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Sample records for canadian paediatric society

  1. Conference summaries. Canadian Nuclear Association 29. annual conference; Canadian Nuclear Society 10. annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 15 papers from the twenty-ninth Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association. Abstracts were also prepared for the 102 papers from the tenth Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society

  2. Paediatric radiation oncology in the care of childhood cancer: A position paper by the International Paediatric Radiation Oncology Society (PROS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Freeman, Carolyn; Marcus, Karen; Claude, Line; Dieckmann, Karin; Halperin, Edward; Esiashvili, Natia; Paulino, Arnold; Mahajan, Anita; Seiersen, Klaus; Ahern, Verity; Ricardi, Umberto; Carrie, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Paediatric malignancies are a challenge for the radiation oncologist due to their rarity, the great variety of histological types, and the complexity of treatment concepts that evolve over time. The Paediatric Radiation Oncology Society (PROS) is the only internationally operating society for paediatric radiation oncology. The objectives of PROS are to set a world-wide standard of excellence with respect to radiation oncology aspects in curing children and adolescents with cancer, to provide a forum for communication between radiation oncologists, and to exchange information with all professionals involved in the management of paediatric and adolescent cancer. Challenges include the need to promote education and support practice in low and middle income countries (LMIC) as well as the cost and availability of modern treatment technologies for all but most especially these countries. Collaborations with other societies that include for example the education programmes provided jointly with ESTRO, and the upgraded technical platform of the PROS web site offer new possibilities to enhance the efficacy of PROS in education and support of paediatric radiation oncology practice world-wide. PROS has made an important contribution to the management of childhood malignancies over the past decade and new and developing collaborations between PROS and other societies or organizations will ultimately lead to a reduction in world-wide health care inequalities. PMID:27106553

  3. entering the postindustrial society: the canadian case

    OpenAIRE

    Matejko, Alexander J.

    1986-01-01

    abstract: the canadian federation is based on the substantial autonomy of the provinces constituting it, the welfare orientation of central bodies, the volunteer activities at the grass-root level, and the external policy open to the world. there are no any doubts about the genuinely democratic character of canadian internal politics or the commitment of canadians to the world peace. the economic prosperity of the country is secured by the mineral resources, good agriculture, and the intensiv...

  4. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Society 15. annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of the 15. annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society cover a wide range of nuclear topics, but the emphasis is on CANDU reactors and Canadian experience. The 89 papers are arranged in 17 sessions dealing with the following subjects: thermalhydraulics, fuel channels, operations, reactor physics, fuel, new technology, safety, training, waste management. The individual papers have been abstracted separately

  5. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Society 12. annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the seventeen Technical Sessions from the Twelfth Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society held in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, June 9 to 12, 1991. As in previous years, the Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society was held in conjunction with the Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association. The major topics of discussion included: reactor physics; thermal hydraulics; industrial irradiation; computer applications; fuel channel analysis; small reactors; severe accidents; fuel behaviour under accident conditions; reactor components; safety related computer software; nuclear fuel management; nuclear waste management; and, uranium mining processing

  6. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Society sixth annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of the Sixth Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society comprise 103 papers on the following subjects: fuel technology, nuclear plant safety, instrumentation, public and regulatory matters, fusion, fuel behaviour under normal and accident conditions, nuclear plant design and operations, thermal hydraulics, reactor physics, accelerators, waste management, new reactor concepts

  7. Proceedings of the seventeenth annual Canadian Nuclear Society conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seventeenth annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society, presented in Fredericton, New Brunswick. The conference includes papers on general topics of interest on the nuclear community, waste management and the environment, instrumentation and design of Candu reactors, safety analysis, thermal hydraulics, fuel channels, plant operations and in-core instrumentation

  8. Home Mechanical Ventilation: A Canadian Thoracic Society Clinical Practice Guideline

    OpenAIRE

    McKim, Douglas A.; Jeremy Road; Monica Avendano; Steve Abdool; Fabien Côté; Nigel Duguid; Janet Fraser; François Maltais; Morrison, Debra L.; Colleen O’Connell; Petrof, Basil J.; Karen Rimmer; Robert Skomro; Canadian Thoracic Society Home Mechanical Ventilation Committee

    2011-01-01

    Increasing numbers of patients are surviving episodes of prolonged mechanical ventilation or benefitting from the recent availability of user-friendly noninvasive ventilators. Although many publications pertaining to specific aspects of home mechanical ventilation (HMV) exist, very few comprehensive guidelines that bring together all of the current literature on patients at risk for or using mechanical ventilatory support are available. The Canadian Thoracic Society HMV Guideline Committee ha...

  9. Abstracts from the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society Quebec City, April 2012

    OpenAIRE

    S. Morin; Finch, L; Sara, A.; Muir, Susan; Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Kennedy, C. C.; Giangregorio, L.M.; Adachi, J. D.; Morin, S. N.; Crilly, R. G.; Marr, S.; Josse, R.G.; Matta, J.; Dionne, I; Payette, H.

    2012-01-01

    The opinions expressed in the abstracts are those of the authors and are not to be construed as the opinion of the publisher (Canadian Geriatrics Society) or the organizers of the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society. Although the publisher (Canadian Geriatrics Society) has made every effort to accurately reproduce the abstracts, the Canadian Geriatrics Society and the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society assumes no responsibility and/...

  10. The Committee to Advise on Tropical Medicine and Travel (CATMAT) – a reference for Canadian paediatricians

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, Charles PS

    2015-01-01

    The Committee to Advise on Tropical Medicine and Travel (CATMAT) is a federal government committee with wide representation in the fields of travel medicine and infectious diseases. They produce evidence-based statements on tropical and travel medicine for Canadian clinicians, including paediatric content ensured by the involvement of paediatric experts and a liaison member from the Canadian Paediatric Society. Links to all of the active statements are provided in the present practice point, ...

  11. Conference summaries of the Canadian Nuclear Association 30. annual conference, and the Canadian Nuclear Society 11. annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains conference summaries for the 30. annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association, and the 11. annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society. Topics of discussion include: energy needs and challenges facing the Canadian nuclear industry; the environment and nuclear power; the problems of maintaining and developing industrial capacity; the challenges of the 1990's; programmes and issues for the 1990's; thermalhydraulics; reactor physics and fuel management; nuclear safety; small reactors; fuel behaviour; energy production and the environment; computer applications; nuclear systems; fusion; materials handling; and, reactor components

  12. Canadian Cardiovascular Society Quality Indicators for Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvie, Robert S; Heckman, George A; Blais, Claudia; Cox, Jafna L; Ezekowitz, Justin A; Gong, Yanyan; Harkness, Karen; Moe, Gordon; Dai, Sulan; Dorian, Paul; Johnstone, David E; McGeachie, Erin C; Tu, Jack V; Lambert, Laurie J

    2016-08-01

    A working group was convened by the Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) in 2010 to identify quality indicators (QIs) for heart failure (HF). Using the CCS "Best Practices for Developing Cardiovascular Quality Indicators" methodology, a total of 49 "long-list" QIs was identified and rated. Subsequent ranking and discussion led to the selection of an initial "short-list" of 6 QIs to evaluate quality care, including daily assessment of blood chemistry indicators, chest radiography, patient education, in-hospital use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers, assessment of left ventricular function, and 30-day hospital readmission. The short-list QIs were selected as being important for quality assurance and because the patient information, for the most part, can be captured during the inpatient setting, which would allow these QIs to be adopted more easily. These 6 QIs were subjected to a feasibility test that found that even within the inpatient setting, there is a significant gap between the existing knowledge infrastructure and the necessary information-tracking processes to measure QIs. Only 1 QI (30-day hospital readmission) can currently be measured comparatively across Canada, although the other 5 of 6 short-list QIs can be measured using other data collected by jurisdictions. Standardization and enhancements to knowledge infrastructure are essential to provide the comprehensive patient data necessary to evaluate the quality of HF care across Canada. PMID:26968392

  13. Home Mechanical Ventilation: A Canadian Thoracic Society Clinical Practice Guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas A McKim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of patients are surviving episodes of prolonged mechanical ventilation or benefitting from the recent availability of user-friendly noninvasive ventilators. Although many publications pertaining to specific aspects of home mechanical ventilation (HMV exist, very few comprehensive guidelines that bring together all of the current literature on patients at risk for or using mechanical ventilatory support are available. The Canadian Thoracic Society HMV Guideline Committee has reviewed the available English literature on topics related to HMV in adults, and completed a detailed guideline that will help standardize and improve the assessment and management of individuals requiring noninvasive or invasive HMV. The guideline provides a disease-specific review of illnesses including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal cord injury, muscular dystrophies, myotonic dystrophy, kyphoscoliosis, post-polio syndrome, central hypoventilation syndrome, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as well as important common themes such as airway clearance and the process of transition to home. The guidelines have been extensively reviewed by international experts, allied health professionals and target audiences. They will be updated on a regular basis to incorporate any new information.

  14. A British Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition survey of the effectiveness and safety of adalimumab in children with inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Richard Kay; Wilson, Michelle L.; Loganathan, Sabarinathan; Bourke, Billy; Kiparissi, Fevrionia; Torrente, Franco; Mahdi, Gamal; Rodrigues, Astor; Thomas, Adrian; Akobeng, Anthony Kwaku; Fagbemi, Andrew; Hyer, Warren; Spray, Christine; McGrogan, Paraic; Heuschkel, Rob B

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background: Adalimumab is efficacious therapy for adults with Crohn?s disease (CD). Aim: To summarise the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland paediatric adalimumab experience. Methods: British Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (BSPGHAN) members with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) patients

  15. Proceedings of the 29th annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association and 10th annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society. V. 1-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The symposium was designed to highlight how the technical information for nuclear energy came to Canada, the effect this information had in Canada in the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Medicine and Nuclear Power. Volume 1 is the combined proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Association twenty-ninth annual conference and the Canadian Nuclear Society tenth annual conference. Volume 2 is the proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Association twenty-ninth annual conference, and volume 3 is the proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Society tenth annual conference

  16. Standards for polysomnography in Canada. The Standards Committees of the Canadian Sleep Society and the Canadian Thoracic Society.

    OpenAIRE

    George, C F

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop standards for polysomnography in Canada in order to assist in the uniform provision of diagnostic and therapeutic services related to sleep disorders. OPTIONS: Uniform testing versus no current Canadian standards. OUTCOMES: Uniform delivery of health care; reduction in number of repeat studies and their attendant costs. EVIDENCE: Availability of diagnostic laboratories and services, and survey responses (written and oral) from directors of sleep laboratories; the America...

  17. Proceedings of the 13. annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 2 of the proceedings of the 13. annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society includes sessions on the following topics: compliance and licensing, fusion science and technology, Darlington assessment, plant aging and life assessment, thermalhydraulic modelling and analysis, diagnostics and data management, operator training and certification. The individual papers have been abstracted separately

  18. Proceedings of the 13. annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 1 of the proceedings of the 13. annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society includes sessions on the following topics: reactor physics, new concepts and technology, fuel behaviour, reactor design, safety analysis, fuel channel behaviour, equipment and design qualification. The individual papers have been abstracted separately

  19. Proceedings of the 11th Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the thirteen technical sessions at the 11. annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society. The 68 papers presented at this conference cover the areas of programmes and issues for the 90's; thermalhydraulics; reactor physics and fuel management; nuclear safety; small reactors; fuel behaviour; energy production and the environment; computer applications; nuclear systems; fusion; reactor decommissioning, irradiated fuel and materials handling; and reactor components, (L.L.)

  20. Canadian Cardiovascular Society consensus conference recommendations on heart failure 2006: Diagnosis and management

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, J. Malcolm O.; Liu, Peter; Demers, Catherine; Dorian, Paul; Giannetti, Nadia; Haddad, Haissam; Heckman, George A; Howlett, Jonathan G; Ignaszewski, Andrew; Johnstone, David E; Jong, Philip; Robert S. McKelvie; Moe, Gordon W; John D. Parker; Rao, Vivek

    2006-01-01

    Heart failure remains a common diagnosis, especially in older individuals. It continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality, but major advances in both diagnosis and management have occurred and will continue to improve symptoms and other outcomes in patients. The Canadian Cardiovascular Society published its first consensus conference recommendations on the diagnosis and management of heart failure in 1994, followed by two brief updates, and reconvened this consensus co...

  1. Canadian Thoracic Society Recommendations for Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease – 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Denis E O’Donnell; Aaron, Shawn; Bourbeau, Jean; Hernandez, Paul; Marciniuk, Darcy D; Balter, Meyer; Ford, Gordon; Gervais, Andre; Goldstein, Roger; Hodder, Rick; Maltais, Francois; Road, Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common cause of disability and death in Canada. Moreover, morbidity and mortality from COPD continue to rise and the economic burden is enormous. The main goal of the Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) Evidence-Based Guidelines is to optimize early diagnosis, prevention and management of COPD in Canada. Targeted spirometry is strongly recommended to expedite early diagnosis in smokers and exsmokers who develop respiratory symptoms, and who are at...

  2. Undernutrition in children with a neurodevelopmental disability. Nutrition Committee, Canadian Paediatric Society.

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To offer guidelines for optimal nutritional care in children with a neurodevelopmental disability and an associated impairment in their ability to eat and drink. OPTIONS: Assessment of nutritional status by skinfold thickness measurement, high-energy nutrition supplementation given orally and feeding by nasogastric tubes, gastrostomy tubes or gastrojejunal tubes. OUTCOMES: Children receiving adequate nourishment are generally calmer and appear more normal than those who are underno...

  3. Cerebral sinus venous thromboses in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia - a multicentre study from the Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranta, Susanna; Tuckuviene, Ruta; Mäkipernaa, Anne;

    2014-01-01

    We present a prospective multicentre cohort of 20 children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT). The study covers a period of 5 years and comprises 1038 children treated according to the Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (NOPHO...

  4. Paediatric radiology and scientific contributions to radiation dose at the meeting of the German Radiological Society-An analysis of an 11-year period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyer, Christoph M., E-mail: christoph.heyer@rub.d [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Berufsgenossenschaftliches Universitaetsklinikum Bergmannsheil GmbH, Ruhr-University of Bochum, Buerkle-de-la-Camp Platz 1, D-44789 Bochum (Germany); Lemburg, Stefan P.; Peters, Soeren A. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Berufsgenossenschaftliches Universitaetsklinikum Bergmannsheil GmbH, Ruhr-University of Bochum, Buerkle-de-la-Camp Platz 1, D-44789 Bochum (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Aim: Evaluation of the emphasis on themes pertaining to paediatric radiology and radiation dose at the Meeting of the German Radiological Society from 1998 to 2008 in comparison to international data. Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis of 9440 abstracts with documentation of type of contribution, imaging modality, and examined body region. Abstracts primarily dealing with paediatric radiology and those stating radiation dose were documented. Results were compared with a Pubmed query. Results: 448 contributions in paediatric radiology were presented corresponding to 5% of all abstracts with an increase from 5 (1998) to 7% (2008). The proportion of prospective studies of all congress contributions was 10%, whereas in paediatric radiology, the share of prospective studies was 6%. From 1998 to 2008, the share of MRI fell from 48 to 38%, while CT contributions rose from 30 to 34%. Within paediatric radiology, the proportion of CT rose from 23 to 29%, while MRI and ultrasound fell from 63 to 48% and 35 to 19%, respectively. The share of abstracts dealing with radiation dose rose from 7 to 10% while that primarily pertaining to dose reduction grew from 2 to 4%. Of all abstracts concerning CT, 15% touched on radiation dose, whereas 6% primarily dealt with dose reduction. Among all abstracts dealing with paediatric radiology, 20 and 6% mentioned radiation dose and dose reduction, respectively. In the subgroup of paediatric radiology CT abstracts, radiation dose and dose reduction were mentioned in 34 and 16%, respectively. An online query produced 137,791 publications on CT, of whose abstracts 3% mentioned radiation dose and 0.5% mentioned dose reduction. 11% of all CT publications dealt with paediatric populations and 2% of these publications examined questions of radiation dose. Conclusions: In the last 11 years the Meeting of the German Radiological Society has presented a growing number of contributions pertaining to paediatric radiology. CT has shown the

  5. Canadian Cardiovascular Society Guidelines for Evaluation and Management of Cardiovascular Complications of Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virani, Sean A; Dent, Susan; Brezden-Masley, Christine; Clarke, Brian; Davis, Margot K; Jassal, Davinder S; Johnson, Christopher; Lemieux, Julie; Paterson, Ian; Sebag, Igal A; Simmons, Christine; Sulpher, Jeffrey; Thain, Kishore; Thavendiranathan, Paaldinesh; Wentzell, Jason R; Wurtele, Nola; Côté, Marc André; Fine, Nowell M; Haddad, Haissam; Hayley, Bradley D; Hopkins, Sean; Joy, Anil A; Rayson, Daniel; Stadnick, Ellamae; Straatman, Lynn

    2016-07-01

    Modern treatment strategies have led to improvements in cancer survival, however, these gains might be offset by the potential negative effect of cancer therapy on cardiovascular health. Cardiotoxicity is now recognized as a leading cause of long-term morbidity and mortality among cancer survivors. This guideline, authored by a pan-Canadian expert group of health care providers and commissioned by the Canadian Cardiovascular Society, is intended to guide the care of cancer patients with established cardiovascular disease or those at risk of experiencing toxicities related to cancer treatment. It includes recommendations and important management considerations with a focus on 4 main areas: identification of the high-risk population for cardiotoxicity, detection and prevention of cardiotoxicity, treatment of cardiotoxicity, and a multidisciplinary approach to cardio-oncology. All recommendations align with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. Key recommendations for which the panel provides a strong level of evidence include: (1) that routine evaluation of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and optimal treatment of preexisting cardiovascular disease be performed in all patients before, during, and after receiving cancer therapy; (2) that initiation, maintenance, and/or augmentation of antihypertensive therapy be instituted per the Canadian Hypertension Educational Program guidelines for patients with preexisting hypertension or for those who experience hypertension related to cancer therapy; and (3) that investigation and management follow current Canadian Cardiovascular Society heart failure guidelines for cancer patients who develop clinical heart failure or an asymptomatic decline in left ventricular ejection fraction during or after cancer treatment. This guideline provides guidance to clinicians on contemporary best practices for the cardiovascular care of cancer patients. PMID:27343741

  6. Nuclear energy: a world of service to humanity. 27th annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society and 30th Canadian Nuclear Society/Canadian Nuclear Association student conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 27th Annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society was held on June 11-14, 2006 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The conference gathered close to 400 scientists, engineers, technologists and students interested in all aspects and applications of energy from the atom. The central objective of this conference was to provide a forum for exchange of views on how this technical enterprise can best serve the needs of humanity, now and in the future. The plenary sessions addressed broad industrial and commercial developments in the field. Over eighty papers were presented in 15 technical sessions on the following topics: safety analysis; plant refurbishment; control room operation; nuclear chemistry and materials; advanced reactor design; plant operation; reactor physics; safety analysis; nuclear instrumentation; and, nuclear general topics. Embedded in the conference was the 30th student conference, sponsored by the Canadian Nuclear Society and the Canadian Nuclear Association. Over thirty-five papers were presented in five sessions on the following topics: corrosion processes; control systems / physics / modelling; and, chemistry / chemical engineering

  7. Do geography and resources influence the need for colostomy in Hirschsprung′s disease and anorectal malformations? A Canadian association of paediatric surgeons: Association of paediatric surgeons of Nigeria survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman O. Abdur-Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This survey compared surgical management of Hirschsprung′s disease (HD and anorectal malformations (ARM in high and low resource settings. Materials and Methods: An online survey was sent to 208 members of the Canadian Association of Paediatric Surgeons (CAPS and the Association of Paediatric Surgeons of Nigeria (APSON. Results: The response rate was 76.8% with 127 complete surveys (APSON 34, CAPS 97. Only 29.5% of APSON surgeons had frozen section available for diagnosis of HD. They were more likely to choose full thickness rectal biopsy (APSON 70.6% vs. CAPS 9.4%, P < 0.05 and do an initial colostomy for HD (APSON 23.5% vs. CAPS 0%, P < 0.05. Experience with trans-anal pull-through for HD was similar in both groups (APSON 76.5%, CAPS 66.7%. CAPS members practising in the United States were more likely to perform a one-stage pull-through for HD during the initial hospitalization (USA 65.4% vs. Canada 28.3%, P < 0.05. The frequency of colostomy in females with vestibular fistula varied widely independent of geography. APSON surgeons were less likely to have enterostomal therapists and patient education resources. Conclusions: Local resources which vary by geographic location affect the management of HD and ARM including colostomy. Collaboration between CAPS and APSON members could address resource and educational needs to improve patient care.

  8. Paediatrics: messages from Munich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Midulla

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe paediatric highlights from the 2014 European Respiratory Society (ERS International Congress in Munich, Germany. Abstracts from the seven groups of the ERS Paediatric Assembly (Respiratory Physiology and Sleep, Asthma and Allergy, Cystic Fibrosis, Respiratory Infection and Immunology, Neonatology and Paediatric Intensive Care, Respiratory Epidemiology, and Bronchology are presented in the context of the current literature.

  9. 2014 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Society for History and Philosophy of Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Landry, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains thirteen papers that were presented at the 2014 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Society for History and Philosophy of Mathematics/La Société Canadienne d’Histoire et de Philosophie des Mathématiques, held on the campus of Brock University in St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada. It contains rigorously reviewed modern scholarship on general topics in the history and philosophy of mathematics, as well as on the meeting’s special topic, Early Scientific Computation. These papers cover subjects such as •Physical tools used by mathematicians in the seventeenth century •The first historical appearance of the game-theoretical concept of mixed-strategy equilibrium •George Washington’s mathematical cyphering books •The development of the Venn diagram •The role of Euler and other mathematicians in the development of algebraic analysis •Arthur Cayley and Alfred Kempe’s influence on Charles Peirce's diagrammatic logic •The influence publishers had on the development of mathematical...

  10. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Targeted Testing and Augmentation Therapy: A Canadian Thoracic Society Clinical Practice Guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DD Marciniuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT functions primarily to inhibit neutrophil elastase, and deficiency predisposes individuals to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Severe A1AT deficiency occurs in one in 5000 to one in 5500 of the North American population. While the exact prevalence of A1AT deficiency in patients with diagnosed COPD is not known, results from small studies provide estimates of 1% to 5%. The present document updates a previous Canadian Thoracic Society position statement from 2001, and was initiated because of lack of consensus and understanding of appropriate patients suitable for targeted testing for A1AT deficiency, and for the use of A1AT augmentation therapy. Using revised guideline development methodology, the present clinical practice guideline document systematically reviews the published literature and provides an evidence-based update. The evidence supports the practice that targeted testing for A1AT deficiency be considered in individuals with COPD diagnosed before 65 years of age or with a smoking history of <20 pack years. The evidence also supports consideration of A1AT augmentation therapy in nonsmoking or exsmoking patients with COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 s of 25% to 80% predicted attributable to emphysema and documented A1AT deficiency (level ≤11 μmol/L who are receiving optimal pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapies (including comprehensive case management and pulmonary rehabilitation because of benefits in computed tomography scan lung density and mortality.

  11. SHIFTING GROUND, SOLID FOUNDATIONS: IMAGINING A NEW PARADIGM FOR CANADIAN CIVIL SOCIETY ENGAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini Ramanujam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Members of civil society are increasingly decrying what they identify as an insidious trend whereby the government is targeting organizations whose mandates run contrary to the federal government’s political and economic agendas and creating a chill around public policy and advocacy work. The media as well as civil society organizations [CSOs] themselves have documented government attempts to undermine and stifle the voices of dissenting organizations, ranging from rhetorical attacks to the withdrawal of funding for ambiguous reasons. The climate of resentment and suspicion between civil society actors and the government is detrimental for safeguarding the tradition of accountability and transparency in Canada’s democratic institutions. Amidst this turbulent environment, this paper examines the often-made claim by CSO leaders in Canada that public funding is a necessary requirement for a strong civil society, with the aim of challenging and mobilizing the civil society community to not only survive but to reinvigorate its engagement to further social justice in this changing social and economic landscape. We argue that discussions of the state of civil society in Canada focus disproportionately on the question of funding and relationship-building with the government and expose the unforeseen consequences of this trade-off for CSOs, their members, and constituent communities.  We close by introducing the potential of a new paradigm of “principled engagement” that would allow Canadian CSOs to thrive as sustainable, adaptable social justice advocates in coming years.   Les membres de la société civile décrient de plus en plus ce qu’ils appellent la tendance insidieuse du gouvernement à cibler les organisations dont les mandats vont à l’encontre de ses programmes politiques et économiques et à freiner le travail de représentation et de plaidoyer lié aux politiques publiques. Tant les médias que les organisations de la soci

  12. Canadian Thoracic Society recommendations for management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – 2007 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Donnell, Denis E; Aaron, Shawn; Bourbeau, Jean; Hernandez, Paul; Marciniuk, Darcy D; Balter, Meyer; Ford, Gordon; Gervais, Andre; Goldstein, Roger; Hodder, Rick; Kaplan, Alan; Keenan, Sean; Lacasse, Yves; Maltais, Francois; Road, Jeremy; Rocker, Graeme; Sin, Don; Sinuff, Tasmin; Voduc, Nha

    2007-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major respiratory illness in Canada that is both preventable and treatable. Our understanding of the pathophysiology of this complex condition continues to grow and our ability to offer effective treatment to those who suffer from it has improved considerably. The purpose of the present educational initiative of the Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) is to provide up to date information on new developments in the field so that patients with this condition will receive optimal care that is firmly based on scientific evidence. Since the previous CTS management recommendations were published in 2003, a wealth of new scientific information has become available. The implications of this new knowledge with respect to optimal clinical care have been carefully considered by the CTS Panel and the conclusions are presented in the current document. Highlights of this update include new epidemiological information on mortality and prevalence of COPD, which charts its emergence as a major health problem for women; a new section on common comorbidities in COPD; an increased emphasis on the meaningful benefits of combined pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapies; and a new discussion on the prevention of acute exacerbations. A revised stratification system for severity of airway obstruction is proposed, together with other suggestions on how best to clinically evaluate individual patients with this complex disease. The results of the largest randomized clinical trial ever undertaken in COPD have recently been published, enabling the Panel to make evidence-based recommendations on the role of modern pharmacotherapy. The Panel hopes that these new practice guidelines, which reflect a rigorous analysis of the recent literature, will assist caregivers in the diagnosis and management of this common condition. PMID:17885691

  13. Proceedings of the Canadian Solar Buildings Conference : the 31. annual conference of the Solar Energy Society of Canada Inc. and the 1. Canadian Solar Buildings Research Network conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first conference organized by the newly established Canadian Solar Buildings Research Network (SBRN) was held in conjunction with the thirty-first annual conference of the Solar Energy Society of Canada Inc (SESCI). The conference was attended by top researchers from 10 Canadian Universities to promote innovative research and development in solar energy applications and to advance the awareness of solar energy in Canada. It featured special events such as trade shows, photovoltaic workshops, a course in ESP-r simulation, tours of solar houses and other events focused on the economic, environmental and socio-economic benefits of solar technology, including the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. SBRN was founded on the premise that university researchers should focus on solar energy applications for buildings. Several presentations proposed action plans to accelerate the implementation of solar energy through the use of innovative building technologies and sustainable energy policies. Other major issues of interest were also discussed, including the development of the net-zero energy solar home and grid-connection issues. The sessions of the conference were entitled: solar thermal systems; solar electricity; building integrated photovoltaic systems; design issues and tools; integrating PV and solar thermal in buildings; daylighting and solar radiation modeling; fenestration and shading; PV manufacturing and solar electricity resources. The proceedings featured 41 refereed papers and 13 poster presentations, all of which have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  14. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Society international conference on containment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of containment was discussed under the major topic headings of: USA views on containment design operation and regulation, containment structure analysis, containment envelope and energy suppression systems, European views on containment design operation and regulation, containment atmosphere control, Canadian views on containment design operation and regulation, containment analysis, and regulatory requirements, testing, and periodic inspection

  15. Society needs MD-assisted death, Canadian-trained medical director of US right-to-die society says.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, L S

    1995-01-01

    The growth of an American organization that supports the right to die is proof that the public wants and needs physician-assisted death, says a University of Alberta alumnus who is medical director of the Hemlock Society. Dr. Richard MacDonald says he believes individual patients have the right to decide whether they want to live with a certain quality of life. Both the American Medical Association and the CMA have spoken out against physician-assisted death, but MacDonald says this oppositio...

  16. Pharmacological management of chronic neuropathic pain: Revised consensus statement from the Canadian Pain Society

    OpenAIRE

    Moulin, DE; Boulanger, A; AJ Clark; Clarke, H.; Dao, T; GA Finley; Furlan, A.; Gilron, I; Gordon, A.; PK Morley-Forster; BJ Sessle; Squire, P; Stinson, J; Taenzer, P.; Velly, A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain (NeP), redefined as pain caused by a lesion or a disease of the somatosensory system, is a disabling condition that affects approximately two million Canadians. OBJECTIVE: To review the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews related to the pharmacological management of NeP to develop a revised evidence-based consensus statement on its management. METHODS: RCTs, systematic reviews and existing guidelines on the pharmacological management of NeP ...

  17. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Society 2. international conference on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings contain 136 papers on waste management from 19 countries. An index of the delegates and their affiliations is included. Emphasis was laid on the Canadian program for geologic disposal in hard rock. Sessions dealt with the following: storage and disposal, hydrogeology and geochemistry, transportation, buffers and backfill, public attitudes, tailings, site investigations and geomechanics, concrete, economics, licensing, matrix materials and container design, durability of fuel, biosphere modelling, radioactive waste processing, and future options

  18. State of the Art Compendium: Canadian Thoracic Society Recommendations for Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Denis E O’Donnell; Aaron, Shawn; Bourbeau, Jean; Hernandez, Paul; Marciniuk, Darcy; Balter, Meyer; Ford, Gordon; Gervais, Andre; Goldstein, Roger; Hodder, Rick; Maltais, Francois; Road, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common cause of disability and death in Canada. Moreover, morbidity and mortality from COPD continue to rise, and the economic burden is enormous. The main goal of the Canadian Thoracic Society’s evidence-based guidelines is to optimize early diagnosis, prevention and management of COPD in Canada. The main message of the guidelines is that COPD is a preventable and treatable disease. Targeted spirometry is strongly recommended to expedite earl...

  19. Educators of the Information Society: Information Literacy Instruction in Canadian Informational Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Henkel

    2015-01-01

    As information literacy is a key competence of the information society, information literacy instruction in public as well as academic libraries is crucial. Today, librarians do not only act as providers of information but also as educators of the information society's citizens. The rapid development of information and communications technologies is constantly changing the way we interact with information, making it difficult to keep up to date with instructional trends. This study aims to as...

  20. Nuclear at Niagara. 32nd Annual Canadian Nuclear Society conference and 35th CNS/CNA student conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 32nd Annual Canadian Nuclear Society Conference and 35th CNS/CNA Student Conference was held in Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada on June 5-8, 2011. The theme of the conference, 'Nuclear at Niagara', brought together scientists, engineers, technologists, senior management, government officials, and students interested in all aspects of nuclear science and technology and its applications, including nuclear power generation, fuel production, uranium mining and refining, management of radioactive wastes and used fuel. Other topics include medical and industrial uses of radionuclides, occupational and environmental radiation protection, the science and technology of nuclear fusion, and associated activities in research and development. and applications of energy from the atom. The central objective of this conference was to exchange views on how nuclear science and technology can best serve the needs of humanity, now and in the future. Over 400 delegates from across Canada and other nuclear countries were in attendance.

  1. State of the Art Compendium: Canadian Thoracic Society Recommendations for Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis E O’Donnell

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a common cause of disability and death in Canada. Moreover, morbidity and mortality from COPD continue to rise, and the economic burden is enormous. The main goal of the Canadian Thoracic Society’s evidence-based guidelines is to optimize early diagnosis, prevention and management of COPD in Canada. The main message of the guidelines is that COPD is a preventable and treatable disease. Targeted spirometry is strongly recommended to expedite early diagnosis in smokers and former smokers who develop respiratory symptoms, and who are at risk for COPD. Smoking cessation remains the single most effective intervention to reduce the risk of COPD and to slow its progression. Education, especially self-management plans, are key interventions in COPD. Therapy should be escalated on an individual basis in accordance with the increasing severity of symptoms and disability. Long-acting anticholinergics and beta-2-agonist inhalers should be prescribed for patients who remain symptomatic despite short-acting bronchodilator therapy. Inhaled steroids should not be used as first line therapy in COPD, but have a role in preventing exacerbations in patients with more advanced disease who suffer recurrent exacerbations. Acute exacerbations of COPD cause significant morbidity and mortality and should be treated promptly with bronchodilators and a short course of oral steroids; antibiotics should be prescribed for purulent exacerbations. Patients with advanced COPD and respiratory failure require a comprehensive management plan that incorporates structured end-of-life care. Management strategies, consisting of combined modern pharmacotherapy and nonpharmacotherapeutic interventions (eg, pulmonary rehabilitation and exercise training can effectively improve symptoms, activity levels and quality of life, even in patients with severe COPD.

  2. Educators of the Information Society: Information Literacy Instruction in Canadian Informational Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Henkel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As information literacy is a key competence of the information society, information literacy instruction in public as well as academic libraries is crucial. Today, librarians do not only act as providers of information but also as educators of the information society's citizens. The rapid development of information and communications technologies is constantly changing the way we interact with information, making it difficult to keep up to date with instructional trends. This study aims to assess the perceived quality of information literacy instruction in libraries of Canada's informational cities: Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver. Therefore, librarians were interviewed by means of a questionnaire inspired by the SERVQUAL diagnostic tool. The questionnaire comprises of two parts: The first part consists of questions regarding information literacy instruction, in the second part the focus is on the seven competence areas of information literacy. Based on the difference between the librarians' "Expectation" and "Experience", gap scores for all questionnaire items were calculated and are now being presented and discussed.

  3. State of the Art Compendium: Canadian Thoracic Society recommendations for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Denis E; Aaron, Shawn; Bourbeau, Jean; Hernandez, Paul; Marciniuk, Darcy; Balter, Meyer; Ford, Gordon; Gervais, Andre; Goldstein, Roger; Hodder, Rick; Maltais, Francois; Road, Jeremy; McKay, Valoree; Schenkel, Jennifer; Ariel, Annon; Day, Anna; Lacasse, Yves; Levy, Robert; Lien, Dale; Miller, John; Rocker, Graeme; Sinuff, Tasmin; Stewart, Paula; Voduc, Nha; Abboud, Raja; Ariel, Amnon; Becklake, Margo; Borycki, Elizabeth; Brooks, Dina; Bryan, Shirley; Calcutt, Luanne; Chapman, Ken; Choudry, Nozhat; Couet, Alan; Coyle, Steven; Craig, Arthur; Crawford, Ian; Dean, Mervyn; Grossman, Ronald; Haffner, Jan; Heyland, Daren; Hogg, Donna; Holroyde, Martin; Kaplan, Alan; Kayser, John; Lein, Dale; Lowry, Josiah; McDonald, Les; MacFarlane, Alan; McIvor, Andrew; Rea, John; Reid, Darlene; Rouleau, Michel; Samis, Lorelei; Sin, Don; Vandemheen, Katherine; Wedzicha, J A; Weiss, Karl

    2004-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common cause of disability and death in Canada. Moreover, morbidity and mortality from COPD continue to rise, and the economic burden is enormous. The main goal of the Canadian Thoracic Society's evidence-based guidelines is to optimize early diagnosis, prevention and management of COPD in Canada. The main message of the guidelines is that COPD is a preventable and treatable disease. Targeted spirometry is strongly recommended to expedite early diagnosis in smokers and former smokers who develop respiratory symptoms, and who are at risk for COPD. Smoking cessation remains the single most effective intervention to reduce the risk of COPD and to slow its progression. Education, especially self-management plans, are key interventions in COPD. Therapy should be escalated on an individual basis in accordance with the increasing severity of symptoms and disability. Long-acting anticholinergics and beta-2-agonist inhalers should be prescribed for patients who remain symptomatic despite short-acting bronchodilator therapy. Inhaled steroids should not be used as first line therapy in COPD, but have a role in preventing exacerbations in patients with more advanced disease who suffer recurrent exacerbations. Acute exacerbations of COPD cause significant morbidity and mortality and should be treated promptly with bronchodilators and a short course of oral steroids; antibiotics should be prescribed for purulent exacerbations. Patients with advanced COPD and respiratory failure require a comprehensive management plan that incorporates structured end-of-life care. Management strategies, consisting of combined modern pharmacotherapy and nonpharmacotherapeutic interventions (eg, pulmonary rehabilitation and exercise training) can effectively improve symptoms, activity levels and quality of life, even in patients with severe COPD. PMID:15340581

  4. Vitamin D: still a topical matter in children and adolescents. A position paper by the Committee on Nutrition of the French Society of Paediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidailhet, M; Mallet, E; Bocquet, A; Bresson, J-L; Briend, A; Chouraqui, J-P; Darmaun, D; Dupont, C; Frelut, M-L; Ghisolfi, J; Girardet, J-P; Goulet, O; Hankard, R; Rieu, D; Simeoni, U; Turck, D

    2012-03-01

    The aims of the present position paper by the Committee on Nutrition of the French Society of Paediatrics were to summarize the recently published data on vitamin D in infants, children and adolescents, i.e., on metabolism, physiological effects, and requirements and to make recommendations on supplementation after careful review of the evidence. Scientific evidence indicates that calcium and vitamin D play key roles in bone health. The current evidence, limited to observational studies, however, does not support other benefits for vitamin D. More targeted research should continue, especially interventional studies. In the absence of any underlying risk of vitamin D deficiency, the recommendations are as follows: pregnant women: a single dose of 80,000 to 100,000 IU at the beginning of the 7th month of pregnancy; breastfed infants: 1000 to 1200 IU/day; children less than 18 months of age, receiving milk supplemented with vitamin D: an additional daily dose of 600 to 800 IU; children less than 18 months of age receiving milk not supplemented with vitamin D: daily dose of 1000 to 1200 IU; children from 18 months to 5 years of age: 2 doses of 80,000 to 100,000 IU every winter (November and February). In the presence of an underlying risk of vitamin D deficiency (dark skin; lack of exposure of the skin to ultraviolet B [UVB] radiation from sunshine in summer; skin disease responsible for decreased exposure of the skin to UVB radiation from sunshine in summer; wearing skin-covering clothes in summer; intestinal malabsorption or maldigestion; cholestasis; renal insufficiency; nephrotic syndrome; drugs [rifampicin; antiepileptic treatment: phenobarbital, phenytoin]; obesity; vegan diet), it may be justified to start vitamin D supplementation in winter in children 5 to 10 years of age as well as to maintain supplementation of vitamin D every 3 months all year long in children 1 to 10 years of age and in adolescents. In some pathological conditions, doses of vitamin D can

  5. Treatment of non-metastatic rhabdomyosarcomas in childhood and adolescence. Results of the second study of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology: MMT84

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberlin, O.; Terrier-Lacombe, M.-J. [Institut Gustave-Roussy, Department of Paediatric Oncology, 94805 Villejuif (France); Barrett, A. [Radiotherapy, Beatson Oncology Centre, Western Infirmary, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Martelli, H. [Paediatric Surgery, Hopital Necker, Paris (France); Habrand, J.L. [Institut Gustave-Roussy, Department of Paediatric Oncology, 94805 Villejuif (France); Voute, P.A. [Paediatric Oncology, Emma Kinderziekenhuis, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Otten, J. [Paediatric Oncology, Academisch Ziekenhuis VUB, Brussels (Belgium); Brunat-Mentigny, M. [Paediatric Oncology, Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Theobald, S. [Institut Gustave-Roussy, Department of Paediatric Oncology, 94805 Villejuif (France); Quintana, E. [Paediatric Oncology, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Sommelet, D. [Paediatric Oncology, CHU Nancy (France); Praquin, M.-T.; Rey, A.; Rodary, C.; Flamant, F. [Institut Gustave-Roussy, Department of Paediatric Oncology, 94805 Villejuif (France)

    1998-06-01

    The second International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) study for rhabdomyosarcoma (MMT84) had several goals. The two principal aimswere: (1) to improve the survival of children with rhabdomyosarcoma; and (2) to reduce the late effects from therapy by restricting the indications for surgery and/or radiotherapy after good response to initial chemotherapy. A further aim was to investigate the role of high-dose chemotherapy in young patients with parameningeal primary tumours. 186 previously untreated eligible patients entered the study. Patients with completely resected primary tumour received three courses of IVA (ifosfamide, vincristine and actinomycin D). Patients with incompletely resected tumour received six to 10 courses of IVA according to stage. Patients achieving complete remission with chemotherapy alone did not usually receive radiotherapy or undergo extensive surgery, but patients remaining in partial remission received local therapy with surgery and/or radiotherapy. Only patients over 5 years of age with parameningeal disease and patients over 12 years with tumours at any site were given systematic irradiation. Complete remission was achieved in 91% (170/186) of all patients. With a median follow-up of 8 years, the 5-year overall survival was 68% ({+-}3% standard error of the mean (SEM)) and the 5-year event-free survival 53% ({+-}4% SEM). These results show an improvement over previous SIOP study (RMS75) in which survival was 52% and event-free survival was 47%. Among the 54 patients who exhibited isolated local relapse, 35% (19/54) survived in further remission longer than 2 years after retreatment, including local therapy (surgery{+-}radiotherapy). Analysis of the overall burden of therapy received by all surviving children (including primary treatment and treatment for relapse if required) showed that 24% (28/116) were treated by limited surgery followed by three courses of IVA, 29% (34/116) were treated by chemotherapy alone (after initial

  6. Treatment of non-metastatic rhabdomyosarcomas in childhood and adolescence. Results of the second study of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology: MMT84

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) study for rhabdomyosarcoma (MMT84) had several goals. The two principal aims were: (1) to improve the survival of children with rhabdomyosarcoma; and (2) to reduce the late effects from therapy by restricting the indications for surgery and/or radiotherapy after good response to initial chemotherapy. A further aim was to investigate the role of high-dose chemotherapy in young patients with parameningeal primary tumours. 186 previously untreated eligible patients entered the study. Patients with completely resected primary tumour received three courses of IVA (ifosfamide, vincristine and actinomycin D). Patients with incompletely resected tumour received six to 10 courses of IVA according to stage. Patients achieving complete remission with chemotherapy alone did not usually receive radiotherapy or undergo extensive surgery, but patients remaining in partial remission received local therapy with surgery and/or radiotherapy. Only patients over 5 years of age with parameningeal disease and patients over 12 years with tumours at any site were given systematic irradiation. Complete remission was achieved in 91% (170/186) of all patients. With a median follow-up of 8 years, the 5-year overall survival was 68% (±3% standard error of the mean (SEM)) and the 5-year event-free survival 53% (±4% SEM). These results show an improvement over previous SIOP study (RMS75) in which survival was 52% and event-free survival was 47%. Among the 54 patients who exhibited isolated local relapse, 35% (19/54) survived in further remission longer than 2 years after retreatment, including local therapy (surgery±radiotherapy). Analysis of the overall burden of therapy received by all surviving children (including primary treatment and treatment for relapse if required) showed that 24% (28/116) were treated by limited surgery followed by three courses of IVA, 29% (34/116) were treated by chemotherapy alone (after initial biopsy

  7. Paediatric respiratory infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Everard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary infections remain a major cause of infant and child mortality worldwide and are responsible for a substantial burden of morbidity. During the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress in Amsterdam, some of the main findings from peer-reviewed articles addressing this topic that were published in the preceding 12 months were reviewed in a Paediatric Clinical Year in Review session. The following article highlights some of the insights provided by these articles into the complex interactions of the human host with the extensive and dynamic populations of microorganisms that call an individual “home”.

  8. Paediatric Interventional Uroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paediatric interventional uroradiology lies at the intersection of the disciplines of paediatric interventional radiology and paediatric endourology. Interdisciplinary collaboration has led to the development of new techniques and refinement of procedures adopted from adult practice. This article reviews the major procedures used in paediatric interventional uroradiology, with emphasis on nephrostomy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, balloon-burst pyeloplasty, and antegrade ureteric stenting.

  9. [Recommendations of the Spanish Paediatric Endocrinology Society Working Group on Obesity on eating habits for the prevention of obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo Atance, E; Bahíllo Curieses, P; Bueno Lozano, G; Feliu Rovira, A; Gil-Campos, M; Lechuga-Sancho, A M; Ruiz Cano, R; Vela Desojo, A

    2016-03-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease and early mortality. This paper summarises the currently available evidence on the implications of dietary factors on the development and prevention of obesity in paediatric patients. Evidence-based recommendations are: promote the consumption of slowly absorbed carbohydrates and reduce those with a high-glycaemic-index, avoid intake of sugar-sweetened beverages. Fat may provide up to 30-35% of the daily energy intake and saturated fat should provide no more than 10% of daily energy intake; reduce cholesterol intake, avoid formula milk with a high protein content during the first year; promote higher fibre content in the diet, reduce sodium intake, and have at least four meals a day, avoiding regular consumption of fast food and snacks. PMID:26212421

  10. Embracing the future: Canada's nuclear renewal and growth. 28th annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society and 31st CNS/CNA student conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 28th Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society and 31st CNS/CNA Student Conference was held on June 3-6, 2007 in Saint John, New Brunswick. The central objective of this conference was to provide a forum for exchange of views on how this technical enterprise can best serve the needs of humanity, now and in the future. 'Embracing the Future: Canada's Nuclear Renewal and Growth' was the theme for this year's gathering of nuclear industry experts from across Canada and around the world. This theme reflects the global renaissance of interest in nuclear technology, strongly evident here in Canada through plant refurbishments (underway and planned), new-build planning, renewal and expansion of the nuclear workforce, and growth in public support for environmentally sustainable technology. Topics for discussion at this conference include: the nuclear renaissance in Canada and around the world, recent developments at Canadian utilities, status of plant refurbishment and new build plans, and uranium supply issues. For business, energy, and science reporters this conference offers an insight into major nuclear projects and an opportunity to meet leaders in the nuclear sector. Over 100 technical papers were presented, as well as over 20 student papers, in the following sessions: control room operation; safety analyses; environment and waste management; plant life management and refurbishment; reactor physics; advanced reactor design; instrumentation control; general nuclear topics and standards; chemistry and materials; probabilistic safety assessment; and, performance improvement

  11. Paediatric trauma care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian van As A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood trauma has become a major cause of mortality and morbidity, disability and socio-economic burden and it is expected by the World Health Organization (WHO that by 2020 it will be the number 1 disease globally. The WHO and UNICEF have published their third World Report on Child Injury Prevention in December 2008. Materials and Methods: A systematic review was performed on the history and magnitude of paediatric trauma worldwide. Additionally exciting developments and new trends were assessed and summarized. Results: Paediatric trauma is a growing field of clinical expertise. New developments include total body digital imaging of children presenting with polytrauma; targeted management of head injuries; conservative management of abdominal injuries in children and diagnostic laparoscopy, including the laparoscopic management of complications following the conservative management of solid organ injuries. Conclusion: Paediatric trauma has long been neglected by the medical profession. In order to deal with it appropriately, it makes sense to adopt the public health approach, requiring that we view child injuries similarly to any other disease or health problem. The greatest gain in our clinical practice with dealing with child injuries will result from a strong focus on primary (preventing the injury, secondary (dealing with the injury in the most efficient manner as well as tertiary prevention (making sure that children treated for trauma will be appropriately reintegrated within our society. By actively promoting child safety we will not only achieve a most welcome reduction in medical cost and disability, but also the ever-so-much desired decline of avoidable childhood misery and suffering.

  12. Navigating Two Worlds: New Identity Constructions as Determinants for Successful Integration of New Black Immigrant and Refugee Youth in Canadian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Baffoe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The interest in immigrant children and children of immigrants has been growing recently. There is a gap in the literature on current knowledge on the integration and adaptation conditions of the new second generation of immigrants. For teenage youth growing up in diaspora settings, the issue of identity becomes paramount. Approach: They come to define themselves, as well as how others define them, had important implications for social work practice. Immigrant children and youth were the fastest growing component of child and youth population in Canada. Results: We explored the pertinent issue of identity construction as a significant variable in the integration and settlement challenges that Black immigrant youth face in Canadian society. Conclusion: The article is based on an ethnographic study of a number of Black immigrant youth in two of Canada’s largest cities, Montreal and Toronto, the popular settlement points for many new immigrants to Canada.

  13. JACIE accreditation in paediatric haemopoietic SCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, J M

    2008-10-01

    The Joint Accreditation Committee of the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) and European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT), known as JACIE, is a nonprofit body established for the purposes of assessment and accreditation in the field of haemopoietic SCT (HSCT). The committee was established in 1999 with the aim of creating a standardized system of accreditation officially recognized across Europe and based on the accreditation standards established by the US-based Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy (FACT). The major objectives of JACIE are to improve the quality of HSCT in Europe by providing a means whereby transplant centres, cell collection facilities and processing facilities can demonstrate high-quality practice. JACIE launched its official inspection programme in January 2004, and since then more than 35 centres in Europe have been inspected. The history of paediatric-specific accreditation guidelines has lagged behind the overall development but is now incorporated within the standards. There is now acknowledgement that a paediatric transplant team will be headed by a paediatric programme director, that an independent paediatric unit will perform no less than 10 allogeneic transplants in children under the age of 18 per year, be looked after by nurses and junior doctors specifically trained in paediatric practice and have access to paediatric subspecialties with an intensive care unit on site. Paediatric units will be examined by a paediatric-trained inspector. Remaining issues of difference with the guidelines relate to the numbers required for accreditation in combined units. Overall, the paediatric community in Europe has embraced the JACIE guidelines. JACIE is working more closely with other international organizations in cellular therapy to develop international standards for all aspects of SCT. The recent implementation of Directive 2004/23/EC has provided an impetus for the implementation of JACIE in

  14. Abstracts and proceedings of the 31. annual conference of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering : Building our civilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massiera, M.; Poitras, G.; El-Jabi, N.; Rankin, J.; Elektorowicz, M.; Haralampides, K. (eds.)

    2003-07-01

    This conference covered all aspects of civil engineering, a discipline which ensures the technical quality of all infrastructure to form a solid foundation on which to build the social, economic and political fabric of society. It was attended by representatives from academia, industry and the public sector. It also featured three specialty conferences that were held conjointly: (1) the fifth construction specialty conference, (2) the eighth environmental and sustainable engineering specialty conference, and (3) the first coastal, estuary and offshore engineering specialty conference. In addition, special technical sessions were organized, where a leading expert covered a special theme at the forefront of an emerging issue. A broad range of topics were discussed and several important advances made in the past few years were outlined. The conference featured 262 presentations, of which 18 papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  15. Sustainable development through nuclear technology : 29th annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society and 32nd CNS/CNA student conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 29th Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society and 32nd CNS/CNA Student Conference on Sustainable Development through Nuclear Technology was held on June 1-4, 2008 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The theme of the conference was 'Nuclear Sustainability'. The central objective of this conference was to provide a forum for exchange of views on how this technical enterprise can best serve the needs of humanity, now and in the future. The renewed global interest in nuclear technology is based on a recognition of its potential to meet economic and environmental targets more favourably than competing technologies. Although many of these attractions are short-term in nature, they stem from a broader potential of nuclear technology to drive all aspects of development (social, environmental, economic) in a sustainable in this area. (author) a terial in support of fuel resources themselves. The conference drew a record attendance of over 450 delegates. Over 100 technical papers were presented within 15 technical sessions, as well as over 30 student papers in 5 sessions. The following list of session titles indicates the diversity of the technical papers: advanced reactors; plant and components; process systems; thermalhydraulics; safety and licensing; hydrogen; human factors; physics; instrumentation and control; environment and waste management; and plant operation. (author)

  16. Building on our past... building for the future. 33rd Annual Canadian Nuclear Society conference and 36th CNS/CNA student conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 33rd Annual Canadian Nuclear Society Conference and 36th CNS/CNA Student Conference was held in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada on June 10-13, 2012. With the theme of the conference, 'Building on our Past... Building for the Future', the conference specifically noted the 50th anniversary of the first-nuclear-produced electricity in Canada by the small Nuclear Power Demonstration (NPD) plant on June 4, 1962 and the 60th anniversary of the creation of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited in April 1952. The conference brought together over 360 delegates for the technical sessions with very broad subject matter of: physics, environment and waste management, safety and licensing, life extension, fusion technology, fuel and advanced reactors, reactor materials, uranium mining, I and C process, and, thermalhydraulics. Two plenary sessions focussed on: Small Modular Reactors; and, radioisotopes primarily for medical applications. The student conference was well attended with plenary sessions focussing on: Nuclear Industry Power Developments: The Renaissance; and a panel discussion on the overview of the proposed refurbishment of the Darlington four-unit station.

  17. Paediatric radiopharmaceutical administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassmann, Michael; Treves, S Ted; Borgwardt, Lise

    2014-01-01

    In 2008 the EANM published their paediatric dosage card. In 2011 the North American consensus guidelines recommended a set of administered activities for paediatric nuclear medicine. During the EANM congress in 2012 a working group of the EANM and the SNMMI met to study the possibility of harmoni......In 2008 the EANM published their paediatric dosage card. In 2011 the North American consensus guidelines recommended a set of administered activities for paediatric nuclear medicine. During the EANM congress in 2012 a working group of the EANM and the SNMMI met to study the possibility...

  18. Results of a Quality Assurance Review of External Beam Radiation Therapy in the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (Europe) Neuroblastoma Group's High-risk Neuroblastoma Trial: A SIOPEN Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation therapy is important for local control in neuroblastoma. This study reviewed the compliance of plans with the radiation therapy guidelines of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (Europe) Neuroblastoma Group (SIOPEN) High-Risk Trial protocol. Methods and Materials: The SIOPEN trial central electronic database has sections to record diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy planning data. Individual centers may upload data remotely, but not all centers involved in the trial chose to use this system. A quality scoring system was devised based on how well the radiation therapy plan matched the protocol guidelines, to what extent deviations were justified, and whether adverse effects may result. Central review of radiation therapy planning was undertaken retrospectively in 100 patients for whom complete diagnostic and treatment sets were available. Data were reviewed and compared against protocol guidelines by an international team of radiation oncologists and radiologists. For each patient in the sample, the central review team assigned a quality assurance score. Results: It was found that in 48% of patients there was full compliance with protocol requirements. In 29%, there were deviations for justifiable reasons with no likely long-term adverse effects resulting. In 5%, deviations had occurred for justifiable reasons, but that might result in adverse effects. In 1%, there was a deviation with no discernible justification, which would not lead to long-term adverse events. In 17%, unjustified deviations were noted, with a risk of an adverse outcome resulting. Conclusions: Owing to concern over the proportion of patients in whom unjustified deviations were observed, a protocol amendment has been issued. This offers the opportunity for central review of radiation therapy plans before the start of treatment and the treating clinician a chance to modify plans.

  19. Safety in paediatric imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Those of us working in a dedicated paediatric environment are aware of the important safety issues with regard to paediatrics. Our goal when working with paediatric patients, the goal is to obtain the best quality images while keeping patients safe and their distress to a minimum. This article will discuss some of the issues regarding paediatric safety in a diagnostic imaging department, including radiation doses and the risk to paediatric patients, reducing medication errors, safe sedation practice and environmental safety. Also discussed are some conditions requiring special consideration to maintain patient safety such as epiglottitis and suspected child abuse. Promotion of a patient/family-centered care system will create an environment of trust where parents or guardians will know that their children are being well cared for in a safe, effective environment. (author)

  20. Children's Participation in Paediatric Rehabilitation. An exploration of consultation practices

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    List of papers. The papers are removed from the thesis due to publisher restrictions. Paper 1 Wenche Bekken. The role of objects in understanding children’s participation in paediatric rehabilitation. Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research Volume 16, Issue 2, 2014 doi:10.1080/15017419.2012.761155 Paper 2 “I want them to see that I feel normal.” Three children’s experiences from attending consultations in paediatric rehabilitation. Disability & Society Volume 29, Issue 5, 2014 doi...

  1. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) and International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) collaborative update of CANMAT guidelines for the management of patients with bipolar disorder: update 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Yatham, Lakshmi N.; Kennedy, Sidney H.; Parikh, Sagar V.; Schaffer, Ayal; Beaulieu, Serge; Alda, Martin; O'Donovan, Claire; MacQueen, Glenda; McIntyre, Roger S; Sharma, Verinder; Ravindran, Arun; Young, L. Trevor; Milev, Roumen; Bond, David J; Frey, Benicio N.

    2013-01-01

    Yatham LN, Kennedy SH, Parikh SV, Schaffer A, Beaulieu S, Alda M, ODonovan C, MacQueen G, McIntyre RS, Sharma V, Ravindran A, Young LT, Milev R, Bond DJ, Frey BN, Goldstein BI, Lafer B, Birmaher B, Ha K, Nolen WA, Berk M. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) and International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) collaborative update of CANMAT guidelines for the management of patients with bipolar disorder: update 2013. Bipolar Disord 2012: 00: 000000. (C) 2012 John Wiley ...

  2. Paediatric talus fracture.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, Ann-Maria

    2012-01-01

    Paediatric talus fractures are rare injuries resulting from axial loading of the talus against the anterior tibia with the foot in dorsiflexion. Skeletally immature bone is less brittle, with higher elastic resistance than adult bone, thus the paediatric talus can sustain higher forces before fractures occur. However, displaced paediatric talus fractures and those associated with high-energy trauma have been associated with complications including avascular necrosis, arthrosis, delayed union, neurapraxia and the need for revision surgery. The authors present the rare case of a talar neck fracture in a skeletally immature young girl, initially missed on radiological review. However, clinical suspicion on the part of the emergency physician, repeat examination and further radiographic imaging revealed this rare paediatric injury.

  3. Paediatric interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paediatric interventional radiology (PIR) is a rapidly-growing subspecialty, which offers a wide range of procedures applicable to almost all areas of hospital paediatrics. There are many important differences between paediatric and adult practice in interventional radiology, including disease processes and treatment goals, anatomical considerations, periprocedural patient management, radiation exposure optimisation and legal aspects. The use of retrievable or absorbable interventional devices such as stents will probably become more widespread in PIR practice. Recent advances in the technology of imaging equipment have been accompanied by an increase in the complexity of the work done by the radiographer. These developments present challenges and opportunities related to training and maintenance of skills, staffing arrangements, and the potential for advanced practice. It is likely that specialisation in PIR will become a more common role for radiographers in the future

  4. Paediatric asthma and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Sean R; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E

    2006-12-01

    None of the explanations proposed for the increase in paediatric asthma have been adequate. It is becoming apparent that the cause of the increase in asthma must be multi-factorial. Increasing attention has been focused on the role of lifestyle in the development of asthma. Lifestyle changes that have occurred in children are those in diet and decreased physical activity, with obesity being the product of these changes. The increase in asthma, obesity and a sedentary lifestyle have occurred together. However, a temporal relationship between asthma, obesity and decreased physical activity has not been determined in the paediatric literature. Limited data suggest that decreased physical activity could be playing a role in the aetiology of asthma independent of obesity. Furthermore, there has been substantial research on the benefits of exercise programmes for paediatric patients with asthma. Longitudinal trials monitoring physical activity, obesity and the development of asthma are needed. PMID:17098637

  5. Paediatric Spinal Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhee Goyal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Paediatric spinal anesthesia is not only a safe alternative to general anaesthesia but often the anaesthesia technique of choice in many lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries in children. The misconception regarding its safety and feasibility is broken and is now found to be even more cost-effective. It is a much preferred technique especially for the common daycase surgeries generally performed in the paediatric age group. There is no require-ment of any additional expensive equipment either and this procedure can be easily performed in peripheral centers. However, greater acceptance and experience is yet desired for this technique to become popular.

  6. Electrodiagnosis in paediatric ophthalmogenetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Pkarian (Patricia)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn the present overview, practical application of the visual evoked potential (VEP) in paediatric neuro-ophthalmology is described across a wide range of ophthalmogenetic disorders, including albinism, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease and spastic paraplegia. The VEP approach is based on a fo

  7. Special considerations in paediatric burn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Ramesh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children. In India, the figure constitutes about one-fourth of the total burn accidents. The management of paediatric burns can be a major challenge for the treating unit. One has to keep in mind that "children are not merely small adults"; there are certain features in this age group that warrant special attention. The peculiarities in the physiology of fluid and electrolyte handling, the uniqueness of the energy requirement and the differences in the various body proportions in children dictate that the paediatric burn management should be taken with a different perspective than for adults. This review article would deal with the special situations that need to be addressed while treating this special class of thermal injuries. We must ensure that not only the children survive the initial injury, but also the morbidity and complications are minimized. If special care is taken during the initial management of paediatric burn injuries, these children can be effectively integrated into the society as very useful and productive members.

  8. Radiotherapy in paediatric oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radiation therapy has always been one of the most powerful tools in the fight against childhood cancer. Since the middle of the last century, we have known that most paediatric tumours are exquisitely sensitive to radiation. The early application of radiotherapy alone led to the first cures of retinoblastoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, as well as certain sarcomas and brain tumours. The generous application of radiation in conjunction with chemotherapy led to further extraordinary increases in survival rates for leukemias, Wilms tumour, sarcomas, and other paediatric malignancies. Over the past 40 years, the overall cure rate for childhood cancer has climbed from 25% to 75% in the USA. With this success, however, came the knowledge that radiation can be associated with significant late effects. We now have a much better understanding of both the benefits and risks of using radiation to treat children as we seek to optimize and refine its role in curative therapy. Leukemias constitute approximately one third of paediatric cancer diagnoses and most of these patients are successfully treated with chemotherapy alone. Central nervous system (CNS) radiation is still recommended for patients at highest risk of CNS failure and total body radiation is useful for the small percentage of patients who require bone marrow transplant. Brain tumours also make up almost one-third of paediatric neoplasms and children with most kinds of brain tumours will require high dose radiotherapy. Many of the other types of paediatric tumours (Wilms, neuroblastoma, sarcomas, etc.) also require radiotherapy as part of curative treatment. There have been considerable advances in radiation technology including three dimensional planning, intensity modulated radiation therapy, and protons. Individual paediatric patients may or may not benefit from advanced technologies based on numerous patient and disease related factors. Examples will be illustrated. We must also be mindful of economic and

  9. Radiation Protection in Paediatric Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past decade and a half, special issues have arisen regarding the protection of children undergoing radiological examinations. These issues have come to the consciousness of a gradually widening group of concerned professionals and the public, largely because of the natural instinct to protect children from unnecessary harm. Some tissues in children are more sensitive to radiation and children have a long life expectancy, during which significant pathology can emerge. The instinct to protect children has received further impetus from the level of professional and public concern articulated in the wake of media responses to certain publications in the professional literature. Many institutions have highlighted the need to pay particular attention to the special problems of protecting paediatric patients. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has noted it and the IAEA's General Safety Requirements publication, Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards (BSS), requires it. This need has been endorsed implicitly in the advisory material on paediatric computed tomography scanning issued by bodies such as the US Food and Drug Administration and the National Cancer Institute in the United States of America, as well as by many initiatives taken by other national and regional radiological societies and professional bodies. A major part of patient exposure, in general, and paediatric exposure, in particular, now arises from practices that barely existed two decades ago. For practitioners and regulators, it is evident that this innovation has been driven both by the imaging industry and by an ever increasing array of new applications generated and validated in the clinical environment. Regulation, industrial standardization, safety procedures and advice on best practice lag (inevitably) behind industrial and clinical innovations. This Safety Report is designed to consolidate and provide timely advice on

  10. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  11. Litigation in paediatrics

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphu, JFA

    2011-03-01

    on the issue. This is understandable. Most individuals are healthy during their childhood and have less need of and less interaction with medical services when compared with adults. However, Paediatric litigation does happen and furthermore it is likely to increase in parallel with other specialties. Carroll and Buddenbaum1 have described the pattern of Paediatric litigation in the US. The annual incidence of malpractice claims has been quoted to be as high as 6.6 claims per 100 Paediatricians per year. Almost 30% of Paediatricians have been sued with many being sued on more than one occasion. Of these cases 36% were settled out of court, 33% were dropped by the plaintiff with the remainder going before the judiciary. The authors point out that in the US medical malpractice is a hotly debated issue. Litigation has a questionable impact on health care quality, cost, and access to services. The AMA believes that rising premiums are resulting in the curtailment of medical care particularly in states with high medico-legal rates. The Physician Insurers Association of America (PIAA) is a trade organisation which insures 60% of all private practicing physicians and surgeons has been a useful source of data. In the 20 year period 1985-2005 among a total of 214,226 claims there were 6363 (2.9%) Paediatric claims which ranked it 10th among the 28 specialties covered. The claims arose in equal numbers from the hospital and Paediatrician’s office settings. Common reasons for Paediatric litigation were errors in diagnosis (32%), incorrect performance of a medical or surgical procedure (13%), failure to monitor or manage a case effectively (10%) and medication error (5%). The top five medico-legal conditions were meningitis, routine infant or child checks, newborn respiratory problems, appendicitis and brain-damaged infants as a co-defendant with Obstetrics. Good quality information about litigation is important because the discussion among doctors is frequently confused by

  12. Electrodiagnosis in paediatric ophthalmogenetics

    OpenAIRE

    Pkarian, Patricia

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn the present overview, practical application of the visual evoked potential (VEP) in paediatric neuro-ophthalmology is described across a wide range of ophthalmogenetic disorders, including albinism, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease and spastic paraplegia. The VEP approach is based on a four parameter subdivision of the electrophysiological response which includes, (1) amplitude (μV), (2) latency (ms), (3) waveform (component specificity), and (4) topography (potential distribution ...

  13. Renal imaging in paediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most frequent renal diseases in paediatrics include urinary tract infections, hydronephrosis, kidney anomalies and reflux. The main reason for performing DMSA scintigraphy in paediatrics is the detection of cortical abnormalities related to urinary tract infection. Because the amount of tracer retained in the tubular cells is associated with the distribution of functioning renal parenchyma in the kidney, it is possible, to evaluate the split renal function. In comparison to ultrasound and intravenous urography the sensitivity in the detection of acute as well as chronic inflammatory changes is very high, however less specific. An indication for a renography in neonates and children is beside an estimation of the total renal function and the calculation of the split renal function, the assessment of renal drainage in patients with unclear dilatation of the collecting system in ultrasound. The analysis of the time activity curve provides, especially for follow-up studies, a reproducible method to assess the urinary outflow. The diuretic scintigraphy allows the detection of urinary obstruction. Subsequently it is possible to image the micturition phase to detect vesico-ureteric reflux (indirect MCU) after drainage of tracer from the renal pelvis. An reflux in the ureters or the pelvicalyceal system is visible on the scintigraphic images and can be confirmed by time activity curves. A more invasive technique is the direct isotope cystography with bladder catheterization. The present paper should give an overview about the role of nuclear medicine in paediatric urology. (orig.)

  14. Theoretical Analysis of Canadian Lifelong Education Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukan Natalia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the problem of Canadian lifelong education development has been studied. The main objectives of the article are defined as theoretical analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature which highlights different aspects of the research problem; periods of lifelong education development; and determination of lifelong learning role and importance in modern Canadian society.

  15. Paediatric airway management: basic aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Knudsen, R J; Rasmussen, L S

    2009-01-01

    children. This paper aims at providing the non-paediatric anaesthesiologist with a set of safe and simple principles for basic paediatric airway management. In contrast to adults, most children with difficult airways are recognised before induction of anaesthesia but problems may arise in all children...

  16. Metastatic paediatric colorectal carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Woods, R

    2012-03-01

    A 16-year-old girl presented to our unit with crampy abdominal pain, change in bowel habit, a subjective impression of weight loss and a single episode of haematochezia. She was found to have a rectosigmoid adenocarcinoma and proceeded to laparoscopic anterior resection, whereupon peritoneal metastases were discovered. She received chemotherapy and is alive and well ten month later with no radiological evidence of disease. Colorectal carcinoma is rare in the paediatric population but is increasing in incidence. Early diagnosis is critical to enable optimal outcomes.

  17. The paediatric overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Stuart H. [Neurology Department, Institute of Child Health, University of Birmingham, Whittall Street, B4 6NH, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2004-01-01

    Stroke in children, both ischaemic and haemorrhagic, is increasingly recognised as an important paediatric illness. This review looks at the wide number of causes, highlighting the fact that often no single factor is causative on its own. There has been an increased recognition worldwide of the importance of sickle cell disease and of the importance of venous sinus thrombosis. Radiology is mandatory in diagnosis and management. Unfortunately, it is not always possible to extrapolate experience from adult stroke in terms of management of these children, and further detailed trials are necessary to understand the natural history, outcome and best forms of management. (orig.)

  18. Hereditary angioedema: beyond international consensus - circa December 2010 - The Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Dr. David McCourtie Lecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowen Tom

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 2010 International Consensus Algorithm for the Diagnosis, Therapy and Management of Hereditary Angioedema was published earlier this year in this Journal (Bowen et al. Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology 2010, 6:24 - http://www.aacijournal.com/content/6/1/24. Since that publication, there have been multiple phase III clinical trials published on either prophylaxis or therapy of hereditary angioedema and some of these products have changed approval status in various countries. This manuscript was prepared to review and update the management of hereditary angioedema. Objective To review approaches for the diagnosis and management of hereditary angioedema (HAE circa December 2010 and present thoughts on moving from HAE management from international evidence-based consensus to facilitate more local health unit considerations balancing costs, efficacies of treatments, and risk benefits. Thoughts will reflect Canadian and international experiences. Methods PubMed searches including hereditary angioedema and diagnosis, therapy, management and consensus were reviewed as well as press releases from various pharmaceutical companies to early December 2010. Results The 2010 International Consensus Algorithms for the Diagnosis, Therapy and Management of Hereditary Angioedema is reviewed in light of the newly published phase III Clinical trials for prevention and therapy of HAE. Management approaches and models are discussed. Conclusions Consensus approach and double-blind placebo controlled trials are only interim guides to a complex disorder such as HAE and should be replaced as soon as possible with large phase IV clinical trials, meta analyses, data base registry validation of approaches including quality of life and cost benefit analyses, safety, and head-to-head clinical trials investigating superiority or non-inferiority comparisons of available approaches. Since not all therapeutic products are available in all jurisdictions

  19. Theatre of paediatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Craig A; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-01-01

    In the 50 years since the first edition of this journal, operative paediatric surgery has undergone radical change. Many of the most common instruments are unchanged, both as a testament to their utility and in recognition of past surgeons remembered eponymously. Surrounding that basic core of instruments, theatre has changed radically as new tools and techniques have arisen. Surgeons have come down from their pedestals, recognising surgery as a team sport rather than a solo performance. More than half of the current paediatric surgical trainees are women, a higher proportion than in any other craft group of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons. The appearance, and rapid development, of laparoscopy is to many observers the most notable change in surgery over the last 50 years. Placed in its context though, it is simply the most prominent example of a frameshift in surgical thinking. The patient as a whole is now the focus, rather than just the disease. Recent developments are as much about minimising harm to normal tissues as they are about extirpating pathology. As a surgical maxim, 'Primum non nocere' is even more in evidence in 2015 than it was in 1965. PMID:25586851

  20. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) and International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) collaborative update of CANMAT guidelines for the management of patients with bipolar disorder: update 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatham, Lakshmi N; Kennedy, Sidney H; Schaffer, Ayal; Parikh, Sagar V; Beaulieu, Serge; O'Donovan, Claire; MacQueen, Glenda; McIntyre, Roger S; Sharma, Verinder; Ravindran, Arun; Young, L Trevor; Young, Allan H; Alda, Martin; Milev, Roumen; Vieta, Eduard; Calabrese, Joseph R; Berk, Michael; Ha, Kyooseob; Kapczinski, Flávio

    2009-05-01

    The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) published guidelines for the management of bipolar disorder in 2005, with a 2007 update. This second update, in conjunction with the International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD), reviews new evidence and is designed to be used in conjunction with the previous publications. The recommendations for the management of acute mania remain mostly unchanged. Lithium, valproate, and several atypical antipsychotics continue to be first-line treatments for acute mania. Tamoxifen is now suggested as a third-line augmentation option. The combination of olanzapine and carbamazepine is not recommended. For the management of bipolar depression, lithium, lamotrigine, and quetiapine monotherapy, olanzapine plus selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), and lithium or divalproex plus SSRI/bupropion remain first-line options. New data support the use of adjunctive modafinil as a second-line option, but also indicate that aripiprazole should not be used as monotherapy for bipolar depression. Lithium, lamotrigine, valproate, and olanzapine continue to be first-line options for maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. New data support the use of quetiapine monotherapy and adjunctive therapy for the prevention of manic and depressive events, aripiprazole monotherapy for the prevention of manic events, and risperidone long-acting injection monotherapy and adjunctive therapy, and adjunctive ziprasidone for the prevention of mood events. Bipolar II disorder is frequently overlooked in treatment guidelines, but has an important clinical impact on patients' lives. This update provides an expanded look at bipolar II disorder. PMID:19419382

  1. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Survey of Radiation Biology Educators in U.S. and Canadian Radiation Oncology Residency Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To obtain, in a survey-based study, detailed information on the faculty currently responsible for teaching radiation biology courses to radiation oncology residents in the United States and Canada. Methods and Materials: In March-December 2007 a survey questionnaire was sent to faculty having primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to residents in 93 radiation oncology residency programs in the United States and Canada. Results: The responses to this survey document the aging of the faculty who have primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to radiation oncology residents. The survey found a dramatic decline with time in the percentage of educators whose graduate training was in radiation biology. A significant number of the educators responsible for teaching radiation biology were not fully acquainted with the radiation sciences, either through training or practical application. In addition, many were unfamiliar with some of the organizations setting policies and requirements for resident education. Freely available tools, such as the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Radiation and Cancer Biology Practice Examination and Study Guides, were widely used by residents and educators. Consolidation of resident courses or use of a national radiation biology review course was viewed as unlikely by most programs. Conclusions: A high priority should be given to the development of comprehensive teaching tools to assist those individuals who have responsibility for teaching radiation biology courses but who do not have an extensive background in critical areas of radiobiology related to radiation oncology. These findings also suggest a need for new graduate programs in radiobiology.

  2. Paediatric Blunt Torso Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Khalid M.; Taqi, Kadhim M.; Al-Harthy, Ahmed Z. S.; Hamid, Rana S.; Al-Balushi, Zainab N.; Sankhla, Dilip K.; Al-Qadhi, Hani A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Trauma is the greatest cause of morbidity and mortality in paediatric/adolescent populations worldwide. This study aimed to describe trauma mechanisms, patterns and outcomes among children with blunt torso trauma admitted to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) in Muscat, Oman. Methods: This retrospective single-centre study involved all children ≤12 years old with blunt torso trauma admitted for paediatric surgical care at SQUH between January 2009 and December 2013. Medical records were analysed to collect demographic and clinical data. Results: A total of 70 children were admitted with blunt torso trauma during the study period, including 39 (55.7%) male patients. The mean age was 5.19 ± 2.66 years. Of the cohort, 35 children (50.0%) received their injuries after having been hit by cars as pedestrians, while 19 (27.1%) were injured by falls, 12 (17.1%) during car accidents as passengers and four (5.7%) by falling heavy objects. According to computed tomography scans, thoracic injuries were most common (65.7%), followed by abdominal injuries (42.9%). The most commonly involved solid organs were the liver (15.7%) and spleen (11.4%). The majority of the patients were managed conservatively (92.9%) with a good outcome (74.3%). The mortality rate was 7.1%. Most deaths were due to multisystem involvement. Conclusion: Among children with blunt torso trauma admitted to SQUH, the main mechanism of injury was motor vehicle accidents. As a result, parental education and enforcement of infant car seat/child seat belt laws are recommended. Conservative management was the most successful approach. PMID:27226913

  3. Canadian physical activity guidelines for adults: are Canadians aware?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Leila Pfaeffli; LeBlanc, Allana G; Orr, Krystn; Berry, Tanya; Deshpande, Sameer; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; O'Reilly, Norm; Rhodes, Ryan E; Tremblay, Mark S; Faulkner, Guy

    2016-09-01

    The present study evaluated awareness of the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology's 2011 Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for Adults and assessed correlates. Reported awareness of the physical activity (PA) guidelines was 12.9% (204/1586) of the total sample surveyed. More than half (55%) self-reported meeting PA guidelines of ≥ 150 min of moderate to vigorous PA per week. Awareness of PA guidelines was significantly related to participants' level of PA (χ(2) (1) = 30.63, p < 0.001, φ = -0.14), but not to any demographic variables. PMID:27560541

  4. The use of antiviral drugs for influenza: Guidance for practitioners, 2012/2013; Paediatric summary

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Upton D.

    2013-01-01

    This practice point summarizes the use of antiviral drugs to manage influenza illness in children and youth for the 2012/2013 season. It excerpts a recently published, full-length update of Canadian recommendations for clinicians on the use of antiviral drugs for the prevention and treatment of influenza, with a focus on paediatric antiviral therapy. Detailed information on the selective use of chemoprophylaxis can be found in the source document, which also highlights the importance of secon...

  5. Paediatric investigation plans for pain: painfully slow!

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Elin H.; Ollivier, Cecile M.; Saint Raymond, Agnes

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To examine the early impact of the Paediatric Regulation, which entered into force in Europe on 27 January 2007, on the development of pharmaceutical drugs in the therapeutic field of pain submitted to the Paediatric Committee (PDCO) and to the European Medicines Agency (EMA). Methods Paediatric Investigations Plans (PIPs) submitted with a Decision (outcome) reached between September 2007 ...

  6. Management of paediatric GERD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan

    2014-03-01

    Paediatric GERD is complicated to manage, as symptoms are diverse and often difficult to interpret. In infants, regurgitation is a common physiological condition. Nevertheless, when it occurs frequently (>4 times per day) and causes the infant distress, parents often seek medical help. In children 2-10 years of age, GERD is often considered to cause extra-oesophageal symptoms, despite the absence of hard evidence. Diagnostic investigations often lack solid validation and the signs and symptoms of GERD overlap with those of cow's milk protein allergy and eosinophillic oesophagitis. Reassurance, dietary treatment and positional adaptations are recommended for troublesome infant reflux. Anti-acid medication, mainly PPIs, is over-used in infants even though, in many children, reflux is not an acid-related condition. Moreover, evidence is increasing that PPIs cause adverse events such as gastroenteritis and respiratory tract infections. Management in children older than 10 years is similar to that in adults. Using prokinetics to treat nonerosive reflux disease remains only a promising theoretical concept, as no such molecule is currently available. Today, the adverse effects of each prokinetic molecule largely outweigh its potential benefit. Laparoscopic surgery is indicated in children who have life-threatening symptoms or in cases of drug dependence. PMID:24126561

  7. Canadian Thoracic Society Guidelines for Occupational Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Tarlo

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To provide broad guidelines and principles to help primary care physicians, occupational physicians, allergists and respirologists with the recognition, diagnosis and management of patients with occupational asthma (OA.

  8. Paediatric and adult malignant glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Chris; Perryman, Lara; Hargrave, Darren

    2012-01-01

    Gliomas in children differ from their adult counterparts by their distribution of histological grade, site of presentation and rate of malignant transformation. Although rare in the paediatric population, patients with high-grade gliomas have, for the most part, a comparably dismal clinical outcome...... to older patients with morphologically similar lesions. Molecular profiling data have begun to reveal the major genetic alterations underpinning these malignant tumours in children. Indeed, the accumulation of large datasets on adult high-grade glioma has revealed key biological differences between...... the adult and paediatric disease. Furthermore, subclassifications within the childhood age group can be made depending on age at diagnosis and tumour site. However, challenges remain on how to reconcile clinical data from adult patients to tailor novel treatment strategies specifically for paediatric...

  9. Effective doses in paediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of their longer life expectancy, the risk of late manifestations of detrimental radiation effects is greater in children than in adults and, consequently, paediatric radiology gives ground for more concern regarding radiation protection than radiology of adults. The purpose of our study is to assess in terms of effective doses the magnitude of paediatric patient exposure during conventional X-ray examinations, selected for their high frequency or their relatively high doses to the patient. Effective doses have been derived from measurements of dose-area product (DAP) carried out on over 900 patients undergoing X-ray examinations, in five paediatric units. The conversion coefficients for estimating effective doses are those calculated by the NRPB using Monte-Carlo technique on a series of 5 mathematical phantoms representing 0, 1, 5, 10 and 15 year old children. The annual frequency of X-ray examinations necessary for collective dose calculation are those reported in our last national study on medical exposure, conducted in 1995. The annual effective doses from all medical examinations for the average paediatric patient are as follows: 1.05 mSv for 0 year old, 0.98 mSv for 1 year old, 0.53 mSv for 5 year old, 0.65 mSv for 10 year old and 0.70 mSv for 15 year old. The resulting annual collective effective dose was evaluated at 625 man Sv with the largest contribution of pelvis and hip examinations (34%). The annual collective effective associated with paediatric radiology in Romania represent 5% of the annual value resulting from all diagnostic radiology. Examination of the chest is by far the most frequent procedure for children, accounting for about 60 per cent of all annually performed X-ray conventional examinations. Knowledge of real level of patient dose is an essential component of quality assurance programs in paediatric radiology. (authors)

  10. I Am Canadian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Joe

    "I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness......."I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness....

  11. Interventional radiology for paediatric trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidhu, Manrita K. [Everett Clinic, AIC, Seattle Radiologists, Seattle, WA (United States); University of Washington School of Medicine, Radiology Department, Children' s Hospital and Regional Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Hogan, Mark J. [The Ohio State University, Section of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Shaw, Dennis W.W. [University of Washington School of Medicine, Radiology Department, Children' s Hospital and Regional Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Burdick, Thomas [University of Washington School of Medicine, Interventional Radiology, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Paediatric interventional radiology plays a cornerstone role in the management of paediatric trauma. In the acute setting, interventional radiology techniques allow minimally invasive control of haemorrhage or re-establishment of blood flow. Percutaneous stenting and drainage can allow disruptions in urinary or biliary systems to heal without the need for further surgery. Interventional radiology techniques also have a significant role in treating delayed complications of trauma, including embolization of arterial pseudoaneurysms and pulmonary embolism prophylaxis in individuals immobilized due to the trauma or its operative treatment. (orig.)

  12. Methodologies to assess paediatric adiposity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horan, M

    2014-05-04

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. Appropriate techniques for assessment of childhood adiposity are required to identify children at risk. The aim of this review was to examine core clinical measurements and more technical tools to assess paediatric adiposity.

  13. Usage of unpublished paediatric data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Raymond, Agnès; Pelle, Benjamin; Zaccaria, Cosimo; Sennwitz, Matthias; Branch, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The European Paediatric Regulation (EC No 1901/2006) has three main objectives: increasing the number of appropriate medicines for children, increasing information on these medicines and stimulating high-quality ethical research with children. To contribute to the information, pharmaceutical companies were required under article 45 of the Regulation to submit existing paediatric studies to regulatory authorities for review and update of the product information. Nearly, 19 000 study reports have been identified for a thousand active substances. The data are being assessed by member states' competent authorities in collaboration with European Medicines Agency (EMA). After 7 years, 262 active substances have been assessed, all of the 62 centrally approved and nearly 200 nationally approved medicines. The review so far has led to 16 new paediatric indications, of importance in addressing previously unmet needs, in particular, in younger age groups. The information is being made publicly available in an EMA database accessible directly or through the public face of the European Clinical Trials Register. This will increase awareness of existing data that are useful to researchers and other healthcare professionals, and contribute to avoiding unnecessary duplication of paediatric trials. PMID:26543071

  14. A normal paediatric amylase range.

    OpenAIRE

    Aggett, P J; Taylor, F.(Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States of America)

    1980-01-01

    A normal paediatric range of plasma alpha-amylase activity was determined using the Phadebas blue starch method. The range for children over one year was 98--405 IU/l. Plasma amylase activity increased throughout infancy. Mature levels of activity were observed in some children by age 2 months and in most of them by 9 months.

  15. SPECT and PET in paediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SPECT and PET are useful tools in paediatrics as well as in adults, improving the sensitivity and the diagnostic accuracy. Both techniques have a special interest for the the correlative image, improving the clinical usefulness of both metabolic (SPECT and PET) and anatomic images (MRI, CT, US). SPECT tomographic images are useful in most of the paediatric fields, but specially in oncology, neurology, orthopaedia and cardiology. In paediatric oncology, SPECT images obtained after the injection of metabolic tracers as MIBG, sodium iodine or octreotide allows us to detect residual tumour (neuroblastoma, thyroid tumour or carcinoid). SPECT increases the sensitivity to detect small lesions, lesions closed to bigger tumours, deep lesions or lung metastasis of osteosarcoma. Radioguided surgery is an emerging field in Nuclear Medicine. In Paediatrics, SPECT and SPECT-CT (or SPECT-MR) are useful to assist the surgeon to localize residual tumoral mass (neuroblastoma, thyroid cancer lymph nodes) as well as radioguides biopsy (lymphoma). The usefulness of brain SPECT in paediatric neurology is well known. Brain SPECT images are routinely used to localize epileptic foci, but also for a better understanding of most of the neuropsychologic paediatric diseases (brain death, trauma, vascular diseases, encephalitis, brain maturation, language disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention deficit disorderhyperactivity, etc.). In benign bone diseases, like Perthes disease, osteoid osteoma, bone infection or bone fractures, SPECT images improve the sensitivity and accuracy of bone scan and white blood cell scintigraphy. The tomographic frames, alone or fused with CT or MRI, provide important clinical information referred to the lesion extension or localization (v.g. radioguided surgery for an optimal removal of the nidus in osteoid osteoma). In nephrourology, the benefit of SPECT images compared to DMSA cortical renal scintigraphy is not well accepted by most of the authors

  16. Autoimmune paediatric liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgina Mieli-Vergani, Diego Vergani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Liver disorders with a likely autoimmune pathogenesis in childhood include autoimmune hepatitis (AIH, autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis (ASC, and de novo AIH after liver transplantation. AIH is divided into two subtypes according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (SMA/ANA, type 1 or liver kidney microsomal antibody (LKM1, type 2. There is a female predominance in both. LKM1 positive patients tend to present more acutely, at a younger age, and commonly have partial IgA deficiency, while duration of symptoms before diagnosis, clinical signs, family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders, response to treatment, and long-term prognosis are similar in both groups. The most common type of paediatric sclerosing cholangitis is ASC. The clinical, biochemical, immunological, and histological presentation of ASC is often indistinguishable from that of AIH type 1. In both, there are high IgG, non-organ specific autoantibodies, and interface hepatitis. Diagnosis is made by cholangiography. Children with ASC respond to immunosuppression satisfactorily and similarly to AIH in respect to remission and relapse rates, times to normalization of biochemical parameters, and decreased inflammatory activity on follow up liver biopsies. However, the cholangiopathy can progress. There may be evolution from AIH to ASC over the years, despite treatment. De novo AIH after liver transplantation affects patients not transplanted for autoimmune disorders and is strikingly reminiscent of classical AIH, including elevated titres of serum antibodies, hypergammaglobulinaemia, and histological findings of interface hepatitis, bridging fibrosis, and collapse. Like classical AIH, it responds to treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine. De novo AIH post liver transplantation may derive from interference by calcineurin inhibitors with the intrathymic physiological mechanisms of T-cell maturation and selection. Whether

  17. Autoimmune paediatric liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giorgina Mieli-Vergani; Diego Vergani

    2008-01-01

    Liver disorders with a likely autoimmune pathogenesis in childhood include autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis (ASC),and de novo AIH after liver transplantation.AIH is divided into two subtypes according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (SMA/ANA,type 1) or liver kidney microsomal antibody (LKM1,type 2).There is a female predominance in both.LKM1 positive patients tend to present more acutely,at a younger age,and commonly have partial IgA deficiency,while duration of symptoms before diagnosis,clinical signs,family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders,response to treatment,and long-term prognosis are similar in both groups. The most common type of paediatric sclerosing cholangitis is ASC.The clinical,biochemical, immunological,and histological presentation of ASC is often indistinguishable from that of AIH type 1.In both,there are high IgG,non-organ specific autoantibodies,and interface hepatitis.Diagnosis is made by cholangiography.Children with ASC respond to immunosuppression satisfactorily and similarly to AIH in respect to remission and relapse rates,times to normalization of biochemical parameters, and decreased inflammatory activity on follow up liver biopsies. However,the cholangiopathy can progress.There may be evolution from AIH to ASC over the years,despite treatment.De novo AIH after liver transplantation affects patients not transplanted for autoimmune disorders and is strikingly reminiscent of classical AIH,including elevated titres of serum antibodies, hypergammaglobulinaemia,and histological findings of interface hepatitis,bridging fibrosis,and collapse.Like classical AIH,it responds to treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine.De novo AIH post liver transplantation may derive from interference by calcineurin inhibitors with the intrathymic physiological mechanisms of T-cell maturation and selection.Whether this condition is a distinct entity or a form of

  18. Evidence-based paediatric nursing: paediatric early warning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawronski, Orsola

    2016-05-01

    In hospital cardiac arrest are rare events in paediatrics. Most children receive appropriate care without experiencing undetected severe clinical deterioration during hospital admission. Outcomes of paediatric cardiac arrests are however generally poor, with high mortality rates and neurological damage at survival. A review of child mortality in the UK showed that a high proportion of unexpected deaths were preventable ( Pearsons 2008 ). Several studies of patient records of children who suffered cardiac arrests showed the presence of clear signs of clinical deterioration up to 24 hours before (Tume 2006). Appropriate recognition of clinical deterioration could have led to timely intervention to stabilise the patient. Missed deterioration may be due to lack of staff situational awareness, communication failure among professionals or between staff and families and other human factors ( Brady 2014 ). PMID:27214413

  19. Reduction of radiatin doses in paediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probable late radiation hazards of paediatric patients as a result of exposure during roentgenological investigations needs attention. Grid is used to improve radiographic contrast at the price of an increased radiation dose. Diagnostically acceptable contrast is achieved without grid in various radiological investigations in paediatric patients. This results in significant reduction of radiation dose to children. Optional use of grid is recommended in diagnostic x-ray units for paediatric x-ray examinations. (author)

  20. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) and International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) collaborative update of CANMAT guidelines for the management of patients with bipolar disorder : update 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yatham, Lakshmi N.; Kennedy, Sidney H.; Parikh, Sagar V.; Schaffer, Ayal; Beaulieu, Serge; Alda, Martin; O'Donovan, Claire; MacQueen, Glenda; McIntyre, Roger S.; Sharma, Verinder; Ravindran, Arun; Young, L. Trevor; Milev, Roumen; Bond, David J.; Frey, Benicio N.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Lafer, Beny; Birmaher, Boris; Ha, Kyooseob; Nolen, Willem A.; Berk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Yatham LN, Kennedy SH, Parikh SV, Schaffer A, Beaulieu S, Alda M, ODonovan C, MacQueen G, McIntyre RS, Sharma V, Ravindran A, Young LT, Milev R, Bond DJ, Frey BN, Goldstein BI, Lafer B, Birmaher B, Ha K, Nolen WA, Berk M. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) and International So

  1. Universal values of Canadian astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

    2012-11-01

    Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

  2. What's new in paediatric dentistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, M. C.

    2016-03-01

    Since the early 80's, the use of laser has been introduced in the daily dental practice and the technological development has also provided over time to optimize its use. Various types of lasers with different wavelengths have been developed for use in a handy, easy and ergonomic manner. In daily paediatric dentistry, laser could be a very useful medical device which can completely replace the traditional high hand-piece and bur to realize a "micro-invasive" dentistry and a "clean" surgery, without bleeding and sutures. According to the international literature and in the light of recent researches, this work could give an overview on assisted laser therapy in paediatric dentistry, highlighting advantages and disadvantages of this new technology and pointing out the high compliance of the young patient.

  3. Do We Need an Annual Canadian Respiratory Conference?

    OpenAIRE

    Louis-Philippe Boulet

    2000-01-01

    Beginning in the fall of 2001, as decided at the 1999 Annual General Meeting of the Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS), the Society's annual and scientific meeting will take place jointly with the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP). In the past, this annual event was held in conjunction with the Royal College of Physicians' meeting. Unfortunately, attendance at the Royal College meetings was quite low, and the event did not seem to fulfil the needs and interests of the Canadian respirat...

  4. Clostridium difficile in paediatric populations

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Upton D

    2014-01-01

    An increase in Clostridium difficile infection incidence has been observed among hospitalized children in the United States. The present statement, targeted at clinicians caring for infants and children in community and institutional settings, summarizes the relevant information relating to the role of C difficile in childhood diarrhea and provides recommendations for diagnosis, prevention and treatment. Significant differences between adult and paediatric risk factors and disease are discuss...

  5. A focus on paediatric hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Paolo Bassareo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension can begin early in childhood, as occasional increases in blood pressure or abnormal blood pressure responses to physical or emotional stress. High blood pressure in juvenile age is defined as a blood pressure repeatedly above the 95th percentile of specific nomograms. Its worldwide prevalence ranges from 1% to about 10%. The purpose of this paper is to perform an overview about characteristics, diagnosis, risk factors, therapy, and prognosis of paediatric hypertension.

  6. A focus on paediatric hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Pier Paolo Bassareo; Giuseppe Mercuro

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension can begin early in childhood, as occasional increases in blood pressure or abnormal blood pressure responses to physical or emotional stress. High blood pressure in juvenile age is defined as a blood pressure repeatedly above the 95th percentile of specific nomograms. Its worldwide prevalence ranges from 1% to about 10%. The purpose of this paper is to perform an overview about characteristics, diagnosis, risk factors, therapy, and prognosis of paediatric hypertension.

  7. Information exchange in paediatric care

    OpenAIRE

    Mårtenson Wikström, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Information exchange is an essential component for all involved in the paediatric care encounter. Despite this, most of the research about information exchange concerns adults and the significance of the child’s existence in the encounter have not been given sufficient attention. Therefore, the overall aims of this thesis were twofold. Firstly, the aim was to identify, describe and generate concepts in information exchange between minors, parents/guardians and health care professionals in pae...

  8. Paediatric cataract implant surgery outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Istiantoro Istiantoro

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the surgical outcome of various surgical technique in paediatric cataract implant surgery, at Jakarta Eye Center, Jakarta, Indonesia. This was a retrospective study of 57 eyes in 44 children who had primary cataract implants surgery. Three surgical techniques used were : 1. Extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation with intact posterior capsule which was performed on 21 eyes (group 1). 2. Extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens i...

  9. Canadian guidelines for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide a clinical summary of the Canadian clinical practice guidelines for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) that includes relevant considerations for family physicians. Quality of evidence Guideline authors performed a systematic literature search and drafted recommendations. Recommendations received both strength of evidence and strength of recommendation ratings. Input from external content experts was sought, as was endorsement from Canadian medical societies (Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada, Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Canadian Society of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians, and the Family Physicians Airways Group of Canada). Main message Diagnosis of ABRS is based on the presence of specific symptoms and their duration; imaging or culture are not needed in uncomplicated cases. Treatment is dependent on symptom severity, with intranasal corticosteroids (INCSs) recommended as monotherapy for mild and moderate cases, although the benefit might be modest. Use of INCSs plus antibiotics is reserved for patients who fail to respond to INCSs after 72 hours, and for initial treatment of patients with severe symptoms. Antibiotic selection must account for the suspected pathogen, the risk of resistance, comorbid conditions, and local antimicrobial resistance trends. Adjunct therapies such as nasal saline irrigation are recommended. Failure to respond to treatment, recurrent episodes, and signs of complications should prompt referral to an otolaryngologist. The guidelines address situations unique to the Canadian health care environment, including actions to take during prolonged wait periods for specialist referral or imaging. Conclusion The Canadian guidelines provide up-to-date recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of ABRS that reflect an evolving understanding of the disease. In addition, the guidelines offer useful tools to help

  10. Asian and Pacific Migration: The Canadian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, T. John

    1994-01-01

    Examines the characteristics of landed immigrants (permanent settlers) from Asia, and explores their settlement, adaptation, and integration experience in Canada. It suggests that access to Canadian land does not always translate into equal opportunity in the economy and society, but notes that Canada may be more successful at assimilating Asian…

  11. Inequality of Paediatric Workforce Distribution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peige; Ren, Zhenghong; Chang, Xinlei; Liu, Xuebei; An, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Child health has been addressed as a priority at both global and national levels for many decades. In China, difficulty of accessing paediatricians has been of debate for a long time, however, there is limited evidence to assess the population- and geography-related inequality of paediatric workforce distribution. This study aimed to analyse the inequality of the distributions of the paediatric workforce (including paediatricians and paediatric nurses) in China by using Lorenz curve, Gini coefficient, and Theil L index, data were obtained from the national maternal and child health human resource sampling survey conducted in 2010. In this study, we found that the paediatric workforce was the most inequitable regarding the distribution of children region. For different professional types, we found that, except the Central region, the level of inequality of paediatric nurses was higher than that of the paediatricians regarding both the demographic and geographic distributions. The inner-regional inequalities were the main sources of the paediatric workforce distribution inequality. To conclude, this study revealed the inadequate distribution of the paediatric workforce in China for the first time, substantial inequality of paediatric workforce distribution still existed across the nation in 2010, more research is still needed to explore the in-depth sources of inequality, especially the urban-rural variance and the inner- and inter-provincial differences, and to guide national and local health policy-making and resource allocation. PMID:27420083

  12. Onset symptoms in paediatric multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Magnus Spangsberg; Sellebjerg, Finn; Blinkenberg, Morten

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Paediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) carries a relatively higher mortality and morbidity than adult MS. Paediatric MS symptoms and paraclinical findings at the first demyelinating event have never before been characterised in a Danish setting. The aim of this study was to compare...

  13. Transfusion therapy in paediatric trauma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nystrup, Kristin Brønnum; Stensballe, Jakob; Bøttger, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    Haemorrhage is a leading cause of death in paediatric trauma patients. Predefined massive transfusion protocols (MTP) have the potential to significantly reduce mortality by treating haemorrhagic shock and coagulopathy, in adhering to the principles of haemostatic resuscitation with rapid...... in paediatric trauma patients is challenging, and the optimal blood product ratio that will increase survival in massively bleeding paediatric trauma patients has yet to be determined. To date, only a few small descriptive studies and case reports have investigated the use of predefined MTP in paediatric trauma...... patients.MTP with increased FFP or PLT to RBC ratios combined with viscoelastic haemostatic assay (VHA) guided haemostatic resuscitation have not yet been tested in paediatric populations but based on results from adult trauma patients, this therapeutic approach seems promising.Considering the high...

  14. Contrast echocardiography in Canada: Canadian Cardiovascular Society/Canadian Society of Echocardiography position paper

    OpenAIRE

    Honos, George; Amyot, Robert; Choy, Jonathan; Leong-Poi, Howard; Schnell, Greg; Yu, Eric

    2007-01-01

    As an adjunct to transthoracic, transesophageal and stress echocardiography, contrast echocardiography (CE) improves the diagnostic accuracy of technically suboptimal studies when used in conjunction with harmonic imaging.

  15. Effects of continuing paediatric education in interpersonal communication skills.

    OpenAIRE

    Dulmen, A.M. van; Holl, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Paediatric care places great demands on interpersonal communication skills, especially as regards the handling of psychosocial issues. Recent shifts in paediatric morbidity and increases in patient empowerment furthermore emphasize the need for continuing paediatric education in communication skills. It is, however, debatable, whether after residency paediatric education can influence paediatrician performance. This study evaluated the effects of a 5-day experiential communication training by...

  16. Protest: The Canadian pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This popularly written article compares Canadian attitudes to protests against nuclear power to those in the United States. Canadian protesters are more peaceful, expressing their opinions within the law. The article describes the main anti-nuclear groups in Canada and presents the results of public opinion surveys of Canadians on the use of nuclear power for generating electricity. (TI)

  17. Provision of general paediatric surgical services in a regional hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zgraj, O

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: In Ireland, specialist paediatric surgery is carried out in paediatric hospitals in Dublin. General surgeons\\/consultants in other surgical specialities provide paediatric surgical care in regional centres. There has been a failure to train general surgeons with paediatric skills to replace these surgeons upon retirement. AIM: To assess paediatric surgical workload in one regional centre to focus the debate regarding the future provision of general paediatric surgery in Ireland. METHODS: Hospital in-patient enquiry (HIPE) system was used to identify total number of paediatric surgical admissions and procedures. Cases assessed requiring hospital transfer. RESULTS: Of 17,478 surgical patients treated, 2,584 (14.8%) were under 14 years. A total of 2,154 procedures were performed. CONCLUSION: Regional centres without dedicated paediatric surgeons deliver care to large numbers of paediatric patients. The demand for care highlights the need for formal paediatric services\\/appropriate surgical training for general surgical trainees.

  18. Oral medicines for children in the European paediatric investigation plans

    OpenAIRE

    van Riet-Nales, Diana A; Römkens, Erwin G A W; Saint-Raymond, Agnes; Kozarewicz, Piotr; Schobben, Alfred F A M; Egberts, Toine C G; Rademaker, Carin M. A.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Pharmaceutical industry is no longer allowed to develop new medicines for use in adults only, as the 2007 Paediatric Regulation requires children to be considered also. The plans for such paediatric development called Paediatric Investigation Plans (PIPs) are subject to agreement by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and its Paediatric Committee (PDCO). The aim of this study was to evaluate the key characteristics of oral paediatric medicines in the PIPs and the changes impleme...

  19. Statistics in action a Canadian outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Lawless, Jerald F

    2014-01-01

    Commissioned by the Statistical Society of Canada (SSC), Statistics in Action: A Canadian Outlook helps both general readers and users of statistics better appreciate the scope and importance of statistics. It presents the ways in which statistics is used while highlighting key contributions that Canadian statisticians are making to science, technology, business, government, and other areas. The book emphasizes the role and impact of computing in statistical modeling and analysis, including the issues involved with the huge amounts of data being generated by automated processes.The first two c

  20. Parental knowledge of paediatric vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borràs Eva

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although routine vaccination is a major tool in the primary prevention of some infectious diseases, there is some reluctance in a proportion of the population. Negative parental perceptions of vaccination are an important barrier to paediatric vaccination. The aim of this study was to investigate parental knowledge of paediatric vaccines and vaccination in Catalonia. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional study was carried out in children aged Results An association was observed between greater vaccination coverage of the 4:4:4:3:1 schedule (defined as: 4 DTPa/w doses, 4 Hib doses, 4 OPV doses, 3 MenC doses and 1 MMR dose and maternal age >30 years (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.20–4.43 and with a knowledge of vaccination score greater than the mean (OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.28–0.72. The score increased with maternal educational level and in parents of vaccinated children. A total of 20.47% of parents stated that vaccines could have undesirable consequences for their children. Of these, 23.26% had no specific information and 17.83% stated that vaccines can cause adverse reactions and the same percentage stated that vaccines cause allergies and asthma. Conclusion Higher vaccination coverage is associated with older maternal age and greater knowledge of vaccination. Vaccination coverage could be raised by improving information on vaccines and vaccination.

  1. Paediatric suicidal burns: A growing concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segu, Smitha; Tataria, Rachana

    2016-06-01

    An alarming rise in rates of paediatric population committing self-immolation acts is a growing social and medical problem. In recent times there seems to be a rising concern in paediatric population. A study was conducted at a government tertiary care burn centre over 5 years in paediatric age group of peer pressure leaving them vulnerable. A multidisciplinary care involving medical, psychological and social support is required. Identifying children at risk and proper counselling and support can form an important strategy at prevention rather than cure. PMID:26803366

  2. Impact of the European paediatric legislation in paediatric rheumatology: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruperto, Nicolino; Vesely, Richard; Saint-Raymond, Agnes; Martini, Alberto

    2013-12-01

    Conducting clinical trials in paediatric rheumatology has been difficult mainly because of the lack of funding for academic studies and the lack of interest by pharmaceutical companies in the small and non-rewarding paediatric market. The situation changed dramatically a few years ago with the introduction of the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act in the USA and of specific legislation for the development of paediatric medicines (Paediatric Regulation) in the European Union (EU). The EU Paediatric Regulation had a positive impact in paediatric rheumatology-in particular, on the development of new treatments for children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Some problems remain, however, such as greater harmonisation of the regulatory aspects of medicines, how to handle me-too agents, how to conduct adequate pharmacokinetic studies and develop age-appropriate formulations, ethical problems in study review and implementation, and a change in the current JIA classification. The introduction of specific legislation, coupled with the existence of large international networks such as the Pediatric Rheumatology Collaborative Study Group (PRCSG at http://www.prcsg.org), covering North America, and the Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation (PRINTO at http://www.printo.it), covering more than 50 countries, has led to great advances in paediatric rheumatology. Future changes might increase the possibility of conducting trials with similar approaches in other paediatric rheumatological conditions and provide evidence-based treatments for children affected by rheumatic diseases. PMID:23962457

  3. Role of interventional radiology in paediatric practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article will attempt to discuss the common diagnostic and therapeutic procedures performed in the interventional radiology suite and will highlight procedures that have a potential future in management of paediatric disorders

  4. Inequality of Paediatric Workforce Distribution in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peige; Ren, Zhenghong; Chang, Xinlei; Liu, Xuebei; An, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Child health has been addressed as a priority at both global and national levels for many decades. In China, difficulty of accessing paediatricians has been of debate for a long time, however, there is limited evidence to assess the population- and geography-related inequality of paediatric workforce distribution. This study aimed to analyse the inequality of the distributions of the paediatric workforce (including paediatricians and paediatric nurses) in China by using Lorenz curve, Gini coefficient, and Theil L index, data were obtained from the national maternal and child health human resource sampling survey conducted in 2010. In this study, we found that the paediatric workforce was the most inequitable regarding the distribution of children policy-making and resource allocation. PMID:27420083

  5. Paediatric cardiac nursing education: a national collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kerry; Daniels, Amanda; Sheehan, Karen; Langton, Helen

    2006-02-01

    Educational courses for staff working in paediatric specialties may not be financially viable because of the small numbers involved and the difficulties that potential students have in getting released from their units. The UK Paediatric Cardiac Nurses Association worked with other groups to explore the feasibility of a national multi-professional paediatric cardiac education pathway. Three options were identified, including the continuation of local in-house provision with its associated variation in standards. The relative benefits and resource implications of each option were explored and approaches made to educational institutions for support in developing the pathway. A university with an established reputation for e-learning undertook this development and a post graduate certificate in Paediatric Cardiothoracic Practice will soon be available. PMID:16518954

  6. Optimising doses in paediatric CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography is still extensively used in paediatric imaging. This technique remains a benchmark for bone, lung, cardiovascular exploration and for emergency imaging. The multi-slice technique has revolutionized image quality by improving spatial resolution and bringing acquisition times down to a few seconds, thus almost totally eliminating the problem of movement artefacts common with children. This technique will not therefore be abandoned any time in the near future by paediatric radiologists. However, these multi-slice CT devices today allow rapid and repetitive exploration of large volumes, which can lead to significant individual exposure [1]. A number of surveys have shown that the exposure parameters used in paediatrics are too high when compared with adult protocols [2, 3] even though a lesser dose can provide equivalent image quality [4]. These paediatric CT optimisation measures are currently the subject of an extensive campaign in the literature [5-7]. (author)

  7. Paediatric home care in the UK.

    OpenAIRE

    Tatman, M A; Woodroffe, C.

    1993-01-01

    Paediatric home care services in the UK were ascertained in 1991 and 1992. Respondents from 209 (97%) UK health districts and boards identified 62 general and 124 specialist paediatric home care services by January 1993, 15% having opened in the previous year. Of all UK children, 30% lived in a district with a general home care service. Five health regions had only specialist services. Districts differed widely in the availability of home care for different disorders. The home care services w...

  8. Community attitudes to waterfront change in Canadian port cities

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyle, Brian

    1997-01-01

    This paper is a preliminary, working report on research designed to apply an established method of enquiry in an innovative way to a range of community groups in a series of contrasted Canadian port cities. Community groups are a critical element in Canadian society in general, and in the process of urban waterfront change. Building on earlier work on other 'actors' such as port authorities, urban planners and real-estate developers, this report explores the attitudes and influence of such gr...

  9. Survey of Oxygen Delivery Practices in UK Paediatric Intensive Care Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Administration of supplemental oxygen is common in paediatric intensive care. We explored the current practice of oxygen administration using a case vignette in paediatric intensive care units (PICU) in the united kingdom. Methods. We conducted an online survey of Paediatric Intensive Care Society members in the UK. The survey outlined a clinical scenario followed by questions on oxygenation targets for 5 common diagnoses seen in critically ill children. Results. Fifty-three paediatric intensive care unit members from 10 institutions completed the survey. In a child with moderate ventilatory requirements, 21 respondents (42%) did not follow arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) targets. In acute respiratory distress syndrome, cardiac arrest, and sepsis, there was a trend to aim for lower PaO2 as the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) increased. Conversely, in traumatic brain injury and pulmonary hypertension, respondents aimed for normal PaO2 even as the FiO2 increased. Conclusions. In this sample of clinicians PaO2 targets were not commonly used. Clinicians target lower PaO2 as FiO2 increases in acute respiratory distress syndrome, cardiac arrest, and sepsis whilst targeting normal range irrespective of FiO2 in traumatic brain injury and pulmonary hypertension.

  10. Where should paediatric surgery be performed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arul, G S; Spicer, R D

    1998-07-01

    We have tried to review the evidence for the organisation of paediatric surgical care. Difficulties arise because of the lack of published data from district general hospitals concerning paediatric surgical conditions. Hence much of the debate about the surgical management of children is based on anecdotal evidence. However, at a time when the provision of health care is being radically reorganised to an internal market based on a system of purchasers and providers it is more important than ever to understand the issues at stake. Two separate issues have been discussed: the role of the specialist paediatric centre and the provision of non-specialist paediatric surgery in district general hospitals. There are arguments for and against large regional specialist paediatric centres. The benefits of centralisation include concentration of expertise, more appropriate consultant on call commitment, development of support services, and junior doctor training. The disadvantages include children and their families having to travel long distances for care, and the loss of expertise at a local level. If specialist paediatric emergency transport is available the benefits of centralisation far outweigh the adverse effects of having to take children to a regional paediatric intensive care centre. Specialist paediatric centres are aware of the importance of treating children and their parents as a family unit as highlighted by the Platt committee; this is an important challenge and enormous improvements have occurred to provide proper accommodation for families while their children are treated in hospital. To keep these arguments of large distances and separation from the home in context, one paediatric intensive care unit in Victoria, Australia, providing a centralised service to a region larger in are than England and with a similar admission rate, has a lower mortality rate than the decentralised paediatric intensive care provided in the Trent region of the UK. There is clear

  11. Markets for Canadian oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference presentation presented charts and graphs on the market for Canadian oil. Graphs included crude oil and natural gas prices and heavy oil discount differential. Graphs depicting heavy oil economics such as bitumen blending with condensate were also included along with global crude oil reserves by country. Information on oil sands projects in the Athabasca, Peace River, and Cold Lake deposits was presented along with graphs on oil sands supply costs by recovery type; Canadian production for conventional, oil sands and offshore oil; new emerging oil sands crude types; and 2003 market demand by crude type in the United States and Canada. Maps included Canada and United States crude oil pipelines; western Canadian crude oil markets; long term oil pipeline expansion projects; Canadian and United States crude oil pipeline alternatives; and potential tanker markets for Canadian oil sands production. Lastly, the presentation provided graphs on 2003 refinery crude demand and California market demand. tabs., figs

  12. Good long-term survival after paediatric heart transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Charlotte Duhn; Helvind, Morten; Jensen, Tim;

    2012-01-01

    The brain-death criterion was introduced in Denmark in 1990. The first Danish paediatric heart transplantation (HTx) was performed at Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, in Copenhagen in 1991. We describe our experiences during the first 20 years with paediatric HTx.......The brain-death criterion was introduced in Denmark in 1990. The first Danish paediatric heart transplantation (HTx) was performed at Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, in Copenhagen in 1991. We describe our experiences during the first 20 years with paediatric HTx....

  13. Planetary Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman founded the non-profit Planetary Society in 1979 to advance the exploration of the solar system and to continue the search for extraterrestrial life. The Society has its headquarters in Pasadena, California, but is international in scope, with 100 000 members worldwide, making it the largest space interest group in the world. The Society funds a var...

  14. Imaging of intractable paediatric epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Prabhu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 20% of paediatric patients with epilepsy are refractory to medical therapies. In this subgroup of patients, neuroimaging plays an important role in identifying an epileptogenic focus. Successful identification of a structural lesion results in a better outcome following epilepsy surgery. Advances in imaging technologies, methods of epileptogenic region localisation and refinement of clinical evaluation of this group of patients in epilepsy centres have helped to widen the spectrum of children who could potentially benefit from surgical treatment. In this review, we discuss ways to optimise imaging techniques, list typical imaging features of common pathologies that can cause epilepsy, and potential pitfalls to be aware of whilst reviewing imaging studies in this challenging group of patients. The importance of multidisciplinary meetings to analyse and synthesise all the non-invasive data is emphasised. Our objectives are: to describe the four phases of evaluation of children with drug-resistant localisation-related epilepsy; to describe optimal imaging techniques that can help maximise detection of epileptogenic foci; to describe a systematic approach to reviewing magnetic resonance imaging of children with intractable epilepsy; to describe the features of common epileptogenic substrates; to list potential pitfalls whilst reviewing imaging studies in these patients; and to highlight the value of multimodality and interdisciplinary approaches to the management of this group of children.

  15. Paediatric cataract implant surgery outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istiantoro Istiantoro

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the surgical outcome of various surgical technique in paediatric cataract implant surgery, at Jakarta Eye Center, Jakarta, Indonesia. This was a retrospective study of 57 eyes in 44 children who had primary cataract implants surgery. Three surgical techniques used were : 1. Extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation with intact posterior capsule which was performed on 21 eyes (group 1. 2. Extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation and posterior capsulorhexis (PCCC and optic capture which was performed on 24 eyes (group 2. 3. Extracapsular cataract extraction with intra­ocular lens implantation, posterior capsulorhexis and anterior vitrectomy which was performed on 24 eyes (group 3. All patients were followed up more than one year. Our results showed that posterior capsule opacity (PCO was developed in 20 eyes with intact capsules in group 1. All eyes had a clear visual axis in group 2. PCO developed only in one eye in group 3. In conclusion,  PCCC and optic capture with or without anterior vitrectomy are effective methods in preventing PCO in infant and children. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 21-6Keywords: posterior capsule opacification, posterior capsulorhexis, optic capture, anterior vitrectomy

  16. Volunteering with Newcomers: The Perspectives of Canadian- and Foreign-born Volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Behnam Behnia

    2012-01-01

    Canadian- and foreign-born volunteers have contributed to the settlement of newcomers into Canadian society. Despite their important contribution, little has been reported about the experiences and perspectives of these volunteers. Using the information collected from face-to-face interviews with 60 Canadian- and foreign-born volunteers who support newcomers, this article discusses factors that motivate people to volunteer with newcomers. The study results revealed among other findings that (...

  17. Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015); Budapest (Hungary); September 16-20, 2015; Session “Pharmacology”

    OpenAIRE

    Various Authors

    2015-01-01

    Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015); Budapest (Hungary); September 16-20, 2015ORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Neonatology (ESN), European Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR), Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS), European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNI), with the local host of Hungarian Society of Perinatology and Obstetric Anesthesiology, Hungarian Society of Perinatology (...

  18. Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015); Budapest (Hungary); September 16-20, 2015; Session “Brain & Development”

    OpenAIRE

    Various Authors

    2015-01-01

    Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015); Budapest (Hungary); September 16-20, 2015ORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Neonatology (ESN), European Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR), Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS), European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNI), with the local host of Hungarian Society of Perinatology and Obstetric Anesthesiology, Hungarian Society of Perinatology (MPT), supp...

  19. Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015); Budapest (Hungary); September 16-20, 2015; Session “Other”

    OpenAIRE

    Various Authors

    2015-01-01

    Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015); Budapest (Hungary); September 16-20, 2015ORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Neonatology (ESN), European Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR), Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS), European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNI), with the local host of Hungarian Society of Perinatology and Obstetric Anesthesiology, Hungarian Society of Perinatology (MPT),...

  20. Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015); Budapest (Hungary); September 16-20, 2015; Session “Pulmonology”

    OpenAIRE

    Various Authors

    2015-01-01

    Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015); Budapest (Hungary); September 16-20, 2015ORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Neonatology (ESN), European Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR), Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS), European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNI), with the local host of Hungarian Society of Perinatology and Obstetric Anesthesiology, Hungarian Society of Perinatology (...

  1. Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015); Budapest (Hungary); September 16-20, 2015; Session “Epidemiology”

    OpenAIRE

    Various Authors

    2015-01-01

    Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015); Budapest (Hungary); September 16-20, 2015ORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Neonatology (ESN), European Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR), Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS), European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNI), with the local host of Hungarian Society of Perinatology and Obstetric Anesthesiology, Hungarian Society of Perinatology (MPT),...

  2. Diagnostic radiology in paediatric palliative care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palliative care is an expanding specialty within paediatrics, which has attracted little attention in the paediatric radiological literature. Paediatric patients under a palliative care team will have numerous radiological tests which we traditionally categorise under organ systems rather than under the umbrella of palliative medicine. The prevalence of children with life-limiting illness is significant. It has been estimated to be one per thousand, and this may be an underestimate. In this review, we will focus on our experience at one institution, where radiology has proven to be an invaluable partner to palliative care. We will discuss examples of conditions commonly referred to our palliative care team and delineate the crucial role of diagnostic radiology in determining treatment options. (orig.)

  3. Is paediatric trauma severity overestimated at triage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DO, H Q; Hesselfeldt, R; Steinmetz, J;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severe paediatric trauma is rare, and pre-hospital and local hospital personnel experience with injured children is often limited. We hypothesised that a higher proportion of paediatric trauma victims were taken to the regional trauma centre (TC). METHODS: This is an observational...... follow-up study that involves one level I TC and seven local hospitals. We included paediatric (trauma patients with a driving distance to the TC > 30 minutes. The primary end-point was the proportion of trauma patients arriving in the TC. RESULTS: We included 1934...... trauma patients, 238 children and 1696 adults. A total of 33/238 children (13.9%) vs. 304/1696 adults (17.9%) were transported to the TC post-injury (P = 0.14). Among these, children were significantly less injured than adults [median Injury Severity Score (ISS) 9 vs. 14, P 

  4. Hot tonsillectomy for paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Paula; Marzouk, Sherief Deya; Gerolympou, Margarita; Marais, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea is a common presentation in paediatric ear, nose and tongue (ENT) outpatients. The use of sleep studies is controversial however once a diagnosis has been made, frequently treatment is surgery. Should these patients be operated on as urgent cases? A 5-year-old boy was admitted under the paediatric team with difficultly breathing and desaturations to 77%. The patient had previously been seen by ENT as an outpatient with an 8-month history of obstructive sleep apnoea and was listed for an adenotonsillectomy with the standard waiting time. During this admission he had an emergency adenotonsillectomy. The patient improved immediately with no large desaturations in recovery and normal observations throughout his stay. It is never ideal to do a paediatric emergency operation and we have reviewed the evidence base to answer the question: Should these patients be treated urgently when seen in outpatients? PMID:24907212

  5. Diagnostic radiology in paediatric palliative care

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Preena; Koh, Michelle; Carr, Lucinda; McHugh, Kieran [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    Palliative care is an expanding specialty within paediatrics, which has attracted little attention in the paediatric radiological literature. Paediatric patients under a palliative care team will have numerous radiological tests which we traditionally categorise under organ systems rather than under the umbrella of palliative medicine. The prevalence of children with life-limiting illness is significant. It has been estimated to be one per thousand, and this may be an underestimate. In this review, we will focus on our experience at one institution, where radiology has proven to be an invaluable partner to palliative care. We will discuss examples of conditions commonly referred to our palliative care team and delineate the crucial role of diagnostic radiology in determining treatment options. (orig.)

  6. A disjointed effort: paediatric musculoskeletal examination.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gill, Irwin

    2012-07-01

    Musculoskeletal (MSK) symptoms are a frequent cause of emergency department attendance for children, and while most often indicative of benign or self-limiting disease, such symptoms can occasionally be the first presentation of serious illness such as leukaemia or juvenile idiopathic arthritis. MSK examination, however, is often not included as part of the routine paediatric examination. The authors aimed to evaluate how often and how thoroughly MSK examination was performed during admissions to the paediatric ward and to compare it with the examination of other symptoms in relation to the presenting complaint and eventual diagnosis.

  7. Radiological protection of paediatric patients: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paediatric patients require special attention with respect to radiation protection, for various reasons. The difference between a 1 kg premature baby and a 100 kg teenager puts special demands on the radiographic techniques used, and the increased radiosensitivity of growing tissue and the patients' longer life expectancy put greater demands on the justification of the procedures to be carried out. The optimization procedure involves practical aspects such as immobilization, body build specific exposure parameters and body build specific anatomical knowledge. These and other aspects of paediatric radiological protection are discussed in this overview. (author)

  8. Nonunion of paediatric talar neck fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindal Nipun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Fractures of the paediatric talus are infrequent injuries, most complicated by posttraumatic arthrosis and avascular necrosis in the course of treatment. Non- union in children has not been reported before in literature. We report a case of a 12-year-old boy who had a nonunion of Hawkins type II fracture of talar neck. The nonunion was treated surgically with a good clinical outcome. The goals of management in nonunion of paediatric talar neck fracture are different from those in fresh fractures. A suboptimal reduction should be acceptable without trying a radical surgery which may cause further impairment.

  9. The applicability of the WHO classification in paediatric AML. A NOPHO-AML study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandahl, Julie D; Kjeldsen, Eigil; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Ha, Shau-Yin; Heldrup, Jesper; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Jónsson, Ólafur G; Lausen, Birgitte; Palle, Josefine; Zeller, Bernward; Forestier, Erik; Hasle, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    population-based paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cohort. We included children diagnosed with de novo AML, 0-18 years of age from the Nordic countries and Hong Kong from 1993 to 2012. Data were retrieved from the Nordic Society for Paediatric Haematology and Oncology AML database and patients...... classified according to the WHO 2008 classification. A successful karyotype was available in 97% of the cases. AML with recurrent genetic abnormalities were present in 262 (41%) and 94 (15%) were classified as AML with myelodysplasia-related changes (AML-MDS). WHO classifies patients with monosomy 7 and del......(7q) into one group. We found that -7 (n = 14) had significantly poorer outcome than del(7q) (n = 11); 5-year event-free survival 26% vs. 67%, (P = 0·02), and 5-year overall survival 51% vs. 90%, (P = 0·04). The largest group was the highly heterogeneous AML not otherwise specified (NOS) (n = 280...

  10. Retinal detachment in paediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the causes of retinal detachment in children and the various operative procedures requiring vitreoretinal surgical intervention for the same. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Ophthalmology, Al-Shifa Trust Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi, from January 2006 to May 2009. Methodology: A total of 281 eyes of 258 patients, (aged 0 - 18 years) who underwent vitreo-retinal surgical intervention for retinal detachment were included. Surgical log was searched for the type of retinal detachment and its causes. Frequencies of various interventions done in these patients viz. vitrectomy, scleral buckle, use of tamponading agents, laser photocoagulation and cryotherapy were noted. Results were described as descriptive statistics. Results: Myopia was the cause in 62 (22.1%) and trauma in 51 (18.1%) of the eyes. Total retinal detachment (RD) was treated in 94 (33.5%) eyes, sub total RD in 36 (12.8%), recurrent RD in 32 (11.4%), giant retinal tear in 28 (10%), tractional RD in 15 (5.3%) and exudative RD in 2 (0.7%). Prophylactic laser or cryotherapy was applied in 74 (26.3%) of the eyes. Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) was carried out in 159 (56.6%) eyes while scleral buckle procedure was done in 129 (45.9%) eyes. Silicon oil was used in 149 (53%), perfluorocarbon liquid in 32 (11.4%) and gas tamponade in 20 (7.1%) eyes. Conclusion: The most common cause of retinal detachment in paediatric patients was myopia, followed by trauma. Total RD was more common as compared to the other types. The most common procedure adopted was pars plana vitrectomy followed by scleral buckle procedure. (author)

  11. An overview of paediatric leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kafetzis D

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis, a parasitic disease transmitted by the bite of some species of sandflies affects various age groups depending on the infecting Leishmania species, geographic location, disease reservoir, and host immunocompetence. Visceral leishmaniasis is the most severe form of the disease affecting children. The extent and presentation of the disease depend on several factors, including the humoral and cell-mediated immune response of the host, the virulence of the infecting species, and the parasite burden. Children are at greater risk than adults in endemic areas. Malnutrition contributes to the development of disease, and incomplete therapy of initial disease is a risk factor for recurrence of leishmaniasis. Children usually present with intermittent fever, paleness, refusal to feed or anorexia, weight loss, and abdominal distension. Splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, lymph node enlargement, thrombocytopaenia, anaemia, leukopaenia and hypergammaglobulinemia are the most common findings in Paediatric leishmaniasis. Molecular methods appear to offer the promise of accurate non-invasive tools for the diagnosis of Leishmaniasis. Till these methods are evaluated, definite diagnosis will rely on the demonstration of the infecting parasite in various tissues. World-wide, with the notable exception of India, pentavalent antimonial compounds remain the most effective and the most affordable therapy for this disease. Lipid formulations of amphotericin B were assessed as short duration treatment and were proved to be effective. However, their cost precludes their wide use in developing countries. Miltefosine, a new oral agent, might prove effective, safe, and affordable. Strategies aimed at control of the micro-population of sandflies, eradication of canine leishmaniasis, and offering personal protection against sandfly bites, together with health education programs in developing countries, can help control the disease. Development of an effective vaccine

  12. Virtual colonoscopy in paediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the usefulness of perspective-filet view for polypoid lesions in paediatric patients in comparison with conventional virtual colonoscopy (VC) analysis and optical colonoscopy. Methods: Sixty-one patients (mean age 5 years old) with a previous episode of rectal bleeding were studied using a 16 slices CT scanner. All patients underwent a colonic preparation. Two acquisitions were done in supine and prone positions with slices of 2 mm thickness; increment 1 mm, 30-50 mA; 90-120 kV. In a workstation an experienced radiologist reviewed images twice. The first read was done using the conventional virtual colonoscopy technique with the evaluation of two-dimensional (2D), three-dimensional (3D) and endoscopical images. Later, in a second session, perspective-filet view was used. It shows a 360 deg. unrolled visualization of the inner colon. The presence, size and location of the lesions were determined. A record of the reading time was made. Results: At per patient evaluation the conventional virtual colonoscopy analysis obtained a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 98%. The perspective-filet view obtained a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 99%. In the evaluation on a per lesion basis the conventional analysis had a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 88%. Perspective-filet view, had a sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 90%. The average total reading time using conventional colonoscopy technique was 18 ± 3 min, versus 4 ± 1 min using the perspective-filet view. Conclusion: Virtual colon dissection with perspective-filet view is more time-efficient than conventional virtual colonoscopy evaluation with correct correlation in results.

  13. Virtual colonoscopy in paediatric patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrascosa, Patricia [Diagnostico Maipu, Av. Maipu 1668, Vicente Lopez (B1602ABQ), Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: patriciacarrascosa@diagnosticomaipu.com.ar; Lopez, Elba Martin; Capunay, Carlos; Vallejos, Javier; Carrascosa, Jorge [Diagnostico Maipu, Av. Maipu 1668, Vicente Lopez (B1602ABQ), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-04-15

    Objective: To determine the usefulness of perspective-filet view for polypoid lesions in paediatric patients in comparison with conventional virtual colonoscopy (VC) analysis and optical colonoscopy. Methods: Sixty-one patients (mean age 5 years old) with a previous episode of rectal bleeding were studied using a 16 slices CT scanner. All patients underwent a colonic preparation. Two acquisitions were done in supine and prone positions with slices of 2 mm thickness; increment 1 mm, 30-50 mA; 90-120 kV. In a workstation an experienced radiologist reviewed images twice. The first read was done using the conventional virtual colonoscopy technique with the evaluation of two-dimensional (2D), three-dimensional (3D) and endoscopical images. Later, in a second session, perspective-filet view was used. It shows a 360 deg. unrolled visualization of the inner colon. The presence, size and location of the lesions were determined. A record of the reading time was made. Results: At per patient evaluation the conventional virtual colonoscopy analysis obtained a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 98%. The perspective-filet view obtained a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 99%. In the evaluation on a per lesion basis the conventional analysis had a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 88%. Perspective-filet view, had a sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 90%. The average total reading time using conventional colonoscopy technique was 18 {+-} 3 min, versus 4 {+-} 1 min using the perspective-filet view. Conclusion: Virtual colon dissection with perspective-filet view is more time-efficient than conventional virtual colonoscopy evaluation with correct correlation in results.

  14. Bilingualism: A Canadian Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    Bilingualism in French and English is a much-to-be hoped for common and shared characteristic of Canadian citizenship—even though to date the effect of forty years of the Official Languages Act has been most marked in government services and among various Canadian elites. Although it is important that Canada hold onto a goal of the widest possible bilingualism,more modest objectives are outlined for the years immediately ahead.

  15. The delivery of general paediatric surgery in Ireland: a survey of higher surgical trainees.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, E

    2012-12-01

    The delivery of general paediatric surgery is changing in Ireland. Fewer paediatric surgical procedures are being performed by newly appointed consultant general surgeons, resulting in increased referrals to the specialist paediatric surgeons of uncomplicated general paediatric surgical problems. We surveyed current higher surgical trainees about their views on provision of paediatric surgical services.

  16. A review of paediatric tuberculosis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatleberg, Camilla; Prahl, Julie B; Rasmussen, Jeppe Nørgaard;

    2014-01-01

    Paediatric tuberculosis (TB) is a key indicator for recent transmission and presents a reservoir for the disease. We describe trends in epidemiology, microbiological characteristics and treatment outcome in Denmark between 2000 and 2009. Data was retrieved from the national TB surveillance system...

  17. Ingested foreign bodies in the paediatric patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, G C

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Paediatric foreign body (FB) ingestion is a common problem and while most can be managed conservatively, a sub-population require intervention. AIMS: To establish clear guidelines for management of paediatric FB ingestion. METHODS: A retrospective chart review analysing all paediatric admissions with FB ingestion over a 10-year period from 1990 to 1999. RESULTS: Of 339 patients presenting to the accident and emergency department with FB ingestion, 59 required admission. Ingestion was accidental in 93.0% of patients. The reasons for admission were as follows: large FBs; dangerous FBs; and living far from the hospital. Nineteen patients (32.2%) were discharged without intervention. Thirty-seven (62.7%) required endoscopic retrieval. In two, the FB was not identified at endoscopy. Only three (5%) required surgery. CONCLUSION: Conservative management of FB ingestion in the paediatric population is possible in the majority of cases. However, a minority require intervention. While guidelines for intervention are ill-defined, definitive indications include symptomatic patients, or dangerous objects.

  18. Recent advances in paediatric respiratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Andrew; Balfour-Lynn, Ian M

    2016-02-01

    This review highlights important advances in paediatric respiratory medicine since 2014, excluding cystic fibrosis. It focuses mainly on the more common conditions, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, bronchiolitis and preschool wheezing, asthma, pneumonia and sleep, and highlights some of the rarer conditions such as primary ciliary dyskinesia and interstitial lung disease (ILD). PMID:26289061

  19. Recent developments in paediatric neuraxial blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrushali Chandrashekhar Ponde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paediatric anaesthesia and paediatric regional anaesthesia are intertwined. Almost all surgeries unless contradicted could be and should be supplemented with a regional block. The main objective of this review is to elaborate on the recent advances of the central neuraxial blocks, such as application of ultrasound guidance and electrical stimulation in the pursuit of safety and an objective end point. This review also takes account of the traditional technique and understand the benefits as well the risk of each as compared with the recent technique. The recent trends in choosing the most appropriate peripheral block for a given surgery thereby sparing the central neuroaxis is considered. A penile block for circumcision or a sciatic block for unilateral foot surgery, rather than caudal epidural would have a better risk benefit equation. Readers will find a special mention on the recent thoughts on continuous epidural analgesia in paediatrics, especially its rise and fall, yet its unique importance. Lastly, the issue of block placements under sedation or general anaesthesia with its implication in this special population is dealt with. We conducted searches in MEDLINE (PubMed and assessed the relevance of the abstracts of citations identified from literature searches. The search was carried out in English, for last 10 years, with the following key words: Recent advances in paediatric regional anaesthesia; ultrasound guidance for central neuraxial blocks in children; role of electrical stimulation in neuraxial blocks in children; complications in neuraxial block. Full-text articles of potentially relevant abstracts were retrieved for further review.

  20. Educational Goal-Setting in a Native-Canadian Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, H. Joseph

    A revitalization of Canadian Indian culture occurred as a result of the 1967 Hawthorn Report, which advocated the integration of Canada natives into white society. On the Eskasoni Indian Reserve, home of 1700 Micma Indians in Nova Scotia, the revitalization was shown in the results of two questionnaires about local education. On the first…

  1. Movement for Canadian Literacy: Statistics Show Millions Struggle with Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movement for Canadian Literacy, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The International Adult Literacy and Skills Survey (IALSS), released on November 9, takes a closer look at Canadians' ability to deal with everyday literacy demands. In today's information-based society and economy, literacy is more important than ever. IALSS defines literacy as one's capacity to "use printed and written information to function in…

  2. Canadian competitive advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of the Canadian petrochemical industry was outlined, emphasizing the proximity to feedstocks as the principal advantage enjoyed by the industry over its international competitors. Annual sales statistics for 1995 were provided. Key players in the Canadian petrochemical industry (Nova, Dow, DuPont, Methanex, Esso, Union Carbide, Shell and Celanese), their share of the market and key products were noted. Manufacturing facilities are located primarily in Alberta, southern Ontario and Quebec. The feedstock supply infrastructure, historical and alternative ethane pricing in Canada and the US, the North American market for petrochemicals, the competitiveness of the industry, tax competitiveness among Canadian provinces and the US, the Canada - US unit labour cost ratio, ethylene facility construction costs in Canada relative to the US Gulf Coast, and projected 1997 financial requirements were reviewed. 19 figs

  3. Quality in paediatric emergency medicine: Measurement and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Meredith L; Shepherd, Mike

    2016-02-01

    There is a clear demand for quality in the delivery of health care around the world; paediatric emergency medicine is no exception to this movement. It has been identified that gaps exist in the quality of acute care provided to children. Regulatory bodies in Australia and New Zealand are moving to mandate the implementation of quality targets and measures. Within the paediatric emergency department (ED), there is a lack of research into paediatric specific indicators. The existing literature regarding paediatric acute care quality measures has been recently summarised, and expert consensus has now been reported. It is clear that there is much work to be performed to generalise this work to ED. We review suggestions from the current literature relating to feasible indicators within the paediatric acute care setting. We propose options to develop a quality 'scorecard' that could be used to assist Australian and New Zealand EDs with quality measurement and benchmarking for their paediatric patients. PMID:27062615

  4. Canadian Irradiation Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Irradiation Centre is a non-profit cooperative project between Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Radiochemical Company and Universite du Quebec, Institut Armand-Frappier, Centre for Applied Research in Food Science. The Centre's objectives are to develop, demonstrate and promote Canada's radiation processing technology and its applications by conducting applied research; training technical, professional and scientific personnel; educating industry and government; demonstrating operational and scientific procedures; developing processing procedures and standards, and performing product and market acceptance trials. This pamphlet outlines the history of radoation technology and the services offered by the Canadian Irradiation Centre

  5. Canadian beef quality audit.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Jewison, G; M. Mann; Cherry, B; Altwasser, B; Lower, R; Wiggins, K; Dejonge, R; Thorlakson, B; Moss, E.; C. Mills; Grogan, H

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted in 4 Canadian processing plants in 1995-96 to determine the prevalence of quality defects in Canadian cattle. One percent of the annual number of cattle processed in Canada were evaluated on the processing floor and 0.1% were graded in the cooler. Brands were observed on 37% and multiple brands on 6% of the cattle. Forty percent of the cattle had horns, 20% of which were scurs, 33% were stubs, 10% were tipped, and 37% were full length. Tag (mud and manure on the hide) wa...

  6. Paediatric trigger thumb: our experiences and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Yuksel Kankaya; Kadri Ozer; Nezih Sungur; Ozlem Colak Aslan; Adile Turan; Ugur Kocer

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to report our experiences and surgical results in paediatric trigger thumb and to review the literature about paediatric trigger thumb. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of our paediatric trigger thumb patients who underwent open surgery. Our study includes 19 thumbs of 13 children with a mean age of 30 months. Analysis into gender, age of onset, age of surgery, family history and postoperative complications were carried out. Biopsies of A1 an...

  7. Peer mentoring: evaluation of a novel programme in paediatrics

    OpenAIRE

    Eisen, S; Sukhani, S.; Brightwell, A.; Stoneham, S; Long, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mentoring is important for personal and professional development of doctors. Peer mentoring is a core skill in the UK paediatric postgraduate curriculum. However, there is a paucity of peer mentoring programmes aimed at postgraduate doctors in training (postgraduate trainees), and there are no such schemes within paediatrics described in the literature. We developed a regional peer mentoring programme for postgraduate trainees in paediatrics to assess demand and need for peer mento...

  8. Outward bound: Unprecedented opportunity lures all Canadian energy sectors to international oil scene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, G.

    1998-05-04

    The global dimensions of Canadian energy enterprises were reviewed. It has been found that as the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin is getting more mature, the opportunities in Canada are declining, hence the worldwide involvements of Canadian oil and service and supply companies in exploration, drilling, production and servicing in many parts of the world. Canadian Occidental Petroleum in Yemen, Canadian Fracmaster in Russia, Destiny Resource Services in South America, Gabon, Yemen and Papua New Guinea, Pacalta Resources Limited in Ecuador, Talisman Energy in Indonesia, TransCanada Pipelines, Ocelot Energy Inc and Nova Corporation building pipelines in South America and in Zambia, and Atco everywhere, are just some of the examples cited. So far, Canadian push abroad is short of a rush as only 10 per cent of spending and production by Canadian oil and gas companies is overseas, compared to 50 per cent for Americans. The ratio is about the same for Canadian service and supply companies. Canada has the advantage of being almost the only industrial society without an unpleasant imperial past. That, combined with the `nice guy` image of the maple leaf will inevitably lead to even greater Canadian share of the international oil and gas business. The decline in the traditional role of U. S. companies in global oil markets after 1985 (according to a recent API report) and the tremendous opportunities created by the opening of the former Soviet Union to foreign capital will also contribute to enhancing the international role played by Canadian oil, gas, and service and supply companies.

  9. Outward bound: Unprecedented opportunity lures all Canadian energy sectors to international oil scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global dimensions of Canadian energy enterprises were reviewed. It has been found that as the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin is getting more mature, the opportunities in Canada are declining, hence the worldwide involvements of Canadian oil and service and supply companies in exploration, drilling, production and servicing in many parts of the world. Canadian Occidental Petroleum in Yemen, Canadian Fracmaster in Russia, Destiny Resource Services in South America, Gabon, Yemen and Papua New Guinea, Pacalta Resources Limited in Ecuador, Talisman Energy in Indonesia, TransCanada Pipelines, Ocelot Energy Inc and Nova Corporation building pipelines in South America and in Zambia, and Atco everywhere, are just some of the examples cited. So far, Canadian push abroad is short of a rush as only 10 per cent of spending and production by Canadian oil and gas companies is overseas, compared to 50 per cent for Americans. The ratio is about the same for Canadian service and supply companies. Canada has the advantage of being almost the only industrial society without an unpleasant imperial past. That, combined with the 'nice guy' image of the maple leaf will inevitably lead to even greater Canadian share of the international oil and gas business. The decline in the traditional role of U. S. companies in global oil markets after 1985 (according to a recent API report) and the tremendous opportunities created by the opening of the former Soviet Union to foreign capital will also contribute to enhancing the international role played by Canadian oil, gas, and service and supply companies

  10. Paediatric day-case neurosurgery in a resource challenged setting: Pattern and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afolabi Muyiwa Owojuyigbe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been generally observed that children achieve better convalescence in the home environment especially if discharged same day after surgery. This is probably due to the fact that children generally tend to feel more at ease in the home environment than in the hospital setting. Only few tertiary health institutions provide routine day-case surgery for paediatric neurosurgical patients in our sub-region. Objective: To review the pattern and practice of paediatric neurosurgical day-cases at our hospital. Patients and Methods: A prospective study of all paediatric day-case neurosurgeries carried out between June 2011 and June 2014. Results: A total of 53 patients (34 males and 19 females with age ranging from 2 days to 14 years were seen. Majority of the patients (77.4% presented with congenital lesions, and the most common procedure carried out was spina bifida repair (32% followed by ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion (26.4% for hydrocephalus. Sixty-eight percentage belonged to the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class 2, whereas the rest (32% belonged to class 1. General anaesthesia was employed in 83% of cases. Parenteral paracetamol was used for intra-operative analgesia for most of the patients. Two patients had post-operative nausea and vomiting and were successfully managed. There was no case of emergency re-operation, unplanned admission, cancellation or mortality. Conclusion: Paediatric day-case neurosurgery is feasible in our environment. With careful patient selection and adequate pre-operative preparation, good outcome can be achieved.

  11. Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015); Budapest (Hungary); September 16-20, 2015; Session “Nutrition and gastroenterology”

    OpenAIRE

    Various Authors

    2015-01-01

    Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015); Budapest (Hungary); September 16-20, 2015ORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Neonatology (ESN), European Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR), Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS), European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNI), with the local host of Hungarian Society of Perinatology and Obstetric Anesthesiology, Hungarian Society of Perinatology (MPT),...

  12. Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015); Budapest (Hungary); September 16-20, 2015; Session “Circulation, O2 Transport and Haematology”

    OpenAIRE

    Various Authors

    2015-01-01

    Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015); Budapest (Hungary); September 16-20, 2015ORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Neonatology (ESN), European Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR), Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS), European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNI), with the local host of Hungarian Society of Perinatology and Obstetric Anesthesiology, Hungarian Society of Perinatology (MPT),...

  13. Perioperative neonatal and paediatric blood transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avnish Bharadwaj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paediatric patients undergoing surgical procedures commonly require some volume of blood or blood component replacement in the perioperative period. Paediatric patients undergoing major surgery associated with substantial blood loss should be evaluated pre-operatively. Pre-operative correction of anaemia may be done considering the age, plasma volume status, clinical status and comorbidities. Maximum allowable blood loss (MABL for surgery must be calculated, and appropriate quantity of blood and blood components should be arranged. Intraoperative monitoring of blood loss should be done, and volume of transfusion should be calculated in a protocol based manner considering the volemia and the trigger threshold for transfusion for the patient and the MABL. Early haemostasis should be achieved by judicious administration of red blood cells, blood components and pharmacological agents.

  14. The use of nalbuphine in paediatric anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubica-Cielińska, Anna; Zielińska, Marzena

    2015-01-01

    Nalbuphine is an agonist-antagonist opioid. It causes analgesic and sedative effect and because of ceiling effect it does not cause a respiratory depression. In a perioperative therapy of paediatric patients it may be used for premedication, sedation during diagnostic procedures as well as for postoperative pain treatment. It reverses adverse reactions of other opioids such as itch or urinary retention, not significantly influencing its analgetic properties. After sevoflurane anaesthesia of small children, it reduces the incidences of emergence agitation. Nalbuphine is considered a safe drug, which causes nausea and vomiting less frequently than other opioids. Analgesic effect, the ability to provide moderate sedation and a large margin of safety make that analgesic often used for paediatric patients. PMID:26165241

  15. Alternative diagnoses at paediatric appendicitis MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the utilization of MRI in the assessment for paediatric appendicitis increases in clinical practice, it is important to recognize alternative diagnoses as the cause of abdominal pain. The purpose of this review is to share our institution's experience using MRI in the evaluation of 510 paediatric patients presenting with suspected appendicitis over a 30 month interval (July 2011 to December 2013). An alternative diagnosis was documented in 98/510 (19.2%) patients; adnexal pathology (6.3%, n = 32), enteritis–colitis (6.3%, n = 32), and mesenteric adenitis (2.2%, n = 11) comprised the majority of cases. These common entities and other less frequent illustrative cases obtained during our overall institutional experience with MRI for suspected appendicitis are reviewed

  16. Optimising the Imaging Conditions in Paediatric Fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patient dose and image quality were studied in paediatric fluoroscopy. The study consisted of two parts: theoretical calculation of optimal imaging conditions by the Monte Carlo method and clinical measurements of dose rate and SNR2rate at six hospitals. For many imaging tasks the most efficient imaging technique in fluoroscopy is obtained by using high filtration, relatively low X ray tube potential and a fibre-interspaced and -covered grid for all but the smallest patients and X ray field sizes. The clinical measurements supported our theoretical results and revealed a notable variation in image quality and dose rate among the hospitals studied. Notable patient dose rate reduction seems possible in paediatric fluoroscopy by adjusting the equipment to work with more efficient imaging factors and a low image receptor input dose rate. (author)

  17. Paediatric CT imaging trends in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The use of CT has rapidly increased since its introduction. Although an important medical tool for diagnosis and treatment, CT is rec ognised as being among the highest contributors to population radiation exposure. As the risks associated with exposure are higher for children than for adults, this study assessed the impact of paediatric CT in Australia by analysing imaging trends. CT imaging trends were derived from Medicare data. Comparable data from a dedicated paediatric hospital (Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne (RCH)) were analysed to determine the validity of utilising Medicare statistics in the younger age groups. The resulting trends reflect the situation for paediatric CT imaging in Australia. In 2009, 2.1 million CT services were billed to Medicare in Australia for children and adults. The average annual growth in the number of CT services provided since 1994 was 8.5%, compared with population growth of 1.4%. Comparison of RCH and Medicare data revealed that only one third of pae diatric CT imaging is captured by Medicare. Combining the data sets showed that over the last 20 years, there has been an average annual increase of 5.1% in the CT imaging rate for 0 to 18-year-olds. However, in recent years, growth in the imaging rate for 11 to 18-year-olds has slowed, while for 5 to 10-year-olds the imaging rate has declined. The significant growth in CT services is attributable to increased demand from the adult demographic. Conversely, increases in the imaging rate for paediatric patients have slowed overall. In fact, for some age groups the rate has fallen.

  18. Parental involvement in paediatric cancer treatment decisions

    OpenAIRE

    McKenna, K; Collier, J; Hewitt, M.; Blake, H

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated parents' information needs and involvement in decision-making processes affecting the care of children diagnosed with cancer. Interviews and questionnaires were used to assess parental satisfaction in 50 mothers and 16 fathers responsible for 58 children in an English Paediatric Oncology Unit. Parents reported that doctors contributed almost twice as much to the decision-making process as they did, but parental satisfaction was positively correlated with the amount of ...

  19. Paediatric infectious diseases: the last 50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Many advances and challenges have occurred in the field of paediatric infectious diseases during the past 50 years. It is impossible to cover all of these in a short review, but a few highlights and lowlights will be covered. These include virtual disappearance of some infectious diseases, emergence of new ones, infections in the immunocompromised, antimicrobial resistance, development of new and improved antimicrobials, improved diagnostic tests and the Human Microbiome Project. PMID:25557805

  20. SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF PAEDIATRIC PCNL

    OpenAIRE

    Jagadeeshwar; Ravi; Bhagawan; Rama Murthy; Ravichandar; Mallikarjun; Santosh; Narendra

    2014-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the indications of PCNL in children with age from 1to14yrs, identify the complications, treatment of complications, and prevention of complications and to evaluate the safety & efficacy of management of kidney stones in children by PCNL. MATERIAL & METHODS: Study period includes October 2010 to February 2013. 28 cases of renal stone in paediatric age group were admitted in our Hospital and evaluated for size of the stone, numbe...

  1. Sleep · 8: Paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea

    OpenAIRE

    Nixon, G; Brouillette, R

    2005-01-01

    In the past 25 years there has been increasing recognition of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) as a common condition of childhood. Morbidity includes impairment of growth, cardiovascular complications, learning impairment, and behavioural problems. Diagnosis and treatment of this condition in children differs in many respects from that in adults. We review here the key features of paediatric OSA, highlighting differences from adult OSA, and suggest future directions for research.

  2. Psychiatric disorders in general paediatric referrals.

    OpenAIRE

    Garralda, M E; Bailey, D.

    1989-01-01

    Detailed interviews with parents of 128 children aged 7 to 12 years consecutively referred to general paediatric clinics identified psychiatric disturbance in 36 (28%) of the children. Emotional disorders were the commonest psychiatric diagnoses (present in two thirds); less frequent diagnoses were conduct disorders (5/36, 14%), mixed conduct/emotional disorders (six, 17%), and hyperkinetic syndrome (three, 8%). Disturbance was related to level of energy, with disturbed children being describ...

  3. Imaging of accidental paediatric head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Phua Hwee [KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Singapore (Singapore); Lim, Choie Cheio Tchoyoson [National Neuroscience Institute, Department of Neuroradiology, Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-05-15

    Head trauma is the most common form of injury sustained in serious childhood trauma and remains one of the top three causes of death despite improved road planning and safety laws. CT remains the first-line investigation for paediatric head trauma, although MRI may be more sensitive at picking up the full extent of injuries and may be useful for prognosis. Follow-up imaging should be tailored to answer the specific clinical question and to look for possible complications. (orig.)

  4. Imaging of accidental paediatric head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head trauma is the most common form of injury sustained in serious childhood trauma and remains one of the top three causes of death despite improved road planning and safety laws. CT remains the first-line investigation for paediatric head trauma, although MRI may be more sensitive at picking up the full extent of injuries and may be useful for prognosis. Follow-up imaging should be tailored to answer the specific clinical question and to look for possible complications. (orig.)

  5. Infection control in paediatric office settings

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Transmission of infection in the paediatric office is of increasing concern. The present document discusses routes of transmission of infection and the principles of current infection control measures. Prevention includes appropriate office design and administrative policies, triage, routine practices for the care of all patients (eg, hand hygiene; use of gloves, masks, eye protection and gowns for specific procedures; adequate cleaning, disinfection and sterilization of surfaces and equipmen...

  6. Voluntary Informed Consent in Paediatric Oncology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekking, Sara A S; Van Der Graaf, Rieke; Van Delden, Johannes J M

    2016-07-01

    In paediatric oncology, research and treatments are often closely combined, which may compromise voluntary informed consent of parents. We identified two key scenarios in which voluntary informed consent for paediatric oncology studies is potentially compromised due to the intertwinement of research and care. The first scenario is inclusion by the treating paediatric oncologist, the second scenario concerns treatments confined to the research context. In this article we examine whether voluntary informed consent of parents for research is compromised in these two scenarios, and if so whether this is also morally problematic. For this, we employ the account of voluntary consent from Nelson and colleagues, who assert that voluntary consent requires substantial freedom from controlling influences. We argue that, in the absence of persuasion or manipulation, inclusion by the treating physician does not compromise voluntariness. However, it may function as a risk factor for controlling influence as it narrows the scope within which parents make decisions. Furthermore, physician appeal to reciprocity is not controlling as it constitutes persuasion. In addition, framing information is a form of informational manipulation and constitutes a controlling influence. In the second scenario, treatments confined to the research context qualify as controlling if the available options are restricted through manipulation of options. Although none of the influences is morally problematic in itself, a combination of influences may create morally problematic instances of involuntary informed consent. Therefore, safeguards should be implemented to establish an optimal environment for parents to provide voluntary informed consent in an integrated research-care context. PMID:26686529

  7. Paediatric airway management: What is new?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Airway management plays a pivotal role in Paediatric Anaesthesia. Over the last two decades many improvements in this area have helped us to overcome this final frontier. From an era where intubation with a conventional laryngoscope or blind nasal intubation was the only tool for airway management, we have come a long way. Today supraglottic airway devices have pride of place in the Operating Room and are becoming important airway devices used in routine procedures. Direct and indirect fibreoptic laryngoscopes and transtracheal devices help us overcome difficult and previously impossible airway situations. These developments mean that we need to update our knowledge on these devices. Also much of our basic understanding of the physiology and anatomy of the paediatric airway has changed. This article attempts to shed light on some of the most important advances/opinions in paediatric airway management like, cuffed endotracheal tubes, supraglottic airway devices, video laryngoscopes, rapid sequence intubation, the newly proposed algorithm for difficult airway management and the role of Ex Utero Intrapartum Treatment (EXIT procedure in the management of the neonatal airway.

  8. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy for Paediatric Stone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Çelik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the outcomes and complications occurring following percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL procedures performed in paediatric patients. There were 291 paediatric patients (293 renal units included in the current study and who underwent PCNL in our clinic between March 1999 and December 2014. We evaluated stone burden, duration of surgery and complications, success (stone-free rate, residual fragments and auxilliary procedures, and follow-up details. The stone-free rate following PCNL was 88.3%. Early postoperative complications included excessive bleeding and transfusion in nine patients, and prolonged urinary extravasation following removal of the nephrostomy tube and requiring JJ stent placement in eight patients. The mean time to catheter removal was 2.8 days and the mean hospitalisation time was 3.5 days. The aim of kidney stone treatment is to achieve minimal kidney damage with the highest success rate. Therefore, minimally invasive procedures are important in the paediatric age group where life expectancy is high. PCNL is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of kidney stones in children.

  9. Paediatric airway management: What is new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, S; Jayanthi, R; Archana, SR

    2012-01-01

    Airway management plays a pivotal role in Paediatric Anaesthesia. Over the last two decades many improvements in this area have helped us to overcome this final frontier. From an era where intubation with a conventional laryngoscope or blind nasal intubation was the only tool for airway management, we have come a long way. Today supraglottic airway devices have pride of place in the Operating Room and are becoming important airway devices used in routine procedures. Direct and indirect fibreoptic laryngoscopes and transtracheal devices help us overcome difficult and previously impossible airway situations. These developments mean that we need to update our knowledge on these devices. Also much of our basic understanding of the physiology and anatomy of the paediatric airway has changed. This article attempts to shed light on some of the most important advances/opinions in paediatric airway management like, cuffed endotracheal tubes, supraglottic airway devices, video laryngoscopes, rapid sequence intubation, the newly proposed algorithm for difficult airway management and the role of Ex Utero Intrapartum Treatment (EXIT) procedure in the management of the neonatal airway. PMID:23293383

  10. Canadian heavy water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews Canadian experience in the production of heavy water, presents a long-term supply projection, relates this projection to the anticipated long-term electrical energy demand, and highlights principal areas for further improvement that form the bulk of our research and development program on heavy water processes

  11. Canadian hydrogen safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian hydrogen safety program (CHSP) is a project initiative of the Codes and Standards Working Group of the Canadian transportation fuel cell alliance (CTFCA) that represents industry, academia, government, and regulators. The Program rationale, structure and contents contribute to acceptance of the products, services and systems of the Canadian Hydrogen Industry into the Canadian hydrogen stakeholder community. It facilitates trade through fair insurance policies and rates, effective and efficient regulatory approval procedures and accommodation of the interests of the general public. The Program integrates a consistent quantitative risk assessment methodology with experimental (destructive and non-destructive) failure rates and consequence-of-release data for key hydrogen components and systems into risk assessment of commercial application scenarios. Its current and past six projects include Intelligent Virtual Hydrogen Filling Station (IVHFS), Hydrogen clearance distances, comparative quantitative risk comparison of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG) refuelling options; computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling validation, calibration and enhancement; enhancement of frequency and probability analysis, and Consequence analysis of key component failures of hydrogen systems; and fuel cell oxidant outlet hydrogen sensor project. The Program projects are tightly linked with the content of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task 19 Hydrogen Safety. (author)

  12. Twitter and Canadian Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Max

    2012-01-01

    An emerging group of leaders in Canadian education has attracted thousands of followers. They've made Twitter an extension of their lives, delivering twenty or more tweets a day that can include, for example, links to media articles, research, new ideas from education bloggers, or to their own, or simply a personal thought. At their best,…

  13. Reform in Canadian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 67 Canadian university vice presidents and 66 deans concerning reform in recent years found that the many changes reported were modest and reactive rather than bold and proactive. Most common changes involved strategic planning, retrenchment, curriculum expansion, response to enrollment changes, administrative restructuring, and more…

  14. Canadian Red Cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian Red Cross is guided by its Fundamental Principles--humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity, and universality--and organized in a traditional geographic hierarchical structure. Among the characteristics that have contributed to its success are a budgeting process that starts at the local level, measurement of program outcomes, and coordinated fundraising activities at the regional level. PMID:18551842

  15. Canadian petroleum industry review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide ranging discussion about the factors that have influenced oil and natural gas prices, the differences of the Canadian market from international markets, the differences between eastern and western Canadian markets, and shareholders' perspectives on recent commodity price developments was presented. Developments in the OPEC countries were reviewed, noting that current OPEC production of 25 mmbbls is about 60 per cent higher than it was in 1985. It is expected that OPEC countries will continue to expand capacity to meet expected demand growth and the continuing need created by the UN embargo on Iraqi oil sales. Demand for natural gas is also likely to continue to rise especially in view of the deregulation of the electricity industry where natural gas may well become the favored fuel for incremental thermal generation capacity. Prices of both crude oil and natural gas are expected to hold owing to unusually low storage levels of both fuels. The inadequacy of infrastructure, particularly pipeline capacity as a key factor in the Canadian market was noted, along with the dynamic that will emerge in the next several years that may have potential consequences for Canadian production - namely the reversal of the Sarnia to Montreal pipeline. With regard to shareholders' expectations the main issues are (1) whether international markets reach back to the wellhead, hence the producer's positioning with respect to transportation capacity and contract portfolios, and (2) whether the proceeds from increased prices are invested in projects that are yielding more than the cost of capital. 28 figs

  16. Assessing Canadian Bank Branch Operating Efficiency Using Data Envelopment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zijiang

    2009-10-01

    In today's economy and society, performance analyses in the services industries attract more and more attention. This paper presents an evaluation of 240 branches of one big Canadian bank in Greater Toronto Area using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Special emphasis was placed on how to present the DEA results to management so as to provide more guidance to them on what to manage and how to accomplish the changes. Finally the potential management uses of the DEA results were presented. All the findings are discussed in the context of the Canadian banking market.

  17. Unveiled Sentiments: Gendered Islamophobia and Experiences of Veiling among Muslim Girls in a Canadian Islamic School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zine, Jasmin

    2006-01-01

    The practice of veiling has made Muslim women subject to dual oppressions--racism and Islamophobia--in society at large and patriarchal oppression and sexism from within their communities. Based on a narrative analysis of the politics of veiling in schools and society, the voices of young Muslim women attending a Canadian Islamic school speak to…

  18. Caring for paediatric patient as to broaden radiography spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paediatric patient is a special group of patients in the hospital set up. thus their special needs contribute to about 75% of quality imaging services offered. Age, Psychological aspects, parents participation, departmental atmosphere and environmental make them special. this presentation aims at installing into Imaging Technologies a sense of Responsibility for purpose of improving the resultant quality of Imaging services offered to paediatrics

  19. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Society 7. annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference had as its major topics of coverage: fuel and fuel channel materials, reactor physics and radiation, safety and the environment, fusion, thermohydraulics, economic and social issues and operations

  20. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Society 8. annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference contains papers under the major topics of plant life extension, safety and the environment, reactor physics, thermohydraulics I, development and deployment, thermohydraulics II, operations I, safety r and d post chernobyl, fuel channels, operations II, and nuclear technology developments

  1. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Society ninth annual conference, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 74 papers presented at this conference covered the following topics: operational enhancements of existing nuclear power plants; design of small reactors; accident behaviour in CANDU reactor fuel channels; fuel storage and waste management; reactor commissioning and decommissioning; nuclear safety experiments and modelling; the next generation of CANDU reactors; advances in nuclear engineering education in Canada; safety of small reactors; current position and improvements of fuel channels; current issues in nuclear safety; and, medical and industrial radiation applications

  2. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Society CANDU maintenance conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference proceedings comprise 51 papers on the following aspects of maintenance of CANDU reactors: Major maintenance projects, maintenance planning and preparation, maintenance effectiveness, future maintenance issues, safety and radiation protection. The individual papers have been abstracted separately

  3. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Society fifth annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The twenty papers presented at this conference covered the areas of: modeling and analysis, emphasizing thermalhydraulics in CANDU primary heat transport systems; Nuclear technologies in general, particularly relating to the operation and performance of CANDU reactors; and tailings and reactor waste disposal

  4. Proceedings of the 19. Canadian Nuclear Society simulation symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A majority of the 31 papers in this symposium on nuclear simulation deal with CANDU reactors. The sessions were organized according to the following subjects: reactor physics, hydrogen behaviour, thermalhydraulics, reactor safety and operation. The individual papers have been abstracted separately

  5. Lost among the trees? The autonomic nervous system and paediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Corinne A

    2014-06-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) has been strikingly neglected in Western medicine. Despite its profound importance for regulation, adjustment and coordination of body systems, it lacks priority in training and practice and receives scant attention in numerous major textbooks. The ANS is integral to manifestations of illness, underlying familiar physical and psychological symptoms. When ANS activity is itself dysfunctional, usual indicators of acute illness may prove deceptive. Recognising the relevance of the ANS can involve seeing the familiar through fresh eyes, challenging assumptions in clinical assessment and in approaches to practice. Its importance extends from physical and psychological well-being to parenting and safeguarding, public services and the functioning of society. Exploration of its role in conditions ranging from neurological, gastrointestinal and connective tissue disorders, diabetes and chronic fatigue syndrome, to autism, behavioural and mental health difficulties may open therapeutic avenues. The ANS offers a mechanism for so-called functional illnesses and illustrates the importance of recognising that 'stress' takes many forms, physical, psychological and environmental, desirable and otherwise. Evidence of intrauterine and post-natal programming of ANS reactivity suggests that neonatal care and safeguarding practice may offer preventive opportunity, as may greater understanding of epigenetic change of ANS activity through, for example, accidental or psychological trauma or infection. The aim of this article is to accelerate recognition of the importance of the ANS throughout paediatrics, and of the potential physical and psychological cost of neglecting it. PMID:24573884

  6. Polish Society of Endocrinology Position statement on endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, Aleksandra; Rachoń, Dominik; Milewicz, Andrzej; Ruchała, Marek; Bolanowski, Marek; Jędrzejuk, Diana; Bednarczuk, Tomasz; Górska, Maria; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Kos-Kudła, Beata; Lewiński, Andrzej; Zgliczyński, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    With the reference to the position statements of the Endocrine Society, the Paediatric Endocrine Society, and the European Society of Paediatric Endocrinology, the Polish Society of Endocrinology points out the adverse health effects caused by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) commonly used in daily life as components of plastics, food containers, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. The statement is based on the alarming data about the increase of the prevalence of many endocrine disorders such as: cryptorchidism, precocious puberty in girls and boys, and hormone-dependent cancers (endometrium, breast, prostate). In our opinion, it is of human benefit to conduct epidemiological studies that will enable the estimation of the risk factors of exposure to EDCs and the probability of endocrine disorders. Increasing consumerism and the industrial boom has led to severe pollution of the environment with a corresponding negative impact on human health; thus, there is great necessity for the biomonitoring of EDCs in Poland. PMID:26136137

  7. Pancreaticoduodenectomy in children: optimising outcome of uncommon paediatric procedures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Yeap, B H

    2012-02-01

    Contemporary surgical practice is increasingly dominated by subspecialisation in response to improved outcome from high volume centres, though uncertainties persist for uncommon paediatric procedures. Three paediatric pancreaticoduodenectomies performed at Our Lady\\'s Children\\'s Hospital, Dublin, over a period of 9 years were evaluated to substantiate their continuing performance by paediatric rather than adult pancreatic surgeons. With ages ranging from 18 months to 8 years old, the mean operating time was 263 minutes, while the average hospital stay was 12 days. There was no perioperative mortality, although complication rate was 100%. Re-operation was required in 33%. The long term outcome of this small paediatric cohort was comparable to adult series despite the low patient accrual, underscoring the advantages of a multidisciplinary approach afforded by tertiary paediatric institutions for intricate yet infrequent operations in children.

  8. Global change and Canadians: A teacher's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report called Global Change and Canadians has been produced by the Royal Society of Canada to answer basic questions being asked about global change issues. A teacher's guide is presented to help teachers make effective use of the report in developing programs with students concerning global change. A basic set of teaching and learning activities related to the major topics in the report is provided, curricular connections between global change topics and school programs are suggested, and some additional resources on global change are listed. The guide is divided into six chapters, each corresponding to the chapters of the global change report. Each chapter contains a summary of the major concepts from the report, some of the learning outcomes that occur when those concepts are addressed, a series of suggested activities or ideas, and a guide for assessing students' abilities relative to the concepts of the chapter. The topics of the chapters cover the nature of global change, the importance of global change to Canada, the causes of global change, the consequences of global change (including climate change and the greenhouse effect), the effects of global change on society, and Canadian responses to global change. 64 refs., 3 figs

  9. Canadian fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Research Council of Canada is establishing a coordinated national program of fusion research and development that is planned to grow to a total annual operating level of about $20 million in 1985. The long-term objective of the program is to put Canadian industry in a position to manufacture sub-systems and components of fusion power reactors. In the near term the program is designed to establish a minimum base of scientific and technical expertise sufficient to make recognized contributions and thereby gain access to the international effort. The Canadian program must be narrowly focussed on a few specializations where Canada has special indigenous skills or technologies. The programs being funded are the Tokamak de Varennes, the Fusion Fuels Technology Project centered on tritium management, and high-power gas laser technology and associated diagnostic instrumentation

  10. Canadian acid rain policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On March 13 of 1991, the Prime Minister of Canada, Brian Mulroney and the President of the United States of America, George Bush, signed an Agreement on Air Quality. This agreement enshrines Principle 21 of the 1972 Stockholm Declaration which states that countries are to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction do not cause damage to the environment of another country. This agreement also includes provisions for controlling acid rain. The Agreement on Air Quality followed years of discussion between the two countries and is a significant milestone in the history of Canadian acid rain policy. This paper begins by describing Canadian acid rain policy and its evolution. The paper also outlines the Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement and the effect of the acid rain provisions on deposition in Canada. Finally, it considers the future work that must be undertaken to further resolve the acid rain problem. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  11. Canadian Mathematical Congress

    CERN Document Server

    1977-01-01

    For two weeks in August, 1975 more than 140 mathematicians and other scientists gathered at the Universite de Sherbrooke. The occasion was the 15th Biennial Seminar of the Canadian Mathematical Congress, entitled Mathematics and the Life Sciences. Participants in this inter­ disciplinary gathering included researchers and graduate students in mathematics, seven different areas of biological science, physics, chemistry and medical science. Geographically, those present came from the United States and the United Kingdom as well as from academic departments and government agencies scattered across Canada. In choosing this particular interdisciplinary topic the programme committee had two chief objectives. These were to promote Canadian research in mathematical problems of the life sciences, and to encourage co-operation and exchanges between mathematical scientists" biologists and medical re­ searchers. To accomplish these objective the committee assembled a stim­ ulating programme of lectures and talks. Six ...

  12. Financing Canadian international operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A primer on financing international operations by Canadian corporations was provided. Factors affecting the availability to project finance (location, political risk), the various forms of financing (debt, equity, and combinations), the main sources of government backed financing to corporations (the International Finance Corporation) (IFC), the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the Overseas Property Insurance Corporation (OPIC), government or agency guarantees, political risk coverage, the use of offshore financial centres, and the where, when and how these various organizations operate, were reviewed. Examples of all of the above, taken from the experiences of Canadian Occidental Petroleum of Calgary in the U.S., in South America, in the Middle and Far East, and in Kazakhstan, were used as illustrations. figs

  13. Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon H Hoeppner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic tuberculosis (TB was almost certainly present in Canadian aboriginal people (aboriginal Canadians denotes status Indians, Inuit, nonstatus Indians and metis as reported by Statistics Canada before the Old World traders arrived. However, the social changes that resulted from contact with these traders created the conditions that converted endemic TB into epidemic TB. The incidence of TB varied inversely with the time interval from this cultural collision, which began on the east coast in the 16th century and ended in the Northern Territories in the 20th century. This relatively recent epidemic explains why the disease is more frequent in aboriginal children than in Canadian-born nonaboriginal people. Treatment plans must account for the socioeconomic conditions and cultural characteristics of the aboriginal people, especially healing models and language. Prevention includes bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and chemoprophylaxis, and must account for community conditions, such as rates of suicide, which have exceeded the rate of TB. The control of TB requires a centralized program with specifically directed funding. It must include a program that works in partnership with aboriginal communities.

  14. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: the paediatric perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Alison [Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Department of Adolescent Rheumatology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); McDonagh, Janet E. [Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Institute of Child Health, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    Paediatric rheumatology is a relatively new specialty that has developed rapidly over the last 30 years. There have been major advances, which have included improvements in the classification and management of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The former has led to enhanced international collaboration with disease registries, multicentre research and the development of new therapeutic agents. This has resulted in improved disease control and remission induction in many. There is, however, still significant morbidity associated with JIA during childhood, adolescence and adulthood, and challenges for the future include early identification of those with a poorer prognosis, appropriate administration of safe therapies and optimizing outcomes as young people move through adolescence into adulthood. (orig.)

  15. Conservative Management of Paediatric Clavicle Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry J. O'Neill

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Paediatric clavicle fractures have traditionally been treated nonoperatively. Recent studies have recommended operative management for displaced midshaft fractures. We conducted a retrospective review of all clavicle fractures in children aged one to sixteen over a two-year period. We classified fractures and evaluated followup and clinical outcome. We identified 190 fractures. There were 135 boys and 55 girls. 65% of fractures were displaced and 35% undisplaced. Mean radiographic and clinical followup was 35 days and 44 days, respectively. Clavicle fractures in children heal with nonoperative management. Radiographs of clavicle fractures in children are unnecessary in the absence of clinical symptoms.

  16. Practical body MRI-A paediatric perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review is aimed at practicing radiologists and technicians, and seeks to explore the main factors influencing quality in body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), paediatric in particular. Important considerations include the selection of voxel size, striking the right balance between achievable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) versus allowable motion artefact when adjusting the acquisition time, and optimising image contrast, which often is inherently different compared with adult pathologies. Based on this, optimisation of staple pulse sequences, and a practical approach to body imaging, will be discussed in more detail

  17. The Investigation of Proptosis in Paediatric Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms Sayantani Ghosh

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective review of 65 cases of paediatric proptosispresenting to a rural teaching hospital in India, from February2006 to June 2008. There were 17 cases with orbital cellulitisand 15 with retinoblastoma. We report the history, clinicalexamination, radiological findings and diagnosis. Most caseshad a characteristic history and pathognomonic eye signs.Computer Tomography (CT correlated with histopathology inmost cases. CT is widely available, even within a remotesetting, and is a convenient investigation. Thus, a detailedhistory, clinical examination and CT scan were the mostfruitful approach to the diagnosis of childhood proptosis inthis series.

  18. Action, prevention and epidemiology of paediatric obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissau, Inge

    2005-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The overall aim of this paper is to describe important issues regarding paediatric obesity as a public health problem. This paper focuses on actions taken, and on the prevalence of obesity in children, teens and adults in Denmark. In addition, the paper describes some important...... increase from 1987 to 2000 (0.7 to 4.9%). Among young women aged 16-24, the increase is threefold in the same period. Among teens, the prevalence has increased by 2-3 times in recent decades. Nevertheless, compared to other European countries and the US, Denmark has a relatively low prevalence of obesity...

  19. Pan-Canadian Respiratory Standards Initiative for Electronic Health Records (PRESTINE): 2011 National Forum Proceedings

    OpenAIRE

    M Diane Lougheed; Janice Minard; Shari Dworkin; Mary-Ann Juurlink; Temple, Walley J.; Teresa To; Marc Koehn; Anne Van Dam; Louis-Philippe Boulet

    2012-01-01

    In a novel knowledge translation initiative, the Government of Ontario’s Asthma Plan of Action funded the development of an Asthma Care Map to enable adherence with the Canadian Asthma Consensus Guidelines developed under the auspices of the Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS). Following its successful evaluation within the Primary Care Asthma Pilot Project, respiratory clinicians from the Asthma Research Unit, Queen’s University (Kingston, Ontario) are leading an initiative to incorporate standa...

  20. Canadian identity: Implications for international social work by Canadians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2011-01-01

    This paper is in response to recent calls to conceptualize and articulate Canadian perspectives and experiences in international social work, given that the Canadian standpoint has been lacking in international social work literature. This paper contends that it is imperative, first of all, to cr...

  1. Developing paediatric medicines: identifying the needs and recognizing the challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, Terry B; Elder, David P; Martini, Luigi G; Roberts, Matthew; Ford, James L

    2007-08-01

    There is a significant need for research and development into paediatric medicines. Only a small fraction of the drugs marketed and utilized as therapeutic agents in children have been clinically evaluated. The majority of marketed drugs are either not labelled, or inadequately labelled, for use in paediatric patients. The absence of suitable medicines or critical safety and efficacy information poses significant risks to a particularly vulnerable patient population. However, there are many challenges associated with developing medicines for the paediatric population and this review paper is intended to highlight these. The paediatric population is made up of a wide range of individuals of substantially varied physical size, weight and stage of physiological development. Experimentation on children is considered by many to be unethical, resulting in difficulties in obtaining critical safety data. Clinical trials are subject to detailed scrutiny by the various regulatory bodies who have recently recognized the need for pharmaceutical companies to invest in paediatric medicines. The costs associated with paediatric product development could result in poor or negative return on investment and so incentives have been proposed by the EU and US regulatory bodies. Additionally, some commonly used excipients may be unsuitable for use in children; and some dosage forms may be undesirable to the paediatric population. PMID:17725846

  2. Clinical practice: immune thrombocytopenia in paediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarque, Veerle; Van Geet, Chris

    2014-02-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a disease affecting both children and adults. It is defined as acquired isolated thrombocytopenia caused by the autoimmune production of anti-platelet antibodies. Childhood ITP most frequently occurs in young children who have been previously well, although a viral respiratory tract infection often precedes thrombocytopenia. A benign and self-limiting course is common, but major bleeding complications such as intracranial haemorrhage may occur. Yet one cannot predict which child will have a prolonged course of thrombocytopenia and who will develop an intracranial haemorrhage. In children without atypical characteristics, only minimal diagnostic investigations are needed, and most paediatric ITP patients do not need platelet-enhancing therapy even though various treatment options are available. A "watch and wait" strategy should be considered in paediatric patients with mild disease. Steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin G or anti-D immunoglobulin are the current first-line therapeutic measures for children at risk for severe bleeding. When life-threatening bleeding occurs, a combination of therapies is needed. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on primary ITP in children and adolescents. PMID:24390128

  3. Paediatric halitosis and helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection by stool antigen test in children with and without halitosis. Study Design: Comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Paediatrics, Fatih University Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, between December 2008 and June 2009. Methodology: Fifty-three patients aged between 3-15 years who presented to paediatrics outpatient clinic with halitosis and 55 healthy children aged between 4-15 years without halitosis were included in the study. Halitosis was confirmed with organoleptic test. Stool antigen test was performed in both groups. Inter group proportions were compared using chi square and Fisher exact tests with significance at p 0.05). Two weeks eradication treatment was administered to 11 patients with H. pylori infection and halitosis. After treatment, the symptoms of 8 patients with halitosis (72.7%) completely resolved and persisted in 3 patients (27.3%). Seven of the 11 patients who were administered eradication treatment also had abdominal pain along with halitosis. Both symptoms completely resolved in all those patients after treatment. Conclusion: Although no statistically significant difference existed between the rate of H. pylori infections among those with and without halitosis. Eradication treatment was found beneficial in the treatment of children with halitosis and positive H. pylori stool antigen test. (author)

  4. A paediatric X-ray exposure chart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this review was to develop a radiographic optimisation strategy to make use of digital radiography (DR) and needle phosphor computerised radiography (CR) detectors, in order to lower radiation dose and improve image quality for paediatrics. This review was based on evidence-based practice, of which a component was a review of the relevant literature. The resulting exposure chart was developed with two distinct groups of exposure optimisation strategies – body exposures (for head, trunk, humerus, femur) and distal extremity exposures (elbow to finger, knee to toe). Exposure variables manipulated included kilovoltage peak (kVp), target detector exposure and milli-ampere-seconds (mAs), automatic exposure control (AEC), additional beam filtration, and use of antiscatter grid. Mean dose area product (DAP) reductions of up to 83% for anterior–posterior (AP)/posterior–anterior (PA) abdomen projections were recorded postoptimisation due to manipulation of multiple-exposure variables. For body exposures, the target EI and detector exposure, and thus the required mAs were typically 20% less postoptimisation. Image quality for some distal extremity exposures was improved by lowering kVp and increasing mAs around constant entrance skin dose. It is recommended that purchasing digital X-ray equipment with high detective quantum efficiency detectors, and then optimising the exposure chart for use with these detectors is of high importance for sites performing paediatric imaging. Multiple-exposure variables may need to be manipulated to achieve optimal outcomes

  5. The imaging of paediatric thoracic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major chest trauma in a child is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It is most frequently encountered within the context of multisystem injury following high-energy trauma such as a motor vehicle accident. The anatomic-physiologic make-up of children is such that the pattern of ensuing injuries differs from that in their adult counterparts. Pulmonary contusion, pneumothorax, haemothorax and rib fractures are most commonly encountered. Although clinically more serious and potentially life threatening, tracheobronchial tear, aortic rupture and cardiac injuries are seldom observed. The most appropriate imaging algorithm is one tailored to the individual child and is guided by the nature of the traumatic event as well as clinical parameters. Chest radiography remains the first and most important imaging tool in paediatric chest trauma and should be supplemented with US and CT as indicated. Multidetector CT allows for the accurate diagnosis of most traumatic injuries, but should be only used in selected cases as its routine use in all paediatric patients would result in an unacceptably high radiation exposure to a large number of patients without proven clinical benefit. When CT is used, appropriate modifications should be incorporated so as to minimize the radiation dose to the patient whilst preserving diagnostic integrity. (orig.)

  6. Recent advances in paediatric cardiac anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Vakamudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paediatric cardiac anaesthesia involves anaesthetizing very small children with complex congenital heart disease for major surgical procedures. The unique nature of this patient population requires considerable expertise and in-depth knowledge of the altered physiology. There have been several developments in the last decade in this subspecialty that has contributed to better care and improved outcome in this vulnerable group of patients. The purpose of this review is to present some of the recent advances in the anesthetic management of these children from preoperative evaluation to postoperative care. This article reviews the role of magnetic resonance imaging and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in preoperative evaluation, the use of ultrasound to secure vascular access, the use of cuffed endotracheal tubes, the optimal haematocrit and the role of blood products, including the use of recombinant factor VIIa. It also deals with the advances in technology that have led to improved monitoring, the newer developments in cardiopulmonary bypass, the use of centrifugal pumps and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and the role of DHCA. The role of new drugs, especially the α-2 agonists in paediatric cardiac anesthetic practice, fast tracking and effective postoperative pain management have also been reviewed.

  7. Canadian photovoltaic industry directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory has been prepared to help potential photovoltaic (PV) customers identify Canadian-based companies who can meet their needs, and to help product manufacturers and distributors identify potential new clients and/or partners within the PV industry for new and improved technologies. To assist the reader, an information matrix is provided that identifies the product and service types offered by each firm and its primary clients served. A list of companies by province or territory is also included. The main section lists companies in alphabetical order. Information presented for each includes address, contact person, prime activity, geographic area served, languages in which services are offered, and a brief company profile

  8. The Canadian safeguards program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Canada provides technical support to the International Atomic Energy Agency for the development of safeguards relevant to Canadian designed and built nuclear facilities. Some details of this program are discussed, including the philosophy and development of CANDU safeguards systems; the unique equipment developed for these systems; the provision of technical experts; training programs; liaison with other technical organizations; research and development; implementation of safeguards systems at various nuclear facilities; and the anticipated future direction of the safeguards program

  9. Optimization of paediatric radiation doses with CR systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radiation protection of paediatric patients is a primary objective in paediatric radiology due the higher life expectance of the little patients undergoing radiology examinations and due to the higher radiosensitivity of tissues. Aim of this work is the study of the optimization process in paediatric doses needed after the recent installation of a new Computed Radiography System in the Radiology of the Meyer paediatric Hospital, in Florence, Italy. This process involves both the use of new dedicated digitizer (Agfa DX-S) and elaboration software (Agfa NX2.0). The choice of the DX-S systems has been performed in consideration of high resolution (Scanhead technology - DirectriX detector), image sharpness and portability of the cassettes that make DX-S ideal in paediatric applications as neonatal intensive care. The NX software for image processing has been installed with the 'Paediatric' licence that optimizes paediatric images especially for exposures of premature newborns. Paediatric NX automatically selects the paediatric age group, depending on the patient's birth date. Each age group contains enhanced algorithms and settings adapted to age group, for optimized visibility of fine details. All the CR system has been accepted by mean of quality control acceptance tool AGFA AutoQC2, and all the automatic exposure control devices installed on radiographic devices were previously calibrated in accordance to literature with signal to noise vs dose considerations [S. Mazzocchi et al. 'AEC set-up optimization with computed radiography imaging' Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 117, 169-173 2005]. Paediatric patients were then divided into age-weight categories and the Entrance Surface Doses (ESD) were calculated by output x-rays measurements. ESD for thorax examinations were correlated to the image evaluations performed by experienced radiologists following European Guidelines on quality criteria for diagnostic radiographic images in paediatrics (EUR 16261, European

  10. Practical application of natriuretic peptides in paediatric cardiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Julie; Goetze, Jens P; Andersen, Claus B;

    2010-01-01

    conclude that in premature neonates with persistent arterial ducts; in teenagers with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary regurgitation; and in children with heart transplants and potential allograft rejection cardiac peptides can provide the clinician with additional information, but in children with atrial......It is still uncertain if cardiac natriuretic peptides are useful biomarkers in paediatric cardiology. In this review we identify four clinical scenarios in paediatric cardiology, where clinical decision-making can be difficult, and where we feel the paediatric cardiologists need additional...

  11. STUDY ABOUT CLINICAL APPLICATION OF BRAIN ATLAS IN PAEDIATRICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Fanhang; LIU Cuiping; RENG Xiaoping; JIANG Lian

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To explore clinical application on brain atlas in paediatrics. Methode: Brain atlas was applied in diagnosis and treatment of paediatric diseases and its clinical value was discussed in 1990 ~2001. The manifestation of these diseases in brain atlas were analysed and the manifestation of CT of 67 cases and manifestations of EEG of 37 cases with that of BA were compared. Results The changes of cerebral electrical activity of these diseases were reflected objectively and showed directly in BA. Conclusion Brain atlas not only can point out quality of disease but also define position of disease. Therefore, brain atlas has important clinical value in paediatrics.

  12. On Realities of Canadian Multiculturalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦辰

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a multicultural country which was mainly established by immigrants. Just because of that, Canadian govern⁃ment has carried out the policy of multiculturalism since1970s. However, it has encountered many problems such as policy con⁃flicts, national identity, democracy-inquiry and racial discrimination, etc. Hence the Canadian multiculturalism has been in a di⁃lemma.

  13. Future expectations - what paediatric nephrologists and urologists await from paediatric uroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperation between paediatric nephrology/urology and paediatric radiology is essential for timely and correct diagnosis and therapy of kidney and urinary tract disorders. We need the direct contact between doctors before or after investigations, interdisciplinary discussions, and rapid access to the images. This should lead to optimal settings for investigations, a reduction of radiation burden and the number of investigations, and further improvement in the management of patients. Modern sonography including colour Doppler sonography, amplitude-coded Doppler sonography, and eventually 3D-ultrasound is and will be the method of choice as the basic, non-invasive investigation. These investigations should become the routine in all institutions. Refinement and standardisation of already established investigations are needed. Recently introduced investigations, like MRI, will have to show their impact on future diagnostic imaging. Future introduction of new non-invasive methods is welcome, e.g. to correctly diagnose vesicoureteral reflux without catheterisation/puncture of the bladder

  14. Future expectations - what paediatric nephrologists and urologists await from paediatric uroradiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, Ekkehard E-mail: ekkehard.ring@klinikum-graz.at; Mache, Christoph J.; Vilits, Peter

    2002-08-01

    Cooperation between paediatric nephrology/urology and paediatric radiology is essential for timely and correct diagnosis and therapy of kidney and urinary tract disorders. We need the direct contact between doctors before or after investigations, interdisciplinary discussions, and rapid access to the images. This should lead to optimal settings for investigations, a reduction of radiation burden and the number of investigations, and further improvement in the management of patients. Modern sonography including colour Doppler sonography, amplitude-coded Doppler sonography, and eventually 3D-ultrasound is and will be the method of choice as the basic, non-invasive investigation. These investigations should become the routine in all institutions. Refinement and standardisation of already established investigations are needed. Recently introduced investigations, like MRI, will have to show their impact on future diagnostic imaging. Future introduction of new non-invasive methods is welcome, e.g. to correctly diagnose vesicoureteral reflux without catheterisation/puncture of the bladder.

  15. Paediatric visceral leishmaniasis: experience of a paediatric referral center 1990-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Dionísio, MT; Dias, A; Rodrigues, F.; Félix, M.; Estevão, MH

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a systemic infection, endemic in many parts of the world, including Portugal. The aim is to review all cases of VL admitted to our hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all cases of VL admitted to a Level III Paediatric Hospital, between January 1990 and December 2009 (20 years). Demographic, epidemiological, clinical, laboratorial, therapeutic and follow-up data were analysed. RESULTS: During the study period, 54 childr...

  16. Paediatric musculoskeletal matters (pmm) – collaborative development of an online evidence based interactive learning tool and information resource for education in paediatric musculoskeletal medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Nicola; Rapley, Tim; Jandial, Sharmila; English, Christine; Davies, Barbara; Wyllie, Ruth; Foster, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background We describe the collaborative development of an evidence based, free online resource namely ‘paediatric musculoskeletal matters’ (pmm). This resource was developed with the aim of reaching a wide range of health professionals to increase awareness, knowledge and skills within paediatric musculoskeletal medicine, thereby facilitating early diagnosis and referral to specialist care. Methods Engagement with stakeholder groups (primary care, paediatrics, musculoskeletal speci...

  17. Current status of paediatric post-mortem imaging: an ESPR questionnaire-based survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); University College London, Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Pathology, London (United Kingdom); University College London, Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-15

    The use of post-mortem imaging, including skeletal radiography, CT and MRI, is increasing, providing a minimally invasive alternative to conventional autopsy techniques. The development of clinical guidelines and national standards is being encouraged, particularly for cross-sectional techniques. To outline the current practice of post-mortem imaging amongst members of the European Society of Paediatric Radiology (ESPR). We e-mailed an online questionnaire of current post-mortem service provisions to members of the ESPR in January 2013. The survey included direct questions about what services were offered, the population imaged, current techniques used, imaging protocols, reporting experience and intended future involvement. Seventy-one percent (47/66) of centres from which surveys were returned reported performing some form of post-mortem imaging in children, of which 81 % perform radiographs, 51% CT and 38% MRI. Eighty-seven percent of the imaging is performed within the radiology or imaging departments, usually by radiographers (75%), and 89% is reported by radiologists, of which 64% is reported by paediatric radiologists. Overall, 72% of positive respondents have a standardised protocol for radiographs, but only 32% have such a protocol for CT and 27% for MRI. Sixty-one percent of respondents wrote that this is an important area that needs to be developed. Overall, the majority of centres provide some post-mortem imaging service, most of which is performed within an imaging department and reported by a paediatric radiologist. However, the populations imaged as well as the details of the services offered are highly variable among institutions and lack standardisation. We have identified people who would be interested in taking this work forwards. (orig.)

  18. Paediatric obesity and renal transplantation: current challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrace, John D; Oniscu, Gabriel C

    2016-04-01

    The increased incidence of obesity in the paediatric population poses significant challenges to renal transplantation. Whilst the body mass index appears to be widely used as a measure of obesity in adults, there are no standardised definitions in the paediatric population, making comparative analyses difficult. In the paediatric transplant population, obesity is associated with an increased incidence of surgical complications, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia and cardiovascular morbidity, leading to diminished graft function and impacting patient and graft survival. Management of obesity in renal transplantation requires multiple interventions starting with life-style and behavioural modification combined with medical and possibly surgical therapies, representing a unique challenge in the childhood setting. In this review we discuss the current challenges of obesity and potential solutions in the setting of paediatric transplantation. PMID:26018121

  19. Observational study of suspected maltreatment in Italian paediatric emergency departments

    OpenAIRE

    Palazzi, S; G. De Girolamo; Liverani, T; on, b

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate how often children seen in paediatric accident & emergency (A&E) departments were suspected of abuse or neglect, and to explore some of the correlates of suspected child maltreatment.

  20. Paediatric oncology and intensive care treatments: changing trends

    OpenAIRE

    Keengwe, I.; Stansfield, F.; EDEN, O; Nelhans, N.; Dearlove, O.; Sharples, A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To review the outcome of patients with childhood malignancy requiring intensive care treatment and to assess whether there is any secular trend for improved outcome.
DESIGN—Retrospective chart reviews of 74 consecutive admissions to a paediatric intensive care unit from a regional paediatric oncology centre between 1990 and 1997. During the same period there were 6419 admissions to the oncology unit, 814 of whom were new cases.
RESULTS—The overall survival a...

  1. Paediatric cyclical Cushing's disease due to corticotroph cell hyperplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Noctor, E

    2015-06-01

    Cushing\\'s disease is very rare in the paediatric population. Although uncommon, corticotroph hyperplasia causing Cushing\\'s syndrome has been described in the adult population, but appears to be extremely rare in children. Likewise, cyclical cortisol hypersecretion, while accounting for 15 % of adult cases of Cushing\\'s disease, has only rarely been described in the paediatric population. Here, we describe a very rare case of a 13-year old boy with cyclical cortisol hypersecretion secondary to corticotroph cell hyperplasia.

  2. A concept analysis of holistic nursing care in paediatric nursing

    OpenAIRE

    A.A. Tjale; Bruce, J

    2007-01-01

    Holistic nursing care is widely advocated and is espoused in the philosophy of the South African Nursing Council. This concept is unclear, variously interpreted and poorly understood in paediatric nursing. This study was undertaken to examine the meaning of holistic nursing care and to develop a framework for holistic nursing care, which can be utilised in nurse education settings and in clinical nursing practice in the context of paediatric nursing. A qualitative, interpretive, explorative a...

  3. Psychological Aspects of Paediatric Burns (A Clinical Review)

    OpenAIRE

    A Sousa

    2010-01-01

    Burn injuries in childhood can be traumatic with lasting effects until adulthood. This article reviews the various psychological issues one confronts when treating paediatric patients with burn injuries. A wide range of factors influence recovery and rehabilitation from paediatric burns. The role of family members, family dynamics, parental reactions, parental psychiatric illness, and pre-morbid psychiatric illness in the child are important factors. The entire family and the burned child hav...

  4. Referral of paediatric patients follows geographic borders of administrative units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Riiskjær, Erik; Ammentorp, Jette

    2011-01-01

    This observational study examines changes in paediatric hospital-seeking behaviour at Kolding Hospital in The Region of Southern Denmark (RSD) following a major change in administrative units in Denmark on 1 January 2007.......This observational study examines changes in paediatric hospital-seeking behaviour at Kolding Hospital in The Region of Southern Denmark (RSD) following a major change in administrative units in Denmark on 1 January 2007....

  5. Fast tracking in paediatric cardiac anaesthesia : an update.

    OpenAIRE

    Lake Carol

    2002-01-01

    A care plan in which cardiac surgical patients progress quickly through the perioperative course to hospital discharge is often referred to as a Fast Track. Such care plans have been used extensively in adult cardiac patients but are also applicable to paediatric patients. Although no randomised controlled trials are available to document a reduction in hospital costs and avoidance of iatrogenic complications with paediatric fast tracks, many healthcare administrators encourage their use. Fas...

  6. Guidelines on Vaccinations in Paediatric Haematology and Oncology Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Cesaro; Mareva Giacchino; Francesca Fioredda; Angelica Barone; Laura Battisti; Stefania Bezzio; Stefano Frenos; Raffaella De Santis; Susanna Livadiotti; Serena Marinello; Andrea Giulio Zanazzo; Désirée Caselli

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Vaccinations are the most important tool to prevent infectious diseases. Chemotherapy-induced immune depression may impact the efficacy of vaccinations in children. Patients and Methods. A panel of experts of the supportive care working group of the Italian Association Paediatric Haematology Oncology (AIEOP) addressed this issue by guidelines on vaccinations in paediatric cancer patients. The literature published between 1980 and 2013 was reviewed. Results and Conclusion. During in...

  7. Paediatric Pain Management: Using Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Subhadra; Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

    2008-01-01

    Children undergo acute painful procedures and many also experience chronic pain.Due to their developing systems, infants and children may be at greater risk than adults for protracted pain sensitivity.There is a need to manage acute and chronic paediatric pain to reduce children's suffering and to prevent future pain problems.Consistent with a biopsychosocial perspective, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) should be considered in management of acute and chronic paediatric pain.Altho...

  8. Safety of fluconazole in paediatrics: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Egunsola, Oluwaseun; Adefurin, Abiodun; Fakis, Apostolos; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne; Choonara, Imti; Sammons, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the safety of fluconazole in neonates and other paediatric age groups by identifying adverse events (AEs) and drug interactions associated with treatment. Methods: A search of EMBASE (1950–January 2012), MEDLINE (1946–January 2012), the Cochrane database for systematic reviews and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (1982–2012) for any clinical study about fluconazole use that involved at least one paediatric patient (≤17 years) was p...

  9. Aspects of deceased organ donation in paediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, J; Hasan, A

    2012-01-01

    Organ transplantation offers children in acute or chronic severe organ failure similar opportunities to adults. However, while the number who might benefit is relatively low, significantly fewer cadaveric donors exist for any given child compared with an adult. Incompatible organ size and relatively low donation rates mean that despite living parental donation and innovations to reduce donated organ size, children die before organs become available. The severity of the UK situation is compounded by restrictions on paediatric living donation, uncertainties over the application of brain death criteria, and ethical concerns about the use of donation after circulatory death. The UK Department of Health's Organ Donation Task Force suggested the means by which the adult donor pool might be increased, recommending that outstanding ethical and legal issues be resolved, but made no specific recommendations about children. PMID:22194438

  10. Radiation Protection in Paediatric Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of examinations with radiation exposure has been increasing mainly due to advances in computed tomography (CT) technology, with a rapid expansion of CT utilization. Annually, 3.6 billion diagnostic and medical and dental examinations involving radiation are performed worldwide. The contribution of CT to collective dose due to medical X rays is up to 47–59%. A 2009 report of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) estimates that 8–10% of CT examinations in the United States of America are performed on children; the growth in CT utilization is higher in the paediatric than adult population in the USA; and there is a particularly pronounced rise in adolescents undergoing chest CT in the emergency department setting for suspected pulmonary embolism or trauma. The reasons for the growing incidence of CT are new indications for CT with the advent of multidetector CT, overcautious ordering related to medico-legal problems and probably financial incentive systems

  11. Action, prevention and epidemiology of paediatric obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissau, Inge

    2005-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The overall aim of this paper is to describe important issues regarding paediatric obesity as a public health problem. This paper focuses on actions taken, and on the prevalence of obesity in children, teens and adults in Denmark. In addition, the paper describes some important...... prevention studies, all of which are performed outside Denmark. Thus, this paper is not a classical review but rather a highlight of some aspects that the author finds important. The latest Danish national figures show a marked increase in the prevalence of obesity, especially among young men-a sevenfold...... increase from 1987 to 2000 (0.7 to 4.9%). Among young women aged 16-24, the increase is threefold in the same period. Among teens, the prevalence has increased by 2-3 times in recent decades. Nevertheless, compared to other European countries and the US, Denmark has a relatively low prevalence of obesity...

  12. Paediatric Crohn's disease: a radiological review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paediatric Crohn's disease can be a serious and complex condition which is not always easy to diagnose if it presents in an atypical manner. Although the pathological processes are the same in adults and children, the clinical presentation and disease distribution can be different in children. The impact of the disease can also be much more significant in a growing and developing child than in an adult. Numerous investigations are available to establish the diagnosis, define the complications and to demonstrate the extra-intestinal manifestations. Close co-operation is required between the clinician and radiologist when investigating a child suspected of having Crohn's disease or its symptoms to minimise the radiation dose and the psychological and physical trauma. We review the clinical and radiological aspects of Crohn's disease and discuss the imaging modalities available in diagnosing Crohn's disease and its complications and suggest an investigation pathway as used in our institution. (orig.)

  13. New hazards in paediatric poisoning presentations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, C

    2015-02-01

    Accidental ingestion is an important preventable cause of childhood morbidity. All accidental ingestion presentations (n = 478) to a tertiary paediatric ED from January 2010 to December 2011 were analysed. These results were compared with a similar study in the same institution ten years previously in 2001 and showed that while accidental ingestions constituted a higher proportion of presentations (0.5% in this study v 0.45% in 2001), fewer had investigations performed (21% v 35%) and fewer were admitted (7% v 20%). Accidental ingestions account for 0.5% of presentations and are an important focus of home safety information for parents and guardians. Paracetamol (n = 67, 14%) and liquid detergent capsules (n = 44, 9.2%) were the two most common substances implicated in these presentations, and have the potential to cause severe morbidity and mortality.

  14. Radiological protection in paediatric computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that paediatric patients are generally at greater risk for the development of cancer per unit of radiation dose compared with adults, due both to the longer life expectancy for any harmful effects of radiation to manifest, and the fact that developing organs and tissues are more sensitive to the effects of radiation. Multiple computed tomography (CT) examinations may cumulatively involve absorbed doses to organs and tissues that can sometimes approach or exceed the levels known from epidemiological studies to significantly increase the probability of cancer development. Radiation protection strategies include rigorous justification of CT examinations and the use of imaging techniques that are non-ionising, followed by optimisation of radiation dose exposure (according to the ‘as low as reasonably achievable’ principle). Special consideration should be given to the availability of dose reduction technology when acquiring CT scanners. Dose reduction should be optimised by adjustment of scan parameters (such as mAs, kVp, and pitch) according to patient weight or age, region scanned, and study indication (e.g. images with greater noise should be accepted if they are of sufficient diagnostic quality). Other strategies include restricting multiphase examination protocols, avoiding overlapping of scan regions, and only scanning the area in question. Newer technologies such as tube current modulation, organ-based dose modulation, and iterative reconstruction should be used when appropriate. Attention should also be paid to optimising study quality (e.g. by image post-processing to facilitate radiological diagnoses and interpretation). Finally, improving awareness through education and advocacy, and further research in paediatric radiological protection are important to help reduce patient dose.

  15. Eliminating paediatric infections and keeping mothers alive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray G

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The global plan of reducing the number of new child HIV infections and a reduction in the number of HIV-related maternal deaths by 2015 will require inordinate political commitment and strengthening of health systems in Sub-Saharan Africa where the burden of HIV infections in pregnant women is the highest. Preventing HIV infection in women of child-bearing age and unwanted pregnancies in HIV-positive women forms the cornerstone of long-term control of paediatric HIV infections. To achieve the goal of eliminating paediatric HIV infection by 2015, health systems strengthening to address prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission cascade attrition and focusing on the elimination of breastmilk transmission is critical. Understanding the pathogenesis of breastmilk transmission and the mechanisms by which antiretroviral therapy impacts on transmission through this compartment will drive future interventions. Identifying and retaining HIV-positive pregnant women in care and committed to long-term antiretroviral therapy will improve maternal outcomes and concomitant reductions in maternal mortality. Research assessing the natural history of HIV infection and long-term outcomes in women who interrupt antiretroviral therapy post-weaning is urgently required. Data on the outcome of women who opt to continue the long-term use of antiretroviral therapy after initiating therapy during pregnancy will determine future policy in countries considering option B+. The prevalence of antiretroviral resistance and impact on survival in infants who sero-convert whilst receiving neonatal prophylaxis, or are exposed to maternal HAART through breastmilk at a population level, are currently unknown. In addition to the provision of biomedical interventions, healthcare workers and policy makers must address the structural, cultural and community issues that impact on treatment uptake, adherence to medication and retention in care.

  16. Canadian beef quality audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Jewison, G; Mann, M; Cherry, B; Altwasser, B; Lower, R; Wiggins, K; Dejonge, R; Thorlakson, B; Moss, E; Mills, C; Grogan, H

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted in 4 Canadian processing plants in 1995-96 to determine the prevalence of quality defects in Canadian cattle. One percent of the annual number of cattle processed in Canada were evaluated on the processing floor and 0.1% were graded in the cooler. Brands were observed on 37% and multiple brands on 6% of the cattle. Forty percent of the cattle had horns, 20% of which were scurs, 33% were stubs, 10% were tipped, and 37% were full length. Tag (mud and manure on the hide) was observed on 34% of the cattle. Bruises were found on 78% of the carcasses, 81% of which were minor in severity. Fifteen percent of the bruises were located on the round, 29% on the loin, 40% on the rib, 16% on the chuck, and 0.02% on the brisket. Grubs were observed in 0.02% of the steers, and injection sites were observed in 1.3% of whole hanging carcasses. Seventy percent of the livers were passed for human food and 14% for pet food; 16% were condemned. Approximately 71% of the liver condemnations were due to liver abscesses. Four percent of the heads, 6% of the tongues, and 0.2% of whole carcasses were condemned. The pregnancy rate in female cattle was approximately 6.7%. The average hot carcass weight was 357 kg (s = 40) in steers, 325 kg (s = 41) in heifers, 305 kg (s = 53) in cows, 388 kg (s = 62) in virgin bulls and 340 kg (s = 39) in mature bulls. The average ribeye area in all cattle was 84 cm2 (s = 12); range 29 cm2 to 128 cm2. Grade fat was highly variable and averaged 9 mm (s = 4) for steers and heifers, 6 mm (s = 6) for cows, 5 mm (s = 1) for virgin bulls, and 4 mm (s = 0.5) for mature bulls. The average lean meat yield was 59.7% in cattle (s = 3.4); range 39% to 67%. One percent of the carcasses were devoid of marbling, 1% were dark cutters, and 0.05% of the steer carcasses were staggy. Six percent of the carcasses had poor conformation, 3.7% were underfinished, and 0.7% were overfinished. Yellow fat was observed in 4% of the carcasses; 10% of carcasses were

  17. Fast tracking in paediatric cardiac anaesthesia : an update.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lake Carol

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A care plan in which cardiac surgical patients progress quickly through the perioperative course to hospital discharge is often referred to as a Fast Track. Such care plans have been used extensively in adult cardiac patients but are also applicable to paediatric patients. Although no randomised controlled trials are available to document a reduction in hospital costs and avoidance of iatrogenic complications with paediatric fast tracks, many healthcare administrators encourage their use. Fast Track clinical guidelines usually include same day surgery, use of short- acting anaesthetic drugs, early extubation, effective pain management, and reduced intensive care unit stays. These protocols are certainly appropriate for simple procedures such as repair of atrial or ventricular septal defects or ligation of a patent ductus arteriosus. However, many paediatric cardiac anaesthesiologists consider that all paediatric patients without significant pulmonary or residual cardiac pathology can be managed using expedited postoperative protocols. Essential components in a "fast track" protocol include use of minimally invasive surgical techniques, modified ultrafiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass, transoesophageal echocardiography to evaluate the cardiac repair, and postoperative pain control. Using such techniques, 80-90% of paediatric patients can be extubated in the operating room or within 2-4 hours postoperatively. Despite the opinions of recognised experts, an appropriately sized and powered multicentre, controlled, randomised, prospective study is still needed to conclusively document the efficiency and effectiveness of the Fast Track in paediatric cardiac patients.

  18. Initial evaluation of children admitted on the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Arce Delgado

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The initial evaluation of the child, when admitted on the Paediatric Intensive Unit, is a essential tool and key piece as a starting point on the development of a specific Care Plan for each child. Therefore, it is necessary the existence of a protocol, according to a rigorous methodology, so that cares will have quality and thus, it will be avoided that each nursing professional will act in a different way, according to his intuition, beliefs or improvisation capacity.The initial evaluation of the child will allow us not only to coordinate the interventions, but also to give continuity to the cares.The initial evaluation of the child document is a nursing register that is part of the clinical register of the paediatric patient. Nursing registers turn to be the best approximation of what nowadays is our job’s practice, and they are, therefore, necessary for us to be judged by a professional perspective and to make it possible to classify the services we carry out to the society.

  19. Our surgical heritage: the role of the Department of Paediatric Surgery in the development of paediatric surgery in Cape Town, in Africa, and around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Heinz; Millar, Alastair J W

    2012-06-01

    The Department of Paediatric Surgery at the University of Cape Town has made a remarkable contribution to the academic body of knowledge of Paediatric Surgery both in South Africa and around the world. It has played a key role in the development of the specialty in South Africa and through the South African diaspora has trained many paediatric surgeons who have made their mark internationally. More recently it has become a major focus of teaching and training for African paediatric surgeons. This article traces this legacy through its origins in the early 1920s to its current prominent position in the world paediatric surgical community. PMID:22668921

  20. Canadian cogeneration economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aggressive cogeneration industry has developed in Canada, and is becoming a tool for provincial utilities to manage the procurement of independently generated power, while restricting plant size, maximizing socioeconomic benefit, minimizing environmental impacts and managing their own risks. An overview is presented of the economics of cogeneration in Canada. The Canadian cogeneration industry is driven by 3 key economic factors: utility power sale contracts, fuel pricing, and tax benefits. Utility cogeneration purchases, tax benefits, fuel prices, cogeneration efficiency, fuels, fuel strategies, displacement projects, solid fuel vs natural gas, operating flexibility, gas turbines, heat recovery steam generators, industrial and aeroderivative units, combined cycle steam turbines, steam injection, supplementary or duct firing, financial aspects and project management are discussed. 15 figs., 7 tabs

  1. The HOPE (Helping to Outline Paediatric Eating Disorders) Project: development and debut of a paediatric clinical eating disorder registry

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Hunna J.; McCormack, Julie; Hoiles, Kimberley J; Forbes, David; Potts, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Background The HOPE (Helping to Outline Paediatric Eating Disorders) Project is an ongoing registry study made up of a sequential cross-sectional sample prospectively recruited over 17 years, and is designed to answer empirical questions about paediatric eating disorders. This paper introduces the HOPE Project, describes the registry sample to-date, and discusses future directions and challenges and accomplishments. The project and clinical service were established in a tertiary academic hosp...

  2. Canadian National Vegetation Classification (CNVC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The mandate of the CNVC is to comprehensively classify and describe natural and semi-natural Canadian vegetation in an ecologically meaningful manner. The...

  3. 1944. The Canadians in Normandy

    OpenAIRE

    W.A. Dorning

    2012-01-01

    The story of the Allied invasion of France in June 1944 has been told in countless military-history books. Previous publications on the Allied invasion and the subsequent Normandy campaign have, however, tended to concentrate on the British and American role in the fighting, while the Canadian contribution has received scant attention. This in itself is surprising, as the Canadians played a far from peripheral role in the invasion and the campaign which followed in the hinterland of Normandy....

  4. American Headache Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us American Migraine Foundation Login THE AMERICAN Headache Society is a professional society of health care providers dedicated to the study ... MIGRAINE MOMENT” FILM CONTEST WINNERS The American Headache Society and American Migraine Foundation, the AHS’s charitable division, ...

  5. Society of Reproductive Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Society of Reproductive Surgeons Home About Us About SRS Mission Statement Officers The Role of Reproductive Surgeons For ... Fact Sheets and Booklets SRS is an affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below ...

  6. Paediatric admissions and outcome in a general intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Embu Henry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is believed that intensive care greatly improves the prognosis for critically ill children and that critically ill children admitted to a dedicated Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU do better than those admitted to a general intensive care unit (ICU. Methods: A retrospective study of all paediatric (< 16 years admissions to our general ICU from January 1994 to December 2007. Results: Out of a total of 1364 admissions, 302 (22.1% were in the paediatric age group. Their age ranged from a few hours old to 15 years with a mean of 4.9 ± 2.5 years. The male: female ratio was 1.5:1. Postoperative admissions made up 51.7% of the admissions while trauma and burn made up 31.6% of admissions. Medical cases on the other hand constituted 11.6% of admissions. Of the 302 children admitted to the ICU, 193 were transferred from the ICU to other wards or in some cases other hospitals while 109 patients died giving a mortality rate of 36.1%. Mortality was significantly high in post-surgical paediatric patients and in patients with burn and tetanus. The length of stay (LOS in the ICU ranged from less than one day to 56 days with a mean of 5.5 days. Conclusion: We found an increasing rate of paediatric admissions to our general ICU over the years. We also found a high mortality rate among paediatric patients admitted to our ICU. The poor outcome in paediatric patients managed in our ICU appears to be a reflection of the inadequacy of facilities. Better equipping our ICUs and improved man-power development would improve the outcome for our critically ill children. Hospitals in our region should also begin to look into the feasibility of establishing PICUs in order to further improve the standard of critical care for our children.

  7. Operating within the legal and ethical framework to gain co-operation when imaging paediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the challenges faced by radiographers when imaging children. Using Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs as a framework it presents a logical exploration of the complex issues associated with imaging children and considers the legal and ethical framework alongside the nature of motivation and importance of gaining cooperation of the child and their carer(s). It is evident that a good knowledge of child development, child psychology and distraction techniques would enhance the family experience when attending for imaging examinations. Radiographers must continually familiarise themselves with current legislation affecting their practice and ensure that they continue to provide an optimum service for children and their carer(s). It may be advisable for post-registration courses to be offered to existing practitioners and for the Society and College of Radiographers to consider appointing a professional officer with expertise in paediatric imaging to offer legal advice and to support safe practice

  8. Dose estimation for paediatric cranial computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curci Daros, K.A.; Bitelli Medeiros, R. [Sao Paulo Univ. Federal (Brazil); Curci Daros, K.A.; Oliveira Echeimberg, J. de [Centro Univ. Sao Camilo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    In the last ten years, the number of paediatric computed tomography (CT) scans have increased worldwide, contributing to higher population radiation dose. Technique diversification in paediatrics and different CT equipment technologies have led to various exposure levels complicating precise evaluation of doses and operational conditions necessary for good quality images. The objective of this study was to establish a quantitative relationship between absorbed dose and cranial region in children up to 6 years old undergoing CT exams. Methods: X-ray was measured on the cranial surface of 64 patients undergoing CT using thermoluminescent (T.L.) dosimeters. Forty T.L.D.100 thermoluminescent dosimeters (T.L.D.) were evenly distributed on each patients skin surface along the sagittal axis. Measurements were performed in facial regions exposed to scatter radiation and in the supratentorial and posterior fossa regions, submitted to primary radiation. T.L.D. were calibrated for 120 kV X-ray over the acrylic phantom. T.L. measurements were made with a Harshaw 4000 system. Patient mean T.L. readings were determined for position, pi, of T.L.D. and normalized to the maximum supratentorial reading. From integrating the linear T.L. density function (?) resulting from radiation distribution in each of the three exposed regions, dose fraction was determined in the region of interest, along with total dose under the technical conditions used in that specific exam protocol. For each T.L.D. position along the patient cranium, there were n T.L. measurements with 2% uncertainty due to T.L. reader, and 5% due to thermal treatment of dosimeters. Also, mean T.L. readings and their uncertainties were calculated for each patient at each position, p. Results: Mean linear T.L. density for the region exposed to secondary radiation defined by position, 0.3{<=}p{<=}6 cm, was {rho}((p)=7.9(4)x10{sup -2}+7(5)x10{sup -5}p{sup 4.5(4)} cm{sup -1}; exposed to primary X-ray for the posterior fossa

  9. Canadian fuel development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANDU power reactor fuel has demonstrated an enviable operational record. More than 99.9% of the bundles irradiated have provided defect-free service. Defect excursions are responsible for the majority of reported defects. In some cases research and development effort is necessary to resolve these problems. In addition, development initiatives are also directed at improvements of the current design or reduction of fueling cost. The majority of the funding for this effort has been provided by COG (CANDU Owners' Group) over the past 10 to 15 years. This paper contains an overview of some key fuel technology programs within COG. The CANDU reactor is unique among the world's power reactors in its flexibility and its ability to use a number of different fuel cycles. An active program of analysis and development, to demonstrate the viability of different fuel cycles in CANDU, has been funded by AECL in parallel with the work on the natural uranium cycle. Market forces and advances in technology have obliged us to reassess and refocus some parts of our effort in this area, and significant success has been achieved in integrating all the Canadian efforts in this area. This paper contains a brief summary of some key components of the advanced fuel cycle program. (Author) 4 figs., tab., 18 refs

  10. Canadian leadership in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's energy is complex and an important resource as it fuels and funds the economy. The unique character of Canada's energy production and consumption provides strength to the country. The purpose of this booklet was to highlight Canada's energy production and consumption and to demonstrate Canada's rank globally with other major global energy players. The document also presented information on the value of Canada's energy exports, Canada's relationship with the United States, and Canada's energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. Specifically, the document discussed Canada's energy in a global context; the value of Canada's energy exports; domestic value of energy; Canada's unique energy mix; Canada's electricity mix; Canada's carbon dioxide emissions; energy strategies; and the importance of energy to Canadians. It was concluded that there are 14 federal, provincial and territorial jurisdictions managing their respective energy resources. All of these regions, with the exception of Saskatchewan have produced an energy strategy document or a climate change action plan focusing on 8 areas of action, notably awareness; benefit; efficiency; development; diversification; electricity; and emissions. refs., tabs., figs.

  11. Smartphone applications in paediatric radiology: availability and authority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelmerdine, Susan C. [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Specialist Registrar in Clinical Radiology, Department of Clinical Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Lynch, Jeremy O. [Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, Specialist Registrar in Clinical Radiology, Department of Clinical Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    With the widespread ownership of smartphones, many health care professionals question the degree to which medically related smartphone applications are reliable. To assess the variety of smartphone applications relating to paediatric radiology and the presence of health care professional involvement in their development. As a secondary objective, we explore whether there are gaps within the paediatric radiology app market. The most popular smartphone marketplaces (Apple iTunes App Store, Blackberry Mobile Market, Google Play Android Market, Nokia Ovi, Samsung and Microsoft Windows Marketplace) were searched for terms relating to paediatric radiology. Cost, review ratings, number of downloads, health care involvement and target audience were recorded. Nine paediatric radiology applications were found in the Apple iTunes App Store and nine in the Google Play Android Market. The target audiences for all applications were health care professionals. None were available for patients or their caregivers. All applications were reported to have medical expertise in their development. All paediatric radiology applications were developed with the aid of a health care professional. Due to the small number available online, there is a potential gap in the marketplace for further applications in this field, possibly aimed at patients and their families. (orig.)

  12. Smartphone applications in paediatric radiology: availability and authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the widespread ownership of smartphones, many health care professionals question the degree to which medically related smartphone applications are reliable. To assess the variety of smartphone applications relating to paediatric radiology and the presence of health care professional involvement in their development. As a secondary objective, we explore whether there are gaps within the paediatric radiology app market. The most popular smartphone marketplaces (Apple iTunes App Store, Blackberry Mobile Market, Google Play Android Market, Nokia Ovi, Samsung and Microsoft Windows Marketplace) were searched for terms relating to paediatric radiology. Cost, review ratings, number of downloads, health care involvement and target audience were recorded. Nine paediatric radiology applications were found in the Apple iTunes App Store and nine in the Google Play Android Market. The target audiences for all applications were health care professionals. None were available for patients or their caregivers. All applications were reported to have medical expertise in their development. All paediatric radiology applications were developed with the aid of a health care professional. Due to the small number available online, there is a potential gap in the marketplace for further applications in this field, possibly aimed at patients and their families. (orig.)

  13. [Paediatric simulation today and tomorrow. Perspectives and concepts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordi Ritz, E-M; Eich, C; Gisin, S; Heinzel, O; Hüpfl, M; Erb, T O

    2009-12-01

    The confrontation with critically ill newborns, infants and small children is rare and poses a particular challenge for the medical team. Confident technical and non-technical skills are essential for successful emergency treatment. Paediatric simulators facilitate a didactic infrastructure, linking textbook theory with experience-based practice. To summarize the current status of paediatric simulation in Germany, Austria and Switzerland an online survey of all associated centres was conducted. Paediatric simulation is currently available at 24 centres, which have 39 paediatric simulators available, including 8 for newborns, 26 for infants and 5 for children. A certain congruence of standards is detectable among these centres and most instructors have completed a specialized instructor training. Of the instructors 26% are specialized nursing personnel and 67% are physicians of which most are paediatricians and anaesthesiologists. Many centres (38%) operate solely by means of the enthusiastic dedication of the employees who organize various activities during their free time. Nearly all centres (92%) place particular emphasis on non-technical skills which include the interpersonal aspects of crisis resource management. Video-supported debriefing is considered to be the basis for effective training. Within the scope of the recently established PaedSim project the curricula of paediatric simulation courses should be more structured and internationally standardized, thereby increasing both efficacy and sustainability of these training programs. PMID:20012246

  14. Paediatric analgesia in an Emergency Department.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, C

    2012-02-03

    Timely management of pain in paediatric patients in the Emergency Department (ED) is a well-accepted performance indicator. We describe an audit of the provision of analgesia for children in an Irish ED and the introduction of a nurse-initiated analgesia protocol in an effort to improve performance. 95 children aged 1-16 presenting consecutively to the ED were included and time from triage to analgesia, and the rate of analgesia provision, were recorded. The results were circulated and a nurse initiated analgesia protocol was introduced. An audit including 145 patients followed this. 55.6% of patients with major fractures received analgesia after a median time of 54 minutes, which improved to 61.1% (p = 0.735) after 7 minutes (p = 0.004). Pain score documentation was very poor throughout, improving only slightly from 0% to 19.3%. No child had a documented pain score, which slightly improved to 19.3%. We recommend other Irish EDs to audit their provision of analgesia for children.

  15. [Strategies for paediatric spleen and liver injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zundel, S; Lieber, J; Tsiflikas, I; Henk, A-K; Schmittenbecher, P

    2014-12-01

    Traumatic injuries of the spleen and liver are typically caused by age-related falls or sports and traffic accidents. Today, the non-operative management for isolated injuries is established and evidence-based guidelines are available. The intact abdominal wall and the limited space within the peritoneum produce a compression which is the pathophysiological explanation for the limitation of the haemorrhage. Precondition for the non-operative therapy is the radiology-based classification of the injury (organ injury scale) and a haemodynamically stable patient. Haemodynamic stability is, if necessary maintained with blood transfusion, volume substitutes and the administration of catecholamines. In cases of hilar vascular injury and devascularisation or haemodynamic instability of the patient, despite utilisation of the measures mentioned above, urgent operative therapy needs to be performed. Organ sparing surgery is the therapy of choice for both liver and spleen. The spleen is required for the development of a competent immune system in the growing organism. Liver injuries can be further complicated by injury to the bile system, which might require operative reconstruction. If a patient suffers from multiple injuries and spleen or liver are involved, the decision on the management needs to be taken individually, no guidelines exist but the rate for operative therapy increases. Independent of the dimensions of injury, an experienced paediatric surgeon with his multidisciplinary team, considering the anatomic and age specific characteristics of a child, achieves the best therapeutic results. PMID:25531632

  16. Recent pharmacological advances in paediatric analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B J; Palmer, G M

    2006-08-01

    Growth and development are two linked processes that distinguish children from adults. The use of size as the primary covariate during pharmacokinetic (PK) analyses allows exploration of the effects of age. Allometric scaling models have assisted understanding of the developmental clearance changes in common analgesic drugs such as paracetamol, morphine, tramadol and local anaesthetics agents. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (pharmacogenomics [PG]) and their impact on hepatic drug metabolism for opioids, tramadol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and drug receptor responses are increasingly reported. Altered chemical structure or formulations of common analgesics alter pharmacodynamic (PD) effects enhancing safety and efficacy for NSAIDs by stereoselectivity and the addition of nitric oxide, for intravenous paracetamol by formulation and structural difference from propacetamol and for local anaesthetics through stereoselectivity. This article focuses upon recent data for analgesics used in paediatric pain management including paracetamol, NSAIDs, morphine, tramadol, amide local anaesthetics and ketamine. It centres on PK and clinical studies in neonates, infants and children. PG studies are acknowledged as potentially allowing individual drug therapy tailoring through a decrease in between-patient population variability, although the impact of PG in the very young is less certain. There are few data describing age-related PD changes in children despite recognition that the number, affinity and type of receptors or the availability of natural ligands changes with age. PMID:16854558

  17. Radionuclide studies in paediatric nephro-urology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main tool of radionuclide techniques applied to paediatric uro-nephrology is the quantitation of function, which is an information not easily obtained by other diagnostic modalities. The radiation burden is low. Drug sedation is only rarely needed, whatever the age of the patient. Accurate determination of glomerular filtration rate can be obtained by means of an intravenous injection of Cr-51 EDTA and one or two blood samples. Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy is an accurate method for evaluation of regional cortical impairment during acute pyelonephritis and later on, for detection of permanent scarring. Tc-99m MAG3 renography is nowadays a well-standardized method for accurate estimation of the split renal function and of renal drainage with or without furosemide challenge. This technique is particularly indicated in uni- or bilateral uropathies with or without renal and/or ureteral dilatation. Direct and indirect radionuclide cystography are two alternative modalities for X-ray MCUG. Their relative place in the strategy of management of vesicoureteral reflux is discussed

  18. Satisfaction and attrition in paediatric weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, J A; Martin, S; Irby, M B

    2016-04-01

    Paediatric obesity treatment experiences unacceptably high rates of attrition. Few studies have explored parent and child perspectives on dropout. This study sought to capture child and parent experience in treatment and expressed contributors to attrition. Children and parents enrolled in a single family-based weight management programme participated in semi-structured interviews, conducted either upon completion of the first intensive phase of treatment or program dropout. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and coded using a multistage inductive approach. Interviews were obtained from 57 parents and 30 children, nearly equal between 'completers' or 'dropouts'. Five themes emerged: overall positive experience with programme; logistical challenges of participation; improved health; discrepancies between child and parent experience and perception, and importance of structure and expectations of weight loss. Primary reasons given for dropout were time commitment; distance from clinic; missed school and work; lack of dedicated adolescent programme; clinic hours; and stress. Few parents or children expressed dissatisfaction. Children reportedly enjoyed 'having someone to talk to' about weight, and spending increased time with family. Children and parents overall reported positive experiences in this weight management programme. Attrition appears more related to logistical issues than low satisfaction. Innovative approaches to help overcome logistical challenges and preserve positive aspects may help in decreasing programme attrition. PMID:27008068

  19. New insights in paediatric exercise metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neil; Armstrong; Alan; R.Barker

    2012-01-01

    <正>Research in paediatric exercise metabolism has been constrained by being unable to interrogate muscle in vivo.Conventionally,research has been limited to the estimation of muscle metabolism from observations of blood and respiratory gases during maximal or steady state exercise and the analysis of a few muscle biopsies taken at rest or post-exercise.The purpose of this paper is to review how the introduction of 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and breath-by-breath oxygen uptake kinetics studies has contributed to current understanding of exercise metabolism during growth and maturation.Methodologically robust studies using 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and oxygen uptake kinetics with children are sparse and some data are in conflict.However,it can be concluded that children respond to exercise with enhanced oxygen utilization within the myocyte compared with adults and that their responses are consistent with a greater recruitment of type I muscle fibres.Changes in muscle metabolism are age,maturation- and sex-related and dependent on the intensity of the exercise challenge.The introduction of experimental models such as "priming exercise" and "work-to-work" transitions provide intriguing avenues of research into the mechanisms underpinning exercise metabolism during growth and maturation.

  20. Radionuclide studies in paediatric nephro-urology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepsz, Amy E-mail: amypiepsz@yahoo.com

    2002-08-01

    The main tool of radionuclide techniques applied to paediatric uro-nephrology is the quantitation of function, which is an information not easily obtained by other diagnostic modalities. The radiation burden is low. Drug sedation is only rarely needed, whatever the age of the patient. Accurate determination of glomerular filtration rate can be obtained by means of an intravenous injection of Cr-51 EDTA and one or two blood samples. Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy is an accurate method for evaluation of regional cortical impairment during acute pyelonephritis and later on, for detection of permanent scarring. Tc-99m MAG3 renography is nowadays a well-standardized method for accurate estimation of the split renal function and of renal drainage with or without furosemide challenge. This technique is particularly indicated in uni- or bilateral uropathies with or without renal and/or ureteral dilatation. Direct and indirect radionuclide cystography are two alternative modalities for X-ray MCUG. Their relative place in the strategy of management of vesicoureteral reflux is discussed.

  1. Diagnostic accuracy on the management of acute paediatric urinary tract infection in a general paediatric unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fahisham Taib; Bakht Jamal

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain diagnostic accuracy of paediatric urinary tract infection (UTI) in a general paediatric unit of a district hospital. Methods: Retrospective case note review and comparing to the final computerised database of Human in-Patient Enquiry (HIPE) at Portiuncula Hospital, Galway, Ireland. All children from 0-16 years of age with the diagnosis of UTI were enrolled within the 3 year study period. The information was first retrieved from HIPE system to capture list of patients. Case notes revision was followed to extract data under standardized pro-forma for demography, accuracy of diagnosis, treatment instituted and investigation ordered. Patients’ data was reviewed according to updated definition. Results: There were 85 cases treated for UTI during the 3 year period, and only 45 cases were considered as genuine UTI according to diagnostic criteria. Out of 45 cases, 16 cases were considered as suspected UTI cases. Escherichia coli was noted to be the commonest organism. Cephradine has been used as the first line treatment as per local guideline;however, different antibiotic regimes were based on physician’s preferences. The sensitivity of the current method of UTI diagnosis remained at 64%when comparing final diagnosis in the HIPE system. Conclusions: UTI can be difficult to accurately diagnosis in certain clinical cases. Decisions made should be individualized and tailored according to clinical suspicion and presentation of the patients. Improvement to ensure accurate diagnosis is vital to ensure correct data capture in the HIPE system thus giving valuable information and resource for future care.

  2. Canadian Human Rights Act. Office Consolidation = Loi canadienne sur les droits de la personne. Codification administrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Supply and Services, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The Canadian Human Rights Act extends the laws in Canada that proscribe discrimination by establishing that each individual has the right to make the life for him- or herself that he or she is able and wishes to have, consistent with the duties and obligations of a member of society, without being hindered or prevented from doing so by…

  3. 50 Shades of Green: An Examination of Sustainability Policy on Canadian Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughter, Philip; Wright, Tarah; Herbert, Yuill

    2015-01-01

    Koichiro Matsuura, Director-General of UNESCO, asserts that education is one of the most effective instruments that society can employ in the effort to adopt sustainable development. This paper is a first effort to explore the degree to which Canadian institutions of higher education, including colleges and universities, have embraced this…

  4. Using a Wider Lens to Shift the Discourse on Food in Canadian Curriculum Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lorayne; Scheidler-Benns, Joli

    2016-01-01

    Healthy eating is important to overall health, but Canadian health agencies disagree on the degree to which lifestyle or society determines healthy eating. The authors review the literature and design a policy analysis framework that captures discursive elements of both arguments. They apply this framework to education policy, analysing the…

  5. Development of diagnostic reference levels in paediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a very wide range in patient size from a newborn baby to a 15 year old adolescent, reference doses for paediatric radiology can sensibly be established only for specific sizes of children. Five standard sizes have been chosen representing newborn, 1, 5, 10 and 15 years. A method is described for normalising the dose measured on a child of any size and age to the corresponding dose to the nearest standard sized patient. Normalisation factors for entrance surface dose and dose-area product measurements were calculated based on effective linear attenuation coefficients (μ) measured in phantoms and calculated by Monte Carlo techniques for the typical x-ray spectra and field sizes used in paediatric radiology. These normalisation factors were applied to European paediatric dose survey data to derive some preliminary size/age specific reference doses for some common radiographic projections and for micturating cystourethrography (MCU), the most common fluoroscopic examination performed on children. (author)

  6. Paediatric Pain Management: Using Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Subhadra; Tsao, Jennie C I; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

    2008-09-01

    Children undergo acute painful procedures and many also experience chronic pain.Due to their developing systems, infants and children may be at greater risk than adults for protracted pain sensitivity.There is a need to manage acute and chronic paediatric pain to reduce children's suffering and to prevent future pain problems.Consistent with a biopsychosocial perspective, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) should be considered in management of acute and chronic paediatric pain.Although research is limited for paediatric pain, CAM interventions receiving the most empirical attention include hypnotherapy, acupuncture and music therapy. Evidence also exists for the therapeutic benefits of yoga, massage, humor therapy and the use of certain biological based therapies. PMID:26525515

  7. Basics, principles, techniques and modern methods in paediatric ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccabona, Michael, E-mail: michael.riccabona@klinikum-graz.at

    2014-09-15

    Ultrasonography (US) is the mainstay of paediatric Radiology. This review aims at revisiting basic US principles, to list specific needs throughout childhood, and to discuss the application of new and modern US methods. The various sections elude to basic US physics, technical requisites and tips for handling, diagnostically valuable applications of modern techniques, and how to properly address hazards, risks and limitations. In conclusion, US holds vast potential throughout childhood in almost all body regions and many childhood specific queries – helping to reduce the need for or to optimize more invasive or irradiating imaging. Make the most of US and offerings a dedicated paediatric US service throughout the day, the week and the year thus is and will stay a major task of Paediatric Radiology.

  8. Canadian perspectives in evaluating transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's mission is to regulate the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect the health, safety, and security of Canadians and the environment, as well as to respect Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. In 2001, the CNSC established a vision to be one of the best nuclear regulators in the world and established four strategic priorities of effectiveness, transparency, excellence in staff, and efficiency. While fulfilling a very comprehensive mandate, the CNSC operates with a. very clear vision of its clientele - the Canadian people. That commitment guides every employee and every action of the CNSC and ensures a firm commitment to transparency. The presentation will begin with a brief overview of the worldwide context of transparency and transparency measurement, with a look at what lessons can be learned from other organizations and initiatives. It will look broadly at the Canadian context and the government framework that establishes transparency, including the keystone legislation of the Access to Information Act. The presentation will then focus on the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. The CNSC is firmly committed to putting additional measures in place to ensure transparency, which is being done concurrently with an overall organisational performance measurement system. It is within this framework that the presentation will address the transparency efforts at the CNSC as well transparency measurement activities. And, finally, the presentation will look at future directions for transparency and its measurement at the CNSC. (author)

  9. Canadian Food Irradiation Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) began work on the irradiation of potatoes in 1956, using spent fuel rods as the radiation source. In 1958 the first Gammacell 220, a self-contained irradiator, was designed and manufactured by AECL, and cobalt-60 was then used exclusively in the food irradiation programme. In 1960 the first food and drug clearance was obtained for potatoes. The next stage was to demonstrate to the potato industry that cobalt-60 was a safe, simple and reliable tool, and that irradiation would inhibit sprouting under field conditions. A mobile irradiator was designed and produced by AECL in 1961 to carry out this pilot-plant programme. The irradiator was mounted on a fully-equipped road trailer and spent the 1961/1962 season irradiating one million pounds of potatoes at various points in Eastern Canada. In 1965 the first commercial food irradiator was designed and built by AECL for Newfield Products, Ltd. Whilst the potato programme was under way, AECL initiated co-operative programmes with Canadian food research laboratories, using additional Gammacells. In 1960, AECL constructed an irradiation facility in a shielded room at its own plant in Ottawa for the irradiation of larger objects, such as sides of pork and stems of bananas. During 1963 the mobile irradiator, already a most useful tool, was made more versatile when its source strength was increased and it was equipped with a product cooling system and van air conditioning. Following these modifications, the unit was employed in California for the irradiation of a wide spectrum of fruits at the United States Department of Agriculture Station in Fresno. The Gammacell, mobile irradiator, shielded-room facility, the commercial food irradiator and some of the main food programmes are described in detail. There is an increasing amount of interest in irradiation by the food industry, and prospects are encouraging for future installations. (author)

  10. European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guidelines for the diagnosis of coeliac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husby, S; Koletzko, S; Korponay-Szabó, I R;

    2012-01-01

    Diagnostic criteria for coeliac disease (CD) from the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) were published in 1990. Since then, the autoantigen in CD, tissue transglutaminase, has been identified; the perception of CD has changed from that of a rather...... uncommon enteropathy to a common multiorgan disease strongly dependent on the haplotypes human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8; and CD-specific antibody tests have improved....

  11. Caring for young adults on a paediatric ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Paul A J; Routley, Christine; Paul, Siba Prosad

    The need for adolescents and young adults (AYA) to have suitable age-specific inpatient facilities has been recognised for many years, yet has received relatively little attention. This article reports the successful introduction of an inpatient facility for AYA, aged 17-24 years, on a general paediatric ward in a small district general hospital. From December 2010, a young person's unit (YPU) consisting of an 8-bed area was opened within a 24-bed children's ward. Nursing care was provided by the ward staff, all of whom had been trained in the care of young adults. Policies regarding admission criteria, safeguarding, patient choice, visiting and 'house rules' were drafted, implemented and modified as necessary. Discussions with the adult clinicians (for medical care) and site managers were held to ensure smooth running of the system, and to address any concerns or difficulties. Paediatric patients had priority of admission at times of bed crisis. During 2012, there were a total of 2351 inpatient admissions to the paediatric ward, of whom 379 (16%) were YPU patients aged from 17-24 years. Median length of stay was 2 days for patients aged 17-24 years as compared with 1 day for patients aged less than or equal to 16 years. Patients who chose admission to the paediatric ward tended to be younger, in transition from paediatric to adult services for chronic conditions, or with special needs. Patient surveys showed a high level of satisfaction with the facility. Young adults can be cared for safely and effectively on a paediatric ward with minimal additional costs. The essential ingredients for success include discussion with affected parties to address specific concerns, and the establishment of a clear, simple and unambiguous admission policy. PMID:24165407

  12. Collaboration between paediatric surgery and other medical specialties in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philemon E Okoro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The quality of service and success of patient care and research in most fields of medicine depend on effective collaboration between different specialties. Paediatric surgery is a relatively young specialty in Nigeria and such collaborations are desirable. This survey assesses the nature and extent of collaboration between paediatric surgery and other specialties in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a questionnaire survey carried out in November 2008 among paediatric surgeons and their trainees practising in Nigeria. Questionnaires were distributed and retrieved either by hand or e-mailing. The responses were then collated and analysed using the SPSS 17.0. Results: Forty-seven respondents were included in the survey. Forty-five (95.7% respondents thought that there was inadequate collaboration and that there was a need for an increased collaboration between paediatric surgery and other specialties. Anaesthesia, paediatrics and radiology are among the specialties where collaborations were most required but not adequately received. Collaboration had been required from these specialties in areas of patient care, training and research. Reasons for inadequate collaboration included the paucity of avenues for inter-specialty communication and exchange of ideas 33 (70.3%, lack of awareness of the need for collaboration 32 (68.1%, tendency to apportion blames for bad outcome 13 (27.7%, and mutual suspicion 8 (17%. Conclusion: There is presently inadequate collaboration between paediatric surgery and other specialties in Nigeria. There is a need for more inter-specialty support, communication, and exchange of ideas in order to achieve desirable outcomes.

  13. Radiographic appearances of uncommon paediatric implants and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquia, Arlen; Watson, Tom A.; Arthurs, Owen J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    As childhood survival of chronic illness improves, long-term implanted devices will be encountered more frequently in routine radiology. In our paediatric tertiary referral hospital, we have come across several types of implanted devices that were not confidently recognised or identified by front-line staff and were often only identified by discussion with the patient, family or clinical team. This pictorial review highlights the appearance of nonvascular devices on paediatric radiographs in order to help clinicians identify the most frequent complications and to improve awareness of these important devices. (orig.)

  14. Demographics of paediatric renal replacement therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chesnaye, Nicholas; Bonthuis, Marjolein; Schaefer, Franz; Groothoff, Jaap W; Verrina, Enrico; Heaf, James G; Jankauskiene, Augustina; Lukosiene, Viktorija; Molchanova, Elena A; Mota, Conceicao; Peco-Antić, Amira; Ratsch, Ilse-Maria; Bjerre, Anna; Roussinov, Dimitar L; Sukalo, Alexander; Topaloglu, Rezan; Van Hoeck, Koen; Zagozdzon, Ilona; Jager, Kitty J; Van Stralen, Karlijn J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry collects data on European children with end-stage renal disease receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT) who are listed on national and regional renal registries in Europe. In this paper we report on the analysis of demographic data collected from 2009 to...... 2011. METHODS: Data on primary renal disease, incidence, prevalence, 4-year survival, transplantation rate and causes of death in paediatric patients receiving RRT were extracted from the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry for 37 European countries. RESULTS: The incidence of RRT in paediatric patients in Europe...

  15. Clinical competence in developmental-behavioural paediatrics: raising the bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Mick

    2014-01-01

    For our specialist paediatric workforce to be suitably equipped to deal with current childhood morbidity, a high level of competence in developmental-behavioural paediatrics (DBP) is necessary. New models of training and assessment are required to meet this challenge. An evolution of training in DBP, built around the centrepiece of competency-based medical education, is proposed. Summative assessment based upon entrustable professional activities, and a menu of formative workplace-based assessments specific to the DBP context are key components. A pilot project to develop and implement these changes is recommended. PMID:23714394

  16. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator following paediatric cataract surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, J; ADAMS, G

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The use of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-TPA) has been advocated in the treatment of postsurgical fibrinous membrane formation following cataract surgery in adults. Its use in paediatric cases is not well documented.
METHOD—A retrospective review of paediatric cataract extractions performed at Moorfields Eye Hospital between 1 January 1997 and 4 April 1999 was carried out.
RESULTS—Cataract extractions were performed in 37 patients, 22 in males 15 in females. Four (9.2...

  17. Chernobyl - a Canadian technical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report we present the design review done to date in Canada by AECL. From the Canadian point of view it covers: 1) relevant information on the Chernobyl design and the accident, both as presented by the Soviets at the Post-Accident Review Meeting (PARM) held in Vienna from August 25-29, 1986, and as deduced from publicly available Soviet documentation; and 2) details of AECL's technical review of the CANDU PHWR (Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) against the background of the Chernobyl accident, and implications of the Chernobyl accident. Reviews of operational aspects are underway by the Canadian electrical utilities and a review by the Canadian regulatory agency (the Atomic Energy Control Board) is near completion

  18. Political Affiliation of Canadian Professors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reza Nakhaie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The social role of universities has been the subject of a lengthy debate as to whether those who teach in the academy are system-legitimizing conservatives or radicals helping to generate critical thinking that challenges the status quo. The aim of this paper is to evaluate political affiliations of Canadian university professors based on a national survey conducted in 2000. The study shows that Canadian professors’ political affiliation can be identified as either left or right depending on how the political orientation of political parties is conceptualized. University professors tend to vote more for the Liberal Party than other parties, and view it as centrist party. Moreover, the study highlights a complex and non-monolithic picture of the Canadian academy. University professors are not politically homogenous and party vote depends on the prestige of their university, their discipline, gender, ethnicity, marital status, generation, and agreement with liberalism.

  19. Responsible Canadian energy progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents oil and gas companies throughout Canada; its members produce over 90% of Canada's natural gas and crude oil output. The aim of the Association is to improve the economics of the Canadian upstream petroleum sector in an environmentally and socially responsible way. The aim of this Responsible Canadian Energy report is to present the performance data of CAPP's members for the year 2009. Data, trends, and performance analyses are provided throughout the document. This analysis makes it possible to determine where progress has been made and where performance improvement is necessary. It also presents success stories and best practices so that other companies can learn from them how to improve their own performance. This paper provides useful information on the performance of the upstream petroleum industry in Canada and highlights where the focus should be for further improvement in its performance.

  20. MULTIMODALITIES OF MANAGEMENT OF PAEDIATRIC ILEOCOLIC INTUSSUSCEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshava Murthy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : Intussusception is a life-threatening illness and occurs when a portion of the intestine folds like a telescope with one segment slipping inside another segment. Hirschsprung was the first to publish a series of reports on successful hydrostatic reduction in 1876. Intussusception remains one of the most commonly encountered paediatric surgical emergencies. Enema reduction still remains the mainstay of non-operative care today. Barium and more recently air contrast enemas have been the initial diagnostic and therapeutic investigation of choice. Successful reduction rates vary widely from 42 to 95% (eee. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Aims and objectives of this article with a series of cases of intussusception is to review the various clinical presentation and to study the effectiveness of non-surgical intervention using contrast or AIR enema reduction under fluoroscopic guidance. METHODS AND RESULTS: A prospective study from October 2010 to September 2015 was carried out in hospitals in Bangalore. Complete review of medical records for clinical and demographic information was only performed for those cases fulfilling diagnostic criteria. During the study, A total of 62 patients diagnosed cases were included in this study. Cases identified in the study were similar in presentation and demographics as those observed in other South Asian Countries. These patients were haemodynamically stabilized and were subjected to definitive procedure; enema reduction was tried in all patients. Multimodalities of management included nonoperative reduction that is hydrostatic enema reduction in 2 cases (3.2, barium enema reduction 45 cases (72.5 and air enema recution in 12 cases (19.3, finally 3 cases (4.8 which failed enema reduction were operated. One case (1.61 intussusception - associated death was recorded. CONCLUSION: Surgical intervention in intussusception can be prevented by nonoperative reduction, especially if presented early and no signs of peritonitis.

  1. Transnational archives: the Canadian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Creet

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the concept of the transnational archive as a counterpoint to the idea that a national archive is necessarily a locus of a static idea of nation. The Canadian national archives is used as a case study of an archives that was transnational in its inception, and one that has continued to change in its mandate and materials as a response to patterns in migration and changing notions of multiculturalism as a Canadian federal policy. It introduces the most recent formation of the transnational archive and its denizens: the genealogical archive inhabited by family historians.

  2. Canadian Public Libraries Are Aware of Their Role as Information Literacy Training Providers, but Face Several Challenges. A Review of: Lai, H.-J. (2011. Information literacy training in public libraries: A case from Canada. Educational Technology & Society, 14(2, 81-88.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Newton Miller

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective– To explore the current state of information literacy (IL training in Canadian public libraries, and to identify strategies used for improving IL training skills for staff and patrons.Design – Mixed-methods approach, including document analysis, observations, and focus group interviews.Setting – Two libraries of a large public library system in Canada: the central library and one branch library.Subjects – Six staff members (manager, administrator, training coordinator, instructor, and computer technician who have been involved in designing and teaching information literacy courses for library patrons and staff.Methods – The researcher analyzed internal and external library documents related to information literacy, including, but not limited to, reports, posters, lesson plans, newsletters, and training scripts. He also observed interactions and behaviours of patrons during IL training sessions. Finally, he conducted a focus group with people involved in IL training, asking questions about facilities and resources, programs, patron reaction, librarian knowledge of IL theory, and impediments and benefits of IL training programs in public libraries.Main Results – Staff were aware of the importance of IL training in the library. Attracting more library patrons (including building partnerships with other organizations, improving staff IL and training skills, employing effective strategies for running training programs, and dealing with financial issues were all concerns about running IL training that were highlighted.Conclusion – Canadian public libraries are well aware of their role as IL training providers, but they still face several challenges in order to improve their effectiveness.

  3. REFLUX ESOPHAGITIS IN INFANTS AND CHILDREN - A REPORT FROM THE WORKING GROUP ON GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE OF THE EUROPEAN-SOCIETY-OF-PEDIATRIC-GASTROENTEROLOGY-AND-NUTRITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENPLAS, Y; ASHKENAZI, A; BELLI, D; BLECKER, U; BOIGE, N; BOUQUET, J; CADRANEL, S; CEZARD, JP; CUCCHIARA, S; DEVREKER, T; DUPONT, C; GEBOES, K; GOTTRAND, F; HEYMANS, HSA; JASINSKI, C; KNEEPKENS, CMF; KOLETZKO, S; MILLA, P; MOUGENOT, JF; NAVARRO, J; NEWELL, SJ; NUSSLE, D; OLAFSDOTTIR, E; POLANCO, [No Value; RAVELLI, A; SANDHU, BK; TOLBOOM, J

    1994-01-01

    In this article, the Working Group on Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux of the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition presents and discusses a definition of reflux esophagitis and recommends a diagnostic approach and therapeutic management for this condition. Histologic criteria for r

  4. Representing Canadian Muslims: Media, Muslim Advocacy Organizations, and Gender in the Ontario Shari’ah Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Sharify-Funk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a highly public conflict between two Muslim non-profit organizations, the Canadian Islamic Congress (CIC and the Muslim Canadian Congress (MCC, as it played out on the pages of Canadian newspapers and Internet websites. Sparked by profoundly divergent convictions about gender norms and fuelled by contradictory blueprints for “being Muslim in Canada”, this incendiary conflict was fanned by Canadian media coverage. Focusing especially, but not exclusively, on the 2003-2005 debate over Shari’ah-based alternative dispute resolution in Ontario, I will argue that the media have played a role in constructing internal Muslim debates and identity negotiations concerning what it means to be genuinely Canadian and authentically Muslim through controversy-driven journalism that has highlighted opposing ends of a liberal/progressive versus conservative/traditional axis in a search for “point/counter-point” views. Through short stories and commentaries on controversial topicsthat juxtapose two increasingly antagonistic organizational voices, the media have not merely reflected Muslim realities, but also helped to shape them and, more often than not, reinforce polarization between a “majority Muslim” culture seeking to secure space for itself within Canadian society and a “dissident Muslim” culture that seeks to consolidate external support for internal change.

  5. Therapeutic upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy inPaediatric Gastroenterology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Imdadur Rahman; Praful Patel; Philip Boger; Shahnawaz Rasheed; Mike Thomson; Nadeem Ahmad Afzal

    2015-01-01

    Since the first report of use of endoscopy in childrenin the 1970s, there has seen an exponential growthin published experience and innovation in the field. Inthis review article we focus on modern age therapeuticendoscopy practice, explaining use of traditional aswell as new and innovative techniques, for diagnosisand treatment of diseases in the paediatric uppergastrointestinal tract.

  6. 3 T MRI in paediatrics: Challenges and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3 T MRI is being increasingly performed for clinical purposes in paediatrics, primarily because of the potential to improve spatial and temporal resolution - these can assist in overcoming the unique anatomic, physiologic and behavioural challenges of imaging children. The increased spatial resolution improves the capacity to image small patients; with particular reference to smaller structures such as the inner ear, brachial plexus, biliary system and the vascular system. The challenges inherent to imaging at high field strength remain pertinent especially, the altered T1 contrast, artefacts (susceptibility, chemical shift and B1 inhomogeneity) and safety issues, including specific absorption rate - several of these are circumvented due to software and hardware advances, or by trade off of some of the increased signal. The above mentioned challenges also create opportunities at 3 T, with improvement in MR angiography, arterial spin labelling, functional MRI, susceptibility weighted imaging, and MR spectroscopy - all of which have distinctive applications in paediatrics. Whole body imaging also becomes more practical because of the capacity for faster scans. 3 T MRI has the potential to image all the systems in paediatrics. However, neonatal brain and paediatric spine imaging have specific challenges at 3 T. Several factors also limit cardiac imaging at present. Further improvements in coil technology and newer sequences may help overcome the challenges that remain

  7. Pilot study of a paediatric emergency department oral rehydration protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, R.; Busuttil, M; Stuart, P

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain if the use of a paediatric oral rehydration protocol in the emergency department changed rates of admission, total time spent in hospital, total time spent in the emergency department, or number of unscheduled returns to the emergency department.

  8. Molecular mechanisms involved in chemoresistance in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Tatjana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL is the most common paediatric cancer. Despite cure rates approaching 80%, resistance to treatment and disease relapse remain a significant clinical problem. Identification of the genes and biological pathways responsible for chemoresistance is therefore crucial for the design of novel therapeutic approaches aiming to improve patient survival. Mutations in the membrane transporter P-glycoprotein genes, genetic variations in drug-metabolising enzymes and defects in apoptotic pathways are mechanisms of chemoresistance common to a wide spectrum of cancers and also play a role in paediatric ALL. In addition, several recent microarray studies have identified transcriptional profiles specifically associated with chemoresistance and pointed to a number of potentially novel therapeutic targets. These microarray studies have shown that genes discriminating between clinically responsive and resistant leukaemias tend to be involved in cellular processes such as regulation of cell cycle, proliferation, and DNA repair. Here we review the outcomes of these microarray studies and also present our own investigations into apoptotic resistance to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs in paediatric ALL. We present stratification of paediatric ALL by the profile of DNA damage response following ionising radiation (IR in vitro. This approach allows classification of ALL tumours at presentation into IR-apoptotic sensitive and IR-apoptotic resistant. Furthermore, apoptotic resistant leukaemias exhibit abnormal response of NFkB pathway following irradiation and inhibition of this pathway can sensitise leukaemic cells to IR-induced DSBs.

  9. 3 T MRI in paediatrics: Challenges and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagia, Charuta [Department of Medical Imaging, Royal Children' s Hospital and Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Flemington Road, Parkville 3052 (Australia); Ditchfield, Michael [Department of Medical Imaging, Royal Children' s Hospital and Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Flemington Road, Parkville 3052 (Australia)], E-mail: michael.ditchfield@rch.org.au

    2008-11-15

    3 T MRI is being increasingly performed for clinical purposes in paediatrics, primarily because of the potential to improve spatial and temporal resolution - these can assist in overcoming the unique anatomic, physiologic and behavioural challenges of imaging children. The increased spatial resolution improves the capacity to image small patients; with particular reference to smaller structures such as the inner ear, brachial plexus, biliary system and the vascular system. The challenges inherent to imaging at high field strength remain pertinent especially, the altered T1 contrast, artefacts (susceptibility, chemical shift and B1 inhomogeneity) and safety issues, including specific absorption rate - several of these are circumvented due to software and hardware advances, or by trade off of some of the increased signal. The above mentioned challenges also create opportunities at 3 T, with improvement in MR angiography, arterial spin labelling, functional MRI, susceptibility weighted imaging, and MR spectroscopy - all of which have distinctive applications in paediatrics. Whole body imaging also becomes more practical because of the capacity for faster scans. 3 T MRI has the potential to image all the systems in paediatrics. However, neonatal brain and paediatric spine imaging have specific challenges at 3 T. Several factors also limit cardiac imaging at present. Further improvements in coil technology and newer sequences may help overcome the challenges that remain.

  10. Recommended Nordic paediatric reference intervals for 21 common biochemical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, Linda; Rustad, Pål; Aksglæde, Lise;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Paediatric reference intervals based on samples from healthy children are difficult to establish and consequently data are often from hospitalized children. Furthermore, biases may present in published data due to differences in the analytical methods employed. Blood samples from 1429...

  11. Surveillance biopsies after paediatric kidney transplantation: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Edward M; Kennedy, Sean E; Mackie, Fiona E

    2016-09-01

    Kidney transplantation is the most effective means of treating children with end-stage kidney disease, and yet, there continues to be a limited "life span" of transplanted kidneys in paediatric recipients. Early graft monitoring, using the surveillance biopsy, has the potential to extend renal allograft survival in paediatric recipients. The surveillance biopsy provides important and timely information about acute and chronic graft pathology, particularly SCR and calcineurin inhibitor-induced nephrotoxicity, which can subsequently guide management decisions and improve long-term graft survival. The ostensible value of the surveillance biopsy is furthered by the limitations of conventional renal functional studies. However, there is still much debate surrounding the surveillance biopsy in paediatric recipients, particularly in regard to its overall utility, safety and timing. This review discusses the current literature regarding the utility, safety, and potential predictive value of surveillance biopsies for guiding post-transplant management in paediatric renal allograft recipients, as well as the viability of other potentially newer non-invasive strategies for renal allograft monitoring. PMID:27306873

  12. The role of computed tomography in modern paediatric uroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) has developed a well-recognised role within paediatric uroradiology, especially in imaging of trauma, malignancy (in particular Wilms' tumour), atypical infection, and congenital urogenital abnormalities. CT can also be used for problem solving in nephrolithiasis and renal transplant assessment. These applications are illustrated and discussed, with an emphasis on particular information that can be gained from the CT study

  13. Anti-GM-CSF antibodies in paediatric pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    OpenAIRE

    Latzin, P; Tredano, M.; Wust, Y; J. de Blic; Nicolai, T; Bewig, B; Stanzel, F.; Kohler, D.; Bahuau, M.; Griese, M

    2005-01-01

    Background: Auto-antibodies against granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) may be central to the pathogenesis of adult sporadic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). The role of anti-GM-CSF auto-antibodies in paediatric forms of PAP is as yet unclear.

  14. Practical application of natriuretic peptides in paediatric cardiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Julie; Goetze, Jens P; Andersen, Claus B;

    2010-01-01

    diagnostic tools. Natriuretic peptide measurements could be that extra tool. We discuss and suggest N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and B-type natriuretic peptide reference intervals for children without cardiovascular disease and cut-off points for the four specific paediatric heart conditions. We...

  15. Paediatric reference values for the peripheral T cell compartment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schatorje, E.J.H.; Gemen, E.F.A.; Driessen, G.J.A.; Leuvenink, J.; Hout, R.W. van; Vries, E. de

    2012-01-01

    Immunophenotyping of blood lymphocyte subpopulations is an important tool in the diagnosis of immunological and haematological diseases. Paediatric age-matched reference values have been determined for the major lymphocyte populations, but reliable reference values for the more recently described T

  16. Accuracy of radiographer reporting of paediatric brain CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographer reporting has been studied for plain films and for ultrasonography, but not in paediatric brain CT in the emergency setting. To study the accuracy of radiographer reporting in paediatric brain CT. We prospectively collected 100 paediatric brain CT examinations. Films were read from hard copies using a prescribed tick sheet. Radiographers with 12 years' and 3 years' experience, respectively, were blinded to the history and were not trained in diagnostic film interpretation. The radiographers' results were compared with those of a consultant radiologist. Three categories were defined: abnormal scans, significant abnormalities and insignificant abnormalities. Both radiographers had an accuracy of 89.5% in reading a scan correctly as abnormal, and radiographer 1 had a sensitivity of 87.8% and radiographer 2 a sensitivity of 96%. Radiographer 1 had an accuracy in detecting a significant abnormality of 75% and radiographer 2 an accuracy of 48.6%, and the sensitivities for this category were 61.6% and 52.9%, respectively. Results for detecting the insignificant abnormalities were poorer. Selected radiographers could play an effective screening role, but lacking the sensitivity required for detecting significant abnormality, they could not be the final diagnostician. We recommend that the study be repeated after both radiographers have received formal training in interpretation of paediatric brain CT. (orig.)

  17. Adverse drug reactions in the paediatric population in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Lise; Weber, Camilla Blicher; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The potential risk of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the paediatric population has become a public health concern and regulatory agencies in Europe and the US have acknowledged that there is a need for more research in this area. Spontaneous reporting systems can provide important new...

  18. Canadian Postcolonialism: Recovering British Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2005-01-01

    The field of Postcolonial Studies is one of the academic fashions that has arisen in an attempt to amend or replace radical theories of social power since the alleged discrediting of Marxism. The Canadian case is more ambiguous. Postcolonialism, already an essentially contested concept, is especially conflicted where Canada is concerned. Canada…

  19. Canadian Government Electronic Information Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Kirsti

    1993-01-01

    Examines development and evolution of Canadian government information policy in response to issues of preservation of data, information industry involvement in government data development and marketing, role of Crown copyright, and public access to government information in electronic formats. Six key information policy instruments are also…

  20. Nuclear regulation - the Canadian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the Atomic Energy Control Board was established 35 years ago the basic philosophy of nuclear regulation in Canada and the underlying principles of the regulatory process remain essentially unchanged. This paper outlines the Canadian approach to nuclear regulation and explains in practical terms how the principles of regulation are applied. (author)

  1. American Society of Echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow of the American Society of Echocardiography Member Referral Program FAQs Initiatives Advocacy ...

  2. American Urogynecologic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Site » PFD Registry » Contact Us American Urogynecologic Society 1100 Wayne Avenue, Suite 670 Silver Spring, MD ... Us | Privacy Policy | HONcode Accredited © 2016 American Urogynecologic Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Society of Thoracic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Its Intense Demands New Website from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Puts the Power of Information ... Hotel Discount for STS Members Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. All rights reserved. Expanded Proprietary ...

  4. Oncology Nursing Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hill Days Monday, August 22, 2016 Oncology Nursing Society Announces Support for DAISY Foundation Monday, August 8, 2016 Oncology Nursing Society and Haymarket Media Inc. Announce Navigation Summit Collaboration ...

  5. North American Spine Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Coverage Recommendations SpineLine Renew Membership NORTH AMERICAN SPINE SOCIETY BURR RIDGE, IL 7075 Veterans Blvd. Burr Ridge, ... NASS Contact Us © Copyright 2016 North American Spine Society | Terms Of Use | Privacy Statement

  6. National Down Syndrome Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Down Syndrome Since 1979 National Down Syndrome Society 8 E 41st Street, 8th Floor New York ... Program! The mission of the National Down Syndrome Society is to be the national advocate for the ...

  7. Leukemia & Lymphoma Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with the Baltimore chapter of The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society. She does office work regularly, participates in events ... I hereby authorize and permit The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society or its authorized agent, without compensation therefore, permission ...

  8. American Society of Anesthesiologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ASA Newsroom Our Mission Governance and Committees Component Societies Related Organizations Office of General Counsel Employment at ... About ASA Our Mission Governance and Committees Component Societies Related Organizations Employment at ASA Contact Us Support ...

  9. National Rosacea Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Rosacea Society Improving 16 million lives through awareness, education and research National Rosacea Society Main menu For Patients For Physicians Rosacea Review Research Grants ...

  10. Society of Interventional Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how interventional radiology research improves patients’ lives at Society of Interventional Radiology’s 2017 Annual Scientific Meeting; read ... comments to CMS on two MACRA coding issues; society is engaged with CMS as they develop codes ...

  11. American Epilepsy Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Doctor | Donate main search Search American Epilepsy Society CLINICAL RESOURCES FAQs GUIDELINES IOM EPILEPSY MEDICAL MARIJUANA ... RENEW VOLUNTEER FAES: FELLOW OF THE AMERICAN EPILEPSY SOCIETY MAILING LIST PURCHASE FOR PATIENTS EPILEPSY BENEFIT INTERNATIONAL ...

  12. International Transplant Nurses Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 25th Annual ITNS Symposium The International Transplant Nurses Society (ITNS) cordially invites transplant nurses and other transplant ... pocket guide, developed by the International Transplant Nurses Society (ITNS), provides an overview of the interventions used ...

  13. American Society of Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trials in Transplantation September 13, 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and its Transplantation & Immunology Research Network ... Learn More Donate Donate Donate to the American Society of Transplantation Advertisement member spotlight View all Joanna ...

  14. Society of Gynecologic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Please join us in Chicago for the Society of Gynecologic Surgeons (SGS) 25th Annual Postgraduate Course ... cases Kris Strohbehn, MD Director of Postgraduate Education, Society of Gynecologic Surgeons SGS Mission The mission of ...

  15. American Cancer Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved Find Local ACS How the American Cancer Society Fights Childhood Cancer Advances in treatment have improved ... long lasting consequences. Learn how the American Cancer Society is working to save more lives from cancer ...

  16. Ehlers-Danlos Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Scientific Board Staff Volunteer Leaders The Ehlers-Danlos Society Center for EDS Research & Clinical Care Our History ... Message Boards Patient Resource Library The Ehlers-Danlos Society Center for EDS Research & Clinical Care Loose Connections ...

  17. Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... We Represent Ambulatory and Office-Based Anesthesia The Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia provides educational opportunities, encourages research ... 6620 | E-mail: info@sambahq.org Copyright | 2016 Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia Home | Search | Terms | Privacy Policy | ...

  18. Pediatric Endocrinology Nurses Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... International Welcome to PENS The Pediatric Endocrinology Nursing Society (PENS) is committed to the development and advancement ... PENS@kellencompany.com • Copyright © 2016 Pediatric Endocrinology Nursing Society • ALL RIGHTS RESERVED • Privacy Policy • Admin

  19. Reclaiming Society Publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip E. Steinberg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Learned societies have become aligned with commercial publishers, who have increasingly taken over the latter’s function as independent providers of scholarly information. Using the example of geographical societies, the advantages and disadvantages of this trend are examined. It is argued that in an era of digital publication, learned societies can offer leadership with a new model of open access that can guarantee high quality scholarly material whose publication costs are supported by society membership dues.

  20. Mutual Organizations, Mutual Societies

    OpenAIRE

    Archambault, Edith

    2009-01-01

    This article is an entry to be published in an International Encyclopedia of Civil Society in 2009. Mutual organizations exist everywhere in developed and developing countreies as well. After a definition founded on social economy principles, the paper gives the historical background of mutual insurance companies, mutual benefit societies and building societies. Then we draw a panorama of the European mutual societies with international perspectives on the USA and some developing countries. S...

  1. Knowledge society features

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Popa; Cosmin Dobrin

    2007-01-01

    T21th century will be a century of informational society and knowledge, were information and knowledges will play a decisive role in economic growth on modelling, build and assertion of individual personality for world countries. Knowledge society represent climax of development for human society, where knowledge is last and highest fundamental source fo social power, succeeding other source who emphasize growth for human society- violence (force) and wealth (money). She confirm famous dictum...

  2. Survey of effective dose levels from typical paediatric CT protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concern over reported large radiation doses leading to a high cancer risk for paediatric CT patients has prompted considerable investigation in paediatric CT. The recent release of software from Germany has allowed effective doses to be calculated from CT protocol information and radiation measurement for standard paediatric patient sizes for both sexes. An initial study has been undertaken in nine radiology departments, four of which were dedicated paediatric departments, for routine chest and abdominal CT procedures. The dose calculation software is based on Monte Carlo simulation of X-ray conditions during a CT procedure and utilized a 'tomographic' phantom model of a 7-year-old child and an 8-week-old baby to allow calculation of organ dose and hence effective dose. Results of the survey indicate that effective doses were higher for females than males, and higher for abdominal procedures. Slightly higher effective doses were calculated for the child compared to the baby. All centres but one recorded lower effective doses with their current protocols than if they had used recommended CT protocols found in the literature. Analysis of the survey data indicates that scan parameters are the main cause of dose variations, although the type of scanner can affect dose by a factor of 2 (when comparing different units) as well as variation in anatomy scanned in protocols. Dose reduction appears to be most closely linked with reduced mAs and increased pitch as expected. The calculation of effective dose appears to be a key factor in assessing CT protocols, particularly for paediatric patients. Copyright (2003) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  3. The Social Dimension of Adolescent Health: Challenges for Paediatric Research and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, M; Körholz, D

    2015-07-01

    Innumerable studies have shown that socioeconomic inequalities have a serious impact on mortality and morbidity. Disease and premature mortality are thus embodied expressions of the conditions under which we live and work. The increasing discussion of adolescence as an independent stage of life has generated a growth of interest in the social determinants of young people's health. The review outlines that a large part of the prevailing diseases in adolescence are strongly influenced by social, economic and political determinants and analyses which determinants and mechanisms are responsible that social inequalities get under the skin and cause adverse health. Paediatrics offers a central interdisciplinary link between the natural and social sciences to better understand how we biologically incorporate our lived experience and thus create social patterns of health and illness not only in societies but also between societies. Such research could contribute to further sensitise clinical and therapeutic practice on the social determinants of health and to integrate them in daily routine processes, such as anamnesis and therapy. PMID:26070053

  4. Indications for admission, treatment and improved outcome of paediatric haematology/oncology patients admitted to a tertiary paediatric ICU.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Owens, C

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Overall survival in paediatric cancer has improved significantly over the past 20 years. Treatment strategies have been intensified, and supportive care has made substantial advances. Historically, paediatric oncology patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) have had extremely poor outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study over a 3-year period in a single centre to evaluate the outcomes for this particularly vulnerable group of patients admitted to a paediatric ICU. RESULTS: Fifty-five patients were admitted a total of 66 times to the ICU during the study period. The mortality rate of this group was 23% compared with an overall ICU mortality rate of 5%. 11\\/15 patients who died had an underlying haematological malignancy. Twenty-eight percent of children with organism-identified sepsis died. CONCLUSIONS: While mortality rates for paediatric oncology patients admitted to a ICU have improved, they are still substantial. Those with a haematological malignancy or admitted with sepsis are most at risk.

  5. A Contract Between Science and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdeswell, Elizabeth

    2009-05-01

    Growing energy demand, global climate disruption and the prospect of a carbon-constrained world have opened the door for discussion of a potential nuclear renaissance. The fact that deployment of nuclear energy has not been fully embraced points to a number of challenges. These range from concerns about safety, security and proliferation of nuclear materials to questions of feasibiity and economics. Others cite the continuing quest for an acceptable approach to the management of long-lived wastes and uncertainty about risks to human health and the environment. Arguably public acceptance of nuclear energy will require policy makers to examine many social and ethical concerns, both real and perceived. Yet research suggests that public trust in governments and institutions is eroding while society's expectations to be involved in decision-making have become more intense and sophisticated. The recent Canadian experience of selecting an approach for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel illustrates the complexity of obtaining a ``social licence'' to proceed. A key objective was to gather and document the terms and conditions that would make such a project acceptable to society and to reflect a fundamental understanding and respect for these factors in the project's actual design and implementation. The underlying philosophy was that the analysis of scientific and technical evidence, while essential, could not be the sole determining factor. Ultimately it is society that will determine which risks it is prepared to accept. The mission of developing collaboratively with Canadians a management approach that would be socially acceptable, technically sound, environmentally responsible and economically feasible required the development of an integrated, systemic analytical framework and an interactive and transparent process of dialogue and deliberation. This investment in seeking diversity of perspectives resulted in the mergence of common ground among citizens and

  6. Society's general exposure to risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadian and world experience with accidents and disease is reviewed in order to identify risk information that might extend the societal perspective on health risk beyond daily concerns. The level of exposure to catastrophic risks is compared to that associated with commonly experienced risks. An examination of current and historical levels of Canadian mortality risk is included. The association between mortality risk and Canadian industrial activity is also examined. Some prospects for utilizing these risk benchmarks are then discussed

  7. Oral medicines for children in the European paediatric investigation plans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana A van Riet-Nales

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Pharmaceutical industry is no longer allowed to develop new medicines for use in adults only, as the 2007 Paediatric Regulation requires children to be considered also. The plans for such paediatric development called Paediatric Investigation Plans (PIPs are subject to agreement by the European Medicines Agency (EMA and its Paediatric Committee (PDCO. The aim of this study was to evaluate the key characteristics of oral paediatric medicines in the PIPs and the changes implemented as a result of the EMA/PDCO review. METHODS: All PIPs agreed by 31 December 2011 were identified through a proprietary EMA-database. PIPs were included if they contained an agreed proposal to develop an oral medicine for children 0 to 11 years. Information on the therapeutic area (EMA classification system; target age range (as defined by industry and pharmaceutical characteristics (active substance, dosage form(s as listed in the PIP, strength of each dosage form, excipients in each strength of each dosage form was extracted from the EMA website or the EMA/PDCO assessment reports. RESULTS: A hundred and fifty PIPs were included corresponding to 16 therapeutic areas and 220 oral dosage forms in 431 strengths/compositions. Eighty-two PIPs (37% included tablets, 44 (20% liquids and 35 (16% dosage forms with a specific composition/strength that were stored as a solid but swallowed as a liquid e.g. dispersible tablets. The EMA/PDCO review resulted in an increase of 13 (207 to 220 oral paediatric dosage forms and 44 (387 to 431 dosage forms with a specific composition/strength. For many PIPs, the target age range was widened and the excipient composition and usability aspects modified. CONCLUSION: The EMA/PDCO review realized an increase in the number of requirements for the development of oral dosage forms and a larger increase in the number of dosage forms with a specific composition/strength, both targeting younger children. Changes to their pharmaceutical

  8. The prospects for Canadian uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1980s have seen a decline in markets for uranium concentrate, largely as a result of falling estimates for reactor fuel requirements and rising inventories. Spot market prices fell to $44 in September 1982, but have since risen back to $60. World production also fell in 1982 and is not expected to increase significantly before 1990. Some opportunities exist for Canadian producers with new low-cost deposits to replace high-cost producers in Canada and other countries, particularly the United States. There will be strong competition between Canadian producers as well as from Australia. Australia's reserves are somewhat larger than Canada's, although the reported ore grades tend to be lower than those of Saskatchewan

  9. The Canadian safeguards support program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada supports international safeguards as a means by which the proliferation of nuclear weapons can be discouraged. Canada recognizes that,to meet that the IAEA must have effective safeguards techniques and the active cooperation of Member States. Therefore the Canadian Government decided in 1976 to initiate a program in support of IAEA safeguards, known as the Canadian Safeguards Support Program (CSSP). The CSSP is funded and administered by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The CSSP is a co-ordinated program for the development and the application of safeguards instruments and techniques for nuclear facilities and materials on behalf of the IAEA and also in support of Canada's own national nuclear material safeguards system, implemented by the AECB. (author)

  10. Nutrition for healthy term infants

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Nutrition for Healthy Term Infants is the new national statement on nutrition for infants from birth to 24 months, developed collaboratively by the Canadian Paediatric Society, Dietitians of Canada and Health Canada.

  11. Exporting the Canadian licensing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the problems of an overseas regulatory agency in licensing a Canadian-supplied nuclear plant which is referenced to a plant in Canada. Firstly, the general problems associated with the use of a reference plant are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of specific problems which arise from the licensing practices in Canada. The paper concludes with recommendations to simplify the task of demonstrating the licensability of an overseas CANDU plant

  12. Canadian wind energy industry directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The companies and organizations involved, either directly or indirectly, in the wind energy industry in Canada, are listed in this directory. Some U.S. and international companies which are active or interested in Canadian industry activities are also listed. The first section of the directory is an alphabetical listing which includes corporate descriptions, company logos, addresses, phone and fax numbers, e-mail addresses and contact names. The second section contains 54 categories of products and services associated with the industry

  13. Canadian Content in Video Games

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Leonard

    2005-01-01

    THEME: Internationalism: Worlds at Play Topics: Internationalism, Identity in Gaming and Learning to Play Abstract: How does Canada fit into the global cultural context of video games? This paper investigates the culture being reflected in video games being produced in Canada as Canada is one of the world's leading producers of video games. It examines the how Canadian culture is represented in current new media artistic output against the culture, or lack of culture, being represented in vid...

  14. Paediatric injuries at Bugando Medical Centre in Northwestern Tanzania: a prospective review of 150 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Raymond; Gilyoma, Japhet M; Dass, Ramesh M.; Mchembe, Mabula D; Chalya, Phillipo L

    2013-01-01

    Background Injuries continue to be the leading cause of death and disability for children. The is a paucity of published data on paediatric injuries in our local environment. This study describes the etiological spectrum, injury characteristics and treatment outcome of paediatric injuries in our local setting and provides baseline data for establishment of prevention strategies as well as treatment guidelines. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study involving paediatric injury pa...

  15. Paediatric imaging radiation dose awareness and use of referral guidelines amongst radiology practitioners and radiographers

    OpenAIRE

    Portelli, Jonathan L.; McNulty, Jonathan P.; Bezzina, Paul; Rainford, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objectives are to investigate radiology practitioners’ and radiographers’ radiation dose awareness and use of referral guidelines for paediatric imaging examinations. Methods A prospective cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst radiology practitioners and radiographers working at a primary paediatric referral centre in Malta. Part of the survey asked participants to indicate the typical effective dose (ED) for several commonly performed paediatric imaging examinations, an...

  16. A retrospective review of telehealth services for children referred to a paediatric nephrologist

    OpenAIRE

    Trnka, Peter; White, Megan M.; Renton, William D.; McTaggart, Steven J.; Burke, John R.; Smith, Anthony C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Telemedicine has emerged as an alternative mode of health care delivery over the last decade. To date, there is very limited published information in the field of telehealth and paediatric nephrology. The aim of this study was to review our experience with paediatric telenephrology in Queensland, Australia. Methods A retrospective audit of paediatric nephrology telehealth consultations to determine the nature of the telehealth activity, reasons for referral to telehealth, and to co...

  17. Paediatric trainees and end-of-life care: a needs assessment for a formal educational intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Arzuaga, Bonnie H; Caldarelli, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Literature suggests a paucity of formal training in end-of-life care in contemporary American medical education. Similar to trainees in adult medicine, paediatric trainees are frequently involved in end-of-life cases. Objective: To determine current experience and comfort levels among paediatric trainees when caring for dying patients with the hypothesis that more clinical experience alone would not improve comfort. Methods: Paediatric residents, subspeciality fellows and programm...

  18. Providing cleaner air to Canadians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet is designed to explain salient aspects of the Ozone Annex, negotiated and signed recently by Canada and the United States, in a joint effort to improve air quality in North America. By significantly reducing the transboundary flows of air pollutants that cause smog, the Ozone Annex will benefit some 16 million people in central and eastern Canada and provide an example for a future round of negotiations to address concerns of the millions of Canadians and Americans who live in the border area between British Columbia and Washington State. The brochure provide summaries of the Canadian and American commitments, focusing on transportation, monitoring and reporting. The Ozone Annex complements other air quality initiatives by the Government of Canada enacted under the Environmental Protection Act, 1999. These measures include regulations to reduce sulphur content to 30 parts per million by Jan 1, 2005; proposing to restrict toxic particulate matter (PM) to less than 10 microns; establishing daily smog forecasts in the Maritimes and committing to a national program built upon existing smog advisories and forecasts in Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia; and investing in more clean air research through the newly created Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences

  19. Canadian fusion fuels technology project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project was launched in 1982 to coordinate Canada's provision of fusion fuels technology to international fusion power development programs. The project has a mandate to extend and adapt existing Canadian tritium technologies for use in international fusion power development programs. 1985-86 represents the fourth year of the first five-year term of the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project (CFFTP). This reporting period coincides with an increasing trend in global fusion R and D to direct more effort towards the management of tritium. This has resulted in an increased linking of CFFTP activities and objectives with those of facilities abroad. In this way there has been a continuing achievement resulting from CFFTP efforts to have cooperative R and D and service activities with organizations abroad. All of this is aided by the cooperative international atmosphere within the fusion community. This report summarizes our past year and provides some highlights of the upcoming year 1986/87, which is the final year of the first five-year phase of the program. AECL (representing the Federal Government), the Ministry of Energy (representing Ontario) and Ontario Hydro, have given formal indication of their intent to continue with a second five-year program. Plans for the second phase will continue to emphasize tritium technology and remote handling

  20. Mercury in Canadian crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates for average mercury concentrations in crude oil range widely from 10 ng/g of oil to 3,500 ng/g of oil. With such a broad range of estimates, it is difficult to determine the contributions of the petroleum sector to the total budget of mercury emissions. In response to concerns that the combustion of petroleum products may be a major source of air-borne mercury pollution, Environment Canada and the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute has undertaken a survey of the average total mercury concentration in crude oil processed in Canadian refineries. In order to calculate the potential upper limit of total mercury in all refined products, samples of more than 30 different types of crude oil collected from refineries were measured for their concentration of mercury as it enters into a refinery before processing. High temperature combustion, cold vapour atomic absorption and cold vapour atomic fluorescence were the techniques used to quantify mercury in the samples. The results of the study provide information on the total mass of mercury present in crude oil processed in Canada each year. Results can be used to determine the impact of vehicle exhaust emissions to the overall Canadian mercury emission budget. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  1. Civil Society and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journey...... is to make clear and hopefully even verify that providing knowledge about the impact of civil society and citizens’ participation on governance is one of the most urgent research tasks in the current period of time....

  2. Reclaiming society publishing.

    OpenAIRE

    Steinberg, Philip E.

    2015-01-01

    Learned societies have become aligned with commercial publishers, who have increasingly taken over the latter’s function as independent providers of scholarly information. Using the example of geographical societies, the advantages and disadvantages of this trend are examined. It is argued that in an era of digital publication, learned societies can offer leadership with a new model of open access that can guarantee high quality scholarly material whose publication costs are supported by soci...

  3. Civil Society and Accountability

    OpenAIRE

    Kaldor, Mary

    2002-01-01

    The paper provides a brief historical overview of the concept of civil society and the relevance of different meanings to the notion of 'voice' as it relates to poor people. It outlines civil society actors that might be helpful in clarifying different forms of accountability. And in the last section, it draws some conclusions and policy recommendations about the accountability of different types of civil society groups.

  4. Discrepancy in reporting among specialist registrars and the role of a paediatric neuroradiologist in reporting paediatric CT head examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To evaluate the discrepancy rate among specialist registrars (SPR) to assess whether seniority had a bearing on the discrepancy rate. To investigate which were the commonly missed abnormalities and the consequences for teaching purposes. To investigate the role of a specialist consultant neuroradiologist in reporting paediatric head computed tomography examinations. Materials and methods: The study was carried out over a 9-month period at the regional paediatric hospital during which time 270 CT head examinations were reported. Reporting in the department is carried out by one of the five general paediatric radiologists (GR) and also a specialist paediatric neuroradiologist (NR). The NR was considered the reference standard, who corroborated in areas of discrepancy with a second senior NR for this study. Of the 270 examinations, 260 were reported by the paediatric NR, 160 were reported by the SPR, GR, and NR, and 51 were reported by an SPR and the NR. In addition, four were reported by the GR and the NR, 45 by the NR only, seven by the GR only, and three cases were reported by the GR and an SPR. The discrepancy rates were calculated for GR versus NR, and SPR versus NR. All the discrepancies were re-evaluated by a second senior NR and confirmed in all cases. The reports of the SPR were further scrutinized. The trainees of training years 1-3 were considered junior and 4-5 were considered senior. Results: There was a discrepancy in 26/164 cases (15.9%) reported by the GR and NR. There was a discrepancy in 59/211 cases (28%) reported by an SPR and NR. The chi-squared test (two-sided) showed a significant difference (p = 0.005) between the two groups. There was a discrepancy in 36/118 cases (30.5%) reported by the junior SPR and NR. There was a discrepancy in 23/93 cases (24.7%) reported by a senior SPR and NR. The chi-squared test (two-sided) showed a non-significant difference (p = 0.353) between the two groups. Conclusion: The performance of the SPR was

  5. Drought, Climate Change and the Canadian Prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R. E.

    2010-03-01

    employment losses exceeded 41,000 jobs for 2001 and 2002. This drought also contributed to a negative or zero net farm income for several provinces for the first time in 25 years with agricultural production over Canada dropping an estimated 3.6 billion in 2001/2002. Previously reliable water supplies such as streams, wetlands, dugouts, reservoirs, and groundwater were placed under stress and often failed. Despite their enormous economic, environmental, and societal impacts, there has never been a coordinated and integrated drought research program in Canada. To begin to address these issues related to drought, the Drought Research Initiative, DRI was established. The overall objective of DRI is "to better understand the physical characteristics of and processes influencing Canadian Prairie droughts, and to contribute to their better prediction, through a focus on the recent severe drought that began in 1999 and largely ended in 2005". DRI is focused on five research objectives: 1. Quantify the physical features of this recent drought 2. Improve the understanding of the processes and feedbacks governing the formation, evolution, cessation and structure of the drought 3. Assess and reduce uncertainties in the prediction of drought and its structure 4. Compare the similarities and differences of the recent drought to previous and future droughts 5. Apply progress to address critical issues of importance to society Major progress is being made within each of these research areas. These coordinated studies furthermore represent an essential step towards our ultimate goal which is to better assess whether there will be more droughts in the future over this region due to climate change, what features these droughts will exhibit, and how we can best prepare for them. The focus of these activities is on changes to occur over the next several decades and significant progress is being made in addressing these issues as well. The purpose of this presentation is to provide an overview

  6. Are Canadian Banks Ready for Basel III?

    OpenAIRE

    Imad Kutum; Khaled Hussainey

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze and test the current liquidity coverage ratio of Canadian banks’, and draw conclusions about the readiness of Canadian banks to meet Basel III regulations. Liquidity coverage ratios for six major Canadian banks were calculated using the liquid assets and liabilities listed on their balance sheets from 2009 to 2013. The actual assets that meet Basel III requirements could not be acquired, as this is private information that does not have to be released u...

  7. Concepts from paediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for adult intensivists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Warwick; MacLaren, Graeme

    2016-12-01

    Over the last 5 years, there has been a dramatic increase in the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in adult patients with severe respiratory or cardiac failure. This contrasts to the use of the technology in neonatal and paediatric intensive care units, where it has been regarded as a standard of care for a number of conditions for over 25 years. Many innovations in ECMO circuitry or clinical management evolve first in one particular discipline and it may be helpful for individual clinicians to keep abreast of developments in ECMO across the entire age range, from neonatology to older adults. This review addresses nine concepts in ECMO that are better studied or established in paediatric medicine and considers their application in adult patients. PMID:26940318

  8. Paediatric radiology. 2. enl. and tot. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents a current, comprehensive and clearly written introduction to the often-neglected field of paediatric radiology, from important aspects of radiation protection to the specific anatomic features of the growing skeleton and the special anatomy of the thorax and abdomen of newborns and infants. Special knowledge is imparted on the radiology of trauma effects in infant age and the 'battered child syndrome'. The diseases and findings are presented in an organ-specific and topographic manner. There are special chapters on sonography, CT and MRT in infants. The structure of the book serves two purposes. First, the reader can obtain information on specific diseases; secondly, the particular features of examination techniques and the specifics of paediatric radiology are presented. (orig.)

  9. Sedation versus general anaesthesia in paediatric patients undergoing chest CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: CT of the chest in paediatric patients often requires sedation or general anaesthesia to minimize motion artefacts. Both sedation and general anaesthesia are associated with atelectasis which obscures the underlying pulmonary pathology. We conducted a prospective study to compare these two methods with respect to degree of motion artefacts and extent of atelectasis. Material and Methods: Nineteen patients undergoing 22 chest CT examinations were randomly selected for either sedation or general anaesthesia. The total area of atelectasis and the degree of motion artefacts were measured. Results: The mean percentage of atelectasis was 6.67% for general anaesthesia and 0.01% for sedation (p=0.01). There was no significant difference in the quality of the images between the sedation patients and the general anaesthesia patients. Conclusion: Whenever the clinical condition permits it, sedation rather than general anaesthesia should be given to paediatric patients undergoing chest CT. (orig.)

  10. Correlation of Clinicohaematological Parameters in Paediatric Dengue: A Retrospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ramakrishna Pai Jakribettu; Rekha Boloor; Andrew Thaliath; Sharanya Yesudasan George; Thomas George; Manoj Ponadka Rai; Umran Rafique Sheikh; Kadke Shreedhara Avabratha; Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is one of the arthropod-borne (arbo) viral diseases transmitted by female mosquito Aedes aegypti. Dengue fever has a wide spectrum of clinical presentation ranging from flu-like illness to severe complicated stage of dengue hemorrhagic fever leading to mortality. This was a retrospective study conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Coastal Karnataka, South India, to know the correlation between the clinical presentation and haematological parameters in the paediatric cases presented ...

  11. Reliability reconsidered: Cronbach's alpha and paediatric assessment in occupational therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Spiliotopoulou, G

    2009-01-01

    Background / aim: Using reliable outcome measures is a necessity for the occupational therapy profession in enabling valid assessments of clients. Although Cronbach’s alpha is the most widely applied index of internal consistency reliability, there are misconceptions about its use and interpretation. This paper aims to guide assessment developers in paediatric occupational therapy, as well as practitioners who are evaluating outcome measures in using and interpreting the Cronba...

  12. A critique of the expression of paediatric body composition data

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, J.

    2001-01-01

    There is increasing interest in body composition in paediatric research, as distinct from growth and nutritional status, as almost all diseases have adverse effects on either fatness or the fat-free mass. However, the approaches used to assess growth and nutritional status are not appropriate for separate evaluations of body fatness and lean mass. Traditional measurements such as body mass index and skinfold thickness do not measure fat in accurate quantitative terms. Variou...

  13. An interprofessional approach to improving paediatric medication safety

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy Neil; Purdy Joanna; Stewart Moira; Burns Anne

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Safe drug prescribing and administration are essential elements within undergraduate healthcare curricula, but medication errors, especially in paediatric practice, continue to compromise patient safety. In this area of clinical care, collective responsibility, team working and communication between health professionals have been identified as key elements in safe clinical practice. To date, there is limited research evidence as to how best to deliver teaching and learning...

  14. Cell migration in paediatric glioma; characterisation and potential therapeutic targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Cockle, J V; Picton, S; Levesley, J.; Ilett, E; Carcaboso, A M; Short, S.(Queen Mary University of London, School of Physics and Astronomy, London, United Kingdom); Steel, L P; Melcher, A.; Lawler, S. E.; Brüning-Richardson, A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Paediatric high grade glioma (pHGG) and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) are highly aggressive brain tumours. Their invasive phenotype contributes to their limited therapeutic response, and novel treatments that block brain tumour invasion are needed. Methods: Here, we examine the migratory characteristics and treatment effect of small molecule glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitors, lithium chloride (LiCl) and the indirubin derivative 6-bromoindirubin-oxime (BIO), previousl...

  15. The role of communication in paediatric drug safety

    OpenAIRE

    Stebbing, Claire; Wong, Ian C K; Kaushal, Rainu; Jaffe, Adam

    2007-01-01

    Medication errors cause substantial harm to patients, and considerable cost to healthcare systems. Evidence suggests that communication plays a crucial role in the generation, management and prevention of such incidents. This review identifies how paediatric medication errors can be managed, and in particular focuses on the pathway of steps that can operationalise the current research findings. Furthermore, the current data suggesting how communication can help to prevent errors occurring in ...

  16. Update in the treatment of paediatric ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greifer, Melanie K; Markowitz, James F

    2006-10-01

    Ulcerative colitis is an important disease in the paediatric population. Ulcerative colitis is one of the chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, and is medically incurable. However, the arsenal of medications has grown as knowledge of the pathogenesis of this disease advances. This review looks at the classical treatments for children with ulcerative colitis, including the 5-aminosalicylates, corticosteroids and imunomodulators, as well as biological therapy and other, newer modalities. PMID:17020417

  17. The role of computed tomography in modern paediatric uroradiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maudgil, D.D.; McHugh, K. E-mail: kmchugh@gosh.nhs.uk

    2002-08-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has developed a well-recognised role within paediatric uroradiology, especially in imaging of trauma, malignancy (in particular Wilms' tumour), atypical infection, and congenital urogenital abnormalities. CT can also be used for problem solving in nephrolithiasis and renal transplant assessment. These applications are illustrated and discussed, with an emphasis on particular information that can be gained from the CT study.

  18. Distribution of branchial anomalies in a paediatric Asian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Neville Wei Yang; Ibrahim, Shahrul Izham; Tan, Kun Kiaang Henry

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of the present study was to review the distribution and incidence of branchial anomalies in an Asian paediatric population and highlight the challenges involved in the diagnosis of branchial anomalies. METHODS This was a retrospective chart review of all paediatric patients who underwent surgery for branchial anomalies in a tertiary paediatric hospital from August 2007 to November 2012. The clinical notes were correlated with preoperative radiological investigations, intraoperative findings and histology results. Branchial anomalies were classified based on the results of the review. RESULTS A total of 28 children underwent surgery for 30 branchial anomalies during the review period. Two children had bilateral branchial anomalies requiring excision. Of the 30 branchial anomalies, 7 (23.3%) were first branchial anomalies, 5 (16.7%) were second branchial anomalies, 3 (10.0%) were third branchial anomalies, and 4 (13.3%) were fourth branchial anomalies (one of the four patients with fourth branchial anomalies had bilateral branchial anomalies). In addition, seven children had 8 (26.7%) branchial anomalies that were thought to originate from the pyriform sinus; however, we were unable to determine if these anomalies were from the third or fourth branchial arches. There was inadequate information on the remaining 3 (10.0%) branchial anomalies for classification. CONCLUSION The incidence of second branchial anomalies appears to be lower in our Asian paediatric population, while that of third and fourth branchial anomalies was higher. Knowledge of embryology and the related anatomy of the branchial apparatus is crucial in the identification of the type of branchial anomaly. PMID:25917471

  19. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous omeprazole in critically ill paediatric patients

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The proton pump inhibitors are first-line drugs for the treatment of a number of gastrointestinal diseases. These drugs have a good safety profile, making it possible to use them in paediatric patients. Although their pharmacokinetics in children has not been extensively studied, research performed suggests that the dose used should be varied as a function of age, as this factor affects the drug?s metabolism. Proton pump inhibitors can be used in critically ill children fo...

  20. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous omeprazole in critically ill paediatric patients

    OpenAIRE

    Solana, Maria Jose; López-Herce, Jesús

    2009-01-01

    The proton pump inhibitors are first-line drugs for the treatment of a number of gastrointestinal diseases. These drugs have a good safety profile, making it possible to use them in paediatric patients. Although their pharmacokinetics in children has not been extensively studied, research performed suggests that the dose used should be varied as a function of age, as this factor affects the drug's metabolism. Proton pump inhibitors can be used in critically ill children for the prophylaxis an...

  1. Non-invasive respiratory monitoring in paediatric intensive care unit.

    OpenAIRE

    Nadkarni U; Shah A; Deshmukh C

    2000-01-01

    Monitoring respiratory function is important in a Paediatrics Intensive Care Unit (PICU), as majority of patients have cardio-respiratory problems. Non-invasive monitoring is convenient, accurate, and has minimal complications. Along with clinical monitoring, oxygen saturation using pulse oximetry, transcutaneous oxygenation (PtcO2) and transcutaneous PCO2 (PtcCO2) using transcutaneous monitors and end-tidal CO2 using capnography are important and routine measurements done in most PICUs. Cons...

  2. Feasibility of perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance in paediatric patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kellenberger Christian; Schwitter Juerg; Buechel Emanuela; Balmer Christian; Bauersfeld Urs

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Aims As coronary artery disease may also occur during childhood in some specific conditions, we sought to assess the feasibility and accuracy of perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in paediatric patients. Methods and results First-pass perfusion CMR studies were performed under pharmacological stress with adenosine and by using a hybrid echo-planar pulse sequence with slice-selective saturation recovery preparation. Fifty-six perfusion CMR examinations were performed in...

  3. Long- term outcome of paediatric patients with ANCA vasculitis

    OpenAIRE

    Arulkumaran, Nishkantha; Jawad, Susan; Smith, Stuart W.; Harper, Lorraine; Brogan, Paul; Charles D. Pusey; Salama, Alan D

    2011-01-01

    Background Primary systemic vasculitis presenting in childhood is an uncommon but serious condition. As these patients transfer to adult clinics for continuing care, defining long term outcomes with emphasis on disease and treatment- related morbidity and mortality is important. The aim of this study is to describe the long- term clinical course of paediatric patients with ANCA vasculitis. Methods The adult patients in our vasculitis clinics who had presented in childhood, with a follow up ti...

  4. Long- term outcome of paediatric patients with ANCA vasculitis

    OpenAIRE

    Pusey Charles D; Brogan Paul; Harper Lorraine; Smith Stuart W; Jawad Susan; Arulkumaran Nishkantha; Salama Alan D

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Primary systemic vasculitis presenting in childhood is an uncommon but serious condition. As these patients transfer to adult clinics for continuing care, defining long term outcomes with emphasis on disease and treatment- related morbidity and mortality is important. The aim of this study is to describe the long- term clinical course of paediatric patients with ANCA vasculitis. Methods The adult patients in our vasculitis clinics who had presented in childhood, with a fol...

  5. Endoscopic removal of nasal septum chondrosarcoma in paediatric patient

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Nasri Abu Bakar; Rosdi Ramli; Zulkiflee Salahuddin; Irfan Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Chondrosarcomas of the head and neck are uncommon malignant tumours of non-epithelial origin. They rarely occur in paediatric age group. The treatment is mainly surgical and adjuvant therapy is only reserved to certain cases. We report a boy with progressive history of nasal obstruction and epistaxis. Nasal endoscopy revealed a mass arising from nasal septum. Endoscopic excision of the tumour was successfully done followed by radiotherapy. Endoscopic excision of chondrosarcoma of the nasal...

  6. Gonad shielding in paediatric pelvic radiography: Effectiveness and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of Gonad Shields (GS) has been advocated during pelvic radiography since the 1950's, particularly in children where the risks from radiation are higher. Previous literature reports that GS are often omitted and rarely used correctly. Objectives: Presentation of findings concerning use of GS in the context of previous data in the literature, and recommend any appropriate actions. Method: A retrospective analysis of images from an existing DICOM Digital Teaching Library (DTL) was conducted. Images of the pelvis from paediatric patients were reviewed and scored on whether a GS was present and (if present) whether the shield was considered to adequately protect the gonads. Results: 130 images were reviewed. 70 male and 60 female. The gonads were deemed to be protected by a shield in 22 images (17%), inadequately protected when a shield was used in 44 images (34%) with the remaining 64 images (49%) having no shield at all. A lack of adequate protection for the gonads was found, with females more likely to be inadequately protected than males (χ2 = 19.009, df = 1, p < 0.001). These findings become more clinically significant when reports of ovaries lying outside of the pelvic basin (in paediatric patients) are considered. Conclusions: The current practice of gonad shielding is neither effective nor beneficial for female paediatric patients, incorrect shield placement can often require repeat exposures. This finding is commensurate with previous literature. Therefore, gonad shielding is no longer an appropriate optimization tool for female paediatric patients during conventional radiography of the pelvis, and should be abandoned

  7. The Secret of Canadian Banking: Common Sense?

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence Booth

    2009-01-01

    This article looks at the basic reasons why the Canadian banking system was recently judged by the World Economic Forum to be the soundest in the world. It does so by first examining the basic functions of a financial system and what Canadian banks are allowed to do as intermediaries within that system. It then considers the market structure of Canadian banking and the role of the Canadian government in regulating the financial system. It finishes with a discussion of the four basic managemen...

  8. Potential of modern sonographic techniques in paediatric uroradiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccabona, Michael E-mail: michael.riccabona@kfunigraz.ac.at

    2002-08-01

    Objective: To describe the potential of modern sonographic techniques in paediatric uroradiology. Method: Ultrasound (US)--now being the primary imaging tool--has revolutionised imaging diagnostic in the urinary tract. Constant developments and technical refinements have secured the role of US in uroradiology. Colour Doppler Sonography (CDS) and innovative applications such as the transperineal approach or application of m-mode US to the urinary tract have helped to develop US from just a basic tool to a sophisticated and respected method. The ongoing introduction of new and even more sophisticated methods further enhance the sonographic potential, which shall be demonstrated by a more detailed discussion of these methods. Results: Harmonic imaging, extended field of view US, amplitude coded CDS, echo-enhanced US, and three-dimensional US as the most recent new sonographic techniques are successfully applicable to paediatric urinary tract disease. They improve sonographic diagnosis in many conditions, such as detection of vesico-ureteral reflux, renal parenchymal volume assessment, comprehensive visualisation of hydronephrosis and complex pathology, evaluation of renal perfusional disturbances or defects, superior documentation with improved comparability for follow-up, or simply by offering clearer tissue delineation and differentiation. Conclusion: Modern US techniques are successfully applicable to neonates, infants, and children, further boosting the value of US in the paediatric urinary tract. However, as handling became more sophisticated, and artefacts have to be considered, modern urosonography became not only a more powerful, but also a more demanding method, with the need for expert knowledge and dedicated training.

  9. Thyroid abnormalities in paediatric patients with vitiligo: retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlu, Murat; Çınar, Salih Levent; Kesikoğlu, Ayten; Utaş, Serap

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The association between vitiligo and thyroid disease is not fully investigated especially in paediatric patients. Aim To determine the incidence of vitiligo and thyroid disorders in children. This is the first report from middle Anatolia and the second report from Turkey. Material and methods A retrospective chart review was performed to examine the presence of thyroid abnormalities in paediatric patients who had been admitted to the dermatology department with vitiligo. Results A total of 155 paediatric patients, including 80 (52%) male and 75 (48%) female patients were included. The mean age was 8.6 years. Non segmental vitiligo was the most common type of the disease in 140 (90%) reviewed patients, while segmental vitiligo appeared only in 15 (10%) patients. The mean onset of vitiligo was 5.6 ±0.9 years. A family history of vitiligo was found in 14 (9%) children. Thirty-four (22%) patients had thyroid function tests and/or thyroid autoantibody abnormality. All of these patients had non segmental vitiligo. It was statistically significant (p vitiligo and thyroid disease parameters. Conclusions Our results show that it may be useful to screen thyroid in children with non segmental vitiligo.

  10. Common tasks and problems in paediatric trauma radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scope of this article is to give practical hints for the most common, typical and important topics of trauma radiology in children to those radiologists who are not exclusively occupied with paediatric imaging. Due to the increased radiation sensitivity of children compared with adults balancing radiation protection and necessary image quality is of utmost importance. Outlines for this optimisation process are given. Especially in imaging of the extremities perhaps the greatest difficulties are posed by the dynamically changing face of the immature, growing, only partially ossified skeleton. Lack of experience must be compensated by meticulous comparison with the normal skeletal development as shown in standard textbooks, and by knowledge of the radiological image of the developmental variants. Besides general remarks about paediatric trauma radiology, some important topics are discussed into more detail. Especially the elbow joint poses a challenge for those less experienced with its radiological appearance in children. More than in adults, ultrasound should remain the primary imaging modality of choice especially in the assessment of abdominal trauma, and CT be tailored to radiological and clinical findings. Imaging and diagnosis of non-accidental injury (NAI) may be a less common task for the general radiologist, however, the severe social implications of physical child abuse mandate a basic knowledge about the radiological symptoms and the imaging management of this problem for all physicians occupied with paediatric radiology

  11. An interprofessional approach to improving paediatric medication safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy Neil

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safe drug prescribing and administration are essential elements within undergraduate healthcare curricula, but medication errors, especially in paediatric practice, continue to compromise patient safety. In this area of clinical care, collective responsibility, team working and communication between health professionals have been identified as key elements in safe clinical practice. To date, there is limited research evidence as to how best to deliver teaching and learning of these competencies to practitioners of the future. Methods An interprofessional workshop to facilitate learning of knowledge, core competencies, communication and team working skills in paediatric drug prescribing and administration at undergraduate level was developed and evaluated. The practical, ward-based workshop was delivered to 4th year medical and 3rd year nursing students and evaluated using a pre and post workshop questionnaire with open-ended response questions. Results Following the workshop, students reported an increase in their knowledge and awareness of paediatric medication safety and the causes of medication errors (p Conclusion This study has helped bridge the knowledge-skills gap, demonstrating how an interprofessional approach to drug prescribing and administration has the potential to improve quality and safety within healthcare.

  12. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of

  13. Alan Thomas and the Canadian Association for Adult Education, 1961-1970. Occasional Papers in Continuing Education, Number 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Gordon R.

    Alan Thomas' vision of a learning society and its implications for public policy and adult education in Canada were the driving forces in the Canadian Association for Adult Education (CAAE) for the nine years of his directorship. The most distinctive and important idea that he contributed to the field in the 1960s was that the basic concept must…

  14. Open for Business: On What Terms? An Analysis of 12 Collaborations between Canadian Universities and Corporations, Donors and Governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The distinctive role of the university in society is always fragile and always in jeopardy. At its core, that role is primarily extending and deepening human understanding through research, scholarship, and teaching. This report presents an analysis of the following 12 collaborations between Canadian Universities and corporations, donors, and…

  15. Society-ethics-risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the workshops which was reported in this volume, was the interpretation and evaluation of catastrophic risks for society in an interdisciplinary dialogue between representation of society, ethics, as well as natural science and technology. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  16. Refractions of Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzmanovic, Daniella

    The thesis investigates various perceptions of civil society among civic activists in Turkey, and how these perceptions are produced and shaped. The thesis is an anthropological contribution to studies of civil society in general, as well as to studies on political culture in Turkey....

  17. American Society of Nephrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... co/8cdJ2oSFjH – @ASNKidney on Twitter ASN News Feed Society Events Interact With ASN rss Facebook Twitter YouTube ... Podcast ASN Communities Share ASN User Login © American Society of Nephrology top Text Size + - Translate Sitemap Terms ...

  18. The Tranquebarian Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niklas Thode

    2015-01-01

    of this development was the establishment of the Tranquebarian Society, the third learned society east of the Cape of Good Hope. The article examines the unique assemblage of scientific networks, people, instruments, institutions, and ideas of local and global origin that converged in Tranquebar, and it investigates...

  19. Fieldwork in Transforming Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Ed; Michailova, Snejina

    The contributors to this text discuss the personal and professional challenges of conducting fieldwork in the difficult, sometimes threatening contexts of the transforming societies of post-socialist Europe and China.......The contributors to this text discuss the personal and professional challenges of conducting fieldwork in the difficult, sometimes threatening contexts of the transforming societies of post-socialist Europe and China....

  20. Islam dan Civil Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Sukardi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article tries to address the concept of civil society from varied perspectives. From a historical point of view, civil society demands not only the absent domination of state but also liberates individuals from the hegemony of state. The article shows that in Indonesia and Malaysian discourse, masyarakat madani is often used to represent the term of civil society. Using this conception, major values of civil society also share with basic ideas within the Medina Treaty in the history of Islam. These ideas include egalitarianism, human rights protection, participation, law and justice enforcement and pluralism. In this frame, the question on whether or not Islam is compatible with the concept of civil society is clearly answered. Muslims could benefit such a concept to build their awareness of being progressive and adaptive to social changes.

  1. An evaluation of paediatric projection radiography in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study investigated common paediatric radiography examinations in Ireland and analysed any potential for improvement by considering compliance with requirements for justification, the range of doses delivered and potential Diagnostic Reference Levels, and technique approaches that enhance optimisation. Method: Referral information, Dose Area Product (DAP) dose, technique details and patient data were gathered from 568 paediatric examinations performed across several hospitals. The examinations were mobile infant chest (n = 66), chest (n = 266), abdomen (n = 96), lumbar spine (n = 14), full spine (n = 5), pelvis (n = 151) and skull (n = 28). Data were analysed to allow comment on the adequacy of justification, the range of doses being delivered and possible Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs), and the potential for optimisation of radiographic technique. Results/conclusions: Results indicate that the principle of justification is generally applied well in paediatric practice. Dose results indicate that age-related doses are generally comparable to published data, although dose variations exist within and between hospitals. Although differences between minimum and maximum DAP values were substantial, differences between the first and third quartile values were rarely greater than a factor of three. With regard to DRLs, age-related, 75th centile DAP values are presented for five paediatric X-ray examinations. While DAP DRLs stated as a function of age are a pragmatic approach to preliminary DRL values, size related DRLs are acknowledged as a better approach and the necessity of objective paediatric patient size measurement is emphasised. With regard to potential for optimisation, small samples limited analysis of factorial influences on DAP. However, trends indicate that objective consideration of kVp and mAs, careful collimation, and matching of exposure to baby weight in neonates and to measured patient depth in children could all

  2. Long- term outcome of paediatric patients with ANCA vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusey Charles D

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary systemic vasculitis presenting in childhood is an uncommon but serious condition. As these patients transfer to adult clinics for continuing care, defining long term outcomes with emphasis on disease and treatment- related morbidity and mortality is important. The aim of this study is to describe the long- term clinical course of paediatric patients with ANCA vasculitis. Methods The adult patients in our vasculitis clinics who had presented in childhood, with a follow up time of greater than 10 years were included. We also reviewed the literature for articles describing the clinical outcome of paediatric patients with ANCA vasculitis. Results We describe the clinical course of 8 adults who presented in childhood with ANCA vasculitis. 7 patients had Wegener's granulomatosis and 1 had microscopic polyangiitis. The median age at presentation was 11.5 years, and follow up time ranged form 11 to 30 years. Induction therapy for all patients was steroids and/or cyclophosphamide. Maintenance therapy was with azathioprine or mycophenolate mofetil. Biological agents were used in 3 patients for relapsed disease in adulthood only. Seven patients achieved complete remission. All patients experienced disease relapse, with a median of 4 episodes. Kidney function was generally well preserved, with median eGFR 76 ml/min. Only one patient developed end-stage renal failure and one patient died after 25 years of disease. Treatment-related morbidity rates were high; 7 suffered from infections, 4 were infertile, 2 had skeletal complications, and 1 developed malignancy. Conclusion Close long- term follow up of paediatric patients with ANCA vasculitis is imperative, as this patient cohort is likely to live long enough to develop significant treatment and disease- related morbidities. Prospective cohort studies with novel therapies including paediatric patients are crucial to help us determine the best approach to managing this complex group

  3. The Canadian Astronomy Data Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Nicholas M.; Schade, D.; Astronomy Data Centre, Canadian

    2011-01-01

    The Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC) is the world's largest astronomical data center, holding over 0.5 Petabytes of information, and serving nearly 3000 astronomers worldwide. Its current data collections include BLAST, CFHT, CGPS, FUSE, Gemini, HST, JCMT, MACHO, MOST, and numerous other archives and services. It provides extensive data archiving, curation, and processing expertise, via projects such as MegaPipe, and enables substantial day-to-day collaboration between resident astronomers and computer specialists. It is a stable, powerful, persistent, and properly supported environment for the storage and processing of large volumes of data, a condition that is now absolutely vital for their science potential to be exploited by the community. Through initiatives such as the Common Archive Observation Model (CAOM), the Canadian Virtual Observatory (CVO), and the Canadian Advanced Network for Astronomical Research (CANFAR), the CADC is at the global forefront of advancing astronomical research through improved data services. The CAOM aims to provide homogeneous data access, and hence viable interoperability between a potentially unlimited number of different data collections, at many wavelengths. It is active in the definition of numerous emerging standards within the International Virtual Observatory, and several datasets are already available. The CANFAR project is an initiative to make cloud computing for storage and data-intensive processing available to the community. It does this via a Virtual Machine environment that is equivalent to managing a local desktop. Several groups are already processing science data. CADC is also at the forefront of advanced astronomical data analysis, driven by the science requirements of astronomers both locally and further afield. The emergence of 'Astroinformatics' promises to provide not only utility items like object classifications, but to directly enable new science by accessing previously undiscovered or intractable

  4. Canadian environmental sustainability indicators 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2004, the Canadian government committed to reporting annual national indicators of air quality, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and freshwater quality in order to provide Canadians with more regular and consistent information on the state of the environment and how it is linked with human activities. The national air quality indicators in this report focused on human exposure to ground-level ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The report showed that from 1990 to 2004, the ozone indicator showed year-to-year variability, with an averaged increase of 0.9 per cent per year. Stations in southern Ontario reported the highest levels of ozone and PM2.5 in the country in 2004. There was no discernible upward or downward trend in PM2.5 levels at the national level for the 2000 to 2004 period, and GHG emissions rose 27 per cent from 1990 to 2004. In 2004, emissions were 35 per cent above the target to which Canada committed under the Kyoto Protocol. However, while total emissions rose, emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) fell by 14 per cent from 1990 to 2004. GHG emissions also grew faster than the Canadian population, resulting in a 10 per cent rise in emissions per person. The freshwater quality indicator presented in this report covered the period from 2002 to 2004, and focused on the ability of Canada's surface waters to support aquatic life. For the 340 sites selected across southern Canada, water quality was rated as good or excellent at 44 per cent of sites, fair at 34 per cent of sites, and marginal or poor at 22 per cent of sites. The report included a chapter which attempted to integrate the indicators with other environmental impacts, measures of economic performance, and indices of social progress to improve the ability of the report to influence decision-making that fully accounts for environmental sustainability. 63 refs., 18 figs

  5. The Canadian National Seismograph Network

    OpenAIRE

    North, R G

    1994-01-01

    The Canadian National Seismograph Network currently consists of 5 very-broadband (VBB) and 15 broadband (BB) stations across Canada, supplemented by 6 short period (SP) stations. When it is completed by the end of 1995, a further 1 VBB, 12 BB and over 40 SP stations will have been added. Data from all sites are telemetered in real time to twin network acquisition, processing and archiving centres in Eastern and Western Canada. All data are continuously archived in SEED format on optical disk ...

  6. REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADIAN ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Modern English is an international language inthe world.Besides Great Britain,English is spokenas first language in 39 countries.These countries arelocated in different regions with different naturalfeatures,history development and cultural character-istics.Thus,English used in these different regionscarries its own regional character—forming Englishregional varieties.The main English regional varieties are:BritishEnglish,American English,Canadian English andSouth African English.Canada is a rich country inNorth America with its own characteristics,which of

  7. Fuels for Canadian research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper includes some statements and remarks concerning the uranium silicide fuels for which there is significant fabrication in AECL, irradiation and defect performance experience; description of two Canadian high flux research reactors which use high enrichment uranium (HEU) and the fuels currently used in these reactors; limited fabrication work done on Al-U alloys to uranium contents as high as 40 wt%. The latter concerns work aimed at AECL fast neutron program. This experience in general terms is applied to the NRX and NRU designs of fuel

  8. Revisiting the Four Horsemen of the Infopocalypse: Representations of anonymity and the Internet in Canadian newspapers

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Robert F.; Burkell, Jacquelyn

    2007-01-01

    The concept of anonymity is central to much discussion about the Internet. In this paper, we wish to identify the term's work in the context of more expansive claims about the function, value and consequences of networked information technology in society. We argue that themes and topics in a sample of Canadian print news stories are exemplary of a discourse about the Internet in which anonymity is portrayed as an element that facilitates positive or negative social outcomes of the technology.

  9. Taking the road less travelled: indigenous self-determination and participation in Canadian institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Woons, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Despite ever-increasing pressure for Indigenous self-determination, Canadian society continues to resist its implications. Describing the conflict as a clash of two fundamentally incompatible paradigms, I create a framework that sheds light on the inner workings of paradigmatic political change. With the goal of self-determination clearly at the centre, this article studies whether such a direct constitutional challenge can be supplemented by indirect approaches. Two types of indirect approac...

  10. PO02 - Clinical profile of children admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit due to acute clinical deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Claus Sixtus; Aagaard, Hanne; Olesen, Hanne Vebert;

    2016-01-01

    Theme: Intensive care Background: There has been an increased number of critically ill patients admitted to paediatric departments. Only a few studies have described the various causes of unplanned admission to paediatric intensive care units (PICU) due to clinical deterioration. However, an...... critical ill children in paediatric wards....

  11. The Canadian Hospital Executive Simulation System (CHESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, G H; Knotts, U A; Parrish, L G; Shields, C A

    1991-01-01

    The Canadian Hospital Executive Simulation System (CHESS) is a computer-based management decision-making game designed specifically for Canadian hospital managers. The paper begins with an introduction on the development of business and health services industry-specific simulation games. An overview of CHESS is provided, along with a description of its development and a discussion of its educational benefits. PMID:10109530

  12. Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

  13. Looking Back: Tracing Trends in Canadian CALL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Mary-Louise; Sinyor, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    "CCALLNET" ("The Canadian Computer-Assisted Language Learning Network at the Post-Secondary Level") was a semi-annual newsletter published from 1987 to 2002 that was distributed to colleagues across Canada who taught languages to university students. Its objective was to create a network of Canadian faculty interested in CALL by informing them…

  14. Advanced information society (12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsuzaki, Seisuke

    In this paper, the original Japanese idea of "advanced information society" was reviewed at the first step. Thus, advancement of information/communication technology, advancement of information/communication needs and tendency of industrialization of information" were examined. Next, by comparing studies on advanced information society in various countries, the Japanese characteristics of consensus building was reviewed. Finally, in pursuit of prospect and tasks for the society, advancement of innovation and convergence information/communication technology, information/communication needs, institutional environment for utilization of information/communication and countermeasures against information pollution. Matching of information/communication technology and needs, besides with countermeasures against information pollution were discussed.

  15. Climate and Ancient Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Climate, and human responses to it, have a strongly interconnected relationship. This when climate change occurs, the result of either natural or human causes, societies should react and adapt to these. But do they? If so, what is the nature of that change, and are the responses positive...... or negative for the long-term survival of social groups? In this volume, scholars from diverse disciplines including archaeology, geology and climate sciences explore scientific and material evidence for climate changes in the past, their causes, their effects on ancient societies and how those societies...

  16. Information society studies

    CERN Document Server

    Duff, Alistair S

    2013-01-01

    We are often told that we are ""living in an information society"" or that we are ""information workers."" But what exactly do these claims mean, and how might they be verified? In this important methodological study, Alistair S. Duff cuts through the rhetoric to get to the bottom of the ""information society thesis."" Wide-ranging in coverage, this study will be of interest to scholars in information science, communication and media studies and social theory. It is a key text for the newly-unified specialism of information society studies, and an indispensable guide to the future of this disc

  17. A Clinical Study of Phenomenology and Comorbidity of Paediatric Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pavan Kumar; T., Sivakumar; Agarwal, Vivek; Sitholey, Prabhat

    2012-01-01

    Background: Considerable controversy exists regarding clinical presentation, diagnosis, and comorbidities especially with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), in paediatric Bipolar Disorder (BPD). Aims and objectives: To describe phenomenology and comorbidities of paediatric BPD. Method: 78 Subjects (6-16 years) attending child and…

  18. Influence of Food on Paediatric Gastrointestinal Drug Absorption Following Oral Administration: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah K. Batchelor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to review existing information regarding food effects on drug absorption within paediatric populations. Mechanisms that underpin food–drug interactions were examined to consider potential differences between adult and paediatric populations, to provide insights into how this may alter the pharmacokinetic profile in a child. Relevant literature was searched to retrieve information on food–drug interaction studies undertaken on: (i paediatric oral drug formulations; and (ii within paediatric populations. The applicability of existing methodology to predict food effects in adult populations was evaluated with respect to paediatric populations where clinical data was available. Several differences in physiology, anatomy and the composition of food consumed within a paediatric population are likely to lead to food–drug interactions that cannot be predicted based on adult studies. Existing methods to predict food effects cannot be directly extrapolated to allow predictions within paediatric populations. Development of systematic methods and guidelines is needed to address the general lack of information on examining food–drug interactions within paediatric populations.

  19. American Society of Neuroradiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to announce Mary Beth Hepp, MBA, as the society’s next executive director, replacing James B. Gantenberg, FACHE ... Contact Search form Search 2005-2015 Copyright American Society of Neuroradiology OM Base Theme 2016 | V7.x- ...

  20. North American Menopause Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advertisements NAMS in the News Press Room Assistance Society Overview Top 10 reasons why NAMS is your ... fully updated and referenced 5th edition of the Society’s leading professional resource, featuring the latest comprehensive clinical ...

  1. Scoliosis Research Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back To Top Scoliosis Research Society Close Menu Member Login Become a Member Home Find a Specialist | Calendar Contact | Donate Patients and Families Professionals About SRS العَرَبِية ...

  2. American Society of Hematology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main Navigation Account Navigation Main Content American Society of Hematology ASH Store ASH Job Center ASH Apps Share Your Idea Donate My Account Search Show Main Menu + About Awards Membership ASH ...

  3. Valie EXPORT Society. Overlok

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Valie EXPORT Society asutasid 23. okt. 1999. a. Frankfurdis Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit ja Mari Laanemets, kui olid külastanud austria naiskunstniku Valie Exporti näitust. Rühmituse aktsioonide kirjeldus

  4. Valie EXPORT Society Rooseumis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Malmös Rooseumi Kaasaegse Kunsti Keskuses näitus "Baltic Babel". Projekt koosneb Läänemeremaade linnades tegutsevate innovatiivsete gruppide aktsioonidest. Kuraator Charles Esche. Esinejatest (Eestist Valie Export Society: Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit)

  5. Transnationalising Civil Society?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    The paper takes a transnational perspective on developing an analytical framework for understanding how transnationalism interacts with civil society and how immigrant organisations use transnational strategies to challenge the pre-given positions of immigrants within given integration- and...

  6. Consumption in the Information Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherebin, V. M.; Ermakova, N. A.; Makhrova, O. N.

    2010-01-01

    The current state of the economy in the developed countries make it possible to characterize them using concepts and terms such as the postindustrial society, the new economy, the service economy, the creative economy, the posteconomic society, the information society, the knowledge society, and the consumer society. Among these terms and…

  7. Nuclear technology and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This special issue of Journal of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan deals with the relation between nuclear technology and society, and is composed of four papers: (1) Nuclear energy and international politics - sociotechnics around plutonium utilization; (2) Risk recognition and benefit recognition of nuclear facilities and social acceptance; (3) Environmental risk management and radioactive waste problem; and, (4) Public administration around the relation between nuclear energy and society. (1) describes the historical development of nuclear energy since its birth, focusing on how the leading countries tried to control nuclear proliferation. Peaceful utilization of nuclear energy is closely connected with the Non-proliferation problem. (1) also discusses the relation of plutonium utilization of Japan with international society. (2) discusses how nuclear facilities can be accepted by society, analyzing the background of risk recognition, in particular, of psychological character of mass society. (3) introduces an new approach (risk-based or risk-informed regulation) of environmental risk management for radioactive waste disposal problem, focusing on HLW (high-level waste). (4) explains the approach from public administration to nuclear energy and general energy policy and introduces PPA (participatory policy analysis) as a means for policy making. (M.M.)

  8. MORALITY AND SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eindawbarsa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The world in society needs to lay down regulation for increasing their works. The regulation suitable for them is morality in literature discoursed by Buddha. They are moral conducts and moral virtues. Moral are the duty of parent and son, teacher and students, husband and wife to ties their family and relationship. The duties to do for everyone to develop in society were expressed in saṅgālovāda sutta for 2500 years go. Moral virtues are the way to develop in society as well. In modern life they are trying to progress their life by doing bad action ignorance proper way. So as to their manners to develop their life is not sure for increasing. The way to do bad action is not trying proper way for everyone in society because to improve their life and society the way bad action is disturbing and harming the other. For that five precepts were discourse for lay people living in society as follows; 1.Not to kill any living beings, 2.\tNot to steal any properties what have not given, 3.\tNot to commit sensual misconducts, 4.\tNot to lie and loose speech and 5.\tNot to use intoxicants and drugs.

  9. Epidemiology and management of head injury in paediatric age group in North-Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Y Chinda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paediatric head injury (HI is the single most common cause of death and permanent disability in children world over, and this is increasingly becoming worrisome in our society because of increased risks and proneness to road traffic accidents on our highways and streets. The study set to determine causes and management of HI among children in our society. Patients and Methods: A retrospective review of all children aged 0-15 years with traumatic head injury (THIs who were managed at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital between July, 2006 and August, 2008. Results: A total of 45 children with THIs presented to the casualty unit of the hospital; 30 (66.7% were boys and 15 (33.3% were girls. Three (6.7% children were less than 1 year of age, 21 (46.7% were between 1 years and 6 years while 16 (35.6% and 5 (11.0% were aged 7-11 years and 12-15 years respectively. Thirty six (80.0% of the children were pedestrians, 6 (13.4% fell from a height, while 2 (4.4% and 1 (2.2% were as a result of home accident and assault, respectively. Twenty one patients (46.7% had mild HI, while 53.3% had moderate to severe category. Forty one (91.1% of children were managed as in-patients, mostly (95.1% by conservative non-operative management, while 4 (8.9% were treated on the out-patient basis. The mortality rate was 17.8%. Conclusion: H1 among children is of a great concern, because of its incremental magnitude, due to increasing child labour and interstate religious discipleship among children, with attendant high mortality and permanent disabilities. Necessary laws and legislations should be formulated and implemented with organized campaigns and public enlightenment to prevent and mitigate this menace.

  10. Phase synchronization in electroencephalographic recordings prognosticates outcome in paediatric coma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Nenadovic

    Full Text Available Brain injury from trauma, cardiac arrest or stroke is the most important cause of death and acquired disability in the paediatric population. Due to the lifetime impact of brain injury, there is a need for methods to stratify patient risk and ultimately predict outcome. Early prognosis is fundamental to the implementation of interventions to improve recovery, but no clinical model as yet exists. Healthy physiology is associated with a relative high variability of physiologic signals in organ systems. This was first evaluated in heart rate variability research. Brain variability can be quantified through electroencephalographic (EEG phase synchrony. We hypothesised that variability in brain signals from EEG recordings would correlate with patient outcome after brain injury. Lower variability in EEG phase synchronization, would be associated with poor patient prognosis. A retrospective study, spanning 10 years (2000-2010 analysed the scalp EEGs of children aged 1 month to 17 years in coma (Glasgow Coma Scale, GCS, <8 admitted to the paediatric critical care unit (PCCU following brain injury from TBI, cardiac arrest or stroke. Phase synchrony of the EEGs was evaluated using the Hilbert transform and the variability of the phase synchrony calculated. Outcome was evaluated using the 6 point Paediatric Performance Category Score (PCPC based on chart review at the time of hospital discharge. Outcome was dichotomized to good outcome (PCPC score 1 to 3 and poor outcome (PCPC score 4 to 6. Children who had a poor outcome following brain injury secondary to cardiac arrest, TBI or stroke, had a higher magnitude of synchrony (R index, a lower spatial complexity of the synchrony patterns and a lower temporal variability of the synchrony index values at 15 Hz when compared to those patients with a good outcome.

  11. Paediatric solid tumours in Nigerian children: A changing pattern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanko Na′anlep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood cancer is fast becoming an important paediatric problem in Nigeria and several parts of Africa, with the progressive decline of infectious and nutritional diseases. The following study was a 5-year retrospective review of paediatric solid tumours as seen at the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Objective: To determine the relative frequencies of childhood solid malignant tumours in Jos, Central Nigeria and compare with reports of previous studies both locally and abroad. Materials and Methods: Cancer registers and medical records of patients were used to extract demographic data, specimen number and/or codes. Archival materials were retrieved from the histopathology laboratory and sections were made from paraffin embedded blocks of these specimens. Slides of these histological sections were reviewed and reclassified where necessary. The relative frequencies were then determined. Results: One hundred and eighty one solid tumours of children were diagnosed within the study period. Ninety-four (51% were benign and 87 (49% malignant. Male: Female ratio was 1.3:1. The commonest malignant tumour diagnosed was rhabdomyosarcoma which accounted for 27 (31%, comprising of 15 (55.6%, 11 (40.7% and 1 (3.7% embryonal, alveolar and pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcomas, respectively. Non Hodgkin lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma accounted for 17 (19.5% and 12 (13.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the result of our study, we conclude that the commonest solid malignancy of childhood in Jos, Nigeria is rhabdomyosarcoma. This has implications for diagnosis, management and prognosis of theses soft tissue sarcomas in our paediatric population.

  12. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF OVARIAN TUMORS IN PAEDIATRIC AGE GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Ovarian tumors are r are in children and constitute 1% of all childhood malignancies and 8% of abdominal tumors. Large cysts and those complicated by torsion make their presence clear by their symptomatology. However, ovarian pathology is still mostly discovered at laparotomy for presumptive appendicitis. Accurate diagnosis of these tumors at such a young age is a great challenge to surgeons and pathologists. This article reviews the clinical presentation, radiological imaging, gross and histopathological findings at the Pathol ogy Department of a Paediatric Referral centre in Hyderabad

  13. A pictorial review of imaging in paediatric stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Christopher; Kolla, S; Hart, A; Sinha, S; Batty, R; Connolly, D J A

    2016-09-01

    Stroke is recognised as an important disease in adults. Paediatric stroke is less understood, yet still an important cause of morbidity and mortality, with an incidence of 5 per 100 000 children and is one of the top 10 leading causes of death in children. In adults the vast majority of strokes are ischaemic, whereas in children haemorrhage makes up half the cases. The incidence of neonatal stroke is much higher, at up to 45 per 100 000 population; however, the underlying causes are less understood. This paper acts as a guide to the different causes of stroke with the key differences on imaging discussed. PMID:27354547

  14. Prevalence of incidental paranasal sinus opacification in dental paediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of sinus opacification among dental paediatric patients. Two hundred and eight Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scans of dental patients under the age of 18 were reviewed for sinus opacification. Patients with any sinus-related signs or symptoms were excluded. The overall prevalence of sinus opacification was 48.1%. The ethmoid (28.4%) and maxillary (27.8%) sinuses were most frequently affected. There were no statistically significant differences for both age and gender. The high prevalence of sinus opacification in asymptomatic children emphasizes the necessity of clinical correlation.

  15. [Paediatric gynaecological outpatient department--a report on 600 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünberger, W; Fischl, F

    1982-11-26

    Problems arising during the examination and treatment of paediatric gynaecological patients are described. 387 out of 600 girls seen at the outpatient department for infants and juveniles of the 1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the University of Vienna were premenarchal and 213 were post-menarchal (average age 7.45 years). The most frequent diagnosis was vulvovaginitis (43%), followed by pathological vaginal bleeding (12%), vulval disorders (6%) and pubertas praecox (5%); about twenty additional conditions were diagnosed. Absolute and extended indications for gynaecological and vaginoscopic examinations are demonstrated. PMID:7164465

  16. Non-invasive respiratory monitoring in paediatric intensive care unit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadkarni U

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring respiratory function is important in a Paediatrics Intensive Care Unit (PICU, as majority of patients have cardio-respiratory problems. Non-invasive monitoring is convenient, accurate, and has minimal complications. Along with clinical monitoring, oxygen saturation using pulse oximetry, transcutaneous oxygenation (PtcO2 and transcutaneous PCO2 (PtcCO2 using transcutaneous monitors and end-tidal CO2 using capnography are important and routine measurements done in most PICUs. Considering the financial and maintenance constraints pulse oximetry with end tidal CO2 monitoring can be considered as most feasible.

  17. Diversity Management in the Canadian Workplace: Towards an Antiracism Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanmala Hiranandani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most diversity management programs in Canada maintain that enhancing workforce diversity is of tremendous significance for business organizations in today’s competitive global urban markets. Since well-meaning diversity management initiatives have been largely ineffective thus far in dealing with workplace discrimination and racism in the Canadian workplace, this paper underscores the need to decenter the focus of diversity management from a business imperative to an antidiscrimination and social justice imperative. Within this latter perspective, the paper examines the strengths and limitations of the antiracism approach that has been implemented in various developed countries in recent years. The antiracism approach is an action-oriented strategy for institutional and systemic change that has at its core the interrogation of privilege, power disparities, and other forms of inequity within the organization. Drawing from the lessons of various initiatives that have utilized this approach, the present paper emphasizes the need for a nuanced antiracism approach in the multicultural Canadian society if diversity management is to attain its goal of greater inclusion of all individuals in informal networks and formal organizational programs.

  18. Time Series EROI for Canadian Oil and Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Poisson

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern economies are dependent on fossil energy, yet as conventional resources are depleted, an increasing fraction of that energy is coming from unconventional resources such as tar sands. These resources usually require more energy for extraction and upgrading, leaving a smaller fraction available to society, and at a higher cost. Here we present a calculation of the energy return on investment (EROI for all Canadian oil and gas (including tar sands over the period 1990–2008, and also for tar sands alone (1994–2008. We used energy production and energy use data from Statistics Canada’s Material and Energy Flow Accounts (MEFA. We were able to quantify both direct and indirect energy use, the latter from Statistics Canada’s energy input-output model. We found that since the mid-1990s, total energy used (invested in the Canadian oil and gas sector increased about 63%, while the energy production (return increased only 18%, resulting in a decrease in total EROI from roughly 16:1 to 11:1. We also found (although with less certainty that the EROI for tar sands alone has fluctuated around 4:1 since 1994, with only a slight increasing trend. Finally, we analyzed underlying factors possibly influencing these trends.

  19. Emerging Canadian QA standards for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Canada operates a publicly funded health care system in which 70% of health care costs are paid by some level of government. Radiotherapy, indeed most cancer management, falls within the publicly funded realm of Canada's health care system. National legislation (the Canada Health Act) guarantees access to cancer services for all Canadians. However, the financial responsibility for these services is borne by the provinces. Most Canadian provinces manage the cancer management problem through central cancer agencies. In the past few decades, these provincial cancer agencies have formed the Canadian Association of Provincial Cancer Agencies (CAPCA). This association has adopted a broad mandate for cancer management in Canada (see www.capca.ca). Included in this mandate is the adoption of standards and guidelines for all aspects of cancer control. The complexity of radiation therapy has long underscored the need for cooperation at the international and national levels in defining programmes and standards. In recent decades formal quality assurance programme recommendations have emerged in the United States, Europe and Great Britain. When defining quality assurance programs, Canadian radiation treatment centres have referenced U.S. and other program standards since they have been available. Recently, under the leadership of the Canadian Association of Provincial Cancer Agencies (CAPCA), Canadian national quality assurance program recommendations are emerging. A CAPCA sponsored project to harmonize Canadian quality assurance processes has resulted in a draft document entitled 'Standards for Quality Assurance at Canadian Radiation Treatment Centres'. This document provides recommendations for the broad framework of radiation therapy quality assurance programs. In addition, detailed work is currently underway regarding equipment quality control procedures. This paper explores the historical and political landscape in which the quality assurance problem has

  20. Nuclear fuel waste disposal: The Canadian consultative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past two decades society has demanded more public participation and public input into decision-making governments. Accordingly, development of the Canadian concept for deep geological disposal of used nuclear fuel has taken into account the requirements for social acceptability as well as technical excellence. As the agency responsible for developing the disposal concept, AECL Research, the research and development arm of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., has included, in its program, consultation with the various publics that have an interest in the concept. This interactive and consultative process, which has been underway for some 14 years, has attempted to ensure that the public has had the opportunity to become familiar with the technical development of the concept and to provide input into it. This process will continue throughout the concept assessment and review currently in progress

  1. The Canadian National Seismograph Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. North

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian National Seismograph Network currently consists of 5 very-broadband (VBB and 15 broadband (BB stations across Canada, supplemented by 6 short period (SP stations. When it is completed by the end of 1995, a further 1 VBB, 12 BB and over 40 SP stations will have been added. Data from all sites are telemetered in real time to twin network acquisition, processing and archiving centres in Eastern and Western Canada. All data are continuously archived in SEED format on optical disk and access to the most recent three days of data is provided through a mail-based AutoDRM system. Continuous data from the VBB sites are sent to the FDSN Data Management Centre approximately one month after being recorded.

  2. Tritium technology. A Canadian overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the various tritium research and operational activities in Canada is presented. These activities encompass tritium processing and recovery, tritium interactions with materials, and tritium health and safety. Many of these on-going activities form a sound basis for the tritium use and handling aspects of the ITER project. Tritium management within the CANDU heavy water reactor, associated detritiation facilities, research and development facilities, and commercial industry and improving the understanding of tritium behaviour in humans and the environment remain the focus of a long-standing Canadian interest in tritium. While there have been changes in the application of this knowledge and experience over time, the operating experience and the supporting research and development continue to provide for improved plant and facility operations, an improved understanding of tritium safety issues, and improved products and tools that facilitate tritium management. (author)

  3. Canadian natural gas price debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunoco Inc. is a subsidiary of Suncor Energy, one of Canada's largest integrated energy companies having total assets of $2.8 billion. As one of the major energy suppliers in the country, Sunoco Inc has a substantial stake in the emerging trends in the natural gas industry, including the Canadian natural gas price debate. Traditionally, natural gas prices have been determined by the number of pipeline expansions, weather, energy supply and demand, and storage levels. In addition to all these traditional factors which still apply today, the present day natural gas industry also has to deal with deregulation, open competition and the global energy situation, all of which also have an impact on prices. How to face up to these challenges is the subject of this discourse. tabs., figs

  4. THE CANADIAN POLITICAL BUSINESS CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Libby

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss the existence of a Canadian Political Business Cycle (PBC during the period 1946-1989. Logit analysis was used to determine if changes in the unemployment rate, growth of real GNE and the rate of inflation are significantly different in the period before an election than during the rest of the electoral term. It was found that the rate of growth in the unemployment rate declines and the rate of growth of real GNP increases in the four quarters before an election. The behavior of these variables reverses in the period after an election. These findings are consistent with a political business cycle. Policy variables, under a majority government, also behave in a manner associated with a PBC, with the government stimulating the economy approximately two years into its term so that good economic news will occur before it has to call an election. Minority governments tend to simulate the economy immediately after taking office.

  5. Nuclear communications : A Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Times have changed since the early days of nuclear energy when it was a symbol of a brave new world, Public information strategies have evolved to meet increasing public concerns, and have shifted from being a largely unfocused attempt at publicity to being more concerned with managing issues and solving problems. This paper describes some of the salient features of the Canadian experience in nuclear communications and examines four key aspects: opinion and attitude research; media relations; coeducation; and advertising. It also addresses the challenge of responding to the allegations and tactics of those who are actively hostile to nuclear energy, and recommends that the principles of Total Quality Management and of organizational effectiveness be applied more thorough and more consistently to the public affairs function

  6. A perspective on Canadian shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Mike; Davidson, Jim; Mortensen, Paul

    2010-09-15

    In a relatively new development over just the past few years, shale formations are being targeted for natural gas production. Based on initial results, there may be significant potential for shale gas in various regions of Canada, not only in traditional areas of conventional production but also non-traditional areas. However, there is much uncertainty because most Canadian shale gas production is currently in experimental or early developmental stages. Thus, its full potential will not be known for some time. If exploitation proves to be successful, Canadian shale gas may partially offset projected long-term declines in Canadian conventional natural gas production.

  7. Dental fitness classification in the Canadian forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Richard R

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian Forces Dental Services utilizes a dental classification system to identify those military members dentally fit for an overseas deployment where dental resources may be limited. Although the Canadian Forces Dental Services dental classification system is based on NATO standards, it differs slightly from the dental classification systems of other NATO country dental services. Data collected by dental teams on overseas deployments indicate a low rate of emergency dental visits by Canadian Forces members who were screened as dentally fit to deploy. PMID:18277717

  8. Canadian national internal dosimetry performance testing programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design and construction of new Performance Testing programme that was implemented in Canada in 2008. The Canadian Regulator (Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission - CNSC) had determined that their licensees, in addition to the existing In Vivo and In Vitro performance tests, needed to demonstrate their ability in interpreting bioassay results. The program is administered by the Canadian National Calibration Reference Centre for Bioassay and In Vivo Monitoring (NCRC). Currently the NCRC carries out the performance testing for the In Vitro and In Vivo. At time of writing, the first round has not been completed and the pass/fail criteria have not been determined. (author)

  9. Connecting Science with Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of two seas are exchanged, but also goods and culture. In a similar way, Current Research Information Systems are at the intersection between (publicly funded) research and society. They do not only connect actors, activities and results within the research domain but also play a crucial role in raising...... awareness of the important questions of our society reflected in scientific research and of the answers produced by these research activities. The CRIS2010 conference, entitled “Bringing Science to Society”, therefore seeks to highlight the role of Current Research Information Systems for communicating...... research outcomes to the relevant stakeholders in society as a whole. Researchers, research managers, policy makers and Chief Information Officers, to name just a view, are not the only groups which value the richness of research data a CRIS provides for planning, managing and evaluating research...

  10. Civil society sphericules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    the organization strategizes about and seeks to articulate amongst Tanzanian youth. Situated in the ‘perverse confluence’ (Dagnino, 2011) between neoliberal and radical democratic agendas in the communicative practices of civil society-driven media platforms, Femina navigates between identities as an NGO, a social...... movement and a media initiative. In the context of the growing literature on social networking sites and their affordances, dynamics and structures, the case of Femina illustrates how a civil society sphericule emerges within the dynamic co-evolution of new and old media platforms. The study is furthermore...... an example of the difficult shift in civil society practice, from service provision to an agenda of public service monitoring, social accountability and community engagement....

  11. Libraries in Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansson, Michael; Skouvig, Laura

    by Michel Foucault on discourse and power to the introduction of open shelves. Furthermore, the paper discusses current challenges facing the modern public library in coping with openness issues that follow from changes in society and advances in technology. These influences and developments are not least...... brought about by the boom of the internet and the advent of the post-modern globalised knowledge-based and network-organised society. Finally, the paper outlines how theoretical and strategic library development can benefit from academic considerations on the dialectics between openness and restrictedness...... and on the transformed meaning and significance of openness in the knowledge society. The paper concludes that openness is still of decisive importance to library development and policy and that it should be included in strategic considerations on library development....

  12. Reducing dose in paediatric CT: a preliminary study of radiographers' Knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the responses of Australian radiographers in comparison with current literature on paediatric protocols and scanning recommendations in order to determine how and if paediatric Computed Tomography (CT) exposure reductions are taking place within Medical Imaging Departments. Subjects and Methods: The method involved a dual format; consisting of surveying 30 CT radiographers, and additionally, interviewing 5 senior CT radiographers. Of the 30 surveys completed, one was completed by a PDY radiographer, 7 by CT Senior radiographers and 22 by CT radiographers. The survey contained a range of questions about appropriate paediatric CT scanning parameters and protocols. Five CT Seniors were interviewed to ascertain the current level and opinion of training in paediatric protocols, in-house educational programs and the implementation of radiation dose saving parameters. Radiographers demonstrated reasonable ability to identify suitable paediatric protocols and believed the in-house CT protocols resident to their medical imaging department to be adequate, despite many utilising exposures higher than those from recommended literature. The interviews revealed that no further training in CT paediatric dose reduction was currently available, however survey responses indicated that further training would be beneficial. This study demonstrates that radiographers are aware of the need to reduce exposure parameters for paediatric CT and tend to follow protocols in place within their workplace, regardless of suitability and patient needs Copyright (2003) Australian Institute of Radiography

  13. Computerized tomography and prognosis in paediatric head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have analysed the computerized tomography (CT) findings and their correlation with the clinical state, early and late outcome in children and adolescents with head injuries (HI). This study represents clinical and CT data of 82 consecutive HI patients under 18 years of age. Among them 51 (62%) were boys and 31 (38 %) girls. The application of CT to the evaluation of the morphologic manifestations of HI in children has shown some differences in forms and mechanisms of injury and in outcome compared to adults. In the paediatric HI the most frequent finding was diffuse brain swelling with CT evidence of ventricular and cisternal compression or obliteration. Prognostically the most unfavourable findings were shearing injury, intracerebral and subdural haematomas combined with brain swelling and parenchymal damage. According to the Lidcombe impairment scale, outcome from severe paediatric HI was determined in the 3rd and 6th months, one year and 2 years after the injury. The outcome two years after severe HI varied to a great extent and was better in children than in adults. Although there was long-term disruption of the patient's quality of life, our data show that as there are no predictors of individual outcomes in child HI, no child should be excluded from early and long-term rehabilitation. (author)

  14. Headache in the paediatrics patients, clinical-EEG Correlation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelino Lizano Rabelo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive study was made, with the objective to describe to a clinical group of variables epidemiologists and of laboratory of 108 patients to whom it was made to them and EEG and whose fundamental symptom was the headache; in the period January to December of 2009. The data was taken from the registry of patients of the neurophysiology department of Paediatric Hospital. The variables of the study were: age, sex, type of headache, results of the EEG, and characteristics of pathological EEG activity. The results were expressed in graphical and analyzed tables and of percentage form. The patients of 14 to 16 years predominated (40,7%, female patient (53,7%, clinically the observed recurrent acute migraine in 60 cases was the one that prevailed, as well as normality in the EEG (81,5%, the pathological cases we observed focal paroxysms in 15 patients (75% and focal alterations in 80% of the pathological EEG. Conclusions: In our environment the migraine in the paediatric patient is a frequent pathology that motivates the accomplishment of diverse studies among them the EEG, being this normal one in most of the cases and the non-specific alterations, the recurrent acute migraine and female patients prevailed.

  15. Genetic differences between paediatric and adult Burkitt lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelange, Violaine; Pepermans, Xavier; Ameye, Geneviève; Théate, Ivan; Callet-Bauchu, Evelyne; Barin, Carole; Penther, Dominique; Lippert, Eric; Michaux, Lucienne; Mugneret, Francine; Dastugue, Nicole; Raphaël, Martine; Vikkula, Miikka; Poirel, Hélène A

    2016-04-01

    Dysregulation of MYC is the genetic hallmark of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) but it is encountered in other aggressive mature B-cell lymphomas. MYC dysregulation needs other cooperating events for BL development. We aimed to characterize these events and assess the differences between adult and paediatric BLs that may explain the different outcomes in these two populations. We analysed patterns of genetic aberrations in a series of 24 BLs: 11 adults and 13 children. We looked for genomic imbalances (copy number variations), copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (CN-LOH) and mutations in TP53, CDKN2A, ID3 (exon 1), TCF3 (exon17) and CCND3 (exon 6). Young patients displayed more frequent 13q31.3q32.1 amplification, 7q32q36 gain and 5q23.3 CN-LOH, while 17p13 and 18q21.3 CN-LOH were only detected in adult BLs. ID3 mutations were present in all adult samples, but only in 42% of childhood cases. CCND3 and ID3 double-hit mutations, as well as 18q21 CN-LOH, seemed to be associated with poorer outcome. For the first time, we report different genetic anomalies between adult and paediatric BLs, suggesting age-related heterogeneity in Burkitt lymphomagenesis. This may explain the poorer prognosis of adult BLs. Additional studies are needed to confirm these results in the setting of clinical trials. PMID:26887776

  16. Ganglion cysts in the paediatric wrist: magnetic resonance imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of published literature on ganglion cysts in children has been from a surgical perspective, with no dedicated radiologic study yet performed. Our aim was to assess the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of ganglion cysts in a series of paediatric MR wrist examinations. Ninety-seven consecutive paediatric MR wrist examinations were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of ganglion cysts. Only those studies with wrist ganglia were included. Cysts were assessed for location, size, internal characteristics and secondary effect(s). Forty-one ganglion cysts (2-32 mm in size) were seen in 35/97 (36%) patients (24 female, 11 male), mean age: 13 years 11 months (range: 6 years 3 months-18 years). The majority were palmar (63.4%) with the remainder dorsal. Of the cysts, 43.9% were related to a wrist ligament(s), 36.6% to a joint and 17.1% to the triangular fibrocartilage complex. Of the patients, 91.4% had wrist symptoms: pain (n=29, 82.9%), swelling (n=7, 20%) and/or palpable mass (n=4, 11.4%); 71.4% patients had significant additional wrist abnormalities. Ganglion cysts were frequently found in children referred for wrist MRI. (orig.)

  17. Neonatology/Paediatrics – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusch, C.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available There are special challenges in implementing parenteral nutrition (PN in paediatric patients, which arises from the wide range of patients, ranging from extremely premature infants up to teenagers weighing up to and over 100 kg, and their varying substrate requirements. Age and maturity-related changes of the metabolism and fluid and nutrient requirements must be taken into consideration along with the clinical situation during which PN is applied. The indication, the procedure as well as the intake of fluid and substrates are very different to that known in PN-practice in adult patients, e.g. the fluid, nutrient and energy needs of premature infants and newborns per kg body weight are markedly higher than of older paediatric and adult patients. Premature infants <35 weeks of pregnancy and most sick term infants usually require full or partial PN. In neonates the actual amount of PN administered must be calculated (not estimated. Enteral nutrition should be gradually introduced and should replace PN as quickly as possible in order to minimise any side-effects from exposure to PN. Inadequate substrate intake in early infancy can cause long-term detrimental effects in terms of metabolic programming of the risk of illness in later life. If energy and nutrient demands in children and adolescents cannot be met through enteral nutrition, partial or total PN should be considered within 7 days or less depending on the nutritional state and clinical conditions.

  18. Global health: A lasting partnership in paediatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokila Lakhoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To emphasise the value of on-going commitment in Global Health Partnerships. Materials and Methods: A hospital link, by invitation, was set up between United Kingdom and Tanzania since 2002. The project involved annual visits with activities ranging from exchange of skill to training health professionals. Furthermore, the programme attracted teaching and research activities. For continuity, there was electronic communication between visits. Results: Six paediatric surgeons are now fully trained with three further in training in Africa. Paediatric surgery services are now separate from adult services. Seven trainee exchanges have taken place with four awarded fellowships/scholarships. Twenty-three clinical projects have been presented internationally resulting in eight international publications. The programme has attracted other health professionals, especially nursing and engineering. The Tropical Health and Education Trust prize was recently achieved for nursing and radiography. National Health Service has benefited from volunteering staff bringing new cost-effective ideas. A fully funded medical student elective programme has been achieved since 2008. Conclusion: Global Health Partnerships are an excellent initiative in establishing specialist services in countries with limited resources. In the future, this will translate into improved patient care as long as it is sustained and valued by long term commitment.

  19. Global child health priorities: what role for paediatric oncologists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellie, Stewart J; Howard, Scott C

    2008-11-01

    Despite increasing globalisation, international mobility and economic interdependence, 9.7 million children aged less than 5 years in low income countries will die this year, almost all from preventable or treatable diseases. Diarrhoea, pneumonia and malaria account for 5 million of these deaths each year, compared to about 150,000 deaths from childhood cancer in low- and middle-income countries. In high-income countries, 80% of the 50,000 children diagnosed with cancer each year survive, yet cancer remains the leading disease-related cause of childhood death. In low- and middle-income countries, where 80% of children live, the 200,000 children diagnosed with cancer each year have limited access to curative treatment, and only about 25% survive. Some might argue that death from paediatric cancer in poor countries is insignificant compared to death from other causes, and that scarce health resources may be better used in other areas of public health. Is there a role for the treatment of children with cancer in these regions? Do international partnerships or 'twinning' programmes enhance local health care or detract from other public health priorities? What is ethical and what is possible? This review examines the health challenges faced by infants and children in low-income countries, and assesses the role and impact of international paediatric oncology collaboration to improve childhood cancer care worldwide. PMID:18799306

  20. Magnetic resonance cholangiography - feasibility and application in the paediatric population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To assess the feasibility of magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) in paediatrics. Materials and methods. MRC was attempted in 41 children from 1 week to 14-years. There were three groups: (1) children studied with MRI for non-biliary problems as controls; (2) infants with jaundice; and (3) older children suspected of biliary disease. The examination was successfully performed in 35 children, which included 12 children studied for non-biliary problems, 12 infants with jaundice, and 11 older children with suspected biliary disease. Results. In group 1, the entire common duct was visualised in all 12 children. In group 2, successful demonstration of the common duct was achieved in two of the ten infants with subsequent confirmation of normal bile duct patency. In the last group of patients with suspected biliary disease, MRC gave good anatomical display of six choledochal cysts but failed to demonstrate the anomalous choledochopancreatic channel. It helped to confirm the diagnosis of two cases of pancreatic head cysts, and one case of Caroli's disease. Conclusion. MRC can be applied to the paediatric population, but its value depends on the type of problem to be evaluated. With current spatial resolution, its value in the diagnosis of biliary atresia is probably limited because it cannot reliably demonstrate the bile ducts in young infants with non-obstructive jaundice. In older children, it could provide a non-invasive anatomical display of the biliary tree and its disease. It has a potential role in addressing problematic cases encountered during ultrasonography. (orig.)

  1. Ganglion cysts in the paediatric wrist: magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracken, Jennifer; Bartlett, Murray [Royal Children' s Hospital, Medical Imaging Department, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2013-12-15

    The majority of published literature on ganglion cysts in children has been from a surgical perspective, with no dedicated radiologic study yet performed. Our aim was to assess the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of ganglion cysts in a series of paediatric MR wrist examinations. Ninety-seven consecutive paediatric MR wrist examinations were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of ganglion cysts. Only those studies with wrist ganglia were included. Cysts were assessed for location, size, internal characteristics and secondary effect(s). Forty-one ganglion cysts (2-32 mm in size) were seen in 35/97 (36%) patients (24 female, 11 male), mean age: 13 years 11 months (range: 6 years 3 months-18 years). The majority were palmar (63.4%) with the remainder dorsal. Of the cysts, 43.9% were related to a wrist ligament(s), 36.6% to a joint and 17.1% to the triangular fibrocartilage complex. Of the patients, 91.4% had wrist symptoms: pain (n=29, 82.9%), swelling (n=7, 20%) and/or palpable mass (n=4, 11.4%); 71.4% patients had significant additional wrist abnormalities. Ganglion cysts were frequently found in children referred for wrist MRI. (orig.)

  2. Radiographic features of paediatric pneumocystis pneumonia - a historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To determine differences between the plain radiographic features of paediatric pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) recorded before the emergence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 1982 and those documented in the HIV era. To establish differences in the radiographic features of PCP documented in HIV-infected children in developed and developing countries. Method: A Medline search of articles was conducted from 1950 to 2006, using the terms 'pneumocystis pneumonia in children' and 'chest radiographic features' or 'bilateral opacification' or 'lobar consolidation' or 'asymmetrical opacification' or 'pneumatocoeles' or 'cavities' or 'pneumothorax' or 'pneumomediastinum' or 'pleural effusion' or 'mediastinal adenopathy' or 'nodules' or 'normal chest radiography'. Appropriate articles were retrieved, radiological data extracted, reference lists examined and hand searches of referenced articles conducted. Results: Diffuse bilateral 'ground-glass' or alveolar pulmonary opacification, which may show some asymmetry, has been consistently documented as the commonest radiographic finding in childhood PCP throughout the period under review. The less common radiological features of PCP in children are similar to those in adults. In developed countries, PCP-related pulmonary air cysts have been reported at an earlier age in HIV-infected children, compared with uninfected children. PCP-related air cysts, pneumothorax, and pneumomediastinum have been reported in children in developed but not in developing countries. Conclusion: The radiological features of paediatric PCP documented before the HIV epidemic are similar to those recorded in the HIV era. Further study of the determinants of the uncommon radiographic features in children is warranted

  3. MR urography: the future gold standard in paediatric urogenital imaging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Examination of the paediatric urogenital tract is traditionally performed using methods that utilise ionising radiation, such as intravenous urography (IVU), computerised tomography (CT), voiding cystourethrography (VCU), and scintigraphy, in addition to ultrasound (US). Objective. To determine the potential and effectiveness of MR urography (MRU) in infants and children. Materials and methods. 44 MRU examinations were prospectively performed in 39 patients (21 infants, mean age 3.5 months, and 18 children, mean age 6 years 2 months) with known or suspected pathology of the urinary tract. Non-enhanced, fast spin-echo sequences (TSE) were performed in all patients. In 70 % of the patients a contrast-enhanced, fast gradient-echo sequence (TFE) was included. The dynamic sequence was prolonged and supplemented with furosemide provocation in some patients with suspected urinary-tract obstruction. Results. Nine percent of examinations were non-diagnostic or interrupted due to movement. MRU contributed additional information in 66 %. Nine patients with suspected urinary-tract obstruction were examined with both contrast-enhanced MRU and scintigraphy. Three MRU examinations were less informative and one equal to scintigraphy when obstruction was the diagnosis. When using a technique with a prolonged dynamic sequence, including frusemide provocation, four MRU examinations were equal and one was superior to scintigraphy. Conclusions. MRU has the potential to replace traditional diagnostic methods which use ionising radiation in paediatric patients. Further studies are needed before definite conclusions can be drawn. (orig.)

  4. Correlation of Clinicohaematological Parameters in Paediatric Dengue: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna Pai Jakribettu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is one of the arthropod-borne (arbo viral diseases transmitted by female mosquito Aedes aegypti. Dengue fever has a wide spectrum of clinical presentation ranging from flu-like illness to severe complicated stage of dengue hemorrhagic fever leading to mortality. This was a retrospective study conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Coastal Karnataka, South India, to know the correlation between the clinical presentation and haematological parameters in the paediatric cases presented with dengue symptoms. A total of 163 paediatric cases who presented fever and dengue-like illness were included in the study. Of which, 69 were confirmed dengue patients. Critical analysis showed that there was a significant difference in the haematological parameters like total leucocyte count, percent differential leucocyte count, and platelets count, in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (P<0.05 to 0.0001. Additionally, when compared to nondengue patients, even the liver function and renal function parameters were significantly deranged (P<0.05 to 0.0001. Stratification based on NS1, IgG, and IgM showed significant alterations in the haematological, hepatic, and renal parameters. With respect to the treatment a small percentage of patients, that is, 8% (4 patients, required platelet transfusion as their counts went below 20,000/μL. Two patients succumbed to their illness while three required ICU stay.

  5. Discrimination of paediatric brain tumours using apparent diffusion coefficient histograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, Jonathan G.; Clark, Christopher A. [UCL Institute of Child Health, Imaging and Biophysics Unit, London (United Kingdom); Saunders, Dawn E. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    To determine if histograms of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) can be used to differentiate paediatric brain tumours. Imaging of histologically confirmed tumours with pre-operative ADC maps were reviewed (54 cases, 32 male, mean age 6.1 years; range 0.1-15.8 years) comprising 6 groups. Whole tumour ADC histograms were calculated; normalised for volume. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to differentiate tumour types using histogram metrics, initially for all groups and then for specific subsets. All 6 groups (5 dysembryoplastic neuroectodermal tumours, 22 primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNET), 5 ependymomas, 7 choroid plexus papillomas, 4 atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumours (ATRT) and 9 juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas (JPA)) were compared. 74% (40/54) were correctly classified using logistic regression of ADC histogram parameters. In the analysis of posterior fossa tumours, 80% of ependymomas, 100% of astrocytomas and 94% of PNET-medulloblastoma were classified correctly. All PNETs were discriminated from ATRTs (22 PNET and 4 supratentorial ATRTs) (100%). ADC histograms are useful in differentiating paediatric brain tumours, in particular, the common posterior fossa tumours of childhood. PNETs were differentiated from supratentorial ATRTs, in all cases, which has important implications in terms of clinical management. (orig.)

  6. Caring and curing: paediatric cancer services since 1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, E

    2005-09-01

    This paper traces the history of the specialist meanings of 'cure' in paediatric oncology in the UK, how they have changed with increasing organization of the discipline, ever-rising survival rates for all childhood cancers, and with feedback from patients and families. It examines the differing ways in which those involved in researching, treating, and raising funds for work on childhood cancers have understood and used the language of cure, and speculates as to why talking about the 'cure' of survivors of childhood cancers is so problematic. The paper discusses the particular importance of holistic care in the development of paediatric oncology. Psychosocial support is delivered alongside surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The focus for support is the patient's whole family, building a tenet of palliative care into curative treatment. The concept of the 'truly cured child' is argued to have been crucial in the discipline's decision in the 1970s and 1980s to make the psychosocial needs of patients and their families central in the programme of curing children with cancer. PMID:16098123

  7. Patient dosimetry study of a paediatric CT examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosimetry studies are of increasing interest in diagnostic high-dose applications such as computed tomography especially for examinations of children. A routine CT scan protocol for paediatric head and neck imaging was investigated at a new multi-detector CT scanner using LiF:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) and a 0.125 cm3 thimble ionization chamber. Calibrations of the detectors in terms of absorbed dose to water were carried out at the Dosimetry Laboratory Seibersdorf in standard radiation fields. The dosimetry method was validated in the spiral CT X-ray field by comparing TLD and ionization chamber measurement results in cylindrical PMMA phantoms. Absorbed dose results were within stated uncertainties. An anthropomorphic phantom representing a child of about 5 years was loaded with TLD chips at various organ and tissue positions in the head and neck region as well as at some critical organ locations. Organ dose values were calculated from TLD based average absorbed dose with about 5% total uncertainty, e.g. 22 mGy (eyes), 21 mGy (thyroid), 19 mGy (brain), 3.4 mGy (thymus), and 0.03 mGy (testes). For comparison purposes an effective dose of 1.9 mSv was estimated for the investigated paediatric CT examination based on ICRP-103 age-independent tissue-weighting factors.

  8. Science and Society Colloquium

    CERN Multimedia

    Randi, J

    1991-01-01

    Mr. Randi will give an update of his lecture to the American Physical Society on the occasion of his award of the 1989 Forum Prize. The citation said: "for his unique defense of Science and the scientific method in many disciplines, including physics, against pseudoscience, frauds and charlatans. His use of scientific techniques has contributed to refuting suspicious and fraudulent claims of paranormal results. He has contributed significantly to public understanding of important issues where science and society interact". He is a professional magician and author of many books. He worked with John Maddox, the Editor of Nature to investigate the claims of "water with memory".

  9. Canadian Law Schools: In Search of Excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakman, Leon E.

    1980-01-01

    Academically, Canadian education is at the crossroads between formalism and functionalism, with the latter prevailing in recent years. There now arises a demand for a more integrated approach, linking legal theory with legal practice. (MSE)

  10. Canadian used fuel disposal concept review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A federal government environmental assessment review of the disposal concept developed under the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is currently underway. The Canadian concept is, simply stated, the placement of used fuel (or fuel waste) in long-lived containers at a depth between 500 m and 1000 m in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited submitted an Environmental Impact Statement in 1994 and the public hearing aspect of the concept review is in its final phase. A unique aspect of the Canadian situation is that government has stipulated that site selection can not commence until the concept has been approved. Hence, the safety and acceptability of the concept is being reviewed in the context of a generic site. Some comments and lessons learned to date related to the review process are discussed. (author)

  11. Canadian Business Schools: Going out of Business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobni, Dawn; Dobni, Brooke

    1996-01-01

    Using Porter's five-forces model (potential entrants, suppliers, buyers, rivalry, substitutes) to analyze competition in Canadian university business schools, the authors conclude that schools are becoming increasingly vulnerable to competitive pressures and that strategic reorientation is necessary. (SK)

  12. Canadian media representations of mad cow disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Amanda D; Jardine, Cynthia G; Driedger, S Michelle

    2009-01-01

    A Canadian case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or "mad cow disease" was confirmed in May, 2003. An in-depth content analysis of newspaper articles was conducted to understand the portrayal of BSE and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the Canadian media. Articles in the "first 10 days" following the initial discovery of a cow with BSE in Canada on May 20, 2003, were examined based on the premise that these initial stories provide the major frames that dominate news media reporting of the same issue over time and multiple occurrences. Subsequent confirmed Canadian cases were similarly analyzed to determine if coverage changed in these later media articles. The results include a prominence of economic articles, de-emphasis of health aspects, and anchoring the Canadian outbreak to that of Britain's crisis. The variation in media representations between those in Canada and those documented in Britain are explored in this study. PMID:19697246

  13. Canadian experience with structured clinical examinations.

    OpenAIRE

    Grand'Maison, P.; Lescop, J; Brailovsky, C. A.

    1993-01-01

    The use of structured clinical examinations to improve the evaluation of medical students and graduates has become significantly more common in the past 25 years. Many Canadian medical educators have contributed to the development of this technique. The Canadian experience is reviewed from the introduction of simulated-standardized patients and objective-structured clinical examinations to more recent developments and the use of such examinations for licensure and certification.

  14. South Asian Canadian experiences of depression

    OpenAIRE

    Grewal, Amarjit

    2010-01-01

    This narrative research study explored the socio-cultural context surrounding depression through semi-structured interviews with six South Asian Canadian participants, who self identified as having experienced depression. The study sought to expand on the knowledge of depression and South Asian Canadians by considering the roles of the family, the community, and the culture in the experiences of depression. Thematic analysis of the participant interviews resulted in five major themes: the exp...

  15. Canadian National Identity and Anti-Americanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭万宏

    2015-01-01

    Canadian national identity is closely related to anti-Americanism and for Canadians,comparing with America has become the main way to identify themselves.So some scholars argue that Canada lacks a real national identity and this is the main reason of its anti-American tradition.However,the author remarks Canada has its national identity.In this paper,the author will present three reasons to support her view.

  16. Canadian National Identity and Anti-Americanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭万宏

    2015-01-01

    Canadian national identity is closely related to antiAmericanism and for Canadians,comparing with America has become the main way to identify themselves.So some scholars argue that Canada lacks a real national identity and this is the main reason of its anti-American tradition.However,the author remarks Canada has its national identity.In this paper,the author will present three reasons to support her view.

  17. How Canadians feel about nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey conducted by Decima Research in April 1989 showed that 50% of Canadians were somewhat or strongly in favour of nuclear energy, the percentage varying from 37% in British Columbia to 65% in Ontario. A majority (56%) questioned the nuclear industry's ability to handle its waste safely, but 45% believed that it was working hard to solve the problem. It was evident that an advertising campaign by the Canadian Nuclear Association had an effect

  18. Shocking Aspects of Canadian Labor Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett Sutton; Tamim Bayoumi; Andrew Swiston

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the flexibility of the Canadian labor market across provinces in both an interand intra-national context using macroeconomic data on employment, unemployment, participation, and (for Canada) migration and real wages. We find that Canadian labor markets respond in a similar manner to their U.S. counterparts and are more flexible than those in major euro area countries. Within Canada, the results indicate that labor markets in Ontario and provinces further west are more flexible, par...

  19. Labour Market Progression of Canadian Immigrant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Adsera, Alicia; Ferrer, Ana

    2014-01-01

    We use the confidential files of the 1991-2006 Canadian Census, combined with information from O*NET on the skill requirements of jobs, to explore whether Canadian immigrant women behave as secondary workers, remaining marginally attached to the labour market and experiencing little career progression over time. Our results show that the labor market patterns of female immigrants to Canada do not fit the profile of secondary workers, but rather conform to patterns recently exhibited by marrie...

  20. Canadian Art Partnership Program in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ketovuori, Mikko Mr.

    2011-01-01

    This article is about a multidisciplinary R&D project in which a Canadian Learning Through The Arts (LTTA) program was imported to Finland in 2003–2004. Cultural differences in arts education in Finland and Canada are discussed. While Finland has a national school curriculum with all the arts included. Canada relies more on partnerships to ensure arts education for children in the schools. Despite the fact that Canadian learning methods appeared to be quite similar to the ones Finnish teacher...

  1. The efficacy of an extended scope physiotherapy clinic in paediatric orthopaedics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O Mir, Marie

    2016-04-01

    The demand for paediatric orthopaedic care is growing, and providing the service required is an increasingly challenging task. Physiotherapist-led triage clinics are utilised in adult orthopaedics to enable the provision of care to patients who may not require a surgical consult. The Physiotherapy Orthopaedic Triage Clinic (POTC) was established in Our Lady\\'s Children\\'s Hospital Crumlin in response to increasing demands on the paediatric orthopaedic service. The clinic is run by physiotherapists working in an advanced practice role (APP), and is the first paediatric clinic of its type and scale in the Republic of Ireland.

  2. The BRACELET Study: surveys of mortality in UK neonatal and paediatric intensive care trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Platt Martin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The subject of death and bereavement in the context of randomised controlled trials in neonatal or paediatric intensive care is under-researched. The objectives of this phase of the Bereavement and RAndomised ControlLEd Trials (BRACELET Study were to determine trial activity in UK neonatal and paediatric intensive care (2002-06; numbers of deaths before hospital discharge; and variation in mortality across intensive care units and trials and to determine whether bereavement support policies were available within trials. These are essential prerequisites to considering the implications of future policies and practice subsequent to bereavement following a child's enrolment in a trial. Methods The units survey involved neonatal units providing level 2 or 3 care, and paediatric units providing level II care or above; the trials survey involved trials where allocation was randomized and interventions were delivered to intensive care patients, or to parents but designed to affect patient outcomes. Results Information was available from 191/220 (87% neonatal units (149 level 2 or 3 care; and 28/32 (88% paediatric units. 90/177 (51% eligible responding units participated in one or more trial (76 neonatal, 14 paediatric and 54 neonatal units and 6 paediatric units witnessed at least one death. 50 trials were identified (36 neonatal, 14 paediatric. 3,137 babies were enrolled in neonatal trials, 210 children in paediatric trials. Deaths ranged 0-278 (median [IQR interquartile range] 2 [1, 14.5] per neonatal trial, 0-4 (median [IQR] 1 [0, 2.5] per paediatric trial. 534 (16% participants died post-enrolment: 522 (17% in neonatal trials, 12 (6% in paediatric trials. Trial participants ranged 1-236 (median [IQR] 21.5 [8, 39.8] per neonatal unit, 1-53 (median [IQR] 11.5 [2.3, 33.8] per paediatric unit. Deaths ranged 0-37 (median [IQR] 3.5 [0.3, 8.8] per neonatal unit, 0-7 (median [IQR] 0.5 [0, 1.8] per paediatric unit. Three trials had a

  3. Paediatric Multiple Sclerosis: Update on Diagnostic Criteria, Imaging, Histopathology and Treatment Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I-Jun; Wang, Huei-Shyong; Whitehouse, William P; Constantinescu, Cris S

    2016-07-01

    Paediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) represents less than 5 % of the MS population, but patients with paediatric-onset disease reach permanent disability at a younger age than adult-onset patients. Accurate diagnosis at presentation and optimal long-term treatment are vital to mitigate ongoing neuroinflammation and irreversible neurodegeneration. However, it may be difficult to early differentiate paediatric MS from acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), as they often have atypical presentation that differs from that of adult-onset MS. The purpose of this review is to summarize the updated views on diagnostic criteria, imaging, histopathology and treatment choices. PMID:27271748

  4. Air pollution and society

    OpenAIRE

    Brimblecombe P.

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  5. Afghanistan, state and society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kværnø, Ole

    In June 2007, the RAND Corporation and the Royal Danish Defence College hosted a conference titled “Afghanistan: State and Society, Great Power Politics, and the Way Ahead”. The two-day event, held in Copenhagen, was attended by more than 100 politicians, scholars, academics, and representative...

  6. Popular Music and Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    or the Russkii Rok-Klub v Amerike (Russian Rock Club of America).   This special edition of Popular Music and Society aims to present research on contemporary popular music (broadly defined) in the former Soviet republics and their diasporas.  A central issue will be how the musical landscape has changed since...

  7. Big Society, Big Deal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    Political leaders like to put forward guiding ideas or themes which pull their individual decisions into a broader narrative. For John Major it was Back to Basics, for Tony Blair it was the Third Way and for David Cameron it is the Big Society. While Mr. Blair relied on Lord Giddens to add intellectual weight to his idea, Mr. Cameron's legacy idea…

  8. Italian Society of Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The abstracts of most of the papers read at the 53 National Congress of the Italian Society of Physics are presented. The Congress developed in ten sessions: high energy and elementary particle physics, physics of nuclei, condensed matter, quantum electronics, cosmic physics, geophysics, general physics, electronics and applied physics, health physics and hystory of physics. An author index is also included

  9. Multiethnic Societies and Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfield, John H., II

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that sociology must reconceptualize the meaning of multiethnic societies and regions and also advance theories about how such social organizations came into being and transform themselves through conflicting and peaceful processes. Briefly reviews traditional approaches and outlines new areas of study. (MJP)

  10. MARX EMBRYOLOGY OF SOCIETY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOUTERS, A

    1993-01-01

    This article presents a new interpretation of Marx's dialectical method. Marx conceived dialectics as a method for constructing a model of society. The way this model is developed is analogous to the way organisms develop according to the German embryologist Karl Ernst von Baer, and, indeed, Marx's

  11. The Duplex Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorr, Alvin L.

    1984-01-01

    The duplex society, in which the poor live in close proximity to others but in a separate compartment, is already with us. Unless something deeply changes about family income, more than one-third of future generations will come to adulthood having spent a portion of their childhood in official poverty. (RM)

  12. Evaluation of caudal dexamethasone with ropivacaine for post-operative analgesia in paediatric herniotomies: A randomised controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Choudhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Caudal analgesia is one of the most popular regional blocks in paediatric patients undergoing infra-umbilical surgeries but with the drawback of short duration of action after single shot local anaesthetic injection. We evaluated whether caudal dexamethasone 0.1 mg/kg as an adjuvant to the ropivacaine improved analgesic efficacy after paediatric herniotomies. Methods: Totally 128 patients of 1–5 years age group, American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I and II undergoing elective inguinal herniotomy were randomly allocated to two groups in double-blind manner. Group A received 1 ml/kg of 0.2% ropivacaine caudally and Group B received 1 ml/kg of 0.2% ropivacaine, in which 0.1 mg/kg dexamethasone was added for caudal analgesia. Post operative pain by faces, legs, activity, cry and consolability tool score, rescue analgesic requirement and adverse effects were noted for 24 h. Results: Results were statistically analysed using Student's t-test. Pain scores measured at 1, 2, 4, and 6 h post-operative, were lower in Group B as compared to Group A. Mean duration of analgesia in Group A was 248.4 ± 54.1 min and in Group B was 478.046 ± 104.57 min with P = 0.001. Rescue analgesic requirement was more in Group A as compared to Group B. Adverse effects after surgery were comparable between the two groups. Conclusion: Caudal dexamethasone added to ropivacaine is a good alternative to prolong post-operative analgesia with less pain score compared to caudal ropivacaine alone.

  13. Radiation protection and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological protection of population, living on the contaminated territories, is actual 10 years after the Chernobyl accident. Eventually, the whole system of countermeasures application is aimed to protect society as a complex community of individuals . The variety of levels of society, i.e. family, settlement on the whole, can be considered as certain harmonic systems differing in their public consciousness levels and lifestyles, this explain the difference in their 'behaviour' in terms of radiation protection and attitude to the information obtained. Each level of society possesses a certain degree of liberty of choice, that finally influence the magnitude and the character of dose distribution within certain population groups. In general, the dose distribution in the settlement can be explained only on the bases of 'family' analysis. This concerns the rural settlement as a society too. All rural settlement can be divided into two or three classes: with low, high and intermediate social features. Small settlements (< 100 persons), where the advanced in age persons with low material income and high degree of natural economy are applied to the first class. This results in higher doses (2-3 fold), than in the settlements with higher social level. The analysis shows that in socially 'waning' settlements the countermeasures are less efficient and the term of their action is shorter. (this class is the largest, About 50% among all the rural settlements). Due to the deterioration of the economic situation in the Republic of Belarus after 1991-1992 resulted in the increase of doses mainly in the habitants first of all of this class of settlements. It seems problematic to increase countermeasures efficiency in this class of settlements without the refuse of the accustomed lifestyle and radical improvement of social-demographic and economic conditions. The present material shows the necessity of the differential approach based on 'society-analysis' in the

  14. Canadian Attitudes toward Labour Market Issues: A Survey of Canadian Opinion. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, Human Resources and Social Development Canada commissioned Environics Research Group Limited to conduct a public opinion survey on labour market issues among 3,000 adult Canadians. The objective of the public opinion survey was to better understand the perceptions of Canadians regarding labour market challenges and opportunities in order…

  15. Canadian photovoltaic industry directory --1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The directory is intended to help potential PV customers identify Canadian-based companies who can meet their needs, and to help product manufacturers and distributors identify potential new clients and/or partners within the PV industry for new and improved technologies leading to greater end-use customer satisfaction. The principal feature of the directory is an information matrix that identifies the product and service types offered by each firm and the primary clients served. There is also a list of companies by province and territory, followed by an alphabetical listing of all companies, with detailed information including, mailing address, contact person, prime activity, geographic area served, languages in which services are provided, and a brief company profile. Additional information provided by the companies themselves, dealing with items such as number of systems sold, the total installed capacity, etc., is included in an 'experience matrix' for each firm. Sources of additional information on photovoltaic systems are included in a list at the end of the directory

  16. The Canadian mobile satellite program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, P. M.; Breithaupt, R. W.; McNally, J. L.

    The progressions and selection of design features for the Canadian segment of a mobile satellite (MSAT) communications system are traced. The feasibility study for a satellite-based public and government mobile communications service to underserved areas was carried out between 1980-82. The results covered the market demand, commercial viability, user cost-benefit, and spacecraft concepts. A subsequent 2 yr study was initiated to proceed with project definition. A market of 1.1 million users was identified in all of Canada, with MSAT replacing other systems for 50 percent of the market. Operations would be in the 806-890 MHz range. Traffic will be routed through gateway links functioning in the 8/7 GHz SHF band while the mobile units will be connected through an 821-825 MHz up link and an 866-870 MH downlink. New technologies will be needed for a central control station, the gateway stations, and the base stations for the mobile radio service, the mobile user terminals, and data collection platforms.

  17. The Canadian nuclear power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review of the Canadian nuclear power program is presented. Domestically developed CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactors account for all of Canada's nuclear electric capacity (5000 MWe in operation and 10,000 MWe under construction or in commissioning) and have also been exported. CANDU reactors are reliable, efficient, and consistently register in the world's top ten in performance. The safety record is excellent. Canada has excess capability in heavy water and uranium production and can easily service export demands. The economic activity generated in the nuclear sector is high and supports a large number of jobs. The growth in nuclear commitments has slowed somewhat as a result of the worldwide recession; however, the nuclear share of expected electricity demand is likely to continue to rise in the next decade. Priorities in the future direction of the program lie in the areas of maintaining high response capability to in-service problems, improving technology, high-level waste management, and advanced fuel cycles. (author)

  18. Canadian landmine detection research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFee, John E.; Das, Yogadhish; Faust, Anthony A.

    2003-09-01

    Defence R&D Canada (DRDC), an agency within the Department of National Defence, has been conducting research and development (R&D) on the detection of landmines for countermine operations and of unexploded ordnance (UXO) for range clearance since 1975. The Canadian Centre for Mine Action Technologies (CCMAT), located at DRDC Suffield, was formed in 1998 to carry out R&D related to humanitarian demining. The lead group responsible for formulating and executing both countermine and humanitarian R&D programs in detection is the Threat Detection Group at DRDC Suffield. This paper describes R&D for both programs under the major headings of remote minefield detection, close-in scanning detection, confirmation detection and teleoperated systems. Among DRDC's achievements in landmine and UXO detection R&D are pioneering work in electromagnetic and magnetic identification and classification; the first military-fielded multisensor, teleoperated vehicle-mounted landmine detection system; pioneering use of confirmation detectors for multisensor landmine detection systems; the first fielded thermal neutron activation landmine confirmation sensor; the first detection of landmines using a real-time hyperspectral imager; electrical impedance imaging detection of landmines and UXO and a unique neutron backscatter landmine imager.

  19. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain in paediatrics: The diagnosis of creatine deficiencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijens, P.E.; Oudkerk, M.

    2005-01-01

    The diagnosis of creatine deficiencies, a paediatric application of magnetic resonance spectroscopy that has already become a diagnostic tool in clinical practice, is reviewed and illustrated with results from recent examinations

  20. Application of SIRS Criteria to a Paediatric Surgical Population in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel, Jonathan C.; Varela, Carlos; Cairns, Bruce A.; Charles, Anthony G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known regarding systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria and mortality in developing countries. We evaluated the utility of the SIRS criteria to predict death among a paediatric surgical population in Lilongwe, Malawi.