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Sample records for canadian pediatric emergency

  1. Pediatric fractures – an educational needs assessment of Canadian pediatric emergency medicine residents

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    Dixon AC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Andrew C Dixon Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Objectives: To determine the gaps in knowledge of Canadian pediatric emergency medicine residents with regards to acute fracture identification and management. Due to their predominantly medical prior training, fractures may be an area of weakness requiring a specific curriculum to meet their needs. Methods: A questionnaire was developed examining comfort level and performance on knowledge based questions of trainees in the following areas: interpreting musculoskeletal X-rays; independently managing pediatric fractures, physical examination techniques, applied knowledge of fracture management, and normal development of the bony anatomy. Using modified Dillman technique the instrument was distributed to pediatric emergency medicine residents at seven Canadian sites. Results: Out of 43 potential respondents, 22 (51% responded. Of respondents, mean comfort with X-ray interpretation was 69 (62–76 95% confidence interval [CI] while mean comfort with fracture management was only 53 (45–63 95% CI; mean comfort with physical exam of shoulder 60 (53–68 95% CI and knee 69 (62–76 95% CI was low. Less than half of respondents (47%; 95% CI 26%–69% could accurately identify normal wrist development, correctly manage a supracondylar fracture (39%; 95% CI 20%–61%, or identify a medial epicondyle fracture (44%; 95% CI 24%–66%. Comfort with neurovascular status of the upper (mean 82; 95% CI 75–89 and lower limb (mean 81; 95% CI 74–87 was high. Interpretation: There are significant gaps in knowledge of physical exam techniques, fracture identification and management among pediatric emergency medicine trainees. A change in our current teaching methods is required to meet this need. Keywords: pediatric, fractures, education, radiologic interpretation

  2. Barriers and supports to implementation of MDI/spacer use in nine Canadian pediatric emergency departments: a qualitative study

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    Graham Ian D

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite recent research supporting the use of metered dose inhalers with spacer devices (MDI/spacers in pediatric emergency departments (PEDs for acute exacerbations of asthma, uptake of this practice has been slow. The objectives of this study were to determine the barriers and supports to implementing MDI/spacer research and to identify factors associated with early and late adoption of MDI/spacers in Canadian PEDs. Methods Using a comparative case study design, we classified nine tertiary care pediatric hospital PEDs based on their stage of implementation. Data were collected using focus group interviews with physicians, registered nurses (RNs, and respiratory therapists (RTs, and individual interviews with both patient care and medical directors at each site. Initial coding was based on the Ottawa Model of Research Use (OMRU categories of elements known to influence the uptake of innovations. Results One hundred and fifty healthcare professionals from nine different healthcare institutions participated in this study. Lack of leadership in the form of a research champion, a lack of consensus about the benefits of MDI/spacers among staff, perceived resistance from patients/parents, and perceived increased cost and workload associated with MDI/spacer use were the most prevalent barriers to the adoption of the MDI/spacer. Common strategies used by early-adopting sites included the active participation of all professional groups in the adoption process in addition to a well-planned and executed educational component for staff, patients, and families. Early adopter sites were also more likely to have the MDI/spacer included in a clinical protocol/pathway. Conclusion Potential barriers and supports to implementation have been identified that will help EDs adopt MDI/spacer use. Future interventions intended to increase MDI/spacer use in PEDs will need to be sensitive to the barriers identified in this study.

  3. Pediatric emergencies.

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    McMichael, Maureen

    2005-03-01

    The unique anatomic and physiologic characteristics of neonatal and pediatric patients make diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment a challenge. Adult parameters cannot be relied on in these patients, and an awareness of these unique characteristics is essential for any practitioner with a neonatal and pediatric patient base. In addition, many laboratory and pharmacologic data differ dramatically in neonates compared with adults of the same species. Familiarity with these variations is essential in the monitoring and treatment of the neonatal and pediatric illness, such as hypovolemia, shock, and sepsis.

  4. Pediatric ocular emergencies.

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    Hamilton, H L

    1999-07-01

    There are few ocular emergencies that are unique to the pediatric patient. Most ocular emergencies are traumatic in origin, and the prognosis is often determined by the extent of the injury. Some congenital anomalies that may present as ocular emergencies are also discussed. The focus of this article is recognition and initial therapy for the more common pediatric ocular emergencies.

  5. Abdominal emergencies in pediatrics.

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    Coca Robinot, D; Liébana de Rojas, C; Aguirre Pascual, E

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal symptoms are among the most common reasons for pediatric emergency department visits, and abdominal pain is the most frequently reported symptom. Thorough history taking and physical examination can often reach the correct diagnosis. Knowing the abdominal conditions that are most common in each age group can help radiologists narrow the differential diagnosis. When imaging tests are indicated, ultrasonography is usually the first-line technique, enabling the diagnosis or adding relevant information with the well-known advantages of this technique. Nowadays, plain-film X-ray studies are reserved for cases in which perforation, bowel obstruction, or foreign body ingestion is suspected. It is also important to remember that abdominal pain can also occur secondary to basal pneumonia. CT is reserved for specific indications and in individual cases, for example, in patients with high clinical suspicion of abdominal disease and inconclusive findings at ultrasonography. We review some of the most common conditions in pediatric emergencies, the different imaging tests indicated in each case, and the imaging signs in each condition. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Canadian pediatric gastroenterology workforce: Current status, concerns and future projections

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    Morinville, Véronique; Drouin, Éric; Lévesque, Dominique; Espinosa, Victor M; Jacobson, Kevan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is concern that the Canadian pediatric gastroenterology workforce is inadequate to meet health care demands of the pediatric population. The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Pediatric Committee performed a survey to determine characteristics and future plans of the Canadian pediatric gastroenterology workforce and trainees. METHODS: Estimates of total and pediatric populations were obtained from the 2001 Census of Population, Statistics Canada (with estimates to July 1, 2005). Data on Canadian pediatric gastroenterologists, including clinical full-time equivalents, sex, work interests, opinions on workforce adequacy, retirement plans, fellowship training programs and future employment plans of fellows, were gathered through e-mail surveys and telephone correspondence in 2005 and 2006. RESULTS: Canada had an estimated population of 32,270,507 in 2005 (6,967,853 people aged zero to 17 years). The pediatric gastroenterology workforce was estimated at 9.2 specialists per million children. Women accounted for 50% of the workforce. Physician to pediatric population ratios varied, with Alberta demonstrating the highest and Saskatchewan the lowest ratios (1:69,404 versus 1:240,950, respectively). Between 1998 and 2005, Canadian pediatric gastroenterology fellowship programs trained 65 fellows (65% international trainees). Twenty-two fellows (34%) entered the Canadian workforce. CONCLUSIONS: The survey highlights the variable and overall low numbers of pediatric gastroenterologists across Canada, an increasingly female workforce, a greater percentage of part-time physicians and a small cohort of Canadian trainees. In conjunction with high projected retirement rates, greater demands on the work-force and desires to partake in nonclinical activities, there is concern for an increasing shortage of pediatric gastroenterologists in Canada in future years. PMID:17948136

  7. Anaphylaxis across two Canadian pediatric centers: evaluating management disparities

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    Lee AYM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Alison YM Lee,1 Paul Enarson,2 Ann E Clarke,3 Sébastien La Vieille,4 Harley Eisman,5,6 Edmond S Chan,7 Christopher Mill,7 Lawrence Joseph,8 Moshe Ben-Shoshan9 1Pediatric Residency Program, Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, BC Children’s Hospital, 2Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, 3Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, 4Food Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON, 5Emergency Department, 6Department of Pediatrics, Montreal Children’s Hospital, Montreal, QC, 7Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, BC Children’s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, 8Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McGill University, 9Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Montreal Children’s Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada Background: There are no data on the percentage of visits due to anaphylaxis in the emergency department (ED, triggers, and management of anaphylaxis across different provinces in Canada. Objective: To compare the percentage of anaphylaxis cases among all ED visits, as well as the triggers and management of anaphylaxis between two Canadian pediatric EDs (PEDs. Methods: As part of the Cross-Canada Anaphylaxis Registry (C-CARE, children presenting to the British Columbia Children’s Hospital (BCCH and Montreal Children’s Hospital (MCH EDs with anaphylaxis were recruited. Characteristics, triggers, and management of anaphylaxis were documented using a standardized data entry form. Differences in demographics, triggers, and management were determined by comparing the difference of proportions and 95% confidence interval. Results: Between June 2014 and June 2016, there were 346 visits due to anaphylaxis among 93,730 PED visits at the BCCH ED and 631 anaphylaxis visits among 164,669 pediatric visits at

  8. Caring in pediatric emergency nursing.

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    Gillespie, Gordon Lee; Hounchell, Melanie; Pettinichi, Jeanne; Mattei, Jennifer; Rose, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    An environment committed to providing family-centered care to children must be aware of the nurse caring behaviors important to parents of children. This descriptive study assessed the psychometrics of a revised version of the Caring Behaviors Assessment (CBA) and examined nurse caring behaviors identified as important to the parents of pediatric patients in a pediatric emergency department. Jean Watson's theory of human caring provided the study's theoretical underpinnings. The instrument psychometrics was determined through an index of content validity (CVI) and internal consistency reliability. The instrument was determined to be valid (CVI = 3.75) and reliable (Cronbach's alpha = .971). The revised instrument was completed by a stratified, systematic random sample of 300 parents of pediatric emergency patients. Participants rated the importance of each item for making the child feel cared for by nurses. Individual survey item means were computed. Items with the highest means represented the most important nurse caring behaviors. Leading nurse caring behaviors centered on carative factors of "human needs assistance" and "sensitivity to self and others." Nearly all nurse caring behaviors were important to the parents of pediatric patients, although some behaviors were not priority. It is important for nurses to provide family-centered care in a way that demonstrates nurse caring.

  9. Frequent users of the pediatric emergency department.

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    Seguin, Jade; Osmanlliu, Esli; Zhang, Xun; Clavel, Virginie; Eisman, Harley; Rodrigues, Robert; Oskoui, Maryam

    2017-04-06

    Emergency department (ED) crowding is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Its etiology is multifactorial, and frequent ED use (defined as more or equal to five visits per year) is a major contributor to high patient volumes. Our primary objective is to characterize the frequent user population. Our secondary objective is to examine risk factors for frequent emergency use. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pediatric emergency department (PED) visits at the Montreal Children's Hospital using the Système Informatique Urgence (SIURGE), electronic medical record database. We analysed the relation between patient's characteristics and the number of PED visits over a 1-year period following the index visit. Patients totalling 52,088 accounted for 94,155 visits. Of those, 2,474 (4.7%) patients had five and more recurrent visits and accounted for 16.6% (15,612 visits) of the total PED visits. Lower level of acuity at index visit (odds ratio [OR] 0.85) was associated with a lower number of recurrent visits. Lower socioeconomic status (social deprivation index OR 1.09, material deprivation index OR 1.08) was associated with a higher number of recurrent visits. Asthma (OR 1.57); infectious ear, nose, and sinus disorders (OR 1.33); and other respiratory disorders (OR 1.56) were independently associated with a higher incidence of a recurrent visit within the year following the first visit. Our study is the first Canadian study to assess risk factors of frequent pediatric emergency use. The identified risk factors and diagnoses highlight the need for future evidence-based, targeted innovative research evaluating strategies to minimize ED crowding, to improve health outcomes and to improve patient satisfaction.

  10. Regionalization of pediatric emergency care in Korea

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    Do Kyun Kim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to care for an ill or injured child, it is crucial that every emergency department (ED has a minimum set of personnel and resources because the majority of children are brought to the geographically nearest ED. In addition to adequate preparation for basic pediatric emergency care, a comprehensive, specialized healthcare system should be in place for a critically-ill or injured victim. Regionalization of healthcare means a system providing high-quality and cost-effective care for victims who present with alow frequency, but critical condition, such as multiple trauma or cardiac arrest. Within the pediatric field, neonatal intensive care and pediatric trauma care are good examples of regionalization. For successful regionalized pediatric emergency care, all aspects of a pediatric emergency system, from pre-hospital field to hospital care, should be categorized and coordinated. Efforts to set up the pediatric emergency care regionalization program based on a nationwide healthcare system are urgently needed in Korea.

  11. Experience with emergency ultrasound training by Canadian emergency medicine residents.

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    Kim, Daniel J; Theoret, Jonathan; Liao, Michael M; Kendall, John L

    2014-05-01

    Starting in 2008, emergency ultrasound (EUS) was introduced as a core competency to the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (Royal College) emergency medicine (EM) training standards. The Royal College accredits postgraduate EM specialty training in Canada through 5-year residency programs. The objective of this study is to describe both the current experience with and the perceptions of EUS by Canadian Royal College EM senior residents. This was a web-based survey conducted from January to March 2011 of all 39 Canadian Royal College postgraduate fifth-year (PGY-5) EM residents. Main outcome measures were characteristics of EUS training and perceptions of EUS. Survey response rate was 95% (37/39). EUS was part of the formal residency curriculum for 86% of respondents (32/37). Residents most commonly received training in focused assessment with sonography for trauma, intrauterine pregnancy, abdominal aortic aneurysm, cardiac, and procedural guidance. Although the most commonly provided instructional material (86% [32/37]) was an ultrasound course, 73% (27/37) of residents used educational resources outside of residency training to supplement their ultrasound knowledge. Most residents (95% [35/37]) made clinical decisions and patient dispositions based on their EUS interpretation without a consultative study by radiology. Residents had very favorable perceptions and opinions of EUS. EUS training in Royal College EM programs was prevalent and perceived favorably by residents, but there was heterogeneity in resident training and practice of EUS. This suggests variability in both the level and quality of EUS training in Canadian Royal College EM residency programs. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(3):306-311.].

  12. Bedside ultrasound in pediatric emergency medicine.

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    Levy, Jason A; Noble, Vicki E

    2008-05-01

    Bedside emergency ultrasound has been used by emergency physicians for >20 years for a variety of conditions. In adult centers, emergency ultrasound is routinely used in the management of victims of blunt abdominal trauma, in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and biliary disease, and in women with first-trimester pregnancy complications. Although its use has grown dramatically in the last decade in adult emergency departments, only recently has this tool been embraced by pediatric emergency physicians. As the modality advances and becomes more available, it will be important for primary care pediatricians to understand its uses and limitations and to ensure that pediatric emergency physicians have access to the proper training, equipment, and experience. This article is meant to review the current literature relating to emergency ultrasound in pediatric emergency medicine, as well as to describe potential pediatric applications.

  13. Canadian Pediatric Weight Management Registry (CANPWR): baseline descriptive statistics and comparison to Canadian norms.

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    Tremblay, Mark S; Feng, Min; Garriguet, Didier; Ball, Geoff D C; Buchholz, Annick; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre; Lambert, Marie; Morrison, Katherine M

    2015-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of establishing a multi-site CANadian Pediatric Weight management Registry (CANPWR) containing individual, family and weight management program information. Standardized baseline data were collected to characterize CANPWR participants (n = 310) in comparison to a sample of age-matched Canadian children measured in the nationally representative Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS; n = 3,788). This study compared demographic, anthropometric, cardiometabolic and lifestyle characteristics of participants (aged 6-17 years) in the CANPWR pilot study with those from the CHMS. Compared to CHMS respondents, CANPWR participants had higher BMI z-score, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and fasting glucose, and lower HDL cholesterol. They reported lower sugared drink consumption, were more likely to be non-white and had parents with lower education. The CANPWR cohort represents a group that has biological and behavioral profiles that place them at increased health risk and who differ significantly from typical Canadians of the same age.

  14. Environmental pediatrics: an emerging issue.

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    Valenzuela, Patricia M; Matus, M Soledad; Araya, Gabriela I; Paris, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    To review the most relevant articles regarding environmental pediatrics, its potential effects on health, and especially its advances in prevention. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE/PubMed and SciELO databases. Articles from 1990 to 2010 were reviewed, in addition to book chapters related to environmental pediatrics. There is a significant variety of factors that make children highly vulnerable to environmental hazard exposure, which are mainly associated with children's comparatively greater consumption of water, food, and air in relation to body weight. According to the World Health Organization, every year more than 3 million children under the age of 5 die because of environment-related conditions. Approximately 30 to 40% of pediatric diseases are related to environmental factors. Children are constantly exposed to various environmental health hazards, among which the following stand out: contaminated water, lack of adequate sanitation facilities, air pollution, disease vectors, chemical hazards, injuries, and accidents. Nowadays, pediatricians are challenged to address environmental pediatrics health care needs. The pediatric health history needs to be more comprehensive by adding pointed questions to help identify potential environmental risks. Awareness and understanding of the noxious effects of various environmental conditions and knowledge of the related prevention measures will result in timely and adequate interventions that will improve our children's health and development.

  15. An Environmental Scan of Academic Emergency Medicine at the 17 Canadian Medical Schools: Why Does this Matter to Emergency Physicians?

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    Stiell, Ian G; Artz, Jennifer D; Lang, Eddy S; Sherbino, Jonathan; Morrison, Laurie J; Christenson, James; Perry, Jeffrey J; Topping, Claude; Woods, Robert; Green, Robert S; Lim, Rodrick; Magee, Kirk; Foote, John; Meckler, Garth; Mensour, Mark; Field, Simon; Chung, Brian; Kuuskne, Martin; Ducharme, James; Klein, Vera; McEwen, Jill

    2017-01-01

    We sought to conduct a major objective of the CAEP Academic Section, an environmental scan of the academic emergency medicine programs across the 17 Canadian medical schools. We developed an 84-question questionnaire, which was distributed to academic heads. The responses were validated by phone by the lead author to ensure that the questions were answered completely and consistently. Details of pediatric emergency medicine units were excluded from the scan. At eight of 17 universities, emergency medicine has full departmental status and at two it has no official academic status. Canadian academic emergency medicine is practiced at 46 major teaching hospitals and 13 specialized pediatric hospitals. Another 69 Canadian hospital EDs regularly take clinical clerks and emergency medicine residents. There are 31 full professors of emergency medicine in Canada. Teaching programs are strong with clerkships offered at 16/17 universities, CCFP(EM) programs at 17/17, and RCPSC residency programs at 14/17. Fourteen sites have at least one physician with a Master's degree in education. There are 55 clinical researchers with salary support at 13 universities. Sixteen sites have published peer-reviewed papers in the past five years, ranging from four to 235 per site. Annual budgets range from $200,000 to $5,900,000. This comprehensive review of academic activities in emergency medicine across Canada identifies areas of strengths as well as opportunities for improvement. CAEP and the Academic Section hope we can ultimately improve ED patient care by sharing best academic practices and becoming better teachers, educators, and researchers.

  16. Burnout Rates in Pediatric Emergency Medicine Physicians.

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    Patterson, Jasmine; Gardner, Alison

    2017-12-01

    Burnout is a syndrome in which a reduced sense of personal accomplishment, depersonalization, and emotional exhaustion develop in response to prolonged stress. It is well known that physicians suffer high rates of burnout; emergency medicine physicians experience significantly increased rates of burnout, whereas physicians in other specialties, like pediatrics, may be spared. Pediatric emergency medicine physicians are on the frontline of care for the critically ill child, which could put them at high risk for burnout. This study evaluates the rate of burnout in pediatric emergency medicine physicians. We conducted a survey assessing burnout using a sample of pediatric emergency medicine physicians who subscribe to an open Listserv server maintained by Brown University. Burnout was measured using a validated instrument, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey, which was distributed by e-mail to the study group. Respondents averaged a score of 9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 8-10), 23 (95% CI, 21-25), and 39 (95% CI, 38-40) in the subscales of depersonalization, emotional exhaustion, and personal accomplishment, respectively. This placed our cohort into the average range for all subscales. The percentage of respondents who scored in the high levels of burnout (moderate to high scores in both depersonalization and emotional exhaustion and low to moderate scores in personal accomplishment) was 25% (95% CI, 18-32). Unlike previous literature showing burnout prevalence in excess of 60% in emergency medicine physicians and 38% in pediatricians, our pediatric emergency medicine physicians fared better with only 25% (95% CI, 18-32), showing elevated levels of burnout.

  17. Molecular characterization of rotavirus isolates from select Canadian pediatric hospitals

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    McDermid Andrew

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report the first multi-site rotavirus genotype analysis in Canada. Prior to this study, there was a dearth of rotavirus G and P genotyping data in Canada. Publically funded universal rotavirus vaccination in Canada started in 2011 and has been introduced by four provinces to date. Uptake of rotavirus vaccines in Canada prior to 2012 has been very limited. The aim of this study was to describe the genotypes of rotavirus strains circulating in Canada prior to widespread implementation of rotavirus vaccine by genotyping samples collected from selected paediatric hospitals. Secondly we identified rotavirus strains that differed genetically from those included in the vaccines and which could affect vaccine effectiveness. Methods Stool specimens were collected by opportunity sampling of children with gastroenteritis who presented to emergency departments. Samples were genotyped for G (VP7 genotypes and P (VP4 genotypes by hemi-nested multiplex PCR methods. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out on Canadian G9 strains to investigate their relationship to G9 strains that have circulated in other regions of the world. Results 348 samples were collected, of which 259 samples were rotavirus positive and genotyped. There were 34 rotavirus antigen immunoassay negative samples genotyped using PCR-based methods. Over the four rotavirus seasons, 174 samples were G1P[8], 45 were G3P[8], 22 were G2P[4], 13 were G9P[8], 3 were G4P[8] and 2 were G9P[4]. Sequence analysis showed that all Canadian G9 isolates are within lineage III. Conclusions Although a limited number of samples were obtained from a median of 4 centres during the 4 years of the study, it appears that currently approved rotavirus vaccines are well matched to the rotavirus genotypes identified at these hospitals. Further surveillance to monitor the emergence of rotavirus genotypes in Canada is warranted.

  18. Molecular characterization of rotavirus isolates from select Canadian pediatric hospitals

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    2012-01-01

    Background We report the first multi-site rotavirus genotype analysis in Canada. Prior to this study, there was a dearth of rotavirus G and P genotyping data in Canada. Publically funded universal rotavirus vaccination in Canada started in 2011 and has been introduced by four provinces to date. Uptake of rotavirus vaccines in Canada prior to 2012 has been very limited. The aim of this study was to describe the genotypes of rotavirus strains circulating in Canada prior to widespread implementation of rotavirus vaccine by genotyping samples collected from selected paediatric hospitals. Secondly we identified rotavirus strains that differed genetically from those included in the vaccines and which could affect vaccine effectiveness. Methods Stool specimens were collected by opportunity sampling of children with gastroenteritis who presented to emergency departments. Samples were genotyped for G (VP7) genotypes and P (VP4) genotypes by hemi-nested multiplex PCR methods. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out on Canadian G9 strains to investigate their relationship to G9 strains that have circulated in other regions of the world. Results 348 samples were collected, of which 259 samples were rotavirus positive and genotyped. There were 34 rotavirus antigen immunoassay negative samples genotyped using PCR-based methods. Over the four rotavirus seasons, 174 samples were G1P[8], 45 were G3P[8], 22 were G2P[4], 13 were G9P[8], 3 were G4P[8] and 2 were G9P[4]. Sequence analysis showed that all Canadian G9 isolates are within lineage III. Conclusions Although a limited number of samples were obtained from a median of 4 centres during the 4 years of the study, it appears that currently approved rotavirus vaccines are well matched to the rotavirus genotypes identified at these hospitals. Further surveillance to monitor the emergence of rotavirus genotypes in Canada is warranted. PMID:23153184

  19. Managed care and the pediatric emergency department.

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    Hodge, D

    1999-12-01

    The growth of managed care has provided health benefits to millions of children while attempting to control the increase in health care costs. In adhering to these goals, MCOs are often at odds with emergency departments, and the emergency department physicians providing emergency care. The appropriateness or inappropriateness of emergency department visits can be disputed, but no criteria have been established. Even the definition of emergency is debated, although many states are adopting a prudent layperson standard. Emergency medicine physicians, primary care providers, and MCOs must cooperate to fully educate parents about the appropriate use of pediatric emergency services. Patients and MCOs should use facilities that can deliver pediatric emergency and critical care or provide appropriate transport systems to facilities that can. COBRA and EMTALA set the legal requirements to which emergency departments must comply when patients present for care. The basic caveats under COBRA require a medical screening examination for every patient and the stabilization of all patients with emergency medical conditions before inquiring about insurance or patients' ability to pay. A part of gatekeeping, MCOs often require authorization for treatment. MCOs authorize payment only. Evaluation and emergency treatment should not be withheld pending authorization. After the medical screening examination, recommended treatment should be in patients' best interests. All patients with potentially life-threatening conditions should be stabilized before transport, and all transfers must comply with the EMTALA. The transfer of unstable patients purely for economic reasons is a violation of the EMTALA. When stable, patients may be transferred to other facilities, but patients requiring specialty care should be taken to facilities best able to provide that care. Financial considerations should be superseded by medical necessity. Finally, improvements can be made in the way emergency

  20. Reduction of pediatric emergency hospital admissions by a change in pediatric emergency department policy

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    Marzouq A Alazmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reduction in admissions is an important aim of emergency department working policy to overcome the problems of a shortage of inpatient beds, rising costs and exhausted resources. A new policy was instituted in the pediatric emergency department (PED of a hospital in Kuwait with the following components: (1 assigning senior doctor staff (2 implementation of new disease management guidelines; and (3 maximizing the use of the pediatric emergency department observation unit. Objective: to evaluate the effect of change in our policy on the admission rate. Materials and Methods: The effects of this policy on reduction of admission rates for total pediatric admissions and for some selected common pediatric conditions were prospectively studied over a period of 3 years from institution of the policy and compared with the 3-year period before the policy was instituted. Results: There was a significant reduction in admission rates after institution of the new policy. The proportion of hospital admissions to PED observation unit cases was significantly reduced as a whole from 64.9% ± 5.1% to 33.2 ± 0.6% and also for the common pediatric problems studied. Conclusion: A multidisciplinary pediatric emergency department policy, using as much available evidence as possible, was successful in significantly reducing pediatric hospital admissions.

  1. Medical Emergencies in Pediatric Dentistry.

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    Vranić, Dubravka Negovetić; Jurković, Josipa; Jeličić, Jesenka; Balenović, Antonija; Stipančić, Gordana; Čuković-Bagić, Ivana

    2016-03-01

    Medical emergencies that are life threatening can occur in dental practice. Complications may arise because of an underlying disease or a reaction to medication. Reactions to medications may be allergic and toxic. The most common reactions are toxic reactions to local anesthetics, whereas allergies occur mainly as a consequence of the application of antibiotics, usually penicillin. In response to stress, vasovagal syncope typically occurs. Other causes may be related to an underlying disease-specific pathology (such as acute asthma attack, diabetic ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia, or seizures) or accidents (aspiration of a foreign body causing obstruction of the respiratory system). For all the above conditions, guidelines have been established that need to be known. If complications occur or necessary measures are not taken, it can lead to cardiac and respiratory arrest. Therefore, cardiopulmonary resuscitation is needed. All procedures and dosages should be adapted to the age of the child.

  2. Development of the Canadian Emergency Department Diagnosis Shortlist.

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    Unger, Bernard; Afilalo, Marc; Boivin, Jean François; Bullard, Michael; Grafstein, Eric; Schull, Michael; Lang, Eddy; Colacone, Antoinette; Soucy, Nathalie; Xue, Xiaoqing; Segal, Eli

    2010-07-01

    Managers of emergency departments (EDs), governments and researchers would benefit from reliable data sets that characterize use of EDs. Although Canadian ED lists for chief complaints and triage acuity exist, no such list exists for diagnosis classification. This study was aimed at developing a standardized Canadian Emergency Department Diagnosis Shortlist (CED-DxS), as a subset of the full International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, with Canadian Enhancement (ICD-10-CA). Emergency physicians from across Canada participated in the revision of the ICD-10-CA through 2 rounds of the modified Delphi method. We randomly assigned chapters from the ICD-10-CA (approximately 3000 diagnoses) to reviewers, who rated the importance of including each diagnosis in the ED-specific diagnosis list. If 80% or more of the reviewers agreed on the importance of a diagnosis, it was retained for the final revision. The retained diagnoses were further aggregated and adjusted, thus creating the CED-DxS. Of the 83 reviewers, 76% were emergency medicine (EM)-trained physicians with an average of 12 years of experience in EM, and 92% were affiliated with a university teaching hospital. The modified Delphi process and further adjustments resulted in the creation of the CED-DxS, containing 837 items. The chapter with the largest number of retained diagnoses was injury and poisoning (n = 292), followed by gastrointestinal (n = 59), musculoskeletal (n = 55) and infectious disease (n = 42). Chapters with the lowest number retained were neoplasm (n = 18) and pregnancy (n = 12). We report the creation of the uniform CED-DxS, tailored for Canadian EDs. The addition of ED diagnoses to existing standardized parameters for the ED will contribute to homogeneity of data across the country.

  3. Tonometry methods in the pediatric emergency department.

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    Yamamoto, Loren G; Young, David A

    2010-09-01

    The measurement of intraocular pressure is perhaps the most important clinical parameter contributing to the diagnosis of glaucoma. This report describes the most commonly used methods of tonometry (to measure intraocular pressure). Considering the common options of Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT), Schiotz tonometry (ST), and Tono-Pen tonometry (TP), the TP is the easiest to use in the emergency department. It is subject to some degree of inaccuracy. In the pediatric emergency department, a child with a painful eye is likely to require deep sedation to achieve an accurate measurement.

  4. The Performance of the Pediatric Trauma Score in a Pediatric Emergency Department: A Prospective Study

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    Murat Anıl; Serdar Sarıtaş; Yüksel Bıcılıoğlu; Gamze Gökalp; Fulya Kamit Can; Ayşe Berna Anıl

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the Pediatric Trauma Score (PTS) in predicting significant trauma in patients presenting with blunt trauma to a high-level pediatric emergency department. Methods: Patients younger than 15 years of age presenting to the pediatric emergency department of the Tepecik Training and Research Hospital with acute high-energy blunt trauma were analyzed prospectively. The PTS was calculated on arrival at the pediatric emergency depar...

  5. Stroke Education in Canadian Emergency Medicine Residency Programs.

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    Harris, Devin R; Teal, Philip; Turton, Matthew; Lahiffe, Brian; Pulfrey, Simon

    2016-07-01

    Stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) are common disorders treated by Canadian emergency physicians. The diagnosis and management of these conditions is time-sensitive and complex, requiring that emergency physicians have adequate training. This study sought to determine the extent of stroke and TIA training in Canadian emergency medicine residency programs. A two-page survey was emailed to directors of all English-speaking emergency medicine residency programs in Canada. This included both the Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Canada (FRCPC) and the College of Family Physicians Enhanced Training [CCFP(EM)] residency programs. The number of mandatory and elective rotations, lectures, and examinations relevant to stroke and TIA were assessed. Nine FRCPC programs responded (of 11; RR=82%) and 11 CCFP(EM) programs responded (of 18; RR=61%), representing 20 of 29 programs in Canada (RR: 20/29=69%). Mandatory general neurology (3/9) and stroke neurology (2/9) rotations were offered in a minority of FRCPC programs and not at all in CCFP(EM) programs (0/11). Neuroradiology rotations were mandatory in 1/9 FRCPC programs and no CCFP(EM) programs (0/11). Acute ischemic stroke was allocated 3 hours of lecture time per year in all residency programs, regardless of route of training. Despite the fact that 100% of respondents train residents in facilities that administer thrombolysis for stroke, only 1/11 (9%) CCFP(EM) programs and 0/9 FRCPC programs have residents act as stroke team leaders. Formal training in stroke and TIA is limited in Canadian emergency medicine residency programs. Enhanced training opportunities should be developed as this disease is sudden, life-threatening, and can have disabling or fatal consequences, and therapeutic options are time sensitive.

  6. [Headache in a pediatric emergency department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, A; Mangini, S; Salvati, P; Celle, M E; Di Pietro, P

    2008-01-01

    Headache, a very frequent symptom in pediatrics, can severely affect the child and his family's life quality, representing an important reason of access to a Pediatric Emergency Department. From a clinical point of view, it is useful to subdivide headaches in primary and secondary ones. As far as the primary ones are concerned, the common migraine without aura is recognised as the most frequent in the child, while the most recurrent among the second ones are due to infective processes, and they represent 57% of the patients admitted to ED for headache with acute onset. We analyzed data collected from June 2000 to December 2006, at the Pediatric Emergency Department of Institute "G. Gaslini" Genoa, concerning the admissions of patients with headache, with particular attention to the necessity of coming up with a clinical and diagnostical path. During the study, there have been 228.255 admissions, 2.214 of which with a diagnosis of discharge from ED of headache (55% males, 45% females). After triage, 14,3% has been evaluated as white code, 74,3% as green one, 10,8% as yellow one and 0,6% as red code. Final outcome of these patients has been hospitalization for 38%, OBI for 8%, home or ambulatory control for 54%. The accesses to ED for headache are increasing. Better information of the family is needed, with coordination among territorial structures and clinic management in ED.

  7. Hurricane Andrew and a pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, B; Baker, R; Pratt, J

    1994-04-01

    To determine the effect of Hurricane Andrew on a pediatric emergency department. A retrospective analysis of ED visits through the use of computerized records and chart review. A children's hospital in South Florida. All patients presenting to the ED during the control week and the two study weeks after the hurricane. Census, diagnoses, admission rate, and patient geographic origin and age. During week 1, there was an average daily increase of 40.7% in patient volume (P hurricane, personnel in a pediatric ED can expect to see an increased census, with more diagnoses of open wounds, gastroenteritis, and skin infections. They may also see hydrocarbon and bleach ingestions. Alerting parents to the potential for injury and accidental poisoning in their children after a hurricane may help prevent the reported morbidity.

  8. Pediatric preparedness of US emergency departments: a 2003 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausche-Hill, Marianne; Schmitz, Charles; Lewis, Roger J

    2007-12-01

    Our goal was to assess the degree of pediatric preparedness of emergency departments in the United States. A closed-response survey based on the American Academy of Pediatrics/American College of Emergency Physicians joint policy statement, "Care of Children in the Emergency Department: Guidelines for Preparedness," was mailed to 5144 emergency department medical and nursing directors. A weighted preparedness score (scale of 0-100) was calculated for each emergency department. A total of 1489 useable surveys (29%) were received, with 62% completed by emergency department medical directors. Eighty-nine percent of pediatric (age: 0-14 years) emergency department visits occur in non-children's hospitals, 26% of visits occur in rural or remote facilities, and 75% of responding emergency departments see patients; 6% occur in a separate pediatric emergency department. Only 6% of emergency departments had all recommended equipment and supplies. Emergency departments frequently lacked laryngeal mask airways for children (50%) and neonatal or infant equipment. In contrast, recommended medications were more uniformly available, as were transfer policies for medical or surgical intensive care. Fifty-two percent of emergency departments reported having a quality improvement/performance improvement plan for pediatric emergency patients, and 59% of respondents were aware of the American Academy of Pediatrics/American College of Emergency Physicians guidelines. The median pediatric-preparedness score for all emergency departments was 55. Pediatric-preparedness scores were higher for facilities with higher pediatric volume, facilities with physician and nursing coordinators for pediatrics, and facilities with respondents who reported awareness of the guidelines. Pediatric preparedness of hospital emergency departments demonstrates opportunities for improvement.

  9. Emergency room visits for dental problems among working poor Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramraj, Chantel C; Quiñonez, Carlos R

    2013-01-01

    To explore the risk of visiting hospital emergency rooms (ERs) for dental problems not associated with trauma among a sample of working poor Canadians. Data stem from a telephone survey administered between March and August 2007 of working poor Canadians aged 18-64 years. Logistic regressions were employed to determine the predictors of reporting a visit to an ER for dental problems not associated with trauma. Approximately 6.1 percent of the sample reported visiting an ER in the past for a dental problem not associated with trauma. Those who were publicly insured, reported poor oral health, experienced a bed day due to dental pain, had dependent children, were lone parents, had competing needs, a history of receiving welfare, a history of an inability to afford dental care, and a perceived need for dental treatment were all more likely to have reported an ER visit. When adjusting for all variables, having experienced a bed day due to dental pain and a history of an inability to afford dental care were the dominant predictors of this outcome. A higher but not significantly different prevalence of ER visits for dental problems was found among the working poor sample when compared with the general Canadian population (6.1 percent versus 5.4 percent, P > 0.05). Further research is needed in order to provide insight into the reasons why the working poor population is seeking dental care in hospital settings. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  10. External validation of the New Orleans Criteria (NOC), the Canadian CT Head Rule (CCHR) and the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study II (NEXUS II) for CT scanning in pediatric patients with minor head injury in a non-trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachar, Jennifer L; Zampolin, Richard L; Miller, Todd S; Farinhas, Joaquim M; Freeman, Katherine; Taragin, Benjamin H

    2011-08-01

    Head CT scans are considered the imaging modality of choice to screen patients with head trauma for neurocranial injuries; however, widespread CT imaging is not recommended and much research has been conducted to establish objective clinical predictors of intracranial injury (ICI) in order to optimize the use of neuroimaging in children with minor head trauma. To evaluate whether a strict application of the New Orleans Criteria (NOC), Canadian CT Head Rule (CCHR) and National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study II (NEXUS II) in pediatric patients with head trauma presenting to a non-trauma center (level II) could reduce the number of cranial CT scans performed without missing clinically significant ICI. We conducted an IRB-approved retrospective analysis of pediatric patients with head trauma who received a cranial CT scan between Jan. 1, 2001, and Sept. 1, 2008, and identified which patients would have required a scan based on the criteria of the above listed decision instruments. We then determined the sensitivities, specificities and negative predictive values of these aids. In our cohort of 2,101 patients, 92 (4.4%) had positive head CT findings. The sensitivities for the NOC, CCHR and NEXUS II were 96.7% (95%CI 93.1-100), 65.2% (95%CI 55.5-74.9) and 78.3% (95%CI 69.9-86.7), respectively, and their negative predictive values were 98.7%, 97.6% and 97.2%, respectively. In contrast, the specificities for these aids were 11.2% (95%CI 9.8-12.6), 64.2% (95%CI 62.1-66.3) and 34.2% (95%CI 32.1-36.3), respectively. Therefore, in our population it would have been possible to scan at least 10.9% fewer patients. The number of cranial CT scans conducted in our pediatric cohort with head trauma would have been reduced had any of the three clinical decision aids been applied. Therefore, we recommend that further validation and adoption of pediatric head CT decision aids in non-trauma centers be considered to ultimately increase patient safety while reducing medical

  11. Pediatric cardiac emergencies: Children are not small adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frazier Aisha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared with adults, cardiac emergencies are infrequent in children and clinical presentation is often quite variable. In adults, cardiac emergencies are most commonly related to complications of coronary artery disease; however, in pediatric cases, the coronaries are only rarely the underlying problem. Pediatric cardiac emergencies comprise a range of pathology including but not limited to undiagnosed congenital heart disease in the infant; complications of palliated congenital heart disease in children; arrhythmias related to underlying cardiac pathology in the teenager and acquired heart disease. The emergency room physician and pediatric intensivist will usually be the first and second lines of care for pediatric cardiac emergencies and thus it is imperative that they have knowledge of the diverse presentations of cardiac disease in order to increase the likelihood of delivering early appropriate therapy and referral. The objective of this review is to outline cardiac emergencies in the pediatric population and contrast the presentation with adults.

  12. What are emergency-sensitive conditions? A survey of Canadian emergency physicians and nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Simon; Lang, Eddy S; Quan, Hude; Stelfox, Henry T

    2015-03-01

    In a previous study, we assembled a multidisciplinary Canadian panel and identified 37 International Classification of Diseases-10-Canada Diagnosis Groups (DGs) for which emergency department (ED) management may potentially reduce mortality (emergency-sensitive conditions). Before using these 37 DGs to calculate a hospital standardized mortality ratio (HSMR) specific to emergency care, we aimed to test their face validity with ED care providers. We conducted a self-administered web survey among Canadian emergency physicians and nurses between November 22 and December 31, 2012. All members (N=2,507) of the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians and the National Emergency Nurses Association were surveyed. They were asked to agree or disagree (binary response) with the panel classification for each of the 37 DG emergency-sensitive conditions identified and provide free text responses to identify missing entities. A total of 719 ED providers (719 of 2,507, 29%) completed the survey, of whom 470 were physicians (470 of 1,407, 33%) and 232 were nurses (232 of 1,100, 21%). Information on professional status was not provided for 17 respondents. Of 37 DGs, 32 (e.g., A41 sepsis) were rated by more than 80% of respondents to be emergency-sensitive conditions. The remaining five DGs (e.g., E11 type 2 diabetes mellitus) were rated by 68.5 to 79.7% of the respondents to be emergency-sensitive conditions. Respondents suggested an additional 31 emergency-sensitive diagnoses. We identified 37 emergency-sensitive DGs that had high face validity with emergency physicians and nurses, which will enable the calculation of an ED-HSMR.

  13. [Inherited metabolic disorders in pediatric emergency services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Gutiérrez, M A; López López, R; Morais López, A; Bueno Barriocanal, M; Martínez Ojinaga Nodal, E; Alcolea Sánchez, A M; García García, S

    2015-06-01

    Advances in the early diagnosis and treatment have led to improved survival, and a better quality of life for patients with inherited metabolic disorders (IMD). They can go to the Pediatric Emergency Services (PES) for reasons unrelated to their disease. The purpose of this study was to review the characteristics of visitors to the PES of these patients in a tertiary hospital. A retrospective observational study was conducted on all visits from patients with IMD to the PES of Hospital Infantil La Paz over the years 2011 and 2012. IMD type, complaint, duration of symptoms, need for hospitalization, and presence of metabolic decompensation was recorded. A total of 107 visits were analyzed, with the most frequent reason being for consultation of respiratory processes (30.8%). When the consultation was for vomiting, patients with protein-related disorders were those who delayed less in going to PES. One third of visitors were admitted, half of them due to metabolic decompensation of the underlying pathology. Patients with IMD came to PES for many different reasons, which in some cases were the cause or consequence of an acute metabolic decompensation that led to hospitalization. Being diseases with low prevalence, it would be useful to have diagnostic and therapeutic protocols in order to provide optimal care. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Metabolomics in pediatric nephrology: Emerging concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Mina H; Brophy, Patrick D

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomics, the latest of the “omics” sciences, refers to the systematic study of metabolites and their changes in biological samples due to physiological stimuli and/or genetic modification. Because metabolites represent the downstream expression of genome, transcriptome and proteome, they can closely reflect the phenotype of an organism at a specific time. As an emerging field in analytical biochemistry; metabolomics has the potential to play a major role for monitoring real-time kidney function and detecting adverse renal events. Additionally, small molecule metabolites can provide mechanistic insights for novel biomarkers of kidney diseases, given the limitations of the current traditional markers. The clinical utility of metabolomics in the field of pediatric nephrology includes biomarker discovery, defining as yet unrecognized biologic therapeutic targets, linking of metabolites to relevant standard indices and clinical outcomes, and providing a window of opportunity to investigate the intricacies of environment/genetic interplay in specific disease states. PMID:25027575

  15. New-onset seizures in pediatric emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Yu; Chang, Yu-Jun; Wu, Han-Ping

    2010-04-01

    Seizures account for 1% of all pediatric emergency department (ED) visits. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical spectrum and prevalence rates of various etiologies in children with a first attack of acute seizure disorder in the ED. We evaluated 319 children who presented to the ED at the Changhua Children's Hospital with a first attack of seizure disorder from 2005 to 2007. Variables including demographics, clinical presentations, laboratory tests, brain imaging studies, electroencephalography, diagnoses and hospital course were compared between patients with seizures and fever, and patients with seizures without fever. These variables were also compared between patients with simple and complex febrile seizures and among different age groups. Among these 319 patients, 218 (68%) presented with seizures and fever and 299 (94%) children were younger than 6 years of age. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures were the most common type (71.2%). Febrile seizures (62.1%) were the main etiology of the first seizure (p Seizures caused by severe electrolyte imbalance or hypoglycemia were noted in three patients. Abnormal brain images were noted in 16 (26%) of 61 patients, most (12/16, 75%) of whom had abnormal histories and physical or neurologic examinations. Primary care pediatricians should evaluate children presenting to the ED with a first seizure for age, coexistence of fever, seizure type, associated symptoms and history of head injury. We suggest that electrolytes, blood sugar and emergent brain imaging studies should be arranged based on detailed history-taking and thorough physical examinations, but should not be performed routinely. Copyright 2010 Taiwan Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Establishing physician to patient ratios and predicting workforce needs for Canadian pediatric hematology-oncology programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halton, Jacqueline M; Hand, Jack; Byron, Patricia; Strother, Douglas; Blanchette, Victor

    2013-04-01

    A Human Resources (HR) Committee of C17, the national network of Canadian academic pediatric hematology/oncology programs, obtained comprehensive data enabling analysis and planning for the physician workforce. This study establishes physician to patient ratios and predicts workforce needs for Canadian pediatric hematology/oncology programs. Over a 10-year period, six surveys were sent to the 17 pediatric tertiary care centers treating children with cancer and blood disorders. Data were obtained on physician demographics, full time equivalent (FTE) positions, and time spent in clinical, research, education, and administrative activities. Survey results were debated at the C17 national meetings to obtain consensus on workload ratios. Since 1999, the pediatric hematologist/oncologist workforce has increased from 71 FTE (43 oncology, 20 hematology, 8 BMT) to 109.5 FTE positions (69.7 oncology, 29.4 hematology, and 10.4 BMT). The median age of pediatric hematologists/oncologists increased from 46 years to 52 years and the male to female ratio changed from 1.8:1 to 0.9:1. The 2011 job profile showed the median time spent on activities was 60% clinical, 15% education, 15% research, and 10% administration. After assessing workload, models of care, and optimal physician FTE per program, the C17 HR Committee recommended a ratio of one oncologist per 15 newly diagnosed patients with malignancy and a ratio of one BMT physician per 15 transplants. For every 2.5 oncologists, a 1.0 hematologist is the minimum required. Physician staffing ratios for pediatric hematology/oncology programs have been established and should be adopted across Canadian academic institutions as a standard. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms in Canadian Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Mark A; Gorter, Jan Willem; Boyle, Michael H

    2015-11-01

    We identified courses of depressive symptoms in an epidemiological sample of emerging adults. We used latent class growth modeling to identify trajectories of depressive symptoms measured by the 12-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) during a 14-year follow-up of 2825 Canadian youths aged 10 to 25 years enrolled in the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth between 1994 and 2009. After adjustment for youth, parent, and family factors, the 3 distinct trajectories of depressive symptoms were minimal (55%; CES-D  18). All trajectories exhibited a parallel course, with peak symptoms at 15 to 17 years of age. Subclinical and clinical symptoms were more common than minimal symptoms in female youths and in respondents with lower self-concept, lower socioeconomic status, poorer interpersonal relations, and chronic health conditions (P stress theories of depression.

  18. Pediatric emergency medical services and their drawbacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Foraih Al-Anazi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To survey the literature on Pediatric Emergency Medical Services (PEMS with an aim to focus its drawbacks and emphasize the means of improvement. Materials and Methods: Published articles selected for inclusion were based on the significance and understanding of literature search on different aspects of PEMS. To meet this criterion, PubMed, PubMed Central, Science Direct, Uptodate, Med Line, comprehensive databases, Cochrane library and the Internet (Google, Yahoo were thoroughly searched. Results: PEMS provide out-of-hospital medical care and/or transport the patients to definitive care. The task force represents specialties of ambulance transport, first aid, emergency medical care, life saving, trauma, emergency medicine, water rescue, and extrication. Preliminary care is undertaken to save the patients from different medical exigencies. The techniques and procedures of basic and advanced life-support are employed. A large number of weaknesses are recorded in PEMS system, such as ambulance transport irregularities, deficit equipment, lack of expertise, and ignorance of the pre-hospital care providers. These are discussed with special reference to a few examples of medical exigencies. Conclusions: The appointments in PEMS should be regularized with specific qualifications, experience, and expertise in different areas. Responsibility of PEMS should not be left to pre-hospital care providers, who are non clinicians and lack proper education and training. Pediatricians should be adequately trained to play an active role in PEMS. Meetings should be convened to discuss the lapses and means of improvement. Networks of co-operation between pre-hospital providers and experts in the emergency department should be established.

  19. Update on epinephrine (adrenaline) for pediatric emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David M

    2009-06-01

    Epinephrine (adrenaline) is a medication widely used in the pediatric emergency department. This article reviews the most recent evidence and recommendations behind the many applications of epinephrine as they apply to the care of children in emergency departments. Recent publications address epinephrine's role in the treatment of anaphylaxis, croup, asthma, bronchiolitis and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. Additionally, authors discuss epinephrine autoinjectors and the various routes of epinephrine administration. Epinephrine is the recommended first-line treatment for anaphylaxis and moderate-to-severe croup. Its role in asthma and bronchiolitis is less clear. Traditional beta2-agonists are seen as first-line therapies for moderate bronchiolitis and asthma exacerbations. Epinephrine may have a role for subsets of patients with both of these illnesses. The preferred route for parenteral treatment is intramuscular. Epinephrine is well tolerated as an adjunct to local anesthesia when used in digital blocks in digits with normal perfusion. Although autoinjectors allow faster access to epinephrine for anaphylaxis, there are many issues surrounding their use and indications.

  20. Simulation in Pediatric Emergency Medicine Fellowships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Cara B; Kessler, David O; Zuckerbraun, Noel S; Stone, Kimberly P; Reid, Jennifer R; Kennedy, Christopher S; Nypaver, Michele M; Auerbach, Marc A

    2015-07-01

    Graduate medical education faces challenges as programs transition to the next accreditation system. Evidence supports the effectiveness of simulation for training and assessment. This study aims to describe the current use of simulation and barriers to its implementation in pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) fellowship programs. A survey was developed by consensus methods and distributed to PEM program directors via an anonymous online survey. Sixty-nine (95%) fellowship programs responded. Simulation-based training is provided by 97% of PEM fellowship programs; the remainder plan to within 2 years. Thirty-seven percent incorporate >20 simulation hours per year. Barriers include the following: lack of faculty time (49%) and faculty simulation experience (39%); limited support for learner attendance (35%); and lack of established curricula (32%). Of those with written simulation curricula, most focus on resuscitation (71%), procedures (63%), and teamwork/communication (38%). Thirty-seven percent use simulation to evaluate procedural competency and resuscitation management. PEM fellows use simulation to teach (77%) and have conducted simulation-based research (33%). Thirty percent participate in a fellows' "boot camp"; however, finances (27%) and availability (15%) limit attendance. Programs receive simulation funding from hospitals (47%), academic institutions (22%), and PEM revenue (17%), with 22% reporting no direct simulation funding. PEM fellowships have rapidly integrated simulation into their curricula over the past 5 years. Current limitations primarily involve faculty and funding, with equipment and dedicated space less significant than previously reported. Shared curricula and assessment tools, increased faculty and financial support, and regionalization could ameliorate barriers to incorporating simulation into PEM fellowships. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Postresuscitation debriefing in the pediatric emergency department: a national needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Naminder; Eppich, Walter; Mikrogianakis, Angelo; Grant, Vincent; Robinson, Traci; Cheng, Adam

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess current postresuscitation debriefing (PRD) practices in Canadian pediatric emergency departments (EDs) and identify areas for improvement. A national needs assessment survey was conducted to collect information on current PRD practices and perspectives on debriefing practice in pediatric EDs. A questionnaire was distributed to ED nurses, fellows, and attending physicians at 10 pediatric tertiary care hospitals across Canada. Summary statistics are reported. Data were analyzed from 183 participants (48.7% response rate). Although 88.8% of the participants believed that debriefing is an important process, 52.5% indicated that debriefing after real resuscitations occurs less than 25% of the time and 68.3% indicated that no expectation exists for PRD at their institution. Although 83.7% of participants believed that facilitators should have a specific skill set developed through formal training sessions, 63.4% had no previous training in debriefing. Seventy-two percent felt that medical and crisis resource management issues are dealt with adequately when PRD occurs, and 90.4% indicated that ED workload and time shortages are major barriers to effective debriefing. Most responded that a debriefing tool to guide facilitators might aid in multiple skills, such as creating realistic debriefing objectives and providing feedback with good judgment. PRD in Canadian pediatric EDs occurs infrequently, although most health care providers agreed on its importance and the need for skilled facilitators.

  2. Comparisons between Full-time and Part-time Pediatric Emergency Physicians in Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, I-Anne; Tuan, Pao-Lan; Jaing, Tang-Her; Wu, Chang-Teng; Chao, Minston; Wang, Hui-Hsuan; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Hsiao, Hsiang-Ju; Chang, Yu-Ching

    2016-10-01

    Pediatric emergency medicine is a young field that has established itself in recent decades. Many unanswered questions remain regarding how to deliver better pediatric emergency care. The implementation of full-time pediatric emergency physicians is a quality improvement strategy for child care in Taiwan. The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of care under different physician coverage models in the pediatric emergency department (ED). The medical records of 132,398 patients visiting the pediatric ED of a tertiary care university hospital during January 2004 to December 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. Full-time pediatric emergency physicians are the group specializing in the pediatric emergency medicine, and they only work in the pediatric ED. Part-time pediatricians specializing in other subspecialties also can work an extra shift in the pediatric ED, with the majority working in their inpatient and outpatient services. We compared quality performance indicators, including: mortality rate, the 72-hour return visit rate, length of stay, admission rate, and the rate of being kept for observation between full-time and part-time pediatric emergency physicians. An average of 3678 ± 125 [mean ± standard error (SE)] visits per month (with a range of 2487-6646) were observed. The trends in quality of care, observed monthly, indicated that the 72-hour return rate was 2-6% and length of stay in the ED decreased from 11.5 hours to 3.2 hours over the study period. The annual mortality rate within 48 hours of admission to the ED increased from 0.04% to 0.05% and then decreased to 0.02%, and the overall mortality rate dropped from 0.13% to 0.07%. Multivariate analyses indicated that there was no change in the 72-hour return visit rate for full-time pediatric emergency physicians; they were more likely to admit and keep patients for observation [odds ratio = 1.43 and odds ratio = 1.71, respectively], and these results were similar to those of senior

  3. Simulation in Canadian postgraduate emergency medicine training - a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Evan; Hall, Andrew Koch; Hagel, Carly; Petrosoniak, Andrew; Dagnone, Jeffrey Damon; Howes, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Simulation-based education (SBE) is an important training strategy in emergency medicine (EM) postgraduate programs. This study sought to characterize the use of simulation in FRCPC-EM residency programs across Canada. A national survey was administered to residents and knowledgeable program representatives (PRs) at all Canadian FRCPC-EM programs. Survey question themes included simulation program characteristics, the frequency of resident participation, the location and administration of SBE, institutional barriers, interprofessional involvement, content, assessment strategies, and attitudes about SBE. Resident and PR response rates were 63% (203/321) and 100% (16/16), respectively. Residents reported a median of 20 (range 0-150) hours of annual simulation training, with 52% of residents indicating that the time dedicated to simulation training met their needs. PRs reported the frequency of SBE sessions ranging from weekly to every 6 months, with 15 (94%) programs having an established simulation curriculum. Two (13%) of the programs used simulation for resident assessment, although 15 (94%) of PRs indicated that they would be comfortable with simulation-based assessment. The most common PR-identified barriers to administering simulation were a lack of protected faculty time (75%) and a lack of faculty experience with simulation (56%). Interprofessional involvement in simulation was strongly valued by both residents and PRs. SBE is frequently used by Canadian FRCPC-EM residency programs. However, there exists considerable variability in the structure, frequency, and timing of simulation-based activities. As programs transition to competency-based medical education, national organizations and collaborations should consider the variability in how SBE is administered.

  4. Resource Document: Coordination of Pediatric Emergency Care in EMS Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remick, Katherine; Gross, Toni; Adelgais, Kathleen; Shah, Manish I; Leonard, Julie C; Gausche-Hill, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Citing numerous pediatric-specific deficiencies within Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommended that EMS systems appoint a pediatric emergency care coordinator (PECC) to provide oversight of EMS activities related to care of children, to promote the integration of pediatric elements into day-to-day services as well as local and/or regional disaster planning, and to promote pediatric education across all levels of EMS providers. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to describe the evidence for pediatric coordination across the emergency care continuum. The search strategy was developed by the investigators in consultation with a medical librarian and conducted in OVID, Medline, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and CINAHL databases from January 1, 1983 to January 1, 2016. All research articles that measured a patient-related or system-related outcome associated with pediatric coordination in the setting of emergency care, trauma, or disaster were included. Opinion articles, commentaries, and letters to the editors were excluded. Three investigators independently screened citations in a hierarchical manner and abstracted data. Of 149 identified titles, nine were included in the systematic review. The nine articles included one interventional study, five surveys, and three consensus documents. All articles favored the presence of pediatric coordination. The interventional study demonstrated improved documentation, clinical management, and staff awareness of high priority pediatric areas. The current literature supports the identification of pediatric coordination to facilitate the optimal care of children within EMS systems. In order for EMS systems to provide high quality care to children, pediatric components must be integrated into all aspects of care including day-to-day operations, policies, protocols, available equipment and medications, quality improvement efforts, and disaster planning. This systematic

  5. Perspectives on Canadian core fellowship training in pediatric anesthesia: a survey of graduate fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, James D; Crawford, Mark W

    2015-10-01

    Educators in anesthesia have an obligation to ensure that fellowship programs are training anesthesiologists to meet the highest standards of performance in clinical and academic practice. The objective of this survey was to characterize the perspectives of graduates of Canadian core fellowship programs in pediatric anesthesia (during a ten-year period starting in 2003) on the adequacies and inadequacies of fellowship training. We conducted an electronic survey of graduates from eight departments of pediatric anesthesia in Canada who completed one-year core fellowship training in pediatric anesthesia from 2003 to 2013. A novel survey design was implemented, and the content and structure of the design were tested before distribution. Data were collected on respondents' demographics, details of training and practice settings, perceived self-efficacy in subspecialty practices, research experience, and perspectives on one-year core fellowship training in pediatric anesthesia. Descriptive statistics and 95% confidence intervals were determined. The survey was sent to 132 anesthesiologists who completed core fellowship training in pediatric anesthesia in Canada. Sixty-five (49%) completed and eligible surveys were received. Most of the anesthesiologists surveyed perceived that 12 months of core fellowship training are sufficient to acquire the knowledge and critical skills needed to practice pediatric anesthesia. Subspecialty areas most frequently perceived to require improved training included pediatric cardiac anesthesia, chronic pain medicine, and regional anesthesia. This survey reports perceived deficiencies in domains of pediatric anesthesia fellowship training. These findings should help guide the future development of core and advanced fellowship training programs in pediatric anesthesia.

  6. Emergent diagnostic testing for pediatric nonfebrile seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Ashley M; Gill, Vikramjit S; Witting, Michael D; Teshome, Getachew

    2015-09-01

    Guidelines from the American Academy of Neurology recommend laboratory studies or computed tomography (CT) for children who experience a nonfebrile seizure if anything in their history suggests a clinically significant abnormality. To ascertain if any patient or seizure characteristics are associated with a greater likelihood that laboratory studies or CT scan will yield clinically significant results. This retrospective case series reviewed 93 children with nonfebrile seizure, who were evaluated in an urban pediatric emergency department (ED) between July 2007 and June 2011. Laboratory studies were performed in 87% of the study group; 7% of those tests gave clinically significant results. Computed tomographic scans were obtained in 35% of our patients; 9% showed clinically significant findings. Presence of an active seizure in the ED or a first nonfebrile seizure had an 8% and 11% difference, respectively, for clinically significant laboratory abnormality. Children younger than 2 years showed a 7% difference of clinically significant laboratory abnormality. This study did not identify statistically significant predictors of laboratory or CT abnormalities for children with nonfebrile seizure presenting to the ED. Age less than 2years, having an active seizure in the ED, and experiencing a first-time seizure showed a trend toward an increased yield of laboratory testing. In accordance with the American Academy of Neurology guidelines, we conclude that the history of a child's present illness preceding the nonfebrile seizure, not characteristics of the seizure, should be used to determine the need for further testing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Rubric evaluation of pediatric emergency medicine fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Deborah C; Macias, Charles G

    2010-12-01

    To develop and validate a rubric assessment instrument for use by pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) faculty to evaluate PEM fellows and for fellows to use to self-assess. This is a prospective study at a PEM fellowship program. The assessment instrument was developed through a multistep process: (1) development of rubric format items, scaled on the modified Dreyfus model proficiency levels, corresponding to the 6 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies; (2) determination of content and construct validity of the items through structured input and item refinement by subject matter experts and focus group review; (3) collection of data using a 61-item form; (4) evaluation of psychometrics; (5) selection of items for use in the final instrument. A total of 261 evaluations were collected from 2006 to 2007; exploratory factor analysis yielded 5 factors with Eigenvalues >1.0; each contained ≥4 items, with factor loadings >0.4 corresponding with the following competencies: (1) medical knowledge and practice-based learning and improvement, (2) patient care and systems-based practice, (3) interpersonal skills, (4) communication skills, and (5) professionalism. Cronbach α for the final 53-item instrument was 0.989. There was also significant responsiveness of the tool to the year of training. A substantively and statistically validated rubric evaluation of PEM fellows is a reliable tool for formative and summative evaluation.

  8. Parental and Pediatricians’ Perception of Need for Subspecialty Training in Pediatric Emergency Medicine for Delivering Emergency Care to Pediatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leva, Ernest G.; Bunn Vanarsdale, Diane; Miele, Niel F.; Petrova, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The quality of pediatric emergency care may depend on the competence of the emergency department physicians. It is important to know whether parents and general pediatricians associate the quality of pediatric emergency care with the pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) training of the emergency department physicians. We designed the study to determine parental and pediatricians’ opinion and expectation in regard to this question. Most of the surveyed parents’ and pediatricians’ recognize the importance of PEM training and believed that physicians trained in PEM can provide better emergency care for children. However, 53.8% of parents, especially Spanish speaking and with Medicaid/no insurance coverage, believe that the emergency care provided for their children by general pediatricians and PEM physicians is equivalent. The results of our study could be utilized by accredited PEM planners in the creation of strategies to ensure the quality of emergency care for children population. PMID:29226185

  9. Parental and Pediatricians' Perception of Need for Subspecialty Training in Pediatric Emergency Medicine for Delivering Emergency Care to Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leva, Ernest G; Bunn Vanarsdale, Diane; Miele, Niel F; Petrova, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The quality of pediatric emergency care may depend on the competence of the emergency department physicians. It is important to know whether parents and general pediatricians associate the quality of pediatric emergency care with the pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) training of the emergency department physicians. We designed the study to determine parental and pediatricians' opinion and expectation in regard to this question. Most of the surveyed parents' and pediatricians' recognize the importance of PEM training and believed that physicians trained in PEM can provide better emergency care for children. However, 53.8% of parents, especially Spanish speaking and with Medicaid/no insurance coverage, believe that the emergency care provided for their children by general pediatricians and PEM physicians is equivalent. The results of our study could be utilized by accredited PEM planners in the creation of strategies to ensure the quality of emergency care for children population.

  10. Blog and Podcast Watch: Pediatric Emergency Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fareen Zaver

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: By critically appraising open access, educational blogs and podcasts in emergency medicine (EM using an objective scoring instrument, this installment of the ALiEM (Academic Life in Emergency Medicine Blog and Podcast Watch series curated and scored relevant posts in the specific areas of pediatric EM.    Methods: The Approved Instructional Resources – Professional (AIR-Pro series is a continuously building curriculum covering a new subject area every two months. For each area, six EM chief residents identify 3-5 advanced clinical questions. Using FOAMsearch.net to search blogs and podcasts, relevant posts are scored by eight reviewers from the AIR-Pro Board, which is comprised of EM faculty and chief residents at various institutions. The scoring instrument contains five measurement outcomes based on 7-point Likert scales: recency, accuracy, educational utility, evidence based, and references. The AIR-Pro label is awarded to posts with a score of ≥26 (out of 35 points. An “Honorable Mention” label is awarded if Board members collectively felt that the posts were valuable and the scores were > 20. Results: We included a total of 41 blog posts and podcasts. Key educational pearls from the 10 high quality AIR-Pro posts and four Honorable Mentions are summarized. Conclusion: The WestJEM ALiEM Blog and Podcast Watch series is based on the AIR and AIR-Pro series, which attempts to identify high quality educational content on open-access blogs and podcasts. Until more objective quality indicators are developed for learners and educators, this series provides an expert-based, crowdsourced approach towards critically appraising educational social media content for EM clinicians.

  11. Legal considerations during pediatric emergency mass critical care events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Brooke; Hodge, James G

    2011-11-01

    Recent public health emergencies, such as the 2009 Influenza A/H1N1 Pandemic and Hurricane Katrina, underscore the importance of developing healthcare response plans and protocols for disasters impacting large populations. Significant research and scholarship, including the 2009 Institute of Medicine report on crisis standards of care and the 2008 Task Force for Mass Critical Care recommendations, provide guidance for healthcare responses to catastrophic emergencies. Most of these efforts recognize but do not focus on the unique needs of pediatric populations. In 2008, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention supported the formation of a task force to address pediatric emergency mass critical care response issues, including legal issues. Liability is a significant concern for healthcare practitioners and facilities during pediatric emergency mass critical care that necessitates a shift to crisis standards of care. This article describes the legal considerations inherent in planning for and responding to catastrophic health emergencies and makes recommendations for pediatric emergency mass critical care legal preparedness. The Pediatric Emergency Mass Critical Care Task Force, composed of 36 experts from diverse public health, medical, and disaster response fields, convened in Atlanta, GA, on March 29-30, 2010, to review the pediatric emergency mass critical care recommendations developed by a 17-member steering committee. During the meeting, experts determined that the recommendations would be strengthened by a manuscript addressing legal issues. Authors drafted the manuscript through consensus-based study of peer-reviewed research, literature reviews, and expert opinion. The manuscript was reviewed by Pediatric Emergency Mass Critical Care Steering Committee members and additional legal counsel and revised. While the legal issues associated with providing pediatric emergency mass critical care are not unique within the overall context of disaster healthcare

  12. Canadian Guidelines for Controlled Pediatric Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death-Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Matthew J; Hornby, Laura; Rochwerg, Bram; van Manen, Michael; Dhanani, Sonny; Sivarajan, V Ben; Appleby, Amber; Bennett, Mary; Buchman, Daniel; Farrell, Catherine; Goldberg, Aviva; Greenberg, Rebecca; Singh, Ram; Nakagawa, Thomas A; Witteman, William; Barter, Jill; Beck, Allon; Coughlin, Kevin; Conradi, Alf; Cupido, Cynthia; Dawson, Rosanne; Dipchand, Anne; Freed, Darren; Hornby, Karen; Langlois, Valerie; Mack, Cheryl; Mahoney, Meagan; Manhas, Deepak; Tomlinson, Christopher; Zavalkoff, Samara; Shemie, Sam D

    2017-11-01

    Create trustworthy, rigorous, national clinical practice guidelines for the practice of pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death in Canada. We followed a process of clinical practice guideline development based on World Health Organization and Canadian Medical Association methods. This included application of Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology. Questions requiring recommendations were generated based on 1) 2006 Canadian donation after circulatory determination of death guidelines (not pediatric specific), 2) a multidisciplinary symposium of national and international pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death leaders, and 3) a scoping review of the pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death literature. Input from these sources drove drafting of actionable questions and Good Practice Statements, as defined by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation group. We performed additional literature reviews for all actionable questions. Evidence was assessed for quality using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation and then formulated into evidence profiles that informed recommendations through the evidence-to-decision framework. Recommendations were revised through consensus among members of seven topic-specific working groups and finalized during meetings of working group leads and the planning committee. External review was provided by pediatric, critical care, and critical care nursing professional societies and patient partners. We generated 63 Good Practice Statements and seven Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation recommendations covering 1) ethics, consent, and withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy, 2) eligibility, 3) withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy practices, 4) ante and postmortem interventions, 5) death determination, 6) neonatal pediatric donation after circulatory

  13. Canadian Guidelines for Controlled Pediatric Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death—Summary Report*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Laura; Rochwerg, Bram; van Manen, Michael; Dhanani, ; Sonny; Sivarajan, V. Ben; Appleby, Amber; Bennett, Mary; Buchman, Daniel; Farrell, Catherine; Goldberg, Aviva; Greenberg, Rebecca; Singh, Ram; Nakagawa, Thomas A.; Witteman, William; Barter, Jill; Beck, Allon; Coughlin, Kevin; Conradi, Alf; Cupido, Cynthia; Dawson, Rosanne; Dipchand, Anne; Freed, Darren; Hornby, Karen; Langlois, Valerie; Mack, Cheryl; Mahoney, Meagan; Manhas, Deepak; Tomlinson, Christopher; Zavalkoff, Samara; Shemie, Sam D.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Create trustworthy, rigorous, national clinical practice guidelines for the practice of pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death in Canada. Methods: We followed a process of clinical practice guideline development based on World Health Organization and Canadian Medical Association methods. This included application of Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology. Questions requiring recommendations were generated based on 1) 2006 Canadian donation after circulatory determination of death guidelines (not pediatric specific), 2) a multidisciplinary symposium of national and international pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death leaders, and 3) a scoping review of the pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death literature. Input from these sources drove drafting of actionable questions and Good Practice Statements, as defined by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation group. We performed additional literature reviews for all actionable questions. Evidence was assessed for quality using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation and then formulated into evidence profiles that informed recommendations through the evidence-to-decision framework. Recommendations were revised through consensus among members of seven topic-specific working groups and finalized during meetings of working group leads and the planning committee. External review was provided by pediatric, critical care, and critical care nursing professional societies and patient partners. Results: We generated 63 Good Practice Statements and seven Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation recommendations covering 1) ethics, consent, and withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy, 2) eligibility, 3) withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy practices, 4) ante and postmortem interventions, 5) death determination, 6) neonatal pediatric donation

  14. Viral hepatitis: retrospective review in a canadian pediatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybulska, Paulina; Ni, Andy; Jimenez-Rivera, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Clinical presentation of viral hepatitis ranges from mild symptoms to fulminant hepatitis. Our aim is to describe clinical presentation and outcomes of children with viral hepatitis from the Eastern Ontario/Western Quebec regions of Canada. Methods. Retrospective chart review of children diagnosed with viral hepatitis at our institution from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2007. Results. There were 261 charts reviewed, only 64 had a confirmed viral etiology: 34 (53%) hepatitis B (HBV), 16 (25%) hepatitis C (HCV), 4 (6.3%) hepatitis A (HAV), 7 (11%) cytomegalovirus (CMV), and 3 (4.7%) Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Children with HBV presented at a mean age of 6.4 ± 4.6 years. Spontaneous seroconversion (appearance of HBVeAb and loss of HBVeAg) occurred in 21/34 (61.7%). Children with acute hepatitis (HAV, CMV, and EBV) presented with mild abdominal pain, jaundice, and fevers. Overall outcome was excellent. Conclusion. Acute and chronic hepatitis in children has a benign course; moreover, HBV spontaneous seroconversion is common in pediatric patients.

  15. The Performance of the Pediatric Trauma Score in a Pediatric Emergency Department: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Anıl

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the Pediatric Trauma Score (PTS in predicting significant trauma in patients presenting with blunt trauma to a high-level pediatric emergency department. Methods: Patients younger than 15 years of age presenting to the pediatric emergency department of the Tepecik Training and Research Hospital with acute high-energy blunt trauma were analyzed prospectively. The PTS was calculated on arrival at the pediatric emergency department. The patients were classified into two groups as follows: patients with a PTS of ≤8 comprised the significant trauma group, while patients with a PTS of >8 made up the non- significant trauma group. Results: Two-hundred-thirteen children with a mean age of 6.1±3.9 years (range: 10 days-15 years were included in the study. The frequency of coagulation testing and thorax computed tomography in the pediatric emergency department, need for critical interventions and therapies in the pediatric emergency department, rate of hospitalization, need for transfer to the pediatric intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation, operation, blood transfusion, and mortality rate were statistically higher in the significant trauma group (p<0.05. PTS ≤8 exhibited a sensitivity of 56.2% and a specificity of 90.8% for hospitalization (AUROC: 0.682; 95% confidence interval: 0.610-0.755. The PTS was significantly correlated with length of hospital stay (r=-0.493; p<0.001 and length of observation in the pediatric emergency department (r=-0.442; p<0.01. Conclusion: PTS on arrival at a high-level pediatric emergency department is a good predictor of the need for critical interventions/therapies and mortality in children with high-energy blunt trauma. However, its accuracy is moderate for the prediction of hospitalization.

  16. The pediatric hematology/oncology educational laboratory in-training examination (PHOELIX): A formative evaluation of laboratory skills for Canadian pediatric hematology/oncology trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Elaine; Dix, David; Ford, Jason; Barnard, Dorothy; McBride, Eileen

    2015-11-01

    Pediatric hematologists/oncologists need to be skilled clinicians, and must also be adept and knowledgeable in relevant areas of laboratory medicine. Canadian training programs in this subspecialty have a minimum requirement for 6 months of training in acquiring "relevant laboratory diagnostic skills." The Canadian pediatric hematology/oncology (PHO) national specialty society, C17, recognized the need for an assessment method in laboratory skills for fellows graduating from PHO training programs. Canadian pediatric hematologists/oncologists were surveyed regarding what were felt to be the essential laboratory-related knowledge and skills deemed necessary for graduating pediatric hematology/oncology trainees. The PHOELIX (Pediatric hematology/oncology educational laboratory in-training examination) was then developed to provide an annual formative evaluation of laboratory skills in Canadian PHO trainees. The majority of PHO respondents (89%) felt that laboratory skills are important in clinical practice. An annual formative examination including review of glass slides was implemented starting in 2010; this provides feedback regarding knowledge of laboratory medicine to both trainees and program directors (PDs). We have successfully created a formative examination that can be used to evaluate and educate trainees, as well as provide PDs with a tool to gauge the effectiveness of their laboratory training curriculum. Feedback has been positive from both trainees and PDs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Conscious Sedation: Emerging Trends in Pediatric Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attri, Joginder Pal; Sharan, Radhe; Makkar, Vega; Gupta, Kewal Krishan; Khetarpal, Ranjana; Kataria, Amar Parkash

    2017-01-01

    Dental fear and anxiety is a common problem in pediatric patients. There is considerable variation in techniques used to manage them. Various sedation techniques using many different anesthetic agents have gained considerable popularity over the past few years. Children are not little adults; they differ physically, psychologically, and emotionally. The purpose of this review is to survey recent trends and concerning issues in the rapidly changing field of pediatric sedation. We will study the topic from the perspective of an anesthesiologist. It will also provide information to practitioners on the practice of conscious sedation in dentistry and will also outline the route of administration, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of various drugs used.

  18. A national survey of Canadian emergency medicine residents' comfort with geriatric emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Tristan; Melady, Don; Costa, Andrew P

    2017-01-01

    Geriatric patients represent a large and complex subgroup seen in emergency departments (EDs). Competencies in geriatric emergency medicine (EM) training have been established. Our objectives were to examine Canadian postgraduate year (PGY)-5 EM residents' comfort with the geriatric EM competency domains, assess whether Canadian EM residents become more comfortable through residency, and determine whether geriatric educational exposures are correlated with resident comfort with geriatric EM. A national, cross-sectional study of PGY-1 and PGY-5 Royal College EM residents was conducted to determine their comfort in geriatric EM clinical competency domains. Residents reported their level of comfort in satisfying each competency domain using a seven-point Likert scale. Residents were also asked about the location of their medical education as well as the type and number of different geriatric exposures that they had received to date. Of the 141 eligible residents from across Canada, 77% (109) consented to participate. None of the PGY-1 EM residents and 34% (14) of PGY-5 EM residents reported that they were comfortable with all eight geriatric EM competency domains. PGY-5 EM residents were significantly more comfortable than PGY-1 EM residents. Residents reported a highly variable range of geriatric educational exposures obtained during training. No relationship was found between resident-reported comfort and the nature or number of geriatric exposures that they had received. Current Royal College EM residency training in Canada may not be adequately preparing graduates to be comfortable with defined competencies for the care of older ED patients.

  19. Survey of Sedation and Analgesia Practice Among Canadian Pediatric Critical Care Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Guerra, Gonzalo; Joffe, Ari R; Cave, Dominic; Duff, Jonathan; Duncan, Shannon; Sheppard, Cathy; Tawfik, Gerda; Hartling, Lisa; Jou, Hsing; Vohra, Sunita

    2016-09-01

    Despite the fact that almost all critically ill children experience some degree of pain or anxiety, there is a lack of high-quality evidence to inform preferred approaches to sedation, analgesia, and comfort measures in this environment. We conducted this survey to better understand current comfort and sedation practices among Canadian pediatric intensivists. The survey was conducted after a literature review and initial focus groups. The survey was then pretested and validated. The final survey was distributed by email to 134 intensivists from 17 PICUs across Canada using the Research Electronic Data Capture system. The response rate was 73% (98/134). The most commonly used sedation scores are Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability (42%) and COMFORT (41%). Withdrawal scores are commonly used (65%). In contrast, delirium scores are used by only 16% of the respondents. Only 36% of respondents have routinely used sedation protocols. The majority (66%) do not use noise reduction methods, whereas only 23% of respondents have a protocol to promote day/night cycles. Comfort measures including music, swaddling, soother, television, and sucrose solutions are frequently used. The drugs most commonly used to provide analgesia are morphine and acetaminophen. Midazolam and chloral hydrate were the most frequent sedatives. Our survey demonstrates great variation in practice in the management of pain and anxiety in Canadian PICUs. Standardized strategies for sedation, delirium and withdrawal, and sleep promotion are lacking. There is a need for research in this field and the development of evidence-based, pediatric sedation and analgesia guidelines.

  20. Child abuse pediatric consults in the pediatric emergency department improve adherence to hospital guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Tara; Valvano, Thomas; Nugent, Melodee; Melzer-Lange, Marlene

    2013-10-01

    Little data describes the role of child abuse pediatricians in consultation for physical abuse patients the pediatric emergency department. To compare adherence in the emergency department to hospital physical abuse guidelines and need to return for testing between 2 groups: those receiving a child abuse consultation in the pediatric emergency department vs those who received standard emergency department care with subsequent child abuse review. We reviewed 471 records of visits to the pediatric emergency department for physical abuse. Data collected included demographics, studies performed, whether patients need to return after child abuse review, child abuse subpoenas, child abuse testimony in court. Patients who received a child abuse consult in the emergency department or inpatient were more likely to be younger and to have more severe injuries. In cases where a consult was obtained, there was 100% adherence to emergency department clinical guidelines vs 66% when no consult was obtained. In addition, in cases that did not receive a child abuse consult, 8% had to return to the hospital for labs or radiographs after their emergency department visit. Child abuse consultation in the pediatric emergency department improves compliance with clinical guidelines and decreases the likelihood that patients will need to return for further testing.

  1. Pediatric information seeking behaviour, information needs, and information preferences of health care professionals in general emergency departments: Results from the Translating Emergency Knowledge for Kids (TREKK) Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Shannon D; Albrecht, Lauren; Given, Lisa M; Hartling, Lisa; Johnson, David W; Jabbour, Mona; Klassen, Terry P

    2017-01-09

    The majority of children requiring emergency care are treated in general emergency departments (EDs) with variable levels of pediatric care expertise. The goal of the Translating Emergency Knowledge for Kids (TREKK) initiative is to implement the latest research in pediatric emergency medicine in general EDs to reduce clinical variation. To determine national pediatric information needs, seeking behaviours, and preferences of health care professionals working in general EDs. An electronic cross-sectional survey was conducted with health care professionals in 32 Canadian general EDs. Data were collected in the EDs using the iPad and in-person data collectors. Total of 1,471 surveys were completed (57.1% response rate). Health care professionals sought information on children's health care by talking to colleagues (n=1,208, 82.1%), visiting specific medical/health websites (n=994, 67.7%), and professional development opportunities (n=941, 64.4%). Preferred child health resources included protocols and accepted treatments for common conditions (n=969, 68%), clinical pathways and practice guidelines (n=951, 66%), and evidence-based information on new diagnoses and treatments (n=866, 61%). Additional pediatric clinical information is needed about multisystem trauma (n=693, 49%), severe head injury (n=615, 43%), and meningitis (n=559, 39%). Health care professionals preferred to receive child health information through professional development opportunities (n=1,131, 80%) and printed summaries (n=885, 63%). By understanding health care professionals' information seeking behaviour, information needs, and information preferences, knowledge synthesis and knowledge translation initiatives can be targeted to improve pediatric emergency care. The findings from this study will inform the following two phases of the TREKK initiative to bridge the research-practice gap in Canadian general EDs.

  2. Emergency medicine physicians performed ultrasound for pediatric intussusceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jung Chang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intussusception is the common acute abdomen in children with difficult clinical diagnosis. The routine ultrasound has recently been proposed as the initial diagnostic modality with high accuracy, but is not available for 24 h by gastroenterologists. We aimed to evaluate the validation of bedside ultrasound for intussusceptions performed by pediatric emergency physicians with ultrasound training during the night or holiday. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in children with suspected intussusceptions when routine ultrasounds by gastroenterologists were not available over the period from July 2004 to July 2008. Patients were divided into two groups: those diagnosed by emergency physicians with ultrasound training and without training. The clinical characteristics and course for all patients were reviewed and compared for seeking the difference. Results: A total of 186 children were included. One hundred and thirteen (61% children were diagnosed by pediatric emergency physician with ultrasound training. The clinical symptoms were not statistically different between the two groups. The diagnostic sensitivity of the ultrasound training group was significantly higher (90% vs. 79%, p = 0.034. Children of the training group also had significantly shorter hospital stay duration at emergency departments before reduction (2.41 ± 2.01 vs. 4.58 ± 4.80 h, p = 0.002. Conclusion: Bedside ultrasound performed by pediatric emergency physicians with ultrasound training is a sensitive test for detecting intussusceptions. Knowledge and use of bedside ultrasound can aid the emergency physician in the diagnosis of pediatric intussusceptions with less delay in treatment.

  3. Pediatric emergency in Brazil: the consolidation of an area in the pediatric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson P. Piva

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to present a review on the evolution, development, and consolidation of the pediatric emergency abroad and in Brazil, as well as to discuss the residency program in this key area for pediatricians. Data sources: This was a narrative review, in which the authors used pre-selected documents utilized as the minimum requirements for the Residency Program in Pediatric Emergency Medicine and articles selected by interest for the theme development, at the SciELO and Medline databases, between 2000 and 2017. Data synthesis: The historical antecedents and the initial evolution of pediatric emergency in Brazil, as well as several challenges were described, regarding the organization, the size, the training of professionals, and also the regulation of the professional practice in this new specialty. Additionally, a new pediatric emergency residency program to be implemented in Brazil is described. Conclusions: Pediatric emergency training will be a powerful stimulus to attract talented individuals, to establish them in this key area of medicine, where they can exercise their leadership by promoting care qualification, research, and teaching, as well as acting decisively in their management.

  4. Pattern and outcome of postneonatal pediatric emergencies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-02

    Nov 2, 2014 ... Ndukwu and Onah: Postneonatal pediatric emergencies in Nnewi, Nigeria. 351. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • May-Jun 2015• Vol 18 • Issue 3 diarrheal disease, malaria, sepsis, and RTIs, presented, while. 19.9%, 19.1%, 41.9%, and 36.4% of them, respectively, presented more than a week after ...

  5. Emergency medicine in pediatric dentistry: preparation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, Stanley F

    2003-10-01

    Medical emergencies can and do occur in the practice of dentistry. Although most emergencies take place in adults, serious problems can also develop in younger patients. The contemporary dentist must be prepared to manage expeditiously and effectively those few problems that do arise. Basic life support (as necessary) is all that is required to manage many emergency situations, with the addition of specific drug therapy in some others. Preparation of the office and staff includes basic life support (annually), pediatric advanced life support, development of an emergency team, consideration for emergency medical services, and the availability of emergency drugs and equipment with the ability to use these items effectively. As with the adult patient, effective management of pain (local anesthesia) and anxiety (behavioral management, conscious sedation) will minimize the development of medical emergencies.

  6. Leading teams during simulated pediatric emergencies: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coolen EH

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ester H Coolen,1 Jos M Draaisma,2 Sabien den Hamer,3 Jan L Loeffen2 1Department of Pediatric Surgery, Amalia Children’s Hospital, Radboud University Medical Center, 2Department of Pediatrics, Amalia Children’s Hospital, Radboud University Medical Center, 3Department of Communication Science, Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands Purpose: Leadership has been identified as a key variable for the functioning of teams and as one of the main reasons for success or failure of team-based work systems. Pediatricians often function as team leaders in the resuscitation of a critically ill child. However, pediatric residents often report having little opportunity to perform in the role of team leader during residency. In order to gain more insight into leadership skills and behaviors, we classified leadership styles of pediatric residents during simulated emergencies. Methods: We conducted a prospective quantitative study to investigate leadership styles used by pediatric residents during simulated emergencies with clinical deterioration of a child at a pediatric ward. Using videotaped scenarios of 48 simulated critical events among 12 residents, we were able to classify verbal and nonverbal communication into different leadership styles according to the situational leadership theory. Results: The coaching style (mean 54.5%, SD 7.8 is the most frequently applied by residents, followed by the directing style (mean 35.6%, SD 4.1. This pattern conforms to the task- and role-related requirements in our scenarios and it also conforms to the concept of situational leadership. We did not find any significant differences in leadership style according to the postgraduate year or scenario content. Conclusion: The model used in this pilot study helps us to gain a better understanding of the development of effective leadership behavior and supports the applicability of situational leadership theory in training leadership skills during residency. Keywords

  7. The Validity of the Pediatric Assessment Triangle as the First Step in the Triage Process in a Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Ana; Ares, Maria Isabel; Garcia, Sara; Martinez-Indart, Lorea; Mintegi, Santiago; Benito, Javier

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the association between pediatric assessment triangle (PAT) findings during triage and markers of severity in a pediatric emergency department (PED). During the study period, patients arriving to the PED were classified by trained nurses with the Pediatric Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale using a computer system, from which data were obtained and analyzed retrospectively. The primary outcome measure was the percentage of children hospitalized related with PAT findings. The secondary outcome measures were the admission to the intensive care unit (%), PED length of stay, and performance of blood tests (%). Among the 302,103 episodes included, there were abnormal PAT findings in 24,120 cases (7.9%). Multivariate analysis adjusted for age confirmed that PAT findings and triage level were independent risk factors for admission (odds ratio [OR], 2.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.13-2.29; OR, 6.01; 95% CI, 5.79-6.24, respectively). Abnormal findings in appearance or in more than 1 PAT component were even more strongly associated with admission (3.99; 95% CI, 3.63-4.38; 14.99, 95% CI, 11.99-18.74, respectively). When adjusted for triage level and age, abnormal PAT findings were also an independent risk factor for intensive care unit admission (OR, 4.44; 95% CI, 3.77-5.24) and a longer stay in the PED (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.72-1.84). Abnormal findings in the PAT applied by trained nurses at triage identify patients with a higher risk of hospitalization. The PAT seems to be a valid tool for identifying the most severe patients as a first step in the triage process.

  8. Intranasal medications in pediatric emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pizzo, Jeannine; Callahan, James M

    2014-07-01

    Intranasal medication administration in the emergency care of children has been reported for at least 20 years and is gaining popularity because of ease of administration, rapid onset of action, and relatively little pain to the patient. The ability to avoid a needle stick is often attractive to practitioners, in addition to children and their parents. In time-critical situations for which emergent administration of medication is needed, the intranasal route may be associated with more rapid medication administration. This article reviews the use of intranasal medications in the emergency care of children. Particular attention will be paid to anatomy and its impact on drug delivery, pharmacodynamics, medications currently administered by this route, delivery devices available, tips for use, and future directions.

  9. Emergency diagnosis and management of pediatric arrhythmias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanash Carla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available True emergencies due to unstable arrhythmias in children are rare, as most rhythm disturbances in this age group are well-tolerated. However, presentation to an emergency department with symptoms of palpitations, fatigue and/or syncope is much more common. Sinus tachycardia is by far the most commonly reported arrhythmia, followed by supraventricular tachycardia. Emergency physicians should be prepared for diagnosis and to acutely manage various types of arrhythmias seen in children, to assess the need for further diagnostic testing, and to determine whether cardiology evaluation and follow-up are needed. This article is intended to provide diagnostic and management guidelines of the most common types of arrhythmias seen in children with structurally normal hearts as well as those associated with congenital heart disease and cardiomyopathies.

  10. Pediatric Pain Management in the Emergency Department: The Triage Nurses' Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Daina; Kircher, Janeva; Plint, Amy C; Fitzpatrick, Eleanor; Newton, Amanda S; Rosychuk, Rhonda J; Grewal, Simran; Ali, Samina

    2015-09-01

    Understanding triage nurses' perspectives of pain management is essential for timely pain care for children in the emergency department. Objectives of this study were to describe the triage pain treatment protocols used, knowledge of pain management modalities, and barriers and attitudes towards implementation of pain treatment protocols. A paper-based survey was administered to all triage nurses at three Canadian pediatric emergency departments, between December 2011 and January 2012. The response rate was 86% (n=126/147). The mean respondent age was 40 years (standard deviation [SD] 9.3) with 8.6 years (SD 7.7) of triage experience. General triage emergency department (GTED) nurses rated adequacy of triage pain treatment lower than pediatric-only triage emergency department (PTED) nurses (P nurses reported a longer acceptable delay between triage time and administration of analgesia than PTED nurses (P nurses rated more comfort with a protocol involving administration of acetaminophen (97 mm, interquartile range [IQR] 92, 99) or ibuprofen (97 mm, IQR 93, 100) than for oral morphine (67 mm, IQR 35, 94) or oxycodone (57 mm, IQR 15, 81). The top three reported barriers to triage-initiated pain protocols were monitoring capability, time, and access to medications. Willingness to implement a triage-initiated pain protocol was rated as 81 mm (IQR 71, 96). Triage nurses are willing to implement pain protocols for children in the emergency department, but differences in comfort and experience exist between PTED and GTED nurses. Provision of triage initiated pain protocols and associated education may empower nurses to improve care for children in pain in the emergency department. Copyright © 2015 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Profile of pediatric abdominal surgical emergencies in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekenze, S O; Anyanwu, P A; Ezomike, U O; Oguonu, T

    2010-01-01

    We aim to determine the profile and determinants of outcome of pediatric abdominal surgical emergencies in southeastern Nigeria. We prospectively analyzed 115 children with abdominal surgical emergencies managed at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria, from January 2008 to June 2009. The emergencies were typhoid intestinal perforation (TIP) 22 (19.1%), intussusception 20 (17.4%), obstructed hernia 17 (14.8%), neonatal intestinal obstruction 11 (9.6%), appendicitis 11 (9.6%), trauma 8 (6.9%), ruptured omphalocele/gastroschisis 8 (6.9%), Hirschsprung's disease 7 (6.1%), adhesive bowel obstruction 7 (6.1%), and malrotation 4 (3.5%). The mean time to diagnosis was 3.5 days (range, 4 hours to 12 days). Ninety-three cases had an emergency operation, while 22 were managed nonoperatively. After a mean hospital stay of 10.8 days (range, 2-38 days), 35 (37.6%) of the operated patients had one or more postoperative complications. There were 10 (8.7%) deaths. Overall, TIP had a higher postoperative complication rate (P < 0.001), while neonates had a higher mortality (P < 0.001). Delayed presentation and lack of neonatal and pediatric intensive care facilities were daunting challenges. A pediatric abdominal surgical emergency in our setting has high morbidity and mortality. Efforts geared towards improvement in time to diagnosis and perioperative care may result in better outcomes.

  12. Characteristics of patients and families who make early return visits to the pediatric emergency department

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    Logue EP

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Erin Patricia Logue,1 Samina Ali,2,3 Judith Spiers,4 Amanda S Newton,2,3 Janice A Lander4 1 Alberta Health Services, 2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, 3Women and Children’s Health Research Institute, 4Faculty of Nursing, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to identify reasons why parents make early return visits, within 72 hours of discharge from a tertiary care pediatric emergency department (PED. A secondary objective was to investigate associated demographic and diagnostic variables. Methods: A survey was conducted with a convenience sample of parents of children returning to the PED within 72 hours of discharge. A chart review was also completed for consented survey participants. Recruitment occurred from September 2005 to August 2006 at the Stollery Children's Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Results: A total of 264 parents were approached to participate. Overall, 231 surveys were returned and 212 (92% charts were reviewed. The overall rate of early return during the study period was 5.4%. More than half of parents stated that they returned because their child's condition worsened and many parents (66.7% reported feeling stressed. Patients were typically under 6 years of age (67.4%, and most frequently diagnosed with infectious diseases (38.0%. Patients triaged with the Canadian Emergency Department Triage and Acuity Scale (CTAS as CTAS 2 (emergent for initial visits were more likely to be admitted on return, regardless of age (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Variables associated with early returns included young age, diagnosis, triage acuity, and parental stress. Future variable definition should include a deeper exploration of modifiable factors such as parental stress and patient education. These next steps may help direct interventions and resources to address needs in this group and possibly pre-empt the need to return

  13. New-onset Seizures in Pediatric Emergency

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    Chun-Yu Chen

    2010-04-01

    Conclusion: Primary care pediatricians should evaluate children presenting to the ED with a first seizure for age, coexistence of fever, seizure type, associated symptoms and history of head injury. We suggest that electrolytes, blood sugar and emergent brain imaging studies should be arranged based on detailed history-taking and thorough physical examinations, but should not be performed routinely.

  14. Pediatric emergency in Brazil: the consolidation of an area in the pediatric field

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    Jefferson P. Piva

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: Pediatric emergency training will be a powerful stimulus to attract talented individuals, to establish them in this key area of medicine, where they can exercise their leadership by promoting care qualification, research, and teaching, as well as acting decisively in their management.

  15. Adult patients in the pediatric emergency department: presentation and disposition.

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    Little, Wendalyn K; Hirsh, Daniel A

    2014-11-01

    Pediatric emergency departments (PEDs) are intended to care for acutely ill and injured children. Adult patients sometimes present to these facilities as well. Some of these are young adults still under the care of pediatric specialists, but older adults and those not under the care of specialists may seek care and may challenge pediatric care providers. Understanding the spectrum of adult illness encountered in the PED may help ensure optimum care for this patient population. This study aimed to describe the presentations of adult patients in 2 high-volume PEDs of a pediatric health care system. This is a retrospective review of electronic medical record to identify all visits for patients 21 years or older between 2008 and 2010. Patient demographics, reason for visit, diagnosis, and treatment details were identified. The combined PEDs recorded 417,799 total visits with 1097 patients 21 years or older; 188 of these were still followed by pediatric specialists. For the 907 remaining, the mean age was 36.5.years (range, 21-88 years); 73% were female. Fifty-one percent of the patients were triaged into the highest acuity levels. Fifty-seven percent of the patients were transferred to adult facilities for definitive care. There were no deaths among these patients at either PED, but 2 patients did require intubation and 1 received a period of chest compressions. Reason for presenting to the PED included on-site visitor (45%), mistakenly presented to children's hospital (34%), and hospital employee (21%). The most common presenting complaints were neurologic conditions, trauma/acute injuries, and chest pain. Adult patients in PEDs are rare but have relatively high acuity and often require transfer. Pediatric emergency department clinicians should have adequate, ongoing training to capably assess and stabilize adult patients across a spectrum of illness presentation.

  16. Prevalence of otorhinolaryngologic diagnoses in the pediatric emergency room

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    Signorelli, Luiz Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fever and pain, which are very common in ear, nose, and throat pathologies, are among the most frequent complaints recorded during emergency room pediatric patient treatment. Most of time, the pediatricians are called on to evaluate otorhinolaryngology disorders that requires specialist assessment. Aim: To determine the prevalence of otorhinolaryngologic diagnoses in a pediatric population in a reference hospital in the city of Itatiba, São Paulo. Methods: We evaluated 2,054 pediatric patients (age range, 0-12 years, 11 months in this descriptive, transversal observational (survey study. Data collection was performed by a single observer during 103 night shifts (07:00 p.m. to 07:00 a.m. between January and December 2011, and included documentation of the main diagnosis, and patient age and sex. The ethics committee and research institution approved study. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on diagnosis: Group A otorhinolaryngology disease and Group B included diagnoses not contained in Group A. Results: Of the total enrolled patients, 52.2% corresponded to Group A and 47.8% to Group B; 51.9% were male and 48.1% were female. The average age was 4.5 years (Group A, 3.93 years; Group B, 5.03 years. We compared the prevalence of the diagnostic hypotheses of the 2 groups. Conclusion: A large number of patients sought treatment at pediatric emergency rooms for otorhinolaryngologic diagnoses.

  17. Leading teams during simulated pediatric emergencies: a pilot study

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    Coolen, Ester H; Draaisma, Jos M; den Hamer, Sabien; Loeffen, Jan L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Leadership has been identified as a key variable for the functioning of teams and as one of the main reasons for success or failure of team-based work systems. Pediatricians often function as team leaders in the resuscitation of a critically ill child. However, pediatric residents often report having little opportunity to perform in the role of team leader during residency. In order to gain more insight into leadership skills and behaviors, we classified leadership styles of pediatric residents during simulated emergencies. Methods We conducted a prospective quantitative study to investigate leadership styles used by pediatric residents during simulated emergencies with clinical deterioration of a child at a pediatric ward. Using videotaped scenarios of 48 simulated critical events among 12 residents, we were able to classify verbal and nonverbal communication into different leadership styles according to the situational leadership theory. Results The coaching style (mean 54.5%, SD 7.8) is the most frequently applied by residents, followed by the directing style (mean 35.6%, SD 4.1). This pattern conforms to the task- and role-related requirements in our scenarios and it also conforms to the concept of situational leadership. We did not find any significant differences in leadership style according to the postgraduate year or scenario content. Conclusion The model used in this pilot study helps us to gain a better understanding of the development of effective leadership behavior and supports the applicability of situational leadership theory in training leadership skills during residency. PMID:25610010

  18. Leading teams during simulated pediatric emergencies: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolen, Ester H; Draaisma, Jos M; den Hamer, Sabien; Loeffen, Jan L

    2015-01-01

    Leadership has been identified as a key variable for the functioning of teams and as one of the main reasons for success or failure of team-based work systems. Pediatricians often function as team leaders in the resuscitation of a critically ill child. However, pediatric residents often report having little opportunity to perform in the role of team leader during residency. In order to gain more insight into leadership skills and behaviors, we classified leadership styles of pediatric residents during simulated emergencies. We conducted a prospective quantitative study to investigate leadership styles used by pediatric residents during simulated emergencies with clinical deterioration of a child at a pediatric ward. Using videotaped scenarios of 48 simulated critical events among 12 residents, we were able to classify verbal and nonverbal communication into different leadership styles according to the situational leadership theory. The coaching style (mean 54.5%, SD 7.8) is the most frequently applied by residents, followed by the directing style (mean 35.6%, SD 4.1). This pattern conforms to the task- and role-related requirements in our scenarios and it also conforms to the concept of situational leadership. We did not find any significant differences in leadership style according to the postgraduate year or scenario content. The model used in this pilot study helps us to gain a better understanding of the development of effective leadership behavior and supports the applicability of situational leadership theory in training leadership skills during residency.

  19. On the evolution of pediatrics and the emergence of pediatric nephrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2005-10-01

    Pediatrics is a relatively new discipline; it came into existence at the end of the nineteenth century, when the number practitioners of medicine interested in the study and teaching of pediatrics grew in proportion to research in diseases of children. The study of two childhood diseases was instrumental in the very emergence of nephrology. The first disease was diarrheal dehydration of infants, the study of which in the first decades of the twentieth century provided much of the body of knowledge of water and electrolyte metabolism that formed the foundations of renal physiology. The second disease was the nephrotic syndrome of children, the successful treatment of which became possible after the Second World War with the use of adrenal cortical tropic hormone and steroids. The prohibitive cost of obtaining these new miracle drugs then led to the foundation in 1948 of the Nephrosis Foundation, which became the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) in 1950-the first organization in the United States dedicated to the support and dissemination of knowledge on diseases of the kidney. The Scientific Advisory Board of the NKF was the nidus around which the discipline of nephrology then evolved and, after the availability of maintenance hemodialysis, flourished. Pediatric nephrology, which emerged from these beginnings, closes the circle that began with the emergence of nephrology from its foundations in pediatric studies of childhood diarrhea and treatment of the nephrotic syndrome.

  20. Trichomoniasis in finches from the Canadian Maritime provinces — An emerging disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzán, María J.; Vanderstichel, Raphaël; Melekhovets, Yuri F.; McBurney, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Trichomoniasis was diagnosed in multiple incidents of mortality in wild purple finch (Carpodacus purpureus) and American goldfinch (Carduelis tristis) in the Canadian Maritimes. Birds exhibited regurgitation, emaciation, and hyperplastic oropharyngitis, ingluvitis, and esophagitis. Trichomonas gallinae was identified by histopathology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Trichomoniasis (trichomonosis) is an emerging disease in wild finches of eastern Canada. PMID:20592828

  1. [Ethics in pediatric emergencies: Care access, communication, and confidentiality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, J; Berdah, L; Carlier-Gonod, A; Guillou, T; Kouche, C; Patte, M; Schneider, M; Talcone, S; Chappuy, H

    2015-05-01

    Children suffer most from today's increasing precariousness. In France, access to care is available for all children through various structures and existing measures. The support for foreign children is overseen by specific legislation often unfamiliar to caregivers. Pediatric emergencies, their location, organization, actors, and patient flow are a particular environment that is not always suitable to communication and may lead to situations of abuse. Communication should not be forgotten because of the urgency of the situation. The place of the child in the dialogue is often forgotten. Considering the triangular relationship, listening to the child and involving the parents in care are the basis for a good therapeutic alliance. Privacy and medical confidentiality in pediatric emergencies are governed by law. However, changes in treatments and medical practices along with the variety of actors involved imply both individual and collective limitations, to the detriment of medical confidentiality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Improving outcomes for ill and injured children in emergency departments: protocol for a program in pediatric emergency medicine and knowledge translation science

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    Shaw Nicola

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Approximately one-quarter of all Canadian children will seek emergency care in any given year, with the two most common medical problems affecting children in the emergency department (ED being acute respiratory illness and injury. Treatment for some medical conditions in the ED remains controversial due to a lack of strong supporting evidence. The purpose of this paper is to describe a multi-centre team grant in pediatric emergency medicine (PEM that has been recently funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR. This program of research integrates clinical research (in the areas of acute respiratory illness and injury and knowledge translation (KT. This initiative includes seven distinct projects that address the objective to generate new evidence for clinical care and KT in the pediatric ED. Five of the seven research projects in this team grant make significant contributions to knowledge development in KT science, and these contributions are the focus of this paper. The research designs employed in this program include: cross-sectional surveys, randomized controlled trials (RCTs, quasi-experimental designs with interrupted time-series analysis and staggered implementation strategies, and qualitative designs. This team grant provides unique opportunities for making important KT methodological developments, with a particular focus on developing a better theoretical understanding of the causal mechanisms and effect modifiers of different KT interventions.

  3. Assessment of acute motor deficit in the pediatric emergency room

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    Marcio Moacyr Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: This review article aimed to present a clinical approach, emphasizing the diagnostic investigation, to children and adolescents who present in the emergency room with acute-onset muscle weakness. Sources: A systematic search was performed in PubMed database during April and May 2017, using the following search terms in various combinations: “acute,” “weakness,” “motor deficit,” “flaccid paralysis,” “child,” “pediatric,” and “emergency”. The articles chosen for this review were published over the past ten years, from 1997 through 2017. This study assessed the pediatric age range, from 0 to 18 years. Summary of the data: Acute motor deficit is a fairly common presentation in the pediatric emergency room. Patients may be categorized as having localized or diffuse motor impairment, and a precise description of clinical features is essential in order to allow a complete differential diagnosis. The two most common causes of acute flaccid paralysis in the pediatric emergency room are Guillain-Barré syndrome and transverse myelitis; notwithstanding, other etiologies should be considered, such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, infectious myelitis, myasthenia gravis, stroke, alternating hemiplegia of childhood, periodic paralyses, brainstem encephalitis, and functional muscle weakness. Algorithms for acute localized or diffuse weakness investigation in the emergency setting are also presented. Conclusions: The clinical skills to obtain a complete history and to perform a detailed physical examination are emphasized. An organized, logical, and stepwise diagnostic and therapeutic management is essential to eventually restore patient's well-being and full health.

  4. Biochemical marker reference values across pediatric, adult, and geriatric ages: establishment of robust pediatric and adult reference intervals on the basis of the Canadian Health Measures Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeli, Khosrow; Higgins, Victoria; Nieuwesteeg, Michelle; Raizman, Joshua E; Chen, Yunqi; Wong, Suzy L; Blais, David

    2015-08-01

    Biological covariates such as age and sex can markedly influence biochemical marker reference values, but no comprehensive study has examined such changes across pediatric, adult, and geriatric ages. The Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) collected comprehensive nationwide health information and blood samples from children and adults in the household population and, in collaboration with the Canadian Laboratory Initiative on Pediatric Reference Intervals (CALIPER), examined biological changes in biochemical markers from pediatric to geriatric age, establishing a comprehensive reference interval database for routine disease biomarkers. The CHMS collected health information, physical measurements, and biosamples (blood and urine) from approximately 12 000 Canadians aged 3-79 years and measured 24 biochemical markers with the Ortho Vitros 5600 FS analyzer or a manual microplate. By use of CLSI C28-A3 guidelines, we determined age- and sex-specific reference intervals, including corresponding 90% CIs, on the basis of specific exclusion criteria. Biochemical marker reference values exhibited dynamic changes from pediatric to geriatric age. Most biochemical markers required some combination of age and/or sex partitioning. Two or more age partitions were required for all analytes except bicarbonate, which remained constant throughout life. Additional sex partitioning was required for most biomarkers, except bicarbonate, total cholesterol, total protein, urine iodine, and potassium. Understanding the fluctuations in biochemical markers over a wide age range provides important insight into biological processes and facilitates clinical application of biochemical markers to monitor manifestation of various disease states. The CHMS-CALIPER collaboration addresses this important evidence gap and allows the establishment of robust pediatric and adult reference intervals. © 2015 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  5. Radiologic procedures, policies and protocols for pediatric emergency medicine

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    Woodward, George A. [University of Washington School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Seattle, WA (United States); Children' s Hospital and Regional Medical Center, Division of Emergency Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Protocol development between radiology and pediatric emergency medicine requires a multidisciplinary approach to manage straightforward as well as complex and time-sensitive needs for emergency department patients. Imaging evaluation requires coordination of radiologic technologists, radiologists, transporters, nurses and coordinators, among others, and might require accelerated routines or occur at sub-optimal times. Standardized protocol development enables providers to design a best practice in all of these situations and should be predicated on evidence, mission, and service expectations. As in any new process, constructive feedback channels are imperative for evaluation and modification. (orig.)

  6. Innis and the Emergence of Canadian Communication/Media Studies

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    Robert E. Babe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The discussion in this paper examines the influence of Harold Innis’ medium theory on contemporary media and communication scholarship in Canada and abroad. The methodological construction of Innis’ medium theory comprises several dimensions including: media bias; the exercising of power through the use and control of media; the bias of communication media toward favouring control over space and control through time; the role of governance in overcoming the bias inherent in media; a materialist understanding of civilizations; space-media outpacing time-media; and dialectics. In this paper particular attention is given to two issues. The first is the connections between Innis’ political economy approach and the work of Marshall McLuhan on the one hand, and the ecological studies of David Suzuki on the other. Both McLuhan and Suzuki, it is argued, may be seen as filling in important gaps in Innis’ work. The second focuses on the reasons why Innis’ medium theory has struck a chord with the Canadian psyche. This stands in stark contrast to the apparent neglect of Innis’ work within American media and communication scholarship.

  7. Team training: implications for emergency and critical care pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppich, Walter J; Brannen, Melissa; Hunt, Elizabeth A

    2008-06-01

    The field of team training is quickly evolving and data are emerging to support the close relationship between effective teamwork and patient safety in medicine. This paper provides a review of the literature on team training with specific emphasis on the perspectives of emergency and critical care pediatricians. Errors in medicine are most frequently due to an interaction of human factors like poor teamwork and poor communication rather than individual mistakes. Critical care settings and those in which patients are at the extremes of age are particularly high-risk, making emergency and critical care pediatrics a special area of concern. Team training is one approach for reducing error and enhancing patient safety. Currently, there is no single standard for team training in medicine, but multiple disciplines, including anesthesiology, emergency medicine and neonatology, have adapted key principles from other high-reliability industries such as aviation into crisis resource management training. Team training holds promise to improve patient safety in pediatric emergency departments and critical care settings. We must carefully delineate the optimal instructional strategies to improve team behaviors and combine these with rigorous outcomes assessment to diagnose team problems and prescribe targeted solutions, and determine their long-term impact on patient safety.

  8. Management of pediatric patients with concussion by emergency medicine physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnaman, Karen A; Mannix, Rebekah C; Comstock, R Dawn; Meehan, William P

    2014-07-01

    Despite an increase in concussion diagnoses among pediatric patients, little is known about the management of pediatric patients with concussion in emergency departments (EDs). The objective of this study was to assess strategies used by emergency medicine physicians when treating pediatric patients with concussions. A 17-item questionnaire was e-mailed to members of the American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Emergency Medicine. Two serial e-mails were distributed at 2-week intervals to nonresponders. The survey included multiple-choice and free-text questions that were created by the team of investigators on the basis of prior surveys of family practitioners and physical trainers. We collected demographic information and specific information regarding the use of medications, neuropsychological testing, neuroimaging, return-to-play decision making, and use of published guidelines. Simple descriptive statistics were used. Two hundred sixty-five (29%) physicians completed the questionnaire, of which 52% had been an attending physician for more than 10 years. Ninety-nine percent of the respondents reported managing concussions, with the majority (76%) seeing more than 24 patients with concussion per year. Most clinicians (81%) reported using a published guideline in their management of concussions. The symptoms most likely to prompt head imaging in the ED included a focal neurological deficit (92%), altered mental status (82%), and intractable vomiting (80%). Most (91%) respondents reported using medications to manage the symptoms of patients with concussion, mainly acetaminophen (78%) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (77%), whereas 54% of the respondents used ondansetron and 7% of the respondents used narcotics. More than half (56%) of the respondents referred patients with concussion for neuropsychological testing from the ED. Of those, nearly half (49%) of the respondents refer their patients to a sports concussion clinic, whereas 5% of the

  9. Clinical spectrum of shock in the pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jay D; Nelson, David G; Beyersdorf, Heidi; Satkowiak, Lawrence J

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the clinical spectrum of patients presenting with shock or developing shock in a pediatric emergency department (ED) during an 8-year period. An observational study of all pediatric ED patients with shock between September 1998 and September 2006 was performed. Trauma activations were excluded. A structured, explicit chart review using a standardized abstraction form and case definition was completed by 3 physicians board certified in pediatric emergency medicine. Interrater reliability was monitored. A total of 147 cases of shock were identified. Septic shock was the underlying physiology in 57% of cases. A pathogen was identified in 45% of these cases. Hypovolemic shock due to gastroenteritis, metabolic disease, surgical emergencies, or hemorrhage was the cause in 24% of cases. Distributive shock represented 14% of cases. Cardiogenic shock contributed to 5% of cases. Patients with septic shock received a mean of 58 mL/kg of crystalloid or colloid versus 50 mL/kg in patients with other causes. Intubation and vasopressor use was required in 41% and 21% of cases, respectively. Clinical signs of shock developed in the ED after initially presenting without clinical signs of shock in 14% of study subjects. Nearly half of these episodes occurred after the administration of antimicrobials or performance of a lumbar puncture. Mortality was 6% overall and 5% in septic shock patients. Pediatric ED patients with shock represent a diverse population with substantial mortality. Of 147 patients, 21 presented without clinical signs of shock and deteriorated to a clinical condition meeting the definition of shock during the ED course.

  10. Best practices for improving flow and care of pediatric patients in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Isabel; Brown, Kathleen M; Fitzmaurice, Laura; Griffin, Elizabeth Stone; Snow, Sally K

    2015-01-01

    This report provides a summary of best practices for improving flow, reducing waiting times, and improving the quality of care of pediatric patients in the emergency department. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Antibiotics in respiratory tract infections in hospital pediatric emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán Molina, Claudia; Rodríguez-Belvís, Marta Velasco; Coroleu Bonet, Albert; Vall Combelles, Oriol; García-Algar, Oscar

    2014-09-01

    Respiratory tract infections are one of the most frequent problems in pediatric clinics and generate an elevated prescription of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to find out the standard of care practice about antibiotic use in these infections in a pediatric emergency department and to evaluate compliance with clinical guidelines. A pediatric emergency department database was reviewed from July 2005 to October 2007 under the category "respiratory infection", including variables such as age, antibiotic prescription and compliance with current clinical recommendations. Out of the 23,114 reviewed reports, 32.7% (7,567) were upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) (cold, acute otitis media [AOM], sinusitis and tonsillopharyngitis) or lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) (laryngitis, bronchitis, bronchiolitis and pneumonia). Children under the age of 2 were the most represented age group. Amongst URTI, rhinopharyngitis was the most frequent infection, while bronchitis was the most frequent among LRTI. Antibiotic therapy (mainly amoxicillin) was prescribed in 30.8% of URTI (5.7% rhinopharyngitis, 96.5% AOM, and 36.7% tonsillopharyngitis) and in 12.4% of LRTI. The percentage of respiratory tract infections was similar to previous studies and the antibiotic prescriptions followed current guidelines, except for cases diagnosed with AOM. Prescription compliance and clinical course of the cases should be monitored. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Supplies and equipment for pediatric emergency mass critical care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Desmond; Kanter, Robert K.; Burns, Jeffrey; Barfield, Wanda D.; Kissoon, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Epidemics of acute respiratory disease, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome in 2003, and natural disasters, such as Hurricane Katrina in 2005, have prompted planning in hospitals that offer adult critical care to increase their capacity and equipment inventory for responding to a major demand surge. However, planning at a national, state, or local level to address the particular medical resource needs of children for mass critical care has yet to occur in any coordinated way. This paper presents the consensus opinion of the Task Force regarding supplies and equipment that would be required during a pediatric mass critical care crisis. Methods In May 2008, the Task Force for Mass Critical Care published guidance on provision of mass critical care to adults. Acknowledging that the critical care needs of children during disasters were unaddressed by this effort, a 17-member Steering Committee, assembled by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education with guidance from members of the American Academy of Pediatrics, convened in April 2009 to determine priority topic areas for pediatric emergency mass critical care recommendations. Steering Committee members established subcommittees by topic area and performed literature reviews of MEDLINE and Ovid databases. The Steering Committee produced draft outlines through consensus-based study of the literature and convened October 6 –7, 2009, in New York, NY, to review and revise each outline. Eight draft documents were subsequently developed from the revised outlines as well as through searches of MEDLINE updated through March 2010. The Pediatric Emergency Mass Critical Care Task Force, composed of 36 experts from diverse public health, medical, and disaster response fields, convened in Atlanta, GA, on March 29 –30, 2010. Feedback on each manuscript was compiled and the Steering Committee revised each document to reflect expert input in addition to the most current medical literature. Task Force

  13. Imported pediatric malaria presenting to an urban pediatric emergency department: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Kevin R; Vinci, Robert

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify common presenting signs, symptoms, and laboratory findings of imported pediatric malaria presenting to a US pediatric emergency department (ED). This is a retrospective chart review of all patients presenting to an urban pediatric ED between July 1, 2004, and July 1, 2011, who were assigned an ED or inpatient discharge diagnosis of "malaria" and had a confirmed blood smear demonstrating plasmodium species. There were 21 patients included in this study (median age, 12 years; range, 19 months to 22 years). A total of 15 (71%) were infected with Plasmodium falciparum subtype of malaria. Patients presented to the ED between 1 day and 2 years after return from a malaria-endemic area. All 21 patients (100%) reported a history of fever, but only 9 (43%) had a fever documented in the ED. Of the patients, 14 (66%) complained of headache, 13 (62%) complained of anorexia, 11 (52%) complained of chills, and 10 (48%) complained of abdominal pain. The most common sign was tachycardia, present in 18 patients (86%). Consistent with other studies, thrombocytopenia was the most frequently observed laboratory abnormality, present in 16 patients (76%). The presenting signs and symptoms of imported pediatric malaria are nonspecific and inconsistently present, underscoring the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for this diagnosis in any patient returning from a malaria-endemic region.

  14. Bullying and Suicide Risk Among Pediatric Emergency Department Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ian H; Horowitz, Lisa M; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Wharff, Elizabeth A; Pao, Maryland; Teach, Stephen J

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to describe the association between recent bullying victimization and risk of suicide among pediatric emergency department (ED) patients. Patients presenting to 1 of 3 different urban pediatric EDs with either medical/surgical or psychiatric chief complaints completed structured interviews as part of a study to develop a suicide risk screening instrument, the Ask Suicide-Screening Questions. Seventeen candidate items and the criterion reference Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire were administered to patients ages 10 to 21 years. Bullying victimization was assessed by a single candidate item ("In the past few weeks, have you been bullied or picked on so much that you felt like you couldn't stand it anymore?"). A total of 524 patients completed the interview (34.4% psychiatric chief complaints; 56.9% female; 50.4% white, non-Hispanic; mean [SD] age, 15.2 [2.6] years). Sixty patients (11.5%) reported recent bullying victimization, and of these, 33 (55.0%) screened positive for suicide risk on the Ask Suicide-Screening Questions or the previously validated Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire. After controlling for demographic and clinical variables, including a history of depression and drug use, the odds of screening positive for suicide risk were significantly greater in patients who reported recent bullying victimization (adjusted odds ratio, 3.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.66-6.11). After stratification by chief complaint, this association persisted for medical/surgical patients but not for psychiatric patients. Recent bullying victimization was associated with increased odds of screening positive for elevated suicide risk among pediatric ED patients presenting with medical/surgical complaints. Understanding this important correlate of suicide risk in pediatric ED patients may help inform ED-based suicide prevention interventions.

  15. Caring for Kids: Bridging Gaps in Pediatric Emergency Care Through Community Education and Outreach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckstead-Gosdin, Ann; Vinson, Lori; Greenwell, Cynthia; Tweed, Jefferson

    2017-06-01

    The Pediatric Emergency Services Network (PESN) was developed to provide ongoing continuing education on pediatric guidelines and pediatric emergency care to rural and nonpediatric hospitals, physicians, nurses, and emergency personnel. A survey was developed and given to participants attending PESN educational events to determine the perceived benefit and application to practice of the PESN outreach program. Overall, 91% of participants surveyed reported agreement that PESN educational events were beneficial to their clinical practice, provided them with new knowledge, and made them more knowledgeable about pediatric emergency care. Education and outreach programs can be beneficial to health care workers' educational needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. English-based Pediatric Emergency Medicine Software Improves Physician Test Performance on Common Pediatric Emergencies: A Multicenter Study in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Global health agencies and the Vietnam Ministry of Health have identified pediatric emergency care and health information technology as high priority goals. Clinical decision support (CDS software provides physicians with access to current literature to answer clinical queries, but there is limited impact data in developing countries. We hypothesized that Vietnamese physicians will demonstrate improved test performance on common pediatric emergencies using CDS technologies despite being in English.Methods: This multicenter, prospective, pretest-posttest study was conducted in 11 Vietnamese hospitals enrolled a convenience sample of physicians who attended an 80-minute software training on a pediatric CDS software (PEMSoft. Two multiple-choice exams (A, B were administered before and after the session. Participants, who received Test A as a pretest, received Test B as a posttest, and vice versa. Participants used the CDS software for the posttest. The primary outcome measure was the mean percentage difference in physician scores between the pretest and posttest, as calculated by a paired, two-tailed t-test.Results: For the 203 participants, the mean pretest, posttest, and improvement scores were 37% (95% CI: 35-38%, 70% (95% CI: 68-72%, and 33% (95% CI: 30-36%, respectively, with p<0.0001. This represents an 89% improvement over baseline. Subgroup analysis of practice setting, clinical experience, and comfort level with written English and computers showed that all subgroups equivalently improved their test scores.Conclusion: After brief training, Vietnamese physicians can effectively use an English-based CDS software based on improved performance on a written clinical exam. Given this rapid improvement, CDS technologies may serve as a transformative tool in resource-poor environments. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(5:471–476.

  17. Toxicological Emergencies in the Resuscitation Area of a Pediatric Emergency Department: A 12-Month Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Gillian A; Kerrey, Benjamin T; Mittiga, Matthew R; Rinderknecht, Andrea S; Yin, Shan

    2017-10-01

    Few studies of children with toxicological emergencies describe those undergoing acute resuscitation, and most describe exposures to single agents. We describe a 12-month sample of patients evaluated in the resuscitation area of a pediatric emergency department (ED) for a toxicological emergency. We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients in a high-volume, academic pediatric ED. We identified patients evaluated in the ED resuscitation area for toxicological exposure and conducted structured chart reviews to collect relevant data. For all variables of interest, we calculated standard descriptive statistics. Of 2999 patients evaluated in the resuscitation area through 12 months (March 2009 to April 2010), we identified 80 (2.7%) whose primary ED diagnosis was toxicological. The mean age was 11.4 years. Eighty-six percent of patients were triaged to the resuscitation area for significantly altered mental status. The most frequent single exposures were ethanol (25%), clonidine (10%), and acetaminophen (5%). At least 1 laboratory test was performed for almost all patients (97%). Interventions performed in the resuscitation area included intravenous access placement (97%), activated charcoal (20%), naloxone (19%), and endotracheal intubation (12%). Eighty-two percent of patients were admitted to the hospital; 37% to the intensive care unit. No patients studied in this sample died and most received only supportive care. In a high-volume pediatric ED, toxicological emergencies requiring acute resuscitation were rare. Ethanol and clonidine were the most frequent single exposures. Most patients received diagnostic testing and were admitted. Further studies are needed to describe regional differences in pediatric toxicological emergencies.

  18. Feasibility and Reliability of Pediatric Early Warning Score in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xun; Tilford, Bradley; Duffy, Elizabeth; Kobayashi, Hitomi; Ryan, Kelley; Johnson, Mindi; Page, Bethany; Martin, Claire; Caldwell, Rhonda; Mahajan, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric early warning scores in an emergency department may be used in routine patient evaluation of illness severity and resource allocation, thereby positively impacting quality and safety in pediatric care. This prospective nursing study assessed the feasibility and reliability of pediatric early warning scores in a busy, inner-city, level 1 trauma center pediatric emergency department. The pediatric early warning scores demonstrated high interrater reliability (degree of agreement among scorers) (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.91) and intrarater reliability (multiple repetitions by a single scorer) (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.90).

  19. Effects of immigration enforcement legislation on Hispanic pediatric patient visits to the pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniflah, Jacob D; Little, Wendalyn K; Simon, Harold K; Sturm, Jesse

    2013-12-01

    To compare the visits by Hispanic patients to the pediatric emergency department (PED) before and after passage of Georgia House Bill 87 (HB87). This bill grants local law enforcement the authority to enforce immigration laws. A retrospective chart review of all Hispanic patients who presented to the PED in a 4-month period after implementation of HB87 in 2011 was conducted and compared with the same period in 2009 and 2010. Data compared included patient acuity score, disposition, payer status, and demographics. Fewer Hispanic patients presented to the ED after passage of the bill (18.3% vs 17.1%, P immigration legislation.

  20. Management of Pediatric Skin Abscesses in Pediatric, General Academic and Community Emergency Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumann, Brigitte M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the evaluation and management of pediatric cutaneous abscess patients at three different emergency department (ED settings.Method: We conducted a retrospective cohort study at two academic pediatric hospital EDs, a general academic ED and a community ED in 2007, with random sampling of 100 patients at the three academic EDs and inclusion of 92 patients from the community ED. Eligible patients were ≤18 years who had a cutaneous abscess. We recorded demographics, predisposing conditions, physical exam findings, incision and drainage procedures, therapeutics and final disposition. Laboratory data were reviewed for culture results and antimicrobial sensitivities. For subjects managed as outpatients from the ED, we determined where patients were instructed to follow up and, using electronic medical records, ascertained the proportion of patients who returned to the ED for further management.Result: Of 392 subjects, 59% were female and the median age was 7.7 years. Children at academic sites had larger abscesses compared to community patients, (3.5 versus 2.5 cm, p=0.02. Abscess incision and drainage occurred in 225 (57% children, with the lowest rate at the academic pediatric hospital EDs (51% despite the relatively larger abscess size. Procedural sedation and the collection of wound cultures were more frequent at the academic pediatric hospital and the general academic EDs. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA prevalence did not differ among sites; however, practitioners at the academic pediatric hospital EDs (92% and the general academic ED (86% were more likely to initiate empiric MRSA antibiotic therapy than the community site (71%, (p<0.0001. At discharge, children who received care at the community ED were more likely to be given a prescription for a narcotic (23% and told to return to the ED for ongoing wound care (65%. Of all sites, the community ED also had the highest percentage of follow-up visits (37

  1. Complaints and compliments in the pediatric emergency department.

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    Burstein, J; Fleisher, G R

    1991-06-01

    We conducted an analysis of all communications received from patients or their families by the director of a pediatric emergency department over a three-year period, during which approximately 150,000 visits occurred. Communications were characterized as complaint or compliment and subclassified by type: waiting time, staff attitude, quality of medical care, and billing. Chi 2 analysis was used to identify factors that predisposed to complaint or compliment and to identify the subtype. After quality-of-care issues, complaints stemmed most often from billing issues or waiting time for care for nonurgent disorders (especially medical problems), while complimentary letters most frequently addressed staff attitude and quality of care. The problems that we identified might be addressed by providing families improved access to non-emergency department care sources, education regarding the role of an emergency department, and better explanation of billing procedures during the registration process. Additionally, our findings serve as a reminder that many parents appreciate the care given to their children, particularly for life-threatening emergencies.

  2. Associations between low back pain and depression and somatization in a Canadian emerging adult population.

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    Robertson, David; Kumbhare, Dinesh; Nolet, Paul; Srbely, John; Newton, Genevieve

    2017-08-01

    The association between depression, somatization and low back pain has been minimally investigated in a Canadian emerging adult population. 1013 first year Canadian university students completed the Modified Zung Depression Index, the Modified Somatic Perception Questionnaire, and a survey about low back pain frequency and intensity. Multinomial logistic regression was used to measure associations between low back pain and depression and somatization, both independently and co-occurring. Over 50% of subjects reported low back pain across grades, and both depression and somatization were significantly positively associated with low back pain. Several positive associations between the cooccurrence of somatization and depression with various grades of low back pain were observed. These results suggest that low back pain, depression and somatization are relatively common at the onset of adulthood, and should be considered an important focus of public health.

  3. Associations between low back pain and depression and somatization in a Canadian emerging adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, David; Kumbhare, Dinesh; Nolet, Paul; Srbely, John; Newton, Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The association between depression, somatization and low back pain has been minimally investigated in a Canadian emerging adult population. Methods 1013 first year Canadian university students completed the Modified Zung Depression Index, the Modified Somatic Perception Questionnaire, and a survey about low back pain frequency and intensity. Multinomial logistic regression was used to measure associations between low back pain and depression and somatization, both independently and co-occurring. Results Over 50% of subjects reported low back pain across grades, and both depression and somatization were significantly positively associated with low back pain. Several positive associations between the cooccurrence of somatization and depression with various grades of low back pain were observed. Discussion These results suggest that low back pain, depression and somatization are relatively common at the onset of adulthood, and should be considered an important focus of public health. PMID:28928493

  4. Health of health care workers in Canadian nursing homes and pediatric hospitals: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoben, Matthias; Knopp-Sihota, Jennifer A; Nesari, Maryam; Chamberlain, Stephanie A; Squires, Janet E; Norton, Peter G; Cummings, Greta G; Stevens, Bonnie J; Estabrooks, Carole A

    2017-11-21

    Poor health of health care workers affects quality of care, but research and health data for health care workers are scarce. Our aim was to compare physical/mental health among health care worker groups 1) within nursing homes and pediatric hospitals, 2) between the 2 settings and 3) with the physical/mental health of the Canadian population. Using cross-sectional data collected as part of the Translating Research in Elder Care program and the Translating Research on Pain in Children program, we examined the health of health care workers. In nursing homes, 169 registered nurses, 139 licensed practical nurses, 1506 care aides, 145 allied health care providers and 69 managers were surveyed. In pediatric hospitals, 63 physicians, 747 registered nurses, 155 allied health care providers, 49 nurse educators and 22 managers were surveyed. After standardization of the data for age and sex, we applied analyses of variance and general linear models, adjusted for multiple testing. Nursing home workers and registered nurses in pediatric hospitals had poorer mental health than the Canadian population. Scores were lowest for registered nurses in nursing homes (mean difference -4.4 [95% confidence interval -6.6 to -2.6]). Physicians in pediatric hospitals and allied health care providers in nursing homes had better physical health than the general population. We also found important differences in physical/mental health for care provider groups within and between care settings. Mental health is especially poor among nursing home workers, who care for a highly vulnerable and medically complex population of older adults. Strategies including optimized work environments are needed to improve the physical and mental health of health care workers to ameliorate quality of patient care. Copyright 2017, Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  5. The child with headache in a pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conicella, Elena; Raucci, Umberto; Vanacore, Nicola; Vigevano, Federico; Reale, Antonino; Pirozzi, Nicola; Valeriani, Massimiliano

    2008-07-01

    To investigate clinical features of a pediatric population presenting with headache to a pediatric emergency department (ED) and to identify headache characteristics which are more likely associated with serious, life-threatening conditions in distinction from headaches due to more benign processes. Although headache is a common problem in children visiting a pediatric ED, a few studies thus far have attempted to identify the clinical characteristics most likely associated with suspected life-threatening disease. A retrospective chart review of all consecutive patients who presented with a chief complaint of headache at ED over a 1-year period was conducted. Etiologies were classified according to the International Headache Society diagnostic criteria 2nd edition. Four hundred and thirty-two children (0.8% of the total number of visits) aged from 2 to 18 years (mean age 8.9 years) were enrolled in our study. There were 228 boys (53%) and 204 girls (47%). School-age group was the most represented (66%). The most common cause of headache was upper respiratory tract infections (19.2%). The remaining majority of non-life-threatening headache included migraine (18.5%), posttraumatic headache (5.5%), tension-type headache (4.6%). Serious life-threatening intracranial disorders (4.1%) included meningitis (1.6%), acute hydrocephalus (0.9%), tumors (0.7%). We found several clinical clues which demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with dangerous conditions: pre-school age, recent onset of pain, occipital location, and child's inability to describe the quality of pain and objective neurological signs. Differential diagnosis between primary and secondary headaches can be very difficult, especially in an ED setting. The majority of headaches are secondary to respiratory infectious diseases and minor head trauma. Our data allowed us to identify clinical features useful to recognize intracranial life-threatening conditions.

  6. Sedation and analgesia for procedures in the pediatric emergency room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Carlos Eduardo; Bretas, Pedro Messeder Caldeira; Schvartsman, Claudio; Reis, Amélia Gorete

    Children and adolescents often require sedation and analgesia in emergency situations. With the emergence of new therapeutic options, the obsolescence of others, and recent discoveries regarding already known drugs, it became necessary to review the literature in this area. Non-systematic review in the PubMed database of studies published up to December 2016, including original articles, review articles, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. References from textbooks, publications from regulatory agencies, and articles cited in reviews and meta-analyses through active search were also included. Based on current literature, the concepts of sedation and analgesia, the necessary care with the patient before, during, and after sedoanalgesia, and indications related to the appropriate choice of drugs according to the procedure to be performed and their safety profiles are presented. The use of sedoanalgesia protocols in procedures in the pediatric emergency room should guide the professional in the choice of medication, the appropriate material, and in the evaluation of discharge criteria, thus assuring quality in care. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Management of acute seizure and status epilepticus in pediatric emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidaran, K; Singhi, Sunit; Singhi, Pratibha

    2012-04-01

    Acute seizure and status epilepticus constitute one of the major medical emergencies in children. Among children, the incidence ranges from 4-38/100,000 children per year respectively. The incidence in developing countries is somewhat higher because of infections. Although, the definition of status epilepticus is based on duration of seizures, the operational definition is to treat any child who is brought seizing to the emergency room, as status epilepticus. An urgent time bound approach is of paramount importance when managing a child in status epilepticus. Benzodiazepines remain the first line antiepileptic drugs in the emergency room; a long acting drug (Lorazepam) is preferred when available. This is followed by Phenytoin (20 mg/kg) loading. In patients refractory to above drugs, valproate (30 mg/kg) loading is commonly used and if effective, followed by an infusion (5 mg/kg/h) for seizure free period of 6 h. In non-responders, a trial of Levetiracetam (40 mg/kg infused at 5 mg/kg/min) can be used before starting benzodiazepine or thiopental coma (3-4 mg/kg loading dose, followed by 2 mg/kg/min infusion). When pharmacological coma is initiated, the child needs to be shifted to pediatric intensive care unit for proper monitoring and titration of medications.

  8. Current Workforce Characteristics and Burnout in Pediatric Emergency Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Marc H; Schremmer, Robert; Ruch-Ross, Holly; Radabaugh, Carrie; Selbst, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Changes in health care delivery and graduate medical education have important consequences for the workforce in pediatric emergency medicine (PEM). This study compared career preparation and potential attrition of the PEM workforce with the prior assessment from 1998. An e-mail survey was sent to members of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Section on EM and to non-AAP members board certified in PEM. Information on demographics, practice characteristics and professional activities, career preparation, future plans, and burnout (using two validated screening questions) was analyzed using standard descriptive statistics. Of 2,120 surveys mailed, 895 responses were received (40.8% response). Over half (53.7%) of respondents were female, compared with 44% in 1998. The majority (62.9%) practiced in the emergency department (ED) of a free-standing children's hospital. The distribution of professional activities was similar to that reported in 1998, with the majority of time (60%) spent in direct patient care. Half indicated involvement in research, and almost half had dedicated time for other activities, including emergency medical services (7.3%), disaster (6.9%), child abuse (5.0%), transport (3.6%), toxicology (2.3% of respondents), and other (13.6%); additionally, 21.3% had dedicated time for quality/safety. Respondents were highly satisfied (95.6%) with fellowship preparation for clinical care, but less satisfied with preparation for research (49.2%) and administration (38.7%). However, satisfaction with nonclinical training was higher for those within 10 years of medical school graduation. Forty-six percent plan to change clinical activity in the next 5 years, including reducing hours, changing shifts, or retiring. Overall, 11.9% of all respondents, including 20.1% of women and 2.6% of men (p burnout are prevalent, and there is likely to be substantial attrition of PEM providers in the near future. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  9. First-attack pediatric hypertensive crisis presenting to the pediatric emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wen-Chieh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Hypertensive crisis in children is a relatively rare condition presenting with elevated blood pressure (BP and related symptoms, and it is potentially life-threatening. The aim of this study was to survey children with first attacks of hypertensive crisis arriving at the emergency department (ED, and to determine the related parameters that predicted the severity of hypertensive crisis in children by age group. Methods This was a retrospective study conducted from 2000 to 2007 in pediatric patients aged 18 years and younger with a diagnosis of hypertensive crisis at the ED. All patients were divided into four age groups (infants, preschool age, elementary school age, and adolescents, and two severity groups (hypertensive urgency and hypertensive emergency. BP levels, etiology, severity, and clinical manifestations were analyzed by age group and compared between the hypertensive emergency and hypertensive urgency groups. Results The mean systolic/diastolic BP in the hypertensive crisis patients was 161/102 mmHg. The major causes of hypertensive crisis were essential hypertension, renal disorders and endocrine/metabolic disorders. Half of all patients had a single underlying cause, and 8 had a combination of underlying causes. Headache was the most common symptom (54.5%, followed by dizziness (45.5%, nausea/vomiting (36.4% and chest pain (29.1%. A family history of hypertension was a significant predictive factor for the older patients with hypertensive crisis. Clinical manifestations and severity showed a positive correlation with age. In contrast to diastolic BP, systolic BP showed a significant trend in the older children. Conclusions Primary clinicians should pay attention to the pediatric patients who present with elevated blood pressure and related clinical hypertensive symptoms, especially headache, nausea/vomiting, and altered consciousness which may indicate that appropriate and immediate antihypertensive medications are

  10. First-attack pediatric hypertensive crisis presenting to the pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Chieh; Zhao, Lu-Lu; Chen, Chun-Yu; Wu, Yung-Kang; Chang, Yu-Jun; Wu, Han-Ping

    2012-12-31

    Hypertensive crisis in children is a relatively rare condition presenting with elevated blood pressure (BP) and related symptoms, and it is potentially life-threatening. The aim of this study was to survey children with first attacks of hypertensive crisis arriving at the emergency department (ED), and to determine the related parameters that predicted the severity of hypertensive crisis in children by age group. This was a retrospective study conducted from 2000 to 2007 in pediatric patients aged 18 years and younger with a diagnosis of hypertensive crisis at the ED. All patients were divided into four age groups (infants, preschool age, elementary school age, and adolescents), and two severity groups (hypertensive urgency and hypertensive emergency). BP levels, etiology, severity, and clinical manifestations were analyzed by age group and compared between the hypertensive emergency and hypertensive urgency groups. The mean systolic/diastolic BP in the hypertensive crisis patients was 161/102 mmHg. The major causes of hypertensive crisis were essential hypertension, renal disorders and endocrine/metabolic disorders. Half of all patients had a single underlying cause, and 8 had a combination of underlying causes. Headache was the most common symptom (54.5%), followed by dizziness (45.5%), nausea/vomiting (36.4%) and chest pain (29.1%). A family history of hypertension was a significant predictive factor for the older patients with hypertensive crisis. Clinical manifestations and severity showed a positive correlation with age. In contrast to diastolic BP, systolic BP showed a significant trend in the older children. Primary clinicians should pay attention to the pediatric patients who present with elevated blood pressure and related clinical hypertensive symptoms, especially headache, nausea/vomiting, and altered consciousness which may indicate that appropriate and immediate antihypertensive medications are necessary to prevent further damage.

  11. An emerging field of research: challenges in pediatric decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipstein, Ellen A; Brinkman, William B; Fiks, Alexander G; Hendrix, Kristin S; Kryworuchko, Jennifer; Miller, Victoria A; Prosser, Lisa A; Ungar, Wendy J; Fox, David

    2015-04-01

    There is growing interest in pediatric decision science, spurred by policies advocating for children's involvement in medical decision making. Challenges specific to pediatric decision research include the dynamic nature of child participation in decisions due to the growth and development of children, the family context of all pediatric decisions, and the measurement of preferences and outcomes that may inform decision making in the pediatric setting. The objectives of this article are to describe each of these challenges, to provide decision researchers with insight into pediatric decision making, and to establish a blueprint for future research that will contribute to high-quality pediatric medical decision making. Much work has been done to address gaps in pediatric decision science, but substantial work remains. Understanding and addressing the challenges that exist in pediatric decision making may foster medical decision-making science across the age spectrum. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Epidemiology of sports-related injuries in children and youth presenting to Canadian emergency departments from 2007–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although injuries related to sports and recreation represent a significant burden to children and youth, few studies have examined the descriptive epidemiology of sports-related injury since 2005, and some sports such as ringette have not been evaluated to date. The primary purpose of this study was to provide the descriptive epidemiology of sports-related injuries treated in emergency departments for children and youth aged 5 – 19. Methods A retrospective data analysis was performed using data from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program [CHIRPP] from fiscal years (April – March) 2007/08 to 2009/10. CHIRPP is a computerized information system designed by the Public Health Agency of Canada that collects information about injuries to people evaluated in emergency departments across 11 pediatric hospitals and 5 general hospitals in Canada. Thirteen sports or activities were analyzed (baseball, basketball, cycling, football, ice hockey, lacrosse, ringette, rugby, skiing, sledding, snowboarding, soccer, and volleyball). Descriptive statistics, including frequency by sport, age and sex, as well as the percent of concussions within each sport were calculated. Results Out of a total of 56, 691 reported sports and recreational injuries, soccer accounted for the largest proportion of injuries with 11,941 reported cases over the 3 year time period. Of these, approximately 30% were fractures. The 10 – 14 year age group reported the greatest proportion of injuries in 10 out of the 13 sports analyzed. In addition, males reported a greater number of overall injuries than females in 11 out of the 13 sports analyzed. The largest percentage of concussions was reported in ringette; these injuries accounted for 17.1% of overall injuries within this sport. Conclusions Injury prevention programs in Canada should focus on improving evidence-based programs to reduce the burden of injuries in all sports. PMID:24364875

  13. Acute management and outcomes of patients with diabetes mellitus presenting to Canadian emergency departments with hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Brian H; Singh, Mira; Villa-Roel, Cristina; Leiter, Lawrence A; Hramiak, Irene; Edmonds, Marcia L; Lang, Eddy; Sivilotti, Marco; Scheuermeyer, Frank; Worster, Andrew; Riley, Jennifer; Afilalo, Marc; Stiell, Ian; Yale, Jean-Francois; Woo, Vincent C; Campbell, Samuel

    2015-02-01

    This retrospective chart audit examined the demographics, investigations, management and outcomes of adult patients with diabetes mellitus presenting to Canadian emergency departments (EDs). All sites conducted a search of their electronic medical records using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, codes to identify ED visits for hypoglycemia between 2008 and 2010. Patient characteristics, demographics, ED management, ED resources and outcome are reported. A total of 1039 patients over the age of 17 years were included in the study; 347 (33.4%) were classified as type 1 diabetes and 692 (66.6%) were classified as type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes patients were significantly older (73 vs. 49 years; pdiabetes required admission (30.3 vs. 8.8%). Discharge instructions were documented in only 55.5% of patients, and referral to diabetes services occurred in fewer than 20% of cases. Considerable variation existed in the management of hypoglycemia across EDs. Patients with diabetes presenting to an ED with hypoglycemia consume considerable healthcare resources, and practice variation exists. Emergency departments should develop protocols for the management of hypoglycemia, with attention to discharge planning to reduce recurrence. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. High stakes and high emotions: providing safe care in Canadian emergency departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali S

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Samina Ali,1,2 Denise Thomson,3 Timothy A D Graham,4 Sean E Rickard,3 Antonia S Stang5 1Women and Children’s Health Research Institute, 2Department of Pediatrics, 3Cochrane Child Health Field, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, 4Department of Emergency Medicine, 5Section of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Background: The high-paced, unpredictable environment of the emergency department (ED contributes to errors in patient safety. The ED setting becomes even more challenging when dealing with critically ill patients, particularly with children, where variations in size, weight, and form present practical difficulties in many aspects of care. In this commentary, we will explore the impact of the health care providers’ emotional reactions while caring for critically ill patients, and how this can be interpreted and addressed as a patient safety issue. Discussion: ED health care providers encounter high-stakes, high-stress clinical scenarios, such as pediatric cardiac arrest or resuscitation. This health care providers’ stress, and at times, distress, and its potential contribution to medical error, is underrepresented in the current medical literature. Most patient safety research is limited to error reporting systems, especially medication-related ones, an approach that ignores the effects of health care provider stress as a source of error, and limits our ability to learn from the event. Ways to mitigate this stress and avoid this type of patient safety concern might include simulation training for rare, high-acuity events, use of pre-determined clinical order sets, and post-event debriefing. Conclusion: While there are physiologic and anatomic differences that contribute to patient safety, we believe that they are insufficient to explain the need to address critical life-threatening event-related patient safety issues for both adults and, especially, children

  15. Modeling the risk of an emerging pathogen entering the Canadian blood supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Steven; Cameron, Claire; Custer, Brian; Busch, Michael; Katz, Louis; Kralj, Boris; Matheson, Ian; Murphy, Ken; Preiksaitis, Jutta; Devine, Dana

    2010-12-01

    As part of its risk management process, Canadian Blood Services (CBS) constructed mathematical models of how newly emerging pathogens might affect blood transfusion recipients. CBS convened an expert panel including medical, health economics, analytical, risk management, and insurance professionals to examine multiple data sources. The model for emerging pathogen risk included separate modules to calculate the frequency and severity of infections from transfusion-transmitted agents that could cause either acute transient or chronic persistent infection. Important model input variables were annual number of components transfused, the presumed incidence and prevalence of a new agent, the time interval of recipient risk, recipient age and sex, projected recipient survival, rate of secondary infection, pathogen-induced morbidity, and the associated medical costs of such morbidity. In the 5-year time frame considered in the model, it was estimated that approximately 3500 recipient infections (two-SD range of 0 to 11,370 infections) could occur from an emerging pathogen that establishes a chronic infection in donors, with 60% of these due to red blood cell transfusion. The medical costs associated with recipient outcomes due to a catastrophic emerging pathogen could be lowered by 20% if an effective pathogen reduction method for either platelets or plasma were in place. This modeling exercise offers a framework for other blood services to construct similar models. It also provides a useful way to model the implementation of new blood safety interventions (e.g., pathogen reduction) on emerging pathogen risk. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  16. Improving Pediatric Education for Emergency Medical Services Providers: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Seth A; Hayden, Theresa C; Randell, Kimberly A; Rappaport, Lara; Stevenson, Michelle D; Kim, In K

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have illustrated pediatric knowledge deficits among Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers. The purpose of this study was to identify perspectives of a diverse group of EMS providers regarding pediatric prehospital care educational deficits and proposed methods of training improvements. Purposive sampling was used to recruit EMS providers in diverse settings for study participation. Two separate focus groups of EMS providers (administrative and non-administrative personnel) were held in three locations (urban, suburban, and rural). A professional moderator facilitated focus group discussion using a guide developed by the study team. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze data. Forty-two participants provided data. Four major themes were identified: (1) suboptimal previous pediatric training and training gaps in continuing pediatric education; (2) opportunities for improved interactions with emergency department (ED) staff, including case-based feedback on patient care; (3) barriers to optimal pediatric prehospital care; and (4) proposed pediatric training improvements. Focus groups identified four themes surrounding preparation of EMS personnel for providing care to pediatric patients. These themes can guide future educational interventions for EMS to improve pediatric prehospital care. Brown SA , Hayden TC , Randell KA , Rappaport L , Stevenson MD , Kim IK . Improving pediatric education for Emergency Medical Services providers: a qualitative study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(1):20-26.

  17. Diagnostic approach to constipation impacts pediatric emergency department disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumpitazi, Corrie E; Rees, Chris A; Camp, Elizabeth A; Henkel, Erin B; Valdez, Karina L; Chumpitazi, Bruno P

    2017-10-01

    Constipation is a common cause of abdominal pain in children presenting to the emergency department (ED). The objectives of this study were to determine the diagnostic evaluation undertaken for constipation and to assess the association of the evaluation with final ED disposition. A retrospective chart review of children presenting to the pediatric ED of a quaternary care children's hospital with abdominal pain that received a soap suds enema therapy. A total of 512 children were included, 270 (52.7%) were female, and the median age was 8.0 (IQR: 4.0-11.0). One hundred and thirty eight patients (27%) had a digital rectal exam (DRE), 120 (22.8%) had bloodwork performed, 218 (43%) had urinalysis obtained, 397 (77.5%) had abdominal radiographs, 120 (23.4%) had abdominal ultrasounds, and 18 (3.5%) had computed tomography scans. Children who had a DRE had a younger median age (6.0, IQR: 3.0-9.25 vs. 8.0, IQR: 4.0-12.0; pchildren diagnosed with fecal impaction in the ED varied. Abdominal imaging may be avoided if children receive a DRE. When children presenting to the ED with abdominal pain had an abdominal radiograph, they were more likely to be admitted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Intranasal Midazolam Sedation in a Pediatric Emergency Dental Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peerbhay, Fathima; Elsheikhomer, Ahmed Mahgoub

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness and recovery times of 0.3 and 0.5 mg/kg intranasal midazolam (INM) administered with a mucosal atomizer device (MAD) in a pediatric emergency dental hospital clinic. One hundred eighteen children aged from 4 to 6 years were randomly administered either 0.3 or 0.5 mg/kg INM via an MAD in a triple-blinded randomized controlled trial. Sedation was achieved to some degree in 100% of the sample. The pulse rate and oxygen saturation were within the normal range in 99% of the patients. A burning sensation was reported in 9% of children. The recovery time of the 0.5 mg/kg group was statistically longer than that of the 0.3 mg/kg group (16.5 vs 18.8 minutes) but the difference was not clinically significant. The findings of this study show that 0.3 or 0.5 mg/kg doses of INM resulted in safe and effective sedation. The 0.5 mg/kg dose was more effective than the 0.3 mg/kg dose in reducing anxiety.

  19. Headache in the pediatric emergency service: a medical center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hsiang-Ju; Huang, Jing-Long; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Lin, Jainn-Jim; Huang, I-Anne; Wu, Chang-Teng

    2014-06-01

    Headache is a common complaint in children and is one of the most common reasons for presentation at a pediatric emergency department (PED). This study described the etiologies of patients with headache seen in the PED and determined predictors of intracranial pathology (ICP) requiring urgent intervention. A secondary objective was to develop rapid, practical tools for screening headache in the PED. We conducted a retrospective chart review of children who presented with a chief complaint of headache at the PED during 2008. First, we identified possible red flags in the patients' history or physical examination and neurological examination findings. Then, we recorded the brain computed tomography results. During the study period, 43,913 visits were made to the PED; in 409 (0.9%) patients, the chief complaint was headache. Acute viral, respiratory, and febrile illnesses comprised the most frequent cause of headache (59.9%). Six children (1.5%) had life-threatening ICP findings. In comparison with the group without ICP, the group with ICP had a significantly higher percentage of blurred vision (p = 0.008) and ataxia (p = 0.002). Blurred vision and ataxia are the best clinical parameters to predict ICP findings. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Monthly variation of United States pediatric headache emergency department visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Sita; Ginde, Adit A; Grubenhoff, Joseph A; Kempe, Allison; Hershey, Andrew D; Powers, Scott W

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this article is to determine the monthly variation of emergency department (ED) visits for pediatric headache. We hypothesized youth have increased headache-related ED visits in the months associated with school attendance. Using a United States representative sample of ED visits in the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 1997 to 2009, we estimated number of visits associated with ICD-9 codes related to headache, migraine, status migrainosus, or tension-type headache in 5- to 18-year-olds. Age-stratified multivariate models are presented for month of visit (July as reference). There was a national estimate of 250,000 ED visits annually related to headache (2.1% of total visits) in 5- to 18-year-olds. In 5- to 11-year-olds, the adjusted rate of headache-related visits was lower in April (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.20, 0.88). In 12- to 18-year-olds, there were higher rates in January (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.16, 3.14) and September (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.06, 2.55). In adolescents we found higher ED utilization in January and September, the same months associated with school return from vacation for a majority of children nationally. No significant reduction in the summer suggests that school itself is not the issue, but rather changes in daily lifestyle and transitions.

  1. [Spondylocostal dysostosis and acute cholangitis in pediatrics emergency room].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilés-Martínez, Karla Isis

    Congenital malformations of the chest wall comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases denominated spondylocostal dysostosis. They have in common developmental abnormalities in the morphology of the structures of the chest and vertebrae with a broad characterization: from mild deformity without functional consequences to life-threatening injuries. We present the case of a girl with spondylocostal dysostosis and acute cholangitis. A 13-month-old girl with severe malnutrition, history of hydrocephalus and myelomeningocele at birth was admitted in the emergency pediatric room with fever and progressive respiratory distress. Clinical assessment revealed ribs and vertebral malformations and acute cholangitis. Complex rib abnormalities consist in deformities of the chest wall, which do not have a specific pattern and are extremely rare. When they are associated with myelomeningocele and hydrocephalus they may be considered as autosomal recessive inheritance spondylocostal dysostosis. The diagnosis is established by clinical assessment and X-rays. Spondylocostal dysostosis identification and complications related to their genetic and molecular causes are still a challenge for clinical pediatricians and the multidisciplinary medical team who treats these patients throughout lifetime. Copyright © 2016 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  2. CLARIPED: a new tool for risk classification in pediatric emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães-Barbosa, Maria Clara de; Prata-Barbosa, Arnaldo; Alves da Cunha, Antonio José Ledo; Lopes, Cláudia de Souza

    2016-09-01

    To present a new pediatric risk classification tool, CLARIPED, and describe its development steps. Development steps: (i) first round of discussion among experts, first prototype; (ii) pre-test of reliability, 36 hypothetical cases; (iii) second round of discussion to perform adjustments; (iv) team training; (v) pre-test with patients in real time; (vi) third round of discussion to perform new adjustments; (vii) final pre-test of validity (20% of medical treatments in five days). CLARIPED features five urgency categories: Red (Emergency), Orange (very urgent), Yellow (urgent), Green (little urgent) and Blue (not urgent). The first classification step includes the measurement of four vital signs (Vipe score); the second step consists in the urgency discrimination assessment. Each step results in assigning a color, selecting the most urgent one for the final classification. Each color corresponds to a maximum waiting time for medical care and referral to the most appropriate physical area for the patient's clinical condition. The interobserver agreement was substantial (kappa=0.79) and the final pre-test, with 82 medical treatments, showed good correlation between the proportion of patients in each urgency category and the number of used resources (pPediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Referral Criteria from Community Clinics to Pediatric Emergency Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Urkin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Referral of patients to a pediatric emergency department (PED should be medically justified and the need for referral well communicated. The objectives of this paper were (1 to create a list of criteria for referral from the community to the PED, (2 to describe how community physicians categorize their need for referral, and (3 to determine agreement between the physician's referral letter and the selected criteria. We present a descriptive study of referrals to the PED of Soroka University Medical Center, Beer-Sheva, Israel, during February to April 2003. A list of 22 criteria for referral was created, using the Delphi method for reaching consensus. One or more criteria could be selected from this list for each referral, by the referring community physicians and, independently, based on the physicians' referral letters, by two consultants, and compared. There were 140 referrals included in the study. A total of 262 criteria for referral were selected by the referring community physicians. The criteria most frequently selected were: “Need for same-day consultation/laboratory/imaging result not available in the community” (32.1%, “Suspected life- or organ-threatening infection” (16.4%, and “Need for hospitalization” (15.7%. Rates of agreement regarding criteria for referral between the referring physicians and the two consultants, and a senior community pediatrician and a senior PED pediatrician, were 57.9 and 48.6%, respectively. We conclude that the standard referral letter does not convey in full the level of need for referral to the PED. A list of criteria for referral could augment efficient utilization of emergency department services and improve communication between community physicians and the PED.

  4. Validity of different pediatric early warning scores in the emergency department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Seiger (Nienke); I.K. MacOnochie (Ian); R. Oostenbrink (Rianne); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Pediatric early warning scores (PEWS) are being advocated for use in the emergency department (ED). The goal of this study was to compare the validity of different PEWS in a pediatric ED. Methods: Ten different PEWS were evaluated in a large prospective cohort. We included

  5. Pediatric HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa: emerging issues and way ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sub-Saharan Africa has the largest burden of pediatric HIV in the world. Global target has been set for eradication of pediatric HIV by 2015 but there are still so many complex issues facing HIV infected and affected children in the sub-continent. Objective: To review the current and emerging challenges facing ...

  6. Barriers and facilitators to pediatric emergency telemedicine in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uscher-Pines, Lori; Kahn, Jeremy M

    2014-11-01

    Pediatric emergency telemedicine has the potential to improve the quality of pediatric emergency care in underserved areas, reducing socioeconomic disparities in access to care. Yet, telemedicine in the pediatric emergency setting remains underutilized. We aimed to assess the current state of pediatric emergency telemedicine and identify unique success factors and barriers to widespread use. We conducted a telephone survey of current, former, and planned pediatric emergency telemedicine programs in the United States. We surveyed 25 respondents at 20 unique sites, including 12 current, 5 planned, and 3 closed programs. Existing programs were located primarily in academic medical centers and served an average of 12.5 spoke sites (range, 1-30). Respondents identified five major barriers, including difficulties in cross-hospital credentialing, integration into established workflows, usability of technology, lack of physician buy-in, and misaligned incentives between patients and providers. Uneven reimbursement was also cited as a barrier, although this was not seen as major because most programs were able to operate independent of reimbursement, and many were not actively seeking reimbursement even when allowed. Critical success factors included selecting spoke hospitals based on receptivity rather than perceived need and cultivating clinical champions at local sites. Although pediatric emergency telemedicine confronts many of the same challenges of other telemedicine applications, reimbursement is relatively less significant, and workflow disruption are relatively more significant in this setting. Although certain challenges such as credentialing can be addressed with available policy options, others such as the culture of transfer at rural emergency departments require innovative approaches.

  7. Clinical Characteristics of Pediatric Patients Hospitalized with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Canadian Hospitals from 2008 To 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk Ryan Leifso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infections were uncommon in children in Canada until the 1990s. Using a standardized case report form, treating physicians reported children hospitalized due to MRSA infections in Canadian hospitals through the Canadian Pediatric Surveillance Program in a 24-month period (2008 to 2010. Of 155 cases reported, 70% were ≤4 years of age and approximately one-third had an underlying medical condition. The most common clinical infections involved skin and soft tissue (69%, the lower respiratory tract (12%, and bone and joint (10%. Almost one-third had had contact with the health care environment in the previous year and 18% had a known household member with MRSA. Initial therapy with a beta-lactam alone occurred in 65%, while 22% included vancomycin. No child in this cohort died but 14% required admission to the intensive care unit. Of 143 reports of individual isolates, 93% were reported susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 63% to clindamycin and 50% to mupirocin.

  8. Use of Thickened Liquids to Manage Feeding Difficulties in Infants: A Pilot Survey of Practice Patterns in Canadian Pediatric Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Stephanie; Duivestein, Janice A; St Pierre, Astrid; Harris, Susan R

    2015-08-01

    Improved survival rates of sick or preterm infants have resulted in an increase of observed feeding difficulties. One common method for managing feeding difficulties in infants is to manipulate liquid viscosity by adding thickening agents to formula or expressed breast milk. Concerns regarding the lack of clinical practice guidelines for the use of this strategy have been raised in the literature and in clinical settings for several years. This study aimed to survey feeding clinicians working in major Canadian pediatric centers to identify current practice patterns for use of thickened liquids in managing feeding difficulties of infants and to justify the need for standardization of this practice. A web-based pilot survey was developed using Fluidsurveys software. The questionnaire contained 37 questions targeting the process of prescribing thickeners, choice of thickener, awareness of issues, and inconsistencies raised in the literature about thickener use and how to address them. A total of 69 questionnaire responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics and inductive thematic analysis methods. Our study results indicate that thickened liquids continue to be broadly used to manage feeding difficulties in Canadian infants, despite numerous areas of concern related to their use raised by our respondents. While clear practice patterns for assessment and management were observed among the respondents, some areas of practice did not reflect recent published research or experts' opinion. Further research to develop a systematic approach for assessment, intervention, and follow-up is warranted to guide clinicians in this complex decision-making process.

  9. Improving the manchester triage system for pediatric emergency care: An international multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Seiger (Nienke); M. van Veen (Mirjam); H. Almeida (Helena); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); A.H.J. van Meurs (Alfred); R. Carneiro (Rita); C.F. Alves (Claudio); I.K. MacOnochie (Ian); J. van der Lei (Johan); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: This multicenter study examines the performance of the Manchester Triage System (MTS) after changing discriminators, and with the addition use of abnormal vital sign in patients presenting to pediatric emergency departments (EDs). Design: International multicenter study

  10. [Families' experiences and satisfaction with a pediatric emergency service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, S; Gehri, M; Pluies, J; Rossi, I; Akre, C

    2017-10-01

    Today, pediatric emergency services receive a rising number of "non-urgent" cases, which are due to parental anxiety or a miscomprehension of medical explanations. The aim of this study was therefore to understand what those families experience and need when they consult in such cases, in order to respond with adapted solutions. Semi-structured interviews and questionnaires with parents, after the consultation or in the waiting room. Based on the families' narratives, we present the results in six steps, which correspond to the steps they experience from the decision to go to the hospital to the consultation. Families' experiences are very satisfactory regarding the quality of medical care, the relationship between staff and children, and the staff's overall attitude. Critical points concern practical aspects (parking, food, and play facilities); the waiting time and the lack of information; and the communication between the medical staff and the parents, most particularly related to their anxiety and waiting time. The results show first that parents have multiple preoccupations: many stress factors and organizational difficulties are added to their child's disease. These preoccupations are mostly related to the lack of information about the waiting time, information that they would need to organize their day and their time in the hospital. Second, the results show that parental anxiety influences their decision to come to the emergency department, their experience of care and of the waiting time, and their judgment about the quality of the medical care. Considering this, families requested practical improvements (i.e., more toys in the waiting room), and suggest more communication and presence from the medical staff. Based on their demands, we suggest an agenda of care in four steps: a waiting time, a time for sharing, a time for information giving, and a validation time. Overall, parents are stressed and anxious when they come to the emergency department and

  11. Why and when to use CT in children: perspective of a pediatric emergency medicine physician

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frush, Karen [Duke University School of Medicine, DUMC, Department of Pediatrics, Box 3701, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-10-15

    The Emergency Department is a risk-laden environment for clinicians caring for children. A number of factors can increase the risk of medical errors and adverse events, including lack of standardized medication dosing because of size variation in the pediatric age range, unique physical and developmental characteristics of children that affect treatment strategies, and the inability of young or non-verbal children to provide a medical history or to clearly communicate pain and other symptoms. The Emergency Department (ED) setting is often hectic and chaotic, with lots of interruptions. Many EDs lack the pediatric-specific supplies deemed essential for managing pediatric emergencies, and long hours or overnight shifts, while necessary for maintaining 24-hour emergency services, can cause provider fatigue that can lead to increased medical errors. It is in this environment that ED physicians make decisions about the use of CT scans in children, often without evidence-based guidelines to help them weigh risks and benefits. Although recent efforts have raised the awareness of the risk of exposure to radiation, many pediatric providers and families lack adequate information to guide decisions about the use of CT. Pediatricians and emergency physicians need to collaborate with radiologists to maintain current knowledge of the risks and benefits of CT scans, to advocate for pediatric protocols and evidence-based guidelines, and to engage families in decisions regarding the evaluation and treatment of pediatric patients in the Emergency Department. (orig.)

  12. [An update of the diagnostic coding system by the Spanish Society of Pediatric Emergencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito Fernández, J; Luaces Cubells, C; Gelabert Colomé, G; Anso Borda, I

    2015-06-01

    The Quality Working Group of the Spanish Society of Pediatric Emergencies (SEUP) presents an update of the diagnostic coding list. The original list was prepared and published in Anales de Pediatría in 2000, being based on the International Coding system ICD-9-CM current at that time. Following the same methodology used at that time and based on the 2014 edition of the ICD-9-CM, 35 new codes have been added to the list, 15 have been updated, and a list of the most frequent references to trauma diagnoses in pediatrics have been provided. In the current list of diagnoses, SEUP reflects the significant changes that have taken place in Pediatric Emergency Services in the last decade. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Reducing anxiety in the pediatric emergency department: a comparative trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbrunn, Benjamin R; Wittern, Rachael E; Lee, Justin B; Pham, Phung K; Hamilton, Anita H; Nager, Alan L

    2014-12-01

    Anxiety among patients in a pediatric emergency department (PED) can be significant, but often goes unaddressed. Our aim was to determine whether exposure to Child Life (CL) or hospital clowning (HC) can reduce anxiety in children presenting to a PED. Patients were randomized to CL, HC, or control and assessed upon entry to examination room (T1), before physician arrival (T2), and during physician examination (T3), using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (m-YPAS). CL and HC interventions occurred for 5 to 10 min before physician entry. Effects were analyzed using mixed analysis of variance. m-YPAS scores ranged from 23 to 59, with a higher score indicating increased anxiety. Mixed analysis of variance on the study sample (n = 113) showed a significant interaction between groups (CL, HC, control) and time (p = 0.02). Additional analyses indicated effect of group only at T2 (CL: mean = 23.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 23.2-24.5; HC: mean 25.2; 95% CI 24.2-26.2; control: mean = 26.1; 95% CI 24.2-27.9; p = .02). Subanalysis of patients with T1 m-YPAS score ≥ 28 (n = 56) showed a significant interaction between group and time (p = 0.01). Additional analysis showed effect of group only at T2 (CL: mean 24.4; 95% CI 23.3-25.6; HC: mean 27.0; 95% CI 25.2-28.7; control: mean 29.2; 95% CI 25.6-32.7; p = 0.003). CL services can reduce state anxiety for patients presenting to a PED with heightened anxiety at baseline. This reduction occurred immediately after CL intervention, but was not observed in patients exposed to HC or during physician examination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Management of cellulitis in a pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khangura, Simi; Wallace, Jonathan; Kissoon, Niranjan; Kodeeswaran, Tanuja

    2007-11-01

    (1) To determine antibiotic choices, route of administration, and outcomes of children treated as outpatients with noncomplicated, nonfacial cellulitis at a tertiary care center. (2) To determine the number of visits and time spent in the emergency department (ED) for treatment. A descriptive case-control study. A tertiary care pediatric ED at an academic medical center. Medical records of all otherwise healthy children (aged 1-16 yrs) presenting with noncomplicated, nonfacial cellulitis over a 3-year period (January 1, 2001-December 31, 2003) were reviewed. Data extracted included the following: demographics; clinical presentation; laboratory and microbiology results; management, including choice, dose, and route of antibiotic(s); treatment failures; and time spent in the ED. None. Two hundred sixty-nine patients met the inclusion criteria, and their charts were selected for review. The oral antibiotic most often prescribed was cephalexin (N = 105). Treatment failure occurred in 10 (8.9%) of the cases. The intravenous antibiotic most often prescribed was cefazolin (N = 124; 39 received cefazolin alone, and 85 received cefazolin and probenecid). The cefazolin-only group had 12 (31%) treatment failures, whereas the cefazolin and probenecid group had 7 (8.1%) treatment failures. More time in the ED (521 +/- 287 minutes) and more visits (3.4 +/- 2.8) were seen in the intravenous group as compared with the oral group (time in ED, 164 +/- 139 minutes; visits, 1.4 +/- 1). Noncomplicated, nonfacial cellulitis is most commonly treated using first-generation cephalosporins. Treatment with oral antibiotics was effective and required fewer visits and less time in the ED compared with intravenous treatment. Twice-daily cefazolin and probenecid was associated with less treatment failures and admissions than cefazolin alone and may represent a reasonable alternative for children with nonfacial cellulitis requiring intravenous antibiotics.

  15. Pediatric emergency department discharge prescriptions requiring pharmacy clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Michelle C; Gittelman, Michael A; Widecan, Michelle L; Luria, Joseph W

    2015-06-01

    The aims of the study were to analyze and classify reasons why retail pharmacies need to contact the pediatric emergency department (PED) for clarification on outpatient prescriptions generated using an electronic prescribing system and to categorize the severity of errors captured. A retrospective chart review was conducted at a PED that cares for approximately 92,000 patients annually. All pharmacy callbacks documented in the electronic medical record between August 1, 2008 and July 31, 2009 were included. A datasheet was used to capture patient demographics (age, sex, race, insurance), prescriptions written, and reason for callback. Each call was then assigned a severity level, and time to respond to all calls was estimated. Frequencies were used to analyze the data. A total of 731 errors for 695 callbacks were analyzed from 49,583 prescriptions written at discharge. The most common errors included administrative/insurance issues 342/731 (47%) and prescription writing errors 298/731 (41%). The errors were classified as insignificant (340/729 [47%]), problematic (288/729 [40%]), significant (77/729 [11%]), serious (12/729 [1.64%]), and severe (12/729 [1.64%]). Almost 96% of errant prescriptions were not able to be filled as originally written and required a change by the prescriber. These calls required approximately 127 hours to complete. Prescription errors requiring a pharmacy callback are typically insignificant. However, 13.8% of callbacks about an error were considered significant, serious, or severe. Automated dose checking and verifying insurance coverage of prescribed medications should be considered essential components of prescription writing in a PED.

  16. Is this child sick? Usefulness of the Pediatric Assessment Triangle in emergency settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ana; Benito, Javier; Mintegi, Santiago

    The Pediatric Assessment Triangle is a rapid assessment tool that uses only visual and auditory clues, requires no equipment, and takes 30-60s to perform. It's being used internationally in different emergency settings, but few studies have assessed its performance. The aim of this narrative biomedical review is to summarize the literature available regarding the usefulness of the Pediatric Assessment Triangle in clinical practice. The authors carried out a non-systematic review in the PubMed®, MEDLINE®, and EMBASE® databases, searching for articles published between 1999-2016 using the keywords "pediatric assessment triangle," "pediatric triage," "pediatric assessment tools," and "pediatric emergency department." The Pediatric Assessment Triangle has demonstrated itself to be useful to assess sick children in the prehospital setting and make transport decisions. It has been incorporated, as an essential instrument for assessing sick children, into different life support courses, although little has been written about the effectiveness of teaching it. Little has been published about the performance of this tool in the initial evaluation in the emergency department. In the emergency department, the Pediatric Assessment Triangle is useful to identify the children at triage who require more urgent care. Recent studies have assessed and proved its efficacy to also identify those patients having more serious health conditions who are eventually admitted to the hospital. The Pediatric Assessment Triangle is quickly spreading internationally and its clinical applicability is very promising. Nevertheless, it is imperative to promote research for clinical validation, especially for clinical use by emergency pediatricians and physicians. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Examining pediatric emergency home ventilation practices in home health nurses: Opportunities for improved care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun, Sheila S; Beas, Virginia N; Keens, Thomas G; Ward, Sally S L; Gold, Jeffrey I

    2015-07-01

    To assess the pediatric home health nurses' knowledge in tracheostomy and ventilator emergency care on home mechanical ventilation (HMV). Emergencies are frightening experiences for solo home health nurses and require advanced skills in emergency response and care, especially in pediatric patients who pose unique challenges. Nurses with greater years of nursing experience would perform better on emergency HMV case-based scenarios than nurses with less years of experience. An exploratory online survey was used to evaluate emergency case-based pediatric scenarios. Demographic and professional experiences were profiled. Seventy-nine nurses had an average of 6.73 (SD = 1.41) years in pediatric nursing. Over 70% received their HMV training in their agency, 41% had less than 4 years of experience, and 30.4% had encountered at least one emergency situation at home. The online survey was distributed by managers of 22 home health agencies to nurses providing pediatric HMV care. Nurses scored an average of 4.87 out of 10 possible points. There were no significant differences between nurses with nurses favored more training in HMV from a variety of settings (e.g., agency, on-line training). Nurses did not perform well in case-based ventilator alarm scenarios. Length of nursing experience did not differentiate greater knowledge. It is clear that nurses require and want more training in emergency-based HMV. Recommendations for an enhanced curriculum are suggested. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Leading teams during simulated pediatric emergencies: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Coolen EH; Draaisma JM; den Hamer S; Loeffen JL

    2015-01-01

    Ester H Coolen,1 Jos M Draaisma,2 Sabien den Hamer,3 Jan L Loeffen2 1Department of Pediatric Surgery, Amalia Children’s Hospital, Radboud University Medical Center, 2Department of Pediatrics, Amalia Children’s Hospital, Radboud University Medical Center, 3Department of Communication Science, Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands Purpose: Leadership has been identified as a key variable for the functioning of teams and as one of the main reasons for success or fail...

  19. Evaluating the Pediatric Early Warning Score (PEWS) System for Admitted Patients in the Pediatric Emergency Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Delia L.; Mihalov, Leslie K.; Cohen, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The Pediatric Early Warning Score (PEWS) systems were developed to provide a reproducible assessment of a child’s clinical status while hospitalized. Most studies investigating the PEWS evaluate its usefulness in the inpatient setting. Limited studies evaluate the effectiveness and integration of PEWS in the pediatric emergency department (ED). The goal of this study was to explore the test characteristics of an ED-assigned PEWS score for intensive care unit (ICU) admission or clinical deterioration in admitted patients. Methods This was a prospective 12-month observational study of patients, aged 0 to 21 years, admitted from the ED of an urban, tertiary care children’s hospital. ED nurses were instructed in PEWS assignment and electronic medical record (EMR) documentation. Interrater reliability between nurses was evaluated. PEWS scores were measured at initial assessment (P0) and time of admission (P1). Patients were stratified into outcome groups: those admitted to the ICU either from the ED or as transfers from the floor and those admitted to the floor only. Clinical deterioration was defined as transfer to the ICU within 6 hours or within 6 to 24 hours of admission. PEWS scores and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were compared for patients admitted to the floor, ICU, and with clinical deterioration. Results The authors evaluated 12,306 consecutively admitted patients, with 99% having a PEWS documented in the EMR. Interrater reliability was excellent (intraclass coefficient 0.91). A total of 1,300 (10.6%) patients were admitted to the ICU and 11,066 (89.4%) were admitted to the floor. PEWS scores were higher for patients in the ICU group (P0 = 2.8, SD ± 2.4; P1 = 3.2, SD ± 2.4; p < 0.0001) versus floor patients (P0 = 0.7, SD ± 1.2; P1 = 0.5, SD ± 0.9; p < 0.0001). To predict the need for ICU admission, the optimal cutoff points on the ROC are P0 = 1 and P1 = 2, with areas under the ROC curve (AUCs) of 0.79 and 0

  20. Evaluation of the performance of general emergency physicians in pediatric emergencies: Obstructive airway diseases, seizures, and trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Jens C; Ballnus, Sven; Kohl, Martina; Gopel, Wolfgang; Barthel, Michael; Kruger, Uwe; Friedrich, Hans-Jurgen

    2002-12-01

    In the Lübeck region, as is usual in Germany, hospital-based emergency physicians are called for outside emergencies. They evaluate and stabilize patients and transfer them to hospital facilities of their choice (no emergency department system). These physicians are mainly anesthesiologists, surgeons, and internists-not pediatricians. Numerous quality management studies have shown an overall excellent performance of this system, but it has not been evaluated for pediatric emergencies. In a prospective, observational study conducted over a 1-year period, all pediatric emergencies (patient age emergency physician service were studied. A syllabus with standards of care for children with trauma, obstructive airway disease, and seizures was distributed. In accordance with this syllabus, the actions taken were documented by the emergency physicians, and the cases were documented as life threatening or not and were classified as "trauma," "obstructive airway disease," "seizures," or "other" by the admitting pediatric intensivists and surgeons. The admitting attending physician compared these data and evaluated whether the standard management required by the syllabus was followed. A total of 422 pediatric cases out of 11,605 emergencies (3.5%) were recorded (147 [34.8%] trauma patients, 41 [9.7%] patients with obstructive airway disease, and 108 [25.6%] patients with seizures). Of the pediatric patients, 20.5% had life-threatening conditions; three children died before arrival, and the others required treatment in the intensive care unit. In 25% of trauma patients, deficiencies in primary treatment were observed: no documentation of neurologic status in 10.6%, no cervical immobilization in 15% of head trauma patients, and no adequate analgesia in 7%. In 25% of seizure patients, neurologic status was not documented, although treatment was in accordance with the standard of care. The worst results were observed in infants with obstructive airway disease: no documentation of

  1. Comparison of emergency care delivered to children and young adults with complex chronic conditions between pediatric and general emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh Kurowski, Eileen; Byczkowski, Terri; Grupp-Phelan, Jacqueline M

    2014-07-01

    Increasing attention is being paid to medically complex children and young adults, such as those with complex chronic conditions, because they are high consumers of inpatient hospital days and resources. However, little is known about where these children and young adults with complex chronic conditions seek emergency care and if the type of emergency department (ED) influences the likelihood of admission. The authors sought to generate nationwide estimates for ED use by children and young adults with complex chronic conditions and to evaluate if being of the age for transition to adult care significantly affects the site of care and likelihood of hospital admission. This was a cross-sectional study using discharge data from the 2008 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to evaluate visits to either pediatric or general EDs by pediatric-aged patients (17 years old or younger) and transition-aged patients (18 to 24 years old) with at least one complex chronic condition. The main outcome measures were hospital admission, ED charges for treat-and-release visits, and total charges for admitted patients. In 2008, 69% of visits by pediatric-aged and 92% of visits by transition-aged patients with multiple complex chronic conditions occurred in general EDs. Not surprisingly, pediatric age was the strongest predictor of seeking care in a pediatric ED (odds ratio [OR] = 15.86; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 12.3 to 20.5). Technology dependence (OR = 1.56; 95% CI =1.2 to 2.0) and presence of multiple complex chronic conditions (OR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.2 to 1.6) were also associated with higher odds of seeking care in a pediatric ED. When controlling for patient and hospital characteristics, type of ED was not a significant predictor of admission (p = 0.87) or total charges (p = 0.26) in either age group. Overall, this study shows that, despite their complexity, the vast majority

  2. Integrating pediatric hospitalists in the academic health science center: practice and perceptions in a Canadian center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahant, Sanjay; Mekky, Magda; Parkin, Patricia

    2010-04-01

    The integration of hospitalists in academic settings has been identified as a challenge to the hospitalist movement. The Division of Pediatric Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, was established in 1981, providing a rich resource to examine this field in the academic context and inform academic program development. To explore the characteristics, practice, perceptions, and contributions of pediatric hospital medicine in an academic health science center (AHSC). A cross-sectional survey of physicians attending on the pediatric medicine inpatient unit (PMIU) (n = 20). Clinical activity included attending on the PMIU, consultation and comanagement outside the PMIU, and outpatient care of "hospital intense" patients. There was a high level of engagement in research, education, and quality improvement activities. Perceived advantages to a career as a hospitalist included: working in a team; generalist approach to care; stability relative to community practice; intellectually stimulating and rewarding work; and growing area for scholarship. Perceived disadvantages to a career as a hospitalist included: burnout; recognition and respect; and lack of long-term relationships with patients. Themes regarding barriers to establishing a career as a hospitalist in an AHSC were as follows: burnout; time and skills to develop an academic niche; balance between clinical and academic priorities; and system for career advancement. The contributions of pediatric hospitalists to the academic mission were diverse. Fellowship training, faculty development, and balance between time allocated to direct patient care and academic pursuits should be defined. This will help ensure career development, viability, and realization of excellence in the academic context. (c) 2010 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  3. Accountability and pediatric physician-researchers: are theoretical models compatible with Canadian lived experience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czoli Christine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Physician-researchers are bound by professional obligations stemming from both the role of the physician and the role of the researcher. Currently, the dominant models for understanding the relationship between physician-researchers' clinical duties and research duties fit into three categories: the similarity position, the difference position and the middle ground. The law may be said to offer a fourth "model" that is independent from these three categories. These models frame the expectations placed upon physician-researchers by colleagues, regulators, patients and research participants. This paper examines the extent to which the data from semi-structured interviews with 30 physician-researchers at three major pediatric hospitals in Canada reflect these traditional models. It seeks to determine the extent to which existing models align with the described lived experience of the pediatric physician-researchers interviewed. Ultimately, we find that although some physician-researchers make references to something like the weak version of the similarity position, the pediatric-researchers interviewed in this study did not describe their dual roles in a way that tightly mirrors any of the existing theoretical frameworks. We thus conclude that either physician-researchers are in need of better training regarding the nature of the accountability relationships that flow from their dual roles or that models setting out these roles and relationships must be altered to better reflect what we can reasonably expect of physician-researchers in a real-world environment.

  4. Documentation of pediatric drug safety in manufacturers' product monographs: a cross-sectional evaluation of the canadian compendium of pharmaceuticals and specialities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Navjeet K; Dupuis, Lee L; Parshuram, Christopher S

    2008-01-01

    To describe the provision of pediatric drug safety information in a national formulary of manufacturers' drug product monographs. We performed a cross-sectional evaluation of comprehensive product monographs contained in the 2005 Canadian Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialities (CPS). We abstracted data describing indications for prescription, statements about pediatric safety, available preparations, and provision of dosing guidelines. For each monograph we classified pediatric safety data as either present, present but limited or absent. We then described the pediatric safety data in CPS monographs for drugs listed in the published formulary of the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. A total of 2232 product monographs were screened; 684 were excluded and 1548 (66%) were further analyzed. 1462 (94%) had indications that did not exclude children. Pediatric safety information was present in 592 (38%), present but limited in 148 (10%), and absent in 808 (52%) drug monographs. Safety statements were absent in 224 (14%) drug monographs that provided both dosing guidelines and formulations suitable for administration to children, and in 214 (52%) of 411 drugs in the pediatric hospital formulary. We evaluated a widely available national source of pediatric prescribing information. Safety data for children was not mentioned in more than half of the product monographs. Moreover, the provision of safety data was discordant with indications for prescription, the availability of pediatric formulations, and dosing guidelines within the monographs, and with inclusion in a pediatric hospital formulary. Our study suggests that the presentation of pediatric safety data in drug product monographs can be improved to better inform prescribing and to optimize pharmacotherapy in children.

  5. Pediatric AIDS/HIV Infection: An Emerging Challenge to Pediatric Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Roberta A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The increasing number of cases of pediatric Acquired Immonodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) presents unique issues for psychologists in the areas of prevention, clinical treatment, public education, research, neuropsychological effects, psychoneuroimmunology, and ethical concerns. (Author/DB)

  6. Emergence of the Primary Pediatric Stroke Center: Impact of the Thrombolysis in Pediatric Stroke Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bernard, Timothy J; Rivkin, Michael J; Scholz, Kelley; deVeber, Gabrielle; Kirton, Adam; Gill, Joan Cox; Chan, Anthony K; Hovinga, Collin A; Ichord, Rebecca N; Grotta, James C; Jordan, Lori C; Benedict, Susan; Friedman, Neil R; Dowling, Michael M; Elbers, Jorina; Torres, Marcela; Sultan, Sally; Cummings, Dana D; Grabowski, Eric F; McMillan, Hugh J; Beslow, Lauren A; Amlie-Lefond, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    ..., including use of thrombolytic therapy. RESULTS—Before 2004, TIPS sites had continuous 24-hour availability of acute stroke teams, MRI capability, or stroke order sets, despite significant pediatric stroke expertise...

  7. Leading teams during simulated pediatric emergencies: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, E.H.; Draaisma, J.M.T.; Hamer, S. den; Loeffen, J.L.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Leadership has been identified as a key variable for the functioning of teams and as one of the main reasons for success or failure of team-based work systems. Pediatricians often function as team leaders in the resuscitation of a critically ill child. However, pediatric residents often

  8. Epidemiology of Pediatric Bite/Sting Injuries. One-Year Study of a Pediatric Emergency Department in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Hemmo-Lotem

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal bite/sting injuries are a known source of morbidity with a significantly higher incidence among children who are most often bitten in the face, head, and neck. The objective of this study was to provide a better understanding of bite/sting injuries treated at the pediatric emergency department in order to guide preventive efforts.The sociodemographic, epidemiological, and clinical data on all bite/sting injuries treated in one representative pediatric emergency department in Israel over a 1-year period were retrieved and analyzed. Two hundred of the 9,309 pediatric trauma cases treated in the emergency department were bite/sting injuries (2.1%. Non-Jewish patients were under-represented in this subgroup. The majority of patients were males (61.5%. Age distribution from 0–12 years was fairly even, except for an unexplained peak at 8 years. Dogs inflicted 56%, cats 11%, and hornets 9.5% of the injuries. Limbs were affected in 64% and the head and neck in 27%. Specialists, mostly plastic surgeons, were consulted in 42 cases (21%. The incidence rate for hospitalization (7% was similar to that seen in other types of injuries. Children with scorpion or hornet stings and young age were more likely to be hospitalized. Preventive and educational aspects are discussed.

  9. Relationship between Canadian medical school student career interest in emergency medicine and postgraduate training disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Laban, Riyad B; Scott, Ian M; Gowans, Margot C

    2017-06-01

    Canada has two independent routes of emergency medicine (EM) training and certification. This unique situation may encourage medical students with EM career aspirations to apply to family medicine (FM) residencies to subsequently acquire College of Family Physicians of Canada (CFPC) training and certification in EM. We sought answers to the following: 1) Are medical students who indicate EM as their top career choice on medical school entry, and then complete a FM residency, more likely to undertake subsequent CFPC-EM training than other FM residents who did not indicate EM as their top career choice; and 2) What are the characteristics of medical students in four predefined groups, based upon their early interest in EM as a career and ultimate postgraduate training disposition. Data were accessed from a survey of medical students in 11 medical school classes from eight Canadian universities and anonymously linked to information from the Canadian Residency Matching Service between 2006 and 2009. Of 1036 participants, 63 (6.1%) named EM as their top career choice on medical school entry. Of these, 10 ultimately matched to a Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) EM residency program, and 24 matched to a FM residency program, nine of whom went on to do a one-year CFPC-EM residency program in contrast to 57 of the remaining 356 students matching to FM residency programs who did not indicate EM was their top career choice (37.5% vs 16.0%, p=0.007). Statistically significant attitudinal differences related to the presence or absence of EM career interest on medical school entry were found. Considering those who complete CFPC-EM training, a greater proportion indicate on admission to medical school that EM is their top career choice compared to those who do not. Moreover, students with an early career interest in EM are similar for several attitudinal factors independent of their ultimate postgraduate training disposition. Given the current issues and

  10. Barriers to Effective Teamwork Relating to Pediatric Resuscitations: Perceptions of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Joshua M; Chang, Todd P; Ziv, Nurit; Nager, Alan L

    2017-10-09

    In the pediatric emergency department (PED), resuscitations require medical teams form ad hoc, rarely communicating beforehand. Literature has shown that the medical community has deficiencies in communication and teamwork. However, we as medical providers do not know or understand the perceived barriers of our colleagues. Physicians may perceive a barrier that is different from nurses, respiratory therapists, pharmacists, or technicians. Perhaps we do not know in which area of teamwork and communication we are deficient. Only when we understand the perceptions of our fellow coworkers can we take steps toward improvement in quality resuscitations and therefore patient safety. The primary objectives of this study were to describe and understand the perceived barriers to effective communication and teamwork among different disciplines forming spontaneous resuscitation teams at a tertiary urban PED and to determine if providers of different disciplines perceived these barriers differently. This was a mixed-methods study conducted in a single, tertiary care freestanding children's hospital emergency department. Survey questions were iteratively developed to measure the construct of barriers and best practices within resuscitation teamwork, which was administered to staff among 5 selected roles: physicians, nurses, respiratory technicians, PED technicians, and PED pharmacists. It contained open-ended questions to provide statements on specific barriers or goals in effective teamwork, as well as a priority ranking on 25 different statements on teamwork extracted from the literature. From the participant data, 9 core themes related to resuscitation teamwork were coalesced using affinity diagramming by the authors. All statements from the survey were coded to the 9 core themes by 2 authors, with high reliability (κ = 0.93). Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the prevalence of themes mentioned by survey participants. A χ test was used to determine differences

  11. A call to arms: the emergency physician, international perspectives on firearm injury prevention and the Canadian gun control debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, H; Drummond, A

    1999-01-01

    There are more than seven million firearms in Canada and approximately 1400 firearm-related deaths per year. These figures are far greater than those for most European countries, but far less than those for the United States. This article will discuss the different classes of firearm deaths and the associated costs. Public health issues will be explored, especially as they relate to the involvement of the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians, as well as injury control recommendations.

  12. Pattern of burns identified in the Pediatrics Emergency Department at King Abdul-Aziz Medical City: Riyadh

    OpenAIRE

    Alharthy, Nesrin; Al Mutairi, Mohammad; AlQueflie, Sulaiman; Nefesa, Aminah Bin; Manie, Najd Bin; Nafesa, Salahaldin Bin; Al Zahrani, Fawaz Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of the study was to report the incidence of pediatric burn injuries and describe the pattern and the trend of pediatrics burns seen in King Abdul-Aziz Medical City. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Data collected through chart review of pediatrics patients aged 1-month to 14 years who presented with a burn injury to the pediatric emergency department during the year 2013. Burn patients were divided into two groups based on the percentage of...

  13. Evaluation and management of pediatric hypertensive crises: hypertensive urgency and hypertensive emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel NH

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Nirali H Patel,1 Sarah K Romero,2 David C Kaelber31Division of Emergency Medicine, Akron Children's Hospital, Akron, OH, USA; 2Division of Emergency Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, Cleveland, OH, USA; 3Departments of Information Services, Internal Medicine, Pediatrics, and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, The Center for Clinical Informatics Research and Education, The MetroHealth System and School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland OH, USAAbstract: Hypertension (HTN in the pediatric population is estimated to have a world-wide prevalence of 2%-5%. As with adults, pediatric patients with HTN can present with hypertensive crises include hypertensive urgency and hypertensive emergencies. However, pediatric blood pressure problems have a greater chance of being from secondary causes of HTN, as opposed to primary HTN, than in adults. Thorough evaluation of a child with a hypertensive emergency includes accurate blood pressure readings, complete and focused symptom history, and appropriate past medical, surgical, and family history. Physical exam should include height, weight, four-limb blood pressures, a general overall examination and especially detailed cardiovascular and neurological examinations, including fundoscopic examination. Initial work-up should typically include electrocardiography, chest X-ray, serum chemistries, complete blood count, and urinalysis. Initial management of hypertensive emergencies generally includes the use of intravenous or oral antihypertensive medications, as well as appropriate, typically outpatient, follow-up. Emergency department goals for hypertensive crises are to (1 safely lower blood pressure, and (2 treat/minimize acute end organ damage, while (3 identifying underlying etiology. Intravenous antihypertensive medications are the treatment modality of choice for hypertensive emergencies with the goal of reducing systolic blood pressure by 25% of the original value over an 8

  14. The effect of North Carolina hospital payor mix on dental-related pediatric emergency room utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Jacqueline M; Burgette, Lane F; Lee, Jessica Y

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effect of hospital payor mix on the proportion of pediatric emergency department (ED) visits that were dental related. We used the North Carolina (NC) Emergency Room Discharge Database from 2007 to 2009 to estimate the relationship between the percent of pediatric ED patients that were covered by Medicaid and the percent of pediatric ED visits that were dental related. Hospital-level fixed effects controlled for unobserved hospital-level characteristics. Discharge claims from 110 ED facilities in NC were analyzed over the 3-year study period. Claims were limited to individuals under 18 years old with dental disease-related International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification diagnostic codes, 520.00-530.00. Using 327 hospital-years of data, 62 percent of ED visits for pediatric dental reasons were covered by Medicaid, a proportion over two times greater than for pediatric reasons overall, 26 percent. Hospitals with a greater proportion of Medicaid payors had a greater proportion of pediatric dental ED visits (P dental services. Public health administrators should prioritize oral health resources at hospital communities with a high proportion of Medicaid payors. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  15. A Canadian Study toward Changing Local Practice in the Diagnosis of Pediatric Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Rajani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition endorses serological diagnosis (SD for pediatric celiac disease (CD. The objective of this study was to pilot SD and to prospectively evaluate gastrointestinal permeability and mucosal inflammation at diagnosis and after one year on the gluten-free diet (GFD. We hypothesized that SD would be associated with similar short term outcomes as ED. Method. Children, 3–17 years of age, referred for possible CD were eligible for SD given aTTG level ≥200 U/mL, confirmed by repeat aTTG and HLA haplotypes. Gastrointestinal permeability, assessed using sugar probes, and inflammation, assessed using fecal calprotectin (FC, at baseline and after one year on a GFD were compared to patients who had ED. Results. Enrolled SD (n=40 and ED (n=48 patients had similar demographics. ED and SD groups were not different in baseline lactulose: mannitol ratio (L : M (0.049 versus 0.034; p=0.07, fractional excretion of sucrose (%FES; 0.086 versus 0.092; p=0.44, or fecal calprotectin (FC; 89.6 versus 51.4; p=0.05. At follow-up, urine permeability improved and was similar between groups, L : M (0.022 versus 0.025; p=0.55 and %FES (0.040 versus 0.047; p=0.87 (p>0.05. FC improved but remained higher in the SD group (37.1 versus 15.9; p=0.04. Conclusion. Patients on the GFD showed improved intestinal permeability and mucosal inflammation regardless of diagnostic strategy. This prospective study supports that children diagnosed by SD have resolving mucosal disease early after commencing a GFD.

  16. A survey on the graduates from the combined emergency medicine/pediatric residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolridge, Dale P; Lichenstein, Richard

    2007-02-01

    The guidelines for dual training in Emergency Medicine (EM) and Pediatrics over a 5-year program have long existed. Many have questioned the benefit of such training in relation to either specialty and in relation to Pediatric Emergency Medicine (PEM) sub-specialty training. We report on the professional outcome, career focus, and job satisfaction of these graduates. Surveys were returned from 91% (n = 29) of graduates, all of whom reported completing either of the two combined training programs. All respondents reported practicing in an emergency medicine setting either with or without an additional pediatric emphasis. Fifty-nine percent reported an academic EM affiliation. Almost all (96.5%) would choose to repeat combined training and all reported they would recommend the combined program to medical students interested in Pediatrics and EM. Combined graduates report a high level of satisfaction with their training and overwhelmingly would recommend such training to medical students. Combined graduates seem to universally work in an ED setting, although a number maintain their pediatric involvement. Over half of the graduates participate in academic EM.

  17. Factors Associated With Discharge Home After Transfer to a Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, Erin R; Miller, Michael R; Lynch, Tim P; Tijssen, Janice A

    2017-03-21

    The transfer of children from community emergency departments (EDs) to tertiary care pediatric EDs for investigations, interventions, or a second opinion is common. In order to improve health care system efficiency, we must have a better understanding of this population and identify areas for education and capacity building. We conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients (aged 0-17 years) who were transferred from community ED to a pediatric ED from November 2013 to November 2014. The primary outcome was the frequency of referred patients who were discharged home from the pediatric ED. Two hundred four patients were transferred from community EDs in the study period. One hundred thirteen children (55.4%) were discharged home from the pediatric ED. Presence of inpatient pediatric services (P = 0.04) at the referral hospital and a respiratory diagnosis (P = 0.03) were independently associated with admission to the children's hospital. In addition, 74 patients (36.5%) had no critically abnormal vital signs at the referral hospital and did not require any special tests, interventions, consultations, or admission to the children's hospital. Younger age (P = 0.03), lack of inpatient pediatric services (P = 0.04), and a diagnosis change (P = 0.03) were independently associated with this outcome. More than half of patients transferred to the pediatric tertiary care ED did not require admission, and more than one third did not require special tests, interventions, consults, or admission. Many of these patients were likely transferred for a second opinion from a pediatric emergency medicine specialist. Education and real-time videoconferencing consultations using telemedicine may help to reduce the frequency of transfers for a second opinion and contribute to cost savings over the long term.

  18. Headache in the pediatric emergency department: A 5-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Roberta; Versace, Antonia; Lauria, Barbara; Grasso, Giulia; Castagno, Emanuele; Ricceri, Fulvio; Pagliero, Rosaura; Urbino, Antonio F

    2017-01-01

    Aim To determine the red flags for serious organic causes of headache in children, to analyze if the management of headache in the Pediatric Emergency Department is appropriate, and whether the follow-up may limit repeated visits to the Emergency Department. Methods All the patients ≤ 18 years referred to our pediatric Emergency Department for non-traumatic headache over 5 years were retrospectively reviewed. The patients followed up by the Pediatric Headache Centre were also screened. Statistical analysis was undertaken using the Chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test and multivariate analysis; significance at p headache, 30.0% had secondary headache, 7.8% received inconsistent diagnosis. Among those with secondary headache, 24 (1.1% of total visits) were diagnosed with serious disorders. The clinical red flags for "serious headache" were: Cranial nerves palsy, strabismus, and drowsiness. One hundred and eighty four patients (8.8 %) underwent neuroimaging (rate of pathological findings: 7.1 %); 37.2 % of the patients received analgesic therapy. One hundred and fifteen patients (6.2 %) returned within three months; 24 of these were referred to the Headache Centre, with only one accessing the Emergency Department again. Conclusions The vast majority of headaches referred to the Pediatric Emergency Department are benign, and primary forms prevail. "Serious headache" is rare and shows typical clinical features and abnormal neurologic evaluation; specific clinical red flags, along with suggestive personal history, should lead the pediatrician to prescribe only appropriate neuroimaging. Pain relief is still insufficient in the Pediatric Emergency Department despite appropriate guidelines. Last, the collaboration with the Headache Centre is crucial to limit repeated visits.

  19. Pediatric Oral Electrical Burns: Incidence of Emergency Department Visits in the United States, 1997-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umstattd, Lauren A; Chang, C W David

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the epidemiology of emergency department visits for pediatric patients presenting with electrical burns to the mouth. Cross-sectional analysis of a national database. National Electronic Injury Surveillance System Database. The Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database was used to derive a national weighted estimate of emergency department visits for oral electrical burns and was queried for each patient's age, sex, race, local of incidence, disposition, and related consumer product. There were an estimated 1042 emergency department visits for pediatric oral electrical burns from 1997 to 2012, or an average of approximately 65.1 cases per year. A total of 59.6% of patients were male. Nearly half of emergency department visits involved patients pediatric oral electrical burns varied substantially within the literature and varied from small case reports to single-year studies. Our multiyear data analysis provides evidence of decreasing annual incidence when compared with historical estimates for a common but potentially morbid injury among the pediatric population. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  20. Self-Efficacy and Select Characteristics in Nurses Who Respond to a Pediatric Emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Nurses at a suburban northeastern U.S. community hospital reported that they felt unprepared to effectively respond to a pediatric emergency. Empirical data were not available to identify if this local problem was due to a lack of the nurses' self-confidence or if other factors were involved. The purpose of this study was to determine if there…

  1. Emergency department management of seizures in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillanes, Genevieve; Luc, Quyen

    2015-03-01

    Seizures account for 1% of all emergency department visits for children, and the etiologies range from benign to life-threatening. The challenge for emergency clinicians is to diagnose and treat the life-threatening causes of seizures while avoiding unnecessary radiation exposure and painful procedures in patients who are unlikely to have an emergent pathology. When treating patients in status epilepticus, emergency clinicians are also faced with the challenge of choosing anticonvulsant medications that will be efficacious while minimizing harmful side effects. Unfortunately, evidence to guide the evaluation and management of children presenting with new and breakthrough seizures and status epilepticus is limited. This review summarizes available evidence and guidelines on the diagnostic evaluation of first-time, breakthrough, and simple and complex febrile seizures. Management of seizures in neonates and seizures due to toxic ingestions is also reviewed.

  2. Emergence of pediatric melioidosis in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnarith, Yos; Kumar, Varun; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Sin, Lina; Day, Nicholas P; Peacock, Sharon J

    2010-06-01

    We describe the first cases of pediatric melioidosis in Cambodia. Thirty-nine cases were diagnosed at the Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, between October 2005 and December 2008 after the introduction of microbiology capabilities. Median age was 7.8 years (range = 1.6-16.2 years), 15 cases were male (38%), and 4 cases had pre-existing conditions that may have pre-disposed the patient to melioidosis. Infection was localized in 27 cases (69%) and disseminated in 12 cases (31%). Eleven cases (28%) were treated as outpatients, and 28 (72%) cases were admitted. Eight children (21%) died a median of 2 days after admission; seven deaths were attributable to melioidosis, all of which occurred in children receiving suboptimal antimicrobial therapy and before bacteriological culture results were available. Our findings indicate the need for heightened awareness of melioidosis in Cambodia, and they have led us to review microbiology procedures and antimicrobial prescribing of suspected and confirmed cases.

  3. Plasmodiophora brassicae: a review of an emerging pathogen of the Canadian canola (Brassica napus) crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sheau-Fang; Strelkov, Stephen E; Feng, Jie; Gossen, Bruce D; Howard, Ron J

    2012-02-01

    Plasmodiophora brassicae causes clubroot disease in cruciferous plants, and is an emerging threat to Canadian canola (Brassica napus) production. This review focuses on recent studies into the pathogenic diversity of P. brassicae populations, mechanisms of pathogenesis and resistance, and the development of diagnostic tests for pathogen detection and quantification. Plasmodiophora brassicae is a soil-borne, obligate parasite within the class Phytomyxea (plasmodiophorids) of the protist supergroup Rhizaria. Clubroot development is characterized by the formation of club-shaped galls on the roots of affected plants. Above-ground symptoms include wilting, stunting, yellowing and premature senescence. DISEASE CYCLE: Plasmodiophora brassicae first infects the root hairs, producing motile zoospores that invade the cortical tissue. Secondary plasmodia form within the root cortex and, by triggering the expression of genes involved in the production of auxins, cytokinins and other plant growth regulators, divert a substantial proportion of plant resources into hypertrophic growth of the root tissues, resulting in the formation of galls. The secondary plasmodia are cleaved into millions of resting spores and the root galls quickly disintegrate, releasing long-lived resting spores into the soil. A serine protease, PRO1, has been shown to trigger resting spore germination. PHYSIOLOGICAL SPECIALIZATION: Physiological specialization occurs in populations of P. brassicae, and various host differential sets, consisting of different collections of Brassica genotypes, are used to distinguish among pathotypes of the parasite. DETECTION AND QUANTIFICATION: As P. brassicae cannot be cultured, bioassays with bait plants were traditionally used to detect the pathogen in the soil. More recent innovations for the detection and quantification of P. brassicae include the use of antibodies, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and qPCR in conjunction with signature fatty acid analysis

  4. Emergency Department Management of Pediatric Unprovoked Seizures and Status Epilepticus in the State of Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Connie; Piantino, Juan; Hageman, Joseph; Lyons, Evelyn; Janies, Kathryn; Leonard, Daniel; Kelley, Kent; Fuchs, Susan

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this survey and record review was to characterize emergency department management of unprovoked seizures and status epilepticus in children in Illinois. The survey was sent to 119 participating emergency departments in the Emergency Medical Services for Children program; responses were received from 103 (88% response rate). Only 44% of the emergency departments had a documented protocol for seizure management. Only 12% of emergency departments had child neurology consultation available at all times. Record review showed that 58% of patients were discharged home, 26% were transferred to another institution, and 10% were admitted to a non-intensive care unit setting. Ninety percent of patients were treated with anticonvulsants. Seizure education was provided by the primary emergency department nurse (97%) and the treating physician (79%). This project demonstrated strengths and weaknesses in the current management of pediatric seizure patients in Illinois emergency departments. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Advanced training in pediatric emergency medicine in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, and Australia : An international comparison and resources guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babl, FE; Weiner, DL; Bhanji, F; Davies, F; Berry, K; Barnett, P

    Pediatric emergency medicine is an important subspecialty of pediatrics and emergency medicine. It is a well-established subspecialty in some countries and less well developed or evolving in others. We set out to develop a resource guide and document the current status of pediatric emergency

  6. Musculoskeletal imaging in pediatric emergencies: the basics through three clinical scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés Iñigo, E F; Guasp Vizcaíno, M; Gómez Fernández-Montes, J

    2016-05-01

    A high percentage of the pediatric imaging studies requested during calls are related to musculoskeletal disease. Since bones and joints in children are immature, constantly growing and remodeling, they have physiological and anatomical peculiarities that make it necessary to use an approach specific for pediatric patients. In this article, we use three clinical scenarios (limping, fractures, and musculoskeletal infections) to summarize and transmit the concepts that are essential in emergency musculoskeletal imaging in children. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. The culture of patient safety from the perspective of the pediatric emergency nursing team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taise Rocha Macedo

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To identify the patient safety culture in pediatric emergencies from the perspective of the nursing team. METHOD A quantitative, cross-sectional survey research study with a sample composed of 75 professionals of the nursing team. Data was collected between September and November 2014 in three Pediatric Emergency units by applying the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture instrument. Data were submitted to descriptive analysis. RESULTS Strong areas for patient safety were not found, with areas identified having potential being: Expectations and actions from supervisors/management to promote patient safety and teamwork. Areas identified as critical were: Non-punitive response to error and support from hospital management for patient safety. The study found a gap between the safety culture and pediatric emergencies, but it found possibilities of transformation that will contribute to the safety of pediatric patients. CONCLUSION Nursing professionals need to become protagonists in the process of replacing the current paradigm for a culture focused on safety. The replication of this study in other institutions is suggested in order to improve the current health care scenario.

  8. Advances in point-of-care ultrasound in pediatric emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Rachel A; Levy, Jason A

    2014-06-01

    Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has become an integral part of emergency medicine practice. Research evaluating POCUS in the care of pediatric patients has improved the understanding of its potential role in clinical care. Recent work has investigated the ability of pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) physicians to perform a wide array of diagnostic and procedural applications in POCUS ultrasound. Studies have demonstrated that PEM providers are able to identify an array of diseases, including intussusception, pyloric stenosis and appendicitis. Novel applications of ultrasound, such as a cardiac evaluation in the acutely ill patient or identification of skull fractures in the assessment of a patient with head injury, have shown excellent promise in recent studies. These novel applications have the potential to reshape pediatric diagnostic algorithms. Key applications in PEM have been investigated in the recent publications. Further exploration of the ability to integrate ultrasound into routine practice will require larger-scale studies and continued growth of education in the field. The use of ultrasound in clinical practice has the potential to improve safety and efficiency of care in the pediatric emergency department.

  9. Evaluation and management of pediatric hypertensive crises: hypertensive urgency and hypertensive emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nirali H; Romero, Sarah K; Kaelber, David C

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) in the pediatric population is estimated to have a world-wide prevalence of 2%–5%. As with adults, pediatric patients with HTN can present with hypertensive crises include hypertensive urgency and hypertensive emergencies. However, pediatric blood pressure problems have a greater chance of being from secondary causes of HTN, as opposed to primary HTN, than in adults. Thorough evaluation of a child with a hypertensive emergency includes accurate blood pressure readings, complete and focused symptom history, and appropriate past medical, surgical, and family history. Physical exam should include height, weight, four-limb blood pressures, a general overall examination and especially detailed cardiovascular and neurological examinations, including fundoscopic examination. Initial work-up should typically include electrocardiography, chest X-ray, serum chemistries, complete blood count, and urinalysis. Initial management of hypertensive emergencies generally includes the use of intravenous or oral antihypertensive medications, as well as appropriate, typically outpatient, follow-up. Emergency department goals for hypertensive crises are to (1) safely lower blood pressure, and (2) treat/minimize acute end organ damage, while (3) identifying underlying etiology. Intravenous antihypertensive medications are the treatment modality of choice for hypertensive emergencies with the goal of reducing systolic blood pressure by 25% of the original value over an 8-hour period. PMID:27147865

  10. PROFILE OF PATIENTS AT PEDIATRIC EMERGENCY SERVICES SOETOMO HOSPITAL SURABAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Dharmawati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Installation service system at the Emergency Department (ED Soetomo Hospital is a coordinated and integrated system under one roof. Include emergency medical and emergency surgery in a very important component of health services at each hospital. The information published on the patient profile and the usefulness of emergency care services indeveloping countries and developed countries is still very rare. This study aimed to describe the characteristic of patients attending the ED at Soetomo hospital Surabaya. Method: This study was a retrospective study. The profile of patients visiting the ED for 1 year were recorded and presented descriptively. Result: The total number of patients visiting the hospital was 5,835, with a monthly average of 486 patients. The children at the age of 1–5 years presented the largest age group (33.6%. The main diagnosis was respiratory tract infection (31%, diarrhea (17.%, followed by seizure (12.4%. The overall mortality rate was 1.7%. Discussion: Respiratory tract infection in children at the age of 1–5 years still count as a major problem at Soetomo Hospital Surabaya.

  11. Pattern and outcome of postneonatal pediatric emergencies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: This was a 2‑year retrospective study (March 2012 to February 2014) involving all children admitted into the children emergency room (CHER). Information on the patients' ... There is an urgent need to create public awareness on the need to seek prompt medical attention for sick children. Key words: ...

  12. Clinical analysis of pediatric patients who visited Masan Samsung Emergency Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Wook Yoo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Through a clinical and retrospective analysis of pediatric patients who visited the Regional Emergency Medical Center of Masan Samsung Hospital from January 2007 to December 2008, we characterized pediatric and adolescent emergency patients to improve emergency care in future. Methods : We reviewed the medical records of 14,065 pediatric patients below 19 years of age. Results : The male to female ratio was 1.5:1, and the most common age group was less than 3 years (49.6%. The peak month was May (10.0%, the peak day of the week was Sunday (24.7%, and the peak time of day was 20:00&#8211;20:59 (8.5%. There was no difference in the number of visits per day based on weather (sunny, rain [below 10 mm per day], snow, and fog or daily temperature difference; however, visits increased on sandy, dusty days and decreased on rainy days with more than 10 mm of rain per day. Based on the international classification of disease (ICD-10 system, the most common disease code was code R (symptoms, sign, and abnormal clinical laboratory finding (31.5%, and the most common symptom was fever (13.1%. Final outcomes were discharged (73.8%, admitted (25.7%, transferred (0.4%, and expired (0.1%. In adolescent patients aged 15&#8211;19 years, the most common disease code was Injury & Poisoning (code S&T, 36.9%; the most common symptom was abdominal pain (9.6%. Conclusion : Pediatric patients visiting the emergency center were most likely to be male and under 3 years of age and to visit between 20:00 and 21:00 on Sundays and in May, and the most common symptom was fever. Differences between adolescents and pediatric patients showed that adolescents had a higher visiting rate with abdominal pain and a larger temperature difference.

  13. Management of pediatric central nervous system emergencies: a review for general radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo Polo, M

    2016-05-01

    To review the most common and most important diseases and disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) in pediatric emergencies, discussing the indications for different imaging tests in each context. In pediatric patients, acute neurologic symptoms (seizures, deteriorating level of consciousness, focal neurologic deficits, etc.) can appear in diverse clinical situations (trauma, child abuse, meningoencephalitis, ischemia…). It is important to decide on the most appropriate neuroimaging diagnostic algorithm for each situation and age group, as well as to know the signs of the most typical lesions that help us in the etiological differential diagnosis. Pediatric patients' increased vulnerability to ionizing radiation and the possible need for sedation in studies that require more time are factors that should be taken into account when indicating an imaging test. It is essential to weigh the risks and benefits for the patient and to avoid unnecessary studies. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of At-Risk Youth by Suicide Screening in a Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Elizabeth D; Cwik, Mary; Van Eck, Kathryn; Goldstein, Mitchell; Alfes, Clarissa; Wilson, Mary Ellen; Virden, Jane M; Horowitz, Lisa M; Wilcox, Holly C

    2017-02-01

    The pediatric emergency department (ED) is a critical location for the identification of children and adolescents at risk for suicide. Screening instruments that can be easily incorporated into clinical practice in EDs to identify and intervene with patients at increased suicide risk is a promising suicide prevention strategy and patient safety objective. This study is a retrospective review of the implementation of a brief suicide screen for pediatric psychiatric ED patients as standard of care. The Ask Suicide Screening Questions (ASQ) was implemented in an urban pediatric ED for patients with psychiatric presenting complaints. Nursing compliance rates, identification of at-risk patients, and sensitivity for repeated ED visits were evaluated using medical records from 970 patients. The ASQ was implemented with a compliance rate of 79 %. Fifty-three percent of the patients who screened positive (237/448) did not present to the ED with suicide-related complaints. These identified patients were more likely to be male, African American, and have externalizing behavior diagnoses. The ASQ demonstrated a sensitivity of 93 % and specificity of 43 % to predict return ED visits with suicide-related presenting complaints within 6 months of the index visit. Brief suicide screening instruments can be incorporated into standard of care in pediatric ED settings. Such screens can identify patients who do not directly report suicide-related presenting complaints at triage and who may be at particular risk for future suicidal behavior. Results have the potential to inform suicide prevention strategies in pediatric EDs.

  15. Analysis of adults with congenital heart disease presenting to pediatric emergency departments with arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Shaun; Moffett, Brady S; Lam, Wilson; de la Uz, Caridad; Miyake, Christina; Valdes, Santiago O; Kim, Jeffrey J

    2017-07-01

    As survivors of congenital heart disease (CHD) continue to age, healthcare utilization by this population has increased. It is unknown how often these patients utilize the emergency department (ED) at children's hospitals and how arrhythmias play a role in their utilization of care. Using a retrospective cohort design, the Pediatric Hospital Information System (PHIS) database was investigated and we studied adults (≥18 years) with CHD (ACHD) who presented to pediatric EDs from 2004 to 2014. Tertiary care pediatric hospitals. Of the 6310 encounters to pediatric EDs, 1594 (25%) were for arrhythmias. The median age was 21 years (IQR 19.1-25.1). The most common tachyarrhythmia diagnoses during the study period were atrial flutter (32%), atrial fibrillation (15%), and paroxysmal VT (10%). Bradyarrhythmias represented a minority of total arrhythmias. Presentation with arrhythmias was associated with an increased risk of admission, ICU care, and death (P pediatric EDs for this cohort has increased. Adults with higher CHD complexity are more likely to present with clinical arrhythmias but there is a growing number of ACHD patients with simple complexity presenting with arrhythmias in recent years. ACHD patients that present with arrhythmias are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Validity Evidence for a Serious Game to Assess Performance on Critical Pediatric Emergency Medicine Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, James M; Scalzo, Anthony J; Borgman, Matthew A; Watson, Christopher M; Byrnes, Chelsie E; Chang, Todd P; Auerbach, Marc; Kessler, David O; Feldman, Brian L; Payne, Brian S; Nibras, Sohail; Chokshi, Riti K; Lopreiato, Joseph O

    2018-01-26

    We developed a first-person serious game, PediatricSim, to teach and assess performances on seven critical pediatric scenarios (anaphylaxis, bronchiolitis, diabetic ketoacidosis, respiratory failure, seizure, septic shock, and supraventricular tachycardia). In the game, players are placed in the role of a code leader and direct patient management by selecting from various assessment and treatment options. The objective of this study was to obtain supportive validity evidence for the PediatricSim game scores. Game content was developed by 11 subject matter experts and followed the American Heart Association's 2011 Pediatric Advanced Life Support Provider Manual and other authoritative references. Sixty subjects with three different levels of experience were enrolled to play the game. Before game play, subjects completed a 40-item written pretest of knowledge. Game scores were compared between subject groups using scoring rubrics developed for the scenarios. Validity evidence was established and interpreted according to Messick's framework. Content validity was supported by a game development process that involved expert experience, focused literature review, and pilot testing. Subjects rated the game favorably for engagement, realism, and educational value. Interrater agreement on game scoring was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.91, 95% confidence interval = 0.89-0.9). Game scores were higher for attendings followed by residents then medical students (Pc game and written test scores (r = 0.84, P game scores to assess knowledge of pediatric emergency medicine resuscitation.

  17. Role of Pediatric Emergency Physicians in Identifying Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Muhammad; Paul, Audrey; Schwartz, Gerald; Pauzé, Denis; Eakin, Paul; Barata, Isabel; Holtzman, Doug; Benjamin, Lee S; Wright, Joseph L; Nickerson, Amanda B; Joseph, Madeline

    2017-02-01

    Bullying is an important public health issue with broad implications. Although this issue has been studied extensively, there is limited emergency medicine literature addressing bullying. The emergency department (ED) physician has a unique opportunity to identify children and adolescents that are victims of bullying, and make a difference in their lives. Our aim is to discuss the role of the emergency physician (EP) in identifying patients who have been victims of bullying and how to provide effective management as well as referral for further resources. This document provides a framework for recognizing, stabilizing, and managing children who have experienced bullying. With the advent of social media, bullying behavior is not limited to in-person situations, and often occurs via electronic communication, further complicating recognition because it may not impart any physical harm to the child. Recognition of bullying requires a high level of suspicion, as patients may not offer this history. After the stabilization of any acute or overt indications of physical injury, along with obtaining a history of the mechanism of injury, the EP has the opportunity to identify the existence of bullying as the cause of the injury, and can address the issue in the ED while collaborating with "physician-extenders," such as social workers, toward identifying local resources for further support. The ED is an important arena for the assessment and management of children who have experienced bullying. It is imperative that EPs on the front lines of patient care address this public health epidemic. They have the opportunity to exert a positive impact on the lives of the children and families who are the victims of bullying. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Ukrainian version of the pediatric Canadian acute respiratory illness and flu scale: a linguistic validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimov SV

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sergei V Gerasimov,1 Halyna A Belova,2 Halyna L Pavuk,2 Ihor M Seniuk,2 Yulia I Strekalina21Lviv National Medical University, Lviv City Children's Hospital, 2The Fifth Lviv Community Outpatient Clinic, Lviv, UkraineBackground: There is no internationally recognized outcome measure for the assessment of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs in children. The only identifiable scale initially developed for pediatric application has been the Canadian acute respiratory illness and flu scale (CARIFS. The aim of our trial was to adapt the English version of the CARIFS to the Ukrainian language.Materials and methods: We performed forward and backward translation of the original version of the CARIFS according to the recommended standard. Then, the final CARIFS-based Ukrainian questionnaires were given to 149 caregivers whose 3–12 years old children suffered from ARTI. The questionnaires were completed twice by a caregiver 3–6 hours apart and once by a physician just after the second completion by a caregiver. The database was analyzed to assess the consistency (the Cronbach's α coefficient, sensitivity (the standardized response mean; the effect size, reliability (test–retest analysis, and validity (Pearson's correlation of the CARIFS in the Ukrainian language.Results: The backward translation of the Ukrainian version of the CARIFS demonstrated its good correspondence to the English version. The Cronbach’s α coefficient was 0.805, and item to total correlation coefficients varied from 0.185 to 0.665. The standardized response mean was 1.73, and the effect size was 2.50 suggesting good sensitivity of the scale. In the test–retest reliability analysis of 99 questionnaires, the median CARIFS score for the first and the second measurement was 19.0 (interquartile range [IQR]: 14.5–25.0 and 19.0 (IQR: 15.0–25.0, respectively, with a median change of 0.0 (IQR: -1.0 to 0.0, P=0.996. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the

  19. Ultrasonography of pediatric urogenital emergencies: review of classic and new techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kitami

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Urogenital emergencies are fairly common in the pediatric population, and a timely and correct diagnosis is necessary to avoid possible future infertility. In this field, ultrasonography is essential, as it has the advantages of being radiation-free and readily accessible. In particular, a high-frequency transducer allows precise evaluation of the morphology and vascularity of the scrotum, which is on the surface of the body. Beyond conventional techniques, new advanced imaging techniques have been developed, including elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. However, several pitfalls remain in the diagnosis of urogenital diseases using ultrasonography. Thus, accurate knowledge and sufficient experience with the technique are essential for making a correct diagnosis. This review provides an overview of pediatric urogenital emergency pathologies and recent ultrasonography techniques.

  20. All that wheezes is not asthma: cognitive bias in pediatric emergency medical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Daniel B; Dobson, Joseph V; Losek, Joseph D

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to highlight the intimate role that cognitive biases play in clinical decision making in the pediatric emergency department and to recommend strategies to limit their negative impact on patient care outcomes. This was a descriptive study of 3 cases of presumed asthma exacerbation evolving into alternate diagnoses. The role cognitive biases played in either delay to diagnosis or missed diagnosis contributing to patient morbidity are illustrated in each case. Common cognitive biases play a role in the unique milieu of the pediatric emergency department. A case series of presumed patients with asthma illustrates how mental shortcuts (heuristics) taken in times of high decision density and uncertainty may lead to diagnostic errors and patient harm. Suggestions to address and prevent cognitive biases are presented.

  1. Ultrasonography of pediatric urogenital emergencies: review of classic and new techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitami, Masahiro [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2017-07-15

    Urogenital emergencies are fairly common in the pediatric population, and a timely and correct diagnosis is necessary to avoid possible future infertility. In this field, ultrasonography is essential, as it has the advantages of being radiation-free and readily accessible. In particular, a high-frequency transducer allows precise evaluation of the morphology and vascularity of the scrotum, which is on the surface of the body. Beyond conventional techniques, new advanced imaging techniques have been developed, including elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. However, several pitfalls remain in the diagnosis of urogenital diseases using ultrasonography. Thus, accurate knowledge and sufficient experience with the technique are essential for making a correct diagnosis. This review provides an overview of pediatric urogenital emergency pathologies and recent ultrasonography techniques.

  2. Development and assessment of a pediatric emergency medicine simulation and skills rotation: meeting the demands of a large pediatric clerkship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine K. Fielder

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To implement a curriculum using simulation and skills training to augment a Pediatric Emergency Medicine (PEM rotation within a pediatric clerkship. Background: PEM faculty are often challenged with a high learner to teacher ratio in a chaotic clinical setting. This challenge was heightened when our pediatric clerkship's traditional 1-week PEM rotation (consisting of 4 students completing four 8-hour ED shifts/week expanded to 8 students every 2 weeks. We sought to meet this challenge by integrating simulation-based education into the rotation. Methods: Clerkship students from March to June 2012 completed our traditional rotation. Students between July and October 2012 completed the new PEM-SIM curriculum with 19 hours ED shifts/week and 16 hours/week of simulation/skills training. Pre/post-tests evaluated 1 medical management/procedural comfort (five-point Likert scale; and 2 PEM knowledge (15 multiple-choice questions. Results: One hundred and nine students completed the study (48 traditional, 61 PEM-SIM. Improvement in comfort was significantly higher for the PEM-SIM group than the traditional group for 6 of 8 (75% medical management items (p<0.05 and 3 of 7 (43% procedures, including fracture splinting, lumbar puncture, and abscess incision/drainage (p<0.05. PEM-SIM students had significantly more improvement in mean knowledge compared to the traditional group (p<0.001. Conclusions: We have successfully integrated 16 hours/week of faculty-facilitated simulation-based education into a PEM rotation within our clerkship. This curriculum is beneficial in clinical settings with high learner to teacher ratios and when patient care experiences alone are insufficient for all students to meet rotation objectives.

  3. Spirometry and PRAM severity score changes during pediatric acute asthma exacerbation treatment in a pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Donald H; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Hartert, Tina V

    2013-03-01

    To examine the time-dependent changes of spirometry (percent-predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second [%FEV(1)]) and the Pediatric Respiratory Assessment Measure (PRAM) during the treatment of acute asthma exacerbations. We conducted a prospective study of participants aged 5-17 years with acute asthma exacerbations managed in a Pediatric Emergency Department. %FEV(1) and the PRAM were recorded pretreatment and at 2 and 4 hours. We examined responses at 2 and 4 hours following treatment and assessed whether the changes of %FEV(1) and of the PRAM differed during the first and the second 2-hour treatment periods. Among 503 participants, median [interquartile range, IQR] age was 8.8 [6.9, 11.4], 61% were male, and 63% were African-American. There was significant mean change of %FEV(1) during the first (+15.4%; 95% CI 13.7 to 17.1; p spirometry does not. This suggests that spirometry and clinical severity scores do not have similar trajectories and that clinical severity scores may be more sensitive to clinical change of acute asthma severity than spirometry.

  4. [Adolescents consulting at the pediatric emergency room for psychological or psychiatric reasons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlipski, M-A; Peuch, A-C; Belloncle, V; Rigal, S; Grall-Lerosay, M; Castanet, M; Mallet, E; Marguet, C; Gérardin, P

    2014-01-01

    The number of pediatric emergency consultations for psychological or psychiatric reasons continues to rise, raising the question of the adequacy of existing facilities. Our aim was therefore to identify and characterize a population of adolescents consulting at the pediatric emergency unit at Rouen university hospital. This study was conducted from 1 January to 31 December 2006. We distinguished three types of variables in adolescents consulting at the pediatric emergency unit. The main objective was to describe the profile and requirements of these young patients and their subsequent care management as compared to that of other studies. Of the 400 patients consulting over 12years of age, 69% were female and the average age was 13.8years. These cases were mainly attempted suicide in girls and conduct disorder in boys; hospitalization was at the request of the family. These consultations were directly linked to the school calendar and 70% required hospitalization. We both analyzed and compared the results of this study to those of other studies to propose solutions to improve the care of these young patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Seasonal Variation in Emergency Department Visits Among Pediatric Headache Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakalnis, A; Heyer, G L

    2016-09-01

    To ascertain whether seasonal variation occurs in emergency department (ED) visits for headache among children and adolescents. A retrospective review was conducted using the electronic medical records of ED visits for headache at a tertiary children's hospital through calendar years 2010-2014. Using ICD-9 diagnostic codes for headache and migraine, the numbers of headache visits were determined and compared by season and during school months vs summer months. A total of 6572 headache visits occurred. Headache visits increased during the fall season (133 ± 27 visits per month) compared with other seasons (101 ± 19 visits per month), P ≤ .002, but did not differ when comparing school months (113 ± 25 visits per month) and summer months (100 ± 24 visits per month), P = .1. The corresponding increase in ED visits during the fall season coincides with the start of the school year. Academic stressors and the change in daily schedule may lead to more headaches and more ED headache visits among school-aged youth. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  6. Pediatric head trauma: the evidence regarding indications for emergent neuroimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuppermann, Nathan [UC Davis Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine, Sacramento, CA (United States); University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Departments of Emergency Medicine and Pediatrics, Davis, CA (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of childhood death and disability worldwide. In the United States, childhood head trauma results in approximately 3,000 deaths, 50,000 hospitalizations, and 650,000 emergency department (ED) visits annually. Children presenting to the ED with seemingly minor head trauma account for approximately one-half of children with documented TBIs. Despite the frequency and importance of childhood minor head trauma, there exists no highly accurate, reliable and validated clinical scoring system or prediction rule for assessing risk of TBI among those with minor head trauma. At the same time, use of CT scanning in these children in recent years has increased substantially. The major benefit of CT scanning is early identification (and treatment) of TBIs that might otherwise be missed and result in increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Unnecessary CT imaging, however, exposes the child needlessly to the risk of radiation-induced malignancies. What constitutes appropriate criteria for obtaining CT scans in children after minor blunt head trauma remains controversial. Current evidence to guide clinicians in this regard is limited; however, large studies performed in multi-center research networks have recently been conducted. These studies should provide the foundation of evidence to guide CT decisions by clinicians, help identify TBIs in a timely fashion, and reduce unnecessary radiation exposure. (orig.)

  7. Parent-Reported Penicillin Allergy Symptoms in the Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyles, David; Chiu, Asriani; Simpson, Pippa; Nimmer, Mark; Adams, Juan; Brousseau, David C

    2017-04-01

    Children often present to the pediatric emergency department (ED) with a reported penicillin allergy. The true incidence of pediatric penicillin allergy is low, and patients may be inappropriately denied first-line antibiotics. We hypothesized that more than 70% of reported penicillin allergies in the pediatric ED are low risk for true allergy. Parents of children presenting to the pediatric ED with parent-reported penicillin allergy completed an allergy questionnaire. The questionnaire included age at allergy diagnosis, symptoms of allergy, and time to allergic reaction from first dose. The allergy symptoms were dichotomized into high and low risk in consultation with a pediatric allergist before questionnaire implementation. A total of 605 parents were approached; 500 (82.6%) completed the survey. The median (interquartile range) age of the children at diagnosis was 1 year (7 months, 2 years); 75% were diagnosed before their third birthday. Overall, 380 (76%) (95% confidence interval 72.3, 79.7) children had exclusively low-risk symptoms. The most commonly reported symptoms were rash (466, 92.8%) and itching (203, 40.6%). Of the 120 children with one or more high-risk symptom, facial swelling (50, 10%) was the most common. Overall, 354 children (71%) were diagnosed after their first exposure to penicillin. Symptom onset within 24 hours of medication administration occurred in 274 children (54.8%). Seventy-six percent of patients with parent-reported penicillin allergy have symptoms unlikely to be consistent with true allergy. Determination of true penicillin allergy in patients with low-risk symptoms may permit the increased use of first-line penicillin antibiotics. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The influence of insurance type on interfacility pediatric emergency department transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Chris A; Pryor, Stephanie; Choi, Ben; Senthil, Mamata V; Tsarouhas, Nicholas; Myers, Sage R; Monuteaux, Michael C; Bachur, Richard G; Li, Joyce

    2017-12-01

    Disparities exist in the care children receive in the emergency department (ED) based on their insurance type. It is unknown if these differences exist among children transferred from outside EDs to pediatric tertiary care EDs. To compare reasons for transfer and services received at pediatric tertiary care EDs between children with private and public insurance. We performed a secondary analysis of a multicenter survey of ED providers transferring patients to pediatric tertiary care EDs in three major U.S. cities. Risk differences (RD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to compare reasons for transfer and care received at pediatric tertiary care EDs based on insurance type. There were 561 surveys completed by transferring providers describing reasons for transfer to pediatric tertiary care EDs with 52.2% of patients with private insurance and 47.8% with public insurance. We found no significant differences between privately and publicly insured children in reason for transfer for subspecialty consultation or need for admission. We found no significant differences in frequency of admission, radiologic studies, or ED procedures at the receiving facilities. However, a greater proportion of privately insured children had a subspecialty consultation at receiving facilities compared to publicly insured children (RD 9.7, 95% CI 2.0 to 17.4). Transferred pediatric patients with private insurance were more likely to have subspecialty consultations than children with public insurance. Further studies are needed to better characterize the interplay between patients' insurance type and both the request for, and the provision of, ED subspecialty consultations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The acceptability of mental health screening in a pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jennifer R; Ho, Mona L; Grupp-Phelan, Jacqueline

    2011-07-01

    The purposes of the study were (1) to assess the acceptability of mental health screening in the pediatric emergency department (ED) for children and their parents; (2) to measure providers' perceptions on whether screening has an impact on patient care; and (3) to determine the impact of screening status on acceptability. A validated pediatric mental health screening instrument was administered to 384 parent-child dyads. A 6-item satisfaction questionnaire was administered by a trained research coordinator to assess parent-child reactions to the screen. Emergency department providers rated how difficult the screening made it for them to care for the patient. Research staff reported the difficulty of conducting screening during the ED visit and the amount of time parents/children spent completing the screen. Most parents (82%) and children (75%) felt the screening was acceptable. Parent reports of pediatric mental health problems were not associated with lower acceptability scores. The number of mental health problems reported by a child was associated with an increased likelihood that the screening made the child upset (P = 0.02). Parents who reported pediatric mental health problems were more likely to find the screening helpful (odds ratio,1.84 [95% confidence interval, 1.15-2.93]), with black parents more likely to report that the screen was helpful (odds ratio, 2.5 [95% confidence interval, 1.43-4.33]). Nearly all doctors (99%) and nurses (97%) reported that the screening did not make it difficult for them to care for the patient. Overall, mental health screening appears to be acceptable in the pediatric ED.

  10. Caudal block and emergence delirium in pediatric patients: Is it analgesia or sedation?

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    Aparna Sinha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emergence delirium (ED although a short-lived and self-limiting phenomenon, makes a child prone to injury in the immediate postoperative period and hence is a cause of concern not only to the pediatric anesthesiologist, surgeons, and post anesthesia care unit staff but also amongst parents. Additional medication to quieten the child offsets the potential benefits of rapid emergence and delays recovery in day care settings. There is conflicting evidence of influence of analgesia and sedation following anesthesia on emergence agitation. We hypothesized that an anesthetic technique which improves analgesia and prolongs emergence time will reduce the incidence of ED. We selected ketamine as adjuvant to caudal block for this purpose. Methods: This randomized, double blind prospective study was performed in 150 premedicated children ASA I, II, aged 2 to 8 years who were randomly assigned to either group B (caudal with bupivacaine, BK (bupivacaine and ketamine, or NC (no caudal, soon after LMA placement. Recovery characteristics and complications were recorded. Results: Emergence time, duration of pain relief, and Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED scores were significantly higher in the NC group (P<0.05. Duration of analgesia and emergence time were significantly more in group BK than groups B and NC. However, the discharge readiness was comparable between all groups. No patient in BK group required to be given any medication to treat ED. Conclusion: Emergence time as well as duration of analgesia have significant influence on incidence of emergence delirium. Ketamine, as caudal adjuvant is a promising agent to protect against ED in children, following sevoflurane anesthesia.

  11. Clinical spectrum of rhabdomyolysis presented to pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Yu; Lin, Yan-Ren; Zhao, Lu-Lu; Yang, Wen-Chieh; Chang, Yu-Jun; Wu, Kang-Hsi; Wu, Han-Ping

    2013-09-03

    Rhabdomyolysis is a potentially life-threatening syndrome that can develop from a variety of causes. The aim of the work is to analyze the clinical spectrum and to evaluate the prevalence of various etiologies in children, who present to the emergency department (ED) with rhabdomyolysis. During a 6-year study period, we retrospectively analyzed the medical charts of patients, aged 18 years or younger, with a definite diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis and serum creatinine phosphokinase (CK) levels greater than 1000IU/L. We analyzed the clinical spectrum and evaluated the potential risk factors of acute renal failure (ARF). Thirty-seven patients (mean age = 10.2 ± 5.5 years), including 26 males and 11 females, were enrolled in the study. Two of the most common presented symptoms in these 37 patients were muscle pain and muscle weakness (83.8% and 73%, respectively). Dark urine was reported in only 5.4% of the patients. The leading cause of rhabdomyolysis in the 0- to 9-year age group was presumed infection, and the leading cause in the 10- to 18-year age group was trauma and exercise. The incidence of ARF associated with rhabdomyolysis was 8.1 % and no child needed for renal replacement therapy (RRT). We did not identify any reliable predictors of ARF or need for RRT. The classic triad of symptoms of rhabdomyolysis includes myalgia, weakness and dark urine are not always presented in children. The cause of rhabdomyolysis in younger age is different from that of teenager group. However, the prognosis of rhabdomyolysis was good with appropriate management.

  12. [Newborn emergencies in the Pediatric Surgery Service of CHU Donka].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keita, M; Diallo, M S A; Keita, A K; Diallo, A F; Balde, I

    2006-01-01

    DRANK: The goal of this work is to determine the factors of surgical mortality in period neonatal and to emphasize the difficulties of the assumption of responsibility. Retrospective study of 222 cases over 10 years from January 1992 to December 00 realized in the service of Paediatric surgery of the National Hospital Donka. We studied the age of the patients to the first consultation according to whether it is received before or after the 6th day of birth, the socio-economic level was appreciated according to the mode of dwelling, accessibility with drinking water and electricity, the diet, associated malformations, the postoperative results. In 10 years (January 1992 at December 2001), we recorded 222 surgical cases of newborn emergency interesting the digestive tract (27.48%), the abdominal wall (37.39%), the parts urogenital (2.25%) and neurological (32.88%). We noted a male prevalence of 64.41% and surgical newborn mortality was 29.28%. The delay with the consultation, poverty on the one hand and the lack of the means of reanimation, the insufficiency of qualified personnel, were the principal factors of risk in our series. The surgical newborn urgencies gather affections which require an immediate and adequate assumption of responsibility. The early diagnosis is a requirement; it must be done in the room of childbirth. The childbirth in residence, the ignorance of these affections by much of experts involves the delay with the consultation. The insufficiency of personnel qualified in paediatric surgery and infantile anaesthesia-reanimation, the poverty of the parents who must deal with the medical expenses of the new-born babies are as many factors which delay the time of intervention. The training of the specialists in paediatric anaesthesia-reanimation, the formation continues agents of health on all the levels on the tracking of the newborn urgencies, the creation of the centers of reanimation, the motivation of the personnel looking after in these

  13. Residents need focused teaching during pediatric emergency medicine rotation to optimize their educational objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alomar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric Emergency Medicine (PEM rotation provides a unique training environment for rotating residents. We aim to assess the impact of PEM rotation on the scientific knowledge of residents from different specialties and training centers by comparing the pre- and post-rotation knowledge. PEM Departments of three major tertiary care training centers were selected. Rotating pediatric and emergency medicine residents were given pre-test with twenty multiple-choice type questions related to the scientific knowledge of PEM and then re-tested with the same questions towards the end of their rotation. The t-test was used to compare mean scores. Further comparison based on specialty and training center was also done. Seventy-three residents were approached and enrolled, 48 from Pediatrics and 25 from Emergency Medicine. The mean pre- and post-scores for all residents were 15.9/20 and 15.5/20, respectively. All residents’ score was less on the post-rotation compared to the pre-rotation in all centers. Pediatric residents at one center scored higher, but they were not statistically significant. There were no statistically significant differences in resident specialty. We found a statistical difference between the residents of two centers compared to the third with P=0.04 and 0.02 respectively. After one month of rotation in PEM, we observed a decrease in the post-rotation test scores as compared to the pre-rotation scores. Since the reasons for the lower scores could not be identified by this study, educational deficiencies should be identified and perhaps a focused teaching and allotted study time to optimize the residents educational objective could be advised.

  14. Family-Centered Pediatric Emergency Care: A Framework for Measuring What Parents Want and Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byczkowski, Terri L; Gillespie, Gordon L; Kennebeck, Stephanie S; Fitzgerald, Michael R; Downing, Kimberly A; Alessandrini, Evaline A

    2016-01-01

    To identify and describe dimensions of family-centered care important to parents in pediatric emergency care and compare them to those currently defined in the literature. A qualitative study was conducted involving 8 focus groups with parents who accompanied their child to an emergency department visit at a large tertiary-care pediatric health system. Participants were identified using purposive sampling to achieve representation across demographic characteristics including child's race, insurance status, severity, and participant's relationship to child. Focus groups were segmented by patient age and presence of a chronic condition. They were moderated by a facilitator experienced in health-related topics. A 6-member multidisciplinary team completed a content analysis. Sixty-eight parents participated. They were female (77%); aged 20 to 29 years (19%), 30 to 39 years (47%), more than 40 years (31%); black (44%), white (52%); and married (50%). Their child's characteristics were: public insurance (52%); black (46%), white (46%); and admitted as an inpatient (46%). The analysis resulted in 8 dimensions: 1) emotional support; 2) coordination; 3) elicit and respect preferences, and involve the patient and family in care decisions; 4) timely and attentive care; 5) information, communication, and education; 6) pain management; 7) safe and child-focused environment; and 8) continuity and transition. Compared to those published in the literature, the most notable differences were combining involving family and respect for preferences into a single dimension, and separating physical comfort into 2 dimensions: pain management and safe/child-focused environment. The resulting dimensions provide a framework for measuring and improving the delivery of family-centered pediatric emergency care. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Determining the clinical significance of errors in pediatric radiograph interpretation between emergency physicians and radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taves, Jonathan; Skitch, Steve; Valani, Rahim

    2017-06-19

    Emergency physicians (EPs) interpret plain radiographs for management and disposition of patients. Radiologists subsequently conduct their own interpretations, which may differ. The purposes of this study were to review the rate and nature of discrepancies between radiographs interpreted by EPs and those of radiologists in the pediatric emergency department, and to determine their clinical significance. We conducted a retrospective review of discrepant radiology reports from a single-site pediatric emergency department from October 2012 to December 2014. All radiographs were interpreted first by the staff EP, then by a radiologist. The report was identified as a "discrepancy" if these reports differed. Radiographs were categorized by body part and discrepancies classified as false positive, false negative, or not a discrepancy. Clinically significant errors that required a change in management were tracked. There were 25,304 plain radiographs completed during the study period, of which 252 (1.00%) were identified as discrepant. The most common were chest radiographs (41.7%) due to missed pneumonia, followed by upper and lower extremities (26.2% and 17.5%, respectively) due to missed fractures. Of the 252 discrepancies, 207 (82.1%) were false negatives and 45 (17.9%) were false positives. In total, 105 (0.41% of all radiographs) were clinically significant. There is a low rate of discrepancy in the interpretation of pediatric emergency radiographs between emergency department physicians and radiologists. The majority of errors occur with radiographs of the chest and upper extremities. The low rate of clinically significant discrepancy allows safe management based on EP interpretation.

  16. Emergency Department Utilization Report to Decrease Visits by Pediatric Gastroenterology Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jarone; Greenspan, Peter T; Israel, Esther; Katz, Aubrey; Fasano, Alessio; Kaafarani, Haytham M A; Linov, Pamela L; Raja, Ali S; Rao, Sandhya K

    2016-07-01

    Emergency department (ED) utilization is a major driver of health care costs. Specialist physicians have an important role in addressing ED utilization, especially at highly specialized, academic medical centers. We sought to investigate whether reporting of ED utilization to specialist physicians can decrease ED visits. This study analyzed an intervention to reduce ED utilization among ED patients who were followed by pediatric gastroenterologists. In May 2013, each pediatric gastroenterologist began receiving reports with rates of ED use by their patients. The reports generated discussion that resulted in a cultural and process change in which patients with urgent gastrointestinal (GI)-related complaints were preferentially seen in the office. Using control charts, we examined GI-related and all-diagnoses ED use over a 2-year period. The rate of GI-related ED visits decreased by 60% after the intervention, from 4.89 to 1.95 per 1000 office visits (P pediatric gastroenterologists was associated with physician engagement and a cultural and process change to preferentially treat patients with urgent issues in the office. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Assessment of factors associated with the delayed transfer of pediatric trauma patients: an emergency physician survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudin, Marianne; Daugherty, Margot; Geis, Gary; Moody, Suzanne; Brown, Rebeccah L; Garcia, Victor F; Falcone, Richard A

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify, among emergency department (ED) physicians, the potential barriers impacting the appropriate and timely transfer of injured children to pediatric trauma centers. Surveys assessed pediatric trauma knowledge and experience, transfer and imaging decisions, and perceived barriers to patient transfer. Two scenarios were created; one with a child meeting the state trauma triage criteria and one who did not. In April 2010, 936 surveys were mailed to randomly selected ED physicians. Respondents could answer by mail or online until June 30, 2010. A total of 486 surveys were returned, and 109 were excluded, leaving 377 included in the study. A majority reported limited experience in the care of the critically ill child, with 93%, 99%, 99%, and 100% respectively, having performed less than 5 intubations, intraosseous line, central line, or chest tube placements in the last year. In the scenario in which the child met criteria to be transferred, 74% appropriately transferred the patient, whereas in the other scenario, 34% transferred the patient. As much as 56% of the respondents reported they would perform a head computed tomography before transfer, mainly to avoid missed injuries and medicolegal concerns. Among those who would not transfer either patient, 27% reported not having an on-call surgeon at all times. Innovative measures should be developed so that ED physicians gain a greater understanding of the proper identification of pediatric patients requiring a timely transfer to a pediatric trauma center.

  18. High-fidelity hybrid simulation of allergic emergencies demonstrates improved preparedness for office emergencies in pediatric allergy clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Joshua L; Jones, Stacie M; Porter, Nicholas; White, Marjorie L; Gephardt, Grace; Hill, Travis; Cantrell, Mary; Nick, Todd G; Melguizo, Maria; Smith, Chris; Boateng, Beatrice A; Perry, Tamara T; Scurlock, Amy M; Thompson, Tonya M

    2013-01-01

    Simulation models that used high-fidelity mannequins have shown promise in medical education, particularly for cases in which the event is uncommon. Allergy physicians encounter emergencies in their offices, and these can be the source of much trepidation. To determine if case-based simulations with high-fidelity mannequins are effective in teaching and retention of emergency management team skills. Allergy clinics were invited to Arkansas Children's Hospital Pediatric Understanding and Learning through Simulation Education center for a 1-day workshop to evaluate skills concerning the management of allergic emergencies. A Clinical Emergency Preparedness Team Performance Evaluation was developed to evaluate the competence of teams in several areas: leadership and/or role clarity, closed-loop communication, team support, situational awareness, and scenario-specific skills. Four cases, which focus on common allergic emergencies, were simulated by using high-fidelity mannequins and standardized patients. Teams were evaluated by multiple reviewers by using video recording and standardized scoring. Ten to 12 months after initial training, an unannounced in situ case was performed to determine retention of the skills training. Clinics showed significant improvements for role clarity, teamwork, situational awareness, and scenario-specific skills during the 1-day workshop (all P Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Inter-facility transfer of pediatric burn patients from U.S. Emergency Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah A; Shi, Junxin; Groner, Jonathan I; Thakkar, Rajan K; Fabia, Renata; Besner, Gail E; Xiang, Huiyun; Wheeler, Krista K

    2016-11-01

    To describe the epidemiology of pediatric burn patients seen in U.S. emergency departments (EDs) and to determine factors associated with inter-facility transfer. We analyzed data from the 2012 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample. Current American Burn Association (ABA) Guidelines were used to identify children burn centers. Burn patient admission volume was used as a proxy for burn expertise. Logistic models were fitted to examine the odds of transfer from low volume hospitals. In 2012, there were an estimated 126,742 (95% CI: 116,104-137,380) pediatric burn ED visits in the U.S. Of the 69,003 (54.4%) meeting referral criteria, 83.2% were in low volume hospitals. Only 8.2% of patients meeting criteria were transferred from low volume hospitals. Of the 52,604 (95% CI: 48,433-56,775) not transferred, 98.3% were treated and released and 1.7% were admitted without transfer; 54.7% of burns involved hands. Over 90% of pediatric burn ED patients meet ABA burn referral criteria but are not transferred from low volume hospitals. Perhaps a portion of the 92% of patients currently receiving definitive care in low volume hospitals are under-referred and would have improved clinical outcomes if transferred at the time of presentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. Inter-Facility Transfer of Pediatric Burn Patients from U.S. Emergency Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah A.; Shi, Junxin; Groner, Jonathan I.; Thakkar, Rajan K.; Fabia, Renata; Besner, Gail E.; Xiang, Huiyun; Wheeler, Krista K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To describe the epidemiology of pediatric burn patients seen in U.S. emergency departments (EDs) and to determine factors associated with inter-facility transfer. Methods We analyzed data from the 2012 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample. Current American Burn Association (ABA) Guidelines were used to identify children burn centers. Burn patient admission volume was used as a proxy for burn expertise. Logistic models were fitted to examine the odds of transfer from low volume hospitals. Results In 2012, there were an estimated 126,742 (95% CI: 116,104–137,380) pediatric burn ED visits in the U.S. Of the 69,003 (54.4%) meeting referral criteria, 83.2% were in low volume hospitals. Only 8.2% of patients meeting criteria were transferred from low volume hospitals. Of the 52,604 (95% CI: 48,433 – 56,775) not transferred, 98.3% were treated and released and 1.7% were admitted without transfer; 54.7% of burns involved hands. Conclusions Over 90% of pediatric burn ED patients meet ABA burn referral criteria but are not transferred from low volume hospitals. Perhaps a portion of the 92% of patients currently receiving definitive care in low volume hospitals are under-referred and would have improved clinical outcomes if transferred at the time of presentation. PMID:27554628

  1. Pediatric cervical spine in emergency: radiographic features of normal anatomy, variants and pitfalls

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    Adib, Omar; Berthier, Emeline; Loisel, Didier; Aube, Christophe [University Hospital of Angers, Department of Radiology, Angers (France)

    2016-12-15

    Injuries of the cervical spine are uncommon in children. The distribution of injuries, when they do occur, differs according to age. Young children aged less than 8 years usually have upper cervical injuries because of the anatomic and biomechanical properties of their immature spine, whereas older children, whose biomechanics more closely resemble those of adults, are prone to lower cervical injuries. In all cases, the pediatric cervical spine has distinct radiographic features, making the emergency radiological analysis of it difficult. Such features as hypermobility between C2 and C3, pseudospread of the atlas on the axis, pseudosubluxation, the absence of lordosis, anterior wedging of vertebral bodies, pseudowidening of prevertebral soft tissue and incomplete ossification of synchondrosis can be mistaken for traumatic injuries. The interpretation of a plain radiograph of the pediatric cervical spine following trauma must take into account the age of the child, the location of the injury and the mechanism of trauma. Comprehensive knowledge of the specific anatomy and biomechanics of the childhood spine is essential for the diagnosis of suspected cervical spine injury. With it, the physician can, on one hand, differentiate normal physes or synchondroses from pathological fractures or ligamentous disruptions and, on the other, identify any possible congenital anomalies that may also be mistaken for injury. Thus, in the present work, we discuss normal radiological features of the pediatric cervical spine, variants that may be encountered and pitfalls that must be avoided when interpreting plain radiographs taken in an emergency setting following trauma. (orig.)

  2. A study regarding Spanish-speaking parents' preference of physician attire in the pediatric emergency room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibhanipudi, Kumara V; Mason, Ben; Pandey, Akash; Henriquez, Roger; Hassen, Getaw W

    2013-07-01

    A study to determine Spanish-speaking parents' acceptance of the physician's attire in the pediatric emergency department. The attire of the physicians does not matter for the parents. The sample size was 450. An anonymous patient survey with no identifiers was used. The sample questionnaire was enclosed, and the parents were asked to answer the questionnaire. The results were interesting; patients preferred physicians who wear hospital scrubs (410/450 or 91%) and short hair (430/450 = 96%). They preferred physicians wearing sneakers (430/450 = 96%) compared with dress shoes, and male physicians with moustaches/beards and wearing glasses (450/450 = 100%). Parents did not like women physicians wearing makeup and high heels. Parents prefer physicians wearing hospital scrubs and sneakers and having short hair. This could indicate that parents do not prefer formal attire in the pediatric emergency room (ER). Also, a gender difference was noticed. Parents do not prefer women physicians with high heels and make up. But, they tolerate male physicians with moustaches/beards. This could be related to the fact that most of the parent questionnaires were answered by Spanish women. Results are interesting and useful in addressing the question of physicians' attire in the pediatric ER in the context of a predominantly Spanish speaking population.

  3. The culture of patient safety from the perspective of the pediatric emergency nursing team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Taise Rocha; Rocha, Patricia Kuerten; Tomazoni, Andreia; Souza, Sabrina de; Anders, Jane Cristina; Davis, Karri

    2016-01-01

    To identify the patient safety culture in pediatric emergencies from the perspective of the nursing team. A quantitative, cross-sectional survey research study with a sample composed of 75 professionals of the nursing team. Data was collected between September and November 2014 in three Pediatric Emergency units by applying the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture instrument. Data were submitted to descriptive analysis. Strong areas for patient safety were not found, with areas identified having potential being: Expectations and actions from supervisors/management to promote patient safety and teamwork. Areas identified as critical were: Non-punitive response to error and support from hospital management for patient safety. The study found a gap between the safety culture and pediatric emergencies, but it found possibilities of transformation that will contribute to the safety of pediatric patients. Nursing professionals need to become protagonists in the process of replacing the current paradigm for a culture focused on safety. The replication of this study in other institutions is suggested in order to improve the current health care scenario. Identificar a cultura de segurança do paciente em emergências pediátricas, na perspectiva da equipe de enfermagem. Pesquisa quantitativa, tipo survey transversal. Amostra composta por 75 profissionais da equipe de enfermagem. Dados coletados entre setembro e novembro de 2014, em três Emergências Pediátricas, aplicando o instrumento Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture. Dados submetidos à análise descritiva. Não foram encontradas áreas de força para a segurança do paciente, sendo identificadas áreas com potencial de assim se tornarem: Expectativas e ações do supervisor/chefia para promoção da segurança do paciente e Trabalho em equipe. Como área crítica identificaram-se: Resposta não punitiva ao erro e Apoio da gestão hospitalar para segurança do paciente. O estudo apontou distanciamento

  4. How Much are Emergency Medicine Specialists’ Decisions Reliable in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pediatric Fractures?

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    Mohsen Mardani-Kivi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the importance of an early diagnosis and proper decision-making in regards to the treatment of pediatric distal radius and elbow fractures, this study examines emergency medicine specialists’ accuracy in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients. Methods: From 2012 and 2013, children less than 14 years old who were referred to an academic hospital emergency department with elbow or distal radius fractures were enrolled. Initially, patients were examined by an emergency medicine specialist and then they were referred to an orthopedic surgeon. Type of fracture and the proposed treatment of two specialists were compared. Results: In total, there were 108 patients (54 patients in each group with a mean age of 8.1+3.3 years. Identical diagnosis in 48 cases (88.9% of distal radius and 36 cases (66.7% of elbow trauma were observed. We found a difference between diagnosis of the two specialists in diagnosing lateral condyle of the humerus fracture in the elbow group and growth plate fracture in the distal radius fracture group, but the differences were not significant. Among 108 patients, 70 patients (64.8% received identical treatment. Conclusion: Although the emergency medicine specialists responded similarly to the orthopedic specialists in the diagnosis of pediatric distal radius and elbow fractures, diagnosis of more complicated fractures such as lateral condylar humoral fractures, distal radius growth plate and for choosing the proper treatment option, merits further education.

  5. A 10-year population-based nationwide descriptive analysis of pediatric emergency care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Pediatric emergency care medicine is an important field of health care. This study aimed to investigate the 10-year pediatric emergency care in children aged 0-17 years old in Taiwan. Methods Systematic random samples from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan in the period 2000-2009 were analyzed. Children recorded as undergoing emergency care were enrolled and divided into different age groups. The frequency of emergency visits, age, cost per visit, seasonality, number of hospitalizations, and diagnosis were analyzed. Results A total of 764,598 children were enrolled. These children accounted for 25% of all emergency cases and their mean age was 6.1 years. Children aged 0-5 years formed the largest group, with male predominance (57.5%). The incidence of emergency visits was 29133 ± 3104 per 100,000 children per year (mean ± SD). Acute upper airway infection, fever, and acute gastrointestinal illness were the most common diagnoses among all non-hospitalized children. Some (4.51%) required subsequent hospitalization and their most common diagnoses were fluid/electrolyte disorder, upper/lower airway infection, and acute gastrointestinal illness. The group of children aged 12-17 years had cases of traumatic injury and childbirth. Conclusions In Taiwan, 25% of individuals seeking emergency care are children, mostly aged 0-5 years old. Costs and disease patterns vary among different age groups. Preventive measures targeting all children should focus on respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases, but should target different diseases for different age groups to improve child health. PMID:24720913

  6. [Assessment of quality indicators in pediatric poisoning in an emergency service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez Roca, C; Martínez Sánchez, L; Calzada Baños, Y; Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, V; Quintilla Martínez, J M; Luaces Cubells, C

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of quality indicators allows clinicians to evaluate clinical assistance with a standard, to detect deficiencies and to improve medical assistance. Patients who came to emergency services of a tertiary level hospital for suspicion of poisoning from January 2011 to June 2012 were assessed using 20 quality indicators of pediatric poisoning. Data collection was performed by retrospective review of clinical reports. A total of 393 patients were admitted for suspicion of poisoning (0.3% of all admissions).The standard was reached in 11 indicators and not reached in 6: administration of activated charcoal within 2hours of poison ingestion (standard=90%, result=83.5%); attention within the first 15minutes of arriving in the emergency service (standard=90%, result=60.4%); start of gastrointestinal decontamination within 20minutes of arrival in emergency services (standard=90%, result=29.7%); performing of electrocardiogram on the patients poisoned with cardiotoxic substances (standard=95%, result=87%); judicial communication of cases of poisoning that could conceal a crime (standard=95%, result=31.3%), and collection of the minimal set of information of poisoned patients (standard=90%, result=1.9%). Three indicators could not be evaluated as a consequence of the limited number of cases where they could be applied (<5). The main deficiencies are related to delay in assistance, collection of information and completion of judicial reports. Giving these patients priority, designing a checklist to collect the main points of their management, and creating obligatory fields for data in computerized medical records, are the main actions available to achieve pediatric poisoning quality indicators in this emergency service. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Trends in CT Request and Related Outcomes in a Pediatric Emergency Department

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    S.M. Saiful Islam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study and to establish the overall trends of computed tomography (CT use and associated outcomes in the pediatric emergency department (PED at Royal Hospital, Oman, from 2010 to 2014. Methods: The hospital electronic medical record was retrospectively searched to find children (from birth to 12 years old who had visited the PED and the number of CT requests between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014. The types of CT examinations ordered were analyzed according to anatomical location and were as follows; head, abdomen/pelvis, chest, cervical spine/neck, and others. Results: There were a total of 67 244 PED visits during the study period, 569 of which received 642 CT scans. There was a remarkable rise in CT uses per 1000 visits from 7 in 2010 to 12 in 2014. There was a 56% hike in CT requests from 87 in 2010 to 175 in 2014 while the number of pediatric emergency visits rose by about 28% from 11 721 to 15 052. Although head CT scans were the most common, cervical spine CT scans had the highest rate of increase (600% followed by the chest (112%, head (54% and abdomen (13%. There were no significant changes in other CT scan requests. The cost of CT scans increased from $18 096 to $36 400 during the study period, which increased the average PED cost by about $2 per visit. The average time between a CT being requested and then performed was 1.24 hours. Conclusions: CT use in the pediatric emergency department has risen significantly at a rate that markedly exceeds the growth of emergency visits. This is associated with an increase in PED costs and longer waiting times.

  8. The use of high-flow nasal cannula in the pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slain, Katherine N; Shein, Steven L; Rotta, Alexandre T

    To summarize the current literature describing high-flow nasal cannula use in children, the components and mechanisms of action of a high-flow nasal cannula system, the appropriate clinical applications, and its role in the pediatric emergency department. A computer-based search of PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar for literature on high-flow nasal cannula use in children was performed. High-flow nasal cannula, a non-invasive respiratory support modality, provides heated and fully humidified gas mixtures to patients via a nasal cannula interface. High-flow nasal cannula likely supports respiration though reduced inspiratory resistance, washout of the nasopharyngeal dead space, reduced metabolic work related to gas conditioning, improved airway conductance and mucociliary clearance, and provision of low levels of positive airway pressure. Most data describing high-flow nasal cannula use in children focuses on those with bronchiolitis, although high-flow nasal cannula has been used in children with other respiratory diseases. Introduction of high-flow nasal cannula into clinical practice, including in the emergency department, has been associated with decreased rates of endotracheal intubation. Limited prospective interventional data suggest that high-flow nasal cannula may be similarly efficacious as continuous positive airway pressure and more efficacious than standard oxygen therapy for some patients. Patient characteristics, such as improved tachycardia and tachypnea, have been associated with a lack of progression to endotracheal intubation. Reported adverse effects are rare. High-flow nasal cannula should be considered for pediatric emergency department patients with respiratory distress not requiring immediate endotracheal intubation; prospective, pediatric emergency department-specific trials are needed to better determine responsive patient populations, ideal high-flow nasal cannula settings, and comparative efficacy vs. other respiratory support modalities

  9. PEDIATRIC BLOOD CANCER SURVIVORS AND TOBACCO USE ACROSS ADOLESCENCE AND EMERGING ADULTHOOD: A NARRATIVE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna eMasiero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Scholars underline the pivotal role of tobacco cigarette smoking in carcinogenesis process for blood tumors. A controversial debate is represented by the diffusion of tobacco use in young cancer survivors that had a previous diagnosis of blood tumor during the childhood. Compared with their peers, scientific evidence highlights that pediatric survivors have more difficult to give-up cigarette smoking. Furthermore, tobacco-smoking is frequently linked with others risk behaviors as drinking or substance abuse. In reviewing the main knowledge on this topic, authors affirm the need for increasing research on blood cancer survivors in order to depict psychological characteristics of pediatric blood cancer survivors. Improving health decision-making skills in young survivors could reduce the risk to adopt un-healthy behaviors and increase psychological wellbeing. Furthermore, authors propose tailored antismoking interventions based on the knowledge of the psychological and cognitive factors that support smoking during the transition toward emerging-adulthood.

  10. Associations among emergency room visits, parenting styles, and psychopathology among pediatric patients with sickle cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzman, Robert D; Shishido, Yuri; Latzman, Natasha E; Elkin, T David; Majumdar, Suvankar

    2014-10-01

    To examine associations between frequency of emergency room (ER) visits and various parenting styles, both conjointly and interactively, and psychopathological outcomes among pediatric patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Ninety-eight parents/caregivers of 6- to 18-year-old patients with SCD completed instruments assessing parenting style, child psychopathology, and reported on the frequency of ER visits during the previous year. ER visits were found to significantly explain Withdrawn/Depressed problems and parenting styles were found to incrementally contribute to the explanation of all forms of psychopathology. Further, Permissive parenting was found to explain Rule Breaking Behavior for those patients with low ER visit frequency but not for those with high ER visit frequency. Results of the current study confirm the importance of considering both the frequency of ER visits and parenting style in the explanation of psychopathology among pediatric patients with SCD. Results have important implications for both research and treatment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effectiveness of standardized combination therapy for migraine treatment in the pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Stephanie; Bulloch, Blake; Young, Christine; Yonker, Marcy; Hostetler, Mark

    2013-03-01

    To compare outcomes of pediatric migraine patients treated in an emergency department (ED) before and after implementation of a standardized combination intravenous therapy regimen aimed toward improving and standardizing abortive migraine therapy. In a pediatric ED, migraines represent 8-18% of all headache visits. Despite this large number, no standard treatment for acute migraine therapy currently exists. The study utilized a retrospective chart review of patients seeking acute migraine treatment at a tertiary care, pediatric ED from August 2006 to March 2010. Inclusion criteria were pediatric migraine patients as defined by International Headache Society guidelines. The comparison population received various migraine therapies based on attending practice preference. After October 2008, patients received standardized intravenous combination therapy involving a normal saline fluid bolus, ketorolac, prochlorperazine, and diphenhydramine. Occasionally, metoclopramide was substituted during prochlorperazine shortages. Reduction in headache pain score was the primary outcome. Secondary outcome measures included length of ED stay, hospital admission rate, and ED readmission rate within 48 hours. The study yielded 87 patients who received standardized combination therapy and 165 comparison patients. No significant difference in patient characteristics existed when evaluating patient demographics, outpatient medication use, and initial headache pain score. When compared with the non-standardized therapy population, the combination therapy patients revealed significant reductions in pain score (decrease of 5.3 vs. 6.9, difference -1.6, 95% confidence interval -2.2 to -0.8, P pediatric migraine therapy in the ED by significantly reducing headache pain scores, length of ED stay, and hospital admission rates. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  12. Knowledge gaps in the diagnosis and management of patients with tropical diseases presenting to Canadian emergency departments: are the gaps being met?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Nazanin; Misra, Shikha; Hunchak, Cheryl; Cleiman, Paula; Khan, Yasmin; Puchalski Ritchie, Lisa M

    2014-11-01

    We conducted a needs assessment to identify knowledge gaps in the management of tropical diseases by Canadian emergency physicians and identify available, related continuing medical education (CME) resources. A literature review was conducted to summarize challenges in the management of commonly encountered tropical diseases. An anonymous online survey was administered to Canadian emergency physicians using the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians survey deployment service in July and August 2012. The survey identified self-reported gaps in knowledge and assessed knowledge using case-based vignettes. A list of CME resources was generated from a review of major academic emergency medicine journals, online cases, and conference topics from emergency medicine associations during 2010-2011. Two independent reviewers assessed the relevance of the resources; differences were resolved by consensus. From 635 citations, 47 articles were selected for full review; the majority (66%) were retrospective chart reviews, few (10.6%) had an emergency medicine focus, and fewer still were Canadian (8.5%). In total, 1,128 surveys were distributed, and 296 (27%) participants were included in the study. Most respondents reported "no" (52.4%) or "some" (45.9%) training in tropical medicine. Most (69.9%) rated their comfort in managing patients with tropical diseases as "low." Few (11.1%) respondents reported a tropical disease being misdiagnosed or mismanaged; 44.1% indicated malaria. The perceived need for further training was high (76.7%). Conference workshops were the most highly requested CME modality, followed by case studies and podcasts. Correct answers to case vignettes ranged from 30.7 to 58.4%. Although 2,038 CME titles were extracted from extensive searches, only 6 were deemed relevant. Most Canadian emergency physicians have had minimal training in tropical diseases, reported a low comfort level in their management, and identified a high need for CME opportunities

  13. Association of emergency department albuterol dispensing with pediatric asthma revisits and readmissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A Brad; Novotny, April; Bhisitkul, Donna M; Melton, James; Regan, Tim; Leckie, Maureen

    2017-06-01

    Although pediatric asthma continues to be a highly studied disease, data to suggest clear strategies to decrease asthma related revisits or readmissions is lacking. The purpose of our study was to assess the effect of emergency department (ED) direct dispensing of beta-agonist metered dose inhalers on pediatric asthma ED revisit and readmission rates. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pediatric patients discharged from the pediatric ED with a diagnosis of asthma. Our primary outcome measured the rate of asthma revisits to the ED or admissions to the hospital within 28 days. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess ED beta-agonist MDI dispensing and revisit and/or readmission as the outcome. A total of 853 patients met eligibility for inclusion in the study, with 657 enrolled in the Baseline group and 196 enrolled in the ED-MDI group. The Baseline group experienced a revisit and readmission rate of 7.0% (46/657) versus 2.6% (5/196) in the ED-MDI group, (p = 0.026). ED direct dispensing of MDIs was found to be independently associated with a decreased risk of revisit or readmission (odds ratio 0.37; 95% confidence interval 0.14-0.95). In our study, ED direct dispensing of beta-agonist MDIs resulted in a reduction in 28-day revisit and readmission to the hospital. Further studies should be performed to evaluate the economic impact of reducing these revisits and readmissions against the costs of maintaining a dispensing program. Our findings may support modification of asthma programs to include dispensing MDIs from the emergency department.

  14. Urgent ultrasound guided hemodynamic assessments by a pediatric medical emergency team: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Zorko

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the feasibility of using the Ultrasound Cardiac Output Monitor (USCOM as an adjunct during hemodynamic assessments by a pediatric medical emergency team (PMET. METHODS: Pediatric in-patients at McMaster Children's Hospital aged under 18 years requiring urgent PMET consultation, were eligible. Patients with known cardiac outflow valve defects, Pediatric Critical Care Unit in-patients, and those in cardiorespiratory arrest, were excluded. The primary outcome was feasibility, and the ease of USCOM transport and application as assessed by a self-administered user questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included the quality of USCOM measurements, and agreement in clinical versus USCOM-derived assessments. RESULTS: Forty-one patients from 85 eligible PMET consultations were enrolled between March and August 2011. A total of 55 USCOM assessments were performed on 36 of 41 (87.8% participants. USCOM could not be completed in 5 (12.2% participants due to patient agitation (n = 4 and emergent care (n = 1. USCOM was reported as easy to transport and apply by 97.4% and 94.7% of respondents respectively, not obstructive to patient care by 94.7%, and yielded timely measurements by 84.2% respondents. USCOM tracings were of good quality in 41 (75.9% assessments. Agreement between clinical and USCOM-derived hemodynamic assessments by two independent raters was poor (Rater 1: κ = 0.094; Rater 2: κ = 0.146. CONCLUSION: USCOM can be applied by a PMET during urgent hemodynamic assessments in children. While USCOM has been validated in stable children, its role in guiding hemodynamic resuscitation and informing therapeutic goals in a hemodynamically unstable pediatric population requires further investigation.

  15. Consideration of Cost of Care in Pediatric Emergency Transfer-An Opportunity for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattu, Rajender K; De Fee, Ann-Sophie; Lichenstein, Richard; Teshome, Getachew

    2017-05-01

    Pediatric interhospital transfers are an economic burden to the health care, especially when deemed unnecessary. Physicians may be unaware of the cost implications of pediatric emergency transfers. A cost analysis may be relevant to reduce cost. To characterize children transferred from outlying emergency departments (EDs) to pediatric ED (PED) with a specific focus on transfers who were discharged home in 12 hours or less after transfer without intervention in PED and analyze charges associated with them. Charts of 352 patients (age, 0-18 years) transferred from 31 outlying EDs to PED during July 2009 to June 2010 were reviewed. Data were collected on the range, unit charge and volume of services provided in PED, length of stay, and final disposition. The average charge per patient transfer is calculated based on unit charge times total service units per 1000 patients per year and divided by 1000. Hospital charges were divided into fixed and variable. Of 352 patients transferred, 108 (30.7%) were admitted to pediatric inpatient service, 42 (11.9%) to intensive care; 36 (10.2%) went to the operating room, and 166 (47.2%) were discharged home. The average hospital charge per transfer was US $4843. Most (89%) of the charges were fixed, and 11% were variable. One hundred one (28.7%) patients were discharged home from PED in 12 hours or less without intervention. The hospital charges for these transfers were US $489,143. Significant number of transfers was discharged 12 hours or less without any additional intervention in PED. Fixed charges contribute to majority of total charges. Cost saving can be achieved by preventing unnecessary transfer.

  16. SARSAT emergency locator transmitter - Practical experiences during the Paris-Dakar car rally and a North-Canadian expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, P.; Gal, C.; Salmon, C.

    1984-10-01

    The results of operational and ambient environmental tests of mobile emergency locator transmitter (ELT) interfacing with the SARSAT system are reported. A total of 11 beacons were deployed on a Paris-Dakar car rally and two for a north Canadian dog-sledge expedition. The beacons emitted 121.5 and 243 MHz signals which can be pinpointed through the Doppler effect after satellite reception. The SARSAT system comprises the COSPOS 1383 and 1447 spacecraft and the NOAA E satellite. The satellites broadcast 406 MHz signals and perform four location measurements during each pass. The constellation covers the whole earth with no more than a 2 hr delay at any point. Very high accuracies were obtained whenever the ELTs were operated a sufficient number of hours per day in locations with good line of sight contact with a satellite. Plans to expand the SARSAT system with two additional satellites are indicated.

  17. Advanced Nursing Directives: Integrating Validated Clinical Scoring Systems into Nursing Care in the Pediatric Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Kate deForest

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to improve the quality and flow of care provided to children presenting to the emergency department the implementation of nurse-initiated protocols is on the rise. We review the current literature on nurse-initiated protocols, validated emergency department clinical scoring systems, and the merging of the two to create Advanced Nursing Directives (ANDs. The process of developing a clinical pathway for children presenting to our pediatric emergency department (PED with suspected appendicitis will be used to demonstrate the successful integration of validated clinical scoring systems into practice through the use of Advanced Nursing Directives. Finally, examples of 2 other Advanced Nursing Directives for common clinical PED presentations will be provided.

  18. Utilization Criteria for Prehospital Ultrasound in a Canadian Critical Care Helicopter Emergency Medical Service: Determining Who Might Benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dochartaigh, Domhnall; Douma, Matthew; Alexiu, Chris; Ryan, Shell; MacKenzie, Mark

    2017-10-01

    Introduction Prehospital ultrasound (PHUS) assessments by physicians and non-physicians are performed on medical and trauma patients with increasing frequency. Prehospital ultrasound has been shown to be of benefit by supporting interventions. Problem Which patients may benefit from PHUS has not been clearly identified. A multi-variable logistic regression analysis was performed on a previously created retrospective dataset of five years of physician- and non-physician-performed ultrasound scans in a Canadian critical care Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS). For separate medical and trauma patient groups, the a-priori outcome assessed was patient characteristics associated with the outcome variable of "PHUS-supported intervention." Both models were assessed (Likelihood Ratio, Score, and Wald) as a good fit. For medical patients, the characteristics of heart rate (HR) and shock index (SI) were found to be most significant for an intervention being supported by PHUS. An extremely low HR was found to be the most significant (OR=15.86 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.46-171.73]; P=.02). The higher the SI, the more likely that an intervention was supported by PHUS (SI 0.9 toPrehospital Index (PHI) and SI were found to be most significant for PHUS support. The greatest effect was PHI, where increasing ORs were seen with increasing PHI (PHI 14-19: OR=13.36 [95% CI, 1.92-92.81]; P=.008; and PHI 20-24: OR=53.10 [95% CI, 4.83-583.86]; P=.001). Shock index was found to be similar, though, with lower impact and significance (SI 0.9 toprehospital ultrasound in a Canadian critical care Helicopter Emergency Medical Service: determining who might benefit. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(5):536-540.

  19. Comparison of Canadian versus United States Emergency Department Visits for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian H Rowe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Despite the frequency of emergency department (ED visits for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbation, little is known about practice variation in EDs.

  20. Mobile pediatric emergency response team: patient satisfaction during the novel H1N1 influenza outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laos, Carla M; DiStefano, Michael C; Cruz, Andrea T; Caviness, A Chantal; Hsu, Deborah C; Patel, Binita

    2012-03-01

    The objective was to determine child caregiver satisfaction with a nontraditional pediatric emergency department (ED) venue during the 2009 novel H1N1 influenza outbreak. Between May 1 and 7, 2009, the Texas Children's Hospital (TCH) ED used a six-bed outdoor facility, the Mobile Pediatric Emergency Response Team (MPERT), to evaluate patients with suspected novel H1N1 influenza. Parents and caregivers of patients evaluated in the MPERT were surveyed by telephone using a validated questionnaire to evaluate satisfaction with the facility. Of 353 patients, 155 caregivers (44%) completed questionnaires; 127 had wrong numbers, 71 did not answer, and 15 were on a no-call list. Survey responders felt that nurses and doctors explained concepts well (nurses 92%, doctors 94%), 91% felt TCH prepared them well for taking care of their children at home, 94% were satisfied with the medical care received, and 88% were not bothered by the outdoor setting. When asked to rate their MPERT experience on a scale of 0 (worst possible) to 10 (best possible), the median score was 9 (range 1 to 10). The MPERT facility alleviated patient volume surge and potentially prevented transmission during H1N1 outbreak. While these were health care provider goals, caregiver expectations were also met. Caregivers perceived MPERT as an acceptable alternative to receiving care in the regular ED, felt that physicians and nurses communicated well, and felt that medical care was good to excellent. Use of the MPERT did not negatively affect overall caregiver satisfaction with TCH. These findings suggest that families of pediatric patients are amenable to nontraditional ED venues during periods of ED crowding. © 2012 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  1. A Survey of Graduates of Combined Emergency Medicine-Pediatrics Residency Programs: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Ashley M; Chasm, Rose M; Woolridge, Dale P

    2016-10-01

    In 1998, emergency medicine-pediatrics (EM-PEDS) graduates were no longer eligible for the pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) sub-board certification examination. There is a paucity of guidance regarding the various training options for medical students who are interested in PEM. We sought to to determine attitudes and personal satisfaction of graduates from EM-PEDS combined training programs. We surveyed 71 graduates from three EM-PEDS residences in the United States. All respondents consider their combined training to be an asset when seeking a job, 92% find it to be an asset to their career, and 88% think it provided added flexibility to job searches. The most commonly reported shortcoming was their ineligibility for the PEM sub-board certification. The lack of this designation was perceived to be a detriment to securing academic positions in dedicated children's hospitals. When surveyed regarding which training offers the better skill set for the practice of PEM, 90% (44/49) stated combined EM-PEDS training. When asked which training track gives them the better professional advancement in PEM, 52% (23/44) chose combined EM-PEDS residency, 27% (12/44) chose a pediatrics residency followed by a PEM fellowship, and 25% (11/44) chose an EM residency then a PEM fellowship. No EM-PEDS respondents considered PEM fellowship training after the completion of the dual training program. EM-PEDS graduates found combined training to be an asset in their career. They felt that it provided flexibility in job searches, and that it was ideal training for the skill set required for the practice of PEM. EM-PEDS graduates' practices varied, including mixed settings, free-standing children's hospitals, and community emergency departments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Canadian Cardiovascular Society/Canadian Pediatric Cardiology Association Position Statement on Pulse Oximetry Screening in Newborns to Enhance Detection of Critical Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kenny K; Fournier, Anne; Fruitman, Deborah S; Graves, Lisa; Human, Derek G; Narvey, Michael; Russell, Jennifer L

    2017-02-01

    Congenital heart disease is the most common congenital malformation and approximately 3 in 1000 newborns have critical congenital heart disease (CCHD). Timely diagnosis affects morbidity, mortality, and disability, and newborn pulse oximetry screening has been studied to enhance detection of CCHD. In this position statement we present an evaluation of the literature for pulse oximetry screening. Current detection strategies including prenatal ultrasound examination and newborn physical examination are limited by low diagnostic sensitivity. Pulse oximetry screening is safe, noninvasive, easy to perform, and widely available with a high specificity (99.9%) and moderately high sensitivity (76.5%). When an abnormal saturation is obtained, the likelihood of having CCHD is 5.5 times greater than when a normal result is obtained. The use of pulse oximetry combined with current strategies has shown sensitivities of up to 92% for detecting CCHD. False positive results can be minimized by screening after 24 hours, and testing the right hand and either foot might further increase sensitivity. Newborns with abnormal screening results should undergo a comprehensive assessment and echocardiography performed if a cardiac cause cannot be excluded. Screening has been studied to be cost neutral to cost effective. We recommend that pulse oximetry screening should be routinely performed in all healthy newborns to enhance the detection of CCHD in Canada. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hemodynamic variables predict outcome of emergency thoracotomy in the pediatric trauma population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrick, Deidre L; Dassinger, Melvin S; Bozeman, Andrew P; Porter, Austin; Maxson, R Todd

    2014-09-01

    Limited data exist regarding indications for resuscitative emergency thoracotomy (ETR) in the pediatric population. We attempt to define the presenting hemodynamic parameters that predict survival for pediatric patients undergoing ETR. We reviewed all pediatric patients (age <18years), entered into the National Trauma Data Bank from 2007 to 2010, who underwent ETR within one hour of ED arrival. Mechanism of injury and hemodynamics were analyzed using Chi squared and Wilcoxon tests. 316 children (70 blunt, 240 penetrating) underwent ETR, 31% (98/316) survived to discharge. Less than 5% of patients survived when presenting SBP was ≤50mmHg or heart rate was ≤70bpm. For blunt injuries there were no survivors with a pulse ≤80bpm or SBP ≤60mmHg. When survivors were compared to nonsurvivors, blood pressure, pulse, and injury type were statistically significant when treated as independent variables and in a logistic regression model. When ETR was performed for SBP ≤50mmHg or for heart rate ≤70bpm less than 5% of patients survived. There were no survivors of blunt trauma when SBP was ≤60mmHg or pulse was ≤80bpm. This review suggests that ETR may have limited benefit in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pediatrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spackman, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    The utilization of the Lixiscope in pediatrics was investigated. The types of images that can presently be obtained are discussed along with the problems encountered. Speculative applications for the Lixiscope are also presented.

  5. The reality of pediatric emergency mass critical care in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M; Argent, Andrew C; Kissoon, Niranjan

    2011-11-01

    Public health emergencies resulting from major man-made crises and large-scale natural disasters severely impact developing countries, causing unprecedented rates of indirect mortality and morbidity, especially in children and women. Concomitantly, the state of children's health in the least-developed countries is the worst since the 1950s before the Declaration of Alma Ata. Worldwide decline in public health protections, infrastructures, and systems, and a health worker crisis primarily in Africa and Asia, limit the delivery of intensive and critical care services. In May 2008, the Task Force for Mass Critical Care published guidance on provision of mass critical care to adults. Acknowledging that the critical care needs of children during disasters were unaddressed by this effort, a 17-member Steering Committee, assembled by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education with guidance from members of the American Academy of Pediatrics, convened in April 2009 to determine priority topic areas for pediatric emergency mass critical care recommendations.Steering Committee members established subgroups by topic area and performed literature reviews of MEDLINE and Ovid databases. The Steering Committee produced draft outlines through consensus-based study of the literature and convened October 6-7, 2009, in New York, NY, to review and revise each outline. Eight draft documents were subsequently developed from the revised outlines as well as through searches of MEDLINE updated through March 2010.The Pediatric Emergency Mass Critical Care Task Force, composed of 36 experts from diverse public health, medical, and disaster response fields, convened in Atlanta, GA, on March 29-30, 2010. Feedback on each manuscript was compiled and the Steering Committee revised each document to reflect expert input in addition to the most current medical literature. Using pandemics as a model of public health emergencies, steps to improve care to the most vulnerable of populations are

  6. Reducing Unnecessary Imaging for Patients With Constipation in the Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Catherine Craun; Gray, Matthew P; Diaz, Melissa; Boyd, Kevin P

    2017-07-01

    Constipation is a common diagnosis in the pediatric emergency department (ED). Children diagnosed with constipation may undergo an abdominal radiograph (AXR) as part of their diagnostic workup despite studies that suggest that an AXR in a patient suspected of being constipated is unnecessary and potentially misleading. We aimed to decrease the percentage of low-acuity patients aged between 6 months and 18 years diagnosed with constipation who undergo an AXR in our pediatric ED from 60% to 20% over 12 months. We conducted an interventional improvement project at a large, urban pediatric ED by using the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's Model for Improvement. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients ultimately diagnosed with constipation who had an AXR during their ED visit. Analysis was performed by using rational subgrouping and stratification on statistical process control (SPC) charts. Process analysis was performed by using a cause-and-effect diagram. Four plan-do-study-act cycles were completed over 9 months. Interventions included holding Grand Rounds on constipation, sharing best practices, metrics reporting, and academic detailing. Rational subgrouping and stratification on SPC charts were used to target the interventions to different ED provider groups. Over 12 months, we observed a significant and sustained decrease from a mean rate of 62% to a mean rate of 24% in the utilization of AXRs in the ED for patients with constipation. The use of rational subgrouping and stratification on SPC charts to study different ED provider groups resulted in a substantial and sustained reduction in the rate of AXRs for constipation. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Pediatric early warning score at time of emergency department disposition is associated with level of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Kristen; Marx, Julie; Hoffman, Heather; McBeth, Ryan; Pavuluri, Padmaja

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the association between the Pediatric Early Warning Score (PEWS) at time of emergency department (ED) disposition and level of care. We conducted a prospective observational study with a convenience sample of patients aged 0 to 21 years in the ED of an urban, tertiary care children's hospital between November 2010 and July 2011. Pediatric Early Warning Score data were obtained at time of ED disposition, and the disposition decision was collected from the electronic medical record. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the association between PEWS and disposition. The sample of 383 patients included 239 (62%) who were discharged, 126 (33%) admitted to acute care, and 18 (5%) admitted to intensive care. Assigned scores ranged from 0 to 9. Adjusting for triage level, a 1-point increase in PEWS increased the odds of acute care admission 48% relative to the odds of discharge (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-1.76) and increased the odds of intensive care admission 41% relative to the odds of acute care admission (odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.76). Pediatric Early Warning Score of 1 or more had maximum discriminant ability for admission, and PEWS of 3 or greater had maximum discriminant ability for intensive care. Area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.68 to detect need for admission for the entire sample and 0.80 among the 97 patients with respiratory complaints. Pediatric Early Warning Score is associated with the level of care at ED disposition but does not provide adequate sensitivity and specificity to be used in isolation. Performance characteristics are better for patients with respiratory complaints.

  8. Rhinovirus Disease in Children Seeking Care in a Tertiary Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Helen Y; Englund, Janet A; Strelitz, Bonnie; Lacombe, Kirsten; Jones, Charla; Follmer, Kristin; Martin, Emily K; Bradford, Miranda; Qin, Xuan; Kuypers, Jane; Klein, Eileen J

    2016-03-01

    Rhinovirus is the most common cause of viral respiratory tract infections in children. Virologic predictors of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), such as viral load and the presence of another respiratory virus (coinfection), are not well characterized in pediatric outpatients. Mid-nasal turbinate samples were collected from children presenting for care to the Seattle Children's Hospital emergency department (ED) or urgent care with a symptomatic respiratory infection between December 2011 and May 2013. A subset of samples was tested for rhinovirus viral load by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Clinical data were collected by chart reviews. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between viral load and coinfection and the risk for LRTI. Rhinovirus was the most frequent respiratory virus detected in children younger than 3 years. Of 445 patients with rhinovirus infection, 262 (58.9%) had LRTIs, 231 (51.9%) required hospital admission and 52 (22.5%) were hospitalized for 3 days or longer. Children with no comorbidities accounted for 142 (54%) of 262 rhinovirus LRTIs. Higher viral load was significantly associated with LRTI among illness episodes with rhinovirus alone (OR, 2.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-3.58). Coinfection increased the risk of LRTI (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.01-3.32). Rhinovirus was the most common pathogen detected among symptomatic young children in a pediatric ED who had respiratory viral testing performed, with the majority requiring hospitalization. Higher rhinovirus viral load and coinfection increased disease severity. Virologic data may assist clinical decision making for children with rhinovirus infections in the pediatric ED. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Understanding discharge communication behaviours in a pediatric emergency care context: a mixed methods observation study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Janet A; Bishop, Andrea; Plint, Amy; MacPhee, Shannon; Zemek, Roger; Chorney, Jill; Jabbour, Mona; Porter, Stephen; Sawyer, Scott

    2017-04-17

    One of the most important transitions in the continuum of care for children is discharge to home. Optimal discharge communication between healthcare providers and caregivers (e.g., parents or other guardians) who present to the emergency department (ED) with their children is not well understood. The lack of policies and considerable variation in practice regarding discharge communication in pediatric EDs pose a quality and safety risk for children and their parents. The aim of this mixed methods study is to better understand the process and structure of discharge communication in a pediatric ED context to contribute to the design and development of discharge communication interventions. We will use surveys, administrative data and real-time video observation to characterize discharge communication for six common illness presentations in a pediatric ED: (1) asthma, (2) bronchiolitis, (3) abdominal pain, (4) fever, (5) diarrhea and vomiting, and (6) minor head injury. Participants will be recruited from one of two urban pediatric EDs in Canada. Video recordings will be analyzed using Observer XT. We will use logistic regression to identify potential demographic and visit characteristic cofounders and multivariate logistic regression to examine association between verbal and non-verbal behaviours and parent recall and comprehension. Video recording of discharge communication will provide an opportunity to capture important data such as temporality, sequence and non-verbal behaviours that might influence the communication process. Given the importance of better characterizing discharge communication to identify potential barriers and enablers, we anticipate that the findings from this study will contribute to the development of more effective discharge communication policies and interventions.

  10. Effectiveness of preoperative intranasal dexmedetomidine compared with oral midazolam for the prevention of emergence delirium in pediatric patients undergoing general anesthesia: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Laura S; Pierce, Stephanie; Badeaux, Jennifer; FitzSimons, James J

    2016-08-01

    This review aims to identify the effectiveness of preoperative intranasal dexmedetomidine compared with oral midazolam for the prevention of emergence delirium in pediatric patients undergoing general anesthesia.

  11. Development of an accommodative smartphone app for medical guidelines in pediatric emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmucker, Michael; Heid, Jörn; Haag, Martin

    2014-01-01

    One of the outcomes of a training concept for physicians and nurses concerning pediatric emergencies at the Heidelberg University Hospital was that the work and procedures in childhood emergencies could be simplified by replacing the existing paper-based guidelines with a smartphone app. Since the project funds for this were already used up, a group of students from the master program "Medical Informatics" of Heidelberg and Heilbronn Universities took over the development of the app. Particular attention was given to the need for compatibility with the variety of devices (device size and screen resolution) and platform independence. The guidelines themselves were scripted in HTML5, JavaScript and CSS (responsive web design); managed by a container programmed in Sencha Touch. Even though the app is not yet available in the App-Store due to the limited timeframe, the students gained a great deal of valuable experience in developing platform independent software for mobile devices.

  12. Multi-agent Architecture for the Multi-Skill Tasks Modeling at the Pediatric Emergency Department.

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    Ajmi, Ines; Zgaya, Hayfa; Hammadi, Slim; Gammoudi, Lotfi; Martinot, Alain; Beuscart, Régis; Renard, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Patient journey in the Pediatric Emergency Department is a highly complex process. Current approaches for modeling are insufficient because they either focus only on the single ancillary units, or therefore do not consider the entire treatment process of the patients, or they do not account for the dynamics of the patient journey modeling. Therefore, we propose an agent based approach in which patients and emergency department human resources are represented as autonomous agents who are able to react flexible to changes and disturbances through pro-activeness and reactiveness. The main aim of this paper is to present the overall design of the proposed multi-agent system, emphasizing its architecture and the behavior of each agent of the model. Besides, we describe inter-agent communication based on the agent interaction protocol to ensure cooperation between agents when they perform the coordination of tasks for the users. This work is integrated into the ANR HOST project (ANR-11-TecSan-010).

  13. [Factors related to the use of pediatric emergency services: results from the Spanish National Health Survey].

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    Expósito-Ruiz, Manuela; Sánchez-López, Juan; Ruiz-Bailén, Manuel; Rodríguez-Del Águila, María Del Mar

    2017-01-01

    To determine the frequency of use of Spanish pediatric emergency services, and to describe user profiles and geographic variations. Descriptive study based on data from the Spanish National Health Survey. We calculated descriptive statistics and analyzed crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs). Thirty-five percent of the 5495 respondents had come to an emergency department in the past year, and 88.1% of them had used the services of a Spanish national health service hospital. Factors associated with higher use of emergency services were male sex of the patient, (OR, 1.202; 95% CI, 1.047-1.381), a higher educational level of parents (OR, 1.255; 95% CI, 0.983-1.603), and younger age of the child (OR, 0.909; 95% CI, 0.894-0.924). Emergency department use varied widely from one Spanish community to another. There was a positive correlation between use and the presence of a foreign-born population (ρ=0.495, P=.031). The rate of emergency department use is high in Spain. Variability between geographic areas is considerable, and some variation is explained by population characteristics.

  14. [Off-label use of drugs in pediatric emergencies: limitations and grey areas of drug approval].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erker, C G; Möllmann, M

    2013-02-01

    In the medical treatment of children drugs are frequently used outside the boundaries of the approved licensing and use under the terms of off-label use is possible. However, this requires critical reasoning and experience with the drug involved. With help of a traffic light colored spreadsheet this article illustrates the limitations, problems and possibilities of pharmacotherapy in pediatric emergencies or pediatric anesthesia. Of the 45 emergency drugs listed in this article most can be used in childhood, at least under specific conditions. Licensing restrictions occur especially in the newborn period and infancy resulting in frequent off-label use. Severe pitfalls, such as the propofol infusion syndrome after long-term sedation with propofol under the age of 16 years, emphasize the need for serious reflection on the substances involved. Decisions regarding pharmaceutical therapy should be based on the current standard of medical knowledge. When official recommendations from pharmaceutical companies are missing, treatment decisions for off-label use can be based on guidelines, study and literature databases or recommendations in medical journals.

  15. A systematic review of patient tracking systems for use in the pediatric emergency department.

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    Dobson, Ian; Doan, Quynh; Hung, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Patient safety is of great importance in the pediatric emergency department (PED). The combination of acutely and critically ill patients and high patient volumes creates a need for systems to support physicians in making accurate and timely diagnoses. Electronic patient tracking systems can potentially improve PED safety by reducing overcrowding and enhancing security. To enhance our understanding of current electronic tracking technologies, how they are implemented in a clinical setting, and resulting effect on patient care outcomes including patient safety. Nine databases were searched. Two independent reviewers identified articles that contained reference to patient tracking technologies in pediatrics or emergency medicine. Quantitative studies were assessed independently for methodological strength by two reviewers using an external assessment tool. Of 2292 initial articles, 22 were deemed relevant. Seventeen were qualitative, and the remaining five quantitative articles were assessed as being methodologically weak. Existing patient tracking systems in the ED included: infant monitoring/abduction prevention; barcode identification; radiofrequency identification (RFID)- or infrared (IR)-based patient tracking. Twenty articles supported the use of tracking technology to enhance patient safety or improve efficiency. One article failed to support the use of IR patient sensors due to study design flaws. Support exists for the use of barcode-, IR-, and RFID-based patient tracking systems to improve ED patient safety and efficiency. A lack of methodologically strong studies indicates a need for further evidence-based support for the implementation of patient tracking technology in a clinical or research setting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Manchester Triage System: main flowcharts, discriminators and outcomes of a pediatric emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amthauer, Camila; Cunha, Maria Luzia Chollopetz da

    2016-08-29

    to characterize the care services performed through risk rating by the Manchester Triage System, identifying demographics (age, gender), main flowcharts, discriminators and outcomes in pediatric emergency. cross-sectional quantitative study. Data on risk classification were obtained through a search of computerized registration data from medical records of patients treated in the pediatric emergency within one year. Descriptive statistics with absolute and relative frequencies was used for the analysis. 10,921 visits were conducted in the pediatric emergency, mostly male (54.4%), aged between 29 days and two years (44.5%). There was a prevalence of the urgent risk category (43.6%). The main flowchart used in the care was worried parents (22.4%) and the most prevalent discriminator was recent event (15.3%). The hospitalization outcome occurred in 10.4% of care performed in the pediatric emergency, however 61.8% of care needed to stay under observation and / or being under the health team care in the pediatric emergency. worried parents was the main flowchart used and recent events the most prevalent discriminator, comprising the hospitalization outcomes and permanency in observation in the pediatric emergency before discharge from the hospital. caracterizar os atendimentos realizados por meio da classificação de risco pelo Sistema de Triagem de Manchester, identificando dados demográficos (idade, sexo), principais fluxogramas, discriminadores e desfechos na emergência pediátrica. estudo quantitativo transversal. Os dados referentes à classificação de risco foram obtidos por meio de uma pesquisa ao registro informatizado de dados dos prontuários dos pacientes atendidos na emergência pediátrica no período de um ano. Para análise foi utilizada estatística descritiva com frequências absolutas e relativas. foram realizados 10.921 atendimentos na emergência pediátrica, em sua maioria do sexo masculino (54,4%), com idade entre 29 dias e dois anos (44

  17. Analysis of Patients Presenting to a Pediatric Emergency Department with Acute Limping

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    Sabiha Şahin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Limping is a common presenting complaint to a pediatric emergency department among children. The differential diagnosis of acute limp includes transient synovitis, trauma, infections, neoplasia, and congenital neuromuscular and developmental disorders. We aimed to evaluate patients presenting with acute limp to our pediatric emergency department and to analyze the clinical characteristics of the disease. In addition, we aimed to investigate the value of several laboratory parameters in early identification of septic and aseptic conditions. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed children under 18 years of age who were admitted to our emergency department with acute limping in a two-year period. Patients with any chronic diseases, any history of trauma, coagulopathy (as documented by blood clotting tests and any history of intramuscular injections within the previous week were excluded. The patients’ complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP levels, plain pelvic radiographs and ultrasonography reports were evaluated. The patients were classified as septic or aseptic according to their white blood cells (WBC, CRP and ESR values. Totally 120 patients were included in the study. The upper limit for WBC, ESR and CRP was accepted as 9000 cells/mm3, 20 mm/h and 0.8 mg/dL, respectively. Results: Of the total of 86 patients in the aseptic group, 81 had normal WBC, ESR and CRP levels and were diagnosed with transient synovitis, 2 female patients received the diagnosis of slipped upper femoral epiphysis, and 3 patients were diagnosed with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease during clinical follow-up. The remaining 34 patients with high ESR, WBC and CRP levels were included in the septic group in whom the following diagnoses were established during the follow-up: septic arthritis (n=12, Familial Mediterranean Fever (n=4, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (n=4, Guillain-Barré syndrome (n=3, osteomyelitis (n=3, acute

  18. Animal Bites Cases Presented to a University Hospital Pediatric Emergency Room

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    Okşan Derinöz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rabies is still one of the important public health problems both in the world and in our country. The highest risk of rabies comes from contact with pets, especially dogs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment steps that are used in the management of cases presenting to the pediatric emergency department in a university hospital with a risk of rabies contact. Methods: Data including age, gender, site of bites, kind of animals, tetanus/rabies prophylaxis, antibiotic treatments and forensic case reports were recorded for the animal bite cases between 2009 and 2016. Results: A total of 94 patients [58 males (61.7%] with a mean age of 11.06±4.77 years (range: 2-18 were included in the study. 43.6% of the cases presented to the pediatric emergency department within eight hours after the contact. 73.4% of patients presented due to dog bites, 25.5% for cat bite and one patient was with mice bite. In 34% of cases, the bite was on the hand. 50% of the bites were on torso in the 0-5 age group, 41.7% on upper extremities in the 6-10 age group, 50% on feet in the 11-15 age group, and 53.8% on lower extremities in the 16-18 age group (p<0.05. 56.4% of cases were reported as forensic cases. In 91.5% of cases, the wounds were cleaned and dressed while in the rest, the wounds were cleaned and sutured. 17% of patients were discharged on antibiotherapy. In only one of the cases, the patient was hospitalized for parenteral antibiotherapy. All the other patients were discharged. Conclusion: Although animal bites are very common cases for both adult emergency departments and pediatric emergency department, still many mistakes can be made in the treatment of these cases. In order to prevent these mistakes, the knowledge and skills of the healthcare professionals should be enhanced.

  19. A Randomized Controlled Study of Silver-Based Burns Dressing in a Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Matthew; Dalziel, Stuart R; Herd, Eleanor; Johnson, Kathryn; Wong She, Richard; Shepherd, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Silver-impregnated dressings are increasingly preferred over silver sulfadiazine cream in the management of pediatric burns. An ideal burns dressing would provide a moist, sterile environment, discourage infection, and not require painful dressing changes. This study sought to determine whether silver sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Aquacel Ag, ConvaTec, Greensboro, NC) dressing is a superior treatment to nanocrystalline silver-coated polyethylene (Acticoat, Smith & Nephew, London, United Kingdom) dressing in pediatric patients with partial thickness burns. The authors conducted a single-blind, randomized controlled trial in 89 patients presenting to Starship Children's Emergency Department with uncomplicated partial-thickness burns. Patients were randomized to receive either an Acticoat (n = 45) or Aquacel Ag (n = 44) dressing. Photographs of the burn before dressing and at day 10 were assessed by two blinded pediatric burn surgeons to determine the primary outcome and percentage epithelialization. Secondary outcomes were number of dressing changes required and number and type of adverse events. Both treatment groups achieved satisfactory rates of burn healing. There was no difference between groups in the percentage epithelialization at day 10 (Acticoat [mean ± SD] = 93 ± 14%; Aquacel Ag = 94 ± 17%, P = .89). Adverse events such as infection and escalation of care were rare, with no difference detected between groups. Compared with Acticoat, Aquacel Ag dressings required significantly less dressing changes per patient {Acticoat [median (interquartile range)] = 2 (2-2), Aquacel Ag=1 (1-1), P = .03}. Both Acticoat and Aquacel Ag dressings are effective burn dressings, allowing reepithelialization and preventing infection in a subset of uncomplicated partial-thickness burns in pediatric patients. Aquacel Ag requires fewer dressing changes. This decrease in frequency of dressing changes and direct manipulation of the wound, which can be distressing or

  20. Improvements in Pain Outcomes in a Canadian Pediatric Teaching Hospital Following Implementation of a Multifaceted, Knowledge Translation Initiative

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    Lisa M Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A previous audit performed at a tertiary/quaternary pediatric hospital in Toronto, Ontario, demonstrated suboptimal assessment and treatment of children’s pain. Knowledge translation (KT initiatives (education, reminders, audit and feedback were implemented to address identified care gaps; however, the impact is unknown.

  1. Atomized intranasal midazolam use for minor procedures in the pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Roni D; Schunk, Jeff E

    2008-05-01

    Procedural sedation is increasingly more common in pediatric emergency departments. We report our experience with intranasal midazolam (INM) using a unique atomization delivery device, specifically the efficacy and safety of this method of sedation. We performed a retrospective chart review of children who received INM sedation in the emergency department from April 1, 2005, through June 30, 2005. All children aged 1 to 60 months who received INM as the initial means of sedation were eligible for the study. Patients were excluded if they were older than 60 months. There were 205 patients who received INM for sedation and who met the study criteria. The mean age was 31.3 +/- 13.2 months (range, 1.5-60 months). The mean and median initial INM dose was 0.4 mg/kg (range, 0.3-0.8 mg/kg). Laceration repair was the most common procedure necessitating sedation (89%). The median degree-of-sedation score achieved was 2.0 (anxiolysis). Eleven patients (5.4%; 95% CI, 3%-9%) required an additional sedative to complete the procedure. Ten of the 11 patients received ketamine as the adjunctive sedative, and 1 patient required additional INM. The average time of last oral intake to start of sedation was 3.5 hours (range, 0.5-10.0 hours). Thirty six patients (18%) were NPO for 2 hours or less. There was 1 adverse event (0.5%; 95% CI, 0%-3%). This was a minor desaturation episode following ketamine administration requiring brief blow by oxygen. There were no adverse events (0%; 95% CI, 0%-2%) in patients who received INM alone. We conclude that atomized INM is effective in providing anxiolysis to children undergoing minor procedures in the pediatric emergency department. We are encouraged that no adverse events occurred with the use of INM alone despite relatively short fasting times.

  2. Chlorpromazine for the treatment of migraine in a pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanis, Jessica M; Timm, Nathan L

    2014-02-01

    Migraine headache is a common presenting condition to the pediatric emergency department (PED). Dopamine receptor antagonists, such as prochlorperazine and metoclopramide, serve as the primary treatment for migraine headache in many emergency departments; however, in 2012, our institution experienced a shortage of these drugs, resulting in the use of alternative medications. Chlorpromazine was included as an option for treatment at our institution during this shortage, although limited data exist on the effectiveness in children. The objectives of this study were: (1) to compare the treatment failure rate of chlorpromazine in the treatment of migraine headache in youth presenting to the PED with those who received prochlorperazine; and (2) to identify the frequency and type of adverse events, and change in pain score. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients 12-21 years of age treated for migraine headache in our emergency department. Our treatment group received intravenous chlorpromazine between February and April 2012, while the comparison group consisted of children treated with intravenous prochlorperazine between February and April 2011. The outcomes of interest were: (1) treatment failure, defined as need for additional therapy, hospitalization or 48-hour return; (2) adverse reactions to drug therapy; and (3) change in pain score. This study yielded 75 patients in the treatment group and 274 in the comparison group. Forty percent (30/75) of the treatment group had treatment failure compared with 15% (41/274) of the comparison group. There was no difference in mean change in pain score between the groups. The most common adverse effects included hypotension in the treatment group (12%) and akathisia in the comparison group (12%). This is the first study that has examined the use of chlorpromazine as a therapy in pediatric migraines. Abortive therapy for migraine headache in the PED with chlorpromazine is associated with greater need for rescue

  3. National Survey of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Fellows on Debriefing After Medical Resuscitations.

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    Zinns, Lauren E; O'Connell, Karen J; Mullan, Paul C; Ryan, Leticia M; Wratney, Angela T

    2015-08-01

    Medical resuscitations of critically ill children in the emergency department are stressful events requiring a coordinated team effort. Current guidelines recommend debriefing after such events to improve future performance. Debriefing practices within pediatric emergency departments by pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) fellows in the United States has not been studied. The aim of this study was to describe the current debriefing experience of PEM fellows in the United States. A 10-item, anonymous questionnaire regarding debriefing characteristics was distributed to fellows in US Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited PEM programs via e-mail and paper format from December 2011 to March 2012. Results were summarized using descriptive statistics. Of 393 eligible PEM fellows, 201 (51.1%) completed the survey. The 201 respondents included 82 first-year fellows (40.8%), 71 second-year fellows (35.3%), and 48 third-year fellows (23.9%). Ninety-nine percent had participated in medical resuscitations during their fellowship training, yet 88.0% reported no formal teaching on how to debrief. There was wide variability in the format and timing of debriefings. The majority of debriefings were led by PEM attending physicians (65.5%) and PEM fellows (19.6%). Most (91.5%) of the fellows indicated they would like further education about debriefing. The majority of PEM fellows do not receive formal training on how to debrief after a critical event and may have limited experience in leading debriefings. Debriefing training should be considered part of the educational curriculum during PEM fellowship.

  4. Allied Health Professional Support in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Survey from the Canadian Children Inflammatory Bowel Disease Network—A Joint Partnership of CIHR and the CH.I.L.D. Foundation

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    Wael El-Matary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The current number of healthcare providers (HCP caring for children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD across Canadian tertiary-care centres is underinvestigated. The aim of this survey was to assess the number of healthcare providers (HCP in ambulatory pediatric IBD care across Canadian tertiary-care centres. Methods. Using a self-administered questionnaire, we examined available resources in academic pediatric centres within the Canadian Children IBD Network. The survey evaluated the number of HCP providing ambulatory care for children with IBD. Results. All 12 tertiary pediatric gastroenterology centres participating in the network responded. Median full-time equivalent (FTE of allied health professionals providing IBD care at each site was 1.0 (interquartile range (IQR 0.6–1.0 nurse, 0.5 (IQR 0.2–0.8 dietitian, 0.3 (IQR 0.2–0.8 social worker, and 0.1 (IQR 0.02–0.3 clinical psychologists. The ratio of IBD patients to IBD physicians was 114 : 1 (range 31 : 1–537 : 1, patients to nurses/physician assistants 324 : 1 (range 150 : 1–900 : 1, dieticians 670 : 1 (range 250 : 1–4500 : 1, social workers 1558 : 1 (range 250 : 1–16000 : 1, and clinical psychologists 2910 : 1 (range 626 : 1–3200 : 1. Conclusions. There was a wide variation in HCP support among Canadian centres. Future work will examine variation in care including patients’ outcomes and satisfaction across Canadian centres.

  5. Pediatric martial arts injuries presenting to Emergency Departments, United States 1990-2003.

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    Yard, Ellen E; Knox, Christy L; Smith, Gary A; Comstock, R Dawn

    2007-08-01

    Although an estimated 6.5 million United States (US) children aged 6-17 practiced a martial art in 2004, there have been no nationally representative studies comparing pediatric injuries among the three most popular disciplines, karate, taekwondo, and judo. Describe pediatric martial arts injuries presenting to a representative sample of US Emergency Departments (EDs) from 1990 to 2003. We reviewed all martial arts injuries captured by the US Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC), National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). An estimated 128,400 children martial arts-related injuries from 1990 to 2003. Injured tended to be male (73.0%) and had a mean age of 12.1 years. Most injuries were attributed to karate (79.5%). The most common mechanism of injury was being kicked (25.6%), followed by falling (20.6%) and kicking (18.0%). The majority of injuries occurred to the lower leg/foot/ankle (30.1%) and hand/wrist (24.5%). The most common injury diagnoses were sprains/strains (29.3%), contusions/abrasions (27.8%), and fractures (24.6%). Participants in judo sustained significantly higher proportions of shoulder/upper arm injuries than karate (IPR=4.31, 95% CI: 2.84-6.55) or taekwondo (IPR=9.75, 95% CI: 3.53-26.91) participants. There were also higher proportions of neck injuries sustained by judo participants compared to karate (IPR=4.73, 95% CI: 1.91-11.70) or taekwondo (IPR=4.17, 95% CI: 1.02-17.06) participants. Pediatric martial arts injuries differ by discipline. Understanding these injury patterns can assist with the development of discipline-specific preventive interventions.

  6. A matched-pair cluster design study protocol to evaluate implementation of the Canadian C-spine rule in hospital emergency departments: Phase III

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    Rowe Brian H

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians in Canadian emergency departments (EDs annually treat 185,000 alert and stable trauma victims who are at risk for cervical spine (C-spine injury. However, only 0.9% of these patients have suffered a cervical spine fracture. Current use of radiography is not efficient. The Canadian C-Spine Rule is designed to allow physicians to be more selective and accurate in ordering C-spine radiography, and to rapidly clear the C-spine without the need for radiography in many patients. The goal of this phase III study is to evaluate the effectiveness of an active strategy to implement the Canadian C-Spine Rule into physician practice. Specific objectives are to: 1 determine clinical impact, 2 determine sustainability, 3 evaluate performance, and 4 conduct an economic evaluation. Methods We propose a matched-pair cluster design study that compares outcomes during three consecutive 12-months "before," "after," and "decay" periods at six pairs of "intervention" and "control" sites. These 12 hospital ED sites will be stratified as "teaching" or "community" hospitals, matched according to baseline C-spine radiography ordering rates, and then allocated within each pair to either intervention or control groups. During the "after" period at the intervention sites, simple and inexpensive strategies will be employed to actively implement the Canadian C-Spine Rule. The following outcomes will be assessed: 1 measures of clinical impact, 2 performance of the Canadian C-Spine Rule, and 3 economic measures. During the 12-month "decay" period, implementation strategies will continue, allowing us to evaluate the sustainability of the effect. We estimate a sample size of 4,800 patients in each period in order to have adequate power to evaluate the main outcomes. Discussion Phase I successfully derived the Canadian C-Spine Rule and phase II confirmed the accuracy and safety of the rule, hence, the potential for physicians to improve care. What

  7. An Assessment of Direct Restorative Material Use in Posterior Teeth by American and Canadian Pediatric Dentists: I. Material Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varughese, Rae E; Andrews, Paul; Sigal, Michael J; Azarpazhooh, Amir

    2016-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the preferences of pediatric dentists in Canada and the United States about clinical decision-making related to the placement of direct restorative materials. A cross-sectional web-based survey was used to collect the preference of all active pediatric members of the Royal College of Dentists of Canada and the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry on the use of direct restorative materials in posterior teeth in healthy, developmentally delayed (DD), and medically compromised (MC) children. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the association between the predictor variables and all materials at two-tailed Pcrowns were the most preferred material for primary teeth, and a similar frequency of amalgam and composite were preferred for permanent teeth. Amalgam usage was increasingly preferred in the DD population versus healthy and MC patients. Composite resin was the most preferred restoration for Class I, II, and V restorations in primary and permanent teeth in healthy and medically compromised individuals. In DD individuals, stainless steel crowns and amalgam were preferred more frequently.

  8. Pediatric Concussion Management in the Emergency Department: A National Survey of Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamarripa, Angela; Clark, Sarah J; Rogers, Alexander J; Wang-Flores, Helena; Stanley, Rachel M

    2017-02-01

    To examine parental expectations and beliefs about diagnosis and management of pediatric concussion. We conducted a cross-sectional web-based survey of a nationally representative panel of US parents in March 2014. Parents of 10- to 17-year-old children responded to questions about their expectations and beliefs about diagnosis and management of pediatric concussion in the emergency department (ED). Weighted percentages for descriptive statistics were calculated, and χ2 statistics were used for bivariate analysis. Survey participation was 53%, and of 912 parent respondents with a child 10-17 years of age who were presented with a scenario of their child having mild symptoms of concussion, 42% would seek immediate ED care. Parents who would seek immediate ED care for this scenario were more likely than parents who would consult their child's usual provider or wait at home to "definitely expect" imaging (65% vs 21%), definitive diagnosis of concussion (77% vs 61%), a timeline for return to activity (80% vs 60%), and a signed return to play form (55% vs 41%). Many parents who bring children to the ED following a possible concussion are likely to expect comprehensive and definitive care, including imaging, a definitive diagnosis, a timeline for return to activity, and a signed return to play form. To manage these expectations, healthcare providers should continue to educate parents about the evaluation and management of concussion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Opportunistic Screening for Exposure to Bullying in the Pediatric Emergency Department.

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    Seltzer, Marlene; Menoch, Margaret; Chen, Charity

    2017-01-01

    To assess opportunistic screening for exposure to bullying in the pediatric emergency department (ED), an anonymous survey inquiring about exposure to physical, verbal, social, and cyber bullying behaviors was given to ED patients 5 to 18 years old. The survey asked about being the recipient, perpetrator, and/or witness of bullying; the frequency of exposure; liking school; missing school; and presenting complaint. Either the child or parent could complete the survey. A total of 909 surveys were analyzed. Exposure was 78.7%. A greater proportion of females reported being victims and witnesses. Youth who reported being both victims and witnesses represented the largest group, with witness-only the second largest. Parents reported less cyber-bullying and witness status to all types of bullying. For children who did not like school, there was a significant difference in exposure versus nonexposure. There was no association with presenting complaint. Opportunistic screening for bullying exposure in pediatric ED patients warrants consideration as it may increase detection of preclinical status and clinical sequelae.

  10. Thermoregulation of the newborn: care during the admission in a pediatric emergency UNIT

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    Aldiania Carlos Balbino

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the care in thermoregulation of the newborn during the admission in a High Complexity Pediatric Emergency Unit. Retrospective documentary study, carried out ​​in a teaching hospital of Ceará, Brazil. Data collection was performed through a form, 149 medical records of newborns with a request for transfer to neonatal intensive care unit. There was prevalence of males, at term, weighing between 2,500 and 3,999 grams, and born vaginally in hospitals. Among the main causes that led to the unit transfer request, 44.3% presented respiratory disorders. Most (85.9% was Normothermic, and the most evident care was checking the axillary temperature and the use of heat sources (incubator, radiant heat source. We concluded that mild hypothermia was the most present risk indicator and that cares concerning the thermoregulation in the admission of the newborn are consistent with the clinical manifestations presented.

  11. Pediatric volleyball-related injuries treated in US emergency departments, 1990-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Katherine A; Shields, Brenda J; Smith, Gary A

    2011-09-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of pediatric volleyball-related injuries treated in US hospital emergency departments. Data for children younger than 18 years obtained from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission from 1990 through 2009 were analyzed. An estimated 692 024 volleyball-related injuries to children younger than 18 years occurred during the study period. The annual number of injuries declined significantly by 23% during the study period; however, the annual injury rate remained unchanged, and the number of volleyball-related concussions/closed head injuries increased significantly. Upper (48%) and lower (39%) extremity injuries occurred most frequently, as did strains/sprains (54%). Contact with the net/pole was associated with concussions/closed head injury our findings indicate opportunities for making volleyball an even safer sport for children. Protective padding, complying with US volleyball standards, should cover all volleyball poles and protruding hardware to prevent impact-related injuries.

  12. Life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia after a single dose of nebulized epinephrine in pediatric emergency department.

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    Toaimah, Fatihi Hassan; Al-Ansari, Khalid

    2011-12-01

    Cardiac adverse effects are not commonly reported complications of nebulized epinephrine therapy. We present a case of critical cardiac arrhythmia developed at the Pediatric Emergency Department in an otherwise healthy infant after receiving 3 mg of L-epinephrine (1:1000) nebulization over a 90 min period for a diagnosis of bronchiolitis. Unstable ventricular tachycardia was found after the nebulization therapy that required chemical cardioversion. Frequent premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) were found initially following the cardiac insult that was controlled with oral amiodarone, and disappeared during follow-up. Although epinephrine inhalation is generally safe, adverse life-threatening events could be unpredictable and may evolve even after a single dose of nebulized epinephrine.

  13. X-ray Imaging Analysis of Intrathecal Baclofen Pumps for Pediatric Emergency Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Brianna Nicole; Sernas, Thomas; Mazzola, Catherine A

    2017-04-24

    Intrathecal baclofen therapy has become increasingly popular because of its effectiveness in treating spasticity in pediatric patients. The device implanted into each patient is structurally similar. However, x-ray imaging can give the appearance of missing or extraneous objects on or near the intrathecal baclofen device. The composition of the material used in making the catheters is transparent on x-ray images. In addition, the connection port between the pump and catheter resembles the shape of a needle. This has led to confusion among emergency room personnel, and unnecessary panic for other people involved. It is important that medical professionals understand the new design of the pump-connector system to avoid further complications.

  14. Pain Management for Sickle Cell Disease in the Pediatric Emergency Department: Medications and Hospitalization Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciotti, Chantel; Vaiselbuh, Sarah; Romanos-Sirakis, Eleny

    2017-10-01

    The majority of emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations for patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are pain related. Adequate and timely pain management may improve quality of life and prevent worsening morbidities. We conducted a retrospective chart review of pediatric patients with SCD seen in the ED, selected by sickle cell-related ICD-9 codes. A total of 176 encounters were reviewed from 47 patients to record ED pain management and hospitalization trends. Mean time to pain medication administration was 63 minutes. Patients received combination (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug [NSAID] + narcotic) pain medications for initial treatment at a minority of ED encounters (19%). A higher percentage of patients who received narcotics alone as initial treatment were hospitalized as compared with those who received combination treatment initially ( P= 0.0085). Improved patient education regarding home pain management as well as standardized ED guidelines for assessment and treatment of sickle cell pain may result in superior and more consistent patient care.

  15. [Pediatric management by mobile intensive care units in the northern French Alps emergency network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesnière, M; Matonnier, A; Courtiol, G; Désormais, G; Wroblewski, I; Michard-Lenoir, A-P; Venchiarutti, D; Pruvost-Dussart, I; Hallain, M; Mampe-Armstrong, H; Belle, L; Griffet, J

    2015-06-01

    The northern French Alps emergency network (RENAU) manages emergent care and patient treatment pathways in a three-county area in the French Alps. The aim of the study was to describe the pediatric activity in mobile intensive care units (MICUs). This retrospective observational study was conducted from 1 January to 31 December 2012. Data were obtained from patients' medical records in seven representative MICUs of the RENAU. Consecutive patients between 1 month and 18 years of age were enrolled. During the study period, MICUs carried out 11,951 primary transports and 3087 secondary transfers. A total of 1325 patients were enrolled: 1087 primary transports and 238 secondary transfers. In primary interventions, 531 (48.9%) patients were managed for a trauma, 118 (11%) children were discharged and stayed home, 427 (39.9%) underwent an intravenous cannulation and 27 (2.5%) on-scene intubation. A pediatrician was in charge of 64 (26.9%) secondary transfers. Among 1649 (18%) mountain rescues, 296 (18.7%) involved a child. Emergency physicians in MICUs are involved with children's prehospital care and need dedicated materiel and special training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of Patient Visits and Collections After Opening a Satellite Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Katherine M; Caperell, Kerry; Cross, Keith; Duncan, Scott; Foster, Ben; Liu, Gil; Pritchard, Hank; Southard, Gary; Shinabery, Ben; Sutton, Brad; Kim, In K

    2017-02-04

    Satellite pediatric emergency departments (PEDs) have emerged as a strategy to increase patient capacity. We sought to determine the impact on patient visits, physician fee collections, and value of emergency department (ED) time at the primary PED after opening a nearby satellite PED. We also illustrate the spatial distribution of patient demographics and overlapping catchment areas for the primary and satellite PEDs using geographical information system. A structured, financial retrospective review was conducted. Aggregate patient demographic data and billing data were collected regarding physician fee charges, collections, and patient visits for both PEDs. All ED visits from January 2009 to December 2013 were analyzed. Geographical information system mapping using ArcGIS mapped ED patient visits. Patient visits at the primary PED were 53,050 in 2009 before the satellite PED opened. The primary PED visits increased after opening the satellite PED to 55,932 in 2013. The satellite PED visits increased to 21,590 in 2013. Collections per visit at the primary PED decreased from $105.13 per visit in 2011 to $86.91 per visit in 2013. Total collections at the satellite PED decreased per visit from $155.41 per visit in 2011 to $128.53 per visit in 2013. After opening a nearby satellite PED, patient visits at the primary PED did not substantially decrease, suggesting that there was a previously unrecognized demand for PED services. The collections per ED visit were greater at the satellite ED, likely due to a higher collection rate.

  17. Establishing pediatric surgical services in emerging countries: What the first world can learn from Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leodoro, Basil M; Beasley, Spencer W; Maoate, Kiki

    2015-05-01

    Conventional surgical aid to emerging countries often does little to build capacity or infrastructure. An evolving model in the South Pacific has been designed to promote local expertise by training local surgeons to a high standard and helping establish sustainable pediatric surgical services in those regions. This review identifies the key elements required to improve and expand local specialist pediatric surgical capacity in Vanuatu. It highlights some of the challenges that face external agencies in helping to create sufficient local infrastructure to achieve these goals and describes how the impediments can be overcome. We conducted a review of the program that provides a sustainable pediatric surgical service to the small and poor Pacific nation of Vanuatu through the involvement and support of the Pacific Island Project administered by the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons. A needs assessment must be done from the recipient's perspective and can be achieved by collaboration between an external agency and existing local surgeons. The key to a sustainable service is identifying and training high quality young indigenous doctors early and providing mentorship and support, including after their return. A sustainable and viable service requires an adequately resourced position for the new surgeons(s) within a framework of a long term strategic plan for the specialty and adequate infrastructure in place on their return. Development of rapport with government and influencing strategic health priorities is a prerequisite of a new national specialty service. (1) Establishing long term viable pediatric surgical capability can only be achieved through the local health system with local leadership and ownership. (2) Internal capability includes governance, alignment with ministry of health priorities and policies, and effective clinical leadership. (3) Selection of person(s) to be trained is best done early, and he/she must be supported throughout training and

  18. [Impact of quality-indicator-based measures to improve the treatment of acute poisoning in pediatric emergency patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Sánchez, Lidia; Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, Victoria; Azkunaga Santibáñez, Beatriz; Nogué-Xarau, Santiago; Ferrer Bosch, Nuria; García González, Elsa; Luaces I Cubells, Carles

    2016-02-01

    To analyze the impact of quality-indicator-based measures for improving quality of care for acute poisoning in pediatric emergency departments. Recent assessments of quality indicators were compared with benchmark targets and with results from previous studies. The first study evaluated 6 basic indicators in the pediatric emergency departments of members of to the working group on poisoning of the Spanish Society of Pediatric Emergency Medicine (GTI-SEUP). The second study evaluated 20 indicators in a single emergency department of GTI-SEUP members. Based on the results of those studies, the departments implemented the following corrective measures: creation of a team for gastric lavage follow-up, preparation of a new GTI-SEUP manual on poisoning, implementation of a protocol for poisoning incidents, and creation of specific poisoning-related fields for computerized patient records. The benchmark targets were reached on 4 quality indicators in the first study. Improvements were seen in the availability of protocols, as indicators exceeded the target in all the pediatric emergency departments (vs 29.2% of the departments in an earlier study, P indicators. Improvements were seen in compliance with incident reporting to the police (recently, 44.4% vs 19.2% previously, P = .036), case registration in the minimum basic data set (51.0% vs 1.9%, P trend toward increased administration of activated carbon within 2 hours (93.1% vs 83.5%, P = .099). No other significant improvements were seen. The corrective measures led to improvements in some quality indicators. There is still room for improvement in these emergency departamens' care of pediatric poisoning.

  19. PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS OF DATA PREPROCESSING AND GEOSPATIAL MEASURES FOR OPTIMIZING THE NEUROLOGICAL AND OTHER PEDIATRIC EMERGENCIES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela MANIU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Time management, optimal and timed determination of emergency severity as well as optimizing the use of available human and material resources are crucial areas of emergency services. A starting point for achieving these optimizations can be considered the analysis and preprocess of real data from the emergency services. The benefits of performing this method consist in exposing more useful structures to data modelling algorithms which consequently will reduce overfitting and improves accuracy. This paper aims to offer practical recommendations for data preprocessing measures including feature selection and discretization of numeric attributes regarding age, duration of the case, season, period, week period (workday, weekend and geospatial location of neurological and other pediatric emergencies. An analytical, retrospective study was conducted on a sample consisting of 933 pediatric cases, from UPU-SMURD Sibiu, 01.01.2014 – 27.02.2017 period.

  20. Pediatric gastroenteritis in the emergency department: practice evaluation in Belgium, France, The Netherlands and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelc, Raphaëlle; Redant, Sébastien; Julliand, Sébastien; Llor, Juan; Lorrot, Mathie; Oostenbrink, Rianne; Gajdos, Vincent; Angoulvant, François

    2014-05-16

    Based on European recommendations of ESPGHAN/ESPID from 2008, first line therapy for dehydration caused by acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is oral rehydration solution (ORS). In case of oral route failure, nasogastric tube enteral rehydration is as efficient as intra-venous rehydration and seems to lead to fewer adverse events. The primary objective was to describe rehydration strategies used in cases of AGE in pediatric emergency departments (PEDs) in Belgium, France, The Netherlands, and Switzerland. An electronic survey describing a scenario in which a toddler had moderate dehydration caused by AGE was sent to physicians working in pediatric emergency departments. Analytical data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and Kruskal -Wallis Rank test. We analyzed 68 responses, distributed as follows: Belgium N = 10, France N = 37, The Netherlands N = 7, and Switzerland N = 14. Oral rehydration with ORS was the first line of treatment for 90% of the respondents. In case of first line treatment failure, intravenous rehydration was preferred by 95% of respondents from France, whereas nasogastric route was more likely to be used by those from Belgium (80%), The Netherlands (100%) and Switzerland (86%). Serum electrolyte measurements were more frequently prescribed in France (92%) and Belgium (80%) than in The Netherlands (43%) and Switzerland (29%). Racecadotril was more frequently used in France, and ondansetron was more frequently used in Switzerland. No respondent suggested routine use of antibiotics. We found variations in practices in terms of invasiveness and testing. Our study supports the need for further evaluation and implementation strategies of ESPGHAN/ESPID guidelines. We plan to extend the study throughout Europe with support of the Young ESPID Group.

  1. Comparison of two analgesia protocols for the treatment of pediatric orthopedic emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Barcelos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available SummaryObjective:to compare the efficacy of two analgesia protocols (ketamine versus morphine associated with midazolam for the reduction of dislocations or closed fractures in children.Methods:randomized clinical trial comparing morphine (0.1mg/kg; max 5mg and ketamine (2.0mg/kg, max 70mg associated with midazolam (0.2mg/kg; max 10mg in the reduction of dislocations or closed fractures in children treated at the pediatrics emergency room (October 2010 and September 2011. The groups were compared in terms of the times to perform the procedures, analgesia, parent satisfaction and orthopedic team.Results:13 patients were allocated to ketamine and 12 to morphine, without differences in relation to age, weight, gender, type of injury, and pain scale before the intervention. There was no failure in any of the groups, no differences in time to start the intervention and overall procedure time. The average hospital stay time was similar (ketamine = 10.8+5.1h versus morphine = 12.3+4.4hs; p=0.447. The median pain (faces pain scale scores after the procedure was 2 in both groups. Amnesia was noted in 92.3% (ketamine and 83.3% (morphine (p=0.904. Parents said they were very satisfied in relation to the analgesic intervention (84.6% in the ketamine group and 66.6% in the morphine group; p=0.296. The satisfaction of the orthopedist regarding the intervention was 92.3% in the ketamine group and 75% in the morphine group (p=0.222.Conclusion:by producing results similar to morphine, ketamine can be considered as an excellent option in pain management and helps in the reduction of dislocations and closed fractures in pediatric emergency rooms.

  2. Using a Multimedia Presentation to Enhance Informed Consent in a Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Sandra P; Stoner, Michael J; Kelleher, Kelly; Cohen, Daniel M

    2015-08-01

    Informed consent is an ethical process for ensuring patient autonomy. Multimedia presentations (MMPs) often aid the informed consent process for research studies. Thus, it follows that MMPs would improve informed consent in clinical settings. The aim of this study was to determine if an MMP for the informed consent process for ketamine sedation improves parental satisfaction and comprehension as compared with standard practice. This 2-phase study compared 2 methods of informed consent for ketamine sedation of pediatric patients. Phase 1 was a randomized, prospective study that compared the standard verbal consent to an MMP. Phase 2 implemented the MMP into daily work flow to validate the previous year's results. Parents completed a survey evaluating their satisfaction of the informed consent process and assessing their knowledge of ketamine sedation. Primary outcome measures were parental overall satisfaction with the informed consent process and knowledge of ketamine sedation. One hundred eighty-four families from a free-standing, urban, tertiary pediatric emergency department with over 85,000 annual visits were enrolled. Different demographics were not associated with a preference for the MMP or improved scores on the content quiz. Intervention families were more likely "to feel involved in the decision to use ketamine" and to understand that "they had the right to refuse the ketamine" as compared with control families. The intervention group scored significantly higher overall on the content section than the control group. Implementation and intervention families responded similarly to all survey sections. Multimedia presentation improves parental understanding of ketamine sedation, whereas parental satisfaction with the informed consent process remains unchanged. Use of MMP in the emergency department for informed consent shows potential for both patients and providers.

  3. Anticipated resource utilization for injury versus non-injury pediatric visits to emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonfrillo, Mark R; Macy, Michelle L; Cook, Lawrence J; Funai, Tomohiko; Stanley, Rachel M; Chamberlain, James M; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Alpern, Elizabeth R

    2016-12-01

    Childhood injuries are increasingly treated in emergency departments (EDs) but the relationship between injury severity and ED resource utilization has not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to compare resource utilization for pediatric injury-related ED visits across injury-severity levels and with non-injury visits, using standardized, validated scales. A retrospective analysis of 2004-2008 ED visits from the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network Core Data Project. Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale severity (MAIS) and Severity Classification System (SCS) scores were calculated and compared. MAIS and SCS are ordinal scales from 1 (minor injury) to 6, and 1 (low anticipated resource utilization) to 5, respectively. ED length of stay (LOS) and admission percentages were calculated as comparative proxy measures of resource utilization. There were 763,733 injury visits and 2,328,916 non-injury visits, most with SCS of 2 or 3. Of the injured patients, 59.2 % had an MAIS of 1. ED LOS and admission percentage increased with increasing MAIS from 1-5. LOS and admission percentage increased with increasing SCS in both samples. Median LOS was shorter for injured versus non-injured patients with SCS 3-5. Non-injured patients with SCS 2-5 were more likely admitted than injured patients. Most injured patients had an SCS 3 with an MAIS 1-2, or an SCS 2 with an MAIS 1, with no correlation between the two scales. While admission rates and LOS increase with increasing AIS and SCS severity, these two classification schemas do not reliably correlate. Similarly, ED visit metrics differ between injured and non-injured patients in similar SCS categories. Although AIS and SCS both have value, these differences should be considered when using these schemas in research and quality improvement.

  4. Lack of agreement in pediatric emergency department discharge diagnoses from clinical and administrative data sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Marc H; Knight, Stacey; Alessandrini, Evaline A; Stanley, Rachel M; Chamberlain, James M; Kuppermann, Nathan; Alpern, Elizabeth R

    2007-07-01

    Diagnosis information from existing data sources is used commonly for epidemiologic, administrative, and research purposes. The quality of such data for emergency department (ED) visits is unknown. To determine the agreement on final diagnoses between two sources, electronic administrative sources and manually abstracted medical records, for pediatric ED visits, in a multicenter network. This was a cross sectional study at 19 EDs nationwide. The authors obtained data from two sources at each ED during a three-month period in 2003: administrative sources for all visits and abstracted records for randomly selected visits during ten days over the study period. Records were matched using unique identifiers and probabilistic linkage. The authors recorded up to three diagnoses from each abstracted medical record and up to ten for the administrative data source. Diagnoses were grouped into 104 groups using a modification of the Clinical Classification System. A total of 8,860 abstracted records had at least one valid diagnosis code (with a total of 12,895 diagnoses) and were successfully matched to records in the administrative source. Overall, 67% (95% confidence interval = 66% to 68%) of diagnoses from the administrative and abstracted sources were within the same diagnosis group. Agreement varied by site, ranging from 54% to 77%. Agreement varied substantially by diagnosis group; there was no difference by method of linkage. Clustering clinically similar diagnosis groups improved agreement between administrative and abstracted data sources. ED diagnoses retrieved from electronic administrative sources and manual chart review frequently disagree, even if similar diagnosis codes are grouped. Agreement varies by institution and by diagnosis. Further work is needed to improve the accuracy of diagnosis coding; development of a grouping system specific to pediatric emergency care may be beneficial.

  5. Patient Factors Associated With the Decision to Transfer Adult Patients From a Pediatric Emergency Department For Definitive Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornblith, Aaron E; Foster, Ashley A; Cho, Christine S; Wang, Ralph C; Jaffe, David M

    2017-11-14

    Adults presenting to pediatric emergency departments are transferred to general emergency departments in proportions between 20% and 60%. How illness severity is related to the decision to transfer is poorly understood. We compared the proportion of adults with emergent and nonemergent conditions with respect to their final disposition. We also determined characteristics associated with transfer. We conducted a retrospective review of the electronic medical record and identified all patients 25 years and older presenting to a large urban freestanding pediatric emergency department from 2008 to 2013. We collected demographic and clinical information and used a preexisting algorithm to classify visits as emergent or nonemergent. We created a multivariate logistical regression model to determine independent variables associated with transfer. Among 246,694 encounters, 1182 (0.5%) patients were older than 25 years. We excluded 402 (34%) because they were not categorized. Of the 780 categorized, 32% had an emergent and 68% had a nonemergent condition. Only 22% were transferred. Compared with nonurgent patients, the proportion transferred was twice as high for emergent patients (36% vs 15%), but even for emergent patients, most (63%) were retained for definitive care and/or disposition. Emergent diagnosis, age 45 to 64 years, and higher triage acuity were independently associated with the decision to transfer. Regardless of illness severity, a minority of adult patients were transferred away for definitive care. Factors independently associated with transfer were emergent condition, higher triage acuity, and older age.

  6. Herbal therapy use in a pediatric emergency department population: expect the unexpected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanski, Steven L; Greenwald, Michael; Perkins, Amanda; Simon, Harold K

    2003-05-01

    In recent years investigators have reported widespread use of alternative medicine. Some herbal therapies have potentially harmful side effects as well as adverse interactions with medications. Data are lacking on the use in children and caregiver understanding of these products. To determine the reported use of herbal products among a pediatric emergency department population and to evaluate the caregivers' understanding and source of information concerning these products. A convenience sampling of pediatric emergency department patients and their caregivers occurred during a 3-month period in 2001. The interview consisted of 18 questions regarding the types of non-Food and Drug Administration-regulated herbal products and home remedies used, general product knowledge and sources of information used by the child's caregiver (including discussions with their child's primary physician). One hundred forty-two (93%) of 153 families approached participated in the study. The mean patient age was 5.3 years (range: 3 weeks-18 years). Forty-five percent of caregivers reported giving their child an herbal product, and 88% of these caregivers had at least 1 year of college education. Of the children receiving these therapies, 53% had been given 1 type and 27% were given 3 or more in the past year. The most common therapies reportedly used were aloe plant/juice (44%), echinacea (33%), and sweet oil (25%). The most dangerous potential herbal and prescription medication combination reported was ephedra and albuterol in an adolescent with asthma. The most unusual products reportedly used included turpentine, pine needles, and cowchips. Of all people interviewed, 77% did not believe or were uncertain if herbal products had any side effects and only 27% could name a potential side effect. Sixty-six percent were unsure or thought that herbal products did not interact with other medications and only 2 people correctly named a drug interaction. Of the people who used these therapies

  7. The Managing Emergencies in Paediatric Anaesthesia global rating scale is a reliable tool for simulation-based assessment in pediatric anesthesia crisis management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Tobias C; Ng, Elaine; Power, Daniel; Marsh, Christopher; Tolchard, Stephen; Shadrina, Anna; Bould, Matthew D

    2013-12-01

    The use of simulation-based assessments for high-stakes physician examinations remains controversial. The Managing Emergencies in Paediatric Anaesthesia course uses simulation to teach evidence-based management of anesthesia crises to trainee anesthetists in the United Kingdom (UK) and Canada. In this study, we investigated the feasibility and reliability of custom-designed scenario-specific performance checklists and a global rating scale (GRS) assessing readiness for independent practice. After research ethics board approval, subjects were videoed managing simulated pediatric anesthesia crises in a single Canadian teaching hospital. Each subject was randomized to two of six different scenarios. All 60 scenarios were subsequently rated by four blinded raters (two in the UK, two in Canada) using the checklists and GRS. The actual and predicted reliability of the tools was calculated for different numbers of raters using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. Average measures ICCs ranged from 'substantial' to 'near perfect' (P ≤ 0.001). The reliability of the checklists and the GRS was similar. Single measures ICCs showed more variability than average measures ICC. At least two raters would be required to achieve acceptable reliability. We have established the reliability of a GRS to assess the management of simulated crisis scenarios in pediatric anesthesia, and this tool is feasible within the setting of a research study. The global rating scale allows raters to make a judgement regarding a participant's readiness for independent practice. These tools may be used in the future research examining simulation-based assessment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A survey of nurses' beliefs about the medical emergency team system in a canadian tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagshaw, Sean M; Mondor, Eugene E; Scouten, Cindy; Montgomery, Carmel; Slater-MacLean, Linda; Jones, Daryl A; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Gibney, R T Noel

    2010-01-01

    Nurses are the primary activators of the medical emergency team (MET). Although the MET system can empower nurses to seek help in managing acutely ill patients, few data on nurses' beliefs about the system are available. To evaluate nurses' beliefs and behaviors about the MET system. Nurses from a large academic hospital in Canada were surveyed (2 demography-related questions and 17 Likert-scale questions). Of 614 nurses employed on units participating in the MET system, 293 (47.7%) were approached and 275 completed the survey (response rate, 93.9%). Most respondents (84.2%) believed that the MET could prevent cardiopulmonary arrest in acutely ill patients, and 94% believed that the MET allowed them to seek help for patients they were worried about. Most nurses (75.9%) would call the responsible physician before activating the MET. Fifteen percent indicated reluctance to activate the MET because of fear of criticism, but only 2.2% considered the MET overused. Most (81.3%) believed that the MET did not increase their workload, and 91.3% did not believe that the MET reduced their skills. Forty-eight percent of nurses indicated that they would activate the MET for a patient they were worried about, even if the patient had normal vital signs. Nurses value the MET system. Nurses believe that the MET can help them care for acutely ill patients and improve outcomes. However, barriers to MET activation exist, including a fear of criticism and an adherence to a more traditional model of first contacting the responsible physician before activating the MET.

  9. A comprehensive view of parental satisfaction with pediatric emergency department visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byczkowski, Terri L; Fitzgerald, Michael; Kennebeck, Stephanie; Vaughn, Lisa; Myers, Kurt; Kachelmeyer, Andrea; Timm, Nathan

    2013-10-01

    We develop a comprehensive view of aspects of care associated with parental satisfaction with pediatric emergency department (ED) visits, using both quantitative and qualitative data. This was a retrospective observational study using data from an institution-wide system to measure patient satisfaction. For this study, 2,442 parents who brought their child to the ED were interviewed with telephone survey methods. The survey included closed-ended (quantitative) and open-ended (qualitative data) questions, in addition to a cognitive interview-style question. Overall parental satisfaction was best predicted by how well physicians and nurses work together, followed by wait time and pain management. Issues concerning timeliness of care, perceived quality of medical care, and communication were raised repeatedly by parents in response to open-ended questions. A cognitive interview-style question showed that physicians and nurses sharing information with each other, parents receiving consistent and detailed explanations of their child's diagnosis and treatments, and not having to answer the same question repeatedly informed parent perceptions of physicians and nurses working well together. Staff showing courtesy and respect through compassion and caring words and behaviors and paying attention to nonmedical needs are other potential satisfiers with emergency care. Using qualitative data to augment and clarify quantitative data from patient experience of care surveys is essential to obtaining a complete picture of aspects of emergency care important to parents and can help inform quality improvement work aimed at improving satisfaction with care. Copyright © 2013 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Refusal of medical treatment in the pediatric emergency service: analysis of reasons and aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Ramiz Coşkun; Halil, Halit; Gürsoy, Cüneyt; Çifci, Atilla; Özgün, Seher; Kodaman, Tuğba; Sönmez, Mehtap

    2014-01-01

    Refusal of treatment for acutely ill children is still an important problem in the emergency service. When families refuse medical treatment for their acutely ill children, healthcare professionals may attempt to provide information and negotiate with the family concerning treatment refusal and its possible adverse outcomes, and request consent for refusal of medical treatment. There is insufficient data about refusal of treatment in our country. The purpose of this study was to analyze the causes of treatment refusal in the pediatric emergency service. We collected data recorded on informed consent forms. During a 2-year-study period, 215 patients refused treatment recommended by acute health care professionals. The majorty of patients were in the 0-2 year age group. Hospitalization was the type of treatment most commonly refused; restrictions regarding family members staying with their children during hospitalization and admission to another hospital were the major reasons for refusal of treatment. Clarifying the reasons for treatment refusal may help us to overcome deficiencies, improve conditions, resolve problems and build confidence between healthcare providers and service users, increasing users' satisfaction in the future.

  11. Utility of a child abuse screening guideline in an urban pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Nicole; Lawson, Karla A; Gettig, Kelly; Roth, Jodie; Hopper, Emily; Higginbotham, Eric; George, Timothy M; Maxson, Todd; Edwards, George; Garcia, Nilda M

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies have found racial and socioeconomic status bias in the way clinicians screen for and detect child abuse in patients presenting to the emergency department. We hypothesized that implementing a guideline for screening would attenuate this bias. An algorithm for child abuse screening in patients younger than 1 year presenting with fractures was developed for a pediatric trauma center emergency department. Data were collected 1.5 years before and after implementation of the algorithm to investigate implementation success. Data were compared before and after the implementation of the algorithm using χ and univariate logistic regression analysis. The characteristics of patients with fractures were similar before and after the algorithm implementation. Implementation of the algorithm was related to a significant increase in algorithm required screenings: skeletal survey (p child abuse via skeletal survey before the algorithm implementation compared with those with private insurance (odds ratio, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-6.0; p = 0.017). This relationship did not exist after the algorithm implementation (odds ratio, 1.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.56-2.46; p = 0.66). Final determination of child abuse was related to insurance status both before and after the algorithm implementation. A child abuse screening algorithm was successfully implemented in an urban trauma center. After implementation, screening was no longer associated with socioeconomic status of the patient's family, although final determination of child abuse still was. Additional research is needed to determine utility of unbiased screening on patient outcomes. Therapeutic study, level IV.

  12. Pediatric Cheerleading Injuries Treated in Emergency Departments in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiyer, Nada; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Smith, Gary A

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the epidemiology of cheerleading injuries to children in the United States. Data were analyzed from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System for children 5 through 18 years of age treated in US emergency departments for cheerleading injuries from 1990 through 2012. An estimated 497 095 children ages 5 to 18 years were treated in US emergency departments for a cheerleading injury during the 23-year study period, averaging 21 613 injured children per year. From 1990 to 2012, the annual cheerleading injury rate increased significantly by 189.1%; and from 2001 to 2012, the annual rate of cheerleading-related concussion/closed head injury increased significantly by 290.9%. Falls were the most common mechanism of injury (29.4%) and were more likely to lead to hospitalization (relative risk = 2.47; 95% confidence interval = 1.67-3.68) compared with other injury mechanisms. The rising number and rate of pediatric cheerleading injuries underscore the need for increased efforts to prevent these injuries.

  13. Facilitators and barriers to application of the Canadian C-spine rule by emergency department triage nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Catherine M; Stiell, Ian G; Lowe, Maureen A; Brehaut, Jamie C; Calder, Lisa A; Vaillancourt, Christian; Perry, Jeffrey J

    2016-07-01

    We recently conducted a multicentre implementation study on the use of the Canadian C-Spine Rule (CCR) by emergency department (ED) nurses to clear the c-spine in alert and stable trauma patients (n = 4506). The objective of this study was to conduct a survey of nurses, physicians, and administrators to evaluate their views on the facilitators and barriers to the implementation of the CCR. We conducted both a paper-based and an electronic survey of the three different ED hospital staff groups of nine large teaching hospitals in Ontario, including six regional trauma centres. The content of this survey was informed by a qualitative evaluation of the opinions of the study nurses who had participated in the validation study. 57.5% (281/489) ED triage nurses, 50.2% ED physicians, and 82.8% of administrators responded. Nurse responses most often showed support from manager/educators and teamwork between physicians, nurses, and managers as being important facilitators to the use of the CCR. Physician responses most often identified the importance of a nurse leader/champion/educator, and presence of strong physician leaders. Administrator responses indicated the importance of nurse educators/champions, nurse engagement, and educational support. Barriers indicated by all three groups included busy department, lack of physician support, and lack of nursing support. Bringing about change in clinical practice is complex. Strong leadership, effective communication, and senior physician buy-in appear to be very important. Identification of system-specific barriers and facilitators are important components of successful knowledge translation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Presentations for hypoglycemia associated with diabetes mellitus to emergency departments in a Canadian province: A database and epidemiological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiu, Chris J; Chuck, Anderson; Jelinski, Susan E; Rowe, Brian H

    2017-08-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was reportedly 9% in 2014, making it one of the most common global chronic conditions. Hypoglycemia is an important complication of diabetes treatment. The objective of this study was to quantify and characterize hypoglycemia presentations associated with type 1 or 2 diabetes made to emergency departments (EDs) by adults in a Canadian province. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using reliable administrative data from Alberta for a five-year period (2010/11-2014/15). Records of interest were those with an ICD-10-CA diagnosis of diabetes-associated hypoglycemia (e.g., E10.63). A descriptive analysis was conducted. Data extraction yielded 7835 presentations by 5884 patients. The majority (56.2%) of presentations were made by males, median patient age was 62, and 60.5% had type 2 diabetes. These episodes constituted 0.08% of presentations to Alberta EDs. The annual rate of presentations decreased by 11.8% during the five-year period. Most presentations (63.4%) involved transportation to ED via ambulance. Median length-of-stay was four hours. For 27.5% of presentations, an X-ray was obtained. Most hypoglycemic episodes (65.2%) were considered to be moderate, while 34.3% were considered to be severe. Diabetes-associated hypoglycemia presentations to Alberta EDs are more commonly made by patients with type 2 diabetes, who are more likely to be transported via ambulance and also admitted. Each year, approximately one percent of Albertans with diabetes presented with a hypoglycemia episode; however, knowledge of the variation across regions can guide a strategy for improved care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Deliberate apprenticeship in the Pediatric Emergency Department improves experience for third-year students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Maya Subbarao; Mullan, Patricia B; Santen, Sally A; Sikavitsas, Athina; Christner, Jennifer G

    2014-07-01

    The Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) provides medical students with learning in a high-volume, fast-paced environment; characteristics that can be stressful for new students. Shadowing can improve transitioning, yet this alone does not facilitate students' development of independent medical care competencies. This study evaluates if third-year medical students' deliberate apprenticeship with senior residents increases students' comfort and patient exposure in the PED. This study took place over the 2011-2012 academic year, and study participants were all third-year medical students during their pediatric clerkship rotation. This was a prospective educational intervention assigning students to randomized control blocks of deliberate apprenticeship (DA) intervention or control. DA students were paired with a senior resident who oriented and worked with the student, while control students were unpaired. All students completed a 20-question structured survey at shift end, which included questions about their perception of the learning environment, comfort with, and number of patient care responsibilities performed. We used independent Mann-Whitney and t-tests to compare experiences between the groups. Statistical significance was defined as pexperience. The titles for these themes are as follows: PED provides a good learning experience; uncertainty about the medical student's role in the PED; third-year medical students compete with other learners for teaching attention; opportunities provided to medical students for inclusion in patient care; personal knowledge deficits limit the ability to participate in the PED; PED pace affects learning opportunities. DA constitutes a feasible approach to the clinical learning environment that increases students' patient care experiences and may ease transitioning for undergraduate medical students to new clinical environments.

  16. Identifying adolescent females at high risk of pregnancy in a pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernick, Lauren; Kharbanda, Elyse Olshen; Santelli, John; Dayan, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Emergency departments (EDs) care for adolescent females with unmet reproductive health care needs. Our objective was, among adolescents presenting to a pediatric ED, to estimate pregnancy risk, describe pregnancy intentions, and identify potentially modifiable factors associated with pregnancy risk. Using a paper-based questionnaire, we surveyed females aged 15-19 years presenting to our ED, assessing health care access, sexual behaviors, pregnancy intentions, and receptivity to interventions. We calculated the pregnancy risk index (PRI), which estimates pregnancy risk in the subsequent 12 months, by assessing recent sexual activity, contraception at last intercourse, and known contraceptive failure rates. Independent sample t tests and analysis of variance were used to identify risk factors associated with increased PRI. Of 459 females enrolled, 13% were pregnant and 20% reported prior pregnancy. Among 399 nonpregnant females, 238 (60%) had intercourse in the prior 3 months and 73 (31%) used no contraception at last intercourse. Among nonpregnant adolescents, the PRI was 19.5, which equates to 19.5 expected pregnancies per 100 females per year. Factors associated with higher PRI included lacking a primary provider, prior ED visits, wanting a baby now, and reported partner wantedness of pregnancy. Half believed ED doctors should discuss pregnancy prevention, and one-quarter were interested in starting contraception in the ED. Nearly one-third of adolescent females in a pediatric ED were either pregnant or could be expected to become pregnant within a year. Screening questions can identify adolescents at high risk of pregnancy in the ED setting. These females should be the target for future pregnancy prevention interventions. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reliability and Validity of a Two-Question Alcohol Screen in the Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirito, Anthony; Bromberg, Julie R; Casper, T Charles; Chun, Thomas H; Mello, Michael J; Dean, J Michael; Linakis, James G

    2016-12-01

    A multisite study was conducted to determine the psychometric properties of the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) 2-question alcohol screen within pediatric emergency departments (PEDs). Participants (N = 4838) included 12- to 17-year-old subjects treated in 1 of the 16 participating PEDs across the United States. A criterion assessment battery (including the NIAAA 2-question alcohol screen and other measures of alcohol, drug use, and risk behaviors) was self-administered on a tablet computer. A subsample (n = 186) was re-administered the NIAAA 2-question screen 1 week later to assess test-retest reliability. Moderate to good test-retest reliability was demonstrated. A classification of moderate risk or higher on the screen had the best combined sensitivity and specificity for determining a diagnosis of alcohol use disorder (AUD) for all students. Any past year drinking among middle school students increased the odds of a diagnosis of an AUD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria, whereas the optimal cutoff for high school ages was ≥3 drinking days in the past year. The optimal cutoff for drinking days determining a positive Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test score among middle school subjects was ≥1 drinking day, whereas the optimal cutoff for high school subjects was ≥2 drinking days. The NIAAA 2-question screen is a brief, valid approach for alcohol screening in PEDs. A positive screen suggests that referral for further evaluation is indicated to determine if an adolescent has an AUD. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Validity of different pediatric early warning scores in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiger, Nienke; Maconochie, Ian; Oostenbrink, Rianne; Moll, Henriëtte A

    2013-10-01

    Pediatric early warning scores (PEWS) are being advocated for use in the emergency department (ED). The goal of this study was to compare the validity of different PEWS in a pediatric ED. Ten different PEWS were evaluated in a large prospective cohort. We included children aged <16 years who had presented to the ED of a university hospital in The Netherlands (2009-2012). The validity of the PEWS for predicting ICU admission or hospitalization was expressed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. These PEWS were validated in 17 943 children. Two percent of these children were admitted to the ICU, and 16% were hospitalized. The areas under the ROC curves for predicting ICU admission, ranging from 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57-0.62) to 0.82 (95% CI: 0.79-0.85), were moderate to good. The area under the ROC curves for predicting hospitalization was poor to moderate (range: 0.56 [95% CI: 0.55-0.58] to 0.68 [95% CI: 0.66-0.69]). The sensitivity and specificity derived from the ROC curves ranged widely for both ICU admission (sensitivity: 61.3%-94.4%; specificity: 25.2%-86.7%) and hospital admission (sensitivity: 36.4%-85.7%; specificity: 27.1%-90.5%). None of the PEWS had a high sensitivity as well as a high specificity. PEWS can be used to detect children presenting to the ED who are in need of an ICU admission. Scoring systems, wherein the parameters are summed to a numeric value, were better able to identify patients at risk than triggering systems, which need 1 positive parameter.

  19. Accuracy and Reliability of Stroke Diagnosis in the Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Mark T; Yock-Corrales, Adriana; Churilov, Leonid; Monagle, Paul; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Babl, Franz E

    2017-05-01

    Access to acute stroke interventions in the emergency department (ED) relies on correct clinical diagnosis. Our aims were to determine the accuracy and reliability of pediatric ED physician diagnosis of childhood stroke and other conditions presenting with brain attack symptoms. Prospective study of consecutive children aged 1 month to 18 years presenting to the ED from June 2009 to December 2010 with focal neurological deficits. Accuracy (sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operator characteristic curves [ROCs]) and interrater agreement (κ) were determined, between ED physician diagnoses, as recorded in the electronic hospital administrative software system, and final neurological diagnosis, after completion of diagnostic work-up. Two-hundred eighty-seven children with 301 consecutive presentations were recruited. The most common final brain attack diagnoses included migraine in 84 children, first seizure in 48, Bell's palsy in 29, stroke in 21, and conversion disorders in 18 children. Sensitivity of ED physician stroke diagnosis was 62%, and specificity was 98% (ROC, 0.8). Inter-rater agreement for ED physician and final stroke diagnosis was substantial (κ=0.61). ED physician diagnostic accuracy and reliability was highest for Bell's palsy (ROC=0.98; κ=0.96), and lowest for central nervous system demyelination (ROC=0.5; κ=-0.01) and cerebellitis (ROC=0.50; κ=0.50). ED physician diagnostic accuracy and reliability varies considerably across disorders presenting with brain attack symptoms. Clinical recognition tools are required to assist pediatric ED physicians with diagnosis of stroke and other serious neurological disorders. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Emergency ultrasound in the detection of pediatric long-bone fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Isabel; Spencer, Robert; Suppiah, Ara; Raio, Christopher; Ward, Mary Frances; Sama, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    Long-bone fractures represent one of the most commonly sustained injuries following trauma and account for nearly 4% of emergency department visits in the United States each year. These fractures are associated with a significant risk of bleeding and neurovascular compromise. Delays in their identification and treatment can lead to loss of limb and even death. Although emergency physicians currently rely predominantly on radiography for the examination of long-bone injuries, emergency ultrasound has several advantages over radiography and may be useful in the identification of long-bone fractures. Ultrasound is rapid, noninvasive, and cost-effective. Unlike radiography, ultrasound does not expose children to ionizing radiation, which has been linked to cancer. The goal of this study was to assess the agreement between emergency physicians' and radiologists' final assessments of suspected long-bone fractures using emergency ultrasound and radiography, respectively, in the pediatric population. This is a prospective study involving a convenience sample of pediatric patients (bone fracture. Suspected fractures were characterized by swelling, erythema, and localized pain. Patients who had a history of fracture, extremity deformity, orthopedic hardware in the traumatized area, or an open fracture were excluded from this study. Each investigator received limited, focused training in the use of ultrasonography for fracture identification and localization. This training consisted of a brief didactic session and video review of normal and fractured long-bones. A total of 53 subjects (mean age, 10.2 [SD, 3.8] years; 56.6% were male) were enrolled, which corresponded to 98 ultrasound examinations. Sixty-nine scans (70.4%) involved bones of the upper extremity, and 29 (29.6%) the lower extremity. Radiography identified a total of 43 fractures. The sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound in the detection of long-bone fractures were 95.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 82

  1. Community pediatric hospitalists providing care in the emergency department: an analysis of physician productivity and financial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudas, Robert A; Monroe, David; McColligan Borger, Melissa

    2011-11-01

    Community hospital pediatric inpatient programs are being threatened by current financial and demographic trends. We describe a model of care and report on the financial implications associated with combining emergency department (ED) and inpatient care of pediatric patients. We determine whether this type of model could generate sufficient revenue to support physician salaries for continuous in-house coverage in community hospitals. Financial productivity and selected performance indicators were obtained from a retrospective review of registration and billing records. Data were obtained from 2 community-based pediatric hospitalist programs, which are part of a single health system and included care delivered in the ED and inpatient settings during a 1-year period from July 1, 2008, to July 1, 2009. Together, the combined programs were able to generate 6079 total relative value units and collections of $244,828 annually per full-time equivalent (FTE). Salary, benefits, and practice expenses totaled $235,674 per FTE. Thus, combined daily revenues exceeded expenses and provided 104% of physician salary, benefits, and practice expenses. However, 1 program generated a net profit of $329,715 ($40,706 per FTE), whereas the other recorded a loss of $207,969 ($39,994 per FTE). Emergency department throughput times and left-without-being-seen rates at both programs were comparable to national benchmarks. Incorporating ED care into a pediatric hospitalist program can be an effective strategy to maintain the financial viability of pediatric services at community hospitals with low inpatient volumes that seek to provide 24-hour pediatric staffing.

  2. Pediatric suicide-related presentations: a systematic review of mental health care in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Amanda S; Hamm, Michele P; Bethell, Jennifer; Rhodes, Anne E; Bryan, Craig J; Tjosvold, Lisa; Ali, Samina; Logue, Erin; Manion, Ian G

    2010-12-01

    We evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for pediatric patients with suicide-related emergency department (ED) visits. We searched of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, other electronic databases, references, and key journals/conference proceedings. We included experimental or quasiexperimental studies that evaluated psychosocial interventions for pediatric suicide-related ED visits. Inclusion screening, study selection, and methodological quality were assessed by 2 independent reviewers. One reviewer extracted the data and a second checked for completeness and accuracy. Consensus was reached by conference; disagreements were adjudicated by a third reviewer. We calculated odds ratios, relative risks (RRs), or mean differences for each study's primary outcome, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Meta-analysis was deferred because of clinical heterogeneity in intervention, patient population, and outcome. We included 7 randomized controlled trials and 3 quasiexperimental studies, grouping and reviewing them according to intervention delivery: ED-based delivery (n=1), postdischarge delivery (n=6), and ED transition interventions (n=3). An ED-based discharge planning intervention increased the number of attended post-ED treatment sessions (mean difference=2.6 sessions; 95% CI 0.05 to 5.15 sessions). Of the 6 studies of postdischarge delivery interventions, 1 found increased adherence with service referral in patients who received community nurse home visits compared with simple placement referral at discharge (RR=1.28; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.56). The 3 ED transition intervention studies reported (1) reduced risk of subsequent suicide after brief ED intervention and postdischarge contact (RR=0.10; 95% CI 0.03 to 0.41); (2) reduced suicide-related hospitalizations when ED visits were followed up with interim, psychiatric care (RR=0.41; 95% CI 0.28 to 0.60); and (3) increased likelihood of treatment completion when psychiatric evaluation in the ED was followed by

  3. The role of resection alone in select children with intracranial ependymoma: the Canadian Pediatric Brain Tumour Consortium experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailon, Tamir; Dunham, Christopher; Carret, Anne-Sophie; Tabori, Uri; Mcneely, P Daniel; Zelcer, Shayna; Wilson, Beverley; Lafay-Cousin, Lucie; Johnston, Donna; Eisenstat, David D; Silva, Marianna; Jabado, Nada; Goddard, Karen Jane; Fryer, Chris; Hendson, Glenda; Hawkins, Cynthia; Dunn, Sandra; Yip, Stephen; Singhal, Ashutosh; Hukin, Juliette

    2015-01-01

    Gross total resection (GTR) of intracranial ependymoma is an accepted goal. More controversial is radiotherapy deferral. This study reports on children treated with gross total resection who did not receive upfront adjuvant radiotherapy. We conducted a retrospective review of children with intracranial ependymoma in 12 Canadian centers. Patients who had GTR of their tumor and no upfront radiotherapy were identified. Immunostaining was performed for Ki-67, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and EZH2 on archived tissue. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed and compared with those who had GTR followed by radiation. Twenty-six children were identified treated with GTR alone at diagnosis; 12 posterior fossa ependymoma (PFE) WHO grade II, and 14 supratentorial ependymoma (STE). Progression-free survival (PFS) in ependymoma treated with GTR alone at diagnosis was inferior in those with high Ki-67 or positive EZH2 immunostaining. Survival was inferior for patients less than 2 years old at diagnosis (p = 0.002). Survival was comparable to PFE WHO grade II and STE who had GTR followed by radiation (p = 0.62). Five-year PFS and overall survival (OS) of those treated with GTR alone were 60 and 70% respectively for PFE and 45 and 70% respectively for STE (p = 0.2; 0.55). This study suggests that there is a subset of children with certain biologic features who, in the setting of a prospective clinical trial, might be candidates for observation following GTR. Good risk factors for this approach include age of 2 years or older, low Ki-67, and negative EZH2. If relapse occurs, it may be confined to the primary site, allowing for possible salvage with GTR followed by XRT.

  4. Incidence and pathology of repeat computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis in a pediatric emergency department population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Barry; Dima, Jennifer; Hirschorn, David; Weiserbs, Kera F

    2013-07-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) scanning is increasingly prevalent in emergency departments (EDs). It is a moderate- to high-radiation diagnostic technique that exposes more than 1 million children per year to unnecessary radiation. Repeat CT of the abdomen and pelvis (CTAP) among pediatric patients who return to the ED within 1 year may be an example of unnecessary pediatric radiation exposure. The objectives of this study were to identify the incidence of pediatric patients who undergo more than 1 CTAP within 1 year and to detect the incidence of significant pathology on these repeat scans. This was a retrospective review of subjects younger than 18 years with an initial CTAP as an ED patient, inpatient, or outpatient and a second CTAP within 12 months and during an ED visit. During the observation period, 172 pediatric ED admissions had at least 1 repeat admission involving an abdominal CT scan. Thirty-seven of the CT scans (19.3%) were positive. Sixty percent of the positive cases (n = 22) were attributable to the 3 most prevalent diagnoses: appendicitis in 8 cases (21.6%), kidney stone in 8 cases (21.6%), and colitis in 6 cases (16.2%). Approximately, one third of repeat CT scans occurred within the first month of the initial CT scan, and two thirds occurred within 6 months of the initial CT scan. A substantial percentage of pediatric patients undergo more than 1 CTAP within a 1-year time frame. Among these patients, a large portion were diagnosed significant pathology.

  5. Achievement of developmental milestones in emerging and young adults with and without pediatric chronic illness--a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the meta-analysis is to integrate results on the achievement of developmental milestones in emerging and young adults with chronic pediatric physical illness. Through electronic databases and cross-referencing, 165 comparative studies were identified. Random-effects meta-analysis was computed. Emerging and young adults with chronic pediatric illness had lower rates of finishing advanced education, finding employment, leaving the parental home, marrying, and becoming parents than healthy peers; between-group differences ranged from 22 to 38%. They also had lower income levels than healthy peers. Stronger differences were found for respondents with neurological illnesses and sensory impairment than in individuals with other chronic diseases. Lower success rates were also observed if the illness/disability is highly visible to others and in the case of longer illness duration. Interventions are recommended aimed at preventing and reducing lower rates of mastering the adult milestones of individuals with pediatric chronic illness. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Discharge against medical advice in a pediatric emergency center in the State of Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Abdulateef

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze cases that had left the Pediatric Emergency Center Al Sadd, Doha (PEC against medical advice, with the aim of developing policies to help reduce this occurrence. Methodology: All patients that were admitted to the main PEC observation room for treatment and/or investigation and subsequently left against medical advice from February 18, 2007 to June 18, 2007, were followed by a phone call, and a questionnaire, which was completed by the departmental patient representative. Results: 99,133 patients attended the facility during the study period. Of those, 106 left the facility against medical advice. Ninety-four guardians were successfully contacted. 90% of the cases were in children below 2 years of age. In 87% of the cases the mother was the main decision maker for leaving against medical advice. Domestic obligations were the leading cause of DAMA (discharge against medical advice, reported in 45% of the cases. Respondents reported that the consequences of DAMA were well explained by medical staff before they left the facility however, they had not met with the departmental patient representative during their stay. Conclusion:As the majority of DAMA cases occurred in infants, medical staff should address the concerns of this group early on in the course of treatment. Maintaining communication and providing support, in particular for mothers of higher risk groups may help to reduce the rate of DAMA cases.

  7. Metabolic risk factors in pediatric stone formers: a report from an emerging economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Kiran; Zafar, Mirza Naqi; Ozair, Uzma; Khan, Sadia; Rizvi, Syed Adibul Hasan

    2017-08-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate metabolic risk factors in pediatric stone formers in an emerging economy. A prospective, data collection enrolled 250 children age family history of urolithiasis was found in 41 (16.4 %), urinary tract infection in 18 (7 %) and chronic diarrhea in 75 (30 %). Hypercalcemia was seen in 37 (14.8 %), hyperuricemia in 23 (9.2 %) and hyperphosphatemia in 6 (2.4 %). Urinary metabolic abnormalities were identified in 248 (98 %) of the cases. Hypocitraturia was found in 207 (82.8 %), hyperoxaluria in 62 (26.4 %), hyperuricosuria in 82 (32.8 %), hypercalciuria in 51 (20.4 %), hyperphosphaturia in 46 (18.4 %), hyperammonuria in 10 (4 %), hypocalciuria in 82 (32.8 %), and hypovolemia in 73 (29.2 %). Risk factors were similar between genders except higher rates of hyponatriuria, hypophosphaturia, and hypocalciuria in females. Hyperuricosuria, hyponatriuria, and hypovolemia were highest in 1-5 years (52, 49, 49 %) as compared to (18, 21, 12 %) those in 11-15 years (p < 0.001), respectively. This study shows that careful metabolic analysis can identify risk factors in 98 % of the children where appropriate metaphylaxis can be undertaken both for treatment and prevention of recurrence.

  8. The effect of a short tutorial on the incidence of prescribing errors in pediatric emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozer, Eran; Scolnik, Dennis; Macpherson, Alison; Rauchwerger, David; Koren, Gideon

    2006-01-01

    In the paediatric emergency department (ED) trainees are more likely to commit prescribing errors. To determine whether a short educational intervention reduces the incidence of prescribing errors among trainees in a pediatric ED. A prospective cohort study at the ED of a tertiary paediatric hospital. All fellows and residents arriving at the ED at the beginning of the academic year were invited to participate in a 30-minute tutorial focusing on appropriate methods for prescribing medications, followed by a written test. Eighteen days were selected randomly during July 2001. All the charts from these days were reviewed for medication errors. Two reviewers, blinded to whether or not a particular physician attended the tutorial, independently decided whether or not an error had occurred. The main outcome measure was the number of prescribing errors. Twenty-two trainees worked in the ED during July 2001. Of these, 13 trainees attended the tutorial. Eight hundred and ninety nine orders given by trainees were evaluated. We identified 66 (12.4%) errors in 533 orders given by those who attended tutorial, and 46 (12.7%) errors in 363 orders given by those who did not attend tutorial. The adjusted odds of a medication error was not significantly different between those who did not attend the tutorial and those who did (OR: 1.07 95% CI: 0.66-1.70). A short tutorial, followed by a written test, administered to trainees before entering their rotation in the paediatric ED, did not appear to reduce prescribing errors.

  9. Seasonal variation of presentation for headache in a pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperell, Kerry; Pitetti, Raymond

    2014-03-01

    Headache is a common pediatric complaint. Our experience indicated that there was a seasonal variation in children seeking emergency department (ED) care for headache. We hypothesized that visits to the ED would be more common during the school year compared with that during the summer months. Electronic medical record data were reviewed from January 1, 2008 through June 30, 2010. All patients age 4 years and older with a chief complaint of headache were examined. Patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts, intracranial mass, trauma, or stroke were excluded. The following data were accumulated: date of visit, birth date, sex, race, and diagnosis. Visits were grouped by month of occurrence and school year (September through May) and non-school year (June through August). Cumulative binomial probabilities were used to determine the likelihood of experiencing the observed number of occurrences or fewer in each period. A total of 2731 visits met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Girls were older, more likely to be white, and more likely to be diagnosed with migraine. There is a clear nadir in May and June and a peak in September, October, and November that is statistically significant (Pheadache type. These findings persisted when comparing the groups based on school year versus non-school year. Visits to the ED for headache were less common in May and June and more common during the fall. This remained true across headache type, age, sex, and racial groups.

  10. Diagnostic testing and treatment of pediatric headache in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, David C; Meckler, Garth D; Spiro, David M; Koch, Thomas K; Hansen, Matthew L

    2013-12-01

    To describe the variability in diagnostic testing and treatment of headaches in children presenting to the emergency department (ED) with use of a nationally representative sample. This was a retrospective cohort study using the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey during 2005-2009. To assess the use of evidence-based treatment, we analyzed all patients headache and (2) discharge diagnosis of migraine. Four hundred forty-eight sampled ED visits from 2005-2009 represented a national estimate of 1.7 million visits with a discharge diagnosis of headache. A total of 95 visits represented a national estimate of 340 000 visits with a discharge diagnosis of migraine. Median age was 13.1 years and 60% were female with a primary diagnosis of headache. In this group, neuroimaging was performed in 37% of patients and 39% underwent blood tests. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioids were most commonly used for treatment. For children with a discharge diagnosis of migraine, approximately 40% of patients received non-evidence-based treatment, most commonly with opioid medications, and >20% of patients underwent computed tomography scanning. There is significant variability in the evaluation and treatment of pediatric headache in the ED. Despite evidence-based clinical guidelines for migraine headache, a large number of children continue to receive opioids and ionizing radiation in the ED. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Management of Pediatric Migraine Headache in the Emergency Room and Infusion Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabbouche, Marielle

    2015-01-01

    Migraine is a common disorder that starts at an early age and takes a variable pattern from intermittent to chronic headache with several exacerbations throughout a lifetime. Children and adolescents are significantly affected. If an acute headache is not aborted by outpatient migraine therapy, it often causes severe disability, preventing the child from attending school and social events. Treating the acute severe headache aggressively helps prevent prolonged disability as well as possible chronification. Multiple medications are available, mostly for the outpatient management of an attack and include the use of over-the-counter anti-inflammatory medications as well as prescribed medications in the triptan group. These therapies do sometime fail and the exacerbation can last from days to weeks. If the headache lasts 72 hours or longer it will fall in the category of status migrainosus. Status migrainosus is described as a severe disabling headache lasting 72 hours or more by the ICHD3 criteria. Disability is a major issue in children and adolescents and aggressive acute measures are to be taken to control it as soon as possible. Early aggressive intravenous therapy can be very effective in breaking the attack and allowing the child to be quickly back to normal functioning. This article reviews what is available for the treatment of pediatric primary headaches in the emergency room. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  12. Experience and policy implications of children presenting with dental emergencies to US pediatric dentistry training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Burton; Vargas, Clemencia M; Candelaria, Devanie; Vemuri, Maryen

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and substantiate the experience of children, their families, and their caregivers with children's dental pain and to explore implications of these experiences for public policy. Data for 301 children presenting to 35 pediatric dentistry training programs during a 1-week period in 2000 for pain relief were collected with a questionnaire asking for: (1) sociodemographic characteristics; (2) oral health status; (3) dental care history; (4) presenting problem; (5) clinical findings; and (6) clinical disposition. Descriptive statistics are presented. Among children presenting to training programs with oral pain, 28% were under age 6, 57% were on Medicaid, and 38% were regarded by their dentists to have "likely or obvious" functional impairment-with 22% reporting the highest pain level. Parents reported that 59% had "poor or fair oral health" and 29% had a prior dental emergency in the previous year. Pain, experienced for several days by 73% of children, was associated with difficulty: (1) eating; (2) sleeping; (3) attending school; and (4) playing. Parent-reported barriers to seeking dental care included: (1) missed work (24%); (2) transportation costs (12%); and (3) arranging child care (10%). In this study of children with dental pain, many suffered significant pain: (1) duration; (2) intensity; (3) recurrence; and (4) consequences. This study demonstrates the ongoing need for public policies that assure timely, comprehensive, and affordable dental care for vulnerable children.

  13. Predictors of Repeated Visits to a Pediatric Emergency Department Crisis Intervention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, P; Thibedeau, N; Barrowman, N; Gray, C; Kennedy, A; Leon, S L; Polihronis, C; Cappelli, M

    2017-03-01

    Despite documented increases in emergency department (ED) mental health (MH) presentations, there are inconsistent findings on the characteristics of patients with repeat presentations to pediatric EDs (PEDs) for MH concerns. Our study sought to explore the characteristics of MH patients with repeat PED visits and determine predictors of return visits, of earlier repeat visits, and of more frequent repeat visits. We examined data collected prospectively in a clinical database looking at MH presentations to a crisis intervention program housed within a PED from October 2006 to December 2011. Predictive models based on demographic and clinical variables were constructed using logistic, Cox, and negative binomial regression. A total of 4,080 presentations to the PED were made by the 2,900 children and youth. Repeat visits accounted for almost half (45.8%) of all presentations. Multivariable analysis identified five variables that independently predicted greater odds of having repeat presentations, greater risk of earlier repeat presentations, and greater risk of frequent repeat presentations. The five variables were: female, living in the metropolitan community close to the PED, being in the care of child protective services, taking psychotropic medications, and presenting with an actionable need in the area of mood disturbances. Repeat visits account for a large portion of all MH presentations to the PED. Furthermore, several patient characteristics are significant predictors of repeat PED use and of repeating use sooner and more frequently. Further research is needed to examine interventions targeting this patient group to ensure appropriate MH patient management.

  14. Mapping patient path in the Pediatric Emergency Department: A workflow model driven approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmi, Ines; Zgaya, Hayfa; Gammoudi, Lotfi; Hammadi, Slim; Martinot, Alain; Beuscart, Régis; Renard, Jean-Marie

    2015-04-01

    The workflow models of the patient journey in a Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) seems to be an effective approach to develop an accurate and complete representation of the PED processes. This model can drive the collection of comprehensive quantitative and qualitative service delivery and patient treatment data as an evidence base for the PED service planning. Our objective in this study is to identify crowded situation indicators and bottlenecks that contribute to over-crowding. The greatest source of delay in patient flow is the waiting time from the health care request, and especially the bed request to exit from the PED for hospital admission. It represented 70% of the time that these patients occupied in the PED waiting rooms. The use of real data to construct the workflow model of the patient path is effective in identifying sources of delay in patient flow, and aspects of the PED activity that could be improved. The development of this model was based on accurate visits made in the PED of the Regional University Hospital Center (CHRU) of Lille (France). This modeling, which has to represent most faithfully possible the reality of the PED of CHRU of Lille, is necessary. It must be detailed enough to produce an analysis allowing to identify the dysfunctions of the PED and also to propose and to estimate prevention indicators of crowded situations. Our survey is integrated into the French National Research Agency (ANR) project, titled: "Hospital: Optimization, Simulation and avoidance of strain" (HOST). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Realism of procedural task trainers in a pediatric emergency medicine procedures course.

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    Shefrin, Allan; Khazei, Afshin; Cheng, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) physicians have minimal experience in life saving procedures and have turned to task trainers to learn these skills. Realism of these models is an important consideration that has received little study. PEM physicians and trainees participated in a day long procedural training course that utilized commercially available and homemade task trainers to teach pericardiocentesis, chest tube insertion, cricothyroidotomy and central line insertion. Participants rated the realism of the task trainers as part of a post-course survey. The homemade task trainers received variable realism ratings, with 91% of participants rating the pork rib chest tube model as realistic, 82% rating the gelatin pericardiocentesis mold as realistic and 36% rating the ventilator tubing cricothyroidotomy model as realistic. Commercial trainers also received variable ratings, with 45% rating the chest drain and pericardiocentesis simulator as realistic, 74% rating the crichotracheotomy trainer as realistic and 80% rating the central line insertion trainer as realistic. Task training models utilized in our course received variable realism ratings. When deciding what type of task trainer to use future courses should carefully consider the desired aspect of realism, and how it aligns with the procedural skill, balanced with cost considerations.

  16. Development of Reliable and Validated Tools to Evaluate Technical Resuscitation Skills in a Pediatric Simulation Setting: Resuscitation and Emergency Simulation Checklist for Assessment in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faudeux, Camille; Tran, Antoine; Dupont, Audrey; Desmontils, Jonathan; Montaudié, Isabelle; Bréaud, Jean; Braun, Marc; Fournier, Jean-Paul; Bérard, Etienne; Berlengi, Noémie; Schweitzer, Cyril; Haas, Hervé; Caci, Hervé; Gatin, Amélie; Giovannini-Chami, Lisa

    2017-09-01

    To develop a reliable and validated tool to evaluate technical resuscitation skills in a pediatric simulation setting. Four Resuscitation and Emergency Simulation Checklist for Assessment in Pediatrics (RESCAPE) evaluation tools were created, following international guidelines: intraosseous needle insertion, bag mask ventilation, endotracheal intubation, and cardiac massage. We applied a modified Delphi methodology evaluation to binary rating items. Reliability was assessed comparing the ratings of 2 observers (1 in real time and 1 after a video-recorded review). The tools were assessed for content, construct, and criterion validity, and for sensitivity to change. Inter-rater reliability, evaluated with Cohen kappa coefficients, was perfect or near-perfect (>0.8) for 92.5% of items and each Cronbach alpha coefficient was ≥0.91. Principal component analyses showed that all 4 tools were unidimensional. Significant increases in median scores with increasing levels of medical expertise were demonstrated for RESCAPE-intraosseous needle insertion (P = .0002), RESCAPE-bag mask ventilation (P = .0002), RESCAPE-endotracheal intubation (P = .0001), and RESCAPE-cardiac massage (P = .0037). Significantly increased median scores over time were also demonstrated during a simulation-based educational program. RESCAPE tools are reliable and validated tools for the evaluation of technical resuscitation skills in pediatric settings during simulation-based educational programs. They might also be used for medical practice performance evaluations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Alternative management of diabetic ketoacidosis in a Brazilian pediatric emergency department

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    Savoldelli Roberta D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract DKA is a severe metabolic derangement characterized by dehydration, loss of electrolytes, hyperglycemia, hyperketonemia, acidosis and progressive loss of consciousness that results from severe insulin deficiency combined with the effects of increased levels of counterregulatory hormones (catecholamines, glucagon, cortisol, growth hormone. The biochemical criteria for diagnosis are: blood glucose > 200 mg/dl, venous pH 3 mmol/L and presence of ketonuria. A patient with DKA must be managed in an emergency ward by an experienced staff or in an intensive care unit (ICU, in order to provide an intensive monitoring of the vital and neurological signs, and of the patient's clinical and biochemical response to treatment. DKA treatment guidelines include: restoration of circulating volume and electrolyte replacement; correction of insulin deficiency aiming at the resolution of metabolic acidosis and ketosis; reduction of risk of cerebral edema; avoidance of other complications of therapy (hypoglycemia, hypokalemia, hyperkalemia, hyperchloremic acidosis; identification and treatment of precipitating events. In Brazil, there are few pediatric ICU beds in public hospitals, so an alternative protocol was designed to abbreviate the time on intravenous infusion lines in order to facilitate DKA management in general emergency wards. The main differences between this protocol and the international guidelines are: intravenous fluid will be stopped when oral fluids are well tolerated and total deficit will be replaced orally; if potassium analysis still indicate need for replacement, it will be given orally; subcutaneous rapid-acting insulin analog is administered at 0.15 U/kg dose every 2-3 hours until resolution of metabolic acidosis; approximately 12 hours after treatment initiation, intermediate-acting (NPH insulin is initiated at the dose of 0.6-1 U/kg/day, and it will be lowered to 0.4-0.7 U/kg/day at discharge from hospital.

  18. Identifying key metrics for reducing premature departure from the pediatric emergency department.

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    Cross, Keith P; Gracely, Edward; Stevenson, Michelle D; Woods, Charles R

    2010-11-01

    Approximately 2% to 5% of children presenting to pediatric emergency departments (PEDs) leave prior to a complete evaluation. This study assessed risk factors for premature departure (PD) from a PED to identify key metrics and cutoffs for reducing the PD rate. A 3-year cohort (June 2004-May 2007) of children presenting to a PED was evaluated. Children were excluded if they presented for psychiatric issues, were held awaiting hospital admission in the PED due to a lack of inpatient beds, were more than 21 years old, or died before disposition. Univariate analyses, multivariable logistic regression, and recursive partitioning were used to identify factors associated with PD. A fourth year of data (June 2007-May 2008) was used for validation and sensitivity analysis. There were 132,324 patient visits in the 3-year derivation data set with a 3.8% PD rate, and 45,001 visits in the fourth-year validation data set with a 4.3% PD rate. PDs were minimized when average wait time was below 110 minutes, concurrent PDs were fewer than two, and average length of stay (LOS) was less than 224 minutes in the derivation set, with similar results in the validation set. When these metrics were exceeded, PD rates were over 10% among low-acuity patients. These findings were robust across a broad range of assumptions during sensitivity analysis. The authors identified five key metrics associated with PD in the PED: average wait time, average LOS, acuity, concurrent PDs, and arrival rate. Operational cutoffs for these metrics, determined by recursive partitioning, may be useful to physicians and administrators when selecting specific interventions to address PDs from the PED. © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  19. Pandemic planning and response in academic pediatric emergency departments during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filice, Clara E; Vaca, Federico E; Curry, Leslie; Platis, Stephanie; Lurie, Nicole; Bogucki, Sandy

    2013-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, initiated a shift toward a comprehensive, or "all-hazards," framework of emergency preparedness in the United States. Since then, the threat of H5N1 avian influenza, the severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic, and the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic have underscored the importance of considering infectious events within such a framework. Pediatric emergency departments (EDs) were disproportionately burdened by the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic and therefore serve as a robust context for evaluation of pandemic preparedness. The objective of this study was to explore pediatric ED leaders' experiences with preparedness, response, and postincident actions related to the H1N1 pandemic to inform future pandemic and all-hazards planning and policy for EDs. The authors selected a qualitative design, well suited for exploring complex, multifaceted organizational processes such as planning for and responding to a pandemic and learning from institutional experiences. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit medical directors or their designated physician respondents from pediatric emergency medicine training institutions representing a range of geographic regions across the United States, hospital types, and annual ED volumes; snowball sampling identified additional information-rich respondents. Recruitment began in May 2011 and continued until thematic saturation was reached in January 2012 (n = 20). Data were collected through in-depth individual phone interviews that were recorded and professionally transcribed. Using a standard interview guide, respondents were asked open-ended questions about pandemic planning, response, and institutional learning related to the H1N1 pandemic. Data analysis was performed by a multidisciplinary team using a grounded theory approach to generate themes inductively from respondents' expressed perspectives. The constant comparative method was used to identify emerging themes. Five common themes

  20. The incidence of emergence delirium and risk factors following sevoflurane use in pediatric patients for day case surgery, Kingston, Jamaica

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    Rachel Gooden

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Emergence delirium is a distressing complication of the use of sevoflurane for general anesthesia. This study sought to determine the incidence of emergence delirium and risk factors in patients at a specialist pediatric hospital in Kingston, Jamaica. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, observational study including pediatric patients aged 3-10 years, ASA I and II, undergoing general anesthesia with sevoflurane for elective day-case procedures. Data collected included patients' level of anxiety pre-operatively using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale, surgery performed, anesthetic duration and analgesics administered. Postoperatively, patients were assessed for emergence delirium, defined as agitation with non-purposeful movement, restlessness or thrashing; inconsolability and unresponsiveness to nursing and/or parental presence. The need for pharmacological treatment and post-operative complications related to emergence delirium episodes were also noted. Results: One hundred and forty-five (145 children were included, with emergence delirium occurring in 28 (19.3%. Emergence delirium episodes had a mean duration of 6.9±7.8 min, required pharmacologic intervention in 19 (67.8% children and were associated with a prolonged recovery time (49.4±11.9 versus 29.7± 10.8 min for non-agitated children; p<0.001. Factors positively associated with emergence delirium included younger age (p = 0.01, OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.2-8.6 and moderate and severe anxiety prior to induction (p <0.001, OR 5.6, 95% CI 2.3-13.0. Complications of emergence delirium included intravenous line removal (n = 1, and surgical site bleeding (n = 3. Conclusion: Children of younger age with greater preoperative anxiety are at increased risk of developing emergence delirium following general anesthesia with sevoflurane. The overall incidence of emergence delirium was 19%.

  1. Deliberate Apprenticeship in the Pediatric Emergency Department Improves Experience for Third-year Students

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    Maya Subbarao Iyer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The Pediatric Emergency Department (PED provides medical students with learning in a high-volume, fast-paced environment; characteristics that can be stressful for new students. Shadowing can improve transitioning, yet this alone does not facilitate students’ development of independent medical care competencies. This study evaluates if third-year medical students’ deliberate apprenticeship with senior residents increases students’ comfort and patient exposure in the PED. METHODS: This study took place over the 2011-2012 academic year, and study participants were all third-year medical students during their pediatric clerkship rotation. This was a prospective educational intervention assigning students to randomized control blocks of deliberate apprenticeship (DA intervention or control. DA students were paired with a senior resident who oriented and worked with the student, while control students were unpaired. All students completed a 20-question structured survey at shift end, which included questions about their perception of the learning environment, comfort with, and number of patient care responsibilities performed. We used independent Mann-Whitney and t-tests to compare experiences between the groups. Statistical significance was defined as p<0.05. We used the constant comparative method to qualitatively analyze students’ comments. RESULTS: Response rate was 85% (145/169. Students also rated on 5-point Likert-scale their level of comfort with defined aspects of working in the PED. DA students (n=76 were significantly more comfortable obtaining histories (4.2 versus 3.8 and formulating differential diagnoses (3.9 versus 3.4. DA students also performed more physical exams (2.9 versus 2.4. We categorized themes from the qualitative analysis of the students’ comments about their PED experience. The titles for these themes are as follows: PED provides a good learning experience; uncertainty about the medical student

  2. Internet access and electronic communication among families in an urban pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidinejad, Mohsen; Teach, Stephen J; Chamberlain, James M

    2012-06-01

    The Internet may represent an opportunity for health care providers in the emergency department (ED) to deliver discharge instructions and after-care educational materials electronically to patients and their caregivers. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Internet access and use among caregivers of children who visit the ED and to evaluate their interest in receiving after-care communication and educational material electronically. We distributed a self-administered survey to a convenience sample of English-speaking caregivers of children who presented to the ED of an urban, academic, pediatric hospital during November and December 2009. The survey was distributed to and completed by 509 English-speaking respondents. Of the participants, 423 (83.1%) of 509 identified themselves as black/African American, and 397 (77.9%) of 509 were publicly insured. Of the participants, 503 of 509 (98.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 97.9%-99.8%) reported that they have access to the Internet. Of the participants with Internet access, 312 of 503 (62.0%; 95% CI, 57.8%-66.3%) have access at home, 166 of 503 (33.0%; 95% CI, 28.9%-33.1%) have access at work, and 112 of 503 (22.3%; 95% CI, 18.6%-25.9%) have access by mobile phone. When asked about electronic communication and social networking, 483 of 503 (96.0%; 95% CI, 94.3%-97.7%) have an e-mail account, and 304 of 503 (60.4%; 95% CI, 56.2%-64.7%) have a Facebook account. Furthermore, 353 of 503 (70.1%; 95% CI, 66.2%-74.2%) reported accessing the Internet daily, whereas 128 of 503 (25.4%; 95% CI, 21.6%-29.3%) access the Internet at least 2 to 6 times per week. Among all respondents, interest in receiving communication from the ED only electronically was expressed by 259 of 509 participants (50.9%; 95% CI, 46.5%-55.2%). Approximately one third of the participants (173/509 [34%; 95% CI, 29.9%-38.1%]) expressed interest in an electronic channel for communication between the ED and their child's patient

  3. Pediatric Care Provided at Urgent Care Centers in the United States: Compliance With Recommendations for Emergency Preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Robert; Olympia, Robert P; Dunnick, Jennifer; Brady, Jodi

    2016-02-01

    To describe the compliance of urgent care centers in the United States with pediatric care recommendations for emergency preparedness as set forth by the American Academy of Pediatrics. An electronic questionnaire was distributed to urgent care center administrators as identified by the American Academy of Urgent Care Medicine directory. A total of 122 questionnaires of the 872 distributed were available for analysis (14% usable response rate). The most common diagnoses reported for pediatric patients included otitis media (72%), upper respiratory illness (69%), strep pharyngitis (61%), bronchiolitis (30%), and extremity sprain/strain (28%). Seventy-one percent of centers have contacted community emergency medical services (EMS) to transport a critically ill or injured child to their local emergency department in the past year. Sixty-two percent of centers reported having an established written protocol with community EMS and 54% with their local emergency department or hospital. Centers reported the availability of the following essential medications and equipment: oxygen source (75%), nebulized/inhaled β-agonist (95%), intravenous epinephrine (88%), oxygen masks/nasal cannula (89%), bag-valve-mask resuscitator (81%), suctioning device (60%), and automated external defibrillator (80%). Centers reported the presence of the following written emergency plans: respiratory distress (40%), seizures (67%), dehydration/shock (69%), head injury (59%), neck injury (67%), significant fracture (69%), and blunt chest or abdominal injury (81%). Forty-seven percent of centers conduct formal reviews of emergent or difficult cases in a quality improvement format. Areas for improvement in urgent care center preparedness were identified, such as increasing the availability of essential medications and equipment, establishing transfer and transport agreements with local hospitals and community EMS, and ensuring a structured quality improvement program.

  4. Pattern of burns identified in the Pediatrics Emergency Department at King Abdul-Aziz Medical City: Riyadh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharthy, Nesrin; Al Mutairi, Mohammad; AlQueflie, Sulaiman; Nefesa, Aminah Bin; Manie, Najd Bin; Nafesa, Salahaldin Bin; Al Zahrani, Fawaz Saeed

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to report the incidence of pediatric burn injuries and describe the pattern and the trend of pediatrics burns seen in King Abdul-Aziz Medical City. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Data collected through chart review of pediatrics patients aged 1-month to 14 years who presented with a burn injury to the pediatric emergency department during the year 2013. Burn patients were divided into two groups based on the percentage of total body surface area (TBSA) burned: Either Burn incidence rate was 4.9 patients/1000/year. Children with burns on more than 10% TBSA accounted for 16% incidence (0.8/1000 emergency department patients). The burn injury severity ranged from 1% TBSA to 37%, with a mean of 5%. The proportion of male and female burn patients was 54.1% and 45.9%, respectively. Children between 1 and 3 years of age sustained the majority (48.6%) of burn injuries. Scald burns were found to be the most common cause of injury. Hot water and beverages were considered root for most of the scald burn injuries. As children advance in age, scald injury becomes less likely, and they are more obviously subjected to flame burn injuries. Burn injuries sustained at home were 35% compared to 2.7% occurring outside the home. None of the study variables were good predictors for severe burn injuries affecting more than 10% TBSA. The incidence and the severity of burn injuries remain high at the national level. Burn injuries continue to affect the pediatric population, predominantly, young children, which indicate the need for increasing parent educational programs and government regulations. Because we reported scald burns as the most common causes of burn injury, which are consistent with previous national reports, we recommend having legislation that focuses on scald burn prevention.

  5. Pediatric trauma in the Austrian Alps: the epidemiology of sport-related injuries in helicopter emergency medical service.

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    Selig, Harald F; Hüpfl, Michael; Trimmel, Helmut; Voelckel, Wolfgang G; Nagele, Peter

    2012-06-01

    We aimed to examine the epidemiological characteristics and injury patterns of pediatric trauma in helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) caused by sports/outdoor activities in alpine environment. This retrospective cohort study analyzed 912 primary HEMS missions for pediatric trauma (0-14 years of age) in Austrian Alps between 1 January 2006 and 30 June 2007. Children were stratified by age into toddlers (3-5 years), children in early (6-9 years), and late school age (10-14 years). The majority of pediatric sports-related trauma in alpine environment was caused by skiing (82.1%; n=749). Pediatric patients were predominately in late school age and boys (72.8%, n=664 and 61.0%, n=556, respectively) and a minority (16.0%, n=146) was severely injured. Overall, fracture (47.0%, n=429), contusion (17.9%, n=163), and traumatic brain injury (17.0%, n=155) were the most common prehospital diagnoses. The most frequent pattern of injury was related to the head/face and spine (36.3%, n=331). The knowledge about epidemiological characteristics of HEMS use for injured children in alpine environment may be essential for training requirements of HEMS crews and operational considerations of HEMS providers. The incidence of head and spinal injuries requires support for initiatives to promote helmet wear and appropriate risk behavior amongst skiers and snowboarders.

  6. Predictors of prescription filling after visits to the pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, Samantha L; Dorfman, David; Suglia, Shakira F; Humphrey, Chelsea; Silverstein, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The study's objective was to describe readily identifiable predictors of filling medication prescriptions after discharge from the pediatric emergency department (PED). The study was a prospective cohort study of caregivers of children aged 0 to 17 years, discharged from the PED of an urban safety net hospital with a medication prescription. Prescription filling was confirmed by direct contact with pharmacies. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between baseline characteristics and prescription filling. Overall, 36 (32%) of 111 families did not fill their children's prescriptions. We found no association between any predictors of interest and prescription filling. In the patient attributes domain, neither English as one's nondominant language (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25-2.10) nor low health literacy (aOR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.17-3.62) was associated with prescription filling. In the patient-provider interaction domain, poor physician-family communication (aOR, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.50-4.61), lack of trust in the medical provider (aOR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.24-1.77), and caregiver disagreement with the treatment plan (aOR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.14-4.92) had no association with prescription filling. In the patient-health system interaction domain, concern that the prescription would be unaffordable (aOR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.48-3.53) and lack of an identified primary care physician for the child (aOR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.08-1.04) were not associated with filling the prescriptions. Among a low-income urban population, approximately one third of families do not fill prescriptions for their children after discharge from the PED. We were unable to predict which families would fill prescriptions and which would not.

  7. The utility of clinical ultrasonography in identifying distal forearm fractures in the pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletebeitia Laka, Iratxe; Samson, Frederic; Gorostiza, Inigo; Gonzalez, Andrés; Gonzalez, Carlos

    2017-10-13

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the utility of Point-Of-Care Ultrasound (POCUS) for diagnosing distal forearm fractures in pediatric emergency departments (ED). A prospective observational study was carried out in children aged younger than 15 years attended in an ED with an indication of radiography because of a suspected distal forearm fracture. The POCUS was performed considering cortical irregularity or disruption compatible with fracture. Then, the radiography was requested and the patient was evaluated by an ED traumatologist. Both tests were blinded to each other. The radiograph was considered to be the reference diagnostic test. Diagnostic validation tests were performed. A total of 115 patients [mean age: 9.1 (SD: 3.1) years; 50.4% males] were included, with 57 of these presenting fractures: 42 (73.7%) single bone fractures and 15 (26.3%) combined fractures of the radius and ulna. As such, 72 fractures were detected (prevalence 31.3%). The sensitivity and specificity of POCUS for detecting fractures were 94.4% [95% confidence interval (CI): 86.4-98.5] and 96.8% (95% CI: 92.8-99.0), respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 93.2% (95% CI: 84.7-97.7) and 97.5% (95% CI: 93.6-99.3), respectively. POCUS enables the clinical diagnosis of distal forearm fractures in ED. In addition, this is a highly accurate technique that can be applied easily by the ED pediatrician. As such, its inclusion as part of the physical examination could improve the accuracy of the clinical diagnosis and the global management of the patient.

  8. Air pollution, aeroallergens and admissions to pediatric emergency room for respiratory reasons in Turin, northwestern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, Roberto; Romanazzi, Valeria; Bellisario, Valeria; Tassinari, Roberta; Trucco, Giulia; Urbino, Antonio; Cassardo, Claudio; Siniscalco, Consolata; Marchetti, Pierpaolo; Marcon, Alessandro

    2016-08-05

    Air pollution can cause respiratory symptoms or exacerbate pre-existing respiratory diseases, especially in children. This study looked at the short-term association of air pollution concentrations with Emergency Room (ER) admissions for respiratory reasons in pediatric age (0-18 years). Daily number of ER admissions in a children's Hospital, concentrations of urban-background PM2.5, NO2, O3 and total aeroallergens (Corylaceae, Cupressaceae, Gramineae, Urticaceae, Ambrosia, Betula) were collected in Turin, northwestern Italy, for the period 1/08/2008 to 31/12/2010 (883 days). The associations between exposures and ER admissions were estimated, at time lags between 0 and 5 days, using generalized linear Poisson regression models, adjusted for non-meteorological potential confounders. In the study period, 21,793 ER admissions were observed, mainly (81 %) for upper respiratory tract infections. Median air pollution concentrations were 22.0, 42.5, 34.1 μg/m(3) for urban-background PM2.5, NO2, and O3, respectively, and 2.9 grains/m(3) for aeroallergens. We found that ER admissions increased by 1.3 % (95 % CI: 0.3-2.2 %) five days after a 10 μg/m(3) increase in NO2, and by 0.7 % (95 % CI: 0.1-1.2 %) one day after a 10 grains/m(3) increase in aeroallergens, while they were not associated with PM2.5 concentrations. ER admissions were negatively associated with O3 and aeroallergen concentrations at some time lags, but these association shifted to the null when meteorological confounders were adjusted for in the models. Overall, these findings confirm adverse short-term health effects of air pollution on the risk of ER admission in children and encourage a careful management of the urban environment to health protection.

  9. Knowledge, attitude, and belief regarding burn first aid among caregivers attending pediatric emergency medicine departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomar, Mohammed; Rouqi, Faisal Al; Eldali, Abdelmoneim

    2016-06-01

    Emergency departments witness many cases of burns that can be prevented with various first-aid measures. Immediate and effective burn first aid reduces morbidity and determines the outcome. Thus, it is imperative that measures of primary burn prevention and first-aid knowledge be improved. This descriptive study determines the current level of knowledge, attitude, and belief regarding burn first aid among caregivers. Caregivers attending four pediatric emergency departments answered a structured questionnaire for demographic information, knowledge, and the burn first aid they provide including two case scenarios. Applying cold water for 15-20min, smothering burning clothes, and covering the pot of oil on fire with a wet cloth were considered appropriate responses. The main outcome measure was the proportion of caregivers who were aware of burn first aid and did not use inappropriate remedies. Additional questions regarding the best means of educating the public on burn first aid were included. Individual chi-squared tests and univariate logistic regressions were performed to correlate knowledge with demographic features, history of burns, and first-aid training. The 408 interviewed caregivers (55% women) reflected a wide range of age, occupation, and educational level. Sixty percent (60%) of respondents had a large family, with 52% reporting a history of burns. Overall, 41% treated burns with cool or cold water, although 97% had inappropriate or no knowledge of the duration. Further, 32% treated burns with nonscientific remedies alone or in combination, including honey, egg white, toothpaste, white flour, tomato paste, yogurt, tea, sliced potato, butter, or ice. Only 15% had first-aid training. While 65% of caregivers covered a pot of oil on fire with a wet cloth, only 24% reported smothering burning clothes. Participants preferred learning more of first aid for burns via social media (41%), hospital visits (30%), and television (TV) (16%). No significant

  10. Prescription errors before and after introduction of electronic medication alert system in a pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethuraman, Usha; Kannikeswaran, Nirupama; Murray, Kyle P; Zidan, Marwan A; Chamberlain, James M

    2015-06-01

    Prescription errors occur frequently in pediatric emergency departments (PEDs).The effect of computerized physician order entry (CPOE) with electronic medication alert system (EMAS) on these is unknown. The objective was to compare prescription errors rates before and after introduction of CPOE with EMAS in a PED. The hypothesis was that CPOE with EMAS would significantly reduce the rate and severity of prescription errors in the PED. A prospective comparison of a sample of outpatient, medication prescriptions 5 months before and after CPOE with EMAS implementation (7,268 before and 7,292 after) was performed. Error types and rates, alert types and significance, and physician response were noted. Medication errors were deemed significant if there was a potential to cause life-threatening injury, failure of therapy, or an adverse drug effect. There was a significant reduction in the errors per 100 prescriptions (10.4 before vs. 7.3 after; absolute risk reduction = 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.2 to 4.0). Drug dosing error rates decreased from 8 to 5.4 per 100 (absolute risk reduction = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.8 to 3.4). Alerts were generated for 29.6% of prescriptions, with 45% involving drug dose range checking. The sensitivity of CPOE with EMAS in identifying errors in prescriptions was 45.1% (95% CI = 40.8% to 49.6%), and the specificity was 57% (95% CI = 55.6% to 58.5%). Prescribers modified 20% of the dosing alerts, resulting in the error not reaching the patient. Conversely, 11% of true dosing alerts for medication errors were overridden by the prescribers: 88 (11.3%) resulted in medication errors, and 684 (88.6%) were false-positive alerts. A CPOE with EMAS was associated with a decrease in overall prescription errors in our PED. Further system refinements are required to reduce the high false-positive alert rates. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  11. Developing and Implementing a Pediatric Emergency Care Curriculum for Providers at District Level Hospitals in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Case Study in Kenya

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    Colleen Diane Fant

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionEmergency medicine is a relatively new field in sub-Saharan Africa and dedicated training in pediatric emergency care is limited. While guidelines from the African Federation of Emergency Medicine (AFEM regarding emergency training exist, a core curriculum in pediatric emergency care has not yet been established for providers at the district hospital level.MethodsThe objective of the project was to develop a curriculum for providers with limited training in pediatric emergencies, and contain didactic and simulation components with emphasis on treatment and resuscitation using available resources. A core curriculum for pediatric emergency care was developed using a validated model of medical education curriculum development and through review of existing guidelines and literature. Based on literature review, as well as a review of existent guidelines in pediatric and emergency care, 10 core topics were chosen and agreed upon by experts in the field, including pediatric and emergency care providers in Kenya and the United States. These topics were confirmed to be consistent with the principles of emergency care endorsed by AFEM as well as complimentary to existing Kenyan medical school syllabi. A curriculum based on these 10 core topics was created and subsequently piloted with a group of medical residents and clinical officers at a community hospital in western Kenya.ResultsThe 10 core pediatric topics prioritized were airway management, respiratory distress, thoracic and abdominal trauma, head trauma and cervical spine management, sepsis and shock, endocrine emergencies, altered mental status/toxicology, orthopedic emergencies, burn and wound management, and pediatric advanced life support. The topics were incorporated into a curriculum comprised of ten 1.5-h combined didactic plus low-fidelity simulation modules. Feedback from trainers and participating providers gave high ratings to the ease of information delivery, relevance, and

  12. Pain management policies and practices in pediatric emergency care: a nationwide survey of Italian hospitals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferrante, Pierpaolo; Cuttini, Marina; Zangardi, Tiziana; Tomasello, Caterina; Messi, Gianni; Pirozzi, Nicola; Losacco, Valentina; Piga, Simone; Benini, Franca

    2013-01-01

    .... This study aimed at describing the policies and reported practices of pain assessment and treatment in a national sample of Italian pediatric EDs, and identifying the assocoated structural and organisational factors...

  13. Weighing the pediatric patient during trauma resuscitation and its concordance with estimated weight using Broselow Luten Emergency Tape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Madhumita; Lezine, Myra Wong; Frechette, Alan; Foster, Kevin N

    2012-06-01

    Obtaining an accurate weight is crucial during pediatric trauma/medical resuscitation. Currently, length-based weight estimations are used. Study objective was to assess feasibility of obtaining actual weights of children during trauma resuscitation and study its concordance with length-based estimated weight using the Broselow Pediatric Emergency Tape. Pediatric trauma patients 0 to 14 years old presenting to a tertiary care pediatric trauma center between November 2008 and October 2009 were enrolled prospectively. Length-based weight estimation was done on patient arrival using the Broselow tape; in addition, an actual patient weight was recorded using the trauma stretcher integrated weighing scale. Two hundred thirty-one patients were eligible and enrolled. Weights were recorded in 145 children (63.2%). In 27 patients (18.6%) whose body length exceeded Broselow tape range, weight was measured using stretcher scale only. The remaining 118 patients (mean age, 5.0 [SE ± 0.3] years; 67% male) were used for correlation analysis. There was good correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = 0.86) between estimated weight and measured weight. However, Bland-Altman analysis showed mean bias +2.6 kg (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-3.6 kg); lower/upper limits of agreement were -8.3 kg (CI, -10.0 to -6.6 kg) and 13.5 kg (CI, 11.7-15.2 kg). It is possible to obtain an actual patient weight during pediatric trauma resuscitation. Length-based estimated weight using Broselow tape underestimated weight by 2.6 kg; the mean error was greatest in the highest weight category.

  14. Retrospective study of intranasal dexmedetomidine as a prophylactic against emergence delirium in pediatric patients undergoing ear tube surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Lisgelia; Mills, Katherine

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of intranasal dexmedetomidine on emergence delirium (ED) in pediatric patients who underwent ear tube surgeries. Due to the brief nature of the surgery and low levels of pain experienced, an IV is rarely needed, limiting the medications available to anesthesiologists to manage postoperative delirium that may arise during recovery from inhalational anesthesia. Intravenous dexmedetomidine is an alpha-2 agonist anesthetic that is used in pediatric patients for the management of ED in various surgical procedures. However, intranasal medication has not been evaluated specifically in ear tube surgeries for ED prevention. We conducted a retrospective chart review of pediatric patients at Nemours Children's Hospital who had undergone ear tube insertion or removal surgery between 2013 and 2015, controlling for confounding variables such as age, surgery duration, and anesthesiologist. We used the post anesthesia emergence delirium (PAED) tool, an instrument created to assess ED in the clinical setting. We analyzed the data for significant differences in PAED score and time in the post anesthesia care unit (PACU) between patients treated with intranasal dexmedetomidine and the control group that did not receive the medication. We found no significant difference between the PAED scores of those patients treated with intranasal dexmedetomidine prior to ear tube surgeries and those who did not receive the medication, and no difference in the duration of PACU stay. These results conflict with other research on intranasal dexmedetomidine and its potential to prevent ED in pediatric patients. This information should prompt further prospective investigation into the most efficacious use of dexmedetomidine for ED prevention, both in terms of timing and dosage required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficacy of premedication with intranasal dexmedetomidine on inhalational induction and postoperative emergence agitation in pediatric undergoing cataract surgery with sevoflurane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yiquan; Chen, Ying; Huang, Jingxia; Chen, Hongbin; Shen, Weihua; Guo, Wenjun; Chen, Qianru; Ling, Hongfeng; Gan, Xiaoliang

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that premedication with a single dose of intranasal dexmedetomidine (DEX) could not only reduce preoperative anxiety but also minimize the emergence agitation in children undergoing cataract surgery with sevoflurane anesthesia. Single-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical comparison study. Academic medical center. Ninety American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 and 2 children scheduled for cataract surgery. Patients were randomized into 3 groups: group D1, group D2, and saline group (group C), in which the children received 1 or 2 μg/kg of intranasal DEX or saline, respectively, and each group comprises 30 patients. The mask induction score and the incidences of postoperative emergence agitation evaluated by the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale were assessed. The emergence time, postanesthesia care unit (PACU) stay time, and any adverse events were recorded. The mask induction scores were significantly higher in the saline group than those in the D1 and D2 groups (P.05). The emergence time and PACU stay time did not differ significantly in DEX-treated groups as compared with the saline group; there were no differences between 1- and 2-μg/kg groups. None of the patients exhibited significant clinical complications. Intranasal DEX (1 or 2 μg/kg) dose independently improves the incidences of mask acceptance and prevents the incidences of postoperative emergency agitation mainly from sevoflurane without delaying the emergency time or inducing severe adverse events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. MRI usage in a pediatric emergency department: an analysis of usage and usage trends over 5 years

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    Scheinfeld, Meir H. [Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Division of Emergency Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Moon, Jee-Young; Wang, Dan [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Bronx, NY (United States); Fagan, Michele J. [Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Emergency Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Davoudzadeh, Reubin [Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Taragin, Benjamin H. [Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) usage has anecdotally increased due to the principles of ALARA and the desire to Image Gently. Aside from a single abstract in the emergency medicine literature, pediatric emergency department MRI usage has not been described. Our objective was to determine whether MRI use is indeed increasing at a high-volume urban pediatric emergency department with 24/7 MRI availability. Also, we sought to determine which exams, time periods and demographics influenced the trend. Institutional Review Board exemption was obtained. Emergency department patient visit and exam data were obtained from the hospital database for the 2011-2015 time period. MRI usage data were normalized using emergency department patient visit data to determine usage rates. The z-test was used to compare MRI use by gender. The chi-square test was used to test for trends in MRI usage during the study period and in patient age. MRI usage for each hour and each weekday were tabulated to determine peak and trough usage times. MRI usage rate per emergency department patient visit was 0.36%. Headache, pain and rule-out appendicitis were the most common indications for neuroradiology, musculoskeletal and trunk exams, respectively. Usage in female patients was significantly greater than in males (0.42% vs. 0.29%, respectively, P<0.001). Usage significantly increased during the 5-year period (P<0.001). Use significantly increased from age 3 to 17 (0.011% to 1.1%, respectively, P<0.001). Sixty percent of exams were performed after-hours, the highest volume during the 10 p.m. hour and lowest between 4 a.m. and 9 a.m. MRI use was highest on Thursdays and lowest on Sundays (MRI on 0.45% and 0.22% of patients, respectively). MRI use in children increased during the study period, most notably in females, on weekdays and after-hours. (orig.)

  17. Air pollution, aeroallergens and admissions to pediatric emergency room for respiratory reasons in Turin, northwestern Italy

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    Roberto Bono

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Air pollution can cause respiratory symptoms or exacerbate pre-existing respiratory diseases, especially in children. This study looked at the short-term association of air pollution concentrations with Emergency Room (ER admissions for respiratory reasons in pediatric age (0–18 years. Methods Daily number of ER admissions in a children’s Hospital, concentrations of urban-background PM2.5, NO2, O3 and total aeroallergens (Corylaceae, Cupressaceae, Gramineae, Urticaceae, Ambrosia, Betula were collected in Turin, northwestern Italy, for the period 1/08/2008 to 31/12/2010 (883 days. The associations between exposures and ER admissions were estimated, at time lags between 0 and 5 days, using generalized linear Poisson regression models, adjusted for non-meteorological potential confounders. Results In the study period, 21,793 ER admissions were observed, mainly (81 % for upper respiratory tract infections. Median air pollution concentrations were 22.0, 42.5, 34.1 μg/m3 for urban-background PM2.5, NO2, and O3, respectively, and 2.9 grains/m3 for aeroallergens. We found that ER admissions increased by 1.3 % (95 % CI: 0.3-2.2 % five days after a 10 μg/m3 increase in NO2, and by 0.7 % (95 % CI: 0.1-1.2 % one day after a 10 grains/m3 increase in aeroallergens, while they were not associated with PM2.5 concentrations. ER admissions were negatively associated with O3 and aeroallergen concentrations at some time lags, but these association shifted to the null when meteorological confounders were adjusted for in the models. Conclusions Overall, these findings confirm adverse short-term health effects of air pollution on the risk of ER admission in children and encourage a careful management of the urban environment to health protection.

  18. Pediatric Patients Discharged from the Emergency Department with Abnormal Vital Signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Josephine; Waxman, Michael J; Waterman, George; Ata, Ashar; Frisch, Adam; Collins, Kevin P; King, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    Children often present to the emergency department (ED) with minor conditions such as fever and have persistently abnormal vital signs. We hypothesized that a significant portion of children discharged from the ED would have abnormal vital signs and that those discharged with abnormal vital signs would experience very few adverse events. We performed a retrospective chart review encompassing a 44-month period of all pediatric patients (aged two months to 17 years) who were discharged from the ED with an abnormal pulse rate, respiratory rate, temperature, or oxygen saturation. We used a local quality assurance database to identify pre-defined adverse events after discharge in this population. Our primary aim was to determine the proportion of children discharged with abnormal vital signs and the frequency and nature of adverse events. Additionally, we performed a sub-analysis comparing the rate of adverse events in children discharged with normal vs. abnormal vital signs, as well as a standardized review of the nature of each adverse event. Of 33,185 children discharged during the study period, 5,540 (17%) of these patients had at least one abnormal vital sign. There were 24/5,540 (0.43%) adverse events in the children with at least one abnormal vital sign vs. 47/27,645 (0.17%) adverse events in the children with normal vital signs [relative risk = 2.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.6 to 2.4)].However, upon review of each adverse event we found only one case that was related to the index visit, was potentially preventable by a 23-hour hospital observation, and caused permanent disability. In our study population, 17% of the children were discharged with at least one abnormal vital sign, and there were very few adverse (0.43%) events associated with this practice. Heart rate was the most common abnormal vital sign leading to an adverse event. Severe adverse events that were potentially related to the abnormal vital sign(s) were exceedingly rare. Additional research is

  19. Music to reduce pain and distress in the pediatric emergency department: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartling, Lisa; Newton, Amanda S; Liang, Yuanyuan; Jou, Hsing; Hewson, Krista; Klassen, Terry P; Curtis, Sarah

    2013-09-01

    Many medical procedures aimed at helping children cause them pain and distress, which can have long-lasting negative effects. Music is a form of distraction that may alleviate some of the pain and distress experienced by children while undergoing medical procedures. To compare music with standard care to manage pain and distress. Randomized clinical trial conducted in a pediatric emergency department with appropriate sequence generation and adequate allocation concealment from January 1, 2009, to March 31, 2010. Individuals assessing the primary outcome were blind to treatment allocation. A total of 42 children aged 3 to 11 years undergoing intravenous placement were included. Music (recordings selected by a music therapist via ambient speakers) vs standard care. The primary outcome was behavioral distress assessed blinded using the Observational Scale of Behavioral Distress-Revised. The secondary outcomes included child-reported pain, heart rate, parent and health care provider satisfaction, ease of performing the procedure, and parental anxiety. With or without controlling for potential confounders, we found no significant difference in the change in behavioral distress from before the procedure to immediately after the procedure. When children who had no distress during the procedure were removed from the analysis, there was a significantly less increase in distress for the music group (standard care group = 2.2 vs music group = 1.1, P Pain scores among children in the standard care group increased by 2 points, while they remained the same in the music group (P = .04); the difference was considered clinically important. The pattern of parent satisfaction with the management of children's pain was different between groups, although not statistically significant (P = .07). Health care providers reported that it was easier to perform the procedure for children in the music group (76% very easy) vs the standard care group (38% very easy) (P

  20. Availability of mobile phones for discharge follow-up of pediatric Emergency Department patients in western Kenya

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    Darlene R. House

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Mobile phones have been successfully used for Emergency Department (ED patient follow-up in developed countries. Mobile phones are widely available in developing countries and may offer a similar potential for follow-up and continued care of ED patients in low and middle-income countries. The goal of this study was to determine the percentage of families with mobile phones presenting to a pediatric ED in western Kenya and rate of response to a follow-up phone call after discharge.Methods. A prospective, cross-sectional observational study of children presenting to the emergency department of a government referral hospital in Eldoret, Kenya was performed. Documentation of mobile phone access, including phone number, was recorded. If families had access, consent was obtained and families were contacted 7 days after discharge for follow-up.Results. Of 788 families, 704 (89.3% had mobile phone access. Of those families discharged from the ED, successful follow-up was made in 83.6% of cases.Conclusions. Mobile phones are an available technology for follow-up of patients discharged from a pediatric emergency department in resource-limited western Kenya.

  1. Availability of mobile phones for discharge follow-up of pediatric Emergency Department patients in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Darlene R; Cheptinga, Philip; Rusyniak, Daniel E

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Mobile phones have been successfully used for Emergency Department (ED) patient follow-up in developed countries. Mobile phones are widely available in developing countries and may offer a similar potential for follow-up and continued care of ED patients in low and middle-income countries. The goal of this study was to determine the percentage of families with mobile phones presenting to a pediatric ED in western Kenya and rate of response to a follow-up phone call after discharge. Methods. A prospective, cross-sectional observational study of children presenting to the emergency department of a government referral hospital in Eldoret, Kenya was performed. Documentation of mobile phone access, including phone number, was recorded. If families had access, consent was obtained and families were contacted 7 days after discharge for follow-up. Results. Of 788 families, 704 (89.3%) had mobile phone access. Of those families discharged from the ED, successful follow-up was made in 83.6% of cases. Conclusions. Mobile phones are an available technology for follow-up of patients discharged from a pediatric emergency department in resource-limited western Kenya.

  2. Fever Phobia as a Reason for Pediatric Emergency Department Visits: Does the Primary Care Physician Make a Difference?

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    Erella Elkon-Tamir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Fever is a source of considerable parental anxiety. Numerous studies have also confirmed similar anxiety among health care workers. This study analyzed caregiver knowledge of fever, and beliefs concerning children with a febrile illness, with an emphasis on the referring physician. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 100 caregivers of children 3 months to 12 years old, treated at an urban tertiary care pediatric emergency department for fever. Caregiver knowledge was assessed with a questionnaire. Results Most caregivers correctly defined the threshold for fever as >38.0–38.3°C. Caregivers commonly believed that fever can cause brain damage and epilepsy; the frequency of this belief was not affected by whether they were referred to the emergency department by their pediatrician/family physician or by another physician or arrived without a referral. For a comfortable-appearing child with a temperature not above 38.0°C, both groups reported that they would give antipyretics in similar proportions (mean 31%. The majority of parents in both groups believed that teething could cause fever (mean 74%. Conclusion Caregivers in this study had limited knowledge of fever and its management in children, even if referred by their primary care physician. We suggest that there is a need for aggressive educational interventions to reduce parents’ fever phobia, in clinics as well as in pediatric emergency departments, and that this need may extend to the education of medical personnel as well.

  3. Prospective evaluation of clinical lung ultrasonography in the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia in a pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Frédéric; Gorostiza, Iñigo; González, Andrés; Landa, María; Ruiz, Lucía; Grau, Miguel

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the applicability and utility of point-of-care lung ultrasonography (POCLUS) for the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in a pediatric emergency department. A prospective observational study on children with suspected CAP was carried out in a pediatric emergency department from August to December 2014. The evaluation of the chest radiography (CR) by two independent radiologists was considered as a reference standard. POCLUS was performed by pediatricians who were blinded to CR results. Following the WHO criteria, typical CAP was defined as an alveolar consolidation or infiltrate in CR and a visualization of lung consolidation with sonographic air bronchograms in POCLUS. The diagnostic accuracy of POCLUS (sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values) was established using CR as a gold standard. We enrolled 200 children with a median age of 29.5 months (interquartile range, 18.5-52.5); 58.1% were males and 42.0% had focal decreased breath sounds and/or crackles. The prevalence of typical CAP according to the radiologist's evaluation was 42.5% (end-point consolidation and/or pleural effusion 56.5%, alveolar infiltrate 43.5%). The sensitivity and specificity of POCLUS were 87.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 78.0-93.4] and 94.8% (95% CI 89.0-98.1), respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 92.5% (95% CI 84.4-97.2) and 90.8% (95% CI 84.2-95.3), respectively. POCLUS performed by an emergency pediatrician with a limited experience in ultrasonography enables the diagnosis of pneumonia with high accuracy. POCLUS could become a feasible and promising alternative to CR in the diagnosis of suspected CAP, leading to a relevant decrease in children's exposure to ionizing radiations. Further studies specifically carried out in the pediatric outpatient setting are needed.

  4. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a pediatric emergency department in Newfoundland and Labrador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, Erin; Morris, Robert; Chafe, Roger

    2014-01-01

    First-generation cephalosporins and antistaphylococcal penicillins are typically the first choice for treating skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI), but are not effective for infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). It is currently unclear what percentage of SSTIs is caused by community-associated MRSA in different regions in Canada. To determine the incidence of MRSA in children presenting to a pediatric emergency department with SSTI, and to determine which antibiotics were used to treat these infections. All visits to a pediatric emergency department were reviewed from April 15, 2010 to April 14, 2011. Diagnoses of cellulitis, abscess, impetigo, folliculitis and skin infection (not otherwise specified) were reviewed in detail to determine whether a culture was taken and which antibiotic was prescribed. There were 367 cases of SSTI diagnosed over the study period. Forty-five (12.3%) patients had lesions that were swabbed for culture and sensitivity. S aureus was the most common organism found, with 14 (66%) methicillin-sensitive cases and seven (33%) methicillin-resistant cases. Of the seven cases of MRSA identified, only one patient had clear risk factors for hospital-acquired MRSA. First-generation cephalosporins were initially prescribed for 280 (76%) patients. The overall incidence of MRSA in the population presenting to a pediatric emergency department in Newfoundland and Labrador appeared to be low, although only a small percentage of infections were cultured. At this time, there appears to be no need to change empirical antibiotic coverage, which remains a first-generation cephalosporin.

  5. Influence of sub-specialty surgical care on outcomes for pediatric emergency general surgery patients in a low-middle income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Adil A; Shakoor, Amarah; Zogg, Cheryl K; Oyetunji, Tolulope; Ashfaq, Awais; Garvey, Erin M; Latif, Asad; Riviello, Robert; Qureshi, Faisal G; Mateen, Arif; Haider, Adil H; Zafar, Hasnain

    2016-05-01

    Whether adult general surgeons should handle pediatric emergencies is controversial. In many resource-limited settings, pediatric surgeons are not available. The study examined differences in surgical outcomes among children/adolescents managed by pediatric and adult general surgery teams for emergency general surgical (EGS) conditions at a university-hospital in South Asia. Pediatric patients (surgery. The overall probability of developing a complication was 1.8%; 0.9% died (all adult general surgery). Patients managed by adult general surgery had higher risk-adjusted odds of developing complications (OR [95%CI]: 5.42 [2.10-14.00]) and longer average LOS (7.98 vs. 5.61 days, p surgery. Pediatric patients had better post-operative outcomes under pediatric surgical supervision, suggesting that, where possible in resource-constrained settings, resources should be allocated to promote development and staffing of pediatric surgical specialties parallel to adult general surgical teams. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Additive, Multi-Component Treatment of Emerging Refusal Topographies in a Pediatric Feeding Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, William G.; Jaquess, David L.; Bogard, Jennifer D.; Morton, Jane F.

    2010-01-01

    This case study describes inter-disciplinary treatment of chronic food refusal and tube dependency in a 2-year-old female with a pediatric feeding disorder. Evidence-based behavioral components--including escape extinction (EE), differential reinforcement of alterative mealtime behavior (DRA), and stimulus fading--were introduced sequentially as…

  7. Examining Emergency Department Treatment Processes in Severe Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajdari, Ali; Boyle, Linda Ng; Kannan, Nithya; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Wang, Jin; Mink, Richard; Ries, Benjamin; Wainwright, Mark; Groner, Jonathan I; Bell, Michael J; Giza, Chris; Zatzick, Douglas F; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Mitchell, Pamela H; Rivara, Frederick P; Vavilala, Monica S

    2017-02-03

    In the treatment of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI), timely treatment of patients can affect the outcome. Our objectives were to examine the treatment process of acute pediatric TBI and the impact of non-value-added time (NVAT) on patient outcomes. Data for 136 pediatric trauma patients (age value stream map identified NVATs and their sources in the treatment process. Cluster and regression analysis were used to examine the relationship between NVAT, as a percentage of the patient's length of stay (LOS), and the patient outcome, measured by their corresponding Glasgow outcome scale. There were 14 distinct sources of NVAT identified. A regression analysis showed that increased NVAT was associated with less favorable outcomes (relative ratio = 1.015, confidence interval = [1.002-1.029]). Specifically, 1% increase in the NVAT-to-LOS ratio was associated with a 1.5% increase in the chance of a less favorable outcome (i.e., death or vegetative state). The NVAT has a significant impact on the outcome of pediatric TBI, and every minute spent on performing non-value-added processes can lead to an increase in the likelihood of less favorable outcomes.

  8. Pediatric emergency care capacity in a low-resource setting: An assessment of district hospitals in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hategeka, Celestin; Shoveller, Jean; Tuyisenge, Lisine; Kenyon, Cynthia; Cechetto, David F; Lynd, Larry D

    2017-01-01

    Health system strengthening is crucial to improving infant and child health outcomes in low-resource countries. While the knowledge related to improving newborn and child survival has advanced remarkably over the past few decades, many healthcare systems in such settings remain unable to effectively deliver pediatric advance life support management. With the introduction of the Emergency Triage, Assessment and Treatment plus Admission care (ETAT+)-a locally adapted pediatric advanced life support management program-in Rwandan district hospitals, we undertook this study to assess the extent to which these hospitals are prepared to provide this pediatric advanced life support management. The results of the study will shed light on the resources and support that are currently available to implement ETAT+, which aims to improve care for severely ill infants and children. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in eight district hospitals across Rwanda focusing on the availability of physical and human resources, as well as hospital services organizations to provide emergency triage, assessment and treatment plus admission care for severely ill infants and children. Many of essential resources deemed necessary for the provision of emergency care for severely ill infants and children were readily available (e.g. drugs and laboratory services). However, only 4/8 hospitals had BVM for newborns; while nebulizer and MDI were not available in 2/8 hospitals. Only 3/8 hospitals had F-75 and ReSoMal. Moreover, there was no adequate triage system across any of the hospitals evaluated. Further, guidelines for neonatal resuscitation and management of malaria were available in 5/8 and in 7/8 hospitals, respectively; while those for child resuscitation and management of sepsis, pneumonia, dehydration and severe malnutrition were available in less than half of the hospitals evaluated. Our assessment provides evidence to inform new strategies to enhance the capacity of Rwandan district

  9. Pediatric emergency care capacity in a low-resource setting: An assessment of district hospitals in Rwanda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestin Hategeka

    Full Text Available Health system strengthening is crucial to improving infant and child health outcomes in low-resource countries. While the knowledge related to improving newborn and child survival has advanced remarkably over the past few decades, many healthcare systems in such settings remain unable to effectively deliver pediatric advance life support management. With the introduction of the Emergency Triage, Assessment and Treatment plus Admission care (ETAT+-a locally adapted pediatric advanced life support management program-in Rwandan district hospitals, we undertook this study to assess the extent to which these hospitals are prepared to provide this pediatric advanced life support management. The results of the study will shed light on the resources and support that are currently available to implement ETAT+, which aims to improve care for severely ill infants and children.A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in eight district hospitals across Rwanda focusing on the availability of physical and human resources, as well as hospital services organizations to provide emergency triage, assessment and treatment plus admission care for severely ill infants and children.Many of essential resources deemed necessary for the provision of emergency care for severely ill infants and children were readily available (e.g. drugs and laboratory services. However, only 4/8 hospitals had BVM for newborns; while nebulizer and MDI were not available in 2/8 hospitals. Only 3/8 hospitals had F-75 and ReSoMal. Moreover, there was no adequate triage system across any of the hospitals evaluated. Further, guidelines for neonatal resuscitation and management of malaria were available in 5/8 and in 7/8 hospitals, respectively; while those for child resuscitation and management of sepsis, pneumonia, dehydration and severe malnutrition were available in less than half of the hospitals evaluated.Our assessment provides evidence to inform new strategies to enhance the capacity of

  10. Pediatric Neurocritical Care

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric neurocritical care is an emerging multidisciplinary field of medicine and a new frontier in pediatric critical care and pediatric neurology. Central to pediatric neurocritical care is the goal of improving outcomes in critically ill pediatric patients with neurological illness or injury and limiting secondary brain injury through optimal critical care delivery and the support of brain function. There is a pressing need for evidence based guidelines in pediatric neurocritical care, n...

  11. Physician Assistant Management of Pediatric Patients in a General Community Emergency Department: A Real-World Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlik, Daniel; Sacchetti, Alfred; Seymour, Amanda; Blass, Bonnie

    2017-01-01

    Multiple studies have documented the nonclinical characteristics of physician assistant (PA) practices in the emergency department (ED). This study examines the clinical care PAs provide to younger pediatric patients in a general community ED. The electronic medical record database of an urban community general ED was queried to identify pediatric patients aged 6 years or younger. This age group was selected because it was considered to be representative of physiologic and pathologic conditions unique to children. The 72-hour recidivism rates were used as an objective outcome measure to compare the care provided by PAs with the care of attending emergency physicians (EPs). Three different treatment groups were defined for the analysis: EPs alone, PAs alone, and PAs with consults from EPs (PA & EP). A total of 10,369 children aged 6 years or younger were seen during a 24-month study period. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 2.2 (0.2) years, with 2909 (28%) aged 1 year or younger. A total of 807 (7.8%) patients returned within 72 hours of their initial ED visit with 57 (0.55%) subsequently admitted. Recidivism rates for the 3 clinical groups were as follows: PA (6.8%), EP (8.0%), and PA & EP (9.3%) (P < 0.03). Patients admitted to the hospital on their return visits for the 3 clinical groups were as follows: PA (0.4%), EP (0.6%), and PA & EP (0.7%) (P = 0.2). Based on the outcome measure of 72-hour recidivism, PA management of pediatric patients 6 years or younger is similar to that of attending EPs.

  12. Detection of the awareness rate of abuse in pediatric patients admitted to emergency medicine department with injury

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    Selen Acehan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It was aimed to investigate whether neglected and abused pediatric patients are properly recognized and reported by emergency physicians in the emergency department (ED. Methods: This prospective study was conducted on patients between 0 and 6 years of age presenting with trauma to ED. Patients were examined again by an emergency medicine specialist independent from the physician who did the first intervention during clinical follow-up phase after notification of patients presenting with trauma to emergency physician. Asked radiological examinations and clinical follow-up were performed. The suspected abuse evaluation form, consisting 12 items, which was formed by considering the forms used in previous studies was used to examine the awareness of physicians in cases of abuse suspicion. Results: A total of 126 patients were included in our study. 54% of cases (n = 68 were male and mean age was determined to be 31.3 ± 18.9 months. It was found that no judicial records were written to 35.7% (n = 45 of our patients and that 11.1% (n = 5 of these patients were hospitalized. In 51.1% (n = 23 of patients without judicial records, multiple suspected abuse findings were identified. According to evaluation of first physician, it was found that 75.9% (n = 41 of discharged patients had no judicial records and was not considered as neglect and abuse. Conclusion: We conclude that detection rates of abuse can be increased by developing child abuse screening forms and ensuring the continuity of the necessary training programs. Keywords: Neglect, Abuse, Pediatric

  13. Leclercia adecarboxylata Musculoskeletal Infection in an Immune Competent Pediatric Patient: An Emerging Pathogen?

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    W. Jeffrey Grantham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Case. An immune competent pediatric patient presented with a persistent lower extremity infection with Leclercia adecarboxylata after a penetrating injury. This case report details the presentation, clinical course, and treatment. Conclusion. Leclercia adecarboxylata has increasing reports in immunosuppressed and adult patients with musculoskeletal infection. This case now indicates that Leclercia adecarboxylata is a potential pathogen in immune competent children in musculoskeletal tissue.

  14. Pediatric Blood Cancer Survivors and Tobacco Use across Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Narrative Review

    OpenAIRE

    Masiero, Marianna; Riva, Silvia; Fioretti, Chiara; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Scholars underline the pivotal role of tobacco cigarette smoking in carcinogenesis process for blood tumors. A controversial debate is represented by the diffusion of tobacco use in young cancer survivors that had a previous diagnosis of blood tumor during the childhood. Compared with their peers, scientific evidence highlights that pediatric survivors have more difficult to give-up cigarette smoking. Furthermore, tobacco-smoking is frequently linked with others risk behaviors as drinking or ...

  15. Diabetes care for emerging adults: transition from pediatric to adult diabetes care systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Ah Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus in children, transitioning patients from childhood to adulthood are increasing. High-risk behaviors and poor glycemic control during the transition period increase the risk for hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia as well as chronic microvascular and macrovascular complications. Discussions regarding complications and preparations for transition must take place before the actual transition to adult care systems. Pediatric care providers should focus on diabetes self-management skills and prepare at least 1 year prior to the transfer. Pediatric providers should also provide a written summary about previous and current glycemic control, complications and the presence of mental health problems such as disordered eating behaviors and affective disorders. Transition care should be individualized, with an emphasis on diabetes self-management to prevent acute and long-term complications. Regular screening and management of complications should proceed according to pediatric and adult guidelines. Birth control, use of alcohol, smoking and driving should also be discussed. Barriers to self-management and care must be recognized and solutions sought. The goals of transitional care are to effectively transition the diabetic patient from the pediatric to adult care system with less elapsed time in between and to improve post-transition outcome. Previous studies regarding diabetes transitional care programs including patient education programs, medical coordinators and auxiliary service systems reported promising results. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding best practices in transition care. Further studies are needed to provide evidence based transitional care programs that take both medical and psychosocial aspects of diabetes care into consideration.

  16. Twitter and Canadian Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Max

    2012-01-01

    An emerging group of leaders in Canadian education has attracted thousands of followers. They've made Twitter an extension of their lives, delivering twenty or more tweets a day that can include, for example, links to media articles, research, new ideas from education bloggers, or to their own, or simply a personal thought. At their best,…

  17. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in skin and soft tissue infections presenting to the Emergency Department of a Canadian Academic Health Care Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiam, Cimi C; Fernandes, Christopher Mahendra Bernard; McLeod, Shelley L; Salvadori, Marina I; John, Michael; Seabrook, Jamie A; Theakston, Karl D; Milburn, Susan; Hussain, Zafar

    2011-02-01

    This study aimed to estimate the city-wide prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in patients (≥18 years old) presenting with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) to the emergency departments (EDs) of a Canadian Academic Health Care Center. Secondary objectives were to identify demographic and clinical variables associated with MRSA, and determine MRSA antimicrobial susceptibilities and genotypes. This prospective observational study was conducted over 2 months. Participants completed a Health and Lifestyle Questionnaire. Cultures of the infection site, nares, and throat were obtained and MRSA isolates were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Patient characteristics were summarized using descriptive statistics and MRSA prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using standard equations. Backwards stepwise multivariate logistic regression models determined predictor variables independently associated with MRSA colonization or infection. Of 205 patients, 35 (17.1%) were infected or colonized with MRSA. Seventy-eight (38.0%) of the infection site cultures grew S. aureus of which 27 (34.6%) were MRSA. Incarceration, known exposure to MRSA and involvement in competitive sports were significant predictors of MRSA SSTIs. Antimicrobial susceptibility among MRSA isolates was trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, vancomycin, gentamicin, and linezolid 100%, clindamycin 75%, ciprofloxacin 59.3%, and erythromycin 7.4%. Sixty-nine percent of MRSA cases fit the clinical definition of community associated; subsequently 77% were confirmed as CMRSA 10, a recognized community-acquired MRSA. Community-acquired -MRSA is a significant pathogen of SSTIs in EDs of a Canadian teaching center. MRSA should be considered when initiating empiric antibiotic therapy, particularly in patients with risk factors.

  18. Emergence of Non-Serotype b Encapsulated Haemophilus influenzae as a Cause of Pediatric Meningitis in Northwestern Ontario

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    Pouya Sadeghi-Aval

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Before the introduction of the conjugate vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children. Although successful in reducing Hib cases, the vaccine confers no protection against other serotypes of H influenzae, such as a (Hia, or f (Hif. The emergence of invasive disease caused by non-Hib in northwestern Ontario (38 cases between 2002 and 2008 with predominance of Hia was previously reported by the authors. At that time, no cases of pediatric meningitis caused by H influenzae were recorded in the region. Continued surveillance identified 12 new cases of invasive non-Hib between January 2009 and July 2011. Among these cases, three young children developed meningitis with severe complications caused by Hia or Hif. The present article describes these cases along with the characteristics of recent H influenzae isolates from the region, (ie, their genetic background and antibiotic sensitivity. The findings point to the clonal nature of circulating Hia strains as well as to an increase in frequency and severity of pediatric invasive H influenzae infections in northwestern Ontario.

  19. Adolescent Use of Electronic Cigarettes: An Emergent Health Concern for Pediatric Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Molly; Pennington, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Recent statistics show an increasing trend of electronic cigarette usage among adolescents. Despite common misconceptions, electronic cigarette use does not reduce cigarette use among adolescents and can potentially increase cigarette dependence via nicotine addiction and modeling of smoking behaviors. Pediatric nurses and health care providers should be aware of the popularity and safety concerns of electronic cigarettes so that they can properly provide education regarding the possible negative health effects of adolescent electronic cigarette use, raise awareness of this public health concern, and impact policies in their communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Improving Emergency Department Triage Classification with Computerized Clinical Decision Support at a Pediatric Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisch, Joseph Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Emergency Severity Index (ESI) is an emergency department (ED) triage classification system based on estimated patient-specific resource utilization. Rules for a computerized clinical decision support (CDS) system based on a patient's chief complaint were developed and tested using a stochastic model for predicting ESI scores.…

  1. 2005 American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care (ECC) of pediatric and neonatal patients: pediatric basic life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    This publication presents the 2005 American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care (ECC) of the pediatric patient and the 2005 American Academy of Pediatrics/AHA guidelines for CPR and ECC of the neonate. The guidelines are based on the evidence evaluation from the 2005 International Consensus Conference on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations, hosted by the American Heart Association in Dallas, Texas, January 23-30, 2005. The "2005 AHA Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care" contain recommendations designed to improve survival from sudden cardiac arrest and acute life-threatening cardiopulmonary problems. The evidence evaluation process that was the basis for these guidelines was accomplished in collaboration with the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR). The ILCOR process is described in more detail in the "International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations." The recommendations in the "2005 AHA Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care" confirm the safety and effectiveness of many approaches, acknowledge that other approaches may not be optimal, and recommend new treatments that have undergone evidence evaluation. These new recommendations do not imply that care involving the use of earlier guidelines is unsafe. In addition, it is important to note that these guidelines will not apply to all rescuers and all victims in all situations. The leader of a resuscitation attempt may need to adapt application of the guidelines to unique circumstances. The following are the major pediatric advanced life support changes in the 2005 guidelines: There is further caution about the use of endotracheal tubes. Laryngeal mask airways are acceptable when used by experienced

  2. Salbutamol via metered-dose inhaler with spacer versus nebulization for acute treatment of pediatric asthma in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Fernández, Javier; González-Balenciaga, María; Capapé-Zache, Susana; Vázquez-Ronco, Miguel A; Mintegi-Raso, Santiago

    2004-10-01

    To assess the effectiveness of salbutamol delivered via a metered-dose inhaler with spacer versus a nebulizer for acute asthma treatment in the pediatric emergency department. All consecutive children younger than 14 years old who required treatment of acute asthma exacerbation in the emergency department during May 2002 (prospective cohort, n = 321) and May 2001(retrospective cohort, n = 259) were included. Inhaled salbutamol was administered by metered-dose inhaler with a spacer (and a face mask in children younger than 2 years old) in the prospective cohort and by nebulizer in the retrospective cohort. There were no significant differences between the two cohorts in the mean (+/-SD) age (44.50 +/- 38.64 vs. 48.37 +/- 43.55 months) and asthma treatment, arterial oxygen saturation (96.34 +/- 2.12% vs. 96.19 +/- 6.32%), and heart rate (123.71 +/- 23.63 vs. 129.41 +/- 34.55 beats/min) before emergency department consultation. The number of doses of inhaled bronchodilators was also similar (1.42 +/- 1.01 vs. 1.45 +/- 0.98) as well as the number of children that required a stay in the observation unit, admission to the hospital, or returned for medical care. The overall mean length of stay in the emergency department was slightly shorter in the prospective cohort (82 +/- 48 vs. 89 +/- 52 minutes). The administration of bronchodilators using a metered-dose inhaler with spacer is an effective alternative to nebulizers for the treatment of children with acute asthma exacerbations in the emergency department.

  3. Clinical predictors of hypoxemia in Indian children with acute respiratory tract infection presenting to pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yashwant Kumar; Midha, Tanu; Kumar, Pankaj; Tripathi, Virendra Nath; Rai, Om Prakash

    2012-08-01

    In developing countries, facilities for measuring arterial oxygen saturation are not available in most settings, which make it difficult for health providers to detect hypoxemia in children with acute respiratory tract infection (ARI). Most health providers rely on symptoms and signs to identify hypoxemia and start oxygen therapy. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the clinical predictors of hypoxemia in children with ARI. It was a cross-sectional study carried out at the Pediatric Emergency Department of GSVM Medical College, Kanpur, India in children in the age group between 2 months and 5 years, presenting with ARI. All children with ARI attending the pediatric emergency department from April 2007 to September 2008 were included in the study. Clinical signs and symptoms including fever, cough, nasal flaring, inability to feed/drink, cyanosis, chest wall retraction, wheezing, grunting, tachypnea and crepitations were noted and oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) was measured. Hypoxemia was defined as SpO(2) hypoxemia. Chest wall retraction (sensitivity=90%), crepitations (sensitivity=87%), nasal flaring (sensitivity=84%), tachypnea (sensitivity=81%) and inability to feed (sensitivity=81%) were observed to be the most sensitive indicators of hypoxemia while the best predictors were cyanosis [positive predictive value (PPV)=88%] and nasal flaring (PPV=53%). Chest wall retraction was found to be the most sensitive indicator, and cyanosis was the most specific indicator for hypoxemia. Of all the clinical signs and symptoms of hypoxemia, none had all the attributes of being a good predictor. A new hypoxemia score has been designed using a combination of clinical signs and symptoms to predict the need for supplemental oxygen therapy.

  4. Effects of a web-based educational module on pediatric emergency medicine physicians' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding youth violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Tracy E; Riese, Alison; Choo, Ester K; Ranney, Megan L

    2014-08-01

    Youth seen in the emergency department (ED) with injuries from youth violence (YV) have increased risk for future violent injury and death. Pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) physicians rarely receive training in, or perform, YV screening and intervention. Our objective was to examine effects of a web-based educational module on PEM physicians' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding YV screening and interventions in the ED. We invited all PEM fellows and attendings at an urban Level I pediatric trauma center to complete an interactive web-based education module (and 1-month booster) with information on YV's public health impact and how to screen, counsel and refer YV-involved patients. Consenting subjects completed electronic assessments of YV prevention knowledge and attitudes (using validated measures when possible) before and after the initial module and after the booster. To measure behavior change, chart review identified use of YV-specific discharge instructions in visits by YV-injured PEM patients (age 12-17; identified by E codes) 6 months before and after the intervention. We analyzed survey data were analyzed with Fisher's exact for binary outcomes and Kruskal-Wallis for Likert responses. Proportion of patients given YV discharge instructions before and after the intervention was compared using chi-square. Eighteen (67%) of 27 PEM physicians participated; 1 was lost at post-module assessment and 5 at 1 month. Module completion time ranged from 15-30 minutes. At baseline, 50% of subjects could identify victims' re-injury rate; 28% were aware of ED YV discharge instructions. After the initial module and at 1 month, there were significant increases in knowledge (pattitudes about YV prevention and may have affected behavior changes related to caring for YV victims in the ED. Further research should investigate web-based educational strategies to improve care of YV victims in a larger population of PEM physicians.

  5. Usefulness of end-tidal carbon dioxide as an indicator of dehydration in pediatric emergency departments: A retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hee Won; Jeon, Woochan; Min, Young Gi; Lee, Ji Sook

    2017-09-01

    Physician assessment of hydration status is one of the most important factors in the management of dehydration in the pediatric emergency department (ED). Overestimating dehydration may lead to overtreatment with intravenous fluids or unnecessary hospitalization, whereas underestimation may lead to delayed therapy and aggravation of symptoms. Various methods to estimate hydration status have been proposed, including use of physical findings, body weight, and laboratory results. These methods are subjective, invasive, or inappropriate for application in the ED. A few studies have investigated the use of end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) as an acidosis parameter in cases of gastroenteritis and diabetic ketoacidosis. We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of ETCO2 as an objective and noninvasive dehydration parameter for children.A retrospective observational study was conducted in the regional emergency center of a tertiary university hospital for a period of 1 year. We included patients from the ED whose primary diagnosis was acute gastroenteritis. Among these, we enrolled patients with recorded ETCO2 and bicarbonate concentration (HCO3) levels. We collected information of clinical characteristics, vital signs, clinical dehydration scale (CDS) scores, laboratory test results, and final disposition. Correlations between ETCO2 and HCO3 as well as CDS scores were analyzed.A total of 105 children were finally enrolled in the study. All participants underwent laboratory testing and were mildly to severely dehydrated, with mean serum HCO3 20.7 ± 3.5 mmol/L. A total 95 (90.5%) patients had a CDS score dehydration, and 10 (9.5%) patients had CDS ≥5, considered moderate-to-severe dehydration. The mean ETCO2 level was 32.1 ± 6.1 mmHg. Pearson correlation indicated a weak link between ETCO2 and HCO3 (correlation coefficient = 0.32), despite being statistically significant (P = .001). In addition, ETCO2 and CDS score showed a weak negative correlation (r

  6. Reasons behind non-adherence of healthcare practitioners to pediatric asthma guidelines in an emergency department in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahabi, Hayfaa A; Alziedan, Rasmieh A

    2012-07-30

    The prevalence of childhood bronchial asthma in Saudi Arabia has increased in less than a decade from 8% to 23%. Innovations in the management of asthma led to the development of evidence based clinical practice guidelines and protocols to improve the patients' outcomes. The objectives of this study are to examine the compliance of the healthcare providers in the Pediatrics Emergency Department, in King Khalid University Hospital, with the recommendations of the Pediatrics Asthma Management Protocol (PAMP), and to explore the reasons behind non-adherence. This study is designed in 2 parts, a patients' chart review and a focus group interview. The medical records of all the children who presented to the Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) and were diagnosed as asthmatic, during the period from the 1st of January 2009 to the 31st of March 2009, were reviewed to investigate the compliance of healthcare providers (physicians and nurses) with 8 recommendations of the PAMP which are considered to be frequently encountered evidence-practice gaps, and these are 1) documentation of asthma severity grading by the treating physician and nurse 2) limiting the prescription of Ipratropium for children with severe asthma 3) administration of Salbutamol through an inhaler and a spacer 4) documentation of parental education 5) prescription of systemic corticosteroids to all cases of acute asthma 6) limiting chest x-ray requisition for children with suspected chest infection 7) management of all cases of asthma as outpatients, unless diagnosed as severe or life threatening asthma 8) limiting prescription of antibiotics to children with chest infection. The second part of this study is a focus group interview designed to elicit the reasons behind non-adherence to the recommendations detected by the chart review. Two separate focus group interviews were conducted for 10 physicians and 10 nurses. The focus group interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Theory

  7. Reasons behind non-adherence of healthcare practitioners to pediatric asthma guidelines in an emergency department in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahabi Hayfaa A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of childhood bronchial asthma in Saudi Arabia has increased in less than a decade from 8% to 23%. Innovations in the management of asthma led to the development of evidence based clinical practice guidelines and protocols to improve the patients’ outcomes. The objectives of this study are to examine the compliance of the healthcare providers in the Pediatrics Emergency Department, in King Khalid University Hospital, with the recommendations of the Pediatrics Asthma Management Protocol (PAMP, and to explore the reasons behind non-adherence. Methods This study is designed in 2 parts, a patients’ chart review and a focus group interview. The medical records of all the children who presented to the Pediatric Emergency Department (PED and were diagnosed as asthmatic, during the period from the 1st of January 2009 to the 31st of March 2009, were reviewed to investigate the compliance of healthcare providers (physicians and nurses with 8 recommendations of the PAMP which are considered to be frequently encountered evidence-practice gaps, and these are 1 documentation of asthma severity grading by the treating physician and nurse 2 limiting the prescription of Ipratropium for children with severe asthma 3 administration of Salbutamol through an inhaler and a spacer 4 documentation of parental education 5 prescription of systemic corticosteroids to all cases of acute asthma 6 limiting chest x-ray requisition for children with suspected chest infection 7 management of all cases of asthma as outpatients, unless diagnosed as severe or life threatening asthma 8 limiting prescription of antibiotics to children with chest infection. The second part of this study is a focus group interview designed to elicit the reasons behind non- adherence to the recommendations detected by the chart review. Two separate focus group interviews were conducted for 10 physicians and 10 nurses. The focus group interviews were tape

  8. Lessons learned in applying the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research methodology to translating Canadian Emergency Department Information System Presenting Complaints List into German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammen, Dominik; Greiner, Felix; Dormann, Harald; Mach, Carsten; Wrede, Christian; Ballaschk, Anne; Stewart, Declan; Walker, Steven; Oesterling, Christine; Kulla, Martin

    2017-03-02

    The patient's presenting complaint guides diagnosis and treatment in the emergency department, but there is no classification system available in German. The Canadian Emergency Department Information System (CEDIS) Presenting Complaint List (PCL) is available only in English and French. As translation risks the altering of meaning, the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) has set guidelines to ensure translational accuracy. The aim of this paper is to describe our experiences of using the ISPOR guidelines to translate the CEDIS PCL into German. The CEDIS PCL (version 3.0) was forward-translated and back-translated in accordance with the ISPOR guidelines using bilingual clinicians/translators and an occupationally mixed evaluation group that completed a self-developed questionnaire. The CEDIS PCL was forward-translated (four emergency physicians) and back-translated (three mixed translators). Back-translation uncovered eight PCL items requiring amendment. In total, 156 comments were received from 32 evaluators, six of which resulted in amendments. The ISPOR guidelines facilitated adaptation of a PCL into German, but the process required time, language skills and clinical knowledge. The current methodology may be applicable to translating the CEDIS PCL into other languages, with the aim of developing a harmonized, multilingual PCL.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.

  9. Pediatric cardiac surgery in low- and middle-income countries or emerging economies: a continuing challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nguyenvu; Pezzella, A Thomas

    2015-04-01

    A number of recent publications, addresses, seminars, and conferences have addressed the global backlog and increasing incidence of both congenital and acquired cardiac diseases in children, with reference to early and delayed recognition, late referral, availability of and access to services, costs, risks, databases, and early and long-term results and follow-up. A variety of proposals, recommendations, and projects have been outlined and documented. The ultimate goal of these endeavors is to increase the quality and quantity of pediatric cardiac care and surgery worldwide and particularly in underserved areas. A contemporary review of past and present initiatives is presented with a subsequent focus on the more challenging areas. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Dental emergencies in a university pediatric dentistry clinic: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayah Qassem Shqair

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A significant number of children visit a dentist for the first time due to emergency situations. However, little is known regarding the prevalence, etiology, and treatment provided for children at emergency dental visits. This study aimed to evaluate the profile of children attending a dental school emergency clinic, the reasons for seeking dental care, and the treatment provided. Records of 270 patients who attended an emergency clinic during 2010 were analyzed, and 253 were selected. Demographic, diagnostic, and procedural information was collected. The mean child age was 7.8 years. For 208 children (82%, pain was the main reason for the emergency visit. Nearly 79% of the visits were due to caries, and the most frequently required treatment was endodontic intervention (31.22%. Of the decayed teeth, 61.70% were primary posterior teeth and 31.9% permanent posterior teeth. Pain caused by dental decay was the most frequent chief complaint. A large number of children were brought to the dentist with complaints that had started long before, for which over-the-counter medications had been used.

  11. Pediatric сlinic of Odessa National Medical University: the quality of emergency medical care for children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Starets

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of the article is to discuss the issue of improving the quality of emergency care for children with the most common diseases. Materials and methods. The quality of medical care includes 6 characteristics: 1 effectiveness — evidencebased health care results in improved health outcomes; 2 relevancy: health care is delivered in a manner that maximizes resource use and avoids wasting and provided in a setting where skills and resources are appropriate to medical need; 3 accessibility: health care is provided timely, reasonable and affordable; 4 acceptability/patient-centered: health care provided takes into account the preferences and aspirations of individual service users; 5 equity: health care provided does not vary in quality because of personal characteristics or socioeconomic status; 6 safety: health care provided minimizes risks and harm to service users and providers. Results. The Intensive Care Unit (ICU started working in the Pediatric Clinic of the Odessa National Medical University on February 1, 2017. The main task of ICU is the treatment of children with emergency conditions (who needs monitoring of breathing and cardiac activity, oxygen therapy, large-volume rehydration therapy, etc. The patients admit to the ICU according the results of triage. Triage is the process of rapidly screening of sick children soon after their addmission to hospital and in ICU, in order to identify those with emergency signs — obstruc-ted breathing or severe respiratory distress; central cyanosis; signs of shock; signs of severe dehydration; those with priority signs — very high temperature, severe pallor, respiratory distress etc. The local guidelines for the most common diseases in children have been developed in the Pediatric Clinic. These local guidelines are based on: 1 modern national guidelines; 2 WHO: Pocket book of hospital care for children: guidelines for the management of common childhood illnesses (2013; clinical

  12. [Bronchodilators via metered-dose inhaler with spacer in the pediatric emergency department: what is the dosage?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito Fernández, J; Trebolazabala Quirante, N; Landa Garriz, M; Mintegi Raso, S; González Díaz, C

    2006-01-01

    Bronchodilators administrated through a metered-dose inhaler (MDI) with spacer are as effective as nebulizers in the treatment of acute asthma exacerbations in childhood. However, consensus is lacking on the most suitable dosage. To assess the effectiveness of distinct salbutamol and terbutaline doses delivered via an MDI with spacer for the treatment of acute asthma in the pediatric emergency department. This was a prospective, double-blind randomized study. All consecutive children (n = 324) between 2 and 14 years of age with acute asthma exacerbations treated in the pediatric emergency department between October 1 and November 30, 2004, were included. Two treatment groups were established: one group received a number of puffs equivalent to half the child's weight (1 puff of salbutamol = 100 microg and 1 puff of terbutaline = 250 microg) and the other group received a number of puffs equivalent to one-third of the child's weight. Three hundred twenty-four episodes were studied; there were 164 children in the first group and 160 in the second. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the mean (6 SD) age (58.34 +/- 34.72 vs 66.04 +/- 36.45 months), arterial oxygen saturation (95.49 +/- 1.93 vs 95.56 +/- 1.97) or pulmonary score (4.04 +/- 1.55 vs 3.97 +/- 1.51) at recruitment and after treatment in the emergency department (arterial oxygen saturation [96.34 +/- 1.60 vs 96.18 +/- 1.77], pulmonary score [1.87 +/- 1.33 vs 1.64 +/- 1.31]). The number of doses administered (2.17 +/- 0.91 vs 2.24 +/- 1.00) and the hospitalization rate (8.56 % vs 6.87 %) were also similar in both groups. The distinct bronchodilator doses administered via an MDI with spacer showed similar effectiveness. These findings should contribute to a reevaluation of the use of high doses of bronchodilators, at least in most acute asthma exacerbations in children.

  13. Emergence delirium with transient associative agnosia and expressive aphasia reversed by flumazenil in a pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobish, Julie K; Kelz, Max B; DiPuppo, Patricia M; Cook-Sather, Scott D

    2015-06-01

    Multiple factors may contribute to the development of emergence delirium in a child. We present the case of a healthy 12-year-old girl who received preoperative midazolam with the desired anxiolytic effect, underwent a brief general anesthetic, and then exhibited postoperative delirium, consisting of a transient associative agnosia and expressive aphasia. Administration of flumazenil led to immediate and lasting resolution of her symptoms. We hypothesize that γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor-mediated effects, most likely related to an atypical offset of midazolam, are an important subset of emergence delirium that is amenable to pharmacologic therapy with flumazenil.

  14. Hypertonic saline as a therapy for pediatric concussive pain: a randomized controlled trial of symptom treatment in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumba-Brown, Angela; Harley, Jim; Lucio, Simon; Vaida, Florin; Hilfiker, Mary

    2014-03-01

    Three-percent hypertonic saline (HTS) is a hyperosmotic therapy used in pediatric traumatic brain injury to treat increased intracranial pressure and cerebral edema. It also promotes plasma volume expansion and cerebral perfusion pressure, immunomodulation, and anti-inflammatory response. We hypothesized that HTS will improve concussive symptoms of mild traumatic brain injury. The study was a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Children, 4 to 7 years of age with a Glasgow Coma Scale score greater than 13, were enrolled from a pediatric emergency department following closed-head injury upon meeting Acute Concussion Evaluation criteria with head pain. Patients were randomized to receive 10 mL/kg of HTS or normal saline (NS) over 1 hour. Self-reported pain values were obtained using the Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale initially, immediately following fluids, and at 2 to 3 days of discharge. The primary outcome measure was change in self-reported pain following fluid administration. Secondary outcome measures were a change in pain and postconcussive symptoms within 2 to 3 days of fluid administration. We used an intention-to-treat analysis. Forty-four patients, ranging from 7 to 16 years of age with comparable characteristics, were enrolled in the study; 23 patients (52%) received HTS, and 21 (48%) received NS. There was a significant difference (P pain following fluid administration between the HTS group (mean improvement = 3.5) and the NS group (mean improvement = 1.1). There was a significant difference (P = 0.01) identified in the self-reported improvement of pain at 2 to 3 days after treatment between the HTS group (mean improvement = 4.6) and the NS group (mean improvement = 3.0). We were unable to determine a difference in other postconcussive symptoms following discharge. Three-percent HTS is more effective than NS in acutely reducing concussion pain in children.

  15. Comparing predictions made by a prediction model, clinical score, and physicians: pediatric asthma exacerbations in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farion, K J; Wilk, S; Michalowski, W; O'Sullivan, D; Sayyad-Shirabad, J

    2013-01-01

    Asthma exacerbations are one of the most common medical reasons for children to be brought to the hospital emergency department (ED). Various prediction models have been proposed to support diagnosis of exacerbations and evaluation of their severity. First, to evaluate prediction models constructed from data using machine learning techniques and to select the best performing model. Second, to compare predictions from the selected model with predictions from the Pediatric Respiratory Assessment Measure (PRAM) score, and predictions made by ED physicians. A two-phase study conducted in the ED of an academic pediatric hospital. In phase 1 data collected prospectively using paper forms was used to construct and evaluate five prediction models, and the best performing model was selected. In phase 2 data collected prospectively using a mobile system was used to compare the predictions of the selected prediction model with those from PRAM and ED physicians. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and accuracy in phase 1; accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values in phase 2. In phase 1 prediction models were derived from a data set of 240 patients and evaluated using 10-fold cross validation. A naive Bayes (NB) model demonstrated the best performance and it was selected for phase 2. Evaluation in phase 2 was conducted on data from 82 patients. Predictions made by the NB model were less accurate than the PRAM score and physicians (accuracy of 70.7%, 73.2% and 78.0% respectively), however, according to McNemar's test it is not possible to conclude that the differences between predictions are statistically significant. Both the PRAM score and the NB model were less accurate than physicians. The NB model can handle incomplete patient data and as such may complement the PRAM score. However, it requires further research to improve its accuracy.

  16. The charges for seizures in the pediatric emergency room: a single center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Elena; Wheless, Catherine E; Patters, Andrea B; Wheless, James W

    2015-05-01

    The direct charges for emergency department visits resulting from recurrent seizures are significant, and home intervention with abortive medications can be cost-saving. Over a 1-year period, we evaluated children with seizures who were seen in the emergency department, stabilized, and released. The information is necessary to assess the pharmacoeconomic advantages of at-home interventions for seizure emergencies. We did a retrospective chart review of 90 patients and divided them into febrile versus nonfebrile seizures and existing versus new-onset seizure disorder. The hospital accounting department performed a charge analysis. The total charges for all 90 patients treated for seizures in the emergency department were $219,945. The minimum was $370, for a patient with no history of febrile seizures. The maximum was $17,126, for a patient with a nonfebrile seizure and a history of seizures. This information allows a comparison with the cost of preventive medications, such as diazepam rectal gel or intranasal midazolam. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Calibrating Urgency: Triage Decision-Making in a Pediatric Emergency Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vimla L.; Gutnik, Lily A.; Karlin, Daniel R.; Pusic, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Triage, the first step in the assessment of emergency department patients, occurs in a highly dynamic environment that functions under constraints of time, physical space, and patient needs that may exceed available resources. Through triage, patients are placed into one of a limited number of categories using a subset of diagnostic information.…

  18. Identification and initial management of intoxication by alcohol and other drugs in the pediatric emergency room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianca, Thiago Gatti; Sordi, Anne Orgle; Hartmann, Thiago Casarin; von Diemen, Lisia

    To review the screening, diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of intoxication by alcohol and other drugs in children and adolescents in the emergency scenario. This was a narrative literature review. The detection of this problem in the emergency room can be a challenge, especially when its assessment is not standardized. The intentional and episodic use of large amounts of psychoactive substances by adolescents is a usual occurrence, and unintentional intoxication is more common in children younger than 12 years. The clinical picture in adolescents and children differs from that in adults and some particularities are important in the emergency scenario. After management of the acute condition, interventions targeting the adolescent at risk may be effective. The diagnosis and treatment of intoxication by alcohol and other drugs in adolescents and children in the emergency scenario requires a systematic evaluation of the use of these drugs. There are few specific treatments for intoxication, and the management comprehends support measures and management of related clinical complications. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Pulmonary Function Tests in Emergency Department Pediatric Patients with Acute Wheezing/Asthma Exacerbation

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    Kathryn Giordano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pulmonary function tests (PFT have been developed to analyze tidal breathing in patients who are minimally cooperative due to age and respiratory status. This study used tidal breathing tests in the ED to measure asthma severity. Design/Method. A prospective pilot study in pediatric patients (3 to 18 yrs with asthma/wheezing was conducted in an ED setting using respiratory inductance plethysmography and pneumotachography. The main outcome measures were testing feasibility, compliance, and predictive value for admission versus discharge. Results. Forty patients were studied, of which, 14 (35% were admitted. Fifty-five percent of the patients were classified as a mild-intermittent asthmatic, 30% were mild-persistent asthmatics, 12.5% were moderate-persistent asthmatics, and 2.5% were severe-persistent. Heart rate was higher in admitted patients as was labored breathing index, phase angle, and asthma score. Conclusions. Tidal breathing tests provide feasible, objective assessment of patient status in the enrolled age group and may assist in the evaluation of acute asthma exacerbation in the ED. Our results demonstrate that PFT measurements, in addition to asthma scores, may be useful in indicating the severity of wheezing/asthma and the need for admission.

  20. A computerized standard protocol order entry for pediatric inpatient acute seizure emergencies reduces time to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yi; Morgan, Robin; Schiff, Linda; Hannah, Debbie; Wheless, James

    2014-02-01

    Time to treatment of seizures is critical to efficacy. We performed a quality initiative and evaluated time to treatment of inpatient seizure emergencies with first- and second-line medicines before and after implementation of a computerized, standard treatment protocol. Data from 125 patients revealed that 179 seizure episodes required first-line antiepileptic drugs, and the mean time to treatment was 7.72 minutes. In 87 episodes, patients (49%) received the drugs within 5 minutes. Forty-six episodes required second-line drugs. In 17 (37%), patients received them within 30 minutes (mean 49.48 minutes). After implementation of the protocol, the mean time to treatment with first-line drugs was 3.74 minutes, a reduction of >50% (P seizure emergencies may be useful to similar institutions.

  1. Anesthetic management of a pediatric patient with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia undergoing emergency surgery

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    Elif Oral Ahiskalioglu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ectodermal dysplasias are rare conditions with a triad of hypotrichosis, anodontia and anhidrosis. In literature review there have been only a few reports of anesthetic management of patients with ectodermal dysplasias. Hyperthermia is a very serious risk which may occur due to the defect of sweat glands. The present case involves a 10-year-old child with ectodermal dysplasia who presented with an acute abdomen and was considered for an emergency surgery. Our aim was to demonstrate the successful management of this case using a combination of general and epidural anesthesia. It is important for anesthesiologist to have information about this syndrome in case of emergency operations, since it can prevent serious complications and even save lives.

  2. Pediatric first time non-febrile seizure with focal manifestations: is emergent imaging indicated?

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    Aprahamian, N; Harper, M B; Prabhu, S P; Monuteaux, M C; Sadiq, Z; Torres, A; Kimia, A A

    2014-10-01

    To assess the prevalence of clinically urgent intra-cranial pathology among children who had imaging for a first episode of non-febrile seizure with focal manifestations. We performed a cross sectional study of all children age 1 month to 18 years evaluated for first episode of non-febrile seizure with focal manifestations and having neuroimaging performed within 24h of presentation at a single pediatric ED between 1995 and 2012. We excluded intubated patients, those with known structural brain abnormality and trauma. A single neuro-radiologist reviewed all cranial computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging performed. We defined clinically urgent intracranial pathology as any finding resulting in a change of initial patient management. We performed univariate analysis using χ(2) analysis for categorical data and Mann-Whitney U test for continuous data. We identified 319 patients having a median age of 4.6 years [IQR 1.8-9.4] of which 45% were female. Two hundred sixty-two children had a CT scan, 15 had an MR and 42 had both. Clinically urgent intra-cranial pathology was identified on imaging of 13 patients (4.1%; 95% CI: 2.2, 7.0). Infarction, hemorrhage and thrombosis were most common (9/13). Twelve of 13 were evident on CT scan. Persistent Todd's paresis and age ≤ 18 months were predictors of clinically urgent intracranial pathology. Absence of secondary generalization and multiple seizures on presentation were not predictive. Four percent of children imaged with first time, afebrile focal seizures have findings important to initial management. Children younger than ≤ 18 months are at increased risk. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Disparities in Adherence to Pediatric Sepsis Guidelines across a Spectrum of Emergency Departments: A Multicenter, Cross-Sectional Observational In Situ Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, David O; Walsh, Barbara; Whitfill, Travis; Dudas, Robert A; Gangadharan, Sandeep; Gawel, Marcie; Brown, Linda; Auerbach, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Each year in the United States, 72,000 pediatric patients develop septic shock, at a cost of $4.8 billion. Adherence to practice guidelines can significantly reduce mortality; however, few methods to compare performance across a spectrum of emergency departments (EDs) have been described. We employed standardized, in situ simulations to measure and compare adherence to pediatric sepsis guidelines across a spectrum of EDs. We hypothesized that pediatric EDs (PEDs) would have greater adherence to the guidelines than general EDs (GEDs). We also explored factors associated with improved performance. This multi-center observational study examined in situ teams caring for a simulated infant in septic shock. The primary outcome was overall adherence to the pediatric sepsis guideline as measured by six subcomponent metrics. Characteristics of teams were compared using multivariable logistic regression to describe factors associated with improved performance. We enrolled 47 interprofessional teams from 24 EDs. Overall, 21/47 teams adhered to all six sepsis metrics (45%). PEDs adhered to all six metrics more than GEDs (93% vs. 22%; difference 71%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 43-84). Adherent teams had significantly higher Emergency Medical Services for Children readiness scores, MD composition of physicians to total team members, teamwork scores, provider perceptions of pediatric preparedness, and provider perceptions of sepsis preparedness. In a multivariable regression model, only greater composite team experience had greater adjusted odds of achieving an adherent sepsis score (adjusted odds ratio 1.38, 95% CI 1.01-1.88). Using standardized in situ scenarios, we revealed high variability in adherence to the pediatric sepsis guideline across a spectrum of EDs. PEDs demonstrated greater adherence to the guideline than GEDs; however, in adjusted analysis, only composite team experience level of the providers was associated with improved guideline adherence. Copyright © 2016

  4. Value of rapid antigen test for pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in the pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Murat; Gençpinar, Pinar; Ozbek, Ozgen Alpay; Ozdemir, Durgül; Sayiner, A Arzu

    2013-05-01

    Pandemic H1N1 influenza is the predominant influenza virus circulating in Turkey in 2009. Because of the clinical manifestations of influenza overlap with those attributable to other common respiratory illnesses of childhood, establishing a diagnosis of influenza requires confirmatory testing. The aim of our study was to define the predictive value of rapid influenza antigen detection test in children presenting to a pediatric emergency care department with influenza-like illness and to compare with clinical signs and symptoms. From October to November 2009, 3646 patients presented with influenza-like illness to the pediatric emergency department. Influenza-like illness is defined as fever with cough or sore throat in the absence of a known cause other than influenza. Enrollment criteria included fever and at least one of the following symptoms: coryza, cough, headache, sore throat, or myalgia. All 322 enrolled patients received a nasal wash for rapid influenza diagnostic tests, and the results were compared with clinical signs. Rapid influenza detection test result was found positive in 167 (51.9%) of 322 patients. Clinical findings included fever as the presenting complaint (100%), fever (≥38 °C) (93.4%), cough (91.3%), rhinorrhea (66.1%), sore throat (35.1%), vomiting-diarrhea (22.4%), myalgia (20.2%), headache (18%) and shortness of breath (12.1%). There were 211 patients (65.5%) at high risk for the development of complications of pandemic H1N1 influenza A such as chronic lung disease (asthma) (n = 103, 48.8%), age younger than 2 years (n = 78, 37%), and neurologic disease (n = 10, 4.7%). The positivity rate and sensitivity of the test increase up to 70% in patients, who had the high body temperature (≥39 °C). The rapid test achieved the highest sensitivity in patients, who have high fever (≥39 °C), myalgia, vomiting, and diarrhea. We found that if the patients have high fever (≥39 °C), myalgia, and vomiting-diarrhea together, the likelihood of

  5. Effects of a Web-based Educational Module on Pediatric Emergency Medicine Physicians’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors Regarding Youth Violence

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    Tracy E. Madsen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Youth seen in the emergency department (ED with injuries from youth violence (YV have increased risk for future violent injury and death. Pediatric emergency medicine (PEM physicians rarely receive training in, or perform, YV screening and intervention. Our objective was to examine effects of a web-based educational module on PEM physicians’ knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding YV screening and interventions in the ED. Methods: We invited all PEM fellows and attendings at an urban Level I pediatric trauma center to complete an interactive web-based education module (and 1-month booster with information on YV’s public health impact and how to screen, counsel and refer YV-involved patients. Consenting subjects completed electronic assessments of YV prevention knowledge and attitudes (using validated measures when possible before and after the initial module and after the booster. To measure behavior change, chart review identified use of YV-specific discharge instructions in visits by YV-injured PEM patients (age 12–17; identified by E codes 6 months before and after the intervention. We analyzed survey data were analyzed with Fisher’s exact for binary outcomes and Kruskal-Wallis for Likert responses. Proportion of patients given YV discharge instructions before and after the intervention was compared using chi-square. Results: Eighteen (67% of 27 PEM physicians participated; 1 was lost at post-module assessment and 5 at 1 month. Module completion time ranged from 15–30 minutes. At baseline, 50% of subjects could identify victims’ re-injury rate; 28% were aware of ED YV discharge instructions. After the initial module and at 1 month, there were significant increases in knowledge (p,0.001 and level of confidence speaking with patients about avoiding YV (p¼0.01, df¼2. Almost all (94% said the module would change future management. In pre-intervention visits, 1.6% of patients with YV injuries were discharged with

  6. Canadian and U.S. Cooperation for the development of standards and specifications for emerging mapping technologies

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    Habib, A.; Jarvis, A.; Al-Durgham, M. M.; Lay, J.; Quackenbush, P.; Stensaas, G.; Moe, D.

    2007-01-01

    The mapping community is witnessing significant advances in available sensors, such as medium format digital cameras (MFDC) and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) systems. In this regard, the Digital Photogrammetry Research Group (DPRG) of the Department of Geomatics Engineering at the University of Calgary has been actively involved in the development of standards and specifications for regulating the use of these sensors in mapping activities. More specifically, the DPRG has been working on developing new techniques for the calibration and stability analysis of medium format digital cameras. This research is essential since these sensors have not been developed with mapping applications in mind. Therefore, prior to their use in Geomatics activies, new standards should be developed to ensure the quality of the developed products. In another front, the persistent improvement in direct geo-referencing technology has led to an expansion in the use of LiDAR systems for the acquisition of dense and accurate surface information. However, the processing of the raw LiDAR data (e.g., ranges, mirror angles, and navigation data) remains a non-transparent process that is proprietary to the manufacturers of LiDAR systems. Therefore, the DPRG has been focusing on the development of quality control procedures to quantify the accuracy of LiDAR output in the absence of initial system measurements. This paper presents a summary of the research conducted by the DPRG together with the British Columbia Base Mapping and Geomatic Services (BMGS) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) for the development of quality assurance and quality control procedures for emerging mapping technologies. The outcome of this research will allow for the possiblity of introducing North American Standards and Specifications to regulate the use of MFDC and LiDAR systems in the mapping industry.

  7. Examining the utility of the Hamilton early warning scores (HEWS) at triage: Retrospective pilot study in a Canadian emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skitch, Steven; Tam, Benjamin; Xu, Michael; McInnis, Laura; Vu, Anthony; Fox-Robichaud, Alison

    2017-05-10

    Early warning scores use vital signs to identify patients at risk of critical illness. The current study examines the Hamilton Early Warning Score (HEWS) at emergency department (ED) triage among patients who experienced a critical event during their hospitalization. HEWS was also evaluated as a predictor of sepsis. The study population included admissions to two hospitals over a 6-month period. Cases experienced a critical event defined by unplanned intensive care unit admission, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or death. Controls were randomly selected from the database in a 2-to-1 ratio to match cases on the burden of comorbid illness. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate HEWS as a predictor of the likelihood of critical deterioration and sepsis. The sample included 845 patients, of whom 270 experienced a critical event; 89 patients were excluded because of missing vitals. An ROC analysis indicated that HEWS at ED triage had poor discriminative ability for predicting the likelihood of experiencing a critical event 0.62 (95% CI 0.58-0.66). HEWS had a fair discriminative ability for meeting criteria for sepsis 0.77 (95% CI 0.72-0.82) and good discriminative ability for predicting the occurrence of a critical event among septic patients 0.82 (95% CI 0.75-0.90). This study indicates that HEWS at ED triage has limited utility for identifying patients at risk of experiencing a critical event. However, HEWS may allow earlier identification of septic patients. Prospective studies are needed to further delineate the utility of the HEWS to identify septic patients in the ED.

  8. Use of high-flow nasal cannula support in the emergency department reduces the need for intubation in pediatric acute respiratory insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Robyn; James, Catherine; Maranda, Louise S; Armsby, Carrie C

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the use of heated, humidified, high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy is associated with a decreased need for intubation in patients presenting to a pediatric emergency department (PED) and admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with acute respiratory insufficiency (ARI). A retrospective study of all patients admitted from the PED to the PICU with ARI from January 2006 through December 2009. Patients admitted before the availability of HFNC (cohort 1) were compared with those admitted after the availability of HFNC but before implementation of an institution-wide guideline on pediatric HFNC usage (cohort 2) and those admitted after the implementation of a pediatric HFNC usage guideline (cohort 3). After controlling for age, month of admission, type of respiratory illness, and severity of illness, there was an 83% reduction in the odds of intubation in the PED in cohort 3 compared with cohort 1 (odds ratio, 0.17; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-0.50; P = 0.001). There was no significant change in mortality or median PICU length of stay after the introduction of HFNC. High-flow nasal cannula used early in the development of pediatric ARI is associated with a decreased the need for intubation and mechanical ventilation.

  9. Diagnóstico pouco frequente de dor abdominal em unidade de emergência infantil Unusual diagnosis of abdominal pain in pediatric emergency unit

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    Suelen Bianca S. Martins

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar um caso de doença péptica na infância em escolar, com queixa inicial de dor abdominal aguda e palidez. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: Escolar de nove anos procurou pronto-socorro infantil com queixa de dor abdominal súbita e palidez. Não apresentava outros sintomas ou sinais ao exame físico além de mucosas descoradas e hemograma com nível baixo de hemoglobina. Durante a observação intra-hospitalar, apresentou episódio de melena. Foi realizada endoscopia digestiva alta, sendo observadas gastrite erosiva de antro e úlcera duodenal, com Helicobacter pylori positivo. O paciente foi tratado com esquema tríplice (inibidor de bomba de prótons e dois antimicrobianos por uma semana e, posteriormente, acompanhado ambulatorialmente. COMENTÁRIOS: O caso em questão descreve uma doença rara em unidade de emergência pediátrica. O paciente referia dor abdominal e observou-se palidez confirmada por baixo nível de hemoglobina, que se manteve nos exames subsequentes durante a observação no pronto-socorro infantil, dificultando o diagnóstico de sangramento ativo. Porém, a presença de melena na evolução facilitou e propiciou a condução do caso para se chegar à hipótese de sangramento digestivo alto. Realizada endoscopia digestiva alta, que confirmou o diagnóstico de gastrite erosiva de antro e úlcera duodenal H. pylori positiva, sendo, então, necessário tratamento específico, inclusive para erradicação da bactéria.OBJECTIVE: To report a case of peptic disease in a school child whose first symptoms were acute abdominal pain and paleness. CASE DESCRIPTION: A nine-year-old school child presented to a pediatric emergency unit with acute abdominal pain and sudden pallor. There were no other symptoms or signs on physical examination, except for discolored mucous and a low hemoglobin level. During hospital observation he presented one episode of melena. The esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed erosive antrum gastritis and

  10. Evaluation of a Nurse-Initiated Acute Gastroenteritis Pathway in the Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Rebecca A; Mudd, Shawna S; Madati, P Jamil

    2017-09-01

    Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a common illness treated in the emergency department. Delays in initiating rehydration for children with mild or moderate dehydration from AGE can lead to prolonged ED visits and increased resource utilization that do not provide prognostic value or support family-centered care. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to promote early oral rehydration therapy (ORT) for persons with AGE in an attempt to reduce unnecessary resource utilization and length of stay (LOS). This prospective quality improvement project used a nurse-initiated waiting room ORT pathway for patients 6 months to 21 years of age who presented to the emergency department with diarrhea with or without vomiting. Outcomes related to nurse-initiated ORT, intravenous fluid use, laboratory studies or diagnostic imaging, and LOS were measured before and after implementation. Of 643 patients for whom the pathway was initiated, 392 received nurse-initiated care. The proportion of intravenous fluid use was 10.2% lower (odds ratio [OR], 0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27-0.68) and laboratory test ordering was 7.4% lower (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.43-0.94) in patients receiving nurse-initiated care. Time to discharge after provider examination was 46 minutes faster in the nurse-initiated care group (P < .001), resulting in an overall LOS reduction by 40 minutes (P < .001). Nurse autonomy in using an AGE pathway facilitates evidence-based practice, improves ED efficiency, and decreases resource utilization and LOS. Future research should focus on family satisfaction and ED revisits within 72 hours of discharge. Copyright © 2014 © Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effective Management of Pain and Anxiety for the Pediatric Patient in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Virginia B

    2017-06-01

    Inadequate treatment of pain for children in the emergency department is a persistent problem. Health care professionals are bound by ethical principles to provide adequate pain management; in children, this may be challenging owing to cognitive and developmental differences, lack of knowledge regarding best practices, and other barriers. Studies have concluded that immediate assessment, treatment, and reassessment of pain after an intervention are essential. Self-report and behavioral scales are available. Appropriate management includes pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions. Specific diagnoses (eg, abdominal pain or traumatic injuries) have been well-studied and guidance is available to maximize efforts in managing the associated pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus: evidence-based management of pediatric patients in the emergency department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibners, Lara

    2017-02-01

    Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus are potentially deadly bacterial infections that are largely preventable through vaccination, though they remain in the population. This issue reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and current recommended emergency management of these conditions. Disease-specific medications, as well as treatment of the secondary complications, are examined in light of the best current evidence. Resources include obtaining diphtheria antitoxin from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and best-practice recommendations with regard to testing, involvement of government health agencies, isolation of the patient, and identification and treatment of close contacts. Most importantly, issues regarding vaccination and prevention are highlighted.

  13. Pain Management of Pediatric Musculoskeletal Injury in the Emergency Department: A Systematic Review

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    Sylvie Le May

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pain management for children with musculoskeletal injuries is suboptimal and, in the absence of clear evidence-based guidelines, varies significantly. Objective. To systematically review the most effective pain management for children presenting to the emergency department with musculoskeletal injuries. Methods. Electronic databases were searched systematically for randomized controlled trials of pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions for children aged 0–18 years, with musculoskeletal injury, in the emergency department. The primary outcome was the risk ratio for successful reduction in pain scores. Results. Of 34 studies reviewed, 8 met inclusion criteria and provided data on 1169 children from 3 to 18 years old. Analgesics used greatly varied, making comparisons difficult. Only two studies compared the same analgesics with similar routes of administration. Two serious adverse events occurred without fatalities. All studies showed similar pain reduction between groups except one study that favoured ibuprofen when compared to acetaminophen. Conclusions. Due to heterogeneity of medications and routes of administration in the articles reviewed, an optimal analgesic cannot be recommended for all pain categories. Larger trials are required for further evaluation of analgesics, especially trials combining a nonopioid with an opioid agent or with a nonpharmacological intervention.

  14. Emergency department visits for pediatric trampoline-related injuries: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linakis, James G; Mello, Michael J; Machan, Jason; Amanullah, Siraj; Palmisciano, Lynne M

    2007-06-01

    To describe the epidemiology of emergency department (ED) visits for trampoline-related injuries among U.S. children from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2005, using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) and to compare recent trampoline injury demographics and injury characteristics with those previously published for 1990-1995 using the same data source. A stratified probability sample of U.S. hospitals providing emergency services in NEISS was utilized for 2000-2005. Nonfatal trampoline-related injury visits to the ED were analyzed for patients from 0 to 18 years of age. In 2000-2005, there was a mean of 88,563 ED visits per year for trampoline-related injuries among 0-18-year-olds, 95% of which occurred at home. This represents a significantly increased number of visits compared with 1990-1995, when there was an average of 41,600 visits per year. Primary diagnosis and principal body part affected remained similar between the two study periods. ED visits for trampoline-related injuries in 2000-2005 increased in frequency by 113% over the number of visits for 1990-1995. Trampoline use at home continues to be a significant source of childhood injury morbidity.

  15. Management protocols for status epilepticus in the pediatric emergency room: systematic review article

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    Cheuk C. Au

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: This systematic review of national or regional guidelines published in English aimed to better understand variance in pre-hospital and emergency department treatment of status epilepticus. Sources: Systematic search of national or regional guidelines (January 2000 to February 2017 contained within PubMed and Google Scholar databases, and article reference lists. The search keywords were status epilepticus, prolonged seizure, treatment, and guideline. Summary of findings: 356 articles were retrieved and 13 were selected according to the inclusion criteria. In all six pre-hospital guidelines, the preferred route of medication administration was to use alternatives to the intravenous route: all recommended buccal and intranasal midazolam; three also recommended intramuscular midazolam, and five recommended using rectal diazepam. All 11 emergency department guidelines described three phases in therapy. Intravenous medication, by phase, was indicated as such: initial phase - ten/11 guidelines recommended lorazepam, and eight/11 recommended diazepam; second phase - most (ten/11 guidelines recommended phenytoin, but other options were phenobarbital (nine/11, valproic acid (six/11, and either fosphenytoin or levetiracetam (each four/11; third phase - four/11 guidelines included the choice of repeating second phase therapy, whereas the other guidelines recommended using a variety of intravenous anesthetic agents (thiopental, midazolam, propofol, and pentobarbital. Conclusions: All of the guidelines share a similar framework for management of status epilepticus. The choice in route of administration and drug type varied across guidelines. Hence, the adoption of a particular guideline should take account of local practice options in health service delivery.

  16. Notes from the Field: Pediatric Emergency Department Visits for Buprenorphine/Naloxone Ingestion - United States, 2008-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnitz, Daniel S; Lovegrove, Maribeth C; Sapiano, Mathew R P; Mathew, Justin; Kegler, Scott R; Geller, Andrew I; Hampp, Christian

    2016-10-21

    Expanding access to office-based medication-assisted treatment with buprenorphine/naloxone for opioid dependence is a key part of the national strategy to address the opioid abuse epidemic (1). However, as buprenorphine/naloxone prescribing increased, emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations for unsupervised ingestions by young children began to increase, with buprenorphine/naloxone ingestions becoming the most common cause of hospitalization for medication ingestions by young children during 2010-2011 (2). Buprenorphine ingestions might be asymptomatic or can cause drowsiness, vomiting, or respiratory depression, which if untreated can result in death (3). Buprenorphine/naloxone was available only as tablets in multidose child-resistant bottles (Suboxone) until late 2010, when film strips packaged in unit-dose, child-resistant pouches were introduced. In 2013, tablets became available in unit-dose packaging (Zubsolv). Because unit-dose, child-resistant packaging encloses each dose until opened, it might limit unintended ingestions by young children compared with traditional child-resistant bottles that must be resecured after every use (4). This study compared ED visits for pediatric buprenorphine/naloxone ingestions before and after these product packaging/formulation changes.

  17. The HEADS-ED: a rapid mental health screening tool for pediatric patients in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Mario; Gray, Clare; Zemek, Roger; Cloutier, Paula; Kennedy, Allison; Glennie, Elizabeth; Doucet, Guy; Lyons, John S

    2012-08-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics called for action for improved screening of mental health issues in the emergency department (ED). We developed the rapid screening tool home, education, activities/peers, drugs/alcohol, suicidality, emotions/behavior, discharge resources (HEADS-ED), which is a modification of "HEADS," a mnemonic widely used to obtain a psychosocial history in adolescents. The reliability and validity of the tool and its potential for use as a screening measure are presented. ED patients presenting with mental health concerns from March 1 to May 30, 2011 were included. Crisis intervention workers completed the HEADS-ED and the Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths-Mental Health tool (CANS MH) and patients completed the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Interrater reliability was assessed by using a second HEADS-ED rater for 20% of the sample. A total of 313 patients were included, mean age was 14.3 (SD 2.63), and there were 182 females (58.1%). Interrater reliability was 0.785 (P mental health concerns.

  18. Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) prediction rules in identifying high risk children with mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhjavan-Shahraki, B; Yousefifard, M; Hajighanbari, M J; Oraii, A; Safari, S; Hosseini, M

    2017-06-22

    Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) traumatic brain injury (TBI) prognostic rules is a scoring system for prediction of the need for computed tomography (CT) scanning in children with mild TBI. However, its validation has not been assessed in developing countries. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the value of PECARN rule in identification of children with clinically important TBI (ciTBI). In this prospective cross-sectional study, 594 children (mean age: 7.9 ± 5.3 years; 79.3% boys) with mild TBI brought to emergency ward of two healthcare centers in Tehran, Iran were assessed. PECARN checklist was filled for all patients and children were divided to three groups of low, intermediate and high risks. Patients were followed for 2 weeks by phone to assess their ciTBI status. At the end, discrimination power, calibration and overall performance of PECARN rule were assessed. PECARN had a sensitivity and specificity of 92.3 and 40.6%, respectively, in predicting ciTBI in children under 2 years and 100.0 and 57.8%, respectively, in individuals between the ages of 2 and 18. PECARN rule had a proper calibration in prediction of ciTBI and CT scan findings. Brier score (overall performance) of PECARN rule in predicting ciTBI in children under 2 and 2-18 years were 1.5 and 1.2, respectively. PECARN prediction rule has a proper validity in the prediction of ciTBI. Therefor it can be used for screening and identification of high risk children with mild TBI.

  19. Congenital Heart Disease In Pediatric Patients: Recognizing The Undiagnosed And Managing Complications In The Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Pavan; Meckler Mshs, Garth

    2016-05-01

    Congenital heart disease is the most common form of all congenital malformations and, despite advances in prenatal and newborn screening, it may present undiagnosed to the emergency department. Signs and symptoms of congenital heart disease are variable and often nonspecific, making recognition and treatment challenging. Patient presentations can range from life-threatening shock or cyanosis in a neonate to respiratory distress or failure to thrive in infants. Advances in surgical techniques have improved short- and long-term survival of infants and children with congenital heart disease, but these children are at risk for a variety of complications related to the underlying or surgical anatomy and physiology. This review focuses on the recognition and initial management of patients with undiagnosed congenital heart disease presenting to the ED and touches on considerations for postoperative infants and children with complex congenital heart disease.

  20. Pediatric shopping-cart-related injuries treated in US emergency departments, 1990-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Keith J; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Xiang, Huiyun; Smith, Gary A

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of the 2004 US shopping cart safety standard on shopping-cart-related injuries among children younger than 15 years of age by retrospectively analyzing data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. An estimated 530 494 children younger than 15 years were treated in US emergency departments for shopping-cart-related injuries from 1990 to 2011, averaging 24 113 children annually. The most commonly injured body region was the head (78.1%). The annual concussion/closed head injury rate per 10 000 children increased significantly (P shopping cart safety standard was implemented in the United States in 2004, the overall number and rate of injuries associated with shopping carts have not decreased. In fact, the number and rate of concussions/closed head injuries have continued to climb. Increased prevention efforts are needed to address these injuries among children.

  1. Healthcare-Associated Clostridium difficile Infections and Strain Diversity in Pediatric Hospitals in the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program, 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Saux, Nicole; Gravel, Denise; Mulvey, Michael; Moore, Dorothy; Langley, Joanne M; Richardson, Susan; Quach, Caroline; Choi, Kelly Baekyung; Miller, Mark; Katz, Kevin

    2015-12-01

    Children with healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection were identified. The incidence increased from 3.2/10,000 patient days in 2007 to 5.2/10,000 patient days in 2011 (p < 0.001). Of 169 isolates, the most common North American Pulsed-Field (NAP) types were NAP4 (n = 43; (25.4%), and NAP1 (n = 25;14.8%) while 55 (32.6%) were non-assigned NAP types. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Awareness and utilization of emergency medical services by limited English proficient caregivers of pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Mydili R; Mahajan, Prashant V; Knazik, Stephen R; Giblin, Paul T; Thomas, Ronald; Kannikeswaran, Nirupama

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that limited-English-proficient (LEP) patients are less likely to utilize health care services. Objective. To assess the knowledge and perceived barriers to utilization of emergency medical services (EMS) by LEP caregivers of children served by an urban EMS system. We prospectively surveyed a convenience sample of caregivers of children presenting to the emergency department (ED) from January to December 2008. Caregivers were identified as LEP using their response to the U.S. Census question ;;How well do you speak English?'' Caregivers were assigned to one of three cohorts: 1) LEP Spanish- and Arabic-speaking caregivers (n = 50), 2) proficient-in-English (PE) Spanish- and Arabic-speaking caregivers (n = 50), and (3) native English-speaking (NES) caregivers (n = 100). We collected data on EMS awareness and perceived barriers to EMS utilization using a written survey administered in the caregivers' preferred language (English, Spanish, or Arabic). We used descriptive methods to summarize sample characteristics and comparative methods (chi-square test, analysis of variance [ANOVA], and t-test) to compare group differences. There were no differences in the patient age groups, triage categories, caregiver age, and payer status among the three groups. The LEP caregivers were less aware of EMS (93% NES vs. 94% PE vs. 60% LEP; p caregivers were unaware of the telephone number to call for EMS. Concerns about inability to communicate with the operator and cost were cited by the LEP caregivers as the main barriers to EMS utilization. Caregivers with limited English proficiency are less aware of and are less likely to utilize EMS for their children. Barriers to utilization include concerns of cost and communication with the operator.

  3. Acesso vascular por via intraóssea em emergências pediátricas Vascular access through the intraosseous route in pediatric emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Américo Ribeiro de Sá

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A obtenção do acesso venoso em crianças gravemente enfermas é um procedimento essencial para o restabelecimento da volemia e a administração de fármacos nas emergências pediátricas. A primeira opção para obtenção de acesso vascular é pela punção de uma veia periférica. Quando essa via não pode ser utilizada ou sua obtenção se torna demorada, a via intraóssea consiste em efetiva opção para obtenção de um acesso venoso rápido e seguro. O presente estudo possui caráter descritivo e exploratório, realizado por meio de pesquisa bibliográfica, com o objetivo de descrever os princípios técnicos, as atribuições profissionais e os cuidados relacionados à obtenção do acesso venoso pela via intraóssea em emergências pediátricas. Foram selecionados 22 artigos disponibilizados nas bases de dados LILACS e MEDLINE e na biblioteca eletrônica SciELO, publicados entre o período de 2000 a 2011, além do protocolo vigente de ressuscitação cardiopulmonar da American Heart Association, de 2010. Após a leitura das publicações, os dados foram agrupados, possibilitando a construção de cinco categorias de análise: aspectos históricos e princípios fisiológicos; indicações, vantagens e contraindicações; atribuições dos profissionais; princípios técnicos; cuidados com o acesso; e possíveis complicações. Os resultados desse estudo mostraram que a via intraóssea consolida-se, hoje, como uma segunda opção de acesso vascular no atendimento a emergências, por ser uma técnica de fácil e rápida execução, apresentar vários sítios de punção não colapsáveis e permitir que a administração de fármacos e a reposição volêmica sejam rápidas e eficazes.Obtaining venous access in critically ill children is an essential procedure to restore blood volume and administer drugs during pediatric emergencies. The first option for vascular access is through a peripheral vein puncture. If this route cannot be used

  4. Abnormal fatty acids in Canadian children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jory, Joan

    2016-04-01

    Fatty acids are critical for pediatric neurodevelopment and are abnormal in autism, although prior studies have demonstrated conflicting results and methodological differences. To our knowledge, there are no published data on fatty acid in Canadian children with autism. The aim of this study was to investigate red blood cell and serum fatty acid status to identify whether abnormalities exist in Canadian children with autism, and to enhance future cross-study comparison. Eleven Canadian children with autism (3 girls, 8 boys; age 3.05 ± 0.79 y) and 15 controls (9 girls, 6 boys; age 3.87 ± 1.06 y) met inclusion criteria, which included prior Diagnostic and Statistical Manual diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder, no recent medication or supplements, no specialty diets, and no recent illness. The children with autism demonstrated lower red blood cell docosahexaenoic acid (P autism than in controls, underlining a need for larger age- and sex-matched investigations in this community. A potential role for fatty acid abnormalities within the complex epigenetic etiology of autism is proposed in relation to emerging understanding of relationships between cobalamin metabolism, gut microbiota, and propionic acid production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Implementation and evaluation of an integrated computerized asthma management system in a pediatric emergency department: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexheimer, Judith W; Abramo, Thomas J; Arnold, Donald H; Johnson, Kevin; Shyr, Yu; Ye, Fei; Fan, Kang-Hsien; Patel, Neal; Aronsky, Dominik

    2014-11-01

    The use of evidence-based guidelines can improve the care for asthma patients. We implemented a computerized asthma management system in a pediatric emergency department (ED) to integrate national guidelines. Our objective was to determine whether patient eligibility identification by a probabilistic disease detection system (Bayesian network) combined with an asthma management system embedded in the workflow decreases time to disposition decision. We performed a prospective, randomized controlled trial in an urban, tertiary care pediatric ED. All patients 2-18 years of age presenting to the ED between October 2010 and February 2011 were screened for inclusion by the disease detection system. Patients identified to have an asthma exacerbation were randomized to intervention or control. For intervention patients, asthma management was computer-driven and workflow-integrated including computer-based asthma scoring in triage, and time-driven display of asthma-related reminders for re-scoring on the electronic patient status board combined with guideline-compliant order sets. Control patients received standard asthma management. The primary outcome measure was the time from triage to disposition decision. The Bayesian network identified 1339 patients with asthma exacerbations, of which 788 had an asthma diagnosis determined by an ED physician-established reference standard (positive predictive value 69.9%). The median time to disposition decision did not differ among the intervention (228 min; IQR=(141, 326)) and control group (223 min; IQR=(129, 316)); (p=0.362). The hospital admission rate was unchanged between intervention (25%) and control groups (26%); (p=0.867). ED length of stay did not differ among intervention (262 min; IQR=(165, 410)) and control group (247 min; IQR=(163, 379)); (p=0.818). The control and intervention groups were similar in regards to time to disposition; the computerized management system did not add additional wait time. The time to

  6. Effects of acupuncture on pain and inflammation in pediatric emergency department patients with acute appendicitis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nager, Alan L; Kobylecka, Monika; Pham, Phung K; Johnson, Leighanne; Gold, Jeffrey I

    2015-05-01

    Acupuncture has been shown to treat various medical conditions, including acute and chronic pain, and there is limited evidence that acupuncture produces anti-inflammatory effects. This pilot study evaluated the use of acupuncture to treat pain and determine if acupuncture can reduce the inflammatory response in pediatric patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis. This pilot study used convenience sampling and was conducted in the Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) of an urban tertiary care children's hospital. Patients conventionally evaluated and definitively diagnosed with appendicitis were eligible to voluntarily participate. The diagnostic homogeneity of the target population allowed for a standardized intervention protocol. A licensed acupuncturist performed a specific form of Japanese acupuncture known as the Kiiko Matsumoto Style on all study patients. Subjective pain was assessed immediately before the intervention and 20 minutes postintervention, using 3 measures: Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R), colored analog scale (CAS), and visual analog scale (VAS). Evidence of inflammation was assessed using two biomarkers: white blood cell (WBC) count and C-reactive protein (CRP). WBC and CRP were drawn and recorded 3 times: before the intervention, 2 minutes before removal of needles, and 30 minutes after needling. Six Latino/Hispanic patients (4 males, 2 females, median age=15 years) with no previous acupuncture experience participated in the study. Median pre/postacupuncture pain scores were as follows: FPS-R, 5 vs. 4; CAS, 6.1 vs. 4.8; VAS, 46 vs. 32. Median WBC (10(3)/μL) and CRP (mg/dL) across time were as follows: WBC, 13.2, 11.8, and 11.4; CRP, 4.5, 4.9, and 5.1. Median acupuncture duration was 28.5 minutes (range 22-32) and no complications were observed. Pilot data suggest that acupuncture may be a feasible and effective treatment modality for decreasing subjective pain and inflammation as measured by WBC. Acupuncture may be a useful

  7. Management protocols for status epilepticus in the pediatric emergency room: systematic review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Cheuk C; Branco, Ricardo G; Tasker, Robert C

    2017-09-20

    This systematic review of national or regional guidelines published in English aimed to better understand variance in pre-hospital and emergency department (ED) treatment of status epilepticus. Systematic search of national or regional guidelines (January 2000 to February 2017) contained within PubMed and Google Scholar databases, and article reference lists. The search keywords were status epilepticus, prolonged seizure, treatment, and guideline. 356 articles were retrieved and 13 were selected according to the inclusion criteria. In all six pre-hospital guidelines, the preferred route of medication administration was to use alternatives to the intravenous route: all recommended buccal and intranasal midazolam; three also recommended intramuscular midazolam, and five recommended using rectal diazepam. All 11 ED guidelines described three phases in therapy. Intravenous medication, by phase, was indicated as such: initial phase - ten/11 guidelines recommended lorazepam, and eight/11 recommended diazepam; second phase - most (ten/11) guidelines recommended phenytoin, but other options were phenobarbital (nine/11), valproic acid (six/11), and either fosphenytoin or levetiracetam (each four/11); third phase - four/11 guidelines included the choice of repeating second phase therapy, whereas the other guidelines recommended using a variety of intravenous anesthetic agents (thiopental, midazolam, propofol, and pentobarbital). All of the guidelines share a similar framework for management of status epilepticus. The choice in route of administration and drug type varied across guidelines. Hence, the adoption of a particular guideline should take account of local practice options in health service delivery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  8. Characteristics and diagnoses of neonates who revisit a pediatric emergency center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Andrew M; Caviness, A Chantal; Allen, Joseph Y

    2013-01-01

    Families with neonates may utilize emergency centers (ECs) for nonurgent complaints. We sought to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of neonates evaluated in an urban tertiary children's EC more than once in a 5-day period and to determine the frequency of serious illnesses and admission at the second visit. We conducted a retrospective case series of neonates (aged <29 days) who visited the EC, were discharged home, and returned within 5 days during a 3-year period. There were 147 study neonates (2.4% of all newborn EC patients) with an average age of 16 days at the first visit and a median 3 days between visits. Sixteen patients (11% of returning patients) returned with fever (≥38 °C); 15 patients (10%) returned with respiratory distress or hypoxemia, and 56 (38%) required admission at the second visit. Patients diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux and/or vomiting at the first visit had a high frequency of admission (55%) and pyloric stenosis (26%) at the second visit. Of neonates discharged from the EC with nonurgent medical issues, more than a third of those revisiting the EC required admission within 5 days. The risk of fever, respiratory distress, and admission was higher in neonates who originally presented with infectious symptoms than neonates who presented with noninfectious process. Of neonates presenting twice with gastroesophageal reflux and/or vomiting, almost a third had pyloric stenosis, indicating that close follow-up of vomiting neonates is needed.

  9. Risk factors for admission in children with bronchiolitis from pediatric emergency department observation unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Shabana; Caviness, A Chantal; Adekunle-Ojo, Aderonke O

    2012-11-01

    Patients with bronchiolitis are increasingly being admitted to emergency department observation units (EDOUs) but often require subsequent hospitalization. To better identify ED patients who should be directly admitted to the hospital rather than the EDOU, the predictors of admission must be identified. The objective of this study was to determine the predictors of subsequent hospital admission from the EDOU in infants and young children with bronchiolitis. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients younger than 2 years admitted to an EDOU with bronchiolitis between April 1, 2003, and March 31, 2007. Univariate analysis was followed by logistic regression to identify the significant predictors of hospital admission from the EDOU. There were 325 patients in the study: 67% were younger than 6 months, and 60% were male. Eighty-five (26%) were admitted to the hospital from the EDOU. Predictors for admission from the EDOU included parental report of poor feeding or increased work of breathing, oxygen saturation less than 93%, or ED treatment with racemic epinephrine (Vaponephrine) and intravenous fluids (IVFs). Patients with a history of increased work of breathing or oxygen saturation less than 93% and ED treatment with IVFs are at high risk for admission from the EDOU to the hospital. Direct admission to the hospital from the ED should be considered for these patients, particularly patients treated with IVFs and having an oxygen saturation less than 93% in the ED.

  10. Using data envelopment analysis for assessing the performance of pediatric emergency department physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallos, Javier; Patrick, Jonathan; Michalowski, Wojtek; Farion, Ken

    2017-03-01

    In attempting to measure the performance of providers in a service industry such as health care, it is crucial that the measurement tool recognize both the efficiency and quality of service provided. We develop a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model to help assess the performance of emergency department (ED) physicians at a partner hospital. The model incorporates efficiency measures as inputs and quality measures as outputs. We demonstrate the importance of a nuanced approach that recognizes the heterogeneity of patients that an ED physician encounters and the important role s/he plays as a mentor for physicians in training. In the study, patients were grouped according to their presenting complaint and ED physicians were assessed on each group separately. Performance variations were evident between physicians within each complaint group as well as between groups. A secondary grouping divided patients based on whether the attending physician was assisted by a trainee. Almost all ED physicians showed better performance scores when not assisted by trainees or ED fellows.

  11. The impact of a brief expectation survey on parental satisfaction in the pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahr, Christopher D; Flugstad, Nick A; Brousseau, David C

    2006-12-01

    To determine the effect of physician knowledge of parental expectations on satisfaction with emergency department (ED) care. This was a prospective, controlled, interventional trial involving parents of children presenting to a children's hospital ED. Parents completed an expectation survey on arrival, which was either immediately placed back in the enrollment envelope (control) or shown to the physician caring for the child (intervention). The physician was instructed to initial the expectation survey to acknowledge receipt of the survey. Parents then completed a satisfaction survey at discharge. The primary outcomes were differences in satisfaction with physician review of the expectation survey, as measured by 1) parental ratings of overall care and 2) their willingness to recommend the ED to others. A third (baseline) group completed only a satisfaction survey at discharge. A total of 614 (66%) of the 930 enrolled parents completed the study. Intention-to-treat analysis did not show a significant increase in parental satisfaction ratings for either overall care or recommend the ED; however, only 42% of the intervention group surveys had documented physician review. When these initialed surveys were compared with the control group in a per-protocol analysis, there was a significant improvement in parental satisfaction. There were no differences between the control and baseline groups, indicating no effect of the expectation survey completion on satisfaction. Physician knowledge of written parental expectations may improve parental satisfaction during an ED visit. Further work is needed to overcome the barriers to physician review of the expectation survey to maximize parent satisfaction.

  12. Rapid emergence of free-riding behavior in new pediatric immunization programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris T Bauch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mathematical models have formalized how free-rider effects can threaten the stability of high vaccine coverage levels under established voluntary vaccination programs. However, little research has addressed the question of when free-riding begins to develop when a new vaccine is first introduced in a population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we combine a game theoretical model of vaccinating behavior with an age-structured compartmental model to analyze rational vaccinating behavior in the first years of a universal immunization program, where a new vaccine is free to all children of a specified age. The model captures how successive birth cohorts face different epidemiological landscapes that have been shaped by the vaccinating decisions of previous birth cohorts, resulting in a strategic interaction between individuals in different birth cohorts. The model predicts a Nash equilibrium coverage level of for the first few birth cohorts under the new program. However, free-riding behavior emerges very quickly, with the Nash equilibrium vaccine coverage dropping significantly within 2-5 years after program initiation. Subsequently, a rich set of coupled dynamics between infection prevalence and vaccinating behaviors is possible, ranging from relatively stable (but reduced coverage in later birth cohorts to wide fluctuations in vaccine coverage from one birth cohort to the next. Individual tolerance for vaccine risk also starts out at relatively high levels before dropping significantly within a few years. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that even relatively new immunization programs can be vulnerable to drops in vaccine coverage caused by vaccine scares and exacerbated by herd immunity effects, necessitating vigilance from the start.

  13. Rapid emergence of free-riding behavior in new pediatric immunization programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Chris T; Bhattacharyya, Samit; Ball, Robert F

    2010-09-15

    Mathematical models have formalized how free-rider effects can threaten the stability of high vaccine coverage levels under established voluntary vaccination programs. However, little research has addressed the question of when free-riding begins to develop when a new vaccine is first introduced in a population. Here, we combine a game theoretical model of vaccinating behavior with an age-structured compartmental model to analyze rational vaccinating behavior in the first years of a universal immunization program, where a new vaccine is free to all children of a specified age. The model captures how successive birth cohorts face different epidemiological landscapes that have been shaped by the vaccinating decisions of previous birth cohorts, resulting in a strategic interaction between individuals in different birth cohorts. The model predicts a Nash equilibrium coverage level of for the first few birth cohorts under the new program. However, free-riding behavior emerges very quickly, with the Nash equilibrium vaccine coverage dropping significantly within 2-5 years after program initiation. Subsequently, a rich set of coupled dynamics between infection prevalence and vaccinating behaviors is possible, ranging from relatively stable (but reduced) coverage in later birth cohorts to wide fluctuations in vaccine coverage from one birth cohort to the next. Individual tolerance for vaccine risk also starts out at relatively high levels before dropping significantly within a few years. These results suggest that even relatively new immunization programs can be vulnerable to drops in vaccine coverage caused by vaccine scares and exacerbated by herd immunity effects, necessitating vigilance from the start.

  14. Teamwork skills in actual, in situ, and in-center pediatric emergencies: performance levels across settings and perceptions of comparative educational impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Thomaz Bittencourt; Kerrey, Benjamin T; Taylor, Regina G; FitzGerald, Michael; Geis, Gary L

    2015-04-01

    Pediatric emergencies require effective teamwork. These skills are developed and demonstrated in actual emergencies and in simulated environments, including simulation centers (in center) and the real care environment (in situ). Our aims were to compare teamwork performance across these settings and to identify perceived educational strengths and weaknesses between simulated settings. We hypothesized that teamwork performance in actual emergencies and in situ simulations would be higher than for in-center simulations. A retrospective, video-based assessment of teamwork was performed in an academic, pediatric level 1 trauma center, using the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) tool (range, 0-44) among emergency department providers (physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists, paramedics, patient care assistants, and pharmacists). A survey-based, cross-sectional assessment was conducted to determine provider perceptions regarding simulation training. One hundred thirty-two videos, 44 from each setting, were reviewed. Mean total TEAM scores were similar and high in all settings (31.2 actual, 31.1 in situ, and 32.3 in-center, P = 0.39). Of 236 providers, 154 (65%) responded to the survey. For teamwork training, in situ simulation was considered more realistic (59% vs. 10%) and more effective (45% vs. 15%) than in-center simulation. In a video-based study in an academic pediatric institution, ratings of teamwork were relatively high among actual resuscitations and 2 simulation settings, substantiating the influence of simulation-based training on instilling a culture of communication and teamwork. On the basis of survey results, providers favored the in situ setting for teamwork training and suggested an expansion of our existing in situ program.

  15. Guide to Canadian Aerospace Related Industries,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    fabrication, PWC assembly & test, automatic backplane wiring, computerized wire History : AEI, an established Canadian company for over 55...production of Automatic Number Identification (ANI) systems and 911 Emergency History : Aeo Machining Ltd is a small machining company Reporting Systems for...Aircraft, DeHavilland, Grumman Aircraft, and Canadian Digital Radar Data Processing - Contract with Fundacao Vickers Ltd. Educacional de Bauru, Brazil

  16. Association between birth order and emergency room visits and acute hospital admissions following pediatric vaccination: a self-controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Hawken

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between a child's birth order and emergency room (ER visits and hospital admissions following 2-,4-,6- and 12-month pediatric vaccinations. METHODS: We included all children born in Ontario between April 1(st, 2006 and March 31(st, 2009 who received a qualifying vaccination. We identified vaccinations, ER visits and admissions using health administrative data housed at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. We used the self-controlled case series design to compare the relative incidence (RI of events among 1(st-born and later-born children using relative incidence ratios (RIR. RESULTS: For the 2-month vaccination, the RIR for 1(st-borns versus later-born children was 1.37 (95% CI: 1.19-1.57, which translates to 112 additional events/100,000 vaccinated. For the 4-month vaccination, the RIR for 1(st-borns vs. later-borns was 1.70 (95% CI: 1.45-1.99, representing 157 additional events/100,000 vaccinated. At 6 months, the RIR for 1(st vs. later-borns was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.09-1.48, or 77 excess events/100,000 vaccinated. At the 12-month vaccination, the RIR was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02-1.21, or 249 excess events/100,000 vaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: Birth order is associated with increased incidence of ER visits and hospitalizations following vaccination in infancy. 1(st-born children had significantly higher relative incidence of events compared to later-born children.

  17. Intramuscular midazolam versus intravenous diazepam for treatment of seizures in the pediatric emergency department: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, J L; Garcia, P C R; Piva, J P; Barcelos, A; Bruno, F; Branco, R; Tasker, R C

    2015-04-01

    To compare the therapeutic efficacy of intramuscular midazolam (MDZ-IM) with that of intravenous diazepam (DZP-IV) for seizures in children. Randomized clinical trial. Pediatric emergency department. Children aged 2 months to 14 years admitted to the study facility with seizures. Patients were randomized to receive DZP-IV or MDZ-IM. Groups were compared with respect to time to treatment start (min), time from drug administration to seizure cessation (min), time to seizure cessation (min), and rate of treatment failure. Treatment was considered successful when seizure cessation was achieved within 5min of drug administration. Overall, 32 children (16 per group) completed the study. Intravenous access could not be obtained within 5min in four patients (25%) in the DZP-IV group. Time from admission to active treatment and time to seizure cessation was shorter in the MDZ-IM group (2.8 versus 7.4min; pseizures continued after 10min of treatment, and additional medications were required. There were no between-group differences in physiological parameters or adverse events (p=0.171); one child (6.3%) developed hypotension in the MDZ-IM group and five (31%) developed hyperactivity or vomiting in the DZP-IV group. Given its efficacy and ease and speed of administration, intramuscular midazolam is an excellent option for treatment of childhood seizures, enabling earlier treatment and shortening overall seizure duration. There were no differences in complications when applying MDZ-IM or DZP-IV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  18. The effects of resident level of training on the rate of pediatric prescription errors in an academic emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Garrett S; Viscusi, Chad; Hays, Daniel P; Woolridge, Dale P

    2012-11-01

    Medication errors are a leading cause of increased cost and iatrogenic injury in the pediatric population. In the academic setting, studies have suggested that these increased error rates are related primarily to resident inexperience, thus advocating a higher level of supervision. We sought to identify the number of prescription errors in our institution's academic Emergency Department, how this varied between the beginning and end of the academic year and between practitioners at varying levels of training. A retrospective review of computer-based outpatient prescriptions for children aged 0-12 years old was performed. Outpatient prescriptions were reviewed during a 2-week time block at the end of the academic year and beginning of the academic year (109 [June] and 111 [July] data sets, respectively). Prescriptions were retrieved electronically and reviewed for appropriate dosing. Errors were defined as those that varied>10% above or below recommended weight-based dosing. Twenty-nine (16.1%) of 180 written prescription orders were determined to be incorrectly written. Error rates were not significantly different between the beginning and end of the academic year. In both sampling periods, a higher percentage were found to be derived from senior level practitioners in both data sets (9/14 and 10/15; respectively), but few of these were considered high-grade prescription errors. Overall prescription error rates at our institution are comparable to nationally reported error rates in children. Error rates were not associated with newly matriculated residents. These findings dispute previously held opinion that physician level of training is a factor of prescription errors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Adolescents' perceptions of interpersonal communication, respect, and concern for privacy in an urban tertiary-care pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Kim A; Pitetti, Raymond D; Zuckerbraun, Noel S; Smola, Susan; Gold, Melanie A

    2010-04-01

    To measure adolescents' perceived overall satisfaction with health care in a pediatric emergency department (PED), identify key factors that contributed to satisfaction, and determine how these factors interacted with length of stay (LOS) and triage acuity. Prospective observational design with a convenience sample of 100 adolescents 13 to 21 years old recruited from the PED between February and June 2007. Participants completed a self-administered 27-item written survey with closed and open-ended items. Survey response rate was 99%. Respondents completed the survey in a mean time of 6.6 minutes (range, 3-12 minutes; SD, 2.0 minutes). Most (95%) reported being satisfied with their overall PED experience, and 91% would recommend the PED to other adolescents. Interpersonal communication and respect correlated significantly with respondents' overall satisfaction. There were no statistically significant differences in overall satisfaction rates by sex, age, socioeconomic status, or ethnicity, or by LOS, triage acuity score, or hospital admission. Most (94%) answered a qualitative survey item that asked how their PED care could be improved with 4 distinct responses: no changes necessary, enhance interpersonal communication, improve comfort of stay, and shorten LOS. Adolescents expressed high levels of satisfaction with their overall PED experience at our institution. Interpersonal communication and respect highly correlated with overall satisfaction. A multicenter study using a similar self-administered survey would further support the relationship between key factors and PED adolescent satisfaction. Utilization of a self-administered survey for adolescent research is feasible in the PED and could be used to improve quality control measures for adolescent care.

  20. Emergency Department Pain Management in Pediatric Patients With Fracture or Dislocation in a Bi-Ethnic Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavit, Itai; Brumer, Eliaz; Shavit, Danielle; Eidelman, Mark; Steiner, Ivan P; Steinberg, Carmit

    2016-01-01

    We determine whether ethnicity in a bi-ethnic population of northern Israel is associated with disparities in pediatric emergency department (ED) opioid analgesia in patients with fracture or dislocation. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. All records of patients aged 3 to 15 years and receiving a diagnosis of a limb fracture or dislocation were extracted. Data on demographics, including ethnicity, nurse ethnicity, pain level, and pain medication, were collected. Medications were administered according to a nurse-driven pain protocol. During the nearly 4-year study period, 3,782 children with fractures visited the ED, 1,245 Arabs and 2,537 Jews. Of these, 315 Arabic patients and 543 Jewish patients had a pain score of 7 to 10. The proportion of Arabic and Jewish children who received opioid therapy was 312 of 315 (99.05%) and 538 of 543 (99.08%), respectively (difference 0.03%; 95% confidence interval -0.13% to 0.19%). Of the 315 Arabic children, 99 were approached by Arabic nurses (31.4%), and 98 of those received opioids (98.9%); 216 were approached by Jewish nurses (68.6%), and 214 of those received opioids (99%). Of the 543 Jewish children, 351 were approached by Jewish nurses (64.6%), and 348 of those received opioids (98.9%); 192 were approached by Arab nurses (35.4%), and 190 of those received opioids (98.9%). During the 2014 11-week Israeli-Palestinian armed conflict, 232 children with fractures visited the ED, 87 Arabs and 145 Jews, of whom 16 and 27 had pain scores of 7 to 10. The proportion of Arabic and Jewish children who received opioid medication was 16 of 16 (100%) and 26 of 27 (96%), respectively (difference 4%; 95% confidence interval -16% to 18%). Findings suggest that ethnic differences, including during periods of conflicts, have no effect on opioid analgesia in this ED. Copyright © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of supplemental parenteral nutrition approach on nosocomial infection in pediatric intensive care unit of Emergency Department: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Lai, Xiaoquan; Liu, Chenxi; Xiong, Yuqi; Zhang, Xinping

    2015-10-06

    Nutritional support for patients in the intensive-care unit (ICU) is a part of standard care which promotes medical quality and decreases nosocomial infection. Supplemental parenteral nutrition (SPN) approach (enteral nutrition (EN) combined with parenteral nutrition (PN) when EN alone is insufficient) has become one major concern in nutrition research field. This research aims to explore the following relationships: (i) the relationship between SPN and nosocomial infection, (ii) the relationship between early and late SPN initiation and the development of nosocomial infection. A retrospective study was conducted in patients who met the inclusion criteria from February 2012 to February 2015 in Pediatric ICU (PICU). Patients were classified into two groups according to nutrition delivery approach-SPN group and EN alone group. Then SPN group were further divided into two subgroups by initiation timing, which were defined as early-initiation SPN and late-initiation SPN group respectively. Age, gender, serum albumin at admission, severity of disease, length of stay in PICU, nutrition delivery approach, amounts of delivered caloric intake and occurence of nosocomial infection were recorded. Univariate analysis and binary logistic regression analysis were performed to identify the risk factors and assess the independent effect of SPN approach on nosocomial infection in PICU of Emergency Department. 204 patients were included in our study. Compared with EN alone group, patients delivered by SPN approach had a higher nosocomial infection rate (34.0 vs.10.9%, p nosocomial infection in the logistic regression analysis model (OR = 3.40; 95% CI, 1.13 ~ 10.19; p = 0.029). Serum albumin at admission (OR = 0.91; 95% CI, 0.84 ~ 0.97; p = 0.008), mechanical ventilation (OR = 3.85; 95% CI, 1.43 ~ 10.39; p = 0.008), severity of disease (OR = 3.79; 95% CI, 1.03 ~ 13.99; p = 0.045) and PICU length of stay (OR = 1.23; 95% CI, 1.11

  2. What are you waiting for? A study of resident physician-parent communication in a pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramm, Kelly J; Dowd, Mary D

    2008-04-01

    This study measures the degree to which parents of patients, in the course of evaluation and treatment in a pediatric emergency department (ED), could report what they were waiting for. Brief in-person interviews were conducted with parents of nonemergency patients during an ED visit. After the patient had been seen by a resident physician and evaluation and treatment were in progress, parents were asked to report what they were waiting for. The patient's physician was also asked to report what the patient was waiting for. These answers were compared and coded as complete agreement, partial agreement, or disagreement. Association between lack of agreement and patient factors (age, sex), parent factors (sex, education, age), physician factors (sex, postgraduate year), and system factors (wait time, time of day, number of patients in the department) was examined. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios. A total of 200 paired surveys were included in the data analysis. Two thirds of parental reports completely agreed with physician reports, 11.5% partially agreed, and 21.5% completely disagreed. Multivariate analysis revealed that disagreement between resident physician and parents was associated with parental educational level and physician training level. Parents with less than a high school education were more than 9 times more likely to disagree than those with at least some college education (odds ratio 9.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.4 to 35.7). As the postgraduate level of the physician decreased, disagreement was more common; disagreement for patients of postgraduate level 1 residents was 5 times more likely (95% CI 1.8 to 14.5) than that of postgraduate level 3 and higher residents. As measured by asking the question "what are you waiting for," significant communication gaps were identified between physicians and the parents of their patients in this emergency department. One in five parents could not report what they were waiting

  3. Effectiveness of preoperative intranasal dexmedetomidine, compared with oral midazolam, for the prevention of emergence delirium in the pediatric patient undergoing general anesthesia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzSimons, James; Bonanno, Laura S; Pierce, Stephanie; Badeaux, Jennifer

    2017-07-01

    Emergence delirium is defined as a cognitive disturbance during emergence from general anesthesia resulting in hallucinations, delusions and confusion manifested by agitation, restlessness, involuntary physical movement and extreme flailing in bed. Postoperative emergence delirium develops in 12% to 18% of all children undergoing general anesthesia for surgery. This post-anesthetic phenomenon changes cognitive and psychomotor behavior, and puts pediatric patients and health care personnel at risk of injury. A newer drug, dexmedetomidine, is a selective alpha-2 agonist, which works in the brain and spinal cord that has sedative, analgesic and anxiolytic properties. Dexmedetomidine also has the ability to lower the overall anesthetic requirements by reducing sympathetic outflow in response to painful surgical stimulation. In current literature, there is not a systematic review that compares the effectiveness of preoperative intranasal dexmedetomidine administration against oral midazolam for the prevention of emergence delirium. The objective of this review was to identify the effectiveness of preoperative intranasal dexmedetomidine compared to oral midazolam for the prevention of emergence delirium in the pediatric patient undergoing general anesthesia. This review considered studies that included pediatric patients aged three to seven years, with an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification of I or II, and undergoing general anesthesia for elective/ambulatory surgery. This review excluded studies that included patients who had special needs including: developmental delay, chronic pain issues, and/or any preexisting mental or physical health disorders which categorized them above an ASA II. This review considered studies that compared preoperative intranasal administration of dexmedetomidine with preoperative oral administration of midazolam for the prevention of emergence delirium. This review considered both experimental and non-experimental study

  4. Characterizing the Posttransfer Period Among Patients with Pediatric Onset IBD: The Impact of Academic Versus Community Adult Care on Emergent Health Resource Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollegala, Natasha; Benchimol, Eric I; Griffiths, Anne M; Kovacs, Adrienne; Steinhart, Allan H; Zhao, Xinbei; Nguyen, Geoffrey C

    2017-09-01

    Patients diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) during childhood require transfer to an adult gastroenterologist, in Ontario usually just before their 18th birthday. Pediatric onset IBD is a complex phenotype with demonstrated noncompliance risk that may require targeted measures to optimize health care outcomes in the adult care setting. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of posttransfer health care setting (academic versus community gastroenterologist) on emergent health resource utilization. This was a population-based retrospective cohort study using health care administrative data from Ontario, Canada. A cohort of patients with Pediatric onset IBD was identified and health resource utilization during a 2-year pretransfer period, transfer of care period and 2-year posttransfer period was analyzed. Posttransfer health care setting was defined as academic (i.e., gastroenterologists providing care in a university affiliated tertiary care center) versus community. A third comparator group, loss to follow-up, was also identified. The primary outcome of this study comprised emergency department utilization. Secondary outcomes included hospitalizations, surgeries, ambulatory visits, endoscopic investigations, and radiological investigations. Overall, there were no significant differences found in emergency department use, ambulatory care visits (aside from the expected drop in the lost to follow-up group), hospitalizations, endoscopic procedures, or radiological procedures between exposure groups. Posttransfer health care setting does not seem to significantly impact emergent health resource utilization in the posttransfer period.

  5. Changing state of pediatric injuries in South Africa: An analysis of surveillance data from a Pediatric Emergency Department from 2007 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Hadley K H; Bachani, Abdulgafoor M; Mtambeka, Patricia; Schulman, Dorothy; Mavengere, Chiedza; Ward Millar, Alastair John; Hyder, Adnan A; van As, Arjan Bastiaan

    2017-12-01

    Pediatric injuries are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Data to characterize the cause and risk factors associated with childhood injuries in low- and middle-income countries are very scarce. The aim of this study is to describe the cause of pediatric injuries and their possible changes between 2007 and 2011 using hospital-based data in Cape Town, South Africa. Data from injured children Africa's trauma surveillance system. Poisson regression was used to assess changes in rates of injury between 2007 and 2011 in terms of demographics, geographic location of injury, type of injury mechanism, injury severity, and anatomic region of the sustained injury. In total, 14,915 injured children with 15,414 injuries presented to Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital in 2007 and 2011. The mean age was 5.01 ± 3.5 years and 60.3% were male. Common mechanisms of injury included falls (n = 6,036; 40%), road traffic injuries (n = 1,939; 13%), burns (n = 1,885; 12.6%), and assault (n = 640; 4.3%). Comparing 2011 to 2007, the incidence of road traffic injuries has decreased by 7% (P < .05) while burn injuries increased 11% (P < .05). Seventy-three percent (73%) of injuries that presented to Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital occurred in the Cape Flats area of Cape Town, where many informal settlements exist. These epidemiologic findings suggest that while road traffic injuries decreased and burn injuries increased at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, there is a need for data that are population-based and not hospital based. If we could describe injuries accurately within the pediatric population of a city such as Cape Town, we could in turn use this data to strengthen the need for targeted interventions to address risk factors for pediatric injuries. Despite this, hospital-based data remain a powerful tool to study injuries in low and middle-income countries. Copyright © 2017

  6. Emergency wounds treated with cyanoacrylate and long-term results in pediatrics: a series of cases; what are the advantages and boards?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gursoy Sonnur

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate (ECA is a tissue adhesive material applied to close superficial wounds. The aim of this study was to explore the benefits of cyanoacrylates in the emergency department in children with current application with regard to cost-effectiveness, satisfaction and long follow up. Findings Patients were treated after assignment of the consent with an explanation by the relatives in a tertiary emergency department (ED, 2007. The evaluation was based on different superficial wound repairs due to blunt trauma within a 2-hour time period ( A total of 9 patients were evaluated and followed for 6 months. Except for one, all children were treated without any serious complications. ECA was cost-effective, time-saving, and provided successful repair satisfaction by a blinded plastic surgeon and patient/parents. Conclusion This report displayed the pediatric effective use of cyanoacrylates, even in non- traditional repairs in the emergency departments.

  7. I Am Canadian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Joe

    2011-01-01

    "I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness......."I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness....

  8. Prophylactic Use of Oral Acetaminophen or IV Dexamethasone and Combination of them on Prevention Emergence Agitation in Pediatric after Adenotonsillectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Sajedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of acetaminophen plus dexamethasone on post-operative emergence agitation in pediatric adenotonsillectomy. Methods: A total of 128 patients were randomized and assigned among four groups as: Intravenous (IV dexamethasone, oral acetaminophen, IV dexamethasone plus oral acetaminophen, placebo. Group 1 received 0.2 mg/kg dexamethasone plus 0.25 mg/kg strawberry syrup 2 h before surgery. Group 2 received 20 mg/kg oral acetaminophen (0.25 ml/kg with 0.05 ml/kg IV normal saline. Group 3 received 20 mg/kg acetaminophen and 0.2 mg/kg dexamethasone intravenously. Group 4 received 0.25 ml/kg strawberry syrup and 0.05 ml/kg normal saline. Agitation was measured according to Richmond agitation sedation score in the post anesthetic care unit (PACU after admission, 10, 20 and 30 min after extubation. Pain score was measured with FACE scale. Nurse satisfaction was measured with verbal analog scale. If agitation scale was 3 ≥ or pain scale was 4 ≥ meperidine was prescribed. If symptoms did not control wit in 15 min midazolam was prescribed. Patients were discharged from PACU according Modified Alderet Score. Data were analyzed with ANOVA, Chi-square, and Kruskal-Wallis among four groups. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 140 patients were recruited in the study, which 12 of them were excluded. Thus, 128 patients were randomized and assigned among four groups. The four treatment groups were generally matched at baseline data. Median of pain score in 0, 10, 20 and 30 min after extubation were different between each study group with the control group (<0.001, 0.003 respectively. Also median of agitation score in 0, 10, 20 and 30 min after extubation were different between each study group with the control group (<0.001. Incidence of pain and incidence of agitation after extubation were not statistically identical among groups (P < 0.001 and P = 0

  9. [Anxiety in the parents of children treated in pediatric emergency services in Andalusia and its association with aspects of family functioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Castillo, Antonio; Vílchez-Lara, María J

    2016-01-01

    To assess the level of anxiety in the parents of children treated in hospital emergency departments in Andalusia and its association with dimensions of family functioning. Descriptive observational study based on a cross-sectional survey. We recruited a convenience sample of parents bringing children to 6 pediatric emergency services in the Spanish autonomous community of Andalusia in 2012. The variables recorded were place of origin, educational level, anxiety level on the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and family functioning according to the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale, version 2. A total of 637 parents were included. Their mean (SD) age was 35.4 (8.4) years; 399 (62.6%) were women. The mean anxiety score was 44.26 (10.15), and we found no differences between mothers and fathers. Lower anxiety levels were associated with higher levels of family cohesion (r = -0.37; P < .001) and adaptability (r = -0.36; P < .001). The parents of children attended in pediatric emergency departments in Andalusia have high levels of anxiety. Anxiety is inversely associated with family adaptability and cohesion.

  10. Transfusion premedication practices among pediatric health care practitioners in Canada: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solh, Ziad; Chan, Anthony K C; Heddle, Nancy M

    2016-09-01

    Although not supported by strong evidence, premedication (pretransfusion medication) is commonly prescribed to patients who have had a transfusion reaction. The research questions were: 1) What are Canadian pediatric practitioners' views and practices regarding premedication and 2) what are barriers to reducing premedication overuse in pediatrics? An online survey targeted hematology/oncology, emergency medicine, general surgery, intensive care, and cardiac intensive care practitioners in all 16 Canadian pediatric tertiary hospitals. The survey included four sections: demographic, clinical, future directions, and organizational questions. Fifty-five individuals from 15 of 16 pediatric tertiary care sites completed the survey: 53 physicians and two nurse practitioners. More than half of the respondents (55%; 30/55) were pediatric hematology/oncology providers, and 35% (19/55) were directors of their respective divisions. Eighty-seven percent of respondents estimated that they premedicate up to 25% of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions, and 13% premedicate 26% to 50% RBC transfusions. Proportions were similar for platelet transfusions. Most respondents reported that trainees are involved in transfusion and premedication order decisions. Seven percent believe that their hospital does not use leukoreduction and 27% are not sure. Sixty-five percent of respondents were not aware of a clinical practice guideline or a standard order set (SOS) at their institution: 51% are interested in having both available. Factors influencing the decision to premedicate and barriers to change were identified. Premedication practices are variable in Canadian pediatric academic hospitals. Evidence-based premedication clinical practice guidelines and SOS could be explored as a way to standardize practices. There were perceived educational and institutional barriers to practice change. © 2016 AABB.

  11. Updated American College of Critical Care Medicine--pediatric advanced life support guidelines for management of pediatric and neonatal septic shock: relevance to the emergency care clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissoon, Niranjan; Orr, Richard A; Carcillo, Joseph A

    2010-11-01

    Shock is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in children referred to emergency care. The recently updated American College of Critical Care Medicine guidelines for the management of newborns and children with septic shock emphasize the role of emergency care in improving survival and functional outcomes. Implementation of these guidelines of stepwise use of fluids, antibiotics, and, if necessary, inotropes within the first hour of admission to the emergency department can reduce mortality and neurological morbidity risks 2-fold. Therapies should be goal directed to maintain age-specific threshold heart rates and blood pressure as well as a capillary refill of less than 3 seconds or 2 seconds or less. Inotropes should be delivered through peripheral intravenous or intraosseous access when central access is unavailable because delay in inotrope delivery can greatly increase mortality risks. Emergency care systems should be organized to facilitate recognition, triage, and treatment of shock in the first hour. Emergency departments should be stocked with ready access to antibiotics, fluids, and inotrope infusions, and clinicians should be trained in the delivery of goal-directed fluid, antibiotics, and inotrope therapies in the first hour of resuscitation. For newborns, in addition to fluids, antibiotics, and inotropes, a prostaglandin infusion should be available within 10 minutes if duct-dependent congenital heart disease is a possibility.

  12. A Qualitative Analysis of Adolescent and Caregiver Acceptability of Universally Offered Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Screening in the Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jennifer L; Punches, Brittany E; Taylor, Regina G; Macaluso, Maurizio; Alessandrini, Evaline A; Kahn, Jessica A

    2017-12-01

    We qualitatively explore adolescent and parent or guardian attitudes about benefits and barriers to universally offered gonorrhea and chlamydia screening and modalities for assessing interest in screening in the pediatric emergency department (ED). A convenience sample of forty 14- to 21-year-olds and parents or guardians of adolescents presenting to an urban and community pediatric ED with any chief complaint participated in individual, semistructured, confidential interviews. Topics included support of universally offered gonorrhea and chlamydia screening, barriers and benefits to screening, and modalities for assessing interest in screening. Data were analyzed with framework analysis. Almost all adolescents (37/40; 93%) and parents (39/40; 98%) support offering ED gonorrhea or chlamydia screening. Benefits included earlier diagnosis and treatment, convenience and transmission prevention (cited by both groups), and improved education and long-term health (cited by parents/guardians). Barriers included concerns about confidentiality and cost (cited by both groups), embarrassment (cited by adolescents), and nondisclosure to parents or guardians (cited by parents/guardians). Adolescents preferred that the request for gonorrhea or chlamydia screening be presented in a private room, using tablet technology. Both groups noted that the advantages to tablets included confidentiality and adolescents' familiarity with technology. Adolescents noted that tablet use would address concerns about bringing up gonorrhea or chlamydia screening with clinicians, whereas parents or guardians noted that tablets might increase screening incidence but expressed concern about the lack of personal interaction. Universally offered gonorrhea and chlamydia screening in a pediatric ED was acceptable to the adolescents and parents or guardians in this study. Offering a tablet-based method to assess interest in screening may increase participation. Copyright © 2017 American College of

  13. Effect of a mother's recorded voice on emergence from general anesthesia in pediatric patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Seok Young; Kwak, Sang Gyu; Kim, Eugene

    2017-09-15

    Emergence delirium is a behavioral disturbance after general anesthesia in children and may distress both the patients and the primary caregivers, such as parents and medical staff, looking after the patients. Various medical and emotional interventions have been investigated to reduce emergence delirium; however, none are completely effective. This trial intends to assess whether the mother's recorded voice can reduce this adverse post-anesthesia event and facilitate arousal from general anesthesia. This is a prospective, double-blind, single-center, parallel-arm, superiority, randomized controlled trial to be conducted in participants aged 2-8 years who are undergoing elective surgery requiring general anesthesia. Participants will be randomly assigned to one of two groups: those who are stimulated to wake up by listening to their mother's recorded voice (maternal group, n = 33) or a stranger's voice (stranger group, n = 33) during anesthetic emergence. The primary outcome is the initial emergence delirium score in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). The secondary outcomes are hemodynamic parameters, including heart rate and mean blood pressure, the duration of time between the cessation of anesthetics and a BIS level of 60, 70 and 80, eye-opening or purposeful movement time, extubation time, total consumption of analgesics, PACU stay time, emergence delirium and pain scores during the PACU stay. This is the first randomized controlled trial to investigate the effect of a mother's recorded voice during emergence on the pediatric emergence profile after general anesthesia. It may provide prophylactic treatment options to decrease emergence delirium and enhance arousal from general anesthesia. ClicnicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02955680 . Registered on 2 November 2016.

  14. Demographic features of pediatric patients with burn injuries referred to the emergency department of Sina hospital in Tabriz, Iran, in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Rahmani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographic status of children with burn injuries who were referred to the emergency department of the Sina hospital in Tabriz, Iran, in 2014. Methods: Total of 220 pediatric patients with burn injuries, who referred to the emergency department of Sina hospital, were enrolled in this prospective descriptive study. Data such as age, gender, type of injury, location of injury, and severity of burns was collected, and analyzed using SPSS statistical software. Results: Most patients were the first children of their families (61.8%. Two-year-old children had a higher incidence of burn injuries (33.2%. Most of the burns (94.5% occurred at home. The most common cause of injury was hot liquids (74.5%. The position of the burn injuries in most patients was the upper extremities (47.3% and second-degree burn severity was more frequent (70.5%. There were no significant statistical differences between the two genders regarding cause, severity, percentage, and anatomical area of the burn.Conclusion: It is necessary to design effective strategies to reduce the incidence of burn injuries in pediatric patients, so that steps can be taken to reduce burn injuries and their complications.

  15. Children with convulsive epileptic seizures presenting to padua pediatric emergency department: the first retrospective population-based descriptive study in an Italian Health District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamo, Silvia; Parata, Francesca; Nosadini, Margherita; Boniver, Clementina; Toldo, Irene; Suppiej, Agnese; Vecchi, Marilena; Amigoni, Angela; Da Dalt, Liviana; Zanconato, Stefania; Perilongo, Giorgio; Sartori, Stefano

    2015-03-01

    Convulsive epileptic seizures in children represent a common cause of admission to pediatric emergency department. Data about incidence, etiology, and outcome are still lacking in literature. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of children presenting to our pediatric emergency department with convulsive seizures during a 12-month period and collected their diagnoses over the following year. In all, 182 children met the inclusion criteria, for a total of 214 visits (1.2% of all attendances, n = 24 864). Seizures lasted less than 5 minutes in 76%, 5 to 30 minutes in 20%, 30 to 60 minutes in 2%, and over 60 minutes in 2% visits ("early," "established," "refractory," convulsive status epilepticus, respectively). Incidence of "early" (seizure lasting 5-30 minutes) and "established" (seizure lasting 30-60 minutes) status epilepticus was 52/100 000/year and 7/100 000/year respectively. Most common causes were febrile seizures (56%) and remote symptomatic seizures (19%). Knowing the epidemiology of convulsive seizures in children is important to guide appropriate management and individualized follow-up. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. What is the Future of Pediatric Neurology in Canada? Resident and Faculty Perceptions of Training and Workforce Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doja, Asif; Clarkin, Chantalle; Whiting, Sharon; Moharir, Mahendranath

    2016-07-01

    Pediatric neurology trainee numbers have grown considerably in Canada; recent research, however, has shown that the number of pediatric neurology graduates is outpacing the need for future pediatric neurologists. The purpose of this study was to seek the opinion of pediatric neurology program directors and trainees regarding possible solutions for this issue. Two focus groups were convened during the Canadian Neurological Sciences Federation annual congress in June 2012; one consisted of current and former program directors, and the other of current pediatric neurology trainees. Groups were asked for their perceptions regarding child neurology manpower issues in Canada as well as possible solutions. Focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed for analysis. Theme-based qualitative analysis was used to analyze the transcripts. Major themes emerging from both focus groups included the emphasis on community pediatric neurology as a viable option for trainees, including the need for community mentors; recognizing the needs of underserviced areas; and establishing academic positions for community preceptors. The need for career mentoring and support structures during residency training was another major theme which arose. Program directors and trainees also gave examples of ways to reduce the current oversupply of trainees in Canada, including limiting the number of trainees entering programs, as well as creating a long-term vision of child neurology in Canada. A nationwide dialogue to discuss the supply and demand of manpower in academic and community pediatric neurology is essential. Career guidance options for pediatric neurology trainees across the country merit further strengthening.

  17. Pediatric Specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Children > Family Life > Medical Home > Pediatric Specialists Pediatric Specialists Article Body ​Your pediatrician may refer your child to a pediatric specialist for further evaluation and treatment. Pediatric specialists ...

  18. Sentinel surveillance of emergency department presentations for barbecue brush-related injuries: the electronic Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program, 2011 to 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepa P., Rao; Minh T., Do; Jennifer, Crain; Steven, McFaull; Rebecca, Stranberg; Teresa, Mersereau; Wendy, Thompson

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A barbecue (BBQ) brush is a common household item designed for cleaning grills used for barbecuing. Data from the electronic Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program database were analysed to estimate the frequency of injuries related to BBQ brushes as a proportion of all injuries, as well as to describe characteristics associated with such injury events. Between April 1, 2011 and July 17, 2017, BBQ brush injuries were observed at a frequency of 1.5 cases per 100 000 eCHIRPP cases (N = 12). Findings suggest that in addition to risks associated with the ingestion of loose BBQ brush bristles attached to foods, loose bristles could also result in injury via other mechanisms. PMID:29043764

  19. Pediatric Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eosinophilic Lung Disorders Hypereosinophilic Syndromes Immune Deficiency Disorder (Pediatric) Perennial Allergic Rhinitis Psychosocial Issues (Pediatric) Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis Vocal Cord ...

  20. [Management of children with headache in a Pediatric Emergency Department before and after the introduction of the Second International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-II)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioachin, Anna; Fiumana, Elisa; Tarocco, Anna; Verzola, Adriano; Forini, Elena; Guerra, Valentina; Salani, Manuela; Faggioli, Raffaella

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how the management of children admitted with headache to a Pediatric Emergency Department, was modified by the introduction of the Second International Classification of Headache Disorders ( ICHD-II) published in 2004. The complexity and average costs of the services provided to patients in 2002 and 2011 were compared. The results revealed a decrease in the number of tests performed and in-hospital admissions. However, tests were more complex, and an increase in requests of specialist advice was observed. We hypothesized that this change may be related to the introduction of ICHD-II, which suggests a more rational approach to the child with headache and a better use of hospital resources.

  1. Current thoughts in pediatric refractive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Erin D

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this article is to review current literature regarding the emerging field of pediatric refractive surgery. This encompasses current thought in adult refractive surgery, published literature in pediatric refractive surgery, and future possibilities for refractive technology in the pediatric population. This study includes a comprehensive review of literature in the general refractive surgery, cornea, and pediatric literature.

  2. Associations of daily pediatric asthma emergency department visits with air pollution in Newark, NJ: utilizing time-series and case-crossover study designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Jessie A; Fagliano, Jerald A

    2015-10-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases affecting children. This study assesses the associations of ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) with pediatric emergency department visits in the urban environment of Newark, NJ. Two study designs were utilized and evaluated for usability. We obtained daily emergency department visits among children aged 3-17 years with a primary diagnosis of asthma during April to September for 2004-2007. Both a time-stratified case-crossover study design with bi-directional control sampling and a time-series study design were utilized. Lagged effects (1-d through 5-d lag, 3-d average, and 5-d average) of ozone and PM2.5 were explored and a dose-response analysis comparing the bottom 5th percentile of 3-d average lag ozone with each 5 percentile increase was performed. Associations of interquartile range increase in same-day ozone were similar between the time-series and case-crossover study designs (RR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.04-1.12) and (OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.06-1.14), respectively. Similar associations were seen for 1-day lag and 3-day average lag ozone levels. PM2.5 was not associated with the outcome in either study design. Dose-response assessment indicated a statistically significant and increasing association around 50-55 ppb consistent for both study designs. Ozone was statistically positively associated with pediatric asthma ED visits in Newark, NJ. Our results were generally comparable across the time-series and case-crossover study designs, indicating both are useful to assess local air pollution impacts.

  3. A randomized controlled trial of sucrose and/or pacifier as analgesia for infants receiving venipuncture in a pediatric emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandermeer Ben

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although sucrose has been accepted as an effective analgesic agent for procedural pain in neonates, previous studies are largely in the NICU population using the procedure of heel lance. This is the first report of the effect of sucrose, pacifier or the combination thereof for the procedural pain of venipuncture in infants in the pediatric emergency department population. Methods The study design was a double (sucrose and single blind (pacifier, placebo-controlled randomized trial – factorial design carried out in a pediatric emergency department. The study population was infants, aged 0 – 6 months. Eighty-four patients were randomly assigned to one of four groups: a sucrose b sucrose & pacifier c control d control & pacifier. Each child received 2 ml of either 44% sucrose or sterile water, by mouth. The primary outcome measure: FLACC pain scale score change from baseline. Secondary outcome measures: crying time and heart rate change from baseline. Results Sucrose did not significantly reduce the FLACC score, crying time or heart rate. However sub-group analysis revealed that sucrose had a much greater effect in the younger groups. Pacifier use reduced FLACC score (not statistically significant, crying times (statistically significant but not heart rate. Subgroup analysis revealed a mean crying time difference of 76.52 seconds (p 3 months pacifier did not have any significant effect on crying time. Age adjusted regression analysis revealed that both sucrose and pacifier had significant effects on crying time. Crying time increased with both increasing age and increasing gestational age. Conclusion Pacifiers are inexpensive, effective analgesics and are easy to use in the PED for venipuncture in infants aged 0–3 months. The benefits of sucrose alone as an analgesic require further investigation in the older infant, but sucrose does appear to provide additional benefit when used with a pacifier in this age group. Trial

  4. Adapting protocols of CT imaging in a pediatric emergency department. Evaluation of image quality and dose; Adaptacion de los protocolos de adquisicion de imagenes de TC pediatricos en un servicio de urgencia. Valoracion de la calidad de imagen y dosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista Arce, A.; Gonzalez Lopez, S.; Catalan Acosta, A.; Casares Magaz, O.; Hernandez Armas, O.; Hernandez Armas, J.

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess qualitatively the picture quality in relation to the radiation dose delivered in CT studies of computer tomograph Pediatric Emergency Department of Hospital Universitario de Canarias (HUC) in order to optimize the technical parameters used these radiological examinations so as to obtain optimal image quality at the lowest possible dose.

  5. Improving Recognition of Pediatric Severe Sepsis in the Emergency Department: Contributions of a Vital Sign-Based Electronic Alert and Bedside Clinician Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamuth, Fran; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Abbadessa, Mary Kate; Hayes, Katie; Schast, Aileen; Lavelle, Jane; Fitzgerald, Julie C; Weiss, Scott L; Zorc, Joseph J

    2017-12-01

    Recognition of pediatric sepsis is a key clinical challenge. We evaluate the performance of a sepsis recognition process including an electronic sepsis alert and bedside assessment in a pediatric emergency department (ED). This was a cohort study with quality improvement intervention in a pediatric ED. Exposure was a positive electronic sepsis alert, defined as elevated pulse rate or hypotension, concern for infection, and at least one of the following: abnormal capillary refill, abnormal mental status, or high-risk condition. A positive electronic sepsis alert prompted team assessment or huddle to determine need for sepsis protocol. Clinicians could initiate team assessment or huddle according to clinical concern without positive electronic sepsis alert. Severe sepsis outcome defined as activation of the sepsis protocol in the ED or development of severe sepsis requiring ICU admission within 24 hours. There were 182,509 ED visits during the study period, with 86,037 before electronic sepsis alert implementation and 96,472 afterward, and 1,112 (1.2%) positive electronic sepsis alerts. Overall, 326 patients (0.3%) were treated for severe sepsis within 24 hours. Test characteristics of the electronic sepsis alert alone to detect severe sepsis were sensitivity 86.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 82.0% to 89.5%), specificity 99.1% (95% CI 99.0% to 99.2%), positive predictive value 25.4% (95% CI 22.8% to 28.0%), and negative predictive value 100% (95% CI 99.9% to 100%). Inclusion of the clinician screen identified 43 additional electronic sepsis alert-negative children, with severe sepsis sensitivity 99.4% (95% CI 97.8% to 99.8%) and specificity 99.1% (95% CI 99.1% to 99.2%). Electronic sepsis alert implementation increased ED sepsis detection from 83% to 96%. Electronic sepsis alert for severe sepsis demonstrated good sensitivity and high specificity. Addition of clinician identification of electronic sepsis alert-negative patients further improved sensitivity

  6. Double-blind Randomized Controlled Trial of Intranasal Dexmedetomidine Versus Intranasal Midazolam as Anxiolysis Prior to Pediatric Laceration Repair in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Desiree N W; Hayes, Katharina R; Ivan, Yaron; McDowell, Erin R; Pitetti, Raymond D

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare anxiolysis with intranasal dexmedetomidine, an alpha-2 agonist, versus intranasal midazolam for pediatric laceration repairs. We performed a double-blind, randomized controlled trial of 40 patients 1-5 years with lacerations requiring suture repair in an academic pediatric emergency department (ED). Patients were randomized to receive either intranasal dexmedetomidine or intranasal midazolam. Our primary outcome measure was the anxiety score at the time of patient positioning for the laceration repair. We chose this time point to isolate the anxiolysis from the medications prior to intervention. Patient encounters were videotaped and scored for anxiety at multiple time points using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale. The scale is 23.3-100 with higher scores indicating higher anxiety. We also evaluated these scores as a secondary outcome by dichotomizing them into anxious versus not anxious with a previously validated score cutoff. Of the 40 patients enrolled, 20 in the dexmedetomidine group and 18 in the midazolam group completed the study and were included in the analysis. The median age was 3.3 years (range = 1.0-5.4 years). The median baseline anxiety score was 48.3. The anxiety score at position for procedure for patients receiving dexmedetomidine was 9.2 points lower than those receiving midazolam (median difference = 9.2, 95% confidence interval = 5 to 13.3; median score for dexmedetomidine = 23.3, median score for midazolam = 36.3). The proportion of patients who were classified as not anxious at the position for procedure was significantly higher in the dexmedetomidine group (70%) versus the midazolam group (11%). The number needed to treat with dexmedetomidine instead of midazolam to obtain the result of a not anxious patient at this time point was 1.7 patients. There were also significantly more patients who were classified as not anxious at the time of wound washout in the dexmedetomidine

  7. Predicting return visits to the emergency department for pediatric patients: Applying supervised learning techniques to the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ya-Han; Tai, Chun-Tien; Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng; Lee, Hai-Wei; Sung, Sheng-Feng

    2017-06-01

    Return visits (RVs) to the emergency department (ED) consume medical resources and may represent a patient safety issue. The occurrence of unexpected RVs is considered a performance indicator for ED care quality. Because children are susceptible to medical errors and utilize considerable ED resources, knowing the factors that affect RVs in pediatric patients helps improve the quality of pediatric emergency care. We collected data on visits made by patients aged ≤18years to EDs from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The outcome of interest was a RV within 3days of the initial visit. Potential factors were categorized into demographics, medical history, features of ED visits, physician characteristics, hospital characteristics, and treatment-seeking behavior. A multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of RVs. We compared the performance of various data mining techniques, including Naïve Bayes, classification and regression tree (CART), random forest, and logistic regression, in predicting RVs. Finally, we developed a decision tree to stratify the risk of RVs. Of 125,940 visits, 6,282 (5.0%) were followed by a RV within 3 days. Predictors of RVs included younger age, higher acuity, intravenous fluid, more examination types, complete blood count, consultation, lower hospital level, hospitalization within one week before the initial visit, frequent ED visits in the past one year, and visits made in Spring or on Saturdays. Patients with allergic diseases and those underwent ultrasound examination were less likely to return. Decision tree models performed better in predicting RVs in terms of area under curve. The decision tree constructed using the CART technique showed that the number of ED visits in the past one year, diagnosis category, testing of complete blood count, and age were important discriminators of risk of RVs. We identified several factors which are associated with RVs to the ED in pediatric patients

  8. Dictionaries of Canadian English

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Technology

    ... Globe and Mail said, an enterprising publication. Despite the existence of the Winston dictionary, some Canadians were still, at the end of the 1950s, prepared to dismiss Canadian lexicography as pointless. When the idea of a Canadian dictionary was introduced to the Dean of Arts and Science at Dalhousie University in ...

  9. Interactive pediatric emergency checklists to the palm of your hand - How the Pedi Crisis App traveled around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Jorge A; Lockman, Justin L; Schleelein, Laura E; Simpao, Allan F; Ahumada, Luis M; Wolf, Bryan A; Shah, Maully J; Heitmiller, Eugenie; Rehman, Mohamed

    2017-08-01

    Cognitive aids help clinicians manage critical events and have been shown to improve outcomes by providing critical information at the point of care. Critical event guidelines, such as the Society of Pediatric Anesthesia's Critical Events Checklists described in this article, can be distributed globally via interactive smartphone apps. From October 1, 2013 to January 1, 2014, we performed an observational study to determine the global distribution and utilization patterns of the Pedi Crisis cognitive aid app that the Society for Pediatric Anesthesia developed. We analyzed distribution and utilization metrics of individuals using Pedi Crisis on iOS (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA) devices worldwide. We used Google Analytics software (Google Inc., Mountain View, CA) to monitor users' app activity (eg, screen views, user sessions). The primary outcome measurement was the number of user-sessions and geographic locations of Pedi Crisis user sessions. Each user was defined by the use of a unique Apple ID on an iOS device. Google Analytics correlates session activity with geographic location based on local Internet service provider logs. Pedi Crisis had 1 252 active users (both new and returning) and 4 140 sessions across 108 countries during the 3-month study period. Returning users used the app longer and viewed significantly more screens that new users (mean screen views: new users 1.3 [standard deviation +/-1.09, 95% confidence interval 1.22-1.55]; returning users 7.6 [standard deviation +/-4.19, 95% confidence interval 6.73-8.39]Pworldwide within days of its release and sustained utilization beyond initial publication. The proliferation of handheld electronic devices provides a unique opportunity for professional societies to improve the worldwide dissemination of guidelines and evidence-based cognitive aids. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Patterns of emergency room visits, admissions and death following recommended pediatric vaccinations - a population based study of 969,519 vaccination events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kumanan; Hawken, Steven; Potter, Beth K; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Kwong, Jeff; Crowcroft, Natasha; Rothwell, Deanna; Manuel, Doug

    2011-05-12

    The risk of immediate adverse events due to the inflammation created by a vaccine is a potential concern for pediatric vaccine programs. We analyzed data on children born between March 2006 and March 2009 in the province of Ontario. Using the self-controlled case series design, we examined the risk of the combined endpoint of emergency room visit and hospital admission in the immediate 3 days post vaccination to a control period 9-18 days after vaccination. We examined the end points of emergency room visits, hospital admissions and death separately as secondary outcomes. We examined 969,519 separate vaccination events. The relative incidence of our combined end point was 0.85 (0.80-0.90) for vaccination at age 2 months, 0.74 (0.69-0.79) at age 4 months and 0.68 (0.63-0.72) at age 6 months. The relative incidence was reduced for the individual endpoints of emergency room visits, admissions and death. There were 5 or fewer deaths in the risk interval of all 969,519 vaccination events. In a post hoc analysis we observed a large reduction in events in the immediate 3 days prior to vaccination suggesting a large healthy vaccinee effect. There was no increased incidence of the combined end point of emergency room visits and hospitalizations in the 3-day period immediately following vaccination, nor for individual endpoints or death. The health vaccinee effect could create the perception of worsening health following vaccines in the absence of any vaccine adverse effect and could also mask an effect in the immediate post-vaccination period. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Asian Dust and Pediatric Emergency Department Visits Due to Bronchial Asthma and Respiratory Diseases in Nagasaki, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takahiro; Hashizume, Masahiro; Ueda, Kayo; Shimizu, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Ayano; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Hashimoto, Kunio; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki; Odajima, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Tasuku; Tashiro, Kasumi; Tomimasu, Kunio; Nishiwaki, Yuji

    2016-11-05

    The adverse health effects of Asian dust (AD) on the respiratory system of children are unclear. We hypothesized that AD events may lead to increased visits by children to emergency medical centers due to bronchial asthma and respiratory diseases, including bronchial asthma. We used anonymized data on children receiving primary emergency treatment at Nagasaki Municipal Primary Emergency Medical Center, Japan between March 2010 and September 2013. We used Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data to assess AD exposure and performed time-stratified case-crossover analyses to examine the association between AD exposure and emergency department visits. The main analysis was done with data collected from March through May each year. The total number of emergency department visits during the study period was 756 for bronchial asthma and 5421 for respiratory diseases, and the number of "AD days" was 47. In school children, AD events at lag day 3 and lag day 4 were associated with increased emergency department visits due to bronchial asthma, with odds ratios of 1.837 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.212-2.786) and 1.829 (95% CI, 1.179-2.806), respectively. AD events were significantly associated with respiratory diseases among preschool children at lag day 0, lag day 1, and lag day 2, with odds ratios of 1.244 (95% CI, 1.128-1.373), 1.314 (95% CI, 1.189-1.452), and 1.273 (95% CI, 1.152-1.408), respectively. These associations were also significant when the results were adjusted for meteorological variables and other air pollutants. The study findings suggested that AD exposure increases emergency department visits by children.

  12. Autism in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Silver, Justine Heather; Muskat, Barbara; Ratnapalan, Savithiri

    2014-10-01

    This is a retrospective chart review of autistic patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) in a tertiary care pediatric center during the year 2011. There were 160 ED visits by 130 patients, 25% of visits were repeated, and 20% were admitted to the hospital. There were 126 (79%) male and 34 (21%) female patients mean age of 12 years, 79% had comorbid health conditions. Forty percent were CTAS 2 (Canadian Triage Acuity Score) acuity, 42% of visits were CTAS 3 acuity, and 7% rated their pain as "severe." Visits were for behavior (10%), neurological concern (13%), 3% dental related, and the remainder were for gastrointestinal infections and other complaints. Average length of stay was 6 hours 21 minutes, with 2-hour wait to start assessment with physician. Autism is a prevalent diagnosis and patients with autism are accessing the ED. We hope to use these demographic findings to better serve these patients and their families. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Immunochromatographic test for detection of adenovirus from respiratory samples: is it a real solution for pediatric emergency department?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Gómez, María Pilar; López López, Rosario; González Montes, Remedios; Ots Ruiz, Cristina; Hierro Cuesta, Sara; Martín Crespo, María Antonia; García García, Santos

    2014-01-01

    Rapid diagnosis of adenoviral respiratory infections is required in order to decide optimal treatment strategies. The adenovirus antigen immunochromatography Adeno Respiratory Card Letitest (Leti diagnostics, Barcelona, Spain), was evaluated versus the shell-vial culture and multiplex PCR (Clart Pneumovir Version 3.0, Genomica, Madrid, Spain), in nasopharyngeal washes and oropharyngeal swabs specimens from subjects with respiratory tract infections. Between April 2011 and November 2012, 224 patients were included. The IC Adeno Respiratory Card Letitest was positive for 77.9% (74 of 95) of patients diagnosed at bedside. Using multiplex-PCR as the reference standard, the overall sensitivity was 77.9% and the specificity was 73.6%. Taking shell-viral culture as the reference method, the Adeno Respiratory Card Letitest (Leti diagnostics, Barcelona, Spain) sensitivity and specificity values were 80.0% and 60.9%, respectively. Using RT-PCR (Clart Pneumovir Version 3.0, Genomica, Madrid, Spain) as the reference standard, the viral culture sensitivity was 53.2% and the specificity was 100%. The Adeno Respiratory Card Letitest (Leti diagnostics, Barcelona, Spain) assay could be a simple and rapid method for antigenic detection of adenovirus in pediatric respiratory samples although it would be necessary to improve the specificity and sensitivity of the test. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Canadian prostate brachytherapy in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Mira; Crook, Juanita; Morris, W. James; Morton, Gerard; Pickles, Tom; Usmani, Nawaid; Vigneault, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Prostate brachytherapy can be used as a monotherapy for low- and intermediate-risk patients or in combination with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) as a form of dose escalation for selected intermediate- and high-risk patients. Prostate brachytherapy with either permanent implants (low dose rate [LDR]) or temporary implants (high dose rate [HDR]) is emerging as the most effective radiation treatment for prostate cancer. Several large Canadian brachytherapy programs were established in the mid- to late-1990s. Prostate brachytherapy is offered in British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick. We anticipate the need for brachytherapy services in Canada will significantly increase in the near future. In this review, we summarize brachytherapy programs across Canada, contemporary eligibility criteria for the procedure, toxicity and prostate-specific antigen recurrence free survival (PRFS), as published from Canadian institutions for both LDR and HDR brachytherapy. PMID:23671495

  15. Emergency department children are not as sick as adults: implications for critical care skills retention in an exclusively pediatric emergency medicine practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Steven M; Ruben, Jason

    2009-11-01

    We wished to compare the acuity of adults vs. children using a representative sample drawn from a geographically isolated region. We retrospectively analyzed Emergency Department (ED) patient logs, billing records, and trauma data from two hospitals serving a geographically isolated region (Santa Barbara, California), and compared the following measures of acuity by age, triage category, rates of admission, billing levels of service, procedures (ED intubation, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and invasive line placement), and trauma team activations. We analyzed 88,864 patients treated at the two EDs over an 18-month period, of whom 15,589 (17.5%) were children (room. ED children have overall lower acuity than ED adults-by many measures, several-fold less. These findings may have important implications for ongoing skills retention and proficiency in critical care for practitioners whose ED practice is restricted to representative samples of children.

  16. Pediatric Sinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Sinusitis Pediatric Sinusitis Patient Health Information News media interested in ... sinuses are present at birth. Unlike in adults, pediatric sinusitis is difficult to diagnose because symptoms of ...

  17. Pediatric Ophthalmologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share What is a Pediatric Ophthalmologist? Page Content Article Body If your child ... treat your child. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Ophthalmologists Have? Pediatric ophthalmologists are medical doctors who ...