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) are being reared in a backwater and a pond along John Day Reservoir to evaluate the benefits of rearing fish and releasing them off-station compared to traditional hatchery procedures. Fish reared in net pens at a density/feeding combination judged to be the economic optimum of those used during 1984 rearing trials exhibited good growth and smolt development. Size of fish averaged 112 fish/lb (4.0g/fish), ATPase activities ranged from 16.4 to 29.5 micromoles Pi/mg prot/hr at release and total mortality of fish was low among pens, ranging from 0.3 to 1.1%. Poor growth and smolt development was observed in fish reared in a large barrier net, especially during the initial two weeks after stocking. In addition, mortality of fish in the barrier net was high (49%) in relation to any of the other treatments tested thus far. The combined effects of generally poor condition of fish at stocking, low zooplankton densities during the initial two weeks of rearing, and losses to predation were thought to be the primary causes of the slow growth rates and high mortality. Unfed fish in pens utilized the available natural food base, but zooplankton densities were apparently not sufficient for growth, and may have been marginal for sustenance, especially at higher density. ATPase activities at release were significantly higher in low-density pens than in higher density pens, but development at all densities was retarded when compared with ATPase activities of fed fish. Preliminary cost estimates for producing fish-using the rearing strategies developed in the current pen-rearing study compared favorably with the average costs of rearing salmonids in a Northwest hatchery.

  11. Cost minimization analysis of different growth hormone pen devices based on time-and-motion simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jaewhan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous pen devices are available to administer recombinant Human Growth Hormone (rhGH, and both patients and health plans have varying issues to consider when selecting a particular product and device for daily use. Therefore, the present study utilized multi-dimensional product analysis to assess potential time involvement, required weekly administration steps, and utilization costs relative to daily rhGH administration. Methods Study objectives were to conduct 1 Time-and-Motion (TM simulations in a randomized block design that allowed time and steps comparisons related to rhGH preparation, administration and storage, and 2 a Cost Minimization Analysis (CMA relative to opportunity and supply costs. Nurses naïve to rhGH administration and devices were recruited to evaluate four rhGH pen devices (2 in liquid form, 2 requiring reconstitution via TM simulations. Five videotaped and timed trials for each product were evaluated based on: 1 Learning (initial use instructions, 2 Preparation (arrange device for use, 3 Administration (actual simulation manikin injection, and 4 Storage (maintain product viability between doses, in addition to assessment of steps required for weekly use. The CMA applied micro-costing techniques related to opportunity costs for caregivers (categorized as wages, non-drug medical supplies, and drug product costs. Results Norditropin® NordiFlex and Norditropin® NordiPen (NNF and NNP, Novo Nordisk, Inc., Bagsværd, Denmark took less weekly Total Time (p ® Pen (GTP, Pfizer, Inc, New York, New York or HumatroPen® (HTP, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana. Time savings were directly related to differences in new package Preparation times (NNF (1.35 minutes, NNP (2.48 minutes GTP (4.11 minutes, HTP (8.64 minutes, p Conclusions Time-and-motion simulation data used to support a micro-cost analysis demonstrated that the pen device with the greater time demand has highest net costs.

  12. Magneto optical trapping of Barium

    CERN Document Server

    De, S; Jungmann, K; Willmann, L

    2008-01-01

    First laser cooling and trapping of the heavy alkaline earth element barium has been achieved based on the strong 6s$^2$ $^1$S$_0$ - 6s6p $^1$P$_1$ transition for the main cooling. Due to the large branching into metastable D-states several additional laser driven transitions are required to provide a closed cooling cycle. A total efficiency of $0.4(1) \\cdot 10^{-2}$ for slowing a thermal atomic beam and capturing atoms into a magneto optical trap was obtained. Trapping lifetimes of more than 1.5 s were observed. This lifetime is shortened at high laser intensities by photo ionization losses. The developed techniques will allow to extend significantly the number of elements that can be optically cooled and trapped.

  13. Trapping Triatominae in Silvatic Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noireau François

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale trials of a trapping system designed to collect silvatic Triatominae are reported. Live-baited adhesive traps were tested in various ecosystems and different triatomine habitats (arboreal and terrestrial. The trials were always successful, with a rate of positive habitats generally over 20% and reaching 48.4% for palm trees of the Amazon basin. Eleven species of Triatominae belonging to the three genera of public health importance (Triatoma, Rhodnius and Panstrongylus were captured. This trapping system provides an effective way to detect the presence of triatomines in terrestrial and arboreal silvatic habitats and represents a promising tool for ecological studies. Various lines of research are contemplated to improve the performance of this trapping system.

  14. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE MAIN REPRODUCTION INDICATORS DETERMINATED IN SOWS, STAND GESTATION PEN TIPE

    OpenAIRE

    TELEA ADA; IVAN ALEXANDRA; PANDUR IOANA; UNTARU RAMONA; N. PĂCALĂ

    2013-01-01

    Current researches were carried out with the goal to quantisize the lost from the weaning to early gestation at the sows housed in open pen gestation. In this trail we tested two pen types, different not only by size, but also by feeders’ emplacement. The main reproduction indicators that we calculated until the 28 gestation day were the proportion of sows in heat after weaning, the weaning to estrus interval and the gestation rates. The weaning to estrus interval was about 4 to 7 days, most ...

  15. From Pen-and-Paper Sketches to Prototypes: The Advanced Interaction Design Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Pen and paper is still the best tool for sketching GUIs. How-ever, sketches cannot be executed, at best we have facilitated or animated scenarios. The Advanced User Interaction Environment facilitates turn-ing hand-drawn sketches into executable prototypes.......Pen and paper is still the best tool for sketching GUIs. How-ever, sketches cannot be executed, at best we have facilitated or animated scenarios. The Advanced User Interaction Environment facilitates turn-ing hand-drawn sketches into executable prototypes....

  16. Dynamic monitoring of weight data at the pen vs at the individual level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dan; Toft, Nils; Kristensen, A. R. K.;

    (univariate) and using individual pig values as parameters in a hierarchical (multivariate) model including section, double pen, and individual level. Variance components of the different models are estimated using the Expectation Maximization algorithm. The difference of information obtained...... at the individual vs pen level is thereafter assessed. Whereas weight data is usually monitored after a batch is being sent to the slaughter house, this method provides weekly updating of the data. Perspectives of application include dynamic monitoring of weight data in relation to events such as diarrhoea, tail...

  17. A Survey of Pen name semantic Applications in Rumis Sonnets (Ghazals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre AhmadiPoor anari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pen name in sonnet is the poet’s poetic name which most of the poets mention it in their verses. Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Rumi lived in 13th-century was a Persian Moslem poet, theologian, and Sufi mystic. He has written more than 3229 sonnets and dedicated to Shams Tabrizi. Thus mentioned, names such “Shams”, “Shams od-Din” and “Shams al-Haq” in the ending lines of his sonnets.    One of the points which could be studied about pen name is study of theme or concepts which are mentioned alongside that. Entirely it has been said that the same theme which comes with the pen name “Shams” in 992 sonnets. In this study, we pay attention to mentioning the poets desired name which is not necessarily the pen name in Rumis’ sonnets, what theme does it carry and what is relationship of it with the previous lines?    Themes which the poets apply in their sonnets beside pen name is mostly what that has been mentioned in the previous lines. However, in times the concept mentioned along side with the pen name is independent from the sonnet concepts, mostly eulogy. Studying Hafiz and Saadi sonnets shows that the most important themes existing are: love declaration, advice, eulogizing and sometimes a mischievous concept.    Rumis’ sonnets are lover-based. Therefore, there is much talk of the lover in the whole sonnet. But in other poet’s sonnets, the lover (the poet is the main theme is the sonnet. The poet may find a way to praise his own poem or stays in his dreamy world and focuses on the romantic feelings. Considering the fact that unlike other poets Rumi has not mentioned his own pen name but his lover “Shams”, the study focuses on the themes which are mentioned by the pen name “Shams” as the following: 1-Eulogy: One third of the Shams pen names are eulogies. The sufist approach has given the lines a special color. The similes and metaphors used for him are heavenly and

  18. The effects of pen partitions and thermal pig simulators on airflow in a livestock test room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, B.; Svidt, Kjeld; Zhang, G.

    2000-01-01

    partitions which divided the room into four equal-sized pens. The guiding plates beneath the ceiling were efficient in creating two-dimensional how in the occupied zone, but they increased the differences between measured and simulated air velocity close to the ceiling and close to the floor. Both...... measurements and CFD simulations showed that the introduction of pen partitions and thermal pig simulators reduced the air velocities in the occupied zone of the test room. Detailed geometric modelling of the animals might often be unnecessary for simulation of airflow in livestock rooms. This will especially...

  19. Effects of straw processing and pen stocking density on holstein dairy heifers: i) growth and sorting characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objectives were to evaluate effects of pen-stocking density (freestall housing) and straw processing on heifer growth performance and feedbunk sorting behaviors by Holstein dairy heifers. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of straw-processing (GOOD or POOR) and pen-stocking-density [100 (CONTROL), 12...

  20. Seeing Oneself in a Book: The Changing Face of Canadian Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Fayjean, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Takes a look at children's literature over time, and its recent emergence as a respected body of literary work. Discusses what is Canadian about Canadian children's literature. Annotates six picture books. Notes that Canadian literature reflects the diversity of the Canadian population, the vast differences in the Canadian landscape, and the…

  1. Theoretical studies for experimental implementation of quantum computing with trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Bryce T.

    Certain quantum many-body physics problems, such as the transverse field Ising model are intractable on a classical computer, meaning that as the number of particles grows, or spins, the amount of memory and computational time required to solve the problem exactly increases faster than a polynomial behavior. However, quantum simulators are being developed to efficiently solve quantum problems that are intractable via conventional computing. Some of the most successful quantum simulators are based on ion traps. Their success depends on the ability to achieve long coherence time, precise spin control, and high fidelity in state preparation. In this work, I present calculations that characterizes the oblate Paul trap that creates two-dimensional Coulomb crystals in a triangular lattice and phonon modes. We also calculate the spin-spin Ising-like interaction that can be generated in the oblate Paul trap using the same techinques as the linear radiofrequency Paul trap. In addition, I discuss two possible challenges that arise in the Penning trap: the effects of defects ( namely when Be+ → BeH+) and the creation of a more uniform spin-spin Ising-like interaction. We show that most properties are not significantly influenced by the appearance of defects, and that by adding two potentials to the Penning trap a more uniform spin-spin Ising-like interaction can be achieved. Next, I discuss techniques tfor preparing the ground state of the Ising-like Hamiltonian. In particular, we explore the use of the bang-bang protocol to prepare the ground state and compare optimized results to conventional adiabatic ramps ( the exponential and locally adiabatic ramp ). The bang-bang optimization in general outperforms the exponential; however the locally adiabatic ramp consistently is somewhat better. However, compared to the locally adiabatic ramp, the bang-bang optimization is simpler to implement, and it has the advantage of providingrovide a simple procedure for estimating the

  2. Committing Canadian sociology: developing a Canadian sociology and a sociology of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Ralph

    2014-05-01

    This paper is a slightly revised version of the author's "Outstanding Career Award Lecture" presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Sociological Association in Victoria, British Columbia on June 6, 2013. The paper distinguishes between Canadian Sociology and the Sociology of Canada. The former involves the explanatory stance that one takes to understanding Canada. The latter addresses the significant social dimensions that underlie Canadian social organization, culture, and behavior. I make a case for a Canadian Sociology that focuses on the unique features of Canadian society rather than adopting a comparative perspective. I also argue that there is a continuing need within the Sociology of Canada to address the issues of staples development. However, I argue that "new" staples analysis must have a directional change from that of the past, in that social processes now largely determine the pattern of staples development. Moreover, new staples analysis must include issues that were never part of earlier staples analysis, such as issues of environmental impacts and of staples depletion under conditions, such as climate change. The paper concludes by analyzing four factors that provide the dominant social contexts for analyzing modern staples development: (1) the rise of neoliberal government, (2) the implementation of globalization and its social consequences, (3) the assumption of aboriginal rights and entitlement, and (4) the rise of environmentalism. These factors were generally not considered in earlier staples approaches. They are critical to understanding the role of staples development and its impact on Canada in the present time.

  3. Canadian petroleum history bibliography. Release update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2010-01-07

    The petroleum history bibliography was created over several years as a record dedicated to preserving the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. It comprises a list of more than 5000 publications, including books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles and stories of the many companies that have come and gone. It aims to include all publications and audio visual products from the Social Sciences and Humanities on company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry and humour. An author index is included. Most government documents are excluded as they are accessible through Library and Archives Canada. This bibliography is an ongoing piece of work, and welcomes any additions relating to the study and preservation of Canadian petroleum industry history.

  4. Webpages on copyright in Canadian academic libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony G Horava

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Academic libraries value the web as being a vital channel for communicating information and policies to their user community. Designing a webpage on copyright is a challenging task that requires a consideration of the medium and the message. This article proposes a conceptual model and proactive approach for integrating policy objective and goals into the development of a copyright webpage, based on key elements of the library’s involvement in academia. To complement this theoretical approach, an analysis of Canadian academic library websites was conducted in order to gage the effectiveness of copyright webpages, in the Canadian legal context, according to the model as well as related design issues of visibility and access.

  5. 2003 Canadian Asthma Consensus Guidelines Executive Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Allan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma have been published over the last 15 years; however, there has been little focus on issues relating to asthma in childhood. Since the last revision of the 1999 Canadian Asthma Consensus Report, important new studies, particularly in children, have highlighted the need to incorporate new information into the asthma guidelines. The objectives of this article are to review the literature on asthma published between January 2000 and June 2003 and to evaluate the influence of new evidence on the recommendations made in the 1999 Canadian Asthma Consensus Report and its 2001 update, with a major focus on pediatric issues. Methods The diagnosis of asthma in young children and prevention strategies, pharmacotherapy, inhalation devices, immunotherapy, and asthma education were selected for review by small expert resource groups. The reviews were discussed in June 2003 at a meeting under the auspices of the Canadian Network For Asthma Care and the Canadian Thoracic Society. Data published through December 2004 were subsequently reviewed by the individual expert resource groups. Results This report evaluates early-life prevention strategies and focuses on treatment of asthma in children, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis and preventive therapy, the benefits of additional therapy, and the essential role of asthma education. Conclusion We generally support previous recommendations and focus on new issues, particularly those relevant to children and their families. This document is a guide for asthma management based on the best available published data and the opinion of health care professionals, including asthma experts and educators.

  6. Morbidity Experiences and Disability Among Canadian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesMeules, Marie; Turner, Linda; Cho, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Health Issue Women are more frequently affected by chronic conditions and disability than men. Although some of these sex differences have been in part attributed to biological susceptibility, social determinants of health and other factors, these gaps have not been fully explained in the current literature. This chapter presents comparisons of hospitalization rates, and the prevalence of chronic conditions and physical disability between Canadian women and men and between various subgroups of women, adjusting for selected risk factors. The Canadian Hospital Morbidity Database (2000–2001) and Canadian Community Health Survey (2000–2001) were used to examine inpatient hospital morbidity, prevalence of chronic conditions and disability. Key Findings Hospitalization rates were 20% higher among women than men. This was due to the large number of hospitalizations for pregnancies and childbirth. When "normal" deliveries were excluded, hospitalization rates remained higher among women. Women had slightly lower rates of hospitalizations for ambulatory-care sensitive conditions than men. Prevalence of activity limitation (mild and severe) was higher among women than men, and differences remained after adjusting for age, chronic conditions, socio-economic status, and smoking. Women who reported a disability were less likely than men to be in a partnered relationship, have less tangible social support, and have lower income and employment rates. Data Gaps and Recommendations The impact of morbidity and disability on Canadian women is substantial. These results identify areas for interventions among more vulnerable subgroups, and point to the need for further research in the area of risk factors for the prevention of morbidity and disability in the population. PMID:15345073

  7. Canadian mercury inventories: the missing pieces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagreen, L.A.; Lourie, B.A. [Summerhill Group, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Research was conducted to determine the significance of the deliberate use of mercury in products in Canada and the associated releases from these sources. Through a combination of literature review and new calculations, the reservoir, flux, and releases of mercury from eight product sources were calculated, and these results compared to historical Canadian inventories. Mercury contributions from the waste sector were also assessed and compared to total Canadian mercury releases and to mercury releases from coal-fired generating stations. Results suggest the use and release of mercury associated with its use in products is 4.5 times what previous inventories indicate. Including dental amalgam and sewage sludge, the total releases of mercury to all environmental compartments in Canada totals 20 tonnes per year. This accounts for less than one-half of the 44 tonnes per year of mercury released from mercury waste disposal each year in Canada. Waste mercury contributions from hazardous waste imports, unknown product sources, and incomplete information on the use of mercury in known products may account for this discrepancy. Waste-related mercury releases and transfers for disposal and recycling are 11 times greater than that of electricity generation in Canada. Results indicate that Canadian inventories have underestimated the significance of mercury use and release associated with products, calling into question the current priorities for mercury management. This paper was developed as part of a panel session at the International Joint Commission 'Mercury in the Ecosystem' workshop, February 26-27, 2003, Windsor, ON, Canada, as a complement to the information on Canadian Inventories presented by Luke Trip (Senes Consulting, Ottawa, ON, Canada).

  8. Canadian Multiculturalism, Same as it ever Was?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Hoyos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available After the Second World War ended, Canada was no longer mainly composed of its two dominant ethnocultural groups, French and English, but rather constituted by polyethnicity; meaning, Canadian culture was made up of many different ethnic groups. Since then, Canada has actively embraced multiculturalism and on 12 July 1988, the House of Commons passed Bill C-93, ‘An Act for the preservation and enhancement of multiculturalism in Canada’. The Canadian multicultural experience has been much portrayed as a celebration of ethnicity where different cultural groups share their customs and learn from each other. However, it is recently being rumoured that the multiculturalism hype is not all it is cut out to be and segregates communities rather than integrate. According to Canadian authors Keith Banting and Will Kymlicka, “in much of the world and particularly in Europe, there is a widespread perception that multiculturalism has failed” (44. In this paper, I examine some recent common issues of concern, especially, racism and discrimination, through the literary expression of Canadian playwrights and writers such as George F. Walker, Cecil Foster, and Mordecai Richler. These writers are not meant to represent any ethnic group as a whole, but rather try to project a general feeling about the nation in individual ways. I will finally explore the idea of how perhaps multiculturalism in Canada is evolving into another state since migratory patterns and the social circumstances that Canada is facing in the 21st century have changed. Today, the idea of celebrating different ethnicities and customs is no longer as important as celebrating the transcultural or “transnational” aspects of relations between individuals and groups of immigrants.

  9. The Canadian Assessment of Physical literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Claire E; Longmuir, Patricia E; Boyer, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy (CAPL) was conceptualized as a tool to monitor children's physical literacy. The original model (fitness, activity behavior, knowledge, motor skill) required revision and relative weights for calculating/interpreting scores were required....... Methods: Nineteen childhood physical activity/fitness experts completed a 3-round Delphi process. Round 1 was open-ended questions. Subsequent rounds rated statements using a 5-point Likert scale. Recommendations were sought regarding protocol inclusion, relative importance within composite scores...

  10. Canadian Light Infantry in Adaptive Dispersed Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    Sources Bercuson, David . Significant Incident: Canada’s Army, the Airborne and the murder in Somalia. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1996. Bernier...36 David Bercuson, Significant Incident: Canada’s Army, the Airborne and the Murder in Somalia...Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1996), 54-58. 37 Bernd Horn and M. Wyczynski, Hook-up! The Canadian Airborne Compendium (St.Catharines: Vanwell

  11. Microinstrument gradient-force optical trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, S D; Baskin, R J; Howitt, D G

    1999-10-01

    A micromachined fiber-optic trap is presented. The trap consists of four single-mode, 1064-nm optical intersection. The beam fibers mounted in a micromachined silicon and glass housing. Micromachining provides the necessary precision to align the four optical fibers so that the outputs have a common intersection forms a strong three-dimensional gradient-force trap with trapping forces comparable with that of optical tweezers. Characterization of the multibeam fiber trap is illustrated for capture of polystyrene microspheres, computer simulations of the trap stiffness, and experimental determination of the trapping forces.

  12. The Comparison of the Rheological Behaviour of PET and PEN%PEN和PET的流变性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文刚; 罗琳琳; 路海冰; 袁雯

    2011-01-01

    聚2,6-萘二甲酸乙二醇酯(PEN)是一种结构上与PET非常相近的新型聚酯,近年来逐渐成为研究的热点.利用哈克流变仪对PET和PEN在不同温度及剪切速率下的流变性能进行了研究.流变行为研究表明:PEN的剪切黏度随剪切速度的增加而减小,属于典型的非牛顿流体;从流变曲线上来看,随着剪切速率的改变,PEN的剪切黏度的变化要小;而黏流活化能则表明:PEN剪切黏度的变化对温度的变化更敏感,这就意味着PEN对加工工艺具有更高的要求.%Poly (ethylene 2,6-naphthalate) (PEN) was a new kind of polyester with the structure like poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET). Because of the double benzene nucleus in PEN,PEN products had high strength and modulus,stable dimension and thermal stability and so on. In recent years, PEN was gradually becoming a research focus. The results of rheology showed that the apparent viscosity of PEN decreased with the increase of shearing speed, so PEN belongs to the typical Non-Newton Fluid. The apparent viscosity of PEN was smaller dependent on shear rate than PET from the flow curve. The low activation energy indicated that the change of apparent viscosity of PEN was more sensitive to the changes of temperature, so higher requirements was needed for the processing of PEN.

  13. Science Traverses in the Canadian High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Marie-Claude

    2012-01-01

    The presentation is divided into three parts. Part I is an overview of early expeditions to the High Arctic, and their political consequences at the time. The focus then shifts to the Geological Survey of Canada s mapping program in the North (Operation Franklin), and to the Polar Continental Shelf Project (PCSP), a unique organization that resides within the Government of Canada s Department of Natural Resources, and supports mapping projects and science investigations. PCSP is highlighted throughout the presentation so a description of mandate, budgets, and support infrastructure is warranted. In Part II, the presenter describes the planning required in advance of scientific deployments carried out in the Canadian High Arctic from the perspective of government and university investigators. Field operations and challenges encountered while leading arctic field teams in fly camps are also described in this part of the presentation, with particular emphasis on the 2008 field season. Part III is a summary of preliminary results obtained from a Polar Survey questionnaire sent out to members of the Arctic research community in anticipation of the workshop. The last part of the talk is an update on the analog program at the Canadian Space Agency, specifically, the Canadian Analog Research Network (CARN) and current activities related to Analog missions, 2009-2010.

  14. Canadian oil and gas survey 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberge, R.B. [ed.

    1998-11-01

    The year 1997 brought record levels of financing for the Canadian oil and gas industry which led to record levels of capital spending and unprecedented merger and acquisition activity. Production records were achieved, but soft commodity prices in the fourth quarter resulted in a significant downturn in the equity markets. El Nino reduced demand for natural gas and heating oil, resulting in increased storage levels for both commodities. Record drilling and capital spending fueled the Canadian oilfield service industry as total market capitalization rose to $10 billion. As for the 1998 outlook, the industry has turned to natural gas as the favoured commodity, as indicated by the conclusion of the Alliance pipeline hearings and the Nova/TCPL merger. This survey presents a review of crude oil and natural gas production, prices, and capital spending for development and exploratory wells, and the financial and operating results for fiscal year 1997 of selected oil and gas companies and income trusts. All listed companies are Canadian public companies, or publicly traded income trusts, traded on one of the country`s four major stock exchanges. They are ranked according to gross oil and gas production revenue only (before royalties). Syncrude and oil sands production is also included. The remaining data in the financial statistics tables includes all business segments of each company included. The survey excluded companies that were wholly-owned subsidiaries, divisions or U.S. subsidiaries and private companies. tabs., figs.

  15. A magnetic particle micro-trap for large trapping surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka P.

    2012-01-08

    Manipulation of micron-size magnetic particles of the superparamagnetic type contributes significantly in many applications like controlling the antibody/antigen binding process in immunoassays. Specifically, more target biomolecules can be attached/tagged and analyzed since the three dimensional structure of the magnetic particles increases the surface to volume ratio. Additionally, such biomolecular-tagged magnetic particles can be easily manipulated by an external magnetic field due to their superparamagnetic behavior. Therefore, magnetic particle- based immunoassays are extensively applied in micro-flow cytometry. The design of a square-loop micro-trap as a magnetic particle manipulator as well as numerical and experimental analysis is presented. Experimental results showed that the micro-trap could successfully trap and concentrate magnetic particles from a large to a small area with a high spatial range.

  16. Penning ionization electron spectroscopy of hydrogen sulfide by metastable helium and neon atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcinelli, Stefano; Candori, Pietro; Bettoni, Marta; Pirani, Fernando; Vecchiocattivi, Franco

    2014-08-21

    The dynamics of the Penning ionization of hydrogen sulfide molecules by collision with helium and metastable neon atoms, occurring in the thermal energy range, has been studied by analyzing the energy spectra of the emitted electrons obtained in our laboratory in a crossed beam experiment. These spectra are compared with the photoelectron spectra measured by using He(I) and Ne(I) photons under the same experimental conditions. In this way we obtained the negative energy shifts for the formation of H2S(+) ions in the first three accessible electronic states by He*(2(3,1)S1,0) and Ne*((3)P2,0) Penning ionization collisions: the 2b1 (X̃(2)B1) fundamental one, the first 5a1 (Ã(2)A1), and the second 2b2 (B̃(2)B2) excited states, respectively. The recorded energy shifts indicate that in the case of He* and Ne*-H2S the autoionization dynamics depends on the features of the collision complex and is mainly driven by an effective global attraction that comes from a balance among several non covalent intermolecular interaction components. This suggests that the Penning ionization should take place, in a specific range of intermolecular distances, as we have already observed in the case of Penning ionization of water molecules [Brunetti, B. G.; Candori, P.; Falcinelli, S.; Pirani, F.; Vecchiocattivi, F. J. Chem. Phys. 2013, 139, 164305-1-164305-8].

  17. The PEN Project in Santa Monica: Interactive Communication, Equality, and Political Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Everett M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigates the socioeconomic and gender equality aspects of the public's use of PEN (Public Electronic Network), a computer-based interactive communication system provided free to residents of Santa Monica (California). Topics discussed include public terminals; use by homeless people and by women; and participation in political communication…

  18. Effects of straw processing and pen stocking density on holstein dairy heifers: ii) behavior and hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of pen-stocking density and straw processing on the daily behavior traits and hygiene of Holstein dairy heifers housed in a freestall system are not understood. Our objective was to evaluate these factors in a trial with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of straw-processing (GOOD or POOR) an...

  19. Comparison of Eysenck's PEN and Lanyon's Psychological Screening Inventory in a Group of American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehryar, A. H.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Eysenck's PEN Inventory and Lanyon's Psychological Screening Inventory were given to groups of male and female American undergraduates from a state university. A factorial analysis of the intercorrelations showed that three major factors could account for the bulk of correlations among the nine differently labeled characteristics covered by the…

  20. Personality and psychopathology: a theory-based revision of Eysenck's PEN Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, van D.

    2009-01-01

    The principal aim of this paper is to investigate whether it is possible to create a personality taxonomy of clinical relevance out of Eysenck’s original PEN model by repairing the various shortcomings that can be noted in Eysenck’s personality theory, particularly in relation to P or Psychoticism.

  1. Comparison of Pen and Keyboard Transcription Modes in Children with and without Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.; Augsburger, Amy; Garcia, Noelia

    2009-01-01

    Fourth graders with learning disabilities in transcription (handwriting and spelling), LD-TD, and without LD-TD (non-LD), were compared on three writing tasks (letters, sentences, and essays), which differed by level of language, when writing by pen and by keyboard. The two groups did not differ significantly in Verbal IQ but did in handwriting,…

  2. The digital pen as a novel device to facilitate the feedback process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hell, Elisabeth A.; Kuks, Jan B. M.; Dekker, Martha J.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2011-01-01

    Background: To improve clinical performance assessment, checklist data should be immediately available to students to offer them detailed feedback and be stored in a database for quality assurance purposes. Aim: To introduce the digital pen as clinical performance assessment tool, report examiner sa

  3. Flipchip bonding of ultrahin Si dies onto PEN/PET substrates with low cost circuitry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, J. van den; Kusters, R.H.L.; Heeren, M.M.G.; Remoortere, B. van; Dietzel, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    All-printed, cost effective, smart electronic products are expected to be used in a wide range of applications and in large quantities in our society. The substrate material for these applications will be low cost materials like PEN or PET foils. For the functionality of the printed electronics prod

  4. Reliability of short form-36 in an Internet- and a pen-and-paper version

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basnov, Maja; Kongsved, Sissel Marie; Bech, Per;

    2009-01-01

    Use of Internet versions of questionnaires may have several advantages in clinical and epidemiological research, but we know little about if Internet versions differ with respect to validity and reliability. We aimed to compare Internet- and pen-and-paper versions of short form-36 (SF-36) with re...

  5. Shallow seismic structure of the Pen Duick area, Gulf of Cadiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, Henk; van Weering, Tjeerd C. E.; Tokarev, Mikhail; Ivanov, Michael; Gorban, Anna; Mienis, Furu

    2010-05-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between structural features, seabed morphology and carbonate mounds in the Pen Duick and Renard Ridge area of the El Arraiche mud volcano field in the south-eastern Gulf of Cadiz, based on seismic and multibeam echosounder data. In 2006 a grid of 100 high resolution 24-channel seismic lines with a length of about 5 nautical miles and a spacing of about 50 m mainly aligned NE-SW and NW-SE was recorded using an array of three sleeve guns (40, 20 and 10 cu.inch) towed at 37 meters behind the ship. Shooting was done every 5 seconds at a pressure of 100 bars and an average sailing speed of 4.2 knots, thus with an average shot distance of 10.5 metres across the Pen Duick Escarpment and the Lazarillo de Tormes mud volcano. Addditional lines were recorded as cross lines for correlation accross the western cone of the Gemini mud volcano. During a follow-up cruise in October 2006 with RV Pelagia, the multibeam coverage was expanded to include the Gemini and Al Idrissi mud volcanoes and adjacent area. NMO corrections, CDP stacking and swell correction were applied to improve the raw images. Results show that the Pen Duick Escarpment is lined along its upper flank with a string of relatively small and steep mound structures. The majority of mounds concentrate on the top and on the western slope of the Pen Duick Escarpment. A large chain of mounds (about 1.6 km long) is situated to the west of the Pen Duick Escarpment. There are also small isolated groups of mounds located to the east of the Pen Duick Escarpment. These mounds do not show a clear internal structure. The seismic facies within the mounds are chaotic. The mounds at the Pen Duick Escarpment occur locally clustered but mainly as isolated structures They are at maximum about 50 m high, are located in water depths from 500 to 650 m and consist mainly of fine grained (muddy) sediments. Our seismic profiles do not reflect a relationship with the possible presence of gas, gashydrates

  6. Determination of the working time requirement for suckling sows in the pen of Wels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Quendler

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available These days, especially in organic piglet production, it is necessary to reduce the production costs to be competitive on the market. A large proportion of the production costs are caused by labor and construction costs to ensure a high level of animal welfare. The farrowing pen of Wels, currently existing in prototype form, was designed to fulfill organic farming requirements, improve animal welfare, and minimize the costs for construction and labor. The housing system is characterized by four separate functional areas: the lying area, the excretion and moving area, the feeding area for the sow, and a piglet nest. To identify the working time requirements of routine and special tasks, a time study, based on the work element method and an electronic time recording system (ortim b3 (a Pocket PC with time recording software, was conducted. The influencing variables and the time measurements were collected by directly observing work processes in the farrowing unit, which had 5 farrowing pens, over a period of 21 days at the “LFZ Raumberg Gumpenstein.” The data were descriptive and statistically analyzed to obtain planning data on the element basis. The time requirement was modeled according to the related task and in total over the suckling period. The routine tasks consisted in transporting the feed to the pen, feeding the sows, monitoring the sows and piglets, mucking out the dung corridor with a tractor and sprinkling straw in it, as well as filling up the hay rack. The labor input was 3.99 AKmin per sow and day in total. The special tasks included inoculating the piglets, marking with ear tags, castrating the male piglets, cleaning the whole pen and the dung corridor, and preparing the farrowing pen for the next sows. Special work required 25.9 MPmin per sow over the keeping period of 21 days. The total working time requirements over the period of 21 days were 1.82 MPh per sow. Overall, the farrowing pen of Wels has low time requirements and

  7. Installation of the Canadian Muon Cargo Inspection System at CRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Installation of the Canadian Muon Cargo Inspection System at CRL Prepared by: Guy Jonkmans Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Chalk River ON...INSTALLATION OF THE CANADIAN MUON CARGO INSPECTION SYSTEM AT CRL 153-30100-REPT-001 Revision 0 2013/02/19 UNRESTRICTED 2013/02/19 ILLIMITÉ 153...30100-REPT-001 2013/02/19 Report, General Installation of the Canadian Muon Cargo Inspection System at CRL Research and Development 153-30100

  8. Should investors prefer Canadian hedge funds or stocks?

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xiao Yan; Zhou, Weihui

    2007-01-01

    This paper updates Brulhart and Klein (2006) by comparing the magnitude of extreme returns from Tremont, HFRI hedge fund indices with stock indices. It also compares the magnitude of extreme returns from Canadian hedge fund indices with stock indices. We found that the results from Brulhart and Klein hold for the updated US data. However, the results do not hold for the Canadian hedge fund indices. The magnitude of extreme returns from Canadian hedge fund indices is lower than the magnitude o...

  9. Effects of lignite application on ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from cattle pens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jianlei, E-mail: su@unimelb.edu.au [Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Bai, Mei [Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Shen, Jianlin [Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Griffith, David W.T. [Department of Chemistry, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Denmead, Owen T. [Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Hill, Julian [Ternes Agricultural Consulting Pty Ltd, Upwey, VIC 3158 (Australia); Lam, Shu Kee; Mosier, Arvin R. [Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Chen, Deli, E-mail: delichen@unimelb.edu.au [Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia)

    2016-09-15

    Beef cattle feedlots are a major source of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) emissions from livestock industries. We investigated the effects of lignite surface applications on NH{sub 3} and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from beef cattle feedlot pens. Two rates of lignite, 3 and 6 kg m{sup −2}, were tested in the treatment pen. No lignite was applied in the control pen. Twenty-four Black Angus steers were fed identical commercial rations in each pen. We measured NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}O concentrations continuously from 4th Sep to 13th Nov 2014 using Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) NH{sub 3} analysers and a closed-path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analyser (CP-FTIR) in conjunction with the integrated horizontal flux method to calculate NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}O fluxes. During the feeding period, 16 and 26% of the excreted nitrogen (N) (240 g N head{sup −1} day{sup −1}) was lost via NH{sub 3} volatilization from the control pen, while lignite application decreased NH{sub 3} volatilization to 12 and 18% of the excreted N, for Phase 1 and Phase 2, respectively. Compared to the control pen, lignite application decreased NH{sub 3} emissions by approximately 30%. Nitrous oxide emissions from the cattle pens were small, 0.10 and 0.14 g N{sub 2}O-N head{sup −1} day{sup −1} (< 0.1% of excreted N) for the control pen, for Phase 1 and Phase 2, respectively. Lignite application increased direct N{sub 2}O emissions by 40 and 57%, to 0.14 and 0.22 g N{sub 2}O-N head{sup −1} day{sup −1}, for Phase 1 and Phase 2, respectively. The increase in N{sub 2}O emissions resulting from lignite application was counteracted by the lower indirect N{sub 2}O emission due to decreased NH{sub 3} volatilization. Using 1% as a default emission factor of deposited NH{sub 3} for indirect N{sub 2}O emissions, the application of lignite decreased total N{sub 2}O emissions. - Graphical abstract: Lignite application substantially decreased NH{sub 3} emissions from cattle feedlots and increased

  10. Fabrication of dye solar cell on flexible substrate using ITO-PEN film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahmer, Ahmad Zahrin; Mohamed, Norani Muti

    2012-09-01

    Dye solar cell based on nanocrystalline TiO2 has the potential to reach low cost in future indoor power applications. To realize its application for powering the electrical appliances, dye solar cell (DSC) must be made mechanically robust and flexible where indium-doped tin oxide (ITO-PEN) film substrate will be used as the working electrode. In terms of fabrication process, the ITO-PEN film is easier to handle in a process such as cutting of larger film sheet into smaller individual modules or cell. Moreover the processing of the film into complete flexible solar cells can be realized by means of a continuous roll to roll production process. The paper reports the study on the fabrication of dye solar cell on the flexible ITO-PEN. Here, the temperature constraint in the sintering process is addressed by using low temperature of 150°C and further enhanced with direct heat on the photo-electrode at 140°C to achieve a good bonding between the ITO and the deposited TiO2 film. The TiO2 coated ITO-PEN substrate was then soaked in commercial N719 dye, assembled into test cell, and tested under the standard test condition at irradiance of 1000 W/m2 with AM1.5 solar simulator. The fabricated flexible ITO-PEN DSC test cell was found to have an efficiency of 2.1% which is comparatively lower to DSC cell based on TCO rigid glass. This is attributed to the overall higher internal resistance of TiO2 film as a result of incomplete decomposition of ethyl cellulose at low sintering temperature.

  11. Preparation and characterisation of irradiated crab chitosan and New Zealand Arrow squid pen chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shavandi, Amin, E-mail: amin.shavandi@postgrad.otago.ac.nz [Department of Food Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Bekhit, Adnan A. [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Alexandria, Alexandria (Egypt); Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A. [Department of Food Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Sun, Zhifa [Department of Physics, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Ali, M. Azam [Department of Applied Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand)

    2015-11-01

    The properties of chitosan from Arrow squid (Nototodarus sloanii) pen (CHS) and commercial crab shell (CHC) were investigated using FTIR, DSC, SEM and XRD before and after irradiation at the dose of 28 kGy in the presence or absence of 5% water. Also, the viscosity, deacetylation degree, water and oil holding capacities, colour and antimicrobial activities of the chitosan samples were determined. Irradiation decreased (P < 0.05) the viscosity of CHC from 0.21 to 0.03 Pa s and of CHS from 1.71 to 0.23 Pa s. The inclusion of water had no effect on the viscosity of irradiated chitosan. Irradiation did not affect the degree of deacetylation of CHC, but increased the deacetylation degree of CHS from 72.78 to 82.29% in samples with 5% water. Water and oil holding capacities of CHS (1197.30% and 873.3%, respectively) were higher (P < 0.05) than those found in CHC (340.70% and 264.40%, respectively). The water and oil holding capacities were decreased for both types of chitosan irradiation, but were not affected by the addition of water. Squid pen chitosan was whiter in colour (White Index = 90.06%) compared to CHC (White Index = 83.70%). Generally, the CHC samples (control and irradiated) exhibited better antibacterial activity compared to CHS, but the opposite was observed with antifungal activity. - Highlights: • Chitosan prepared from Arrow squid pens (Nototodarus sloanii). • Chitosan samples were gamma irradiated at 28 kGy. • Squid pen chitosan showed high fat and water uptake capacities compared to crab shell chitosan. • Gamma irradiation enhanced the DDA of squid pen chitosan but not crab shell chitosan.

  12. Transport of three veterinary antimicrobials from feedlot pens via simulated rainfall runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sura, Srinivas; Degenhardt, Dani; Cessna, Allan J; Larney, Francis J; Olson, Andrew F; McAllister, Tim A

    2015-07-15

    Veterinary antimicrobials are introduced to wider environments by manure application to agricultural fields or through leaching or runoff from manure storage areas (feedlots, stockpiles, windrows, lagoons). Detected in manure, manure-treated soils, and surface and ground water near intensive cattle feeding operations, there is a concern that environmental contamination by these chemicals may promote the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. Surface runoff and leaching appear to be major transport pathways by which veterinary antimicrobials eventually contaminate surface and ground water, respectively. A study was conducted to investigate the transport of three veterinary antimicrobials (chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, tylosin), commonly used in beef cattle production, in simulated rainfall runoff from feedlot pens. Mean concentrations of veterinary antimicrobials were 1.4 to 3.5 times higher in surface material from bedding vs. non-bedding pen areas. Runoff rates and volumetric runoff coefficients were similar across all treatments but both were significantly higher from non-bedding (0.53Lmin(-1); 0.27) than bedding areas (0.40Lmin(-1); 0.19). In keeping with concentrations in pen surface material, mean concentrations of veterinary antimicrobials were 1.4 to 2.5 times higher in runoff generated from bedding vs. non-bedding pen areas. Water solubility and sorption coefficient of antimicrobials played a role in their transport in runoff. Estimated amounts of chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, and tylosin that could potentially be transported to the feedlot catch basin during a one in 100-year precipitation event were 1.3 to 3.6ghead(-1), 1.9ghead(-1), and 0.2ghead(-1), respectively. This study demonstrates the magnitude of veterinary antimicrobial transport in feedlot pen runoff and supports the necessity of catch basins for runoff containment within feedlots.

  13. Cross-language acoustic similarity predicts perceptual assimilation of Canadian English and Canadian French vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Paola; Vasiliev, Polina

    2011-11-01

    Monolingual Peruvian Spanish listeners identified natural tokens of the Canadian French (CF) and Canadian English (CE) /ɛ/ and /æ/, produced in five consonantal contexts. The results demonstrate that while the CF vowels were mapped to two different native vowels, /e/ and /a/, in all consonantal contexts, the CE contrast was mapped to the single native vowel /a/ in four out of five contexts. Linear discriminant analysis revealed that acoustic similarity between native and target language vowels was a very good predictor of context-specific perceptual mappings. Predictions are made for Spanish learners of the /ɛ/-/æ/ contrast in CF and CE.

  14. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Driving: A Canadian Thoracic Society and Canadian Sleep Society Position Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najib Ayas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA experience sleep fragmentation and poor sleep quality that results in daytime sleepiness, which impairs performance during driving and leads to an increased risk for collisions. Not surprisingly, observational studies have shown that patients with OSA experience a two- to 10-fold higher risk for collision compared with healthy controls. Although treatment would clearly mitigate these risks, there is no current Canadian position on driving and OSA. This article, the first Canadian position statement addressing the issue, provides an overview of provincial regulations and proposes recommendations with regard to driving in patients with OSA.

  15. Trap induction and trapping in eight nematode-trapping fungi (Orbiliaceae) as affected by juvenile stage of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongyan; Aminuzzaman, F M; Xu, Lingling; Lai, Yiling; Li, Feng; Liu, Xingzhong

    2010-06-01

    This study measured trap induction and trapping on agar disks as affected by juvenile stages (J1, J2, J3, and J4) of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and by species of nematode-trapping fungi. Eight species of nematode-trapping fungi belonging to the family Orbiliaceae and producing four kinds of traps were studied: adhesive network-forming Arthrobotrys oligospora, A. vermicola, and A. eudermata, constricting ring-forming Drechslerella brochopaga, and Dr. stenobrocha, adhesive column-forming Dactylellina cionopaga, and adhesive knob-forming Da. ellipsospora, and Da. drechsleri. The number of traps induced generally increased with increasing juvenile stages of C. elegans. The ability to capture the juveniles tended to be similar among isolates that produced the same kind of trap but differed among species that produced different kinds of traps. Trapping by Dr. stenobrocha and Da. cionopaga was correlated with trap number and with juvenile stage. A. oligospora and A. vermicola respectively captured more than 92 and 88% of the J1, J3, and J4 but captured a lower percentage of J2. The knob-producing isolates captured more younger than elder juveniles. Partial correlation analyses demonstrated that the trap induction of the most fungal species positively correlated with the juvenile size and motility, which was juvenile stage dependent. Overall, trap induction and trapping correlated with C. elegans juvenile stage (size and motility) in six species of trapping fungi.

  16. The phenomenology of trapped inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, Lauren; Sorbo, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Trapped inflation is a mechanism in which particle production from the moving inflaton is the main source of friction in the inflaton equation of motion. The produced fields source inflaton perturbations, which dominate over the vacuum ones. We employ the set of equations for the inflaton zero mode and its perturbations which was developed in the original work on trapped inflation, and which we extend to second order in the perturbations. We build on this study by updating the experimental constraints, and by replacing the existing approximate solutions with more accurate ones. We obtain a different numerical value for the amplitude of the scalar power spectrum, and a parametrically different result for the bispectrum. This has implications for the allowed region of parameter space in models of trapped inflation, and for some of the phenomenological results obtained in this region. The main results in the allowed region are the following: monomial inflaton potentials, such as $V \\propto \\varphi,\\, \\varphi^2$ ...

  17. Promoter trapping in Magnaporthe grisea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-hong; LU Jian-ping; WANG Jiao-yu; MIN Hang; LIN Fu-cheng

    2006-01-01

    Application of promoter trapping based on transformation in Magnaporthe grisea is reported in this paper. Two promoter-trapping vectors, designated as pCBGFP and pEGFPHPH, were constructed and transformed into protoplasts of M.grisea. A library of 1077 transformants resistant to hygromycin B was generated. Of which, 448 transformants were found to express eGFP gene in different structures ofM. grisea. Three transformants grew slowly, 5 transformants decreased in conidiafion and 7 transformants reduced in pathogenicity greatly among these 448 transformants. Eleven transformants were checked by genomic southern blot randomly, and 9 of which were single-copy insertions. The promoter trapping technique has been applied successfully in M. grisea and can be used as a tool for functional genomic analysis.

  18. Dysprosium magneto-optical traps

    CERN Document Server

    Youn, Seo Ho; Ray, Ushnish; Lev, Benjamin L

    2010-01-01

    Magneto-optical traps (MOTs) of highly magnetic lanthanides open the door to explorations of novel phases of strongly correlated matter such as lattice supersolids and quantum liquid crystals. We recently reported the first MOTs of the five high abundance isotopes of the most magnetic atom, dysprosium. Described here are details of the experimental technique employed for repumper-free Dy MOTs containing up to half a billion atoms. Extensive characterization of the MOTs' properties---population, temperature, loading, metastable decay dynamics, trap dynamics---is provided.

  19. Feedback traps for virtual potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Momčilo; Bechhoefer, John

    2017-03-01

    Feedback traps are tools for trapping and manipulating single charged objects, such as molecules in solution. An alternative to optical tweezers and other single-molecule techniques, they use feedback to counteract the Brownian motion of a molecule of interest. The trap first acquires information about a molecule's position and then applies an electric feedback force to move the molecule. Since electric forces are stronger than optical forces at small scales, feedback traps are the best way to trap single molecules without `touching' them (e.g. by putting them in a small box or attaching them to a tether). Feedback traps can do more than trap molecules: they can also subject a target object to forces that are calculated to be the gradient of a desired potential function U(x). If the feedback loop is fast enough, it creates a virtual potential whose dynamics will be very close to those of a particle in an actual potential U(x). But because the dynamics are entirely a result of the feedback loop-absent the feedback, there is only an object diffusing in a fluid-we are free to specify and then manipulate in time an arbitrary potential U(x,t). Here, we review recent applications of feedback traps to studies on the fundamental connections between information and thermodynamics, a topic where feedback plays an even more fundamental role. We discuss how recursive maximum-likelihood techniques allow continuous calibration, to compensate for drifts in experiments that last for days. We consider ways to estimate work and heat, using them to measure fluctuating energies to a precision of ±0.03 kT over these long experiments. Finally, we compare work and heat measurements of the costs of information erasure, the Landauer limit of kT ln 2 per bit of information erased. We argue that, when you want to know the average heat transferred to a bath in a long protocol, you should measure instead the average work and then infer the heat using the first law of thermodynamics. This

  20. Accretion discs trapped near corotation

    OpenAIRE

    D'Angelo, C.R.; Spruit, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    We show that discs accreting on to the magnetosphere of a rotating star can end up in a trapped state, in which the inner edge of the disc stays near the corotation radius, even at low and varying accretion rates. The accretion in these trapped states can be steady or cyclic; we explore these states over a wide range of parameter space. We find two distinct regions of instability: one related to the buildup and release of mass in the disc outside corotation, and the other to mass storage with...

  1. Rotation sensing with trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, W C

    2016-01-01

    We present a protocol for using trapped ions to measure rotations via matter-wave Sagnac interferometry. The trap allows the interferometer to enclose a large area in a compact apparatus through repeated round-trips in a Sagnac geometry. We show how a uniform magnetic field can be used to close the interferometer over a large dynamic range in rotation speed and measurement bandwidth without losing contrast. Since this technique does not require the ions to be confined in the Lamb-Dicke regime, thermal states with many phonons should be sufficient for operation.

  2. Microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Michael A.; Blain, Matthew G.; Tigges, Chris P.; Linker, Kevin L.

    2011-04-19

    An array of microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion traps can be used for mass spectrometric applications. Each ion trap comprises two parallel inner RF electrodes and two parallel outer DC control electrodes symmetric about a central trap axis and suspended over an opening in a substrate. Neighboring ion traps in the array can share a common outer DC control electrode. The ions confined transversely by an RF quadrupole electric field potential well on the ion trap axis. The array can trap a wide array of ions.

  3. The Canadian Teaching Commons: The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Canadian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuetherick, Brad; Yu, Stan

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reports on a national study exploring the current state of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) and assessing the perceptions of Canadian SoTL scholars at the micro (individual), meso (departmental), macro (institutional), and mega (disciplinary) contexts.

  4. A theoretical and experimental study on no-guide light pen type 3D-coordinate measurement system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofang Zhang(张晓芳); Xin Yu(俞信); Chengzhi Jiang(蒋诚志); Baoguang Wang(王宝光)

    2003-01-01

    A novel no-guide light pen type 3D-coordinate measurement system with three sets of position sensitivedevices (PSDs) to realize intersection converge inaging is introduced. It is called as the light pen typemeasurement system, because the measuring head is shaped as a pen with several light sources on it. Thestructure design, measurement principle and experimental results are presented. The theoretical analysisand experimental results prove that this system has advanced features of simple structure, high automation,and high accuracy, and can be used in the measurement fields of mechanical manufacture, robot, auto,aviation and medicine effectively.

  5. Evading the joint decision trap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, Jørgen; Jensen, Mads Christian Dagnis

    2016-01-01

    is applied, including the concept of the joint-decision trap. The paper finds that the outcome was made possible by compensating the member states that were worst affected by the policy changes. A coalition of net contributors, centered on Germany and the United Kingdom, was influential regarding the overall...

  6. Optical trapping of coated microspheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bormuth, V.; Jannasch, A.; Ander, M.; van Kats, C.M.; van Blaaderen, A.; Howard, J.; Schäffer, E.

    2008-01-01

    In an optical trap, micron-sized dielectric particles are held by a tightly focused laser beam. The optical force on the particle is composed of an attractive gradient force and a destabilizing scattering force. We hypothesized that using anti-reflection-coated microspheres would reduce scattering a

  7. Optical trapping of coated microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormuth, Volker; Jannasch, Anita; Ander, Marcel; van Kats, Carlos M; van Blaaderen, Alfons; Howard, Jonathon; Schäffer, Erik

    2008-09-01

    In an optical trap, micron-sized dielectric particles are held by a tightly focused laser beam. The optical force on the particle is composed of an attractive gradient force and a destabilizing scattering force. We hypothesized that using anti-reflection-coated microspheres would reduce scattering and lead to stronger trapping. We found that homogeneous silica and polystyrene microspheres had a sharp maximum trap stiffness at a diameter of around 800 nm--the trapping laser wavelength in water--and that a silica coating on a polystyrene microsphere was a substantial improvement for larger diameters. In addition, we noticed that homogeneous spheres of a correct size demonstrated anti-reflective properties. Our results quantitatively agreed with Mie scattering calculations and serve as a proof of principle. We used a DNA stretching experiment to confirm the large linear range in detection and force of the coated microspheres and performed a high-force motor protein assay. These measurements show that the surfaces of the coated microspheres are compatible with biophysical assays.

  8. The Canadian Niagara Power Company story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, N.R. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2005-07-01

    This book chronicles the history and contributions of the Canadian Niagara Power Company and its employees toward the establishment of electricity generation and distribution in Niagara Falls and Fort Erie, Ontario, dating back to its founding in 1892. Through historical photographs, maps and drawings, the book demonstrates the impact of electricity on the Niagara region. It emphasizes the many skills and jobs required to run the company that generated electricity and maintained a complete system to deliver power, metering, and billing services through the depression, wars, and postwar booms, even during lightning, snow and ice storms. The company began producing power in 1905 with what had been the world's largest-capacity turbines and generators that supplied power to both sides of the Niagara River. Initially, most of the electricity was exported to New York State. The company eventually expanded its Canadian customer service area from Niagara Falls, Ontario, to Fort Erie, Bridgeburg, Amigari, Ridgeway, Stevensville, Crystal Beach and Point Abino. Throughout its history, the Canadian Niagara Power Company provided power at a lower cost than its neighbouring competitors. The William Birch Rankine Generating Station became an important tourist attraction, showcasing the latest electrical appliances of the time in an effort to promote the use of electricity in homes and offices. Today, the station remains a tribute to the fact that natural beauty can coincide with industry. The book also chronicles the difficult business challenges caused by restructuring in the electric power industry in the 1990s, repairing aging equipment and applying the latest in automation and remote sensing technology. Today, the company as FortisOntario is expanding to other communities around Ontario. refs., tabs., figs.

  9. Chinese Oil Giants Eye Canadian Oil Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Bin

    2005-01-01

    @@ SinoCanada, a subsidiary of Sinopec International Petroleum Exploration and Development Corporation, and Canada-based Synenco Energy Inc announced on May 31 that they have inked a series of agreements to launch a joint venture for common development of the oil sand project located in Athabasca region of Northeast Canada's Alberta Province. Based on the agreements, Sinopec will pay 105 million Canadian dollars (US$84 million) for a stake in Canada's Northern Lights oil sands project while Synenco owns the remaining 60 percent share,and will operate the project as the managing partner.

  10. 2007: A Canadian Corporate Ownership Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsan, Calin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study documents a decline in the levels of corporate ownership concentration between 1996 and 2007. When compared to previous studies, the incidence of ownership stakes of 20% or larger has decreased form 60% to 41% of the total population of publicly listed Canadian firms. Regional disparities among provinces remain important. Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia have the most widely-held firms, while Quebec and Atlantic Canada show the most concentrated corporate ownership patterns. The interpretation of these results requires a complex understanding of historical, demographic, cultural, political and institutional factors.

  11. Reinventing an industry at Western Canadian Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.

    2006-09-15

    Western Canadian Coal is applying lessons learned from past disruptions to coal production operations in British Columbia in order to build a low cost, long term production operation. Northeast British Columbia has huge coal deposits and an established infrastructure that includes the town of Tumbler Ridge, rail facilities, and access to Port Rupert. The company is developing 50,000 hectares of coal-bearing property. Production commenced in 2004, and it is planned to produce four million tonnes of coal per year by the end of 2007, increasing to 10 million tonnes by 2012. Equipment, staffing, and activities at the Dillon, Wolverine, and Brule mines are described. 2 photos.

  12. Refugees and education in Canadian schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaprielian-Churchill, Isabel

    1996-07-01

    This article summarizes some of the findings and recommendations of a research project focusing on the nature and needs of refugee students in Canadian schools. The school performance of refugee students is examined under the following headings: immigration regulations; initial identification, assessment, placement and monitoring; unaccompanied youngsters; "at risk" students; academic needs; the conflict of cultures. In particular, the article discusses the changing role of the school in the light of recent immigration trends. Many of the findings are applicable to other national settings.

  13. 47 CFR 101.1527 - Canadian and Mexican coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Canadian and Mexican coordination. 101.1527 Section 101.1527 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Canadian and Mexican coordination. (a) A licensee of bands 71.0-76.0, 81.0-86.0, 92-94 GHz and 94.1-95...

  14. International Disputes and Cultural Ideas in the Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Danita Catherine

    of the Canadian-Arctic relationship. Using Canada as the focus for the analysis, the purpose of this project is to contribute to the existing Arctic studies and international relations literature by examining how interests and disputes in the Canadian Arctic region have been affected by domestic cultural...

  15. The Canadian Context: Monolingual Education in an "Officially" Multilingual Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Julia E.

    2011-01-01

    This article will examine the sociopolitical language contexts that exist in institutions of Canadian post-secondary education, through investigating how government policies affect the consumption and teaching of language in writing classrooms. A survey of Canadian multiculturalist policy, multilingualism, and post-secondary education in terms of…

  16. Attitudes Toward Oral Contraception Among Canadian University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardis, Panos D.

    The author conducted a cross-cultural survey of attitudes toward the pill among university students, part of this international sample being a group of young Canadians. The subjects were students from a southwestern Canadian university and were stratified as to sex and amount of education. The author employed his Pill Scale, a 25-item Likert type…

  17. Characters with Exceptionalities Portrayed in Contemporary Canadian Children's Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerson, Jean; Brenna, Beverley

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which exceptionality is addressed in Canadian children's literature, offering critical literacy as an avenue toward social justice. A content analysis (Berg, 2009) of 134 Canadian children's books offers a wide scope of contemporary titles to include in classrooms. We developed conceptual categories to explore…

  18. Pediatric Clinical Pharmacology and Child Health:A Canadian Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stuart Macleod

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction Canadian academic centres and children's hospitals have had a longstanding interest in the improvement of drug therapy for children through research conducted across the four pillars of activity identified as being of critical importance by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research(viz,basic research,clinical research,population health research,applied health and policy research)[1].

  19. Indigenous knowledge in Canadian science curricula: cases from Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijung

    2016-09-01

    To enhance Aboriginal students' educational opportunities in sciences, culturally relevant science curriculum has been examined and practiced in Western Canadian science classrooms. This article shares some examples of inclusion of indigenous knowledge in science curricula and discusses the improvement and challenges of culturally relevant science curricula in Canadian contexts.

  20. Seeking Internationalization: The State of Canadian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the internationalization of Canadian universities, with a focus on the rise of foreign postsecondary students in Canada, the economic impacts, and the various benefits, challenges, and adjustments that have been influenced by the continuing demographic shifts on Canadian campuses since 2000. Rooted in recent global and…

  1. How Canadian Universities Use Social Media to Brand Themselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Charles H.; Bali, Suchita; Longden, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores social media marketing strategies applied by Canadian universities as a tool for institutional branding, recruitment and engagement of home and international students. The target sample involves the total population of Canadian university-status institutions ("N" = 106). Qualitative data were collected from two major…

  2. School Autonomy and 21st Century Learning: The Canadian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Paul; da Costa, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the policy and practice contexts for school autonomy and twenty-first century learning in Canadian provinces. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reports on an analysis of policies in Canadian provinces (particularly the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan). The authors review policies…

  3. Ultrafast state detection and 2D ion crystals in a Paul trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Michael; Ransford, Anthony; Campbell, Wesley

    2016-05-01

    Projective readout of quantum information stored in atomic qubits typically uses state-dependent CW laser-induced fluorescence. This method requires an often sophisticated imaging system to spatially filter out the background CW laser light. We present an alternative approach that instead uses simple pulse sequences from a mode-locked laser to affect the same state-dependent excitations in less than 1 ns. The resulting atomic fluorescence occurs in the dark, allowing the placement of non-imaging detectors right next to the atom to improve the qubit state detection efficiency and speed. We also study 2D Coulomb crystals of atomic ions in an oblate Paul trap. We find that crystals with hundreds of ions can be held in the trap, potentially offering an alternative to the use of Penning traps for the quantum simulation of 2D lattice spin models. We discuss the classical physics of these crystals and the metastable states that are supported in 2D. This work is supported by the US Army Research Office.

  4. Funnel traps capture a higher proportion of juvenile Great Tits Parus major than automatic traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senar, J.C.; Domenech, J.; Conroy, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    We compared capture rates of Great Tits at funnel traps, where several birds can be captured at once so that some decoy effect may appear, to those obtained at automatic traps, where only one bird can be trapped at a time, at trapping stations in northeastern Spain. Juvenile birds were mainly captured at funnel traps (79% of juvenile captures), whereas adult plumaged birds were captured at both types of traps (51% of captures were at the funnel traps) (test between ages, PTits had lower body condition as measured by ptilochronology (P<0.01). These birds are more easily trapped in funnel traps, which may be acting as decoy traps, and thus are vulnerable to the same kinds of biases (eg age or body condition) that have been previously documented for decoy traps.

  5. 50 CFR 697.19 - Trap limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vessels fishing with lobster traps. 697.19 Section 697.19 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. (a) Trap limits for vessels fishing or authorized to fish... management area designation certificate or valid limited access American lobster permit specifying one...

  6. Furbearer Trapping Plan : Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge Trapping Plan outlines trapping areas, species, regulations, equipment and seasons. This plan will allow harvest of a...

  7. Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Trapping Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Benton Lake NWR trapping plan outlines trapping areas, species, regulations, equipment, and seasons. This plan will allow harvest of a renewable natural resource...

  8. A Portable Root-door Hog Trap

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Since the early 1960's, over 4,500 wild hogs have been relocated through Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission trapping operations. The trap now used by the...

  9. Trap split with Laguerre-Gaussian beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kazemi, Seyedeh Hamideh; Mahmoud, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The optical trapping techniques have been extensively used in physics, biophysics, micro-chemistry, and micro-mechanics to allow trapping and manipulation of materials ranging from particles, cells, biological substances, and polymers to DNA and RNA molecules. In this Letter, we present a convenient and effective way to generate a novel phenomenon of trapping, named trap split, in a conventional four-level double-$\\Lambda$ atomic system driven by four femtosecond Laguerre-Gaussian laser pulses. We find that trap split can be always achieved when atoms are trapped by such laser pulses, as compared to Gaussian ones. This work would greatly facilitate the trapping and manipulating the particles and generation of trap split. It may also suggest the possibility of extension into new research fields, such as micro-machining and biophysics.

  10. Oxford ion-trap quantum computing project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, D M; Donald, C J S; Home, J P; McDonnell, M J; Ramos, A; Stacey, D N; Stacey, J-P; Steane, A M; Webster, S C

    2003-07-15

    We describe recent progress in the development of an ion-trap quantum information processor. We discuss the choice of ion species and describe recent experiments on read-out for a ground-state qubit and photoionization trap loading.

  11. Optical and Magnetic Trapping of Potassium 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensher, Jason; Cornell, Eric; Cataliotti, Francesco; Fort, Chiara; Marin, Francesco; Prevedelli, Marco; Inguscio, Massimo; Ricci, Leonardo; Tino, Guglielmo

    1998-05-01

    We present measurments of optical trapping and cooling and magnetic trapping of ^39K in a double-MOT apparatus. (Optics Lett. 21, 290(1996)) We have measured light-assisted collisional loss rates from our second MOT over a range of trap light intensities. At an intensity of 10 mW/cm^2 we find a loss rate parameter β of 2 x 10-11 cc/s. β increases with trap light intensity and is consistent with the values measured by Williamson and Walker (JOSA B 12, 1393 (1995)). We also present studies of the temperature of atoms in a MOT of ^39K. Under certain conditions of repump light intensity and trap light detuning we measure temperatures nearly as low as the Doppler Limit. Finally, we report on prelimiary results of magnetic trapping in which we have trapped several 10^7 atoms in a quadrupole magnetic trap.

  12. Pervasive liquid metal based direct writing electronics with roller-ball pen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Qin [Beijing Key Lab of CryoBiomedical Eng. and Key Lab of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Jing, E-mail: jliu@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Beijing Key Lab of CryoBiomedical Eng. and Key Lab of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-11-15

    A roller-ball pen enabled direct writing electronics via room temperature liquid metal ink was proposed. With the rolling to print mechanism, the metallic inks were smoothly written on flexible polymer substrate to form conductive tracks and electronic devices. The contact angle analyzer and scanning electron microscope were implemented to disclose several unique inner properties of the obtained electronics. An ever high writing resolution with line width and thickness as 200 μm and 80 μm, respectively was realized. Further, with the administration of external writing pressure, GaIn{sub 24.5} droplets embody increasing wettability on polymer which demonstrates the pervasive adaptability of the roller-ball pen electronics.

  13. Fabrication and performance of PEN SOFCs with proton-conducting electrolyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Li; LUO Jingli

    2007-01-01

    A positive-electrolyte-negative (PEN) assembly solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a thin electrolyte film for intermediate temperature operation was fabricated.Instead of the traditional screen-printing method,both anode and cathode catalysts were pressed simultaneously and formed with the fabrication of nano-composite electrolyte by press method.This design offered some advantageous configurations that diminished ohmic resistance between electrolyte and electrodes.It also increased the proton-conducting rate and improved the performance of SOFCs due to the reduction of membrane thickness and good contact between electrolyte and electrodes.The fabricated PEN cell generated electricity between 600℃ and 680~C using H2S as fuel feed and Ni-S-based composite anode,nano-composite electrolyte (Li2SO4 + Al2O3) film and a NiO-based composite cathode were achieved at 600℃ and 680℃,respectively.

  14. Charge transfer and penning ionization of dopants in or on helium nanodroplets exposed to EUV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchta, Dominic; Krishnan, Siva R; Brauer, Nils B; Drabbels, Marcel; O'Keeffe, Patrick; Devetta, Michele; Di Fraia, Michele; Callegari, Carlo; Richter, Robert; Coreno, Marcello; Prince, Kevin C; Stienkemeier, Frank; Moshammer, Robert; Mudrich, Marcel

    2013-05-30

    Helium nanodroplets are widely used as a cold, weakly interacting matrix for spectroscopy of embedded species. In this work, we excite or ionize doped He droplets using synchrotron radiation and study the effect onto the dopant atoms depending on their location inside the droplets (rare gases) or outside at the droplet surface (alkali metals). Using photoelectron-photoion coincidence imaging spectroscopy at variable photon energies (20-25 eV), we compare the rates of charge-transfer to Penning ionization of the dopants in the two cases. The surprising finding is that alkali metals, in contrast to the rare gases, are efficiently Penning ionized upon excitation of the (n = 2)-bands of the host droplets. This indicates rapid migration of the excitation to the droplet surface, followed by relaxation, and eventually energy transfer to the alkali dopants.

  15. Quantification of Tissue Trauma following Insulin Pen Needle Insertions in Skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Casper Bo; Larsen, Rasmus; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack

    Objective: Within the field of pen needle development, most research on needle design revolves around mechanical tensile testing and patient statements. Only little has been published on the actual biological skin response to needle insertions. The objective of this study was to develop a computa......Objective: Within the field of pen needle development, most research on needle design revolves around mechanical tensile testing and patient statements. Only little has been published on the actual biological skin response to needle insertions. The objective of this study was to develop...... digitized using 200X magnification. Based on thresholding, morphological masks and blob detection, segmentation of the histology was performed to locate tissue bleeding and immune response. Image-to-image registration was used on images originating from the same tissue, and a quantitative measure of tissue...

  16. Public debate on the Penly 3 project. Construction of an electronuclear production unit of the Penly site (Seine-Maritime); Debat public sur le projet PENLY 3. Construction d'une unite de production electronucleaire sur le site de Penly (Seine-Maritime)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    After a presentation of the objectives of the Penly 3 project, this report gives an overview of the context of electricity production (increasing world demand, geographically unbalanced energy reserves with fluctuating prices and a tendency to increase, French energy assessment, electricity peculiarities, electricity production and consumption in France in 2009, climate change issue). It presents the Penly 3 project and its alternatives within the frame of the French environment and energy policy. The project is then presented in terms of safety objectives, of design choices, of environmental improvements (water sampling, thermal, chemical and radioactive releases, wastes, sound and visual impact, foreseen cost and financing), and then in terms of socio-economical impact. The main steps of the project are briefly indicated

  17. Comment Nicolas Sarkozy a rétréci l’électorat Le Pen

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    D’une élection présidentielle à l’autre Jean-Marie Le Pen recule de 6 points et perd un million d’électeurs. Le Panel Electoral Français (2007) montre que cet électorat se distingue toujours par son tropisme droitier, son attitude ethnocentrique autoritaire. Mais plus du quart des électeurs de Le Pen en 2002 lui ont préféré Nicolas Sarkozy en 2007, parce qu’il leur semblait avoir l’étoffe d’un président et plus de chances d’être élu. Le FN perd plus chez les indépendants et chez les employés ...

  18. Dynamic array of dark optical traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daria, V.R.; Rodrigo, P.J.; Glückstad, J.

    2004-01-01

    A dynamic array of dark optical traps is generated for simultaneous trapping and arbitrary manipulation of multiple low-index microstructures. The dynamic intensity patterns forming the dark optical trap arrays are generated using a nearly loss-less phase-to-intensity conversion of a phase-encode...... optical traps for simultaneous manipulation of hollow "air-filled" glass microspheres suspended in an aqueous medium. (C) 2004 American Institute of Physics....

  19. Magnetic field extraction of trap-based electron beams using a high-permeability grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, N. C.; Danielson, J. R.; Surko, C. M., E-mail: csurko@physics.ucsd.edu [Physics Department, University of California, 9500 Gilman Drive, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    A method to form high quality electrostatically guided lepton beams is explored. Test electron beams are extracted from tailored plasmas confined in a Penning-Malmberg trap. The particles are then extracted from the confining axial magnetic field by passing them through a high magnetic permeability grid with radial tines (a so-called “magnetic spider”). An Einzel lens is used to focus and analyze the beam properties. Numerical simulations are used to model non-adiabatic effects due to the spider, and the predictions are compared with the experimental results. Improvements in beam quality are discussed relative to the use of a hole in a high permeability shield (i.e., in lieu of the spider), and areas for further improvement are described.

  20. Experimental transmission by mosquitoes of Plasmodium hermani between domestic turkeys and pen-reared bobwhites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, J K; Young, M D; Forrester, D J

    1982-10-01

    Plasmodium hermani was experimentally transmitted from domestic turkey poults (Meleagris gallopavo) to pen-reared bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) and then from these bobwhites back to domestic turkey poults. Transmission was achieved by Culex nigripalpus both by bites of the mosquito and by intraperitoneal injection of sporozoites. All of the 23 bobwhites and the 13 turkeys exposed to sporozoites became infected. These results indicate that the bobwhite might be a reservoir host for this malaria of wild turkeys in nature.

  1. Experimentally transmitted marble spleen disease in pen-raised wild turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iltis, J P; Jakowski, R M; Wyand, D S

    1975-10-01

    Pen-raised North American wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo L.) were experimentally infected with marble spleen disease (MSD) to determine their susceptibility to this disease. Gross and microscopic lesions were consistent with experimental MSD in pheasants and domestic turkeys: an enlarged mottled spleen, intranuclear inclusion bodies, and absence of pulmonary edema and hemorrhage. Detectable levels of viral antigen were not demonstrable in sera of turkeys using the agar gell precipitin test.

  2. DD-08PHASE I CANCER CLINICAL TRIAL FOR 4-DEMETHYL-4-CHOLESTERYLOXYCARBONYLPENCLOMEDINE (DM-CHOC-PEN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Marcus; Weiner, Roy; Friedlander, Paul; Gordon, Crag; Saenger, Yvonne; Mahmood, Tallat; Rodgers, Andrew; Bastian, Gerald; Urien, S.; Lee; Morgan, Roy

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: DM-CHOC-PEN is a poly-chlorinated pyridine cholesteryl carbonate whose MOA is via alkylation of DNA @ N7 – guanine and via oxidative stress. The aims of this clinical trial were to determine maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), safety, dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), pharmacokinetics (PK) of DM-CHOC-PEN and monitor for clinical responses. METHODS: DM-CHOC-PEN was administered as a 3-hr IV infusion once every 21-days to patients with advanced cancer; melanoma (n = 3), colorectal CA (n = 3), breast (n = 3) and glioblastoma multiforme (n = 6). The trial included patients with advanced cancer +/- CNS involvement. The starting dose was 39 mg/m2 with escalations to date up to 111 mg/m2. RESULTS: Twenty-six (26) patients have been treated. The MTD was 2-tiered and defined as 85.8 mg/m2 for patients with liver involvement and 98.7 mg/m2 for patients without liver abnormalities. The most common adverse effects were fatigue (n = 2), liver dysfunction – elevated bilirubin (Gr-3, n = 3; Gr-2, n = 1), ALT/AST (Gr-2, n = 3), alk phos (Gr-2, n = 3) and an allergic reaction (Gr-2, n = 1). Three (3) patients with liver metastasis demonstrated hyperbilirubinemia (Gr-3 SLT) – 2 at the 98.7 mg/m2 and one (1) at the 111 mg/m2 levels Five (5) additional patients with liver disease have been treated at 85.8 mg/m2 level without toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: DM-CHOC-PEN is safe at the presented dose levels and has a favorable PK profile. Eight (8) patients had responses or significant PFS, including 6 with CNS involvement. A Phase II trial has begun in patients with primary brain cancer and brain metastases from melanoma, breast cancer and lung cancer.

  3. The mechanical design and simulation of a scaled H{sup −} Penning ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutter, T., E-mail: theo.rutter@stfc.ac.uk; Faircloth, D.; Turner, D.; Lawrie, S. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX110QX (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    The existing ISIS Penning H{sup −} source is unable to produce the beam parameters required for the front end test stand and so a new, high duty factor, high brightness scaled source is being developed. This paper details first the development of an electrically biased aperture plate for the existing ISIS source and second, the design, simulation, and development of a prototype scaled source.

  4. Optical pen-size reflectometer for monitoring of early dental erosion in native and polished enamels

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhmatullina, Ekaterina; Bossen, Anke; Bachofner, Kai K.; Meier, Christoph; Lussi, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Application of the specular reflection intensity was previously reported for the quantification of early dental erosion. Further development of the technique and assembly of the miniaturized pen-size instrument are described. The optical system was adjusted to fit into a handy device which could potentially access different positions in the oral cavity. The assembled instrument could successfully detect early erosion progression in both polished (n=70) and native (n=20) human enamels. Differe...

  5. Application of the CO2-PENS risk analysis tool to the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, P.H.; Pawar, R.J.; Surdam, R.C.; Jiao, Z.; Deng, H.; Lettelier, B.C.; Viswanathan, H.S.; Sanzo, D.L.; Keating, G.N.

    2011-01-01

    We describe preliminary application of the CO2-PENS performance and risk analysis tool to a planned geologic CO2 sequestration demonstration project in the Rock Springs Uplift (RSU), located in south western Wyoming. We use data from the RSU to populate CO2-PENS, an evolving system-level modeling tool developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This tool has been designed to generate performance and risk assessment calculations for the geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide. Our approach follows Systems Analysis logic and includes estimates of uncertainty in model parameters and Monte-Carlo simulations that lead to probabilistic results. Probabilistic results provide decision makers with a range in the likelihood of different outcomes. Herein we present results from a newly implemented approach in CO 2-PENS that captures site-specific spatially coherent details such as topography on the reservoir/cap-rock interface, changes in saturation and pressure during injection, and dip on overlying aquifers that may be impacted by leakage upward through wellbores and faults. We present simulations of CO 2 injection under different uncertainty distributions for hypothetical leaking wells and faults. Although results are preliminary and to be used only for demonstration of the approach, future results of the risk analysis will form the basis for a discussion on methods to reduce uncertainty in the risk calculations. Additionally, we present ideas on using the model to help locate monitoring equipment to detect potential leaks. By maintaining site-specific details in the CO2-PENS analysis we provide a tool that allows more logical presentations to stakeholders in the region. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Canadian Asthma Consensus Conference Summary of Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Ernst

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The Asthma Committee of the Canadian Thoracic Society invited a group of Canadian physicians with a particular interest in asthma to meet in Montebello, Quebec, March 9-12, 1995 to arrive at a consensus statement on the optimal approach to the management of asthma in the pediatric and adult ambulatory care settings. The societies and associations represented are listed in the appendix with the names of the contributors to this document. The objectives of the Montebello conference were: 1. To review the current ambulatory care management of asthma in Canada; 2. To develop guidelines with the participation of family physicians and specialists; 3. To develop guidelines which are evidence-based; 4. In creating evidence-based guidelines to focus attention on aspects of asthma management that are currently not supported by randomized controlled trials; 5. To develop strategies that allow for the implementation of rational guidelines at a local level. Recommendations were based on a critical review of the scientific literature by small groups prior to the meeting and are categorized according to the strength of the scientific evidence supporting each recommendation (Table 1.

  7. Exploring Canadian Echinoderm Diversity through DNA Barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    DNA barcoding has proven an effective tool for species identification in varied groups of marine invertebrates including crustaceans, molluscs, polychaetes and echinoderms. In this study, we further validate its utility by analyzing almost half of the 300 species of Echinodermata known from Canadian waters. COI sequences from 999 specimens were assigned to 145 BINs. In most cases, species discrimination was straightforward due to the large difference (25-fold) between mean intra- (0.48%) and inter- (12.0%) specific divergence. Six species were flagged for further taxonomic investigation because specimens assigned to them fell into two or three discrete sequence clusters. The potential influence of larval dispersal capacity and glacial events on patterns of genetic diversity is discussed for 19 trans-oceanic species. Although additional research is needed to clarify biogeographic patterns and resolve taxonomic questions, this study represents an important step in the assembly of a DNA barcode library for all Canadian echinoderms, a valuable resource for future biosurveillance programs. PMID:27870868

  8. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-05-24

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups.

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions from Canadian prairie agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellert, B.H.; Janzen, H.H. [Agriculture and Agri-food Canada Research Centre, Lethbridge, AB, (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    There is a close relationship between soil and air quality, on the one hand, and the exchange of greenhouse gases between the earth and atmosphere, on the other. International efforts by people such as soil conservationists and climatologists to control emissions of these gases and negotiations surrounding the Kyoto Protocol have increased the debate regarding the role of agricultural activities. From evaluation of both data available before global change became important and recent research efforts, much information on greenhouse gas emissions from Canadian agriculture has been gained. A summary is included of the contribution of Canadian prairie agriculture to emissions of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane gas. A stress is placed on the subject of the carbon cycle and on how land management practices could influence soil carbon storage capacity. The potential for increasing this carbon storage capacity is described in relation to land use, historical changes in agricultural land, and recent observations on the influence of agricultural parctices, and obstacles to estimating changes in soil carbon dioxide emissions and carbon storage, and extending the estimates to large land areas are examined. Emissions of nitrous oxide and methane gas are considered in relation to the influence of agricultural management practices. (Abstract only)

  10. 头孢曲松低敏淋球菌中penA基因的初步研究%A Preliminary Study on the PenA Gene in Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Isolates with Reduced Susceptibility to Ceftriaxone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    其木格; 张秀丽; 塔娜; 董磊

    2013-01-01

    目的:检测头孢曲松低敏淋球菌中penA基因的改变,探讨其是否与淋球菌对头孢曲松敏感性降低有关.方法:通过对5株头孢曲松低敏和1株头孢曲松敏感的淋球菌进行penA基因全基因测序,进一步了解penA基因的碱基置换或插入情况及青霉素结合蛋白2(PBP2)的结构模式.结果:5株头孢曲松低敏淋球菌的penA基因中有多个碱基置换或突变,没有发现含有镶嵌状penA基因结构模式.结论:penA基因的多个碱基置换或突变可能与淋球菌对头孢曲松敏感性降低相关.

  11. Superdense Coding via Hot Trapped Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Tao; FENG Mang; GAO Ke-Lin

    2004-01-01

    Superdense coding plays an important role in quantum information and can be performed with trapped ions. By confining the ions in a linear trap or a trap-cavity setup, we propose schemes to implement a reliable superdense coding by means of bichromatic radiation method. Experimental feasibility and reliability for achieving our schemes is discussed in detail.

  12. The Aarhus Ion Micro-Trap Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miroshnychenko, Yevhen; Nielsen, Otto; Poulsen, Gregers

    and installed in an ultra high vacuum chamber, which includes an ablation oven for all-optical loading of the trap [2]. The next steps on the project are to demonstrate the operation of the micro-trap and the cooling of ions using fiber delivered light. [1] D. Grant, Development of Micro-Scale Ion traps, Master...

  13. Microchip-Based Trapped-Atom Clocks

    CERN Document Server

    Vuletic, Vladan; Schleier-Smith, Monika H

    2011-01-01

    This is a chapter of a recently published book entitled Atom Chips, edited by Jakob Reichel and Vladan Vuletic. The contents of this chapter include: Basic Principles; Atomic-Fountain versus Trapped-Atom Clocks; Optical-Transition Clocks versus Microwave Clocks; Clocks with Magnetically Trapped Atoms--Fundamental Limits and Experimental Demonstrations; Readout in Trapped-Atom Clocks; and Spin Squeezing.

  14. Dip Pen Nanolithography: a maturing technology for high-throughput flexible nanopatterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaheim, J. R.; Tevaarwerk, E. R.; Fragala, J.; Shile, R.

    2007-04-01

    Precision nanoscale deposition is a fundamental requirement for much of current nanoscience research. Further, depositing a wide range of materials as nanoscale features onto diverse surfaces is a challenging requirement for nanoscale processing systems. As a high resolution scanning probe-based direct-write technology, Dip Pen Nanolithography® (DPN®) satisfies and exceeds these fundamental requirements. Herein we specifically describe the massive scalability of DPN with two dimensional probe arrays (the 2D nano PrintArray). In collaboration with researchers at Northwestern University, we have demonstrated massively parallel nanoscale deposition with this 2D array of 55,000 pens on a centimeter square probe chip. (To date, this is the highest cantilever density ever reported.) This enables direct-writing flexible patterns with a variety of molecules, simultaneously generating 55,000 duplicates at the resolution of single-pen DPN. To date, there is no other way to accomplish this kind of patterning at this unprecedented resolution. These advances in high-throughput, flexible nanopatterning point to several compelling applications. The 2D nano PrintArray can cover a square centimeter with nanoscale features and pattern 10 7 μm2 per hour. These features can be solid state nanostructures, metals, or using established templating techniques, these advances enable screening for biological interactions at the level of a few molecules, or even single molecules; this in turn can enable engineering the cell-substrate interface at sub-cellular resolution.

  15. Pen rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1994 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeman, John W.; Novotny, Jerry F.

    1994-06-01

    Results of rearing upriver bright fall chinook salmon juveniles in net pens and a barrier net enclosure in two backwater areas and a pond along the Columbia River were compared with traditional hatchery methods. Growth, smoltification, and general condition of pen-reared fish receiving supplemental feeding were better than those of fish reared using traditional methods. Juvenile fish receiving no supplemental feeding were generally in poor condition resulting in a net loss of production. Rearing costs using pens were generally lower than in the hatchery. However, low adult returns resulted in greater cost per adult recovery than fish reared and released using traditional methods. Much of the differences in recovery rates may have been due to differences in rearing locations, as study sites were as much as 128 mi upstream from the hatcheries and study fish may have incurred higher mortality associated with downstream migration than control fish. Fish reared using these methods could be a cost-effective method of enhancing salmon production in the Columbia River Basin.

  16. Utilization of squid pen for the efficient production of chitosanase and antioxidants through prolonged autoclave treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, San-Lang; Wu, Pei-Chen; Liang, Tzu-Wen

    2009-05-26

    We have developed a culture system for efficient production of chitosanase by Bacillus sp. TKU004. TKU004 was cultivated by using squid pen powder as the sole carbon/nitrogen source. The effects of autoclave treatments of the medium on the production of chitosanase were investigated. Autoclave treatment of squid pen powder for 45 min remarkably promoted enzyme productivity. When the culture medium containing an initial squid pen powder concentration of 3% was autoclaved for 45 min, the chitosanase activity was optimal and reached 0.14-0.16 U/mL. In addition, extracellular surfactant-stable chitosanase was purified from the TKU004 culture supernatant. The antioxidant activity of TKU004 culture supernatant was determined through the scavenging ability of DPPH, with 70% per mL. With this method, we have shown that marine wastes can be utilized efficiently through prolonged autoclave treatments to generate a high value-added product, and have revealed its hidden potential in the production of functional foods.

  17. Dose measurement in periapical radiographic exams using dosemeter pen: a look at the radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Renato; Ferreira, Vanessa, E-mail: vanessamachado@ufmg.br [Curso Superior de Tecnologia em Radiologia. Faculdade de Medicina. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Pereira, Claubia; Oliveira, Arno H.; Veloso, M.A.F., E-mail: gbarros@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: Dora@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    The use of radiology has been a large increase with the crescent accessibility to dental care, orthodontics and aesthetic. Besides the increase in the number of exams, there was an increase in radiation dose during dental exams such as computed tomography. The objective of this work is to evaluate the radiation dose to which the patient is subjected in a peri apical dental radiography. The dose values were measured with a dosimeter pen during radiographs in real exams peri apical with the X-ray equipment Timex 70 C Gnatus. During the exams realization, was maintained, in the holder, the dosimeter pen near to the region of interest. The values collected were recorded in dosimeter pen. These values were compared with the reference doses of the Portaria 453 of ANVISA, this procedure allows to verify if the recommended dose limits for this exam are being respected. These data indicates if the used equipment is calibrated and in good condition of use. It was performed a comparison between the obtained experimental dose values and the values found from computer simulation with the code MCNPX 2.6.0. (author)

  18. Chitinolytic Bacteria-Assisted Conversion of Squid Pen and Its Effect on Dyes and Pigments Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tzu-Wen; Lo, Bo-Chang; Wang, San-Lang

    2015-07-23

    The aim of this work was to produce chitosanase by fermenting from squid pen, and recover the fermented squid pen for dye removal by adsorption. One chitosanase induced from squid pen powder (SPP)-containing medium by Bacillus cereus TKU034 was purified in high purification fold (441) and high yield of activity recovery (51%) by ammonium sulfate precipitation and combined column chromatography. The SDS-PAGE results showed its molecular mass to be around 43 kDa. The TKU034 chitosanase used for the chitooligomers preparation was studied. The enzyme products revealed that the chitosanase could degrade chitosan with various degrees of polymerization, ranging from 3 to 9, as well as the chitosanase in an endolytic manner. Besides, the fermented SPP was recovered and displayed a better adsorption rate (up to 99.5%) for the disperse dyes (red, yellow, blue, and black) than the water-soluble food colorants, Allura Red AC (R40) and Tartrazine (Y4). The adsorbed R40 on the unfermented SPP and the fermented SPP was eluted by distilled water and 1 M NaOH to confirm the dye adsorption mechanism. The fermented SPP had a slightly higher adsorption capacity than the unfermented, and elution of the dye from the fermented SPP was easier than from the unfermented. The main dye adsorption mechanism of fermented SPP was physical adsorption, while the adsorption mechanism of unfermented SPP was chemical adsorption.

  19. Chitinolytic Bacteria-Assisted Conversion of Squid Pen and Its Effect on Dyes and Pigments Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Wen Liang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to produce chitosanase by fermenting from squid pen, and recover the fermented squid pen for dye removal by adsorption. One chitosanase induced from squid pen powder (SPP-containing medium by Bacillus cereus TKU034 was purified in high purification fold (441 and high yield of activity recovery (51% by ammonium sulfate precipitation and combined column chromatography. The SDS-PAGE results showed its molecular mass to be around 43 kDa. The TKU034 chitosanase used for the chitooligomers preparation was studied. The enzyme products revealed that the chitosanase could degrade chitosan with various degrees of polymerization, ranging from 3 to 9, as well as the chitosanase in an endolytic manner. Besides, the fermented SPP was recovered and displayed a better adsorption rate (up to 99.5% for the disperse dyes (red, yellow, blue, and black than the water-soluble food colorants, Allura Red AC (R40 and Tartrazine (Y4. The adsorbed R40 on the unfermented SPP and the fermented SPP was eluted by distilled water and 1 M NaOH to confirm the dye adsorption mechanism. The fermented SPP had a slightly higher adsorption capacity than the unfermented, and elution of the dye from the fermented SPP was easier than from the unfermented. The main dye adsorption mechanism of fermented SPP was physical adsorption, while the adsorption mechanism of unfermented SPP was chemical adsorption.

  20. Scalar Trapping and Saxion Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Moroi, Takeo; Nakayama, Kazunori; Takimoto, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    We study in detail the dynamics of a scalar field in thermal bath with symmetry breaking potential. In particular, we focus on the process of trapping of a scalar field at an enhanced symmetry point through the thermal/non-thermal particle production, taking into account the interactions of produced particles with the standard model particles. As an explicit example, we revisit the saxion dynamics with an initial amplitude much larger than the Peccei-Quinn scale and show that the saxion trapping phenomenon happens for the most cases and it often leads to thermal inflation. We also study the saxion dynamics after thermal inflation, and it is shown that thermal dissipation effect on the saxion can relax the axion overproduction problem from the saxion decay.

  1. Fundamental physics in particle traps

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This volume provides detailed insight into the field of precision spectroscopy and fundamental physics with particles confined in traps. It comprises experiments with electrons and positrons, protons and antiprotons, antimatter and highly charged ions, together with corresponding theoretical background. Such investigations represent stringent tests of quantum electrodynamics and the Standard model, antiparticle and antimatter research, test of fundamental symmetries, constants, and their possible variations with time and space. They are key to various aspects within metrology such as mass measurements and time standards, as well as promising to further developments in quantum information processing. The reader obtains a valuable source of information suited for beginners and experts with an interest in fundamental studies using particle traps.

  2. Tachyon Physics with Trapped Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Tony E; Cheng, Xiao-Hang; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    It has been predicted that particles with imaginary mass, called tachyons, would be able to travel faster than the speed of light. So far, there has not been any experimental evidence for tachyons in either natural or engineered systems. Here, we propose how to experimentally simulate Dirac tachyons with trapped ions. Quantum measurement on a Dirac particle simulated by a trapped ion causes it to have an imaginary mass so that it may travel faster than the effective speed of light. We show that a Dirac tachyon must have spinor-motion entanglement in order to be superluminal. We also show that it exhibits significantly more Klein tunneling than a normal Dirac particle. We provide numerical simulations with realistic ion systems and show that our scheme is feasible with current technology.

  3. Trapper readies trap for lizard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    State-licensed animal trapper James Dean sets the open door of an animal trap on KSC. He hopes to catch a large monitor lizard spotted recently near S.R. 3, a route into the Center, by several area residents. The lizard is not a native of the area, and possibly a released pet. Dean is working with the cooperation of KSC and the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge.

  4. TRAP SYNDROME: A RARE ENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available TRAP (Twin Reversed Arterial Perfusion sequence is a rare complication of monozygotic twin pregnancy. It is due to defect in early pregnancy where there is defective arterial anastomosis in placenta. This results in a fetus with an absent heart (acardiac twin. This acardiac twin has a poorly developed upper body and head also. The pump twin (with a normal heart is also at a risk of heart failure and problems related to preterm birth1.

  5. TRAP SYNDROME: A RARE ENTITY

    OpenAIRE

    Varsha; Kanan; Chanda,, Abhra; Qazi,, S.

    2014-01-01

    TRAP (Twin Reversed Arterial Perfusion) sequence is a rare complication of monozygotic twin pregnancy. It is due to defect in early pregnancy where there is defective arterial anastomosis in placenta. This results in a fetus with an absent heart (acardiac twin). This acardiac twin has a poorly developed upper body and head also. The pump twin (with a normal heart) is also at a risk of heart failure and problems related to preterm birth1.

  6. Lift enhancement by trapped vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of lift enhancement by trapped vortex are provided. Efforts are continuously being made to find simple ways to convert wings of aircraft from an efficient cruise configuration to one that develops the high lift needed during landing and takeoff. The high-lift configurations studied here consist of conventional airfoils with a trapped vortex over the upper surface. The vortex is trapped by one or two vertical fences that serve as barriers to the oncoming stream and as reflection planes for the vortex and the sink that form a separation bubble on top of the airfoil. Since the full three-dimensional unsteady flow problem over the wing of an aircraft is so complicated that it is hard to get an understanding of the principles that govern the vortex trapping process, the analysis is restricted here to the flow field illustrated in the first slide. It is assumed that the flow field between the two end plates approximates a streamwise strip of the flow over a wing. The flow between the endplates and about the airfoil consists of a spanwise vortex located between the suction orifices in the endplates. The spanwise fence or spoiler located near the nose of the airfoil serves to form a separated flow region and a shear layer. The vorticity in the shear layer is concentrated into the vortex by withdrawal of fluid at the suction orifices. As the strength of the vortex increases with time, it eventually dominates the flow in the separated region so that a shear or vertical layer is no longer shed from the tip of the fence. At that point, the vortex strength is fixed and its location is such that all of the velocity contributions at its center sum to zero thereby making it an equilibrium point for the vortex. The results of a theoretical analysis of such an idealized flow field are described.

  7. 22 CFR 41.33 - Nonresident alien Canadian border crossing identification card (BCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... identification card (BCC). 41.33 Section 41.33 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION... Nonresident alien Canadian border crossing identification card (BCC). (a) Validity of Canadian BCC. A Canadian BCC or the BCC portion of a Canadian B-1/B-2 Visa/BCC issued to a permanent resident of...

  8. Hybrid ion, atom and light trap

    CERN Document Server

    Jyothi, S; Ram, N Bhargava; Rangwala, S A

    2013-01-01

    We present an unique experimental arrangement which permits the simultaneous trapping and cooling of ions and neutral atoms, within a Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity. The versatility of this hybrid trap experiment enables a variety of studies with trapped mixtures. The motivations behind the production of such a hybrid trap system are explained, followed by details of how the experiment is put together. Several experiments that have been performed with this system are presented and some opportunities with this system are discussed. However the primary emphasis is focussed on the aspects that pertain to the trapped ions, in this hybrid system.

  9. Effect of trapped charge accumulation on the retention of charge trapping memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Rui; Liu Xiaoyan; Du Gang; Kang Jinfeng; Han Ruqi, E-mail: xyliu@ime.pku.edu.cn [Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China)

    2010-12-15

    The accumulation process of trapped charges in a TANOS cell during P/E cycling is investigated via numerical simulation. The recombination process between trapped charges is an important issue on the retention of charge trapping memory. Our results show that accumulated trapped holes during P/E cycling can have an influence on retention, and the recombination mechanism between trapped charges should be taken into account when evaluating the retention capability of TANOS. (semiconductor devices)

  10. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Effect of trapped charge accumulation on the retention of charge trapping memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Jin; Xiaoyan, Liu; Gang, Du; Jinfeng, Kang; Ruqi, Han

    2010-12-01

    The accumulation process of trapped charges in a TANOS cell during P/E cycling is investigated via numerical simulation. The recombination process between trapped charges is an important issue on the retention of charge trapping memory. Our results show that accumulated trapped holes during P/E cycling can have an influence on retention, and the recombination mechanism between trapped charges should be taken into account when evaluating the retention capability of TANOS.

  11. The Canadian National Dairy Study 2015-Adoption of milking practices in Canadian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belage, E; Dufour, S; Bauman, C; Jones-Bitton, A; Kelton, D F

    2017-03-16

    Several studies have investigated which management practices have the greatest effect on udder health, but little information is available on how broadly the recommended milking practices are adopted across Canada. The National Dairy Study 2015 was designed to gather dairy cattle health and management data on dairy farms across Canada. The objectives of the present study were to describe the current proportions of adoption of milking practices on Canadian dairy farms, and identify factors associated with their use on farms. A bilingual questionnaire measuring use of various practices, including an udder health-specific section, was developed and sent to all Canadian dairy farms. The questions in the udder health section of the questionnaire were adapted from a bilingual questionnaire previously validated and containing questions regarding general milking hygiene and routine, and on-farm mastitis management. Chi-squared tests were used to investigate simple associations between adoption of practices and various explanatory variables including region, milking system, herd size, and bulk tank somatic cell count. In total, 1,373 dairy producers completed the survey. The regional distribution of the participants was representative of the Canadian dairy farm population, and milk quality was, on average, similar to nonparticipants. Overall, Canadian dairy producers followed the recommendations for milking procedures, but some were more extensively used than others. Fore-stripping, cleaning teats, wiping teats dry, using single-cow towels, and use of postmilking teat disinfectant were widely adopted. Use of gloves and glove hygiene, use of a premilking teat disinfectant, and use of automatic takeoffs were not as extensively implemented. Adoption percentages for several practices, including use of gloves, use of a premilking teat disinfectant, teat drying methods, and use of automatic takeoffs were significantly associated with milking system, herd size, and region. It

  12. Multipole Traps as Tools in Environmental Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Mihalcea, Bogdan M; Giurgiu, Liviu C; Groza, Andreea; Surmeian, Agavni; Ganciu, Mihai; Filinov, Vladimir; Lapitsky, Dmitry; Deputatova, Lidiya; Vasilyak, Leonid; Pecherkin, Vladimir; Vladimirov, Vladimir; Syrovatka, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Trapping of microparticles, nanoparticles and aerosols is an issue of major interest for physics and chemistry. We present a setup intended for microparticle trapping in multipole linear Paul trap geometries, operating under Standard Ambient Temperature and Pressure (SATP) conditions. A 16-electrode linear trap geometry has been designed and tested, with an aim to confine a larger number of particles with respect to quadrupole traps and thus enhance the signal to noise ratio, as well as to study microparticle dynamical stability in electrodynamic fields. Experimental tests and numerical simulations suggest that multipole traps are very suited for high precision mass spectrometry measurements in case of different microparticle species or to identify the presence of certain aerosols and polluting agents in the atmosphere. Particle traps represent versatile tools for environment monitoring or for the study of many-body Coulomb systems and dusty plasmas.

  13. The Canadian war on drugs: structural violence and unequal treatment of Black Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khenti, Akwatu

    2014-03-01

    This paper examines the impact of Canada's war on drugs on segments of the Black community, specifically with respect to the impact of structural violence, over-policing, and high incarceration rates. It offers evidence of the systemic nature of these dynamics by examining the early context of the war, growing stigma against Blacks, globalizing influences, and the punitive focus of funding and policy. The paper also explores how Black men have been identified as the main enemy and how drug control efforts have served to diminish the health, well-being, and self-image of Black men via discriminatory and inequitable treatment before the law. The current high rates of imprisonment of Black men are an indicator of systematic deprivation of significant social capital, which will perpetuate socioeconomic harm and cycles of violence. This commentary calls for an immediate dissolution of policies regulating the war on drugs as the first step in remedying the injustices experienced by Black Canadians. Due to the lack of Canadian data in this important area, the paper also emphasizes the critical need for more research to shed more light on the Canadian-specific complexities.

  14. Knowledge synthesis and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Ian D

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR is Canada's premier health-research funding agency. We fund nearly 14,000 researchers and trainees in four theme areas: biomedical, clinical, health services, and population and public-health research. Our mandate is 'to excel according to international standards of scientific excellence, in the creation of new knowledge and its translation into improved health for Canadians, more effective health services and products and a strengthened Canadian health care system'. Knowledge synthesis is a key element of the knowledge-translation objectives of CIHR, as outlined in our definition of knowledge-translation.

  15. CanWEA Pan-Canadian wind integration study paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, Martin [GL Garrad Hassan Canada Inc, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Gardner, Paul [GL Garrad Hassan and Partners, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Price, Doug; Le, Don [GL Garrad Hassan America, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    GL Garrad Hassan has been contracted by CanWEA to undertake a scoping study for a future Pan-Canadian Wide-Scale Wind Integration Study. The scoping study provides the methodology and the rationale on which the actual wind integration study and request for proposals will be based on. Major system operators and owners of each Canadian Province along with experts involved in major US wind integration studies have been consulted and contributed to the decisional process. This paper provides a summary of the factors considered in the study and outline the actual methodology that was adopted for the future Pan-Canadian wind integration study. (orig.)

  16. Knowledge synthesis and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ian D

    2012-02-09

    The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) is Canada's premier health-research funding agency. We fund nearly 14,000 researchers and trainees in four theme areas: biomedical, clinical, health services, and population and public-health research. Our mandate is 'to excel according to international standards of scientific excellence, in the creation of new knowledge and its translation into improved health for Canadians, more effective health services and products and a strengthened Canadian health care system'. Knowledge synthesis is a key element of the knowledge-translation objectives of CIHR, as outlined in our definition of knowledge-translation.

  17. Pulsus Group, the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology and CDDW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available At the recent Canadian Digestive Diseases Week in Banff, Alberta, the third annual Dr ABR Thomson - Dr CN Williams Award was presented to Dr Krikor Kichian. This Award was initiated in 2002 by Pulsus Group in honour of Drs Alan Thomson and Noel Williams, the founding Co- Editors-in-Chief of The Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, who served from 1987 to 2000. Robert Kalina, publisher of The Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, invited Dr Williams to present the award to Dr Kichian.

  18. Modeling and Optimizing RF Multipole Ion Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanghaenel, Sven; Asvany, Oskar; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Radio frequency (rf) ion traps are very well suited for spectroscopy experiments thanks to the long time storage of the species of interest in a well defined volume. The electrical potential of the ion trap is determined by the geometry of its electrodes and the applied voltages. In order to understand the behavior of trapped ions in realistic multipole traps it is necessary to characterize these trapping potentials. Commercial programs like SIMION or COMSOL, employing the finite difference and/or finite element method, are often used to model the electrical fields of the trap in order to design traps for various purposes, e.g. introducing light from a laser into the trap volume. For a controlled trapping of ions, e.g. for low temperature trapping, the time dependent electrical fields need to be known to high accuracy especially at the minimum of the effective (mechanical) potential. The commercial programs are not optimized for these applications and suffer from a number of limitations. Therefore, in our approach the boundary element method (BEM) has been employed in home-built programs to generate numerical solutions of real trap geometries, e.g. from CAD drawings. In addition the resulting fields are described by appropriate multipole expansions. As a consequence, the quality of a trap can be characterized by a small set of multipole parameters which are used to optimize the trap design. In this presentation a few example calculations will be discussed. In particular the accuracy of the method and the benefits of describing the trapping potentials via multipole expansions will be illustrated. As one important application heating effects of cold ions arising from non-ideal multipole fields can now be understood as a consequence of imperfect field configurations.

  19. A Canadian paradox: Tommy Douglas and eugenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Tommy Douglas is an icon of Canadian 20th Century political history and is considered by many as the "Father" of Medicare, a key component of our national identity. Throughout his career, he was associated at both the provincial and federal levels with progressive causes concerning disadvantaged populations. In his sociology Master's thesis written in the early 1930's, Douglas endorsed eugenic oriented solutions such as segregation and sterilization to address what was perceived to be an endemic and biologically determined problem. At first glance, this endorsement of eugenics appears to be paradoxical, but careful analysis revealed that this paradox has multiple roots in religion, political belief, historical exposure and our own desire to view our collective history in a favourable light.

  20. Feminist Approaches to Journalism Studies: Canadian Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrude J. Robinson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the orthodoxies of communication scholarship is that much of the gender-based differences between males and females with regard to experiences in newsrooms can be attributed to demographics. The discussion presented in this paper challenges this claim by comparing the findings of two national surveys that measured the professional progress of Canadian press and television journalists. The first survey was undertaken in 1975, and the second in 1995. While the historical evidence points to reductions in gender-based structural inequalities over time, it also identifies the continued presence of gender-based assumptions about how work and family obligations should be combined. Such assumptions, it is argued, help to foster and reproduce systemic biases in the newsroom culture that still resonate today in the journalism profession and which can be best understood as a manifestation of the meaning of gender at three levels: as a classifying system, as a structuring structure, and as an ideology.

  1. Economic security in an aging Canadian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert L

    2011-09-01

    Recent research indicates that today's retirees are doing very well in terms of their replacement ratios and that Canadian poverty rates among the elderly are low relative to other Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. Government-sponsored plans have been strengthened either through explicit expansion - for example, the Guaranteed Income Supplement (GIS) - or through the reform of the Canada/Quebec Pension Plans (C/QPP). Also important is the maturation of employer-sponsored pension plans, although coverage rates are down. Future generations of retirees may not achieve the standard of living that exists today, however, which is a concern. The author argues that today's economic security programs are affordable and that their costs could be stabilized if the retirement age were raised.

  2. Review of Canadian literature to estimate risks associated with Salmonella in broilers from retail to consumption in Canadian homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadi, Hanan; Sargeant, Jan M

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to review the literature related to the risk of salmonellosis from chicken consumed in private homes in Canada. The pathway of concern was retail-to-consumption at private homes due to the direct link between this pathway and public health. A qualitative review was conducted by searching Canadian governmental agencies' webpages, published peer-reviewed journals, and by contacting experts in the field. Overall, with the data available, estimating risk from Salmonella in chicken breasts using only Canadian information was limited. Enumeration data for Salmonella in retail raw chicken at different regions across Canada are needed to be able to generalize the risk of salmonellosis in the Canadian population. Few Canadian surveys were found to describe consumers' food safety behaviors at Canadians' private homes. Observational designs to study food safety practices and Canadian consumers' behavior in private kitchens are needed to ensure that consumer behavior is consistent with consumer perceptions of their behavior. The results of such studies will give valuable input for designing educational programs needed to increase awareness of safe food handling practices by Canadian consumers when preparing food at their homes.

  3. Survive Bravely——Main Features of Contemporary Canadian Literature Themes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Fang

    2015-01-01

    The classic works in Canadian Literatures that advantageously elaborated the characteristics of sublimation under the background for Canada’s particular history,geograph y,climate,religion,demographic factors,generation,development and continuous construction of Canadian literatures.The greatest masterpieces can highlight powerfully the certain mindset of Canadian and the permanent theme for Canadian Literature:keep working hard for survival and love bravely.Meanwhile,modern people will learn a lot from reading Canadian classic literary works.

  4. Survive Bravely——Main Features of Contemporary Canadian Literature Themes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳

    2015-01-01

    The classic works in Canadian Literatures that advantageously elaborated the characteristics of sublimation under the background for Canada's particular history,geograph y,climate,religion,demographic factors,generation,development and continuous construction of Canadian literatures.The greatest masterpieces can highlight powerfully the certain mindset of Canadian and the permanent theme for Canadian Literature:keep working hard for survival and love bravely.Meanwhile,modern people will learn a lot from reading Canadian classic literary works.

  5. The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rachel E.; Boulos, David; Garber, Bryan G.; Jetly, Rakesh; Sareen, Jitender

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) collected detailed information on mental health problems, their impacts, occupational and nonoccupational determinants of mental health, and the use of mental health services from a random sample of 8200 serving personnel. The objective of this article is to provide a firm scientific foundation for understanding and interpreting the CFMHS findings. Methods: This narrative review first provides a snapshot of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), focusing on 2 key determinants of mental health: the deployment of more than 40,000 personnel in support of the mission in Afghanistan and the extensive renewal of the CAF mental health system. The findings of recent population-based CAF mental health research are reviewed, with a focus on findings from the very similar mental health survey done in 2002. Finally, key aspects of the methods of the 2013 CFMHS are presented. Results: The findings of 20 peer-reviewed publications using the 2002 mental health survey data are reviewed, along with those of 25 publications from other major CAF mental health research projects executed over the past decade. Conclusions: More than a decade of population-based mental health research in the CAF has provided a detailed picture of its mental health and use of mental health services. This knowledge base and the homology of the 2013 survey with the 2002 CAF survey and general population surveys in 2002 and 2012 will provide an unusual opportunity to use the CFMHS to situate mental health in the CAF in a historical and societal perspective. PMID:27270738

  6. The isotope crisis - a Canadian viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    From the fall of 2007 the summer of 2010 there were repeated cries in the media of North America and Europe of an -isotope crisis-. This concerned the on-going shortage of the isotope Molybdenum 99 and more specifically of its daughter product Technetium Mo 99. The latter is used in about 80 percent of medical imagining procedures in North America, Europe, Japan and a number of other countries. Both isotopes are short-lived and can not be stock-piled. Mo 99 is produced in only a handful of reactors around the world. The fifty-year old Nru reactor in Canada and the equally old Hfr reactor in the Netherlands have each traditionally supplied about a third of the world's supply. In late 2007 the Canadian nuclear regulator ordered the owner and operator of Nru, to shut down the reactor over a matter that was not a clear licence condition. Sensing the impending shortage of Mo 99, the nuclear medicine community raised a major concern sufficient to convince the Canadian government to overrule the regulator. Then in early 2009 a major leak was observed in the Nru reactor vessel. Although it did not present a safety concern it was decided to shut down the reactor to conduct an inspection. This proved to be extremely difficult since the leaks were near the bottom of the 10 metre tall vessel and the only access was through a 20 cm diameter hole at the top of the vessel. The reactor was finally restarted in August 2010, just as the Hfr reactor was shut down for a lengthy overhaul. The paper provides a background on Canada's pioneering involvement in the production and use of radioactive isotopes for medical purposes, a brief account of the Nru repair and an overview of Mo 99 production. (Author)

  7. Discriminating between antihydrogen and mirror-trapped antiprotons in a minimum-B trap

    CERN Document Server

    Amole, C; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Kurchaninov, L; Jonsell, S; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S

    2012-01-01

    Recently, antihydrogen atoms were trapped at CERN in a magnetic minimum (minimum-B) trap formed by superconducting octupole and mirror magnet coils. The trapped antiatoms were detected by rapidly turning off these magnets, thereby eliminating the magnetic minimum and releasing any antiatoms contained in the trap. Once released, these antiatoms quickly hit the trap wall, whereupon the positrons and antiprotons in the antiatoms annihilated. The antiproton annihilations produce easily detected signals; we used these signals to prove that we trapped antihydrogen. However, our technique could be confounded by mirror-trapped antiprotons, which would produce seemingly-identical annihilation signals upon hitting the trap wall. In this paper, we discuss possible sources of mirror-trapped antiprotons and show that antihydrogen and antiprotons can be readily distinguished, often with the aid of applied electric fields, by analyzing the annihilation locations and times. We further discuss the general properties of antipr...

  8. Propylthiouracil Attenuates Experimental Pulmonary Hypertension via Suppression of Pen-2, a Key Component of Gamma-Secretase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ying-Ju; Chang, Gwo-Jyh; Yeh, Yung-Hsin; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Huang, Chung-Chi; Chen, Wei-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-secretase-mediated Notch3 signaling is involved in smooth muscle cell (SMC) hyper-activity and proliferation leading to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). In addition, Propylthiouracil (PTU), beyond its anti-thyroid action, has suppressive effects on atherosclerosis and PAH. Here, we investigated the possible involvement of gamma-secretase-mediated Notch3 signaling in PTU-inhibited PAH. In rats with monocrotaline-induced PAH, PTU therapy improved pulmonary arterial hypertrophy and hemodynamics. In vitro, treatment of PASMCs from monocrotaline-treated rats with PTU inhibited their proliferation and migration. Immunocyto, histochemistry, and western blot showed that PTU treatment attenuated the activation of Notch3 signaling in PASMCs from monocrotaline-treated rats, which was mediated via inhibition of gamma-secretase expression especially its presenilin enhancer 2 (Pen-2) subunit. Furthermore, over-expression of Pen-2 in PASMCs from control rats increased the capacity of migration, whereas knockdown of Pen-2 with its respective siRNA in PASMCs from monocrotaline-treated rats had an opposite effect. Transfection of PASMCs from monocrotaline-treated rats with Pen-2 siRNA blocked the inhibitory effect of PTU on PASMC proliferation and migration, reflecting the crucial role of Pen-2 in PTU effect. We present a novel cell-signaling paradigm in which overexpression of Pen-2 is essential for experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension to promote motility and growth of smooth muscle cells. Propylthiouracil attenuates experimental PAH via suppression of the gamma-secretase-mediated Notch3 signaling especially its presenilin enhancer 2 (Pen-2) subunit. These findings provide a deep insight into the pathogenesis of PAH and a novel therapeutic strategy.

  9. Propylthiouracil Attenuates Experimental Pulmonary Hypertension via Suppression of Pen-2, a Key Component of Gamma-Secretase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Ju Lai

    Full Text Available Gamma-secretase-mediated Notch3 signaling is involved in smooth muscle cell (SMC hyper-activity and proliferation leading to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. In addition, Propylthiouracil (PTU, beyond its anti-thyroid action, has suppressive effects on atherosclerosis and PAH. Here, we investigated the possible involvement of gamma-secretase-mediated Notch3 signaling in PTU-inhibited PAH. In rats with monocrotaline-induced PAH, PTU therapy improved pulmonary arterial hypertrophy and hemodynamics. In vitro, treatment of PASMCs from monocrotaline-treated rats with PTU inhibited their proliferation and migration. Immunocyto, histochemistry, and western blot showed that PTU treatment attenuated the activation of Notch3 signaling in PASMCs from monocrotaline-treated rats, which was mediated via inhibition of gamma-secretase expression especially its presenilin enhancer 2 (Pen-2 subunit. Furthermore, over-expression of Pen-2 in PASMCs from control rats increased the capacity of migration, whereas knockdown of Pen-2 with its respective siRNA in PASMCs from monocrotaline-treated rats had an opposite effect. Transfection of PASMCs from monocrotaline-treated rats with Pen-2 siRNA blocked the inhibitory effect of PTU on PASMC proliferation and migration, reflecting the crucial role of Pen-2 in PTU effect. We present a novel cell-signaling paradigm in which overexpression of Pen-2 is essential for experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension to promote motility and growth of smooth muscle cells. Propylthiouracil attenuates experimental PAH via suppression of the gamma-secretase-mediated Notch3 signaling especially its presenilin enhancer 2 (Pen-2 subunit. These findings provide a deep insight into the pathogenesis of PAH and a novel therapeutic strategy.

  10. Bose condensation in (random traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Zagrebnov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a non-interacting (perfect Bose-gas in random external potentials (traps. It is shown that a generalized Bose-Einstein condensation in the random eigenstates manifests if and only if the same occurs in the one-particle kinetic-energy eigenstates, which corresponds to the generalized condensation of the free Bose-gas. Moreover, we prove that the amounts of both condensate densities are equal. This statement is relevant for justification of the Bogoliubov approximation} in the theory of disordered boson systems.

  11. English for Academic Purposes through Canadian Literature and History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lynne; O'Brien, Trudy

    1979-01-01

    Describes a program designed to improve English skills in university students learning English as a second language through a Canadian literature and history component. Reading lists are appended. (AM)

  12. Interpreting Critical Resource Issues in US and Canadian National Parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, Michael E.

    1995-01-01

    A wide range of examples gathered in U.S. and Canadian national park service areas during several years of field study reinforce the value of matching issues and messages with interpretive techniques and audiences. (LZ)

  13. Canadian advanced life support capacities and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamsey, M.; Graham, T.; Stasiak, M.; Berinstain, A.; Scott, A.; Vuk, T. Rondeau; Dixon, M.

    2009-07-01

    Canada began research on space-relevant biological life support systems in the early 1990s. Since that time Canadian capabilities have grown tremendously, placing Canada among the emerging leaders in biological life support systems. The rapid growth of Canadian expertise has been the result of several factors including a large and technically sophisticated greenhouse sector which successfully operates under challenging climatic conditions, well planned technology transfer strategies between the academic and industrial sectors, and a strong emphasis on international research collaborations. Recent activities such as Canada's contribution of the Higher Plant Compartment of the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant and the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic continue to demonstrate Canadian capabilities with direct applicability to advanced life support systems. There is also a significant latent potential within Canadian institutions and organizations with respect to directly applicable advanced life support technologies. These directly applicable research interests include such areas as horticultural management strategies (for candidate crops), growth media, food processing, water management, atmosphere management, energy management, waste management, imaging, environment sensors, thermal control, lighting systems, robotics, command and data handling, communications systems, structures, in-situ resource utilization, space analogues and mission operations. With this background and in collaboration with the Canadian aerospace industry sector, a roadmap for future life support contributions is presented here. This roadmap targets an objective of at least 50% food closure by 2050 (providing greater closure in oxygen, water recycling and carbon dioxide uptake). The Canadian advanced life support community has chosen to focus on lunar surface infrastructure and not low Earth orbit or transit systems (i.e. microgravity

  14. Cold-water coral growth and mound formation on the Pen Duick Escarpment, Gulf of Cadiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mienis, Furu; de Stigter, Henko C.; de Haas, Henk; Groot, Diane; Frank, Norbert; van Weering, Tjeerd C. E.

    2010-05-01

    Abundant skeletal remains of cold-water corals in sediments around the Pen Duick Escarpment, southern Gulf of Cadiz, suggest that corals thrived in the area in a relatively recent past. Cold-water coral carbonate mounds with heights of up to 60 m are found at about 550 m water depth on the edge of an elevation delimited by the Pen Duick Escarpment. Coral debris is abundantly present in the sediment on the carbonate mounds as well as on the escarpment, with Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata as most common species. However, living coral is rare, and a mud drape of a few cm to tens of cm thick is usually found covering the coral-bearing sediment. On and off mound sediment cores are presently investigated in detail to determine the timing of the decline of cold-water coral communities on the Pen Duick Escarpment. Planktonic foraminifera oxygen isotope stratigraphy and U/Th datings of coral debris from the on mound core show that the main framework building cold-water corals Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata were present on the mound during glacial periods (Marine Isotope Stage 2, 6 and 8) and the early Holocene, but absent during the late Holocene. During glacial periods a dense framework of cold-water corals existed and sedimentation rates were high. Both on and off mound cores show low magnetic susceptibility values until marine isotope stage 3, after which values are increasing. A large hiatus is found between 36 and 141 kyr. Our finding that cold-water corals on Pen Duick escarpment occurred mostly during glacial times contrasts with that of cold-water corals on the Rockall Trough margins and in the Porcupine Seabight, where they seem to have mainly lived during interglacials. The reason for the late Holocene decline of cold-water corals on Pen Duick escarpment is still a matter of speculation. Observations made with CTD and long-term deployment of benthic landers indicate activity of internal waves in the area with semi-diurnal periodicity, inducing

  15. Antioxidant activity of selected wild Canadian prairie fruits

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background. Canadian prairies are a habitat for unique wild plants. The main object of the present study was to investigate phytochemicals content and antioxidant activity in seven wild Canadian prairie fruits. Material and methods. The presence of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity were identified in the extracts according to standard procedure. Results. Wild rose had the highest amounts of total phenolics and total flavonoids, whereas ...

  16. The evolution of PAs in the Canadian Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Jonathan; Descoteaux, Marc

    2017-01-01

    This study documents the growing role of the physician assistant (PA) in the Canadian Armed Forces. PAs have served as the backbone of the Royal Canadian Medical Services' frontline medical operations since 1984, on land, aboard ships and submarines, and domestically in garrison. Candidates begin as medical technicians and receive advanced training to become PAs at midcareer. The current rank of PAs as warrant officers is evolving and a commissioned status is under consideration.

  17. "Complicated Bearers of Cultural Difference" : Canadian Magazines and Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    McKend, Heather

    2006-01-01

    Describes the history of Canadian policy on magazines, policy designed primarily to protect Canadian culture in a market heavily dominated by U.S. magazines. Canada's traditional strategy has been to consider magazines as a "cultural exception" to trade regulations. In 2005, Canada was the country first to ratify the UNESCO Convention supporting the protection of cultural diversity as a “sovereign responsibility.”

  18. Canadian Impressions Title: Impresiones canadienses Title: Impressions canadiennes

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

    2011-01-01

    Canadian Impressions pays tribute to Canada and Calgary, Alberta, home of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors of the Inter-American Development Bank. Twelve Canadian artists who were selected in an open call, present a total of 34 prints in various techniques from etching to monotype. Among the participating artists are: Briar Craig, Delio Delgado, René Derouin, Katie Fife, Joscelyn Gardner, Michel Gautier, Vanessa Hall-Patch, Miriam Rudolph, Tracy Lynn Templeton, Todd Treme, Os...

  19. Higher resolution helium measuring system for deuterium plasma on EAST tokamak via normal Penning gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houyin, Wang; Jiansheng, Hu; Yaowei, Yu; Bin, Cao; Jinhua, Wu; Guoqing, Shen; Zhao, Wan; EAST, Contributors

    2017-01-01

    Although the deuterium and helium have almost the same mass, a Penning Optical Gas Analyzer (POGA) system on the basis of the spectroscopic method and Penning discharging has been designed on EAST, since 2014. The POGA system was developed successfully in 2015, it was the first time that EAST could detect helium partial pressure in deuterium plasma (wall conditioning and plasma operation scenario). With dedicated calibration and proper adjustment of the parameters, the minimum concentration of helium in deuterium gas can be measured as about 0.5% instead of 1% on the other tokamak devices. Moreover, the He and D2 partial pressures are measured simultaneously. At present, the measurable range of deuterium partial pressure is 1 × 10-7 mbar to 1 × 10-5 mbar, meanwhile the range of helium is 1 × 10-8 mbar to 1 × 10-5 mbar. The measurable range can be modified by means of the adjustment of POGA system’s parameters. It is possible to detect the interesting part of the gas with a time resolution of less than 5 ms (the 200 ms because of conductance of transfer pipe at present). The POGA system was routinely employed to wall conditioning and helium enrichment investigation in 2015. Last but not the least, the low temperature plasma of POGA is generated by normal penning gauge Pfeiffer IKR gauge instead of Alcatel CF2P, which has been suspended for a few years and was used for almost all the POGA systems in the world.

  20. Performance of a dispersion model to estimate methane loss from cattle in pens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, S M; Beauchemin, K A; Flesch, T K; Coates, T

    2009-01-01

    Accurate measurements of enteric methane (CH(4)) emissions from cattle (Bos taurus) are necessary to improve emission coefficients used in national emissions inventories, and to evaluate mitigation strategies. Our study was conducted to evaluate a novel approach that allowed near continuous CH(4) measurement from beef cattle confined in pens. The backward Lagrangian Stochastic (bLS) dispersion technique was used in conjunction with global position system (GPS) information from individual animals, to evaluate CH(4) emissions from pens of cattle. The dispersion technique was compared to estimates of CH(4) production using the SF(6) tracer technique. Sixty growing beef cattle were fed a diet containing 60% barley silage (dry matter basis) supplemented with either barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain or corn (Zea mays L.) distillers dried grains. The results show that daily CH(4) emissions were about 7% lower for the dispersion technique than for the tracer technique (185 vs. 199 g CH(4) animal(-1) d(-1)). The precision of the dispersion technique, relative to the SF(6) tracer technique, expressed by the Pearson coefficient was 0.76; the relative accuracy given by the concordance coefficient was 0.69. The bLS dispersion technique was able to detect differences (P emissions ranging from 161 to 279 g CH(4) animal(-1) d(-1). Configuring the cattle as point sources resulted in more accurate CH(4) emissions than assuming a uniform area release from the pen surface. The results indicate that the bLS dispersion technique using cattle as point sources can be used to accurately measure enteric CH(4) from cattle and to evaluate the impact of dietary mitigation strategies.